WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Identification and bioactive potential of endophytic fungi isolated from selected plants of the Western Himalayas.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted to characterize and explore the endophytic fungi of selected plants from the Western Himalayas for their bioactive potential. A total of 72 strains of endophytic fungi were isolated and characterized morphologically as well as on the basis of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 ribosomal gene sequence acquisition and analyses. The fungi represented 27 genera of which two belonged to Basidiomycota, each representing a single isolate, while the rest of the isolates comprised of Ascomycetous fungi. Among the isolated strains, ten isolates could not be assigned to a genus as they displayed a maximum sequence similarity of 95% or less with taxonomically characterized organisms. Among the host plants, the conifers, Cedrus deodara, Pinus roxburgii and Abies pindrow harbored the most diverse fungi, belonging to 13 different genera, which represented almost half of the total genera isolated. Several extracts prepared from the fermented broth of these fungi demonstrated strong bioactivity against E. coli and S. aureus with the lowest IC(50) of 18??g/ml obtained with the extract of Trichophaea abundans inhabiting Pinus sp. In comparison, extracts from only three endophytes were significantly inhibitory to Candida albicans, an important fungal pathogen. Further, 24 endophytes inhibited three or more phytopathogens by at least 50% in co-culture, among a panel of seven test organisms. Extracts from 17 fungi possessed immuno-modulatory activities with five of them showing significant immune suppression as demonstrated by the in vitro lymphocyte proliferation assay. This study is an important step towards tapping the endophytic fungal diversity from the Western Himalayas and assessing their bioactive potential. Further studies on the selected endophytes may lead to the isolation of novel natural products for use in medicine, industry and agriculture. PMID:23420270

Qadri, Masroor; Johri, Sarojini; Shah, Bhahwal A; Khajuria, Anamika; Sidiq, Tabasum; Lattoo, Surrinder K; Abdin, Malik Z; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed

2013-01-11

2

Identification and bioactive potential of endophytic fungi isolated from selected plants of the Western Himalayas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was conducted to characterize and explore the endophytic fungi of selected plants from the Western Himalayas for their bioactive potential. A total of 72 strains of endophytic fungi were isolated and characterized morphologically as well as on the basis of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 ribosomal gene sequence acquisition and analyses. The fungi represented 27 genera of which two belonged to Basidiomycota, each representing a single isolate, while the rest of the isolates comprised of Ascomycetous fungi. Among the isolated strains, ten isolates could not be assigned to a genus as they displayed a maximum sequence similarity of 95% or less with taxonomically characterized organisms. Among the host plants, the conifers, Cedrus deodara, Pinus roxburgii and Abies pindrow harbored the most diverse fungi, belonging to 13 different genera, which represented almost half of the total genera isolated. Several extracts prepared from the fermented broth of these fungi demonstrated strong bioactivity against E. coli and S. aureus with the lowest IC(50) of 18??g/ml obtained with the extract of Trichophaea abundans inhabiting Pinus sp. In comparison, extracts from only three endophytes were significantly inhibitory to Candida albicans, an important fungal pathogen. Further, 24 endophytes inhibited three or more phytopathogens by at least 50% in co-culture, among a panel of seven test organisms. Extracts from 17 fungi possessed immuno-modulatory activities with five of them showing significant immune suppression as demonstrated by the in vitro lymphocyte proliferation assay. This study is an important step towards tapping the endophytic fungal diversity from the Western Himalayas and assessing their bioactive potential. Further studies on the selected endophytes may lead to the isolation of novel natural products for use in medicine, industry and agriculture.

Qadri M; Johri S; Shah BA; Khajuria A; Sidiq T; Lattoo SK; Abdin MZ; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan S

2013-12-01

3

Potential effects of ongoing and proposed hydropower development on terrestrial biological diversity in the Indian Himalaya.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Indian Himalayan basins are earmarked for widespread dam building, but aggregate effects of these dams on terrestrial ecosystems are unknown. We mapped distribution of 292 dams (under construction and proposed) and projected effects of these dams on terrestrial ecosystems under different scenarios of land-cover loss. We analyzed land-cover data of the Himalayan valleys, where dams are located. We estimated dam density on fifth- through seventh-order rivers and compared these estimates with current global figures. We used a species-area relation model (SAR) to predict short- and long-term species extinctions driven by deforestation. We used scatter plots and correlation studies to analyze distribution patterns of species and dams and to reveal potential overlap between species-rich areas and dam sites. We investigated effects of disturbance on community structure of undisturbed forests. Nearly 90% of Indian Himalayan valleys would be affected by dam building and 27% of these dams would affect dense forests. Our model projected that 54,117 ha of forests would be submerged and 114,361 ha would be damaged by dam-related activities. A dam density of 0.3247/1000 km(2) would be nearly 62 times greater than current average global figures; the average of 1 dam for every 32 km of river channel would be 1.5 times higher than figures reported for U.S. rivers. Our results show that most dams would be located in species-rich areas of the Himalaya. The SAR model projected that by 2025, deforestation due to dam building would likely result in extinction of 22 angiosperm and 7 vertebrate taxa. Disturbance due to dam building would likely reduce tree species richness by 35%, tree density by 42%, and tree basal cover by 30% in dense forests. These results, combined with relatively weak national environmental impact assessment and implementation, point toward significant loss of species if all proposed dams in the Indian Himalaya are constructed.

Pandit MK; Grumbine RE

2012-12-01

4

Forage selection by Royle's pika (Ochotona roylei) in the western Himalaya, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Forage selection decisions of herbivores are often complex and dynamic; they are modulated by multiple cues, such as quality, accessibility and abundance of forage plants. To advance the understanding of plant-herbivore interactions, we explored foraging behavior of the alpine lagomorph Royle's pika (Ochotona roylei) in Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary, India. Pika bite counts on food plants were recorded through focal sampling in three permanently marked plots. Food plant abundance was recorded by traditional quadrat procedures; forage selection was estimated with Jacob's selection index. Multiple food-choice experiments were conducted to determine whether forage selection criteria would change with variation in food plant composition. We also analyzed leaf morphology and nutrient content in both major food plants and abundantly available non-food plants. Linear regression models were used to test competing hypotheses in order to identify factors governing forage selection. Royle's pika fed primarily on 17 plant species and each forage selection decision was positively modulated by leaf area and negatively modulated by contents of avoided substances (neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, acid detergent lignin and tannin) in food plants. Furthermore, significance of the interaction term "leaf size×avoided substance" indicates that plants with large leaves were selected only when they had low avoided substance content. The forage selection criteria did not differ between field and laboratory experiments. The parameter estimates of best fit models indicate that the influence of leaf size or amount of avoided substance on pika forage selection was modulated by the magnitude of predation risk. PMID:23932023

Bhattacharyya, Sabuj; Adhikari, Bhupendra S; Rawat, Gopal S

2013-07-18

5

Forage selection by Royle's pika (Ochotona roylei) in the western Himalaya, India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Forage selection decisions of herbivores are often complex and dynamic; they are modulated by multiple cues, such as quality, accessibility and abundance of forage plants. To advance the understanding of plant-herbivore interactions, we explored foraging behavior of the alpine lagomorph Royle's pika (Ochotona roylei) in Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary, India. Pika bite counts on food plants were recorded through focal sampling in three permanently marked plots. Food plant abundance was recorded by traditional quadrat procedures; forage selection was estimated with Jacob's selection index. Multiple food-choice experiments were conducted to determine whether forage selection criteria would change with variation in food plant composition. We also analyzed leaf morphology and nutrient content in both major food plants and abundantly available non-food plants. Linear regression models were used to test competing hypotheses in order to identify factors governing forage selection. Royle's pika fed primarily on 17 plant species and each forage selection decision was positively modulated by leaf area and negatively modulated by contents of avoided substances (neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, acid detergent lignin and tannin) in food plants. Furthermore, significance of the interaction term "leaf size×avoided substance" indicates that plants with large leaves were selected only when they had low avoided substance content. The forage selection criteria did not differ between field and laboratory experiments. The parameter estimates of best fit models indicate that the influence of leaf size or amount of avoided substance on pika forage selection was modulated by the magnitude of predation risk.

Bhattacharyya S; Adhikari BS; Rawat GS

2013-07-01

6

Mini plant Mentha arvensis 'Himalaya'  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A new and distinct hybrid plant named 'Himalaya' (Mentha arvensis) characterized by its higher yield of oil which is rich in menthol, improved regeneration potential, vigorous growth, deep green broad thick leaves, pinkish white flowers and tolerance to rust such as alternaria leaf blight, corynespora leaf spot and powdery mildew.

KUMAR SUSHIL; TYAGI BALI RAM; BAHL JANAK RAJ; SINGH HARI; SINGH VIKRAM; UJAGIR RAM; KHANUJA SUMAN PREET SINGH; SHASANY AJIT KUMAR; SHUKLA RAM SAJIVAN; SATTAR ABDUL; SINGH DWIJENDRA; HASEEB AKHTAR; SINGH VIJAY PAL; RAM PALTOO; SINGH KAMBOD; SINGH SAUDAN; SINGH SURENDRA PRATAP; PATRA NIRMAL KUMAR; ALAM MANSOOR; NAQVI ARIF ALI; RAM MUNI; AGARWAL KRISHAN KUMAR; SINGH KAILASH

7

Exotic Lolium perenne Varieties: Their Forage Value and Soil Cover Potential in Himalayas Region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rawalakot lies under humid temperate region at the height of 5500 ft from the sea level. The area is hilly and soils are prone to heavy erosion due to the loss of vegetative cover. Winter frost and snow often kills the local forages and thus depriving the livestock from green herbage altogether. Seven varieties of Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) from European and American germplasm were evaluated for their forage value and soil cover potential under Rawalakot conditions. All varieties compared were diploid (2n = 14). The comparison was based on plant height, fresh and dry matter yield, number of cuttings/ year and tillers plant-1. The variety VA88002 was found to be the best one in plant height and dry and fresh herbage yield followed by SERVO and APUS. When tiller number was compared, the variety APUS was found to be at the top followed by VA88001 and others. All varieties were of spreading nature with increasing persistence in following years and found to be suitable for cutting, grazing and soil conservation

S. D. Ahmad; M. Hammad; S.A. Majid

2001-01-01

8

Electrode potential and selective ionic adsorption  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simple description of the electrode potential based on the selective ionic adsorption is proposed. It is shown that if the adsorption-desorption coefficients entering in the Langmuir kinetic equation for the adsorption at the limiting surfaces are not identical, a difference of potential between the electrode and the bulk of the solution exists. In the case where the thickness of the sample is large with respect to the length of Debye, this difference of potential depends only on the adsorption-desorption coefficients and on the length of Debye of the ionic solution.

2009-04-27

9

Antioxidant potential of selected Spirulina platensis preparations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent studies suggest that Spirulina, a unicellular blue-green alga, may have a variety of health benefits and therapeutic properties and is also capable of acting as an antioxidant and antiinflammatory agent. In this study, a cell-free and a cell-based test assay were used to examine the antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties of four selected Spirulina platensis preparations: (1) Biospirulina, (2) SpiruComplex, a preparation with naturally bound selenium, chromium and zinc, (3) SpiruZink, a preparation with naturally bound zinc, (4) Zinkspirulina + Acerola, a preparation with naturally bound zinc and acerola powder. The cell-free test assay used potassium superoxide as a donor for superoxide radicals, whereas the cell-based test assay used the formation of intracellular superoxide radicals of functional neutrophils upon stimulation by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate as a model to investigate the potential of Spirulina preparations to inactivate superoxide radicals. In accordance with the recommended daily dosage, test concentrations ranging from 50 to 1000 microg/mL were chosen. The results showed a dose-dependent inactivation of free superoxide radicals (antioxidant effect) as well as an antiinflammatory effect characterized by a dose-dependent reduction of the metabolic activity of functional neutrophils and a dose-dependent inactivation of superoxide radicals generated during an oxidative burst. The results demonstrate that the tested Spirulina preparations have a high antioxidant and antiinflammatory potential. Especially SpiruZink and Zinkspirulina + Acerola might be useful as a supportive therapeutic approach for reducing oxidative stress and/or the generation of oxygen radicals in the course of inflammatory processes.

Dartsch PC

2008-05-01

10

Antioxidant potential of selected Spirulina platensis preparations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies suggest that Spirulina, a unicellular blue-green alga, may have a variety of health benefits and therapeutic properties and is also capable of acting as an antioxidant and antiinflammatory agent. In this study, a cell-free and a cell-based test assay were used to examine the antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties of four selected Spirulina platensis preparations: (1) Biospirulina, (2) SpiruComplex, a preparation with naturally bound selenium, chromium and zinc, (3) SpiruZink, a preparation with naturally bound zinc, (4) Zinkspirulina + Acerola, a preparation with naturally bound zinc and acerola powder. The cell-free test assay used potassium superoxide as a donor for superoxide radicals, whereas the cell-based test assay used the formation of intracellular superoxide radicals of functional neutrophils upon stimulation by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate as a model to investigate the potential of Spirulina preparations to inactivate superoxide radicals. In accordance with the recommended daily dosage, test concentrations ranging from 50 to 1000 microg/mL were chosen. The results showed a dose-dependent inactivation of free superoxide radicals (antioxidant effect) as well as an antiinflammatory effect characterized by a dose-dependent reduction of the metabolic activity of functional neutrophils and a dose-dependent inactivation of superoxide radicals generated during an oxidative burst. The results demonstrate that the tested Spirulina preparations have a high antioxidant and antiinflammatory potential. Especially SpiruZink and Zinkspirulina + Acerola might be useful as a supportive therapeutic approach for reducing oxidative stress and/or the generation of oxygen radicals in the course of inflammatory processes. PMID:18398928

Dartsch, Peter C

2008-05-01

11

Preliminary Selection of Potential Lines of Soybean  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Twelve advanced exotic lines of soybean; AGS-194, NS-82-5250, Ciangman, Duiker, AGS-5, Sprito, Platte, Exp-15, Ocepar, PR-16, Decada and M-83-104 were tested for adaptability and high yield performance. Beans yield and their characteristics; days to maturity and plant height, pods per plant and 100-seeds weight, were significantly different among years and inter lines competition. An advanced line Sprito out yielded (> 3000 kg ha-1) compared to other lines, therefore, picked up for National Uniform Yield Trials for wider adaptability. Lines; PR-16, Decada, AGS-5 and Ciangman were the second highest performers with bean yield of 2500 to 3000 kg ha-1 and selected for Intermediate Yield Trials for further evaluation. Fortunately, two line; Duiker and Exp-15 showed early maturing characters that could be crossed with high yielding lines in near future breeding programme.

Mansab A. Khokhar; M. Ashraf; A. Fatah Soomro; Shahzad Asad

2002-01-01

12

Comparative pulmonary fibrogenic potential of selected particles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The comparative intrapulmonary fibrogenic potential of a number of chemically and physically characterized ashes and dusts was studied. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed through intratracheal instillation to 5, 15, or 45 mg of stack-collected coal fly ash, electrostatic precipitator hopper-collected coal fly ash, bag-house filter-collected coal-oil mixture fly ash, Dowson and Dobson quartz, heated montmorillonite clay, and Mt. St. Helens volcano ash. Following a 3-month postexposure period, the animals were killed and subjected to histological examination. Some fibrosis was produced by all the ashes. However, the effects differed both qualitatively and quantitatively among the various exposure groups. The most severe fibrosis was found in the quartz-treated animals, followed in order of intensity by the heated clay, volcano, ash, hopper coal ash, stack coal ash, and coal-oil mixture ash. No effects were found in the saline-exposed control rats.

Schreider JP; Culbertson MR; Raabe OG

1985-12-01

13

The role of glaciers in stream flow from the Nepal Himalaya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent concerns related to the potential impacts of the retreat of Himalayan glaciers on the hydrology of rivers originating in the catchment basins of the Himalaya have been accompanied by few analyses describing the role of glaciers in the hydrologic regime of these mountains. This is, at least in part, a result of the relative inaccessibility of the glaciers of the Himalaya, at altitudes generally between 4000–7000 m, and the extreme logistical difficulties of: 1) reaching the glaciers, and 2) conducting meaningful research once they have been reached. It is apparent that an alternative to traditional "Alpine" glaciology is required in the mountains of the Hindu Kush-Himalaya region. The objectives of the study discussed here have been to develop methodologies that will begin to quantify the role of complete glacier systems in the hydrologic regime of the Nepal Himalaya, and to develop estimates of the potential impact of a continued retreat of these glacier, based on the use of disaggregated low-altitude data bases, topography derived from satellite imagery, and simple process models of water and energy exchange in mountain regions. While the extent of mesoscale variability has not been established by studies to date, it is clear that the dominant control on the hydrologic regime of the tributaries to the Ganges Basin from the eastern Himalaya is the interaction between the summer monsoon and the 8000 m of topographic relief represented by the Himalayan wall. All the available evidence indicates that the gradient of specific runoff with altitude resulting from this interaction is moderately to strongly curvilinear, with maximum runoff occurring at mid-altitudes, and minima at the altitudinal extremes. At the upper minimum of this gradient, Himalayan glaciers exist in what has been characterized as an "arctic desert". The methodologies developed for this study involve the relationship between area-altitude distributions of catchment basins and glaciers, based on Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM3) data and water and energy exchange gradients. Based on these methodologies, it is estimated that the contribution of glacier annual melt water to annual stream flow into the Ganges Basin from the glacierized catchments of the Nepal Himalaya represents approximately 4% of the total annual stream flow volume of the rivers of Nepal, and thus, is a minor component of the annual flow of the Ganges River. The models developed for this study indicate that neither stream flow timing nor volume of the rivers flowing into the Ganges Basin from Nepal will be affected materially by a continued retreat of the glaciers of the Nepal Himalaya.

D. Alford; R. Armstrong

2010-01-01

14

Wind energy potential in selected areas in Jordan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Highlights: ? This paper investigates the potential of producing wind power. ? Four locations are selected for wind power generation. ? The payback period is calculated and found reasonable. ? This study reveals that the total rated wind power that can be generated from the four selected wind farms is 136 MW. ? On the other hand, the expected total energy that can be produced from the four selected wind farms is 18.9 × 103 GW h. - Abstract: The present paper investigates the potential of wind energy in selected areas in Jordan. The aim of this work is to set up promising wind farms that are able to feed electricity to the Jordanian distribution authority with excellent percentage of clean energy. There are some particular locations in Jordan where the wind potential is very promising for economical electrical power generation. Four of these promising locations are investigated in this paper for the possibility of building and investing 100 MW wind turbine in each of these four locations. The environmental data needed to perform the present study are obtained from the local Meteorological department. The suggested wind turbines to be implemented in each of the four locations are selected from the international rating and specification catalogues of wind turbine manufacturers. This study reveals that the total rated wind power that can be generated from the four selected wind farms is 136 MW. On the other hand, the expected total energy that can be produced from the four selected wind farms is 18.9 × 103 GW h.

2013-01-01

15

Rock magnetic survey of Himalaya-Karakoram ranges, northern Pakistan; Pakistan hokubu, Himalaya-Karakoram tai no ganseki jikigakuteki chosa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes results of the rock magnetic survey mainly including measurement of magnetic susceptibility conducted in the northern Pakistan from 1992 to 1997. Magnetic characteristics in Himalaya-Karakoram ranges and prospective ore deposits are also described. Magnetic susceptibility data measured in this district were summarized as a frequency map in each geological block. Granitoids in the northern part of Kohistan batholith and granitoids of Ladakh batholith showed remarkably high magnetic susceptibility values, which suggested they are magnetite-series magmatism. It has been known that magnetite-series magmatism often accompanies sulfide-forming mineral resources, which suggests high potentiality of abundant mineral resources containing Mo, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ag and Au. From the results of the magnetic susceptibility measurements and the above-mentioned models, accordingly, it can be pointed out that the northern part of Kohistan batholith, the distribution area of Ladakh batholith, and surrounding areas are promising targets for mineral resources exploration in the Himalaya-Karakoram ranges, northern Pakistan. 5 refs., 3 figs.

Yoshida, M. [Geoscience Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Khadim, I.; Ahmad, M. [Geological Survey of Pakistan, Islamabad (Pakistan)

1997-10-22

16

Potential Selectable Marker for Genetic Transformation in Banana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Successful genetic transformation of banana requires effective selection systems. The effectiveness of kanamycin, neomycin, genetic in G-418, paromomycin, basta and hygromycin as selection agents to inhibit the growth of single meristematic buds of Pisang Rastali (AAB) were evaluated. Due to the potential generation of chimeric plants containing both transformed and non-transformed in meristematic buds, the presence of an efficient refined selection system is essential in transformation studies. Single buds were cultured on solid and liquid MS media supplemented with 5 mg L-1 of BAP for a period of four weeks. Six selection agents tested each at 0, 25, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 mg L-1. In preliminary experiment, basta and hygromycin were required at lower concentrations. Therefore, experiment was carried out at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 mg L-1. Of six compounds tested, basta and hygromycin was suitable selection agent since it inhibits the growth of single buds at lower concentrations. However, hygromycin selection makes it the preferred selection over basta for easily scoreable phenotype and faster inhibition response of explants. Genetic in G-418 is effective than kanamycin, neomycin and paromomycin for selecting transformed plants conferring resistance to npt11 gene. The use of liquid medium containing selection agents showed effective in banana due lower concentrations required and good contact between explants and medium.

S. Sreeramanan; M. Maziah; M.P. Abdullah; N.M. Rosli; R. Xavier

2006-01-01

17

Shortlisting of cultivable herbal plants in the Bhabhar region of the Garhwal Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The success of any economically viable herbal cultivation programme lies in the appropriate selection of herbal plants. Many things will have to be considered in selecting herbs viz. adaptability in natural environment, economic demand in herbal industry and agroclimatic aspects. The present work embodies the results of the scrutiny of herbal composition of popular branded Ayurvedic medicines. In addition, with the help of field survey and available literature, plants were identified which are naturally growing in different habitats of the Bhabhar region of the Garhwal Himalaya, Uttarakhand. On the basis of utility in herbal medicines and their ability to grow naturally, plants are further shortlisted for the cultivation. The prominent herbs recommended are: Aloe barbadensis, Bacopa monnieri, Boerhavia diffusa, Plumbago zeylanica, Tinospora cordifolia, Withania somnifera etc. The promotion of cultivation of these useful herbs would ensure sustainable biodiversity conservation and alleviation in the economic conditions of the rural people of the Bhabhar region of Garhwal Himalaya.

Rakhi RAWAT; D.P. VASHISTHA

2011-01-01

18

Determination of Half-wave Potentials of Selected Chlorophenols  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Cyclic voltammetry was used in cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) micellar solution to determine the half-wave potentials of selected chlorophenols, CPs. It is observed that all the electrochemical parameters of the studied CPs decrease with an increase in the number of chlorine atom(s) attached to the parent compound. The mathematical relationship between the obtained E1/2 and the number of chlorine atoms in the parent compound is given. The formal potentials, E0', of the CPs are approximated from the obtained half-wave potentials.

Iwunze, M.O.; Abel, B.

2012-09-01

19

Feature selection for motor unit potential train characterization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Introduction: Ten new features of motor unit potential (MUP) morphology and stability are proposed. These new features, along with 8 traditional features, are grouped into 5 aspects: size, shape, global complexity, local complexity, and stability. Methods: We used sequential forward and backward search strategies to select subsets of these 18 features that can be used to discriminate accurately between muscles whose MUPs are predominantly neurogenic, myopathic, or normal. Discussion: Results based on 8102 motor unit potential trains (MUPTs) extracted from 4 different limb muscles (n=336 total muscles) demonstrate the usefulness of these newly introduced features and support an aspect-based grouping of MUPT features. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Abdelmaseeh M; Smith B; Stashuk D

2013-07-01

20

Selecting animals for desired genotypic or potential phenotypic properties  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to methods to select animals, such as mammals, particularly domestic animals such as breeding animals or animals destined for slaughter for having desired genotypic or potential phenotypic properties, in particular related to muscle mass and/or fat deposition lean meat, lean back fat, sow prolificacy and/or sow longevity. Provided is a method for selecting an animal for having desired genotypic or potential phenotypic properties comprising testing said animal, a parent of said animal or its progeny for the presence of a nucleic acid modification affecting the activity of an evolutionary conserved CpG island, located in intron 3 of an IGF2 gene and/or for the presence of a nucleic acid modification affecting binding of a nuclear factor to an IGF2 gene.

ANDERSSON LEIF; ANDERSSON GORAN; GEORGES MICHEL; BUYS NADINE

 
 
 
 
21

Selecting animals for desired genotypic or potential phenotypic properties  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to methods to select animals, such as mammals, particularly domestic animals, such as breeding animals or animals destined for slaughter, for having desired genotypic or potential phenotypic properties, in particular, related to muscle mass and/or fat deposition lean meat, lean back fat, sow prolificacy and/or sow longevity. Provided is a method for selecting an animal for having desired genotypic or potential phenotypic properties comprising testing the animal, a parent of the animal or its progeny for the presence of a nucleic acid modification affecting the activity of an evolutionary conserved CpG island, located in intron 3 of an IGF2 gene and/or for the presence of a nucleic acid modification affecting binding of a nuclear factor to an IGF2 gene.

ANDERSSON LEIF; ANDERSSON GORAN; GEORGES MICHEL; BUYS NADINE

22

Selecting animals for desired genotypic or potential phenotypic properties  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Described are methods to select animals, such as mammals, particularly domestic animals, breeding animals or animals destined for slaughter, for having desired genotypic or potential phenotypic properties, in particular, related to muscle mass and/or fat deposition lean meat, lean back fat, sow prolificacy and/or sow longevity. Provided is a method for selecting an animal having desired genotypic or potential phenotypic properties comprising testing the animal, a parent of the animal or its progeny for the presence of a nucleic acid modification affecting the activity of an evolutionary conserved CpG island, located in intron 3 of an IGF2 gene and/or for the presence of a nucleic acid modification affecting binding of a nuclear factor to an IGF2 gene.

ANDERSSON LEIF; ANDERSSON GORAN; GEORGES MICHEL; BUYS NADINE

23

Therapeutic potential of novel selective drugs targeting nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The potential therapeutic benefit of nicotinic ligands in a variety of neurodegenerative pathologies involving the CNS has energized research efforts to develop nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtype-selective ligands (Bencherif and Schmitt, 2005). In particular, there has been a concerted effort to develop nicotinic compounds with selectivity for CNS nAChRs as potential pharmaceutical tools in the management of these disorders. Clinical and experimental data demonstrate a central role for alpha7 and alpha4beta2 nAChRs in cognitive function, sensory processing, mood, and neuroprotection (Bencherif and Schmitt, 2005; Buccafusco et al., 2005). The development of safe alpha7-selective ligands has been hampered by their lack of discrimination with hERG channels and 5-HT3 receptors. We have developed a number of compounds that display nanomolar affinity to the alpha7 and/or the alpha4beta2 receptor. Investigation of alpha7 functional activity showed a full range of activities from antagonists to full agonists without any significant activity at the human 5-HT3 receptor, P450 isozymes, hERG channels, or in the AMES test. Our findings demonstrate that potent and highly selective nAChR ligands can be designed.

Bencherif M; Hauser TA; Jordan KG; Gatto GJ

2006-01-01

24

Exhumation history from East to West of the Himalaya inferred from detrital thermochronology  

Science.gov (United States)

Detrital apatite fission-track (AFT) analysis from synorogenic sediment, derived from the erosion of mountain belts and deposited in sedimentary basins, is a well-established tool to examine the cooling and exhumation history of convergent zones. The recent dynamics of the Himalaya are studied with the specific goal of quantifying exhumation along this orogen. We study 3 stratigraphic sections within the Miocene to Pliocene Siwaliks group located from West to East in central Pakistan, eastern Nepal, and eastern India (Arunachal Pradesh). The results provide information on potential variability in exhumation rates between central the Himalaya and the western Himalaya. We present new detrital AFT data from 14 samples from central Pakistan (Chinji section) and eastern Nepal (Muskar section). For the east India section (Kameng section), we present an overview of ongoing work of this poorly known area of the Siwaliks. We compiled a magnetostratigraphic, sedimentologic and structural profile along this section. Apatite and zircon samples are currently being prepared for FT analysis. Finally, we investigate a potential climate effect on exhumation caused by the spatial variability of the monsoon intensity along the range. Precipitation are known to decrease westward, a situation that probably well established millions of years ago (Fluteau et al., 1999). This climate forcing may explain some variability of the exhumation pattern shown in our detrital data.

Chirouze, F.; Huyghe, P.; Bernet, M.

2009-04-01

25

Recreational fishing selectively captures individuals with the highest fitness potential.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fisheries-induced evolution and its impact on the productivity of exploited fish stocks remains a highly contested research topic in applied fish evolution and fisheries science. Although many quantitative models assume that larger, more fecund fish are preferentially removed by fishing, there is no empirical evidence describing the relationship between vulnerability to capture and individual reproductive fitness in the wild. Using males from two lines of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) selectively bred over three generations for either high (HV) or low (LV) vulnerability to angling as a model system, we show that the trait "vulnerability to angling" positively correlates with aggression, intensity of parental care, and reproductive fitness. The difference in reproductive fitness between HV and LV fish was particularly evident among larger males, which are also the preferred mating partners of females. Our study constitutes experimental evidence that recreational angling selectively captures individuals with the highest potential for reproductive fitness. Our study further suggests that selective removal of the fittest individuals likely occurs in many fisheries that target species engaged in parental care. As a result, depending on the ecological context, angling-induced selection may have negative consequences for recruitment within wild populations of largemouth bass and possibly other exploited species in which behavioral patterns that determine fitness, such as aggression or parental care, also affect their vulnerability to fishing gear.

Sutter DA; Suski CD; Philipp DP; Klefoth T; Wahl DH; Kersten P; Cooke SJ; Arlinghaus R

2012-12-01

26

Recreational fishing selectively captures individuals with the highest fitness potential.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fisheries-induced evolution and its impact on the productivity of exploited fish stocks remains a highly contested research topic in applied fish evolution and fisheries science. Although many quantitative models assume that larger, more fecund fish are preferentially removed by fishing, there is no empirical evidence describing the relationship between vulnerability to capture and individual reproductive fitness in the wild. Using males from two lines of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) selectively bred over three generations for either high (HV) or low (LV) vulnerability to angling as a model system, we show that the trait "vulnerability to angling" positively correlates with aggression, intensity of parental care, and reproductive fitness. The difference in reproductive fitness between HV and LV fish was particularly evident among larger males, which are also the preferred mating partners of females. Our study constitutes experimental evidence that recreational angling selectively captures individuals with the highest potential for reproductive fitness. Our study further suggests that selective removal of the fittest individuals likely occurs in many fisheries that target species engaged in parental care. As a result, depending on the ecological context, angling-induced selection may have negative consequences for recruitment within wild populations of largemouth bass and possibly other exploited species in which behavioral patterns that determine fitness, such as aggression or parental care, also affect their vulnerability to fishing gear. PMID:23213220

Sutter, David A H; Suski, Cory D; Philipp, David P; Klefoth, Thomas; Wahl, David H; Kersten, Petra; Cooke, Steven J; Arlinghaus, Robert

2012-12-03

27

Black carbon aerosols over the Himalayas: direct and surface albedo forcing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Absorbing aerosols such as black carbon (BC) or dust over high-altitude Himalayan regions have potential implications on the regional climate and hydrological cycle over South Asia. Making use of extensive measurements of atmospheric BC from several Himalayan stations, an assessment of radiative forcing due to direct and snow-albedo darkening is examined. Generally, BC concentration in the atmosphere peaks during pre-monsoon season over the Himalayas and the climatological mean of atmospheric BC over Hanle (western Himalayas, 4.5?km msl) and Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (central Himalayas, 5?km msl) are 106±27?ng m?3 and 190±95?ng m?3, respectively. Based on the optical and physical properties of composite aerosols measured at Hanle, clear sky direct radiative forcing (DRF) at the top of the atmosphere is estimated as 1.69?W m?2 over snow surface and ?1.54?W m?2 over sandy surface during pre-monsoon season. The estimated amount of BC in the snow varied from 117 to 1.7?µg kg?1 for wide range of dry deposition velocities (0.01–0.054?cm s?1) of BC, snow depth (2–10?cm) and snow densities (195–512?kg m?3). Using a size-resolved wet scavenging parametrisation, the amount of BC on snow due to wet scavenging is estimated as 29?µg kg?1 for an accumulated snow depth of 27?cm. For the range of 10–200?µg kg?1 of BC in snow, the diurnally averaged forcing due to snow darkening has been found to vary from 0.87 to 10.2?W m?2 for fresh snow and from 2.6 to 28.1?W m?2 for the aged snow, which is significantly higher than the DRF. The direct and surface albedo radiative forcing could lead to significant warming over the Himalayas during pre-monsoon.

Vijayakumar S. Nair; S. Suresh Babu; K. Krishna Moorthy; Arun Kumar Sharma; Angela Marinoni; Ajai

2013-01-01

28

Southwest-facing slopes control the formation of debris-covered glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To understand the formation conditions of debris-covered glaciers, we examined the dimension and shape of debris-covered areas and potential debris-supply (PDS) slopes of 213 glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya. This was undertaken using satellite images with 2.5 m spatial resolution for manual delineation of debris-covered areas and PDS slopes. The most significant correlation exists between surface area of southwest-facing PDS slopes and debris-covered area. This result suggests that the southwest-facing PDS slopes supply the largest quantity of debris mantle. The shape of debris-covered areas is also an important variable, quantitatively defined using a geometric index. Elongate or stripe-like debris-covered areas on north-flowing glaciers are common throughout the Bhutan Himalaya. In contrast, south-flowing glaciers have large ablation zones, entirely covered by debris. Our findings suggest that this difference is caused by effective diurnal freeze–thaw cycles rather than seasonal freeze–thaw cycles, permafrost degradation, or snow avalanches. In terms of geographic setting, local topography also contributes to glacier debris supply and the proportion of debris cover on the studied glaciers is suppressed by the arid Tibetan climate, whereas the north-to-south asymmetric topography of the Bhutan Himalaya has less influence on the proportion of debris cover.

H. Nagai; K. Fujita; T. Nuimura; A. Sakai

2013-01-01

29

Southwest-facing slopes control the formation of debris-covered glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To understand the formation conditions of debris-covered glaciers, we examined the dimension and shape of debris-covered areas and potential debris-supply (PDS) slopes of 208 glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya. This was undertaken using satellite images with 2.5 m spatial resolution for manual delineation of debris-covered areas and PDS slopes. The most significant correlation exists between surface area of southwest-facing PDS slopes and debris-covered area. This result suggests that the southwest-facing PDS slopes supply the largest quantity of debris mantle. The shape of debris-covered areas is also an important variable quantitatively defined using a geometric index. Elongate or stripe-like debris-covered areas on north-flowing glaciers are common throughout the Bhutan Himalaya, associated with the small quantities of debris from north-facing PDS slopes. In contrast, south-flowing glaciers have large ablation zones, entirely covered by debris. Our findings suggest that this difference is caused by effective diurnal freeze–thaw cycles rather than seasonal freeze–thaw cycles, permafrost degradation, or snow avalanches. In terms of geographic setting, local topography also contributes to glacier debris supply and the proportion of debris cover on the studied glaciers is suppressed by the arid Tibetan climate, whereas the north-to-south asymmetric topography of the Bhutan Himalaya has less influence on the proportion of debris cover.

H. Nagai; K. Fujita; T. Nuimura; A. Sakai

2013-01-01

30

Tree ring imprints of long-term changes in climate in western Himalaya, India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tree-ring analyses from semi-arid to arid regions in western Himalaya show immense potential for developing millennia long climate records. Millennium and longer ring-width chronologies of Himalayan pencil juniper (Juniperus polycarpos), Himalayan pencil cedar (Cedrus deodara) and Chilgoza pine (Pinus gerardiana) have been developed from different sites in western Himalaya. Studies conducted so far on various conifer species indicate strong precipitation signatures in ring-width measurement series. The paucity of weather records from stations close to tree-ring sampling sites poses diffi culty in calibrating tree-ring data against climate data especially precipitation for its strong spatial variability in mountain regions. However, for the existence of strong coherence in temperature, even in data from distant stations, more robust temperature reconstructions representing regional and hemispheric signatures have been developed. Tree-ring records from the region indicate multi-century warm and cool anomalies consistent with the Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age anomalies. Signifi cant relationships noted between mean premonsoon temperature over the western Himalaya and ENSO features endorse utility of climate records from western Himalayan region in understanding long-term climate variability and attribution of anthropogenic impact.

Yadav RR

2009-11-01

31

Selection of microalgae for wastewater treatment and potential lipids production.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, ten microalgal strains found in fresh and saline waters were cultured, and used to conduct batch experiments in order to evaluate their potential contribution to nutrient removal and biofuel production. The growth rate of microalgae was inversely analogous to their initial concentration. Three freshwater strains were selected, based on their growth rate, and their behavior with synthetic wastewater was further investigated. The strains studied were the Scenedesmus rubescens (SAG 5.95), the Neochloris vigensis (SAG 80.80), and the Chlorococcum spec. (SAG 22.83), and higher growth rate was observed with S. rubescens. Total phosphorus removal at an initial phosphate concentration of 6-7mgP/L in the synthetic wastewater, was 53%, 25% and 11% for N. vigensis, Chlorococcum spec., and S. rubescens, respectively. Finally, the lipid content was determined at 20th and 30th day of cultivation, and the highest amount was observed at the 20th day. PMID:23994695

Aravantinou, Andriana F; Theodorakopoulos, Marios A; Manariotis, Ioannis D

2013-08-11

32

Selection of microalgae for wastewater treatment and potential lipids production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present study, ten microalgal strains found in fresh and saline waters were cultured, and used to conduct batch experiments in order to evaluate their potential contribution to nutrient removal and biofuel production. The growth rate of microalgae was inversely analogous to their initial concentration. Three freshwater strains were selected, based on their growth rate, and their behavior with synthetic wastewater was further investigated. The strains studied were the Scenedesmus rubescens (SAG 5.95), the Neochloris vigensis (SAG 80.80), and the Chlorococcum spec. (SAG 22.83), and higher growth rate was observed with S. rubescens. Total phosphorus removal at an initial phosphate concentration of 6-7mgP/L in the synthetic wastewater, was 53%, 25% and 11% for N. vigensis, Chlorococcum spec., and S. rubescens, respectively. Finally, the lipid content was determined at 20th and 30th day of cultivation, and the highest amount was observed at the 20th day.

Aravantinou AF; Theodorakopoulos MA; Manariotis ID

2013-11-01

33

Investigations into the sulphur reduction potential of selected Chinese coals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The project investigated the potential of coal preparation processes for reducing the sulphur emissions from selected Chinese coals (from the Beisu mine and the Dizong mine), and to develop collaborative links with China in coal preparation. The two coals were subjected to washability analysis to characterise their sulphur-reduction potential and the data were used to predict the results that could be obtained commercially. Initial plant design studies were then carried out. It was shown that dense media separation at low relative density cut-point could reduce the sulphur content of Beisu coal from 4.8 to 2.4% and of Dizong coal from 5.1 to 1.8%. Although the sulphur targets were not met, the proposed schemes could reduce sulphur substantially. A sulphur database of Chinese coals was set up. The project successfully developed strong collaborative links between the UK and China; particularly with the China Coal Research Institute (CCRI) and local coal administrations in Shandong and Guizhou Provinces. 13 refs., 10 figs., 18 tabs.

Shah, C.L.; Abbott, J.; Li, X.; Xu, J.; Qi, Z.

2000-01-01

34

Selection of potential microorganism for sago starch fermentation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fermentation process of sago starch for the production of bioproduct requires potential microorganism that have ability to hydrolyze sago starch. The purpose of this research was to get the potential of amylolytic microorganisms for their capability of amyloglucosidase activity and to know the sugar strains of the fermentation result. Eleven amylolytic microorganisms (9 strains of mold and 2 strains of yeast) were obtained from the collection Research Centre for Biotechnology – Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Cibinong-Bogor were used. The selection step was carried out based on their capability of starch hydrolysis to reducing sugar. The best result indicates that the production of reducing sugar reached the highest 18.485 ppm and amyloglucosidase activities was 3.583 units by KTU-1 strain. The highest total acid obtained was 5.85 mg/mL by Rhizopus IFO.R5442. The cell biomass was obtained between 0.5 to 1.74 g dry weight/100 mL and pH of the final fermentation (72 h) were 3.57 to 8.38.

RUTH MELLIAWATI; ROHMATUSSOLIHAT; FERRA OCTAVINA

2006-01-01

35

Therapeutic Potential of Cannabinoids in Neurodegenerative Disorders: A Selective Review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is now recognised as an important modulator of various central nervous system processes. More recently, an increasing body of evidence has accumulated to suggest antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective roles of ECS. In this review we discuss the role and therapeutic potential of ECS in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, Huntington's disease, Tourette's syndrome, brain ischemia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Elements of the ECS, such as fatty acid amide hydrolase or the cannabinoid receptors are now considered as promising pharmacological targets for some diseases. Although still preliminary, recent reports suggest that modulation of the ECS may constitute a novel approach for the treatment of AD. There are windows of opportunity in conditions caused by acute events such as trauma and ischemia as well in conditions that may involve altered functionality of the target receptors of the ECS, such as in AD. The ECS changes in Parkinson's disease could be compensatory as well as pathogenic of the illness process and needs further understanding and clinical studies are still in the preliminary stage. There is not enough evidence to support use of cannabinoids in treating Huntington's disease, tics and obsessive compulsive behaviour in Tourette's syndrome. Evidence on therapeutic use of cannabinoids in multiple sclerosis and ALS is currently limited. A major challenge for future research is the development of novel compounds with more selectivity for various components of the ECS which could target different neurotoxic pathways and be used in combination therapy.

Velayudhan L; Van Diepen E; Marudkar M; Hands O; Suribhatla S; Prettyman R; Murray J; Baillon S; Bhattacharyya S

2013-06-01

36

Variations in radon concentration in groundwater of Kumaon Himalaya, India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The radon content in groundwater sources depends on the radium concentration in the rock of the aquifer. Radon was measured in water in many parts of the world, mostly for the risk assessment due to consumption of drinking water. The exposure to radon through drinking water is largely by inhalation and ingestion. Airborne radon can be released during normal household activities and can pose a greater potential health risk than radon ingested with water. Transport of radon through soil and bedrock by water depends mainly on the percolation of water through the pores and along fracture planes of bedrock. In this study, the radon concentration in water from springs and hand pumps of Kumaun Himalaya, India was measured using the radon emanometry technique. Radon concentration was found to vary from 1 to 392 Bq l(-1) with a mean of 50 Bq l(-1) in groundwater in different lithotectonic units. The radon level was found to be higher in the area consisting of granite, quartz porphyry, schist, phyllites and lowest in the area having sedimentary rocks, predominantly dominated by quartzite rocks.

Bourai AA; Gusain GS; Rautela BS; Joshi V; Prasad G; Ramola RC

2012-11-01

37

Global warming may lead to catastrophic floods in the Himalayas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Nepal, data from 49 surveillance stations show that there has been a distinct temperature increase since the middle of the 1970s, the greatest changes being on the highest summits. When lakes overfill and beaches threaten to break down, this is a result of the global warming that melts the glaciers. The glaciers in Bhutan are observed to decrease by 30 - 40 metres per year, in some years as much as 100 metres. In the village of Tribeni an advanced warning system has been established to warn the 10 000 inhabitants of a potential flood from Lake Tsho Rolpa 108 km upstream. Research from the Himalayas also point to another serious threat. The melting threatens not only human lives, tourism, foot paths, roads, bridges and power stations. Since the mountains are the water towers of the world, filling rivers and lakes with water upon which all life depends, continued shrinking of the world's glaciers as is now observed will cause many rivers and fresh-water systems to dry out. Researchers from the UN Unep programme and International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development have registered at least 44 glacier lakes that are increasing so fast that they may cause outburst floods within five years. Similar investigations are being planned in India, Pakistan and China.

2002-01-01

38

Growth Characteristics, Biomass and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Variation of Garhwal Himalaya’s Fodder and Fuel Wood Tree Species at the Nursery Stage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fodder and fuel wood deficiency in the Himalayan region is well recognized. Rural inhabitants are exploiting these forest resources for their livelihood for generations which leads to severe deforestation. The aim of this study was to identify the fast growing fodder and fuel wood tree species of Garhwal Himalayas at nursery stage with wider relevance and great potential for extensive afforestation programmes. Seed of Bauhinia purpurea L., Bauhinia retusa Roxb., Bauhinia variegate L., Celtis australis L., Ficus nemoralis Wall., Ficus roxburghii Wall., Grewia optiva Drummond, Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit, Melia azedarach L., Ougeinia oojeinensis (Roxb.) Hochr., Quercus leucotrichophora A. Camus, Terminalia alata Heyne ex Roth. and Toona ciliate M. Roem. were collected from the superior trees and seedlings were raised. After one year and one month of establishment at the nursery, the growth characteristics, biomass and chlorophyll fluorescence (dark-adopted Fv/Fm) of each species were also recorded. G. optiva had shown the highest growth in terms of height, basal diameter increment and number of branches, while production of leaves was more on O. oojeinensis. Biomass and chlorophyll fluorescence (maximum quantum yield or photochemical efficiency of PSII) was found highest in Q. leucotrichophora which indicates photosynthetically this species was most active among the studied fodder and fuel wood tree species. The information in this communication could be utilized for developing various conservation and sustainable strategies in the Garhwal Himalayas to mitigate the<

Azamal Husen

2013-01-01

39

Potential selection for female choice in Viola tricolor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

That sexual selection can be an active force in plant evolution is still under debate. When the number of pollen grains deposited onto a stigma exceeds the number of available ovules, competition among pollen grains for fertilizations will result in selection on traits that increase siring ability (...

Skogsmyr, Io; Lankinen, Åsa

40

Some medicinal mushrooms of Garhwal Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Garhwal Himalaya is glorified by the rich diversity of mushrooms. There is vast scope of study on the medicinal mushrooms growing in this region. The wild mushrooms have been used as medicine since time immemorial. They are considered and known to be a rich source of proteins and vitamins. In the present paper details of some medicinally important mushrooms collected from the Garhwal region is being given, whose medicinal uses are recorded from India and elsewhere in the world. Medicinally important mushrooms of the Garhwal Himalaya discussed in the present paper are Ganoderma lucidum, Agaricus campestris, Hydnum repandum, Coprinus comatus, Morchella esculenta and Cantharellus cibarius.

M.P. VISHWAKARMA; R.P. BHATT; Sumeet GAIROLA

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Potential of biomass fuel conservation in selected Asian countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The potential of savings in the biomass consumed for energy in seven Asian countries--China, India, Pakistan, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka and Vietnam--is estimated, if the centuries-old traditional methods of biomass use are reconsidered and an efficient, rational use is implemented. The present pattern and share of biomass consumption of different traditional biomass energy devices are recorded. The efficiency of traditional technologies and that of improved ones--technologies which are practically applicable or already in use somewhere else--are compared and the potential of biomass savings is calculated. The total biomass saving potential in all seven countries together has been estimated at 322 million tons/year. (Author)

1999-01-01

42

Taxonomic status of Bupleurum (Apiaceae) in outer hills of Kashmir Himalayas, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: The genus Bupleurum is perennial rhizomatous herbs, recognized by simple leaves,conspicuous bracts and bractlets, often shows a great deal of variation in morphological characteristics. The genus is well developed in temperate and alpine zones of Kashmir Himalayas and other lesser Himalayan ranges of Jammu and Kashmir State. A key to the species, brief description, flowering and fruiting periods are given. The approximate elevation, distribution of species in the region andillustrations of selected species are provided.Material and Methods: The present communication is based on the surveys conducted between 1990 and 2007. The speciemens were mounted on the herbarium sheets and studied in the laboratory with the help of floristic literature.Results: As many as 10 species of genus Bupleurum have been recognized, from the different climaticzones of outer hills of Kashmir Himalayas of Jammu and Kashmir State.Conclusion: The report is first of its kind being communicated from the State of Jammu and Kashmir. Ten species of Bupleurum are described.

B. L. Bhellum

2012-01-01

43

A study of algal biomass potential in selected Canadian regions.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A dynamic assessment model has been developed for evaluating the potential algal biomass and extracted biocrude productivity and costs, using nutrient and water resources available from waste streams in four regions of Canada (western British Columbia, Alberta oil fields, southern Ontario, and Nova Scotia). The purpose of this model is to help identify optimal locations in Canada for algae cultivation and biofuel production. The model uses spatially referenced data across the four regions for nitrogen and phosphorous loads in municipal wastewaters, and CO{sub 2} in exhaust streams from a variety of large industrial sources. Other data inputs include land cover, and solar insolation. Model users can develop estimates of resource potential by manipulating model assumptions in a graphic user interface, and updated results are viewed in real time. Resource potential by location can be viewed in terms of biomass production potential, potential CO{sub 2} fixed, biocrude production potential, and area required. The cost of producing algal biomass can be estimated using an approximation of the distance to move CO{sub 2} and water to the desired land parcel and an estimation of capital and operating costs for a theoretical open pond facility. Preliminary results suggest that in most cases, the CO{sub 2} resource is plentiful compared to other necessary nutrients (especially nitrogen), and that siting and prospects for successful large-scale algae cultivation efforts in Canada will be driven by availability of those other nutrients and the efficiency with which they can be used and re-used. Cost curves based on optimal possible siting of an open pond system are shown. The cost of energy for maintaining optimal growth temperatures is not considered in this effort, and additional research in this area, which has not been well studied at these latitudes, will be important in refining the costs of algal biomass production. The model will be used by NRC-IMB Canada to identify promising locations for both demonstration and pilot-scale algal cultivation projects, including the production potential of using wastewater, and potential land use considerations.

Passell, Howard David; Roach, Jesse Dillon; Klise, Geoffrey T.

2011-11-01

44

Testing of selected workplace chemicals for teratogenic potential  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The reproductive toxicity and teratogenic potential of 19 industrial chemicals have been investigated during the past 3 a. Preliminary studies utilizing intraperitoneal treatments of rats on days 1-15 of gestation have been conducted on the following ten chemicals: allyl chloride, bisphenol A, copper naphthenate, ethylene dibromide, hexachlorobutadiene, 2-mercaptobenzothiazole, methyl styrene, naphthalene, 2-nitropropane, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane. Studies utilizing inhalation exposure of rats and rabbits on days 1-19 and 1-24, respectively, of gestation have been conducted on the following nine chemicals: butylene oxide, carbon disulfide, 2-ethoxyethanol, ethyl benzene, methyl bromide, nitrous oxide, styrene oxide, tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene. In the preliminary studies, evidence of teratogenic potential was seen with allyl chloride and bisphenol A, and fetal toxicity was found in the absence of maternal toxicity with methyl styrene and 2-nitropropane. In the inhalation studies, 2-ethoxyethanol was strongly embryotoxic at the higher exposure levels employed and was teratogenic at the lower concentration.

Hardin, B.D.; Bond, G.P.; Sikov, M.R.; Andrew, F.D.; Beliles, R.P.; Niemeier, R.W.

1981-01-01

45

The Diversity Potential of Relay Selection with Practical Channel Estimation  

CERN Document Server

We investigate the diversity order of decode-and-forward relay selection in Nakagami-m fading, in cases where practical channel estimation techniques are applied. In this respect, we introduce a unified model for the imperfect channel estimates, where the effects of noise, time-varying channels, and feedback delays are jointly considered. Based on this model, the correlation between the actual and the estimated channel values, \\rho, is expressed as a function of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), yielding closed-form expressions for the overall outage probability as a function of \\rho. The resulting diversity order and power gain reveal a high dependence of the performance of relay selection on the high SNR behavior of \\rho, thus shedding light onto the effect of channel estimation on the overall performance. It is shown that when the channel estimates are not frequently updated in applications involving time-varying channels, or when the amount of power allocated for channel estimation is not sufficiently high...

Michalopoulos, Diomidis S; Schober, Robert; Karagiannidis, George K

2011-01-01

46

Antitumour and antioxidant potential of some selected Pakistani honeys.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Antitumour potential of honey is attributed to its excellent antioxidant activity which in turn depends on the geographical origin. The present study focuses on exploration of antioxidant and antitumour potential as well as total phenolic contents (TPC) of 58 Pakistani honeys involving spectrochemical techniques and potato disk assay. Agrobacterium tumefaciens was used to induce tumours in potato disks. All analysed honey samples exhibited 1.33±0.00-155.16±0.98mg/100g of TPC, 50% 2,2-diphenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) inhibition, ?7.36±0.43-39.86±2.34mg/100g qurecitin equivalent antioxidant contents, ?13.69±0.91-65.50±1.37mg/100g ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant contents, 64.65±0.43-1780.74±11.79mM ferric reducing antioxidant power and 60% peroxide inhibition. Antitumour activity observed for 43 natural and 10 commercial samples was ?20%. Two samples from Faisalabad region showed 87.50±5.50% and 79.00±5.56% antitumour activity which were reference standard. It was concluded that Pakistani honeys possessed excellent antioxidant and antitumour potential overall.

Noor N; Sarfraz RA; Ali S; Shahid M

2014-01-01

47

Antitumour and antioxidant potential of some selected Pakistani honeys.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antitumour potential of honey is attributed to its excellent antioxidant activity which in turn depends on the geographical origin. The present study focuses on exploration of antioxidant and antitumour potential as well as total phenolic contents (TPC) of 58 Pakistani honeys involving spectrochemical techniques and potato disk assay. Agrobacterium tumefaciens was used to induce tumours in potato disks. All analysed honey samples exhibited 1.33±0.00-155.16±0.98mg/100g of TPC, 50% 2,2-diphenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) inhibition, ?7.36±0.43-39.86±2.34mg/100g qurecitin equivalent antioxidant contents, ?13.69±0.91-65.50±1.37mg/100g ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant contents, 64.65±0.43-1780.74±11.79mM ferric reducing antioxidant power and 60% peroxide inhibition. Antitumour activity observed for 43 natural and 10 commercial samples was ?20%. Two samples from Faisalabad region showed 87.50±5.50% and 79.00±5.56% antitumour activity which were reference standard. It was concluded that Pakistani honeys possessed excellent antioxidant and antitumour potential overall. PMID:24054252

Noor, Nadia; Sarfraz, Raja Adil; Ali, Shaukat; Shahid, Muhammad

2013-07-27

48

Agricultural Diversification in the Garhwal Himalaya: A Spatio-Temporal Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Garhwal Himalaya represents a traditional agricultural society where more than 74% population largely depends on the cultivation of subsistence cereal crops to run their livelihood. Over the time, with the increase in human population and decrease in per capita land, the traditional subsistence agriculture could not fulfill food requirement. This was resulted in food insecurity and thus agricultural diversification began with the cultivation of cash crops - fruits, off-season vegetables and also of medicinal plants. Although, agro-ecological condition favours diversification of crops and agro-biodiversity is very high in the Garhwal region, the pace of diversifying cash crops for commercialization is tremendously low. Diversity in crops varies spatially - horizontal and vertical and temporally - rabi and kharif seasons. The highlands characterize high agro-biodiversity in comparison to the mid-slopes and the valley regions. Crop diversification index (CDI) of cereals and cash crops was calculated separately from the secondary dada. A case study of six villages was done to calculate cost-benefit analysis of cereals and cash crops. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential of diversification – cereals as well as cash crops for livelihood sustainability in the Garhwal Himalaya

Vishwambhar Prasad Sati

2012-01-01

49

Potential application of palladium nanoparticles as selective recyclable hydrogenation catalysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The search for more efficient catalytic systems that might combine the advantages of both homogeneous (catalyst modulation) and heterogeneous (catalyst recycling) catalysis is one of the most exciting challenges of modern chemistry. More recently with the advances of nanochemistry, it has been possible to prepare soluble analogues of heterogeneous catalysts. These nanoparticles are generally stabilized against aggregation into larger particles by electrostatic or steric protection. Herein we demonstrate the use of room temperature ionic liquid for the stabilization of palladium nanoparticles that are recyclable catalysts for the hydrogenation of carbon-carbon double bonds and application of these catalysts to the selective hydrogenation of internal or terminal C=C bonds in unsaturated primary alcohols. The particles suspended in room temperature ionic liquid show no metal aggregation or loss of catalytic activity even on prolonged use.

2008-01-01

50

Are northeast and western Himalayas earthquake dynamics better "organized" than Central Himalayas: An artificial neural network approach  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Los Himalayas entre los 20 y 38 grados de latitud N y los 70 a 98 grados de longitud E están entre las regiones más activas y vulnerables a los temblores en el mundo. Se examina la evolución de la sismicidad en el tiempo (M > 4) en los Himalayas centrales, occidentales y del Noreste para el intervalo de 1960-2003 utilizando el método de redes neuronales artificiales (ANN). El modelo de capas múltiples sirve para simular la frecuencia de sismos con una resolución men (more) sual. Para el entrenamiento del ANN se utiliza un algoritmo de propagación en reversa con optimización de gradiente, y se generaliza el resultado con validación cruzada. Se concluye que las tres regiones se caracterizan por procesos que evolucionan en un plano multidimensional caótico similar a una dinámica auto-organizada. El sector central posee un coeficiente de correlación más bajo que las otras dos regiones, que parecen estar mejor "organizadas", lo que es consistente con la información geológica y tectónica disponible. Abstract in english The Himalaya covering 20-38° N latitude and 70-98° E longitude, is one of the most seismo-tectonically active and vulnerable regions of the world. Visual inspection of the temporal earthquake frequency pattern of the Himalayas indicates the nature of the tectonic activity prevailing in this region. However, the quantification of this dynamical pattern is essential for constraining a model and characterizing the nature of earthquake dynamics in this region. We examine th (more) e temporal evolution of seismicity (M > 4) of the Central Himalaya (CH), Western Himalaya (WH) and Northeast Himalaya (NEH), for the period of 1960-2003 using artificial neural network (ANN) technique. We use a multilayer feedforward artificial neural network (ANN) model to simulate monthly resolution earthquake frequency time series for all three regions. The ANN is trained using a standard back-propagation algorithm with gradient decent optimization technique and then generalized through cross-validation. The results suggest that earthquake processes in all three regions evolved on a high dimensional chaotic plane akin to "self-organized" dynamical pattern. Earthquake processes of NEH and WH show a higher predictive correlation coefficient (50-55%) compared to the CH (30%), implying that the earthquake dynamics in the NEH and WH are better "organized" than in the CH region. The available tectonogeological observations support the model predictions.

Sri Lakshmi, S.; Tiwari, R. K.

2007-03-01

51

Antituberculosis potential of some ethnobotanically selected Malaysian plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM OF THE STUDY: Many local plants are used in Malaysian traditional medicine to treat respiratory diseases including symptoms of tuberculosis. The aim of the study was to screen 78 plant extracts from 70 Malaysian plant species used in traditional medicine to treat respiratory diseases including symptoms of tuberculosis for activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv using a colorimetric microplate-based assay. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plant extracts were prepared by maceration in methanol (80%) and antituberculosis screening was carried out using Tetrazolium bromide microplate assay (TEMA) method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). RESULTS: Thirty-eight plant extracts from 36 plant species exhibited antituberculosis activity with MICs in the range of 1600-400 ?g/ml. The leaf extract of Angiopteris evecta exhibited the highest activity with MIC of 400 ?g/ml. Five other extracts, namely, Costus speciosus (stem and flower), Piper sarmentosum (whole plant), Pluchea indica (leaf), Pluchea indica (flower), and Tabernaemontana coronaria (leaf) exhibited antituberculosis activity, each with MIC of 800 ?g/ml. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of in vitro high throughput screening of Malaysian medicinal plants for antituberculosis activity. CONCLUSIONS: Antituberculosis activity of extracts of some plants justifies, to a certain extent their ethnomedicinal uses as remedies for symptoms of tuberculosis. These results also support the general view that, selecting the plants based on ethnobotanical criteria would enhance the probability of finding species with antituberculosis activity.

Mohamad S; Zin NM; Wahab HA; Ibrahim P; Sulaiman SF; Zahariluddin AS; Noor SS

2011-02-01

52

Disinfection of greywater effluent and regrowth potential of selected bacteria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chlorination and UV irradiation of RBC (rotating biological contactor)-treated light GW (greywater) was investigated. The ability of chlorine and UV to inactivate indictor bacteria (FC - Faecal Coliforms, HPC - Heterotrophic Plate Count) and specific pathogens (P.a. - Pseudomonas aeruginosa sp., S.a. - Staphylococcus aureus sp.), was assessed and their regrowth potential was examined. The RBC removed 88.5-99.9% of all four bacteria groups. Nevertheless, the treated GW had to be disinfected. Most of the chlorine was consumed during the first 0.5 h, while later its decay rate decreased significantly, leaving enough residual after 6 h to prevent regrowth and to further inactivate bacteria in the stored GW effluent. Under exposure to low UV doses (?69 mJ/cm(2)) FC was the most resistant bacteria group, followed by HPC, P.a. and S.a. Exposure to higher doses (?439 mJs/cm(2)) completely inactivated FC, P.a. and S.a., while no further HPC inactivation was observed. FC, P.a. and S.a. did not exhibit regrowth after exposure to all the UV doses applied (up to 6 h storage). HPC did not exhibit regrowth after exposure to low UV doses (19-69 mJ/cm2), while it presented statistically significant regrowth in un-disinfected effluent and after exposure to higher UV doses (147-439 mJ/cm(2)).

Friedler E; Yardeni A; Gilboa Y; Alfiya Y

2011-01-01

53

Perspectives and industrial potential of PGA selectivity and promiscuity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Penicillin G acylases (PGAs) are robust industrial catalysts used for biotransformation of ß -lactams into key intermediates for chemical production of semi-synthetic ß-lactam antibiotics by hydrolysis of natural penicillins. They are used also in reverse, kinetically controlled synthetic reactions for large-scale productions of these antibiotics from corresponding beta-lactam nuclei and activated acyl donors. Further biocatalytic applications of PGAs have recently been described: catalysis of peptide syntheses and the resolutions of racemic mixtures for the production of enantiopure active pharmaceutical ingredients that are based on enantioselective acylation or chiral hydrolysis. Moreover, PGAs rank among promiscuous enzymes because they also catalyze reactions such as trans-esterification, Markovnikov addition or Henry reaction. This particular biocatalytic versatility represents a driving force for discovery of novel members of this enzyme family and further research into the catalytic potential of PGAs. This review deals with biocatalytic applications exploiting enantioselectivity and promiscuity of prokaryotic PGAs that have been recently reported. Biocatalytic applications are discussed and presented with reaction substrates converted into active compounds useful for the pharmaceutical industry.

Grulich M; St?pánek V; Kyslík P

2013-07-01

54

Biomass resource potential for selected crops in Hawaii. [Koa haole (giant leucaena); napier and guinea grass  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The biomass crops selected for review were koa haole (giant leucaena), napier and guinea grass, and eucalyptus (saligna, grandis, and globulus). The islands examined were Hawaii, Kauai, Maui, and Molokai. The potential land acreage for growing these crops was estimated grossly. As anticipated, the island of Hawaii had the largest land potential with eucalyptus having the greatest potential land acreage.

Seki, A.

1982-06-01

55

Fault delineation study using soil-gas method in the Dharamsala area, NW Himalayas, India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Soil-gas activity in the vicinity of neotectonic fault zones within the Dharamsala area in the region of the NW Himalayas, India, has been investigated by determining enhanced concentration values of radon and helium in the soil, using an ionization chamber and an ASM 100 HDS (Alcatel), respectively. A geological map of the area was used for site selection and to locate the predicted courses of faults. Elevated levels of radon and helium in the soil gas were found along a profile of a major fault (MBT-2). Radon shows variation not only due to the tectonic structures but also due to change in lithology. Helium and radon anomalies together show that apart from conspicuous thrust MBT-2, the area under study is cut across by the N-S transverse faults/lineaments.

Walia, Vivek [National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering, National Applied Research Laboratories, Taipei-106, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: vivekwalia@rediffmail.com; Mahajan, Sandeep; Kumar, Arvind; Singh, Surinder; Singh Bajwa, Bikramjit [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar (India); Dhar, Sunil [Department of Geology, Govt. College, Dharamsala, Himachal Pradesh (India); Frank Yang, Tsanyao [National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering, National Applied Research Laboratories, Taipei-106, Taiwan (China); Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei-106, Taiwan (China)

2008-08-15

56

Six hitherto unreported Basidiomycetic macrofungi from Kashmir Himalayas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pala SA, Wani AH, Bhat MY. 2011. Six hitherto unreported Basidiomycetic macrofungi from Kashmir Himalayas. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 92-97. The Kashmir valley located in the north extreme of the India lies between 33020’ and 34054’ N latitude and 730 55’ and 75035’ E longitude. The forests constituting more than 20% of the geographical area harbors diverse macrofungal species due to their wide variability in climate altitude and nature of species constituting them. The mushroom flora of the Kashmir Valley has not been documented completely until now. In this backdrop, a systematic survey for exploration and inventorization of macrofungal species of Western Kashmir Himalaya was undertaken during the year 2009-2010. During the study six species viz. Agrocybe molesta, Coprinus plicatilis, Inonotus hispidus, Paxillus involutus, Psathyrella candolleana and Russula fragilis were identified first time from the Kashmir.

SHAUKET AHMED PALA; ABDUL HAMID WANI; MOHMAD YAQUB BHAT

2011-01-01

57

Integrated Natural Resource Management: Approaches and Lessons from the Himalaya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Losses of forest cover, biodiversity, agricultural productivity, and ecosystem services in the Himalayan mountain region are interlinked problems and threats to the sustainable livelihoods of 115 x 106 mountain people as well as the inhabitants of the adjoining Indo-gangetic plains. Until the 1970s, environmental conservation, food security, and rural economic development were treated as independent sectors. The poor outcomes of sector-oriented approaches catalyzed efforts to address environmental and socioeconomic problems concurrently. The identification of "key" natural resource management interventions is an important dimension of integrated management. Projects to rehabilitate the degraded lands that cover 40% of the Indian Himalaya could be key interventions provided that they address both socioeconomic and environmental concerns across spatial and temporal scales. However, projects of this type, e.g., investments in conifer plantations on degraded forest lands, have failed because their designs did not take into account the needs of local residents. This study illustrates a case of land rehabilitation in a small isolated village close to the alpine zone. Vital elements of this project strategy included identifying local perceptions and knowledge and involving the local people in the selection and implementation of the interventions needed to restore the land. Communities were found to be more concerned with the immediate economic benefits from bamboo and medicinal species than the long-term benefits of tree planting. The villagers eventually reached a consensus to plant broadleaved multipurpose trees in association with bamboo and medicinal species. Despite assurances that all the economic benefits from rehabilitation would go to the community, the people would not agree to voluntary labor, although they did absorb significant costs by providing social fencing, farmyard manure, and propagules from community forests. Households shared costs and benefits according to traditional norms. The economic benefits to the local people exceeded the rehabilitation cost over the 7-yr life of the project. There were significant on-site environmental benefits in terms of improvements in soil fertility, biodiversity, protective cover, and carbon sequestration, and off-site benefits from more productive use of labor, reduced pressure on protected areas, and the introduction of rare and threatened medicinal species onto private farmland.

K. G. Saxena; K.S. Rao; K. K. C. Sen; R. K. Maikhuri; R. L. Semwal

2002-01-01

58

Electrical resistivity imaging of seismically active frontal Himalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows. Given the sensitivity of resistivity to rheology, magnetotelluric measurement are undertaken to study deep crustal electrical structures and their possible linkage to the space-depth distribution of seismicity. Magnetotelluric investigations at Thirty three sites along Bijnaur-Mallari profile cutting across major litho tectonic units of Himalaya starting from Indo Ganges plain, Siwalik, Lesser, Higher Himalaya to Tethys Himalaya. Observing the low solar activity during the survey period each site was occupied for five days. Longer occupancy allowed estimation of impedance tensor at periods greater than 500 sec at most of the stations. However at few stations electric field recordings were very noisy perhaps due to unbalanced power network of the region. This is reflected in larger error bars in estimated impedance tensors. Skewness and other dimensionality parameter indicate the validity of 2-D regional model. Robust impedance decomposition for the period band of 10 Hz- 1000 sec of eleven stations reveal that EM strike coincides with the geologic fabric. Considering regional strike EM field were decoupled in TE, TM mode and then inverted for frequency dependent conductivity distribution along the profile. The most conspicuous feature of the inverted resistivity section is the low resistivity zone at a shallow depth of 10 km beneath the Indo-Gangetic Plains that dips down at a low-angle and extends as a continuous plane right up to the northern limit of the profile. The geometry of this layer is correlated with the basement thrust separating the top of the under thrusting Indian Plate from the over-riding sedimentary wedge of lesser Himalaya. The paper will discuss the tectonic and rheological significance of the results of resistivity imaging using magnetotelluric method along the profile from Bijnaur to Mallari.

2009-01-01

59

Fuelwood consumption pattern at different altitudes in Garhwal Himalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We analyse firewood consumption along altitudinal gradient by households according to their socio-economic conditions in Garhwal Himalaya. Consumption of fuelwood was 789, 664, 518, and 544 kg/cap-yr and energy consumption for fuelwood collection was 41, 53, 52 and 80 x 103 kg/cap-yr, respectively, above 2000, for 1500-2000, 1000-1500, and 500-1000 m. Commercial fuel consumption constituted 0.6-4.5%. (author).

1994-01-01

60

Highly selective electrocatalytic dehydrogenation at low applied potential catalyzed by an Ir organometallic complex.  

Science.gov (United States)

A homogeneous organometallic Ir complex was shown to catalyze the electro-oxidation of 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol to p-anisaldehyde at a very low applied potential with remarkably high selectivity and Faradaic efficiency. In the chemical catalysis, when stoichiometric oxidant and anionic base were used to separately accept electrons and protons, aldehyde selectivity was in agreement with electrolysis results. PMID:24091876

Bonitatibus, Peter J; Rainka, Matthew P; Peters, Andrea J; Simone, Davide L; Doherty, Mark D

2013-10-17

 
 
 
 
61

Highly selective electrocatalytic dehydrogenation at low applied potential catalyzed by an Ir organometallic complex.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A homogeneous organometallic Ir complex was shown to catalyze the electro-oxidation of 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol to p-anisaldehyde at a very low applied potential with remarkably high selectivity and Faradaic efficiency. In the chemical catalysis, when stoichiometric oxidant and anionic base were used to separately accept electrons and protons, aldehyde selectivity was in agreement with electrolysis results.

Bonitatibus PJ; Rainka MP; Peters AJ; Simone DL; Doherty MD

2013-10-01

62

The discovery of potent, selective, and orally bioavailable PDE9 inhibitors as potential hypoglycemic agents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Starting from a non-selective pyrazolo-pyrimidone lead, the sequential use of parallel medicinal chemistry and directed synthesis led to the discovery of potent, highly selective, and orally bioavailable PDE9 inhibitors. The availability of these tools allowed for a thorough evaluation of the therapeutic potential of PDE9 inhibition.

Deninno MP; Andrews M; Bell AS; Chen Y; Eller-Zarbo C; Eshelby N; Etienne JB; Moore DE; Palmer MJ; Visser MS; Yu LJ; Zavadoski WJ; Michael Gibbs E

2009-05-01

63

The discovery of potent, selective, and orally bioavailable PDE9 inhibitors as potential hypoglycemic agents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Starting from a non-selective pyrazolo-pyrimidone lead, the sequential use of parallel medicinal chemistry and directed synthesis led to the discovery of potent, highly selective, and orally bioavailable PDE9 inhibitors. The availability of these tools allowed for a thorough evaluation of the therapeutic potential of PDE9 inhibition. PMID:19339180

Deninno, Michael P; Andrews, Melissa; Bell, Andrew S; Chen, Yue; Eller-Zarbo, Cynthia; Eshelby, Nan; Etienne, John B; Moore, Dianna E; Palmer, Michael J; Visser, Michael S; Yu, Li J; Zavadoski, William J; Michael Gibbs, E

2009-03-13

64

Ring-Width Variations in Cedrus Deodara and its Climatic Response Over the Western Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

Tree-ring anlaysis of Cedrus deodara from three different sites of western Himalaya has been carried out. The chronologies include 47 cores (26 trees) from Manali, 33 cores (18 trees) from Kufri (Shimla) and 25 cores (13 trees) from Kanasar forest sites. Moderately high values of common variance exhibited by all three chronologies indicate the great potential of the species for dendroclimatic studies.Response function and correlation analyses using the above tree-ring-width data and Shimla climate show a significant negative relationship with summer temperature and positive relationship with summer precipitation. Based on these results, calibration equations have been developed for different periods, and appropriately verified using independent data, to reconstruct the summer (March-April-May) temperature at Shimla. The reconstruction has extended the temperature record of the region back to the eighteenth century.

Borgaonkar, H. P.; Pant, G. B.; Rupa Kumar, K.

1996-12-01

65

Automatic selection of tube potential for radiation dose reduction in CT: A general strategy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: To optimize radiation dose efficiency in CT while maintaining image quality, it is important to select the optimal tube potential. The selection of optimal tube potential, however, is highly dependent on patient size and diagnostic task. The purpose of this work was to develop a general strategy that allows for automatic tube potential selection for each individual patient and each diagnostic task. Methods: The authors propose a general strategy that allows automatic adaptation of the tube potential as a function of patient size and diagnostic task, using a novel index of image quality, ''iodine contrast to noise ratio with a noise constraint (iCNR{sub N}C),'' to characterize the different image quality requirements by various clinical applications. The relative dose factor (RDF) at each tube potential to achieve a target image quality was then determined as a function of patient size and the noise constraint parameter. A workflow was developed to automatically identify the optimal tube potential that is both dose efficient and practically feasible, incorporating patient size and diagnostic task. An experimental study using a series of semianthropomorphic thoracic phantoms was used to demonstrate how the proposed general strategy can be implemented and how the radiation dose reduction achievable by the tube potential selection depends on phantom sizes and noise constraint parameters. Results: The proposed strategy provides a flexible and quantitative way to select the optimal tube potential based on the patient size and diagnostic task. The noise constraint parameter {alpha} can be adapted for different clinical applications. For example, {alpha}=1 for noncontrast routine exams; {alpha}=1.1-1.25 for contrast-enhanced routine exams; and {alpha}=1.5-2.0 for CT angiography. For the five thoracic phantoms in the experiment, when {alpha}=1, the optimal tube potentials were 80, 100, 100, 120, 120, respectively. The corresponding RDFs (relative to 120 kV) were 78.0%, 90.9%, 95.2%, 100%, and 100%. When {alpha}=1.5, the optimal tube potentials were 80, 80, 80, 100, 100, respectively, with corresponding RDFs of 34.7%, 44.7%, 54.7%, 60.8%, and 89.5%. Conclusions: A general strategy to automatically select the most dose efficient tube potential for CT exams was developed that takes into account patient size and diagnostic task. Dependent on the patient size and the selection of noise constraint parameter for different diagnostic tasks, the dose reduction at each tube potential, quantified explicitly with the RDF, varies significantly.

Yu Lifeng; Li Hua; Fletcher, Joel G.; McCollough, Cynthia H. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)

2010-01-15

66

Potential site selection for radioactive waste repository using GIS (Study area: Negeri Sembilan) - Phase 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main purpose in this paper is to create the Geographic Information System (GIS) based analysis on the potential site area for near-surface radioactive waste repository in the state of Negeri Sembilan. There are several parameters should be considered related to the safety assessment in selecting the potential site. These parameters such as land-use, urban area, soil, rainfall, lithology, lineament, geomorphology, landslide potential, slope, elevation, hydrogeology and protected land need to be considered before choosing the site. In this phase, we only consider ten parameters for determining the potential suitable site. (author)

2010-01-01

67

Selective androgen receptor modulators in drug discovery: medicinal chemistry and therapeutic potential.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Modulation of the androgen receptor has the potential to be an effective treatment for hypogonadism, andropause, and associated conditions such as sarcopenia, osteoporosis, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and sexual dysfunction. Side effects associated with classical anabolic steroid treatments have driven the quest for drugs that demonstrate improved therapeutic profiles. Novel, non-steroidal compounds that show tissue selective activity and improved pharmacokinetic properties have been developed. This review provides an overview of current advances in the development of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs).

Cadilla R; Turnbull P

2006-01-01

68

Streaming potentials in gramicidin channels measured with ion-selective microelectrodes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Streaming potentials have been measured for gramicidin channels with a new method employing ion-selective microelectrodes. It is shown that ideally ion-selective electrodes placed at the membrane surface record the true streaming potential. Using this method for ion concentrations below 100 mM, approximately seven water molecules are transported whenever a sodium, potassium, or cesium ion, passes through the channel. This new method confirms earlier measurements (Rosenberg, P.A., and A. Finkelstein. 1978. Interaction of ions and water in gramicidin A channels. J. Gen. Physiol. 72:327-340) in which the streaming potentials were calculated as the difference between electrical potentials measured in the presence of gramicidin and in the presence of the ion carriers valinomycin and nonactin.

Tripathi S; Hladky SB

1998-06-01

69

Climatic Limits on Landscape Development in the Northwestern Himalaya  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The interaction between tectonism and erosion produces rugged landscapes in actively deforming regions. In the northwestern Himalaya, the form of the landscape was found to be largely independent of exhumation rates, but regional trends in mean and modal elevations, hypsometry (frequency distribution of altitude), and slope distributions were correlated with the extent of glaciation. These observations imply that in mountain belts that intersect the snowline, glacial and periglacial processes place an upper limit on altitude, relief, and the development of topography irrespective of the rate of tectonic processes operating.

Brozović N; Burbank DW; Meigs AJ

1997-04-01

70

Aquatic fungi parasitic on temperate fishes of Kumaun Himalaya, India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Eighty isolates of different species of aquatic fungi belonging to Achlya, Aphanomyces, Dictyuchus, Protoachlya, Saprolegnia, Thraustotheca and Pythium are observed as parasites of certain temperate fish of Kumaun Himalaya, India. The parasitic ability of each isolate was confirmed by artificial inoculation experiments under laboratory conditions. The genera of Saprolegnia and Achlya were more virulent fish parasites than Aphanomyces, Dictyuchus, Protoachlya, Thraustotheca and Pythium. All the fish species observed are new hosts for these pathogens. Protoachlya paradoxa, Achlya klebsiana, Thraustotheca clavata and Pythium undulatum are reported for the first time as natural pathogens of fish.

Sati SC

1991-09-01

71

Response to comments on "Bateman in nature: predation on offspring reduces the potential for sexual selection".  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Commenters objected to the way that we counted matings and offspring to calculate Bateman slopes and disagreed with our contention that predation on offspring can decrease the potential for sexual selection. We clarify what may have been misunderstandings to argue that our methods, analyses, and conclusions are correct.

Byers J; Dunn S

2013-05-01

72

Cardiac computed tomography angiography with automatic tube potential selection: effects on radiation dose and image quality.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Automatic exposure control (AEC) algorithms are widely available in coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) and have been shown to reduce radiation doses by adjusting tube current to patient size. However, the effects of anthropometry-based automatic potential selection (APS) on image quality and radiation dose are unknown. We sought to investigate the effect of an APS algorithm on coronary CTA radiation dose and image quality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this retrospective case-control study we selected 38 patients who had undergone coronary CTA for coronary artery assessment in whom tube potential and tube current were selected automatically by a combined automatic tube potential and tube current selection algorithm (APS-AEC) and compared them with 38 controls for whom tube voltage was selected according to standard body mass index (BMI) cutoffs and tube current was selected using automatic exposure control (BMI-AEC). Controls were matched for BMI, heart rate, heart rhythm, sex, acquisition mode, and indication for cardiac CTA. Image quality was assessed as contrast-to-noise ratio and signal-to-noise ratio in the proximal coronary arteries. Subjective reader assessment was also made. Total radiation dose (volume-weighted computed tomography dose index) was measured and compared between the 2 groups. In the study group, comparison was made with conventional BMI-guided prior protocols (site protocols and Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography recommendations) through disagreement analysis. RESULTS: The APS-AEC cases received 29.8% lower overall radiation dose compared with controls (P=not significant). APS-AEC resulted in a significantly higher signal-to-noise ratio of the proximal coronary arteries (P<0.01) and contrast-to-noise ratio of the left main (P=0.01). In the study cases, the APS resulted in a change in tube potential versus site protocols and Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography recommendations in 45% (n=17) and 50% (n=19) of patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: Automated tube potential selection software resulted in significantly improved objective image quality versus standard BMI-based methods of tube potential selection, without increased radiation doses.

Ghoshhajra BB; Engel LC; Károlyi M; Sidhu MS; Wai B; Barreto M; Shanmugam U; Hoffmann U; Brady TJ; Kalra M; Abbara S

2013-01-01

73

Phenological attributes of Angelica glauca and A. archangelica expressed at two different climatic zones in Western Himalaya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Angelica glauca Edgew. and A. archangelica Linn., are high value medicinal and aromatic plants of the Himalaya. The present study examined phenological attributes of these species under cultivation at two different climatic zones in Western Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India. Plants of both species were cultivated in Tungnath (TN), an alpine zone (3600 m asl) and in Pothivasa (PV), a temperate zone (2200 m asl). The results showed that the commencement and completion periods of phenophases, viz., growth initiation, vegetative phase, flowering, fruiting and senescence in both species varied greatly between the climatic zones. However, this variation was negligible between the species. It indicates that there is a need to develop location specific strategy for cultivation and management of the selected species. Further, the information will be highly helpful in determining appropriate time of cultivation practices, viz., seed sowing to harvesting of these species. Based on the corresponding life cycle of these species, it was also concluded that both the species can be cultivated in similar climatic conditions. Overall, the study will help in understanding adaptation features and planning strategies for successful cultivation and effective conservation management of these species.

Rajiv K. Vashistha; Jitendra S. Butola; B.P. Nautiyal; M.C. Nautiyal

2010-01-01

74

In Vitro and Ex Vivo Selection Procedures for Identifying Potentially Therapeutic DNA and RNA Molecules  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It was only relatively recently discovered that nucleic acids participate in a variety of biological functions, besides the storage and transmission of genetic information. Quite apart from the nucleotide sequence, it is now clear that the structure of a nucleic acid plays an essential role in its functionality, enabling catalysis and specific binding reactions. In vitro selection and evolution strategies have been extremely useful in the analysis of functional RNA and DNA molecules, helping to expand our knowledge of their functional repertoire and to identify and optimize DNA and RNA molecules with potential therapeutic and diagnostic applications. The great progress made in this field has prompted the development of ex vivo methods for selecting functional nucleic acids in the cellular environment. This review summarizes the most important and most recent applications of in vitro and ex vivo selection strategies aimed at exploring the therapeutic potential of nucleic acids.

Soledad Marton; José A. Reyes-Darias; Francisco J. Sánchez-Luque; Cristina Romero-López; Alfredo Berzal-Herranz

2010-01-01

75

In vitro and ex vivo selection procedures for identifying potentially therapeutic DNA and RNA molecules.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It was only relatively recently discovered that nucleic acids participate in a variety of biological functions, besides the storage and transmission of genetic information. Quite apart from the nucleotide sequence, it is now clear that the structure of a nucleic acid plays an essential role in its functionality, enabling catalysis and specific binding reactions. In vitro selection and evolution strategies have been extremely useful in the analysis of functional RNA and DNA molecules, helping to expand our knowledge of their functional repertoire and to identify and optimize DNA and RNA molecules with potential therapeutic and diagnostic applications. The great progress made in this field has prompted the development of ex vivo methods for selecting functional nucleic acids in the cellular environment. This review summarizes the most important and most recent applications of in vitro and ex vivo selection strategies aimed at exploring the therapeutic potential of nucleic acids.

Marton S; Reyes-Darias JA; Sánchez-Luque FJ; Romero-López C; Berzal-Herranz A

2010-07-01

76

[Effects of maximal possible potential selection in the world population. New data on selection structure in the CIS nations].  

Science.gov (United States)

New information on maximal possible potential selection and its component values in some ethno-territorial groups in CIS was presented. The heterogeneity observed in the Crow's index and its components can be explained as a result of the differences in the social economic status of the groups studied and the influence of climate geographical factors. The data gathered during the biodemographical study of 67 populations allowed to detect regularities of the effects of selective factors in world population: non-random and discrete nature of considered populations distribution in the coordinate space of selection components associated with differential mortality (I) and differential fertility (I) was shown. Differentiation of three big aggregations of populations was shown: urbanized contemporary communities with low I values; small endogamous populations, mostly of hunters and gatherers; small towns' populations and rural populations with balanced reproductive indices. Microevolutionary changes take place in the latter conglomerate even now, statistically subdividing it into two clusters. A proposition was made about the existence of "ecological optimum" for populations intermediate between advanced industrial communities and communities of hunters and gatherers, corresponding to the population size and the nature and rate of population reproduction. PMID:8188037

Spitsyn, V A; Agapova, R K; Spitsyna, N Kh

1994-01-01

77

Environmental change and challenge in the Himalaya. A historical perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This overview, or retrospective, has two objectives. The first is to demonstrate how the principles of ‘mountain geoecology’ were applied in an attempt to counteract the political and socio-economic impacts of a major and misguided environmental orthodoxy-the Theory of Himalayan Environmental Degradation (henceforth to be referred to as the ‘Theory’). The second is to explore the difficulties of transferring the results of on-going scholarly mountain research into the public and political decision-making process. In this sense the paper should be regarded as a case study of the potentially serious effects of exaggerated and emotionally based responses to orthodoxies founded on assumptions and latter-day myths. A third objective, reserved for the companion paper in this issue, outlines the origins of mountain geoecology and explores how academic research influenced the inclusion of high level concern for mountain problems within AGENDA 21, one of the principal results of the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development (popularly known as the Rio Earth Summit) and declaration of 2002 as the International Year of Mountains. The original environmental orthodoxy (the Theory) has been eclipsed since the turn of the Millennium by a new populist alarm proposing that the current climate warming will cause all the Himalayan glaciers to disappear in the near future. From this it would follow that, as the glacier melt progresses, numerous large glacial lakes, forming as a consequence, would burst and the ensuing floods would annihilate many millions of people. Eventually, as the glaciers disappeared vital rivers, such as the Ganges and Brahmaputra, would wither to seasonal streams heralding further massive loss of life due to desertification and starvation. This current environmental alarm could be regarded as a present day parallel to the original Theory and will be examined in the final section of the paper. Between 1970 and about 1985 it was almost universal wisdom amongst scholars and development specialists, as well as conservationists, that the Himalaya were on the brink of environmental, and hence socio-economic and political collapse. This theme of gloom and doom was taken up avidly by journalists, politicians, and diplomats; it influenced the expenditure of large sums of aid and development money, and augmented periodic international confrontations. In concise terms, in the early 1970s an assumed approaching environmental disaster was perceived to be driven by relentless growth in the population of subsistence hill communities and their dependence on mountain forests for fuel, fodder, building materials, and conversion to agricultural land. The assumption of rapid and catastrophic deforestation of steep hillslopes under a monsoon climate (the World Bank predicted that there would be no accessible forest remaining in Nepal by the year 2000) led inexorably to a series of dependent assumptions: increasing soil erosion and worsening landslide incidence; accelerated flooding and siltation on the plains of Gangetic India and Bangladesh; social and political unrest, if not serious armed conflict – the notion of a world super-crisis, considering that the region in question contained about ten percent of the world’s entire human population and about thirty percent of its poorest. As will be emphasized later, none of this all-embracing construct was based on reliable evidence, but it was accepted world-wide as a given. It represents a prime example of the dangers associated with convenient adoption of environmental myths, or environmental orthodoxies, especially where the myth is a Western ‘scientific’ construct. I characterized it as The Theory of Himalayan Environmental Degradation (Ives, 1985).Esta perspectiva global, o retrospectiva, tiene dos objetivos. El primero es demostrar cómo se aplicaron los principios de la “geoecología de montaña” en un intento por contrarrestar los impactos políticos y socioeconómicos de una errónea ortodoxia ambiental, la Teoría de la

Ives, Jack D.

2012-01-01

78

Bateman in nature: predation on offspring reduces the potential for sexual selection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sexual selection is driven by competition for mates, and the advantage of a competitor is determined by the number of offspring it produces. Early experiments by Angus Bateman characterized this interaction, and the quantitative relationship between a male's number of mates and number of offspring is known as the Bateman slope. Sexual dimorphism, one of the most obvious results of sexual selection, largely requires a positive Bateman relationship, and the slope provides an estimate of the potential for sexual selection. However, natural selection from the environment can also influence male success, as can random effects, and some have argued for inclusion of the latter in calculations of mate success. Data from pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) reveal the presence of a positive Bateman slope in each year of a 10-year study. We found no evidence that random effects skewed male mating success; however, substantial yearly variation in the Bateman slope due to predation on fawns was evident. These results support the validity of the Bateman relationship, yet they also demonstrate that environmental or extrinsic influences can limit the potential for sexual selection.

Byers J; Dunn S

2012-11-01

79

Potential-energy surfaces of local excited states from subsystem- and selective Kohn–Sham-TDDFT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Research highlights: ? Application of selective TDDFT for potential-energy surfaces. ? Improved eigenvector guesses for convergence speed-up. ? Intuitive single-orbital transition picture breaks down in adsorbate–surface model. ? Comparison of frozen-density embedding with classical point-charge models. ? Frozen-density embedding yields smooth potential-energy surfaces for adsorbate states. - Abstract: Calculating excited-state potential-energy surfaces for systems with a large number of close-lying excited states requires the identification of the relevant electronic transitions for several geometric structures. Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is very efficient in such calculations, but the assignment of local excited states of the active molecule can be difficult. We compare the results of the frozen-density embedding (FDE) method with those of standard Kohn–Sham density-functional theory (KS-DFT) and simpler QM/MM-type methods. The FDE results are found to be more accurate for the geometry dependence of excitation energies than classical models. We also discuss how selective iterative diagonalization schemes can be exploited to directly target specific excitations for different structures. Problems due to strongly interacting orbital transitions and possible solutions are discussed. Finally, we apply FDE and the selective KS-TDDFT to investigate the potential energy surface of a high-lying ? ? ?? excitation in a pyridine molecule approaching a silver cluster.

2011-11-24

80

Selection of measures for a potential with two maxima at the zero temperature limit  

CERN Document Server

For the subshift of finite type $\\S=\\{0,1,2\\}^{\\N}$ we study the convergence at temperature zero of the Gibbs measure associated to a non-locally constant H\\"older potential which admits only two maximizing measures. These measures are Dirac measures at two different fixed points. The potential is flattest at one of these two fixed points. The question we are interested is: which of these probabilities the invariant Gibbs state will select when temperature goes to zero? We prove that on the one hand the Gibbs measure converges, and at the other hand it does not necessarily converge to the measures where the potential is the flattest. We consider a family of potentials of the above form; for some of them there is the selection of a convex combination of the two Dirac measures, and for others there is a selection of the Dirac measure associated to the flattest point. In the first case this is contrary to what was expected if we consider the analogous problem in Aubry-Mather theory by N. Anantharaman, R. Iturria...

Baraviera, Alexandre T; Lopes, Artur O

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Crustal thickness and Poisson's ratio variations across the northwest Himalaya and eastern Ladakh  

Science.gov (United States)

Crustal thickness and Poisson's ratios are estimated across the northwest (NW) Himalaya and eastern Ladakh applying H-k stacking method on receiver functions of teleseismic earthquakes recorded at 16 broadband seismological stations. The results show significant lateral variation of crustal thickness from the Lesser and Higher Himalaya (˜50 km thick) to Ladakh (˜80 km thick) through the Indus Tsangpo Suture Zone (ITSZ). The Indian Moho is continuously traceable across the ITSZ which is consistent with the underthrusting of the Indian plate beyond the surface collision boundary. The estimated Poisson's ratios in the Lesser and Higher Himalaya are low (0.249-0.253), suggesting felsic composition of the crust. The Poisson's ratio is intermediate in the Tethyan Himalaya (0.269-0.273) and high beneath Ladakh (0.280-0.303), indicating the effect of aqueous fluid/partial melt present in the crust.

Hazarika, Devajit; Kumar, Naresh; Yadav, Dilip Kumar

2013-08-01

82

Quantifying evolutionary potential of marine fish larvae: heritability, selection, and evolutionary constraints.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

For many marine fish, intense larval mortality may provide considerable opportunity for selection, yet much less is known about the evolutionary potential of larval traits. We combined field demographic studies and manipulative experiments to estimate quantitative genetic parameters for both larval size and swimming performance for a natural population of a common coral-reef fish, the bicolor damselfish (Stegastes partitus). We also examined selection on larval size by synthesizing information from published estimates of selective mortality. We introduce a method that uses the Lande-Arnold framework for examining selection on quantitative traits to empirically reconstruct adaptive landscapes. This method allows the relationship between phenotypic value and fitness components to be described across a broad range of trait values. Our results suggested that despite strong viability selection for large larvae and moderate heritability (h(2) = 0.29), evolutionary responses of larvae would likely be balanced by reproductive selection favoring mothers that produce more, smaller offspring. Although long-term evolutionary responses of larval traits may be constrained by size-number trade-offs, our results suggest that phenotypic variation in larval size may be an ecologically important source of variability in population dynamics through effects on larval survival and recruitment to benthic populations.

Johnson DW; Christie MR; Moye J

2010-09-01

83

Quantifying evolutionary potential of marine fish larvae: heritability, selection, and evolutionary constraints.  

Science.gov (United States)

For many marine fish, intense larval mortality may provide considerable opportunity for selection, yet much less is known about the evolutionary potential of larval traits. We combined field demographic studies and manipulative experiments to estimate quantitative genetic parameters for both larval size and swimming performance for a natural population of a common coral-reef fish, the bicolor damselfish (Stegastes partitus). We also examined selection on larval size by synthesizing information from published estimates of selective mortality. We introduce a method that uses the Lande-Arnold framework for examining selection on quantitative traits to empirically reconstruct adaptive landscapes. This method allows the relationship between phenotypic value and fitness components to be described across a broad range of trait values. Our results suggested that despite strong viability selection for large larvae and moderate heritability (h(2) = 0.29), evolutionary responses of larvae would likely be balanced by reproductive selection favoring mothers that produce more, smaller offspring. Although long-term evolutionary responses of larval traits may be constrained by size-number trade-offs, our results suggest that phenotypic variation in larval size may be an ecologically important source of variability in population dynamics through effects on larval survival and recruitment to benthic populations. PMID:20455930

Johnson, Darren W; Christie, Mark R; Moye, Jessica

2010-09-01

84

The genus Chaerilus Simon, 1877 (Scorpiones, Chaerilidae) in the Himalayas and description of a new species  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new species is described belonging to the genus Chaerilus Simon, 1877. Chaerilus annapurna sp. n. was discovered in the high plateaux of the Himalayas in Central-Western Nepal. For comparative purposes a precise re-diagnosis is proposed for Chaerilus truncatus Karsch, 1879, originally described from an imprecise locality in Himalaya. This species has recently been discussed by several authors: nevertheless, it has sometimes been the subject of misidentification.

Wilson Lourenço; Bernard Duhem

2010-01-01

85

Diagnostic potentialities of pneumomediastinography and selective phlebography in the evaluation of thymus evolution in myasthenia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Basing on an analysis of X-ray, intraoperative and histological findings in 124 operated on patients (thymectomy) with myasthenia the authors describe potentialities of pneumomediastinography (PMG) (pheumomediastinotomography-PMTG) in the determination of its main variants (hyperplasia, involUtion, tumor). Clear knowledge of the variants of x-ray image of the normal anatomical structures of the anterior mediastinum and age peculiarities of the thymus for correct interpretation of pneumomediastinograms is necessary. The importance of selective phlebography of the thymus for differential diagnosis of thymomas and nodular indurations of the fatty tissue in the anterior mediastinum, thymomas and fatty involution of the thymus, residual thymus and zones of fibrous-adipose tissue in the mediastinum is stressed. Selective phlebography is a simple and safe method that adds to PMG (PMTG) potentialities in the evaluation of thymus evolution in myasthenia

1983-01-01

86

Diagnostic potentialities of pneumomediastinography and selective phlebography in the evaluation of thymus evolution in myasthenia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on an analysis of X-ray, intraoperative and histological findings in 124 operated on patients (thymectomy) with myasthenia the authors describe potentialities of pneumomediastinography (PMG) (pheumomediastinotomography-PMTG) in the determination of its main variants (hyperplasia, involution, tumor). Clear knowledge of the variants of x-ray image of the normal anatomical structures of the anterior mediastinum and age peculiarities of the thymus for correct interpretation of pneumomediastinograms is necessary. The importance of selective phlebography of the thymus for differential diagnosis of thymomas and nodular indurations of the fatty tissue in the anterior mediastinum, thymomas and fatty involution of the thymus, residual thymus and zones of fibrous-adipose tissue in the mediastinum is stressed. Selective phlebography is a simple and safe method that adds to PMG (PMTG) potentialities in the evaluation of thymus evolution in myasthenia.

Vasil' ev, V.N.; Bel' chikova, N.S.; Kuksinskij, V.E. (Leningradskij Inst. Usovershenstvovaniya Vrachej (USSR))

1983-01-01

87

Potential assessment of genome-wide association study and genomic selection in Japanese pear Pyrus pyrifolia  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the potential of marker-assisted selection (MAS) in fruit tree breeding has been reported, bi-parental QTL mapping before MAS has hindered the introduction of MAS to fruit tree breeding programs. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are an alternative to bi-parental QTL mapping in long-lived perennials. Selection based on genomic predictions of breeding values (genomic selection: GS) is another alternative for MAS. This study examined the potential of GWAS and GS in pear breeding with 76 Japanese pear cultivars to detect significant associations of 162 markers with nine agronomic traits. We applied multilocus Bayesian models accounting for ordinal categorical phenotypes for GWAS and GS model training. Significant associations were detected at harvest time, black spot resistance and the number of spurs and two of the associations were closely linked to known loci. Genome-wide predictions for GS were accurate at the highest level (0.75) in harvest time, at medium levels (0.38–0.61) in resistance to black spot, firmness of flesh, fruit shape in longitudinal section, fruit size, acid content and number of spurs and at low levels (<0.2) in all soluble solid content and vigor of tree. Results suggest the potential of GWAS and GS for use in future breeding programs in Japanese pear.

Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Hayashi, Takeshi; Terakami, Shingo; Takada, Norio; Sawamura, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Toshiya

2013-01-01

88

The Himalayas: barrier and conduit for gene flow.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Himalayan mountain range is strategically located at the crossroads of the major cultural centers in Asia, the Middle East and Europe. Although previous Y-chromosome studies indicate that the Himalayas served as a natural barrier for gene flow from the south to the Tibetan plateau, this region is believed to have played an important role as a corridor for human migrations between East and West Eurasia along the ancient Silk Road. To evaluate the effects of the Himalayan mountain range in shaping the maternal lineages of populations residing on either side of the cordillera, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA variation in 344 samples from three Nepalese collections (Newar, Kathmandu and Tamang) and a general population of Tibet. Our results revealed a predominantly East Asian-specific component in Tibet and Tamang, whereas Newar and Kathmandu are both characterized by a combination of East and South Central Asian lineages. Interestingly, Newar and Kathmandu harbor several deep-rooted Indian lineages, including M2, R5, and U2, whose coalescent times from this study (U2, >40 kya) and previous reports (M2 and R5, >50 kya) suggest that Nepal was inhabited during the initial peopling of South Central Asia. Comparisons with our previous Y-chromosome data indicate sex-biased migrations in Tamang and a founder effect and/or genetic drift in Tamang and Newar. Altogether, our results confirm that while the Himalayas acted as a geographic barrier for human movement from the Indian subcontinent to the Tibetan highland, it also served as a conduit for gene flow between Central and East Asia. PMID:23580401

Gayden, Tenzin; Perez, Annabel; Persad, Patrice J; Bukhari, Areej; Chennakrishnaiah, Shilpa; Simms, Tanya; Maloney, Trisha; Rodriguez, Kristina; Herrera, Rene J

2013-04-12

89

Selective activation of the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor achieved by allosteric potentiation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The forebrain cholinergic system promotes higher brain function in part by signaling through the M(1) muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR). During Alzheimer's disease (AD), these cholinergic neurons degenerate, therefore selectively activating M(1) receptors could improve cognitive function in these patients while avoiding unwanted peripheral responses associated with non-selective muscarinic agonists. We describe here benzyl quinolone carboxylic acid (BQCA), a highly selective allosteric potentiator of the M(1) mAChR. BQCA reduces the concentration of ACh required to activate M(1) up to 129-fold with an inflection point value of 845 nM. No potentiation, agonism, or antagonism activity on other mAChRs is observed up to 100 microM. Furthermore studies in M(1)(-/-) mice demonstrates that BQCA requires M(1) to promote inositol phosphate turnover in primary neurons and to increase c-fos and arc RNA expression and ERK phosphorylation in the brain. Radioligand-binding assays, molecular modeling, and site-directed mutagenesis experiments indicate that BQCA acts at an allosteric site involving residues Y179 and W400. BQCA reverses scopolamine-induced memory deficits in contextual fear conditioning, increases blood flow to the cerebral cortex, and increases wakefulness while reducing delta sleep. In contrast to M(1) allosteric agonists, which do not improve memory in scopolamine-challenged mice in contextual fear conditioning, BQCA induces beta-arrestin recruitment to M(1), suggesting a role for this signal transduction mechanism in the cholinergic modulation of memory. In summary, BQCA exploits an allosteric potentiation mechanism to provide selectivity for the M(1) receptor and represents a promising therapeutic strategy for cognitive disorders. PMID:19717450

Ma, Lei; Seager, Matthew A; Seager, Matthew; Wittmann, Marion; Jacobson, Marlene; Bickel, Denise; Burno, Maryann; Jones, Keith; Graufelds, Valerie Kuzmick; Xu, Guangping; Pearson, Michelle; McCampbell, Alexander; Gaspar, Renee; Shughrue, Paul; Danziger, Andrew; Regan, Christopher; Flick, Rose; Pascarella, Danette; Garson, Susan; Doran, Scott; Kreatsoulas, Constantine; Veng, Lone; Lindsley, Craig W; Shipe, William; Kuduk, Scott; Sur, Cyrille; Kinney, Gene; Seabrook, Guy R; Ray, William J

2009-08-26

90

Screening, evaluation and selection ofphosphate-solubilising fungi as potential biofertiliser  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phosphate-solubilising saprophytic fungi have a potential application in plant nutrition; therefore, the aim of this study was 1) to perform a screening and isolation of native phosphofungi from volcanic soils of southern Chile, 2) to select a liquid medium for the evaluation of these phosphofungi and 3) to test a selected phospho fungus as a biofertiliser in a volcanic soil. The phosphofungi were screened using Martin medium (rose bengal-streptomycin agar) with calcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2) or calcium phytate as the phosphorus source. Six promising strains (Penicillium sp., Penicillium albidum, Penicillium thomii, Penicillium restrictum, Penicillium frequentans and Gliocladium roseum) were evaluated in the liquid media of Agnihotri, Asea-Wakelin, Pikovskaya and Nahas. The soluble phosphorus, acid phosphatase activity, pH and fungal biomass were determined. In most soils, the greatest proportion of phosphofungi solubilised organic P. The Asea-Wakelin medium appears to be the medium of choice for the quantitative evaluation of phosphofungi isolated from the volcanic soils tested. Penicillium albidum was selected as a potential biofertiliser due to its capacity to solubilise both inorganic and organic P via its specific solubilising activity (64 mg P/g fungus), phosphatase secretion and enhancement of the growth and mineral nutrition of lettuce plants growing in a volcanic soil.

A Morales; M Alvear; E Valenzuela; C.E Castillo; F Borie

2011-01-01

91

Screening, evaluation and selection ofphosphate-solubilising fungi as potential biofertiliser  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Phosphate-solubilising saprophytic fungi have a potential application in plant nutrition; therefore, the aim of this study was 1) to perform a screening and isolation of native phosphofungi from volcanic soils of southern Chile, 2) to select a liquid medium for the evaluation of these phosphofungi and 3) to test a selected phospho fungus as a biofertiliser in a volcanic soil. The phosphofungi were screened using Martin medium (rose bengal-streptomycin agar) with calcium p (more) hosphate (Ca3(PO4)2) or calcium phytate as the phosphorus source. Six promising strains (Penicillium sp., Penicillium albidum, Penicillium thomii, Penicillium restrictum, Penicillium frequentans and Gliocladium roseum) were evaluated in the liquid media of Agnihotri, Asea-Wakelin, Pikovskaya and Nahas. The soluble phosphorus, acid phosphatase activity, pH and fungal biomass were determined. In most soils, the greatest proportion of phosphofungi solubilised organic P. The Asea-Wakelin medium appears to be the medium of choice for the quantitative evaluation of phosphofungi isolated from the volcanic soils tested. Penicillium albidum was selected as a potential biofertiliser due to its capacity to solubilise both inorganic and organic P via its specific solubilising activity (64 mg P/g fungus), phosphatase secretion and enhancement of the growth and mineral nutrition of lettuce plants growing in a volcanic soil.

Morales, A; Alvear, M; Valenzuela, E; Castillo, C.E; Borie, F

2011-01-01

92

Ecology, economics, and equity of the pastoral systems in the Khangchendzonga National Park, Sikkim Himalaya, India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Khangchendzonga National Park is a part of the eastern Himalaya global biodiversity hotspot and is located in the Sikkim state of India. Increasing livestock populations coupled with the government policy to ban grazing and its selective implementation resulted in conflict. Hence we undertook this multidisciplinary study involving consultations with traditional resource users, field surveys, and remote sensing. We found that in the greater Himalayan part, over the past 6 decades sheep have been increasingly replaced by yaks (and their crossbreeds), who descend only up to the multilayered temperate and subalpine forests during winter. These forests have been extensively manipulated by the yak herders to increase the fodder availability. In terms of economics and equity in benefit sharing, we found that a few yak herders earn high incomes by maintaining large herds while the sheep and pack animal herders earn subsistence level incomes from small herds. We propose a reduction in yak (and their female crossbreed) numbers with adequate alternative livelihood support for the herders.

Tambe S; Rawat GS

2009-03-01

93

Cytology of five species of subfamily Papaveroideae from the Western Himalayas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During the present course, population-based meiotic studies were carried out on five species of subfamily Papaveroideae from selected localities of Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh in the Western Himalayas (India). Varied intraspecific chromosome counts were reported for the first time in Argemone mexicana and Meconopsis latifolia, both existing on 2n = 2x = 14. The x = 7, confirmed for the first time from the newly found diploid cytotype, is suggested to be the primary chromosomal basic number for the Meconopsis. Furthermore, meiotic course was noted to be normal in Argemone ochroleuca, it varied from normal to abnormal in the populations of A. mexicana and Papaver dubium whereas it was invariably found to be abnormal in all the populations of Meconopsis aculeata and M. latifolia. These anomalous taxa were marked with meiotic abnormalities in the form of cytomixis, chromosomal stickiness, unoriented bivalents, formation of laggards and bridges resulting in abnormal microsporogenesis, and production of heterogeneous-sized fertile pollen grains along with reduced pollen fertility.

Kumar S; Jeelani SM; Rani S; Gupta RC; Kumari S

2013-02-01

94

Magnetostratigraphy of the Neogene Siwalik Group of far eastern Himalaya, Kameng section, Arunashal Pradesh, India  

Science.gov (United States)

Foreland basins act as receptacles for synorogenic sediments and store materials eroded off a convergent mountain belt (DeCelles and Giles, 1996, DeCelles and Giles, 1996). Their infill records tectonic, climatic and erosional processes that govern the development of the mountain belt and the foreland basin. Consequently, studying the infill of foreland basins can give clues as to the reconstruction of the orogen tectonic growth and the interaction with global or regional climate (e.g. Molnar & England, 1990). The Himalaya, the highest range in the world, is used as a natural laboratory to test the interactions between these processes, in particular because of the effect of the Tibetan Plateau uplift on the intensity and variability of the Asian monsoon (Kutzbach et al., 1993; Fluteau et al., 1999). Exhumation, erosion and climate events affecting the Himalaya are recorded in the Neogene Siwalik foreland basin deposits (e.g. DeCelles et al., 1998, 2000; Galy et al., 1999; Huyghe et al., 2001, 2005; Najman, 2005). Dating these deposits is a key element to reconstruct the Himalaya's evolution. Despite a wealth of studies in the central and western Himalayan foreland, very few studies have been carried out in the eastern part (Yin et al., 2006, Cina et al 2009). Understanding the evolution of this eastern part is essential for reconstructing the regional migration of the Himalayan deformation. In addition, the eastern Himalayan foreland potentially records the evolution of processes associated to the eastern syntaxis drainage networks (Singh and France-Lanord, 2002) and the Shillong plateau uplift (Grujic et al., 2006). Therefore, accurate dating of the sediments of the Eastern part of the Siwalik foreland basin using magnetostratigraphy is a crucial initial step for further investigations such as sedimentological and structural field studies, fission tracks, provenance and isotopic stable laboratory analysis. These investigations aim at constraining the exhumation and climate of this part of the chain. The purpose of this communication is to report new paleomagnetic results from the Siwalik Group in the remote far eastern district of Arunachal Pradesh, where no previous studies have been conducted. We performed a magnetostratigraphic study along the Kameng river section where a thick series of Siwalik sediments is well exposed and accessible. On the section we studied, several magnetostratigraphic correlations are possible but results show that the age of the deposits ranges between 18 My and 3 My. The main facies transitions occur at the same time as those of the central part of the range (Ojha et al 2008, Gautam et al 2000). Analysing the paleostreams of the oldest part of the section reveals that the transport direction of sediments was North-East South-West. Their origin is thus very likely the Himalayan syntaxis. Thermochronological analyses, which are currently in progress, will enable us to choose between the various possible correlations, and the isotopic analysis will help us to determine the exact provenance of the sediments.

Chirouze, Francois; Huyghe, Pascale; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume

2010-05-01

95

Sophisticated design of PVC membrane ion-selective electrodes based on the mixed potential theory.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The mixed potential (MP) theory was successfully utilized to design an ionophore-based polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane K(+) ion-selective electrode (ISE). Prior to the application of the MP theory, the transfer of K(+) and interfering ions (Na(+), Li(+), and H(+)) facilitated by bis(benzo-15-crown-5) (BB15C5) or dibenzo-18-crown-6 (DB18C6) at a micro PVC membrane/water interface was studied by ion-transfer voltammetry (ITV). The reversible half-wave potentials were then obtained for the facilitated transfer of the ions. Using such voltammetric data and the literature data about diffusion coefficients of ions, we could well-predict the potential responses of the BB15C5- or DB18C6-based K(+) ISE, as the function of the concentrations of primary and interfering ions, and also of the counterion for K(+) [e.g., tetrakis(4-chlorophenyl)borate] added to the membrane. Thus, the MP theory has been proven to be useful to optimize the membrane composition for a higher ion selectivity and a lower detection limit. It has also been found that the leaching of ions from an inner solution is too small to affect the detection limit, at least for the designed PVC membrane ISE.

Imoto M; Sakaki T; Osakai T

2013-05-01

96

Active prey selection in two pelagic copepods feeding on potentially toxic and non-toxic dinoflagellates  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Grazing on two red tide dinoflagellates, the potentially toxic Karenia mikimotoi and the non-toxic Gyrodinium instriatum, was examined in two species of marine copepods, Pseudocalanus elongatus and Temora longicornis. Both copepods cleared K. mikimotoi at rates that were a little lower but comparable to those at which they cleared the slightly larger G. instriatum when the two dinoflagellates were offered separately. However, when feeding on mixtures of the two prey species, the clearance rates on K. mikimotoi were substantially reduced in both copepods while their clearances of G. instiatum remained unaltered, suggesting active prey selection. Video observations of individual prey capture and feeding events showed prey rejection frequencies (caught and then released cells) that did not differ between mixed and mono-specific diets. This suggests that the selection between prey cells occurs prior to capture and that it is based on remote characterization of the cells.

Schultz, Mette; KiØrboe, Thomas

2009-01-01

97

Therapeutic potential of isoform selective HDAC inhibitors for the treatment of schizophrenia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Increasing evidence supports a role for epigenetic involvement in some of the neurobiological alterations observed in neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. In particular, there is mounting evidence implicating dysfunction in acetylation status, a chromatin modification mediated in part by HDACs, as a possible contributing factor to certain facets of this debilitating disease. Additional data support the notion that small molecule inhibition of HDACs may provide therapeutic alternatives to treating many of the symptoms associated with schizophrenia, particularly cognitive deficits. However, the development of highly potent and selective inhibitors of the individual HDAC isoforms will be necessary to delineate the associated biological effects and test the feasibility of such an approach for this complex and chronically treated disease. Here, we summarize current evidence for the role of HDAC isoforms in schizophrenia and highlight the state of the art in developing selective inhibitors of these isoforms as a potential treatment for schizophrenia.

Weïwer M; Lewis MC; Wagner FF; Holson EB

2013-09-01

98

Somatosensory event-related potentials and selective attention impairment in young chronic schizophrenics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Somatosensory event-related potentials (SERP) were recorded in 30 chronic young schizophrenic patients and in 15 age-matched controls. Objective SERP parameters were latencies, amplitudes and the determination of areas of the cognitive components N1 and P3 by integration. Highly significantly reduced areas and prolonged latencies of the N1 component and significantly prolonged reaction times (RT) discriminate schizophrenics in psychopathological remitted state from controls. A significant correlation between decreased N1 areas and prolonged RTs (p less than 0.01), respectively high self-rating subscores 'disturbance of selective attention' (p less than 0.05) can be found only in the SERPs of the left hemisphere. Nevertheless, a reduced N1 area cannot be interpreted as an indicator of vulnerability for schizophrenia, but only for selective attention impairment.

Böning J; Drechsler F; Neuhauser B

1989-01-01

99

Characterization of Ornithine Decarboxylase, a Potential Selective Breeding Marker, from Small Abalone, Haliotis Diversicolor  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The enzyme ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is the first limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis and plays an important role in biological processes. Although recognized as a potential biomarker in vertebrates, it has not been well studied in aquatic animals. Identification of ODC is a prerequisite for its application as a selective breeding marker in small abalone, Haliotis diversicolor. In this article, we focused on the in vitro characterization of the ODC gene from small abalone. The expressed product showed decarboxylase activity for l-ornithine and was inhibited by DL-?-difluoromethylornithine hydrochloride hydrate. ODC was expressed in a wide range of tissues at varying levels, with the lowest in the hepatopancreas and the highest in the antennae. ODC is potentially useful as a molecular marker for small abalone breeding and can also facilitate further investigations on its biological functions in mollusks.

Li Weidong; You Weiwei; Chen Weiyu; Qin Ji; Huang Zhaobin; Ke Caihuan; Wang Yiquan

2010-10-01

100

Environmental impact assessment of mountain tourism in developing regions: A study in Ladakh, Indian Himalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mountain tourism in developing countries is becoming a growing environmental concern due to extreme seasonality, lack of suitable infrastructures and planning, and interference with fragile ecosystems and protected areas. This paper presents a study devoted to assess the adverse environmental impacts of tourism, and in particular of trekking-related activities, in Ladakh, Indian Himalaya. The proposed approach is based on the use of Geographical Information System (GIS) modeling and remote sensing imageries to cope with the lack of data that affect the region. First, stressors associated with trekking, and environmental receptors potentially affected were identified. Subsequently, a baseline study on stressors (trail use, waste dumping, camping, pack animal grazing and off-road driving) and receptors (soil, water, wildlife, vegetation) was conducted through field work, data collection, and data processing supported by GIS. Finally, impacts were modeled by considering the intensity of the stressors, and the vulnerability and the value of the receptors. The results were spatially aggregated into watershed units, and combined to generate composite impact maps. The study concluded that the most affected watersheds are located in the central and southeastern part of Ladakh, along some of the most visited trails and within the Hemis and the Tsokar Tsomoriri National parks. The main objective of the study was to understand patterns of tourism-induced environmental degradation, so as to support mitigation interventions, as well as the development of suitable tourism policies.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Selection of commercial hydrolytic enzymes with potential antifouling activity in marine environments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this work, the marine antifouling potential of some commercially available hydrolytic enzymes acting on the main constituents of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) involved in bacterial biofilm formation was determined. The selected protease (i.e., alpha-chymotrypsin from bovine pancreas), carbohydrase (i.e., alpha-amylase from porcine pancreas) and lipase (from porcine pancreas) exhibited remarkable hydrolytic activities towards target macromolecules typically composing EPS under a wide range of pHs (6.5-9.0 for alpha-chymotrysin and alpha-amylase; 7.0-8.5 for the lipase) and temperatures (from 10 °C to 30 °C), as well as relevant half-lives (from about 2 weeks to about 2 months), in a marine synthetic water. The activity displayed by each enzyme was poorly affected by the co-presence of the other enzymes, thus indicating their suitability to be employed in combination. None of the enzymes was able to inhibit the formation of biofilm by an actual site marine microbial community when applied singly. However, a mixture of the same enzymes reduced biofilm formation by about 90% without affecting planktonic growth of the same microbial community. This indicates that multiple hydrolytic activities are required to efficiently prevent biofilm formation by complex microbial communities, and that the mixture of enzymes selected in this study has the potential to be employed as an environmental friendly antifouling agent in marine antifouling coatings.

Zanaroli G; Negroni A; Calisti C; Ruzzi M; Fava F

2011-12-01

102

Depositional environment and provenance of Middle Siwalik sediments in Tista valley, Darjiling District, Eastern Himalaya, India  

Science.gov (United States)

The frontal part of the active, wedge-shaped Indo-Eurasian collision boundary is defined by the Himalayan fold-and-thrust belt whose foreland basin accumulated sediments that eventually became part of the thrust belt and is presently exposed as the sedimentary rocks of the Siwalik Group. The rocks of the Siwalik Group have been extensively studied in the western and Nepal Himalaya and have been divided into the Lower, Middle and Upper Subgroups. In the Darjiling-Sikkim Himalaya, the Upper Siwalik sequence is not exposed and the Middle Siwalik Subgroup exposed in the Tista river valley of Darjiling Himalaya preserves a ~325 m thick sequence of sandstone, conglomerate and shale. The Middle Siwalik section has been repeated by a number of north dipping thrusts. The sedimentary facies and facies associations within the lithostratigraphic column of the Middle Siwalik rocks show temporal repetition of sedimentary facies associations suggesting oscillation between proximal-, mid- and distal fan setups within a palaeo-alluvial fan depositional environment similar to the depositional setup of the Siwalik sediments in other parts of the Himalaya. These oscillations are probably due to a combination of foreland-ward movement of Himalayan thrusts, climatic variations and mountain-ward shift of fan-apex due to erosion. The Middle Siwalik sediments were derived from Higher- and Lesser Himalayan rocks. Mineral characteristics and modal analysis suggest that sedimentation occurred in humid climatic conditions similar to the moist humid climate of the present day Eastern Himalaya.

Kundu, Abhik; Matin, Abdul; Mukul, Malay

2012-02-01

103

Precipitation and snow cover in the Himalaya: from reanalysis to regional climate simulations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We applied a Regional Climate Model (RCM) to simulate precipitation and snow cover over the Himalaya, between March 2000 to December 2002. Due to its higher resolution, our model simulates a more realistic spatial variability of wind and precipitation than those of the reanalysis used as boundary conditions. In this region, we found very large discrepancies between the estimations of precipitation provided by reanalysis, rain gauges networks, satellite observations, and our RCM simulation. Our model clearly underestimates precipitation at the foothills of the Himalaya and in its Eastern part. However, our simulation brings an interesting estimation of liquid and solid precipitation in high altitude areas, where satellite and rain gauge networks are few reliable. We found our model to simulate quite accurately the snow cover extent and duration for the two years of simulation in these areas. Snow accumulation and snow duration differ widely along the Himalaya: snowfall can occur during the whole year Western Himalaya, due to both summer monsoon and mid-latitude low pressure systems bringing moisture into this region. In Central Himalaya and on the Tibetan plateau, a much more marked dry season occurs from October to March. Snow cover does not have a well marked seasonal cycle in these regions, since it depends both on the quite variable duration of the monsoon and on the rare but possible occurrence of snowfall during the winter.

M. Ménégoz; H. Gallée; H. W. Jacobi

2013-01-01

104

Selection and evaluation of potential very low level wastes (VLLW) from nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The disposal of very low level radioactive waste (VLLW) generated at light water reactors presents a significant problem to the nuclear utility industry. The National Environmental Studies Project of the Atomic Industrial Forum has sponsored a study to develop and summarize information on VLLW to support deregulation of streams that pose a negligible hazard. This paper presents preliminary results of this study, describes the methodology used in selecting candidate streams for detailed analysis, and estimates radiation doses from disposal of these wastes. The study is divided into several sections which describe (1) the concept of regulatory cutoffs and its application to radioactive waste disposal, (2) the selection criteria for VLLW candidate streams, (3) the selection of candidate VLLW streams for study, (4) the potential disposal methods for VLLW, (5) limiting activities for various threshold dose levels, and (6) preliminary conclusions or recommendations available from the study. The results of the study described will be available as a technical document which can be used in support of a petition for exemption or rulemaking to NRC relating to a particular or generic waste stream.

1985-01-01

105

Integration of Classification Tree Analyses and Spatial Metrics to Assess Changes in Supraglacial Lakes in the Karakoram Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

Alpine glacier responses to climate chnage reveal increases in retreat with corresponding increases in production of glacier melt water and development of supraglacial lakes. The rate of occurrence and spatial extent of lakes in the Himalaya are difficult to determine because current spectral-based image analysis of glacier surfaces are limited through anisotropic reflectance and lack of high quality digital elevation models. Additionally, the limitations of multivariate classification algorithms to adequately segregate glacier features in satellite imagery have led to an increased interest in non-parametric methods, such as classification and regression trees. Our objectives are to demonstrate the utility of a semi-automated approach that integrates classification- tree-based image segmentation and object-oriented analysis to differentiate supraglacial lakes from glacier debris, ice cliffs, lateral and medial moraines. The classification-tree process involves a binary, recursive, partitioning non-parametric method that can account for non-linear relationships. We used 2002 and 2004 ASTER VNIR and SWIR imagery to assess the Baltoro Glacier in the Karakoram Himalaya. Other input variables include the normalized difference water index (NDWI), ratio images, Moran's I image, and fractal dimension. The classification tree was used to generate initial image segments and it was particularly effective in differentiating glacier features. The object-oriented analysis included the use of shape and spatial metrics to refine the classification-tree output. Classification-tree results show that NDWI is the most important single variable for characterizing the glacier-surface features, followed by NIR/IR ratio, IR band, and IR/Red ratio variables. Lake features extracted from both images show there were 142 lakes in 2002 as compared to 188 lakes in 2004. In general, there was a significant increase in planimetric area from 2002 to 2004, and we documented the formation of 46 new lakes. It appears that lake-size increments occur mostly in the lower part of the ablation zone, whereas most of the new lakes are formed in the upper part of the ablation zone. The classification-tree outputs are intuitive and the data-derived thresholds eliminate commonly subjective visual determination of threshold values. Semi-automated methods thus have the potential of eliminating laborious visual multi-temporal analysis of glacier-surface change, thereby producing consistent and replicable results needed to assess the trends of alpine-glacier response to climate change in the Himalaya.

Bulley, H. N.; Bishop, M. P.; Shroder, J. F.; Haritashya, U. K.

2007-12-01

106

Quantification of Glacier Changes Using Icesat Elevation Data and the Srtm Digital Elevation Model in the Western Karakoram Himalaya Region  

Science.gov (United States)

Although notable rates of glacier retreat have been monitored across the Eastern Himalaya region in recent years, glacier changes due to increases in global air temperature in the Western Karakoram Himalaya are not well documented. The objective of this study is to quantify ice mass changes of major glaciers in the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) of the Western Karakoram Himalaya using ICESat elevation data and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) C-band digital elevation model. ICESat GLA06 elevations data, release 28 over the glaciers in the UIB were examined for the period of 2004-2008. The SRTM 90-meter resolution was used as reference DEM for computing elevation changes since February, 2000. The difference in elevation at each ICESat footprint location was computed by subtracting the SRTM elevation data from the ICESat data. In order to estimate the glacier elevation changes in snow accumulation and ablation zones, the glaciated area was classified as either clean ice or debris-covered ice using Landsat ETM and TM data available for the period of 1990-2001. The elevation differences were then computed for all available ICESat data points in the accumulation and ablation zones at the scale of individual glaciers and sub-watersheds. The preliminary results for the Hunza watershed in the UIB showed that the mean difference for all years combined is +0.64 m/year in the accumulation zone, while +0.01 m/year in the ablation zone. The mean elevation difference from February, 2000 to March, 2008 for two major glaciers (i.e. Hispar and Batura glaciers) in the Hunza watershed showed a mean altitude gain in the ablation and accumulation zones of 0.1 m/year and 0.88 m/year, respectively for the Batura glacier, while a mean altitude loss of 0.91 m/year and mean altitude gain of 1.28 m/year were detected in the ablation and accumulation zones, respectively for the Hispar glacier. Such results show the potential of ICESat data for assessing relief changes on mountain glaciers and could be used in the estimation of glacier mass balance at higher temporal resolutions. Further work will focus on isolating changes in glacier altitude from seasonal snow cover differences through comparisons between ICESat data acquisitions in spring and fall campaigns.

Naz, B. S.; Bowling, L. C.; Crawford, M. M.

2008-12-01

107

Carbon allocation, sequestration and carbon dioxide mitigation under plantation forests of north western Himalaya, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The organic carbon and soils of the world comprise bulk of the terrestrial carbon and serve as a major sink and source of atmospheric carbon. Increasing atmospheric concentrations of green house gases may be mitigated by increasing carbon sequestration in vegetation and soil. The study attempted to estimate biomass production and carbon sequestration potential of different plantation ecosystems in north western Himalaya, India. Biomass, carbon density of biomass, soil, detritus, carbon sequestration and CO2 mitigation potential were studied under different plantation forest ecosystems comprising of eight different tree species: Quercus leucotrichophora, Pinus roxburghii, Acacia catechu, Acacia mollissima, Albizia procera, Alnusnitida, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Ulmus villosa. Above (185.57±48.99tha-1) and below ground (42.47±10.38 tha-1) biomass was maximum in Ulmus villosa. The vegetation carbon density was maxium in Albizia procera(118.37±1.49 tha-1) and minimum (36.50±9.87 tha-1) in Acacia catechu. Soil carbon density was maximum (219.86±10.34 tha-1) in Alnus nitida, and minimum (170.83±20.60 tha-1) in Pinus roxburghii. Detritus was higher in Pinus roxburghii (6.79±2.0 tha-1). Carbon sequestration (7.91±3.4 tha-1) and CO2 mitigation potential (29.09±12.78 tha-1) was maximum in Ulmus villosa. Pearson correlation matrix revealed significant positive relationship of ecosystem carbon with plantation biomass, soil carbon and CO2 mitigation potential. With the emerging threat of climate change, such assessment of forest and soil carbon inventory would allow to devise best land management and policy decisions for sustainable management of fragile hilly ecosystem.

Bandana Devi; D.R. Bhardwaj; Pankaj Panwar; Sharmistha Pal; N.K. Gupta; C.L.Thakur

2013-01-01

108

Screening of antioxidant potential of selected barks of Indian medicinal plants by multiple in vitro assays.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antioxidant potential in herbal extract barks of five therapeutically important medicinal plants native to India, i.e. Crataeva nurvala Buch.-Ham., Buchanania lanzan Spreng., Aegle marmelos Corr., Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. ex DC., and Cedrela toona Roxb. METHODS: Standardized aqueous alcoholic extracts from the selected barks having different target radicals, such as superoxide radical, nitric oxide, ABTS radical, and peroxidative decomposition of phospholipids, were prepared and screened by multiple in vitro assays. These extracts were also tested for total phenolic and tannin content and correlated with antioxidant capacity. RESULTS: Total phenolic and tannin contents were found to be the highest in C. nurvala (195 GAE mg/g and 218.3 mg/g CE). SOD mimetic activity was found to be the highest in Crataeva nurvula, although all barks showed activity more than 100 units/mg extract. Lipid peroxidation inhibitory potential was found to be the highest in Crataeva nurvala (83.4% inhibition of MDA formation/10 microg extract), and also showed a comparatively high NO quenching capacity (45.5% per 10 microg extract). The highest NO quenching potential was found in Aegle marmelos (47.3% per 10 microg extract). Cedrela toona showed the lowest LPO inhibitory potential and NO quenching capacity (50.5% and 30.5%, respectively). Buchanania lanzan, a medicinal plant extensively used for inflammatory disorders and Dalbergia sissoo also showed 72.5% and 69.1% LPO inhibitory potential/10 microg extract. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity ranged from 0.24 to 0.39 mmol/L TEAC/mg extract, indicating that all the barks tested had ABTS+ radical quenching capacity. CONCLUSION: Bark of Crataeva nurvula has the highest antioxidant capacity and a positive correlation between antioxidant activity and their plendic content was found.

Kumari A; Kakkar P

2008-02-01

109

Genetic parameters for predicted methane production and potential for reducing enteric emissions through genomic selection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mitigation of enteric methane (CH?) emission in ruminants has become an important area of research because accumulation of CH? is linked to global warming. Nutritional and microbial opportunities to reduce CH? emissions have been extensively researched, but little is known about using natural variation to breed animals with lower CH? yield. Measuring CH? emission rates directly from animals is difficult and hinders direct selection on reduced CH? emission. However, improvements can be made through selection on associated traits (e.g., residual feed intake, RFI) or through selection on CH? predicted from feed intake and diet composition. The objective was to establish phenotypic and genetic variation in predicted CH? output, and to determine the potential of genetics to reduce methane emissions in dairy cattle. Experimental data were used and records on daily feed intake, weekly body weights, and weekly milk production were available from 548 heifers. Residual feed intake (MJ/d) is the difference between net energy intake and calculated net energy requirements for maintenance as a function of body weight and for fat- and protein-corrected milk production. Predicted methane emission (PME; g/d) is 6% of gross energy intake (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change methodology) corrected for energy content of methane (55.65 kJ/g). The estimated heritabilities for PME and RFI were 0.35 and 0.40, respectively. The positive genetic correlation between RFI and PME indicated that cows with lower RFI have lower PME (estimates ranging from 0.18 to 0.84). Hence, it is possible to decrease the methane production of a cow by selecting more-efficient cows, and the genetic variation suggests that reductions in the order of 11 to 26% in 10 yr are theoretically possible, and could be even higher in a genomic selection program. However, several uncertainties are discussed; for example, the lack of true methane measurements (and the key assumption that methane produced per unit feed is not affected by RFI level), as well as the limitations of predicting the biological consequences of selection. To overcome these limitations, an international effort is required to bring together data on feed intake and methane emissions of dairy cows.

Haas Yd; Windig JJ; Calus MP; Dijkstra J; Haan Md; Bannink A; Veerkamp RF

2011-12-01

110

Monsoon variability in the Himalayas under the condition of global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] An ice core-drilling program was carried out at the accumulation area of Dasuopu glacier (28deg23'N, 85deg43'E, 7100 m a.s.l.) in the central Himalayas in 1997. The ice core was analyzed continuously for stable isotopes (?18O), and major ions throughout the core. Cycles indicated by ?18O, cations were identified and counted as seasonal fluctuations as annual increment from maximum to maximum values. Reconstructed 300-year annual net accumulation (water equivalent) from the core, with a good correlation to Indian monsoon, reflects a major precipitation trend in the central Himalayas. The accumulation trend, separated from the time series, shows a strong negative correlation to Northern Hemisphere temperature. Generally, as northern hemisphere temperature increases 0.1degC, the accumulation decreases about 80 mm, reflecting monsoon rainfall in the central Himalayas has decreased over the past decades in the condition of global warming. (author)

2003-01-01

111

Phytochemical diversity of Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. from Western Himalaya.  

Science.gov (United States)

Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. (Rutaceae), commonly known as 'curry leaf tree', is a popular spice and condiment of India. To explore the diversity of the essential-oil yield and aroma profile of curry leaf, growing wild in foot and mid hills of north India, 58 populations were collected during spring season. M. koenigii populations were found to grow up to an altitude of 1487?m in north India. Comparative results showed considerable variations in the essential-oil yield and composition. The essential-oil yield varied from 0.14 to 0.80% in shade-dried leaves of different populations of M. koenigii. Analysis of the essential oils by GC and GC/MS, and the subsequent classification by statistical analysis resulted in four clusters with significant variations in their terpenoid composition. Major components of the essential oils of investigated populations were ?-pinene (2; 4.5-71.5%), sabinene (3; nerolidol (14; 0.0-4.1%), ?-humulene (12; 0.6-3.5%), ?-thujene (1; 0.0-2.5%), ?-elemene (10; 0.2-2.4%), ?-selinene (13; 0.2-2.3%), and myrcene (5; 0.5-2.1%). Comparison of the present results with those in earlier reports revealed new chemotypes of M. koenigii in investigated populations from Western Himalaya. The present study documents M. koenigii populations having higher amounts of sabinene (3; up to 66.1%) for the first time. PMID:23576349

Verma, Ram S; Chauhan, Amit; Padalia, Rajendra C; Jat, Sanjeev K; Thul, Sanjog; Sundaresan, Velusamy

2013-04-01

112

Survey of radon and thoron in homes of Indian Himalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of radon, thoron and their progeny were carried out in some houses from Garhwal and Kumaun Himalayas of India using a LR-115 plastic track detector. The measurements were made in various residential houses of the area at a height of 2.5 m above the ground level using a twin chamber radon dosemeter, which can record the values of radon, thoron and their progeny separately. The concentrations of radon and thoron in these homes were found to vary from 11 to 191 and 1 to 156 Bq m-3, respectively. The equilibrium factor between radon and progeny varies from 0.02 to 0.90, with an average of 0.26 for the region. The resulting dose rate due to radon, thoron and their decay products was found to vary from 0.02 to 0.84 ?Sv h-1 with an arithmetic mean of 0.27 ?Sv h-1. A detailed analysis of the distribution of radon, thoron and their decay products inside a house is also reported. The observed dose rates due to radon, thoron and progeny were found somewhat higher but well below the international recommendations. (authors)

2011-01-01

113

Ethnobotanical uses of Biofencing Plants in Himachal Pradesh, Northwest Himalaya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to document the traditional knowledge on the utilization of Biofencing plants of Himachal Pradesh, Northwest Himalaya. The study was imperative because of dearth in the data pertaining to Biofencing plants in the study areas. The whole study area was stratified into three zones and a widespread field survey and random sampling method was adopted to assess the live fencing diversity of the region. The region occupies total 61 species. 10 (trees), 45 (shrubs), 4 (herbs) and 2 were climbers. These belong to the 25 families. Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Berberidaceae, Elaeagnaceae and Euphorbiaceae are dominant families. Among genera, Berberis and Rosa are dominant. Of the total, 55 species are medicinally important and among these 20% are used for stomach disorders; 17% (skin complaints), 14% (asthma), 11% (fever and joint pains), 3% (aphrodisiac and snake bite), 1% (anticancerous and nerve disorders). Ethnobotanical assessment showed that 33 of the recorded species are used as fuel, 20 (edible), 8 (fodder) and 4 (fiber and ornamental). This traditional knowledge of Biofencing plants contributes to the conservation of biodiversity and provides resource of economic and ecological interest and also decreasing the pressure on forests. So there is need to encourage the practice of using plant species for fencing in this region.

Pankaj Sharma; Usha Devi

2013-01-01

114

Deep structure over the eastern syntaxis of the Himalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows. Magnetotelluric surveys were conducted over two profiles for mapping the major tectonic features over the eastern syntaxial bend. These studies over the main frontal thrust and Main boundary thrust of the Himalaya and the Mishmi thrust in the Indo Burman range have shown that the signatures of these thrusts at deeper level are not coincident with their corresponding surface expressions. Thus main frontal and the main boundary thrusts are traced about 20 km south of the surface manifestations where as the Mishmi thrust at deeper levels is about 25 km west of the location observed on the surface. The global positioning studies (Gan, W, et al. (2007) J. Geophys. Res. Article No: B08416) are indicative of eastward (transverse to the strike) movements of the sedimentary overburden north of the main frontal thrust, in this region. Another conspicuous feature is the south dipping thrust / reverse fault delineated to the north of the Main frontal thrust earlier observed in the Tawang-Bomdilla region (Gokarn et al, 2008, 19th EM induction workshop, Beijing China). Its signatures at shallow depth in this region are however obscured by the presence of then supracrustal deposits of the Abhor volcanics and Yinkiang formations occurring in small discrete patches in the close vicinity of this feature.

2009-01-01

115

Transverse tectonics in the Sikkim Himalaya: A magnetotelluric study  

Science.gov (United States)

The tectonics of seismically active Sikkim Himalaya, as inferred by numerous seismological studies, is distinct from the conventional thrust tectonics proposed for the Himalayan collision belt. Here, focal mechanisms of several moderate magnitude earthquakes and composite fault plane solutions of microearthquakes have revealed strike–slip motion along faults transverse to the northward convergence direction of the Indian plate. In the present study, we analyze broadband magnetotelluric data of 12 sites located along an approximately N–S profile cutting across major geological sub-domains of Sikkim to test whether magnetotelluric strikes also support such transverse tectonic nature of the region. We have performed strike analysis of the data by two decomposition approaches as well as by phase tensor method. The study has revealed local variations in the strike directions within the region consistent with the geological and tectonic setup and the presence of transverse tectonic features in the region of Main Central Thrust Zone (MCTZ) where major axis of phase ellipses align in NNW–SSE to NW–SE direction. This trend coincides with the one obtained by microseismic data recorded after the September 18, 2011 earthquake (Mw 6.9). Magnetotelluric strike analysis thus supports the presence of NNW-to-NW trending transverse tectonic zone in MCTZ.

Manglik, A.; Pavan Kumar, G.; Thiagarajan, S.

2013-03-01

116

The mammalian fauna from the Central Himalaya, Nepal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nepal harbors unique mammalian fauna, but it is poorly studied at higher elevation. Mammalian fauna were recorded in Manaslu Conservation Area, Dudhkunda and Dudhkoshi valley of Solukhumbu district and Kanchenjunga Conservation Area of Nepal during March 2011 to April 2013 along the trail and the study plots from 700m to 4400m a.s.l. Semi-structured interviews were made with local people to understand their behavior and habitats. Altogether, 29 mammalian fauna were recorded. Five species were recorded new for the areas. Overall, Carnivore species (nine) were encountered more, followed by species of the order Cetartiodactyla (seven). The highest number of mammalian fauna (18) was identified from Manaslu Conservation Area whereas the least (11) from Dudhkunda and Dudhkoshi valley. Human wildlife conflict was frequent with Himalayan Goral (Naemorhedus goral), Barking Deer (Muntiacus vaginalis), Himalayan Tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus), Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta), Nepal Grey Langur (Semnopithecus schistaceus) and Himalayan Black Bear (Ursus thibetanus) for crop depredation in these areas. Although mammalian research started a long time ago, scenario of comprehensive research is not satisfactory in the Central Himalaya, Nepal.

Hem Bahadur Katuwal; Bhaiya Khanal; Khadga Basnet; Bhim Rai; Shiva Devkota

2013-01-01

117

Radon in groundwater of eastern Doon valley, Outer Himalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radon content in water may serve as a useful tracer for several geohydrological processes. The hydrodynamic factor, presence of radium in host rocks, as well as the soil porosity and permeability control its concentration in groundwater. In order to understand the factors that control the occurrence of radon in groundwater of Doon valley in Outer Himalaya, a total of 34 groundwater samples were collected from handpumps and tubewells covering three hydrogeological units/areas in the eastern part of Doon valley. Radon variation in tubewells and handpumps varies from 25.4±1.8 to 92.5±3.4 Bq/l with an average of 53.5±2.6 Bq/l. A significant positive correlation between radon concentration and depth of the wells was observed in the Doiwala-Dudhli and Jolleygrant areas suggesting that radon concentration increases with drilling depth in areas consisting of sediments of younger Doon gravels, whereas samples of the Ganga catchment show negative correlation. The high radon levels at shallower depths in the Ganga catchment (consisting of fluvial terraces of Ganga basin) indicate uranium-rich sediments at shallower depth.

2003-01-01

118

High altitude biodiversity of the Alps and the Himalayas: ethnobotany, plant distribution and conservation perspective  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Historical evidences suggest that the Himalayas have some strong biogeographical links to the Alps. In view of this fact, the present study aims to understand the similarities in plant species distribution and their ethnobotanical uses in the Indian Himalayas and the Slovenian Alps. The plant species common in both the mountain systems and used by local inhabitants were compiled by extensive literature search and also by carrying out primary surveys. Ethnobotanical information was collected through personal interviews of villagers with the help of local assistants and also through direct and indirect observations made during the field surveys. A total of 59 ethnobotanical species representing 17 families common in both the Indian Himalayas and the Slovenian Alps were documented, of these 78% obtained medicinal properties and traditionally used by local people for curing diseases. Comparatively, people of the Indian Himalayas used plants for medicine in higher percentage (73%) than the people of Slovenia (42%). Of the total medicinal plants, only 7 plant species such as Acorus calamus, Capsella bursa-partoris, Hypericum perforatum, Origanum vulgare, Prunella vulgaris, Solanum nigrum and Urtica dioica had some common uses in both the Slovenian Alps and the Indian Himalayas. In the Slovenian Alps, the maximum ethnobotanical species (61%) had wide distribution range whereas maximum ethnobotanical species in the Indian Himalayas (62%) had localized distribution. Though, 27% of common ethnobotanical species belonged to different threat categories, only 2 species—Taxus baccata and Hippophae rhamnoides—are placed under similar threat category in these two different mountain areas. The study unfolds relationship in plant species distribution and their ethnobotanical uses along with offering an opportunity to provide information on uses of plant species though available but unknown to community.

Kala CP; Ratajc P

2012-04-01

119

Potential of Radiotelescopes for Atmospheric Line Observations: I. Observation Principles and Transmission Curves for Selected Sites  

CERN Multimedia

Existing and planned radiotelescopes working in the millimetre (mm) and sub-millimetre wavelengths range provide the possibility to be used for atmospheric line observations. To scrutinize this potential, we outline the differences and similarities in technical equipment and observing techniques between ground-based aeronomy mm-wave radiometers and radiotelescopes. Comprehensive tables summarizing the technical characteristics of existing and future (sub)-mm radiotelescopes are given. The advantages and disadvantages using radiotelescopes for atmospheric line observations are discussed. In view of the importance of exploring the sub-mm and far-infrared wavelengths range for astronomical observations and atmospheric sciences, we present model calculations of the atmospheric transmission for selected telescope sites (DOME-C/Antarctica, ALMA/Chajnantor, JCMT and CSO on Mauna Kea/Hawaii, KOSMA/Swiss Alpes) for frequencies between 0 and 2000 GHz (0 to 150 micron) and typical atmospheric conditions using the forwar...

Schneider, Nicola; Baron, Philippe

2009-01-01

120

Characterization of N200 and P300: Selected Studies of the Event-Related Potential  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Event-Related Potential (ERP) is a time-locked measure of electrical activity of the cerebral surface representing a distinct phase of cortical processing. Two components of the ERP which bear special importance to stimulus evaluation, selective attention, and conscious discrimination in humans are the P300 positivity and N200 negativity, appearing 300 ms and 200 ms post-stimulus, respectively. With the rapid proliferation of high-density EEG methods, and interdisciplinary interest in its application as a prognostic, diagnostic, and investigative tool, an understanding of the underpinnings of P300 and N200 physiology may support its application to both the basic neuroscience and clinical medical settings. The authors present a synthesis of current understanding of these two deflections in both normal and pathological states.

Patel Salil H.; Azzam Pierre N.

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Selective determination of potential impurities in an active pharmaceutical ingredient using HPLC-SPE-HPLC.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present paper describes the selective determination of two synthetic intermediates (2,4-dichloro-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline (IMP-1) and its derivative (IMP-2) as potential impurities in the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API)-A using two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) hyphenated via on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) (HPLC-SPE-HPLC). Two synthetic intermediates that are potential impurities in API-A were concentrated on-line on two Shimadzu MAYI-ODS SPE columns (10 mm×4.6 mm I.D.) after heartcutting in 1st dimension HPLC (1st HPLC) using a Shiseido CAPCELL PAK ACR C18 column (250 mm × 10.0 mm I.D.). Each analyte retained on these SPE columns was transferred to 2nd dimension HPLC (2nd HPLC) with a Shiseido CAPCELL PAK MG-II column (150 mm × 3.0 mm I.D.) for further separation and was subsequently detected with high sensitivity UV. The HPLC-SPE-HPLC system achieved a stepwise downsizing in HPLC. The method was validated and found to be accurate and precise with a linear range of 0.25-250 ppm of each intermediate in API-A with respect to a 500 ?L injection of 40 mg/mL of API-A in dimethyl sulfoxide. The method was successfully applied for the determination of these impurities in API batches, and the results demonstrated the usefulness of HPLC-SPE-HPLC for the selective determination of trace impurities in APIs. PMID:23806999

Yamamoto, Eiichi; Niijima, Jun; Asakawa, Naoki

2013-06-13

122

Selective determination of potential impurities in an active pharmaceutical ingredient using HPLC-SPE-HPLC.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present paper describes the selective determination of two synthetic intermediates (2,4-dichloro-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline (IMP-1) and its derivative (IMP-2) as potential impurities in the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API)-A using two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) hyphenated via on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) (HPLC-SPE-HPLC). Two synthetic intermediates that are potential impurities in API-A were concentrated on-line on two Shimadzu MAYI-ODS SPE columns (10 mm×4.6 mm I.D.) after heartcutting in 1st dimension HPLC (1st HPLC) using a Shiseido CAPCELL PAK ACR C18 column (250 mm × 10.0 mm I.D.). Each analyte retained on these SPE columns was transferred to 2nd dimension HPLC (2nd HPLC) with a Shiseido CAPCELL PAK MG-II column (150 mm × 3.0 mm I.D.) for further separation and was subsequently detected with high sensitivity UV. The HPLC-SPE-HPLC system achieved a stepwise downsizing in HPLC. The method was validated and found to be accurate and precise with a linear range of 0.25-250 ppm of each intermediate in API-A with respect to a 500 ?L injection of 40 mg/mL of API-A in dimethyl sulfoxide. The method was successfully applied for the determination of these impurities in API batches, and the results demonstrated the usefulness of HPLC-SPE-HPLC for the selective determination of trace impurities in APIs.

Yamamoto E; Niijima J; Asakawa N

2013-10-01

123

The design and synthesis of selective prostaglandin analogs as bone anabolic agents for the potential treatment of osteoporosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A series of prostaglandins selective for the human FP receptor have been synthesized and evaluated as potential therapeutics for the treatment of osteoporosis. The compounds proved to be potent (nanomolar binding affinity) and selective (> 100x) ligands for the human FP receptor in vitro, and increased bone volume in the ovariectomized rat in vivo.

Soper DL; Wang Y; De B; deLong MA; Dirr MJ; Soehner ME; Lundy MW; Mieling GE; Wos JA

2002-01-01

124

The design and synthesis of selective prostaglandin analogs as bone anabolic agents for the potential treatment of osteoporosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of prostaglandins selective for the human FP receptor have been synthesized and evaluated as potential therapeutics for the treatment of osteoporosis. The compounds proved to be potent (nanomolar binding affinity) and selective (> 100x) ligands for the human FP receptor in vitro, and increased bone volume in the ovariectomized rat in vivo. PMID:12664601

Soper, David Lindsey; Wang, Yili; De, Biswanath; deLong, Mitchell Anthony; Dirr, Michelle Jeanine; Soehner, Michele Elaine; Lundy, Mark Walden; Mieling, Glen Edward; Wos, John August

2002-01-01

125

Influence of anode potentials on selection of Geobacter strains in microbial electrolysis cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Through their ability to directly transfer electrons to electrodes, Geobacter sp. are key organisms for microbial fuel cell technology. This study presents a simple method to reproducibly select Geobacter-dominated anode biofilms from a mixed inoculum of bacteria using graphite electrodes initially poised at -0.25, -0.36 and -0.42 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The biofilms all produced maximum power density of approximately 270 m Wm(-2) (projected anode surface area). Analysis of 16S rRNA genes and intergenic spacer (ITS) sequences found that the biofilm communities were all dominated by bacteria closely related to Geobacter psychrophilus. Anodes initially poised at -0.25 V reproducibly selected biofilms that were dominated by a strain of G. psychrophilus that was genetically distinct from the strain that dominated the -0.36 and -0.42 V biofilms. This work demonstrates for the first time that closely related strains of Geobacter can have very different competitive advantages at different anode potentials. PMID:23665518

Commault, Audrey S; Lear, Gavin; Packer, Michael A; Weld, Richard J

2013-04-19

126

Influence of anode potentials on selection of Geobacter strains in microbial electrolysis cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Through their ability to directly transfer electrons to electrodes, Geobacter sp. are key organisms for microbial fuel cell technology. This study presents a simple method to reproducibly select Geobacter-dominated anode biofilms from a mixed inoculum of bacteria using graphite electrodes initially poised at -0.25, -0.36 and -0.42 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The biofilms all produced maximum power density of approximately 270 m Wm(-2) (projected anode surface area). Analysis of 16S rRNA genes and intergenic spacer (ITS) sequences found that the biofilm communities were all dominated by bacteria closely related to Geobacter psychrophilus. Anodes initially poised at -0.25 V reproducibly selected biofilms that were dominated by a strain of G. psychrophilus that was genetically distinct from the strain that dominated the -0.36 and -0.42 V biofilms. This work demonstrates for the first time that closely related strains of Geobacter can have very different competitive advantages at different anode potentials.

Commault AS; Lear G; Packer MA; Weld RJ

2013-07-01

127

Diffusion in a logarithmic potential: scaling and selection in the approach to equilibrium  

Science.gov (United States)

The equation which describes a particle diffusing in a logarithmic potential arises in diverse physical problems such as momentum diffusion of atoms in optical traps, condensation processes, and denaturation of DNA molecules. A detailed study of the approach of such systems to equilibrium via a scaling analysis is carried out, revealing three surprising features: (i) the solution is given by two distinct scaling forms, corresponding to a diffusive (x\\sim \\sqrt {t} ) and a subdiffusive (x \\ll \\sqrt {t} ) length scale, respectively; (ii) the scaling exponents and scaling functions corresponding to both regimes are selected by the initial condition; and (iii) this dependence on the initial condition manifests a 'phase transition' from a regime in which the scaling solution depends on the initial condition to a regime in which it is independent of it. The selection mechanism which is found has many similarities to the marginal stability mechanism, which has been widely studied in the context of fronts propagating into unstable states. The general scaling forms are presented and their practical and theoretical applications are discussed.

Hirschberg, Ori; Mukamel, David; Schütz, Gunter M.

2012-02-01

128

Beyond EICA: understanding post-establishment evolution requires a broader evaluation of potential selection pressures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research on post-establishment evolution in nonnative plant populations has focused almost exclusively on testing the Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability (EICA) hypothesis, which posits that the lack of specialized herbivores in the invaded range drives evolution in nonnative plant populations. Fifteen years of conflicting EICA test results suggest that selection pressures other than specialized herbivory are important in driving post-establishment evolution in invasive species. Alternative hypotheses, such as the Evolution of Reduced Competitive Ability (ERCA) hypothesis, have been proposed but have received little attention or testing. We argue that the lack of consensus across studies that test EICA may be due in part to the lack of consistent definitions and varying experimental design parameters, and that future research in this field would benefit from new methodological considerations. We examined previous work evaluating post-establishment evolution and evaluated the range of study systems and design parameters used in testing the EICA hypothesis. Our goal was to identify where different uses of ecological terms and different study parameters have hindered consensus and to suggest a path forward to move beyond EICA in post-establishment evolution studies. We incorporated these methods into a design framework that will increase data harmony across future studies and will facilitate examinations of any potential selection pressure driving evolution in the invaded range.

Joshua Atwood; Laura Meyerson

2011-01-01

129

Selection of orlistat as a potential inhibitor for lipase from Candida species  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Infections caused by Candida species manifest in a number of diseases, including candidemia, vulvovaginal candidiasis, endocarditis, and peritonitis. Candida species have been reported to possess lipolytic activity due to the secretion of lipolytic enzymes such as esterases, lipases and phospholipases. Extra-cellular hydrolytic enzymes seem to play an important role in Candida overgrowth. Candidiasis is commonly treated with antimycotics such as clotrimazole and nystatin. The antimycotics bind to a major component of the fungal cell membrane (ergosterol), forming pores that lead to death of the fungus. However, the secondary effects caused during such treatment have aroused a need to develop a treatment based on lipase inhibition. Nonetheless, no such lipase inhibitors for candidiasis treatment are currently available. Thus, we have performed a docking study with the natural inhibitor, orlistat or tetrahydrolipstatin. Our results have shown ten possible binding inhibitors to Candida rugosa lipase (CRL), out of which one possibility was selected, based on the weakest inter-atomic distance of 2.7 Å. Therefore, we propose the selection and design of a potential inhibitor candidate, orlistat for the treatment of candidiasis infections. However, this study has to be supported with in vitro and in vivo experiments to demonstrate the effectiveness of orlistat in lipase inhibition.

Benarous Khedidja; Linani Abderrahman

2011-01-01

130

Objective selection of EEG late potentials through residual dependence estimation of independent components.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper presents a novel method to objectively select electroencephalographic (EEG) cortical sources estimated by independent component analysis (ICA) in event-related potential (ERP) studies. A proximity measure based on mutual information is employed to estimate residual dependences of the components that are then hierarchically clustered based on these residual dependences. Next, the properties of each group of components are evaluated at each level of the hierarchical tree by two indices that aim to assess both cluster tightness and physiological reliability through a template matching process. These two indices are combined in three different approaches to bring to light the hierarchical structure of the cluster organizations. Our method is tested on a set of experiments with the purpose of enhancing late positive ERPs elicited by emotional picture stimuli. Results suggest that the best way to look for physiologically plausible late positive potential (LPP) sources is to explore in depth the tightness of those clusters that, taken together, best resemble the template. According to our results, after brain sources clustering, LPPs are always identified more accurately than from ensemble-averaged raw data. Since the late components of an ERP involve the same associative areas, regardless of the modality of stimulation or specific tasks administered, the proposed method can be simply adapted to other ERP studies, and extended from psychophysiological studies to pathological or sport training evaluation support.

Milanesi M; James CJ; Martini N; Menicucci D; Gemignani A; Ghelarducci B; Landini L

2009-08-01

131

Objective selection of EEG late potentials through residual dependence estimation of independent components.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a novel method to objectively select electroencephalographic (EEG) cortical sources estimated by independent component analysis (ICA) in event-related potential (ERP) studies. A proximity measure based on mutual information is employed to estimate residual dependences of the components that are then hierarchically clustered based on these residual dependences. Next, the properties of each group of components are evaluated at each level of the hierarchical tree by two indices that aim to assess both cluster tightness and physiological reliability through a template matching process. These two indices are combined in three different approaches to bring to light the hierarchical structure of the cluster organizations. Our method is tested on a set of experiments with the purpose of enhancing late positive ERPs elicited by emotional picture stimuli. Results suggest that the best way to look for physiologically plausible late positive potential (LPP) sources is to explore in depth the tightness of those clusters that, taken together, best resemble the template. According to our results, after brain sources clustering, LPPs are always identified more accurately than from ensemble-averaged raw data. Since the late components of an ERP involve the same associative areas, regardless of the modality of stimulation or specific tasks administered, the proposed method can be simply adapted to other ERP studies, and extended from psychophysiological studies to pathological or sport training evaluation support. PMID:19550025

Milanesi, M; James, C J; Martini, N; Menicucci, D; Gemignani, A; Ghelarducci, B; Landini, L

2009-06-24

132

Selection of potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria from fermented olives by in vitro tests.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study aims to evaluate the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from naturally fermented olives and select candidates to be used as probiotic starters for the improvement of the traditional fermentation process and the production of newly added value functional foods. Seventy one (71) lactic acid bacterial strains (17 Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 1 Ln. pseudomesenteroides, 13 Lactobacillus plantarum, 37 Lb. pentosus, 1 Lb. paraplantarum, and 2 Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei) isolated from table olives were screened for their probiotic potential. Lb. rhamnosus GG and Lb. casei Shirota were used as reference strains. The in vitro tests included survival in simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions, antimicrobial activity (against Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli O157:H7), Caco-2 surface adhesion, resistance to 9 antibiotics and haemolytic activity. Three (3) Lb. pentosus, 4 Lb. plantarum and 2 Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei strains demonstrated the highest final population (>8 log cfu/ml) after 3 h of exposure at low pH. The majority of the tested strains were resistant to bile salts even after 4 h of exposure, while 5 Lb. plantarum and 7 Lb. pentosus strains exhibited partial bile salt hydrolase activity. None of the strains inhibited the growth of the pathogens tested. Variable efficiency to adhere to Caco-2 cells was observed. This was the same regarding strains' susceptibility towards different antibiotics. None of the strains exhibited ?-haemolytic activity. As a whole, 4 strains of Lb. pentosus, 3 strains of Lb. plantarum and 2 strains of Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei were found to possess desirable in vitro probiotic properties similar to or even better than the reference probiotic strains Lb. casei Shirota and Lb. rhamnosus GG. These strains are good candidates for further investigation both with in vivo studies to elucidate their potential health benefits and in olive fermentation processes to assess their technological performance as novel probiotic starters.

Argyri AA; Zoumpopoulou G; Karatzas KA; Tsakalidou E; Nychas GJ; Panagou EZ; Tassou CC

2013-04-01

133

A general definition of the heritable variation that determines the potential of a population to respond to selection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Genetic selection is a major force shaping life on earth. In classical genetic theory, response to selection is the product of the strength of selection and the additive genetic variance in a trait. The additive genetic variance reflects a population's intrinsic potential to respond to selection. The ordinary additive genetic variance, however, ignores the social organization of life. With social interactions among individuals, individual trait values may depend on genes in others, a phenomenon known as indirect genetic effects. Models accounting for indirect genetic effects, however, lack a general definition of heritable variation. Here I propose a general definition of the heritable variation that determines the potential of a population to respond to selection. This generalizes the concept of heritable variance to any inheritance model and level of organization. The result shows that heritable variance determining potential response to selection is the variance among individuals in the heritable quantity that determines the population mean trait value, rather than the usual additive genetic component of phenotypic variance. It follows, therefore, that heritable variance may exceed phenotypic variance among individuals, which is impossible in classical theory. This work also provides a measure of the utilization of heritable variation for response to selection and integrates two well-known models of maternal genetic effects. The result shows that relatedness between the focal individual and the individuals affecting its fitness is a key determinant of the utilization of heritable variance for response to selection.

Bijma P

2011-12-01

134

A general definition of the heritable variation that determines the potential of a population to respond to selection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic selection is a major force shaping life on earth. In classical genetic theory, response to selection is the product of the strength of selection and the additive genetic variance in a trait. The additive genetic variance reflects a population's intrinsic potential to respond to selection. The ordinary additive genetic variance, however, ignores the social organization of life. With social interactions among individuals, individual trait values may depend on genes in others, a phenomenon known as indirect genetic effects. Models accounting for indirect genetic effects, however, lack a general definition of heritable variation. Here I propose a general definition of the heritable variation that determines the potential of a population to respond to selection. This generalizes the concept of heritable variance to any inheritance model and level of organization. The result shows that heritable variance determining potential response to selection is the variance among individuals in the heritable quantity that determines the population mean trait value, rather than the usual additive genetic component of phenotypic variance. It follows, therefore, that heritable variance may exceed phenotypic variance among individuals, which is impossible in classical theory. This work also provides a measure of the utilization of heritable variation for response to selection and integrates two well-known models of maternal genetic effects. The result shows that relatedness between the focal individual and the individuals affecting its fitness is a key determinant of the utilization of heritable variance for response to selection. PMID:21926298

Bijma, Piter

2011-09-16

135

Disease burden of fuelwood combustion pollutants in rural households of the Himalayas, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: household biomass combustion for cooking purposes produces pollutants. Exposure to these pollutants has various adverse health impacts and is a major contributor to global disease burden. However, a precise estimate of the burden attributable to biomass combustion at the local level is not available in different parts of the world, therefore restricting policymakers’ ability to develop targeted actions against the health hazards. a study was conducted in the rural Himalayas to generate information about disease burden, with the purpose of aiding the development of strategies to improve public health. Methods: exposure level, population exposed and other relevant data regarding fuel-wood use, were collected through questionnaire survey from 102 randomly selected households spread in 46 villages in a two phase cluster random sampling design study during 2008 – 09. the burden of disease for acute Lower respiratory Infection (aLrI), chronic obstructive Pulmonary disease (coPd) and Lung cancer were estimated as per fuel-based approach of WHo guidelines for rural hilly households, using fuel- wood for cooking.Results: households, primarily dependent on fuel-wood for fuel, had disability adjusted life years (daLYs) lost and deaths that were much higher than the national status. The incidence of disease burden was 2 909 daLYs lost, with a share of 1 987 for aLrI in children "up to" 5 years age, 730 for coPd and 192 for Lung cancer in adults more than 30 years old, respectively.This result has implications for policy makers when deciding on an effective exposure reduction strategy and describes the risks connected between these health hazards and the health outcome of inhabitants exposed to them. The paper also discusses the intervention strategies for “addressing” the issues relevant to fuel-wood generated exposure.

Rajiv Pandey

2012-01-01

136

Homology modelling of CB1 receptor and selection of potential inhibitor against Obesity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obesity and patient morbidity has become a health concern worldwide. Obesity is associated with over activity of the endocannabinoid system, which is involved in the regulation of appetite, lipogenesis and insulin resistance. Hypothalamic cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) inverse agonists reduce body weight and improve cardiometabolic abnormalities in experimental and human obesity but displayed neuropsychiatric side effects. Hence, there is a need to develop therapeutics which employs blocking peripheral CB1 receptors and still achieve substantial weight loss. In view of the same, adipose tissue CB1 receptors are employed for this study since it is more specific in reducing visceral fat. Computer aided structure based virtual screening finds application to screen novel inhibitors and develop highly selective and potential drug. The rational drug design requires crystal structure for the CB1 receptor. However, the structure for the CB1 receptor is not available in its native form. Thus, we modelled the crystal structure using a lipid G-Protein coupled receptor (PDB: 3V2W, chain A) as template. Furthermore, we have screened a herbal ligand Quercetin [- 2- (3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl) - 3, 5, 7-trihydroxychromen-4-one] a flavonol present in Mimosa pudica based on its better pharmacokinetics and bioavailability profile. This ligand was selected as an ideal lead molecule. The docking of quercetin with CB1 receptor showed a binding energy of -6.56 Kcal/mol with 4 hydrogen bonds, in comparison to the known drug Rimonabant. This data finds application in proposing antagonism of CB1 receptor with Quercetin, for controlling obesity.

Mahesh Shrinivasan; Sinosh Skariyachan; Vaka Aparna; Vinod Rama Kolte

2012-01-01

137

Homology modelling of CB1 receptor and selection of potential inhibitor against Obesity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Obesity and patient morbidity has become a health concern worldwide. Obesity is associated with over activity of the endocannabinoid system, which is involved in the regulation of appetite, lipogenesis and insulin resistance. Hypothalamic cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) inverse agonists reduce body weight and improve cardiometabolic abnormalities in experimental and human obesity but displayed neuropsychiatric side effects. Hence, there is a need to develop therapeutics which employs blocking peripheral CB1 receptors and still achieve substantial weight loss. In view of the same, adipose tissue CB1 receptors are employed for this study since it is more specific in reducing visceral fat. Computer aided structure based virtual screening finds application to screen novel inhibitors and develop highly selective and potential drug. The rational drug design requires crystal structure for the CB1 receptor. However, the structure for the CB1 receptor is not available in its native form. Thus, we modelled the crystal structure using a lipid G-Protein coupled receptor (PDB: 3V2W, chain A) as template. Furthermore, we have screened a herbal ligand Quercetin [- 2- (3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl) - 3, 5, 7-trihydroxychromen-4-one] a flavonol present in Mimosa pudica based on its better pharmacokinetics and bioavailability profile. This ligand was selected as an ideal lead molecule. The docking of quercetin with CB1 receptor showed a binding energy of -6.56 Kcal/mol with 4 hydrogen bonds, in comparison to the known drug Rimonabant. This data finds application in proposing antagonism of CB1 receptor with Quercetin, for controlling obesity.

Shrinivasan M; Skariyachan S; Aparna V; Kolte VR

2012-01-01

138

Homology modelling of CB1 receptor and selection of potential inhibitor against Obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity and patient morbidity has become a health concern worldwide. Obesity is associated with over activity of the endocannabinoid system, which is involved in the regulation of appetite, lipogenesis and insulin resistance. Hypothalamic cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) inverse agonists reduce body weight and improve cardiometabolic abnormalities in experimental and human obesity but displayed neuropsychiatric side effects. Hence, there is a need to develop therapeutics which employs blocking peripheral CB1 receptors and still achieve substantial weight loss. In view of the same, adipose tissue CB1 receptors are employed for this study since it is more specific in reducing visceral fat. Computer aided structure based virtual screening finds application to screen novel inhibitors and develop highly selective and potential drug. The rational drug design requires crystal structure for the CB1 receptor. However, the structure for the CB1 receptor is not available in its native form. Thus, we modelled the crystal structure using a lipid G-Protein coupled receptor (PDB: 3V2W, chain A) as template. Furthermore, we have screened a herbal ligand Quercetin [- 2- (3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl) - 3, 5, 7-trihydroxychromen-4-one] a flavonol present in Mimosa pudica based on its better pharmacokinetics and bioavailability profile. This ligand was selected as an ideal lead molecule. The docking of quercetin with CB1 receptor showed a binding energy of -6.56 Kcal/mol with 4 hydrogen bonds, in comparison to the known drug Rimonabant. This data finds application in proposing antagonism of CB1 receptor with Quercetin, for controlling obesity. PMID:22829723

Shrinivasan, Mahesh; Skariyachan, Sinosh; Aparna, Vaka; Kolte, Vinod Rama

2012-06-16

139

The personal interview: assessing the potential for personality similarity to bias the selection of orthopaedic residents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The selection of medical students for training in orthopaedic surgery consists of an objective screening of cognitive skills to secure interviews for the brightest candidates, followed by subjective measures of candidates to confirm whether applicants are worthy of further consideration. The personal interview and its potential biased impact on the orthopaedic workforce were evaluated. METHOD: During 2004-2006 at the Penn State College of Medicine, the authors performed a prospective cohort study in which 30 consenting interviewers and 135 interviewees completed the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator before the interviews. Completed surveys were evaluated after submitting the resident selection list to the National Residency Matching Program, and candidate rankings based solely on the personal interview were analyzed. RESULTS: Clinicians ranked candidates more favorably when they shared certain personality preferences (P = .044) and when they shared the preference groupings of the quadrant extrovert-sensing and either the function pair sensing-thinking (P = .007) or the temperament sensing-judging (P = .003), or the function pair sensing-feeling and the temperament sensing-judging (P = .029). No associations existed between personality preferences and interviewee rankings performed by basic scientists and resident interviewers. CONCLUSIONS: The results support the hypothesis that, within the department studied, there was a significant association between similarities in personality type and the rankings that individual faculty interviewers assigned to applicants at the completion of each interview session. The authors believe that it is important for the faculty member to recognize that this tendency exists. Finally, promoting diversity within the admission committee may foster a diverse resident body and orthopaedic workforce.

Quintero AJ; Segal LS; King TS; Black KP

2009-10-01

140

Clonal selection within metastatic SP1 mouse mammary tumors is independent of metastatic potential.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our previous studies using randomly integrated plasmid DNA as unique clonotypic markers of SPI mouse mammary tumor cells transplanted into syngeneic CBA/J or nude mice demonstrated reproducible selection and eventual overgrowth of the primary transplant tumors by genotypically distinct metastatic subclones. Two independent metastatic SPI clones, neo5 and ras1, were shown to exhibit "clonal dominance" relative to the non-metastatic SPI tumor-cell population. These results suggested that the capacity for preferential growth within the tumors may be related to cellular properties associated with metastatic ability. To investigate the clonal interactions of metastatic SPI clones present within the same tumor mass, we have analyzed tumors composed of paired mixtures of neo5 and ras1. The tumors were monitored for the relative proportion of each clone by Southern blot analysis. The ras1 clone was found to dominate over the neo5 clone in the majority of tumors examined, even when present as 1% of the mixed inoculum. This represents a 20- to 50-fold enrichment of ras1, while the proportion of neo5 within the tumors was reduced at least 5-fold. No evidence for selection of either clone was seen during co-culture in vitro. Neo5 and ras1 are indistinguishable with respect to tumorigenic and metastatic potential when inoculated separately into different mice, suggesting that clonal dominance is independent of metastatic ability. Analysis of the metastases resulting from mixed inocula indicates that it is possible for a subpopulation representing less than 1% of the primary tumor mass to give rise to metastases. This also suggests that the process of metastasis within metastatic tumors is independent of clonal dominance. PMID:2004857

Samiei, M; Waghorne, C G

1991-03-12

 
 
 
 
141

Clonal selection within metastatic SP1 mouse mammary tumors is independent of metastatic potential.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Our previous studies using randomly integrated plasmid DNA as unique clonotypic markers of SPI mouse mammary tumor cells transplanted into syngeneic CBA/J or nude mice demonstrated reproducible selection and eventual overgrowth of the primary transplant tumors by genotypically distinct metastatic subclones. Two independent metastatic SPI clones, neo5 and ras1, were shown to exhibit "clonal dominance" relative to the non-metastatic SPI tumor-cell population. These results suggested that the capacity for preferential growth within the tumors may be related to cellular properties associated with metastatic ability. To investigate the clonal interactions of metastatic SPI clones present within the same tumor mass, we have analyzed tumors composed of paired mixtures of neo5 and ras1. The tumors were monitored for the relative proportion of each clone by Southern blot analysis. The ras1 clone was found to dominate over the neo5 clone in the majority of tumors examined, even when present as 1% of the mixed inoculum. This represents a 20- to 50-fold enrichment of ras1, while the proportion of neo5 within the tumors was reduced at least 5-fold. No evidence for selection of either clone was seen during co-culture in vitro. Neo5 and ras1 are indistinguishable with respect to tumorigenic and metastatic potential when inoculated separately into different mice, suggesting that clonal dominance is independent of metastatic ability. Analysis of the metastases resulting from mixed inocula indicates that it is possible for a subpopulation representing less than 1% of the primary tumor mass to give rise to metastases. This also suggests that the process of metastasis within metastatic tumors is independent of clonal dominance.

Samiei M; Waghorne CG

1991-03-01

142

Click chemistry based synthesis of dopamine D4 selective receptor ligands for the selection of potential PET tracers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Taking advantage of click chemistry, a library of N-arylpiperazinylmethyl triazoles bearing fluoro substituted appendages was synthesized and the target compounds were investigated for dopamine and serotonin receptor binding. With the aim to bias their hydrophilicity and to optimize their D4 receptor affinity and selectivity, a concise series of triazoles containing fluoroalkyl, fluoroalkoxy, fluoroalkoxyphenyl, and deoxyfluoroglucosyl substituents was studied. The D4 receptor affinity and selectivity could be tuned by altering the chemical moiety attached to the triazole unit. Among the test compounds, the fluoroethoxyphenyl derivative 15b showed weak partial agonism at D4 and a Ki value of 14nM, while its fluoropropoxyphenyl homologue 16a turned out to act as a neutral D4 antagonist (Ki=5.1nM). Both, 15b and 16a revealed an excellent balance between D4 receptor affinity and subtype selectivity, providing lead candidates for the development of (18)F-labeled radioligands for D4 receptor imaging studies by positron emission tomography (PET).

Banerjee A; Maschauer S; Hübner H; Gmeiner P; Prante O

2013-11-01

143

Click chemistry based synthesis of dopamine D4 selective receptor ligands for the selection of potential PET tracers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taking advantage of click chemistry, a library of N-arylpiperazinylmethyl triazoles bearing fluoro substituted appendages was synthesized and the target compounds were investigated for dopamine and serotonin receptor binding. With the aim to bias their hydrophilicity and to optimize their D4 receptor affinity and selectivity, a concise series of triazoles containing fluoroalkyl, fluoroalkoxy, fluoroalkoxyphenyl, and deoxyfluoroglucosyl substituents was studied. The D4 receptor affinity and selectivity could be tuned by altering the chemical moiety attached to the triazole unit. Among the test compounds, the fluoroethoxyphenyl derivative 15b showed weak partial agonism at D4 and a Ki value of 14nM, while its fluoropropoxyphenyl homologue 16a turned out to act as a neutral D4 antagonist (Ki=5.1nM). Both, 15b and 16a revealed an excellent balance between D4 receptor affinity and subtype selectivity, providing lead candidates for the development of (18)F-labeled radioligands for D4 receptor imaging studies by positron emission tomography (PET). PMID:24100078

Banerjee, Ashutosh; Maschauer, Simone; Hübner, Harald; Gmeiner, Peter; Prante, Olaf

2013-09-17

144

Global Warming, Climate Change and Glacier Retreat of Nepal Himalayas  

Science.gov (United States)

Global average air temperature near the earth surface rose 0.74¡¾0.18¨¬C during the twentieth century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concludes that observed increased globally averaged temperatures since mid-twentieth century is very likely due to the observed increment in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations, which leads to warming of the surface and lower atmosphere by increasing the greenhouse effect. Climate models referred by IPCC project that global surface temperature are likely to be increase by 1.1 to 6.4¨¬C between 1990 and 2100. An increase in global temperature is expected to cause other changes including glacier retreat, sea level rise, increase intensity of extreme weather events and change in the pattern of precipitation, etc. The Nepal Himalaya revealed 3,252 glaciers and 2,323 lakes, which are 3,500 m above the sea level. They cover an area of 5,323 km2 with an estimated ice reserve of 481 km3. The average temperature in Nepal is rising by 0.5¨¬C per decade, and because of this reason, big glacial lakes in the country are at high risk of flooding from glacial lake bursts, which would have an adverse effect, such as huge loss of life and property. Nepal is facing a disturbance in mountain climate, flash floods, cloudbursts, erratic weather patterns and so on. The death of number of people due to floods and landslides is increasing annually. It is reported that more than 164 people already died because of floods and landslides during the current year, 2007 rainy season. Nepal does emit negligible greenhouse gases compare to developed and industrialized countries, however, country and people are facing the consequences of actions of other developed and industrialized countries. Study shows the¡¡disasters in current years and possible hazards in future due to the probable causes of global warming and recommends some suggestions for controlling of green house gases emission.

Shrestha, S.; Hisaki, Y.

2007-12-01

145

Phytochemical diversity of Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. from Western Himalaya.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. (Rutaceae), commonly known as 'curry leaf tree', is a popular spice and condiment of India. To explore the diversity of the essential-oil yield and aroma profile of curry leaf, growing wild in foot and mid hills of north India, 58 populations were collected during spring season. M. koenigii populations were found to grow up to an altitude of 1487?m in north India. Comparative results showed considerable variations in the essential-oil yield and composition. The essential-oil yield varied from 0.14 to 0.80% in shade-dried leaves of different populations of M. koenigii. Analysis of the essential oils by GC and GC/MS, and the subsequent classification by statistical analysis resulted in four clusters with significant variations in their terpenoid composition. Major components of the essential oils of investigated populations were ?-pinene (2; 4.5-71.5%), sabinene (3; <0.05-66.1%), (E)-caryophyllene (11; 1.6-18.0%), ?-pinene (4; <0.05-13.6%), terpinen-4-ol (9; 0.0-8.4%), ?-terpinene (8; 0.2-7.4%), limonene (7; 1.1-5.5%), ?-terpinene (6; 0.0-4.5%), (E)-nerolidol (14; 0.0-4.1%), ?-humulene (12; 0.6-3.5%), ?-thujene (1; 0.0-2.5%), ?-elemene (10; 0.2-2.4%), ?-selinene (13; 0.2-2.3%), and myrcene (5; 0.5-2.1%). Comparison of the present results with those in earlier reports revealed new chemotypes of M. koenigii in investigated populations from Western Himalaya. The present study documents M. koenigii populations having higher amounts of sabinene (3; up to 66.1%) for the first time.

Verma RS; Chauhan A; Padalia RC; Jat SK; Thul S; Sundaresan V

2013-04-01

146

Selective oxidation of methionine residues in apolipoprotein A-I and its potential biological consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The earliest stages of HDL oxidation are accompanied by the oxidation of specific Met residues in apolipoprotein AI and AII and the formation of Met sulfoxides (Met(O)) has been proposed to play a significant role in the reduction and hence detoxification of lipid hydroperoxides associated with HDL. Oxidation of HDL may generally decrease the anti-atherogenic properties of this lipoprotein, although both, the inhibition and the enhancement of cholesterol removal from cells has been reported for different types of oxidation. In light of these findings we have investigated the secondary structure, lipid affinity, LCAT activation and cholesterol-efflux promoting properties of native and selectively oxidized apo A-I(apo A-I+32, containing Met(O) at Metl12 and Metl48) in purified or reconstituted forms. Data obtained by circular dichroism revealed that selective oxidation of Met residues 112 and 148 does not alter alpha helicity of the protein in solution, indicating that this oxidation is not sufficient to influence significantly this type of secondary structure of apo A-I in its 'lipid-free' form. The lipid affinity of native apo A-I and apo A-I+32 was determined as the rate of clearance of DMPC multilamellar to small unilamellar vesicles. Compared with the native protein, apo A-I+32 induced a 2-3 fold faster rate of clearance, suggesting that the increased hydrophilicity due Met(O) increased the rate for protein-lipid interactions. Met residues 112 and 148 reside in the hydrophobic faces of helices 5 and 7, and both these regions have been suggested to be important for both, LCAT activation and cholesterol efflux. Kinetic experiments have revealed that the affinity for LCAT is comparable for HDL reconstituted with either apo A-I or apo A-I+32. Efflux of [3H]-cholesterol from lipid-laden human monocytederived macrophages to isolated apolipoproteins was enhanced for apo A-I+32 compared with apo A-I, consistent with the DMPC clearance data. Together these findings suggest that selective oxidation of Met residues of apo A-I may enhance rather than diminish known antiatherogenic activities of the apolipoprotein. Thus, our results are consistent with the overall hypothesis that detoxification of lipid hydroperoxides by Met residues of apo A-I is potentially antiatherogenic

1998-01-01

147

Selective oxidation of methionine residues in apolipoprotein A-I and its potential biological consequences  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The earliest stages of HDL oxidation are accompanied by the oxidation of specific Met residues in apolipoprotein AI and AII and the formation of Met sulfoxides (Met(O)) has been proposed to play a significant role in the reduction and hence detoxification of lipid hydroperoxides associated with HDL. Oxidation of HDL may generally decrease the anti-atherogenic properties of this lipoprotein, although both, the inhibition and the enhancement of cholesterol removal from cells has been reported for different types of oxidation. In light of these findings we have investigated the secondary structure, lipid affinity, LCAT activation and cholesterol-efflux promoting properties of native and selectively oxidized apo A-I(apo A-I{sub +32}, containing Met(O) at Met{sub l12} and Met{sub l48}) in purified or reconstituted forms. Data obtained by circular dichroism revealed that selective oxidation of Met residues 112 and 148 does not alter alpha helicity of the protein in solution, indicating that this oxidation is not sufficient to influence significantly this type of secondary structure of apo A-I in its `lipid-free` form. The lipid affinity of native apo A-I and apo A-I{sub +32} was determined as the rate of clearance of DMPC multilamellar to small unilamellar vesicles. Compared with the native protein, apo A-I{sub +32} induced a 2-3 fold faster rate of clearance, suggesting that the increased hydrophilicity due Met(O) increased the rate for protein-lipid interactions. Met residues 112 and 148 reside in the hydrophobic faces of helices 5 and 7, and both these regions have been suggested to be important for both, LCAT activation and cholesterol efflux. Kinetic experiments have revealed that the affinity for LCAT is comparable for HDL reconstituted with either apo A-I or apo A-I{sub +32}. Efflux of [{sup 3}H]-cholesterol from lipid-laden human monocytederived macrophages to isolated apolipoproteins was enhanced for apo A-I{sub +32} compared with apo A-I, consistent with the DMPC clearance data. Together these findings suggest that selective oxidation of Met residues of apo A-I may enhance rather than diminish known antiatherogenic activities of the apolipoprotein. Thus, our results are consistent with the overall hypothesis that detoxification of lipid hydroperoxides by Met residues of apo A-I is potentially antiatherogenic

Panzenboeck, U.; Waldeck, R.; Rye, K.A.; Sloane, T.; Kritharides, L.; Stocker, R. [The Heart Research Institute, Camperdown, NSW (Australia)

1998-12-31

148

Source parameters and fmax in Kameng region of Arunachal Lesser Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

79 Local events analyzed for source parameters and fmax in Arunachal Lesser Himalaya.Source parameters found to be consistent with other studies from different regions.Dependence of fmax is studied on the basis of comparative dependency of fc and fmax.fmax Controlled by source process and independent of distance and focal depth.A scaling relation derived for Kameng region.

Kumar, Ashwani; Kumar, Arjun; Gupta, S. C.; Mittal, Himanshu; Kumar, Rohtash

2013-07-01

149

Contribution of pack animals in reducing CO{sub 2} emission in Central Himalaya, India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The resilience and adaptation in mountain regions have acquired important priorities in the present time, especially when climatic change has become an overriding issue and its impacts are recognized to be felt globally. The present study describes an example of how the pack animals play a vital role in transportation in remote and far-flung areas of Uttarakhand Himalaya, and also contribute in reducing CO{sub 2} emission. This article attempts to estimate the changes in the rate of CO{sub 2} emission if the present transportation of goods by pack animals is carried out by automobiles, i.e. the contribution of equines to carbon saving in the Himalaya while rendering transportation services. It also suggests an option for reducing CO{sub 2} emission by utilizing pack animals in the transportation of non essential commodities in remote and rural areas. The present study was undertaken in the six major valleys of Garhwal Himalaya, Uttarakhand to understand and quantify the contribution of pack animals in reducing CO{sub 2} emission in Indian Central Himalaya. The study has demonstrated that horses and mules provide direct and indirect services to the society and country. The direct services include communication services in far-flung and remote areas not connected with the road network, where they transport essential commodities and also human beings to the religious shrines of Kedarnath, Hem Kund, Gangotri and Yamunotri. The indirect services include reduction in CO{sub 2} emission.

Farooquee, N.A.; Budal, T.K.; Maikhuri, R.K. [G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Srinagar (India); Singh, S.P. [H.N.B. Garhwal Univ., Srinagar (India)

2008-07-10

150

FIRST REPORT OF PHRAGMIDIUM VIOLACEUM INFECTING HIMALAYA AND EVERGREEN BLACKBERRIES IN NORTH AMERICA  

Science.gov (United States)

In May and June of 2004, ranchers in Curry County, Oregon observed dieback in Himalaya blackberry (Rubus armeniacus Focke) caused by a rust fungus most closely resembling Phragmidium violaceum. Molecular sequencing of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region-2 (ITS-2) and the ribosomal 28S...

151

Mechanical analysis of controls on strain partitioning in the Himalayas of central Nepal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a mechanical analysis of the problem of slip partitioning between the major thrust systems in a collisional range. We focus on two structures in the Himalayas of central Nepal: the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT) and the Main Central Thrust (MCT). We use finite element modeling to test the in...

Godard, Vincent; Burbank, Douglas W.

152

Sustainability Perspectives of Development in Leh District (Ladakh, Indian Trans-Himalaya): an Assessment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis deals with a human inhabited territory in the Indian Trans-Himalaya: the Leh District, in Ladakh, at a “crossroad of high Asia”, geographically classified “cold desert”. For many centuries the local population has led a self-reliant existence mainly based upon subsistence agriculture, pa...

PELLICIARDI, VLADIMIRO

153

NAD-analogues as potential anticancer agents: conformational restrictions as basis for selectivity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cofactor type inhibitors (NAD-analogues) of IMP-dehydrogenase (IMPDH) were synthesized and their application as potential anticancer agents are discussed. C-nucleoside isosteres of NAD, C-NAD and C-PAD, showed an effective competitive inhibition of IMPDH, C-NAD but not C-PAD caused extremely potent inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase. We also synthesized compounds in which nicotinamide riboside was replaced with tiazofurin (TAD-analogues) and the 2' and 3'-positions of adenosine part were fluorinated. The ribose ring of 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoroadenosine is in the C3'-endo conformation whereas 3'-deoxy-3'-fluoroadenosine favors the C2'-endo sugar pucker. These derivatives are good inhibitors of IMPDH type II, the isoenzyme dominant in neoplastic cells. In contrast, all these analogues showed rather week inhibitory activity against alcohol dehydrogenase. Nicotinamide riboside derivatives in which the base and the sugar are linked through an oxygen or a methylene bridge were synthesized. NAD-analogues containing such conformationally restricted nicotinamide nucleoside moiety (syn or anti) are expected to be selective inhibitors of B-specific (IMPDH) or A-specific dehydrogenases, respectively.

Pankiewicz KW; Zatorski A; Watanabe KA

1996-01-01

154

NAD-analogues as potential anticancer agents: conformational restrictions as basis for selectivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cofactor type inhibitors (NAD-analogues) of IMP-dehydrogenase (IMPDH) were synthesized and their application as potential anticancer agents are discussed. C-nucleoside isosteres of NAD, C-NAD and C-PAD, showed an effective competitive inhibition of IMPDH, C-NAD but not C-PAD caused extremely potent inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase. We also synthesized compounds in which nicotinamide riboside was replaced with tiazofurin (TAD-analogues) and the 2' and 3'-positions of adenosine part were fluorinated. The ribose ring of 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoroadenosine is in the C3'-endo conformation whereas 3'-deoxy-3'-fluoroadenosine favors the C2'-endo sugar pucker. These derivatives are good inhibitors of IMPDH type II, the isoenzyme dominant in neoplastic cells. In contrast, all these analogues showed rather week inhibitory activity against alcohol dehydrogenase. Nicotinamide riboside derivatives in which the base and the sugar are linked through an oxygen or a methylene bridge were synthesized. NAD-analogues containing such conformationally restricted nicotinamide nucleoside moiety (syn or anti) are expected to be selective inhibitors of B-specific (IMPDH) or A-specific dehydrogenases, respectively. PMID:8790723

Pankiewicz, K W; Zatorski, A; Watanabe, K A

1996-01-01

155

Dispersal syndrome differentiation of Pinus armandii in Southwest China: Key elements of a potential selection mosaic  

Science.gov (United States)

Pinus armandii is a species of pine native to China with a wide geographical distribution and large-wingless seeds (about 300 mg). The study is to determine the variation in seed dispersal traits among populations within a relative small geographic scale and furthermore to explore if the trait differentiation results in the differences in dispersers, in particular nutcrackers ( Nucifraga caryocatactes) and scatter-hoarding rodents. We conducted studies at five sites at different elevations in northwest Yunnan Province. The study sites are separated by 10-200 km and divided into populations partly isolated by mountains and rivers. The cone and seed traits diverged significantly among the five study sites while the traits among individual trees at each site did not differ significantly. Nutcrackers and scatter-hoarding rodents presented conflicting preference in cone and seed traits: nutcrackers preferred smaller cones with smaller seeds, which increased the foraging efficiency of nutcrackers; while scatter-hoarding rodents tended to cache larger seeds. Consistent with variation in preferences by nutcrackers and scatter-hoarding rodents, in nutcracker-dominated sites, pines were characterized by smaller cones, smaller seeds, and thinner seed coats; while in sites where nutcrackers were not abundant, pines had relatively larger cones with larger seeds, which could enhance caching activities by scatter-hoarding rodents. The study provided some key elements for potential selection mosaic on cone and seed traits of a long-lived perennial tree among populations with limited geographical range.

Chen, Fan; Chen, Jin

2011-11-01

156

Emergency water supply: a review of potential technologies and selection criteria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Access to safe drinking water is one of the first priorities following a disaster. However, providing drinking water to the affected population (AP) is challenging due to severe contamination and lack of access to infrastructure. An onsite treatment system for the AP is a more sustainable solution than transporting bottled water. Emergency water technologies (WTs) that are modular, mobile or portable are suitable for emergency relief. This paper reviews WTs including membrane technologies that are suitable for use in emergencies. Physical, chemical, thermal- and light-based treatment methods, and membrane technologies driven by different driving forces such as pressure, temperature and osmotic gradients are reviewed. Each WT is evaluated by ten mutually independent criteria: costs, ease of deployment, ease of use, maintenance, performance, potential acceptance, energy requirements, supply chain requirements, throughput and environmental impact. A scoring system based on these criteria is presented. A methodology for emergency WT selection based on compensatory multi-criteria analysis is developed and discussed. Finally, critical research needs are identified.

Loo SL; Fane AG; Krantz WB; Lim TT

2012-06-01

157

Breeding potential of selected crosses for genetic improvement of finger millet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Often, a plant breeder/researcher is confronted with thetask of handling segregating populations derived from alarge number of crosses. Early elimination of poor crosseshelps in efficient utilization of land, time and humanresources and allows handling of reasonably largesegregating populations derived from a few promisingcrosses. Under this premise, an investigation was carriedout at the experimental fields of University of AgriculturalSciences (UAS), GKVK campus, Bangalore, India during1998–2000 to assess the utility of general combiningability (gca) of selected parents for making crosses thatare likely to result in superior recombinant inbred lines(RILs) in advanced generations. Two crosses whoseparents differed for their combining ability were comparedwith the cross whose parents were similar for theircombining ability for their likely productivity in isolatingsuperior recombinant lines. The results revealed that thecrosses involving at least one of their parents with highgca effects are productive for deriving RILs with desiredtraits and desired mean expression. The mean andvariance of early segregating generation serve as usefulguidelines for predicting the breeding potential of crosses.

M Krishnappa; S Ramesh; J Chandraprakash; Jayarame Gowda; Bharathi; D Dayal Doss

2009-01-01

158

Do Himalayan glaciers defy global warming? Case studies from NW Himalaya, India  

Science.gov (United States)

The Himalaya is influenced by two major climatic systems that are mid-latitude Westerlies and South Asia Indian Monsoon. The east and south slopes of Himalaya are greatly influenced by the monsoon, whereas the north and west ranges, e.g. Karakorum, have a supply of moisture by mid-latitude Westerlies. The greatest concentration of glaciers occurs in Karakorum Mountains and the western Himalaya which have the longest glaciers outside the polar regions. There is important contrast in the seasonal relationship between precipitation and ablation along the Himalaya. Ladakh and Zanskar hold special geographical significance for the study of climate change, if any. Both the areas lie far away from the effect of South West Indian Monsoon (SWIM) that has largely been identified as the moisture carrier for rest of Himalaya. The moisture laden SWIM bring down the precipitation in the form of snow in most of Himalaya that nourishes the glaciers. On the contrary, the Himalaya in Leh and Zanskar region receive a major contribution of snow through Westerlies during the winter season. Hence, the depletion or growth of glaciers of Leh and Zanskar is related to the weakening or strengthening of Westerlies. The field and satellite imageries study of secular movement of terminus of Durung Drung glacier, Kangriz glacier and Siachen glacier does not reveal any significant retreat. The degeneration of snout could be due to several reasons, such as basin geomorphology, location of glacier on active fault, asynchronous behavior of feeders of the glacier, etc. However, the climate analysis of the area does not point any major change that has affected the health of the glacier in last decade or so.Precipitation in Upper Indus Basin (UIB)is concentrated in winter and spring months that provides principal source for accumulation of UIB glaciers. The climatic data for past four decades of UIB suggest that mean and minimum summer temperatures show cooling and large increase in diurnal temperature range.Reduction in the summer temperatures and positive trend in winter precipitation has resulted in reduced ablation and increased accumulation of Karakorum glaciers. The processes has translated in the expansion and thickening of glaciers that is much contrary to the accepted model of global warming and high glacier melting.

Ganjoo, R. K.

2009-12-01

159

Natural selection among Kinnaura of the Himalayan highland: A comparative analysis with other Indian and Himalayan populations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present investigation on fertility and mortality differential among Kinnaura of the Himalayan highland is based on data collected from 160 post-menopausal women belonging to the middle and high altitude region of Kinnaur district of Himachal Pradesh (Indian Himalayas). Selection potential based on differential fertility and mortality was computed for middle- and high-altitude women. Irrespective of the methodology, the total index of selection was found to be highest among middle-altitude women (0.386) as compared with high-altitude (0.370) women, whereas for the total population it is estimated to be 0.384. It was found that the Kinnaura of the Himalayan highland showing moderate index of total selection and relative contribution of the mortality component (Im) to the index of total selection is higher than the corresponding fertility component (If). The analysis of embryonic and post-natal mortality components shows that the post-natal mortality components are higher in comparison with the embryonic mortality components among highlanders and needs special intervention and health care. The present findings are compared with other Indian tribes as well as non-tribes of the Himalayan region and other parts of the country. It reveals that this index among Kinnaura is moderate than the other population groups; among the Himalayan population, the highest was reported for Galong (It = 1.07) of Arunachal, whereas the lowest was reported from Ahom (It = 0.218) of Manipur. The correlation and regression analysis between total index of selection (It) and fertility (If) and mortality (Im) components for pooled data of populations of the Indian Himalayan states show that If and Im account for 21.6 and 29.1% variability, respectively. In Crow?s total index of selection (It) along with strong association, which is significant at the 1% level, this indicates that mortality plays a greater role in natural selection in comparison with fertility among populations of the Indian Himalayas.

Gautam Rajesh; Kapoor Anup; Kshatriya G

2009-01-01

160

Phenolic content, antioxidant potential and Aedes aegyptii ecological friend larvicidal activity of some selected Egyptian plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyphenols constitute a distinct group of natural compounds of medicinal importance exhibiting wide range of physiological activities as antioxidant, immunestimulant, antitumor and antiparasitic. Yellow fever and dengue fever are mosquito-borne infectious diseases transmitted by Aedes aegyptii, the presence of yellow fever in Sudan and dengue fever in Saudi Arabia are threats to Egypt with the reemerging of Ae. aegyptii in Southern Egypt, larvae control is feasible than flying adults. This work was conducted targeting estimation of the relative levels of total phenolic content, antioxidant potential and larvicidal activity of 110 selected Egyptian plants. The highest total phenolic contents were estimated in aqueous extracts of Coronilla scorpioides L., Forsskaolea tenacissima L., Crataegus sinaica Boiss., Pistacia khinjuk Boiss. and Loranthus acacia Benth.; they were 916.70 +/- 4.80, 813.70 +/- 4.16, 744.90 +/- 4.93, 549.00 +/- 3.93& 460.80 +/- 4.02 mg% while those of methanol extracts were estimated in Coronilla scorpioides, Forsskaolea tenacissima, Crataegus sinaica, Loranthus acacia and Pistacia khinjuk, they were 915.60-4.86, 664.60 +/- 4.16, 659.30 +/- 4.80, 590.80 +/- 4.49 & 588.00 +/- 3.85 mg% respectively. Investigation of the antioxidant potentials revealed that the most potent plants were Co-ronilla scorpioides, Forsskaolea tenacissima, Crataegus sinaica, Pistacia khinjuk and Loranthus acacia with calculated values of 454.80 +/- 4.83, 418.4 +/- 4.16, 399.10 +/- 4.90, 342.5 +/- 2.72 & 239.7 +/- 2.91% for aqueous extracts and 452.9 +/- 4.94, 389.6 +/- 4.6, 378.48 +/- 3.84, 352.3 +/- 3.06 & 346.5 +/- 2.98% for methanol extracts respectively while screening of larvicidal activity proved that Coronilla scorpioides, Forsskaolea tenacissima, Crataegus sinaica, Pistacia khinjuk and Loranthus acacia exhibited highest potency calculated as 22.53 +/- 2.01, 23.85 +/- 2.07, 28.17 +/- 2.06, 31.60 +/- 2.93 & 39.73 +/- 4.58 mg% aqueous extracts and 18.53 +/- 1.95, 18.8 +/- 1.67, 20.17 +/- 1.85, 23.28 +/- 2.7 & 28.48 +/- 3.9 mg% methanol ones respectively. PMID:23697028

El-Hela, Atef A; Abdel-Hady, Nevein M; Dawoud, Gouda T M; Hamed, Abdo M; Morsy, Tosson A

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
161

Phenolic content, antioxidant potential and Aedes aegyptii ecological friend larvicidal activity of some selected Egyptian plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Polyphenols constitute a distinct group of natural compounds of medicinal importance exhibiting wide range of physiological activities as antioxidant, immunestimulant, antitumor and antiparasitic. Yellow fever and dengue fever are mosquito-borne infectious diseases transmitted by Aedes aegyptii, the presence of yellow fever in Sudan and dengue fever in Saudi Arabia are threats to Egypt with the reemerging of Ae. aegyptii in Southern Egypt, larvae control is feasible than flying adults. This work was conducted targeting estimation of the relative levels of total phenolic content, antioxidant potential and larvicidal activity of 110 selected Egyptian plants. The highest total phenolic contents were estimated in aqueous extracts of Coronilla scorpioides L., Forsskaolea tenacissima L., Crataegus sinaica Boiss., Pistacia khinjuk Boiss. and Loranthus acacia Benth.; they were 916.70 +/- 4.80, 813.70 +/- 4.16, 744.90 +/- 4.93, 549.00 +/- 3.93& 460.80 +/- 4.02 mg% while those of methanol extracts were estimated in Coronilla scorpioides, Forsskaolea tenacissima, Crataegus sinaica, Loranthus acacia and Pistacia khinjuk, they were 915.60-4.86, 664.60 +/- 4.16, 659.30 +/- 4.80, 590.80 +/- 4.49 & 588.00 +/- 3.85 mg% respectively. Investigation of the antioxidant potentials revealed that the most potent plants were Co-ronilla scorpioides, Forsskaolea tenacissima, Crataegus sinaica, Pistacia khinjuk and Loranthus acacia with calculated values of 454.80 +/- 4.83, 418.4 +/- 4.16, 399.10 +/- 4.90, 342.5 +/- 2.72 & 239.7 +/- 2.91% for aqueous extracts and 452.9 +/- 4.94, 389.6 +/- 4.6, 378.48 +/- 3.84, 352.3 +/- 3.06 & 346.5 +/- 2.98% for methanol extracts respectively while screening of larvicidal activity proved that Coronilla scorpioides, Forsskaolea tenacissima, Crataegus sinaica, Pistacia khinjuk and Loranthus acacia exhibited highest potency calculated as 22.53 +/- 2.01, 23.85 +/- 2.07, 28.17 +/- 2.06, 31.60 +/- 2.93 & 39.73 +/- 4.58 mg% aqueous extracts and 18.53 +/- 1.95, 18.8 +/- 1.67, 20.17 +/- 1.85, 23.28 +/- 2.7 & 28.48 +/- 3.9 mg% methanol ones respectively.

El-Hela AA; Abdel-Hady NM; Dawoud GT; Hamed AM; Morsy TA

2013-04-01

162

Cluster analysis for identifying sub-groups and selecting potential discriminatory variables in human encephalitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Encephalitis is an acute clinical syndrome of the central nervous system (CNS), often associated with fatal outcome or permanent damage, including cognitive and behavioural impairment, affective disorders and epileptic seizures. Infection of the central nervous system is considered to be a major cause of encephalitis and more than 100 different pathogens have been recognized as causative agents. However, a large proportion of cases have unknown disease etiology. Methods We perform hierarchical cluster analysis on a multicenter England encephalitis data set with the aim of identifying sub-groups in human encephalitis. We use the simple matching similarity measure which is appropriate for binary data sets and performed variable selection using cluster heatmaps. We also use heatmaps to visually assess underlying patterns in the data, identify the main clinical and laboratory features and identify potential risk factors associated with encephalitis. Results Our results identified fever, personality and behavioural change, headache and lethargy as the main characteristics of encephalitis. Diagnostic variables such as brain scan and measurements from cerebrospinal fluids are also identified as main indicators of encephalitis. Our analysis revealed six major clusters in the England encephalitis data set. However, marked within-cluster heterogeneity is observed in some of the big clusters indicating possible sub-groups. Overall, the results show that patients are clustered according to symptom and diagnostic variables rather than causal agents. Exposure variables such as recent infection, sick person contact and animal contact have been identified as potential risk factors. Conclusions It is in general assumed and is a common practice to group encephalitis cases according to disease etiology. However, our results indicate that patients are clustered with respect to mainly symptom and diagnostic variables rather than causal agents. These similarities and/or differences with respect to symptom and diagnostic measurements might be attributed to host factors. The idea that characteristics of the host may be more important than the pathogen is also consistent with the observation that for some causes, such as herpes simplex virus (HSV), encephalitis is a rare outcome of a common infection.

Hamid Jemila S; Meaney Christopher; Crowcroft Natasha S; Granerod Julia; Beyene Joseph

2010-01-01

163

Selective isolation and differentiation of a stromal population of human embryonic stem cells with osteogenic potential  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The derivation of osteogenic cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) has been hampered by the absence of easy and reproducible protocols. hESC grown in feeder-free conditions, often show a sub population of fibroblast-like, stromal cells growing between the colonies. Thus, we examined the possibility that these cells represent a population of stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells (hESC-stromal). Two in house derived hES cell lines (Odense3 and KMEB3) as well as an externally derived cell line (Hues8) were transitioned to feeder-free conditions. A sub population of fibroblast-like cells established between the hESC colonies were isolated by selective adherence to hyaluronic acid-coated plates (100?g/ml) and were characterized using a combination of FACS analysis and staining. The cells were CD44(+), CD29(+), CD73(+), CD166(+), CD146(+), and CD105(+); and, Oct4(-), CD34(-), CD45(-) and CXCR4(-). When cultured in osteogenic differentiation media, up regulation of osteoblastic lineage markers (DLX5, MSX2, RUNX2, SPARC, ALP, COL1a1, BGLAP, IBSP, DCN, LOX-L4) and production of in vitro mineralized matrix was detected. hESC-stromal cells loaded on a carrier and implanted either subcutaneously or in a critical size calvarial defect in immune deficient mice for 10weeks, resulted in new bone formation and partial repair of the calvarial defect. In conclusion, hESC-stromal can be isolated from hESC cultures and represent a good source for obtaining cells with osteogenic differentiation potential suitable for regenerative medicine protocols.

Harkness, Linda M; Mahmood, Amer

2011-01-01

164

Measurements of simultaneously recorded spike and local field potentials suggest that spatial selection emerges in the frontal eye field  

Science.gov (United States)

SUMMARY The frontal eye field (FEF) participates in selecting the location of behaviorally relevant stimuli for guiding attention and eye movements. We simultaneously recorded local field potentials (LFPs) and spiking activity in the FEF of monkeys performing memory-guided saccade and covert visual search tasks. We compared visual latencies and the time course of spatially selective responses in LFPs and spiking activity. Consistent with the view that LFPs represent synaptic input, visual responses appeared first in the LFPs followed by visual responses in the spiking activity. However, spatially selective activity identifying the location of the target in the visual search array appeared in the spikes about 30 ms before it appeared in the LFPs. Because LFPs reflect dendritic input and spikes measure neuronal output in a local brain region, this temporal relationship suggests that spatial selection necessary for attention and eye movements is computed locally in FEF from non-spatially selective inputs.

Monosov, Ilya E.; Trageser, Jason C.; Thompson, Kirk G.

2008-01-01

165

Toxicological properties of several medicinal plants from the Himalayas (India) against vectors of malaria, filariasis and dengue.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The leaves of five plants namely Nyctanthes arbortistis (Oleaceae), Catharanthus roseus (Apocynaceae), Boenininghusenia albiflora (Rutaceae), Valeriana hardwickii (Valerianaceae) and Eupatorium odoratum (Asteraceae) were selected for the first time from the Garhwal region of north west Himalaya to investigation its toxicological properties against mosquito vectors of malaria, filariasis and dengue. In a laboratory study, using different polarity solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol) were tested against important larvae of malaria, filariasis and dengue vectors in India. It was observed that petroleum ether fraction of all selected plant possess good larvicidal properties than other solvent fraction. The LC(50) values of isolates from Nyctanthes arbortistis (HAR-1), C. roseus (CAT-1), B. albiflora (BOA-1), V. hardwickii (SUG-1) and E. odoratum (EUP-1) against Anopheles stephensi were 185 ppm, 150 ppm, 105 ppm, 225 ppm and 135 ppm, respectively. The results therefore suggest that the fraction code BOA-1 has excellent larvicidal properties and could be incorporated as botanical insecticides against mosquito vectors with high safety to nontarget organisms. The same fraction was tested against adult vectors of malaria, filariasis and dengue, but no mortality was observed.

Alam MF; Safhi MM; Chopra AK; Dua VK

2011-08-01

166

Toxicological properties of several medicinal plants from the Himalayas (India) against vectors of malaria, filariasis and dengue.  

Science.gov (United States)

The leaves of five plants namely Nyctanthes arbortistis (Oleaceae), Catharanthus roseus (Apocynaceae), Boenininghusenia albiflora (Rutaceae), Valeriana hardwickii (Valerianaceae) and Eupatorium odoratum (Asteraceae) were selected for the first time from the Garhwal region of north west Himalaya to investigation its toxicological properties against mosquito vectors of malaria, filariasis and dengue. In a laboratory study, using different polarity solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol) were tested against important larvae of malaria, filariasis and dengue vectors in India. It was observed that petroleum ether fraction of all selected plant possess good larvicidal properties than other solvent fraction. The LC(50) values of isolates from Nyctanthes arbortistis (HAR-1), C. roseus (CAT-1), B. albiflora (BOA-1), V. hardwickii (SUG-1) and E. odoratum (EUP-1) against Anopheles stephensi were 185 ppm, 150 ppm, 105 ppm, 225 ppm and 135 ppm, respectively. The results therefore suggest that the fraction code BOA-1 has excellent larvicidal properties and could be incorporated as botanical insecticides against mosquito vectors with high safety to nontarget organisms. The same fraction was tested against adult vectors of malaria, filariasis and dengue, but no mortality was observed. PMID:22041755

Alam, M F; Safhi, Mohammed M; Chopra, A K; Dua, V K

2011-08-01

167

The Himalayas as a directional barrier to gene flow.  

Science.gov (United States)

High-resolution Y-chromosome haplogroup analyses coupled with Y-short tandem repeat (STR) haplotypes were used to (1) investigate the genetic affinities of three populations from Nepal--including Newar, Tamang, and people from cosmopolitan Kathmandu (referred to as "Kathmandu" subsequently)--as well as a collection from Tibet and (2) evaluate whether the Himalayan mountain range represents a geographic barrier for gene flow between the Tibetan plateau and the South Asian subcontinent. The results suggest that the Tibetans and Nepalese are in part descendants of Tibeto-Burman-speaking groups originating from Northeast Asia. All four populations are represented predominantly by haplogroup O3a5-M134-derived chromosomes, whose Y-STR-based age (+/-SE) was estimated at 8.1+/-2.9 thousand years ago (KYA), more recent than its Southeast Asian counterpart. The most pronounced difference between the two regions is reflected in the opposing high-frequency distributions of haplogroups D in Tibet and R in Nepal. With the exception of Tamang, both Newar and Kathmandu exhibit considerable similarities to the Indian Y-haplogroup distribution, particularly in their haplogroup R and H composition. These results indicate gene flow from the Indian subcontinent and, in the case of haplogroup R, from Eurasia as well, a conclusion that is also supported by the admixture analysis. In contrast, whereas haplogroup D is completely absent in Nepal, it accounts for 50.6% of the Tibetan Y-chromosome gene pool. Coalescent analyses suggest that the expansion of haplogroup D derivatives--namely, D1-M15 and D3-P47 in Tibet--involved two different demographic events (5.1+/-1.8 and 11.3+/-3.7 KYA, respectively) that are more recent than those of D2-M55 representatives common in Japan. Low frequencies, relative to Nepal, of haplogroup J and R lineages in Tibet are also consistent with restricted gene flow from the subcontinent. Yet the presence of haplogroup O3a5-M134 representatives in Nepal indicates that the Himalayas have been permeable to dispersals from the east. These genetic patterns suggest that this cordillera has been a biased bidirectional barrier. PMID:17436243

Gayden, Tenzin; Cadenas, Alicia M; Regueiro, Maria; Singh, Nanda B; Zhivotovsky, Lev A; Underhill, Peter A; Cavalli-Sforza, Luigi L; Herrera, Rene J

2007-04-04

168

Selection and Improvement of Lignin-Degrading Microorganisms: Potential Strategy Based on Lignin Model-Amino Acid Adducts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this investigation was to test a potential strategy for the ligninase-dependent selection of lignin-degrading microorganisms. The strategy involves covalently bonding amino acids to lignin model compounds in such a way that ligninase-catalyzed cleavage of the models releases the amino...

Tien, Ming; Kersten, Philip J.; Kirk, T. Kent

169

FATE OF SELECTED TOXIC COMPOUNDS UNDER CONTROLLED REDOX POTENTIAL AND PH CONDITIONS IN SOIL AND SEDIMENT-WATER SYSTEMS  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted to determine the effects of pH and redox potential conditions on the degradation of selected synthetic organics. Also, the effects of these physicochemical parameters as well as other physical and chemical properties of soils and sediment-water systems on th...

170

The ?1- and ?2-adrenoceptor selectivity of drugs with potential effects on blood pressure - a radioligand-binding study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In screening compounds with potential antihypertensive properties, the determination of their relative selectivities for ?1- and ?2-adrenoceptors is important not only for the elucidation of their mechanisms of action but also, possibly, for the assessment of their potential side-effects. The relative selectivity of a number of drugs for ?1- and ?2-adrenoceptors was determined by means of radioligand-binding studies. The ?-adrenoceptor antagonists prazosin and indoramin display selectivities for ?1-adrenoceptors of about factors 1 000 and 4 000 respectively. The ?-adrenoceptor agonists clonidine and 2-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenylimino)-imidazoline (DPI) display selectivities for ?2-adrenoceptors of about factors 200 and 300 respectively. The ?-adrenoceptor antagonist mianserin displays approximately equal, albeit relatively low, affinities for ?1- and ?2-adrenoceptors. In view of the distribution of ?1- and ?2-adrenoceptors in vascular smooth muscle and in the reflex arcs controllig blood pressure, the low incidence of reflex tachycardia associated with the use of prazosin and indoramin can be explained on the basis of their ?1-adrenoceptor selectivity. Similarly, the hypertensive crisis which may follow the withdrawal of clonidine can be explained on the basis of a selective ?2-adrenoceptor agonistic action. The finding that mianserin has such low affinities for both ?1- and ?2-adrenoceptors may explain why, at therapeutically effective antidepressant dosages, it is usually devoid of adverse haemodynamic effects.

1986-01-01

171

Effects of selected pharmacological agents on avian auditory and vestibular compound action potentials.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glutamate is currently the consensus candidate for the hair cell transmitter in the inner ear of vertebrates. However, other candidate transmitter systems have been proposed and there may be differences in this regard for auditory and vestibular neuroepithelia. In the present study, perilymphatic perfusion was used to deliver prescribed concentrations of ten drugs to the interstitial fluids of the inner ear of hatchling chickens (n = 124). Dose-response curves were obtained for four of these pharmacological agents. The work was carried out in part to distinguish further the neuroepithelial chemical receptors mediating auditory and vestibular compound action potentials (CAPs). Kainic acid (KA) eliminated both auditory and vestibular responses. D-alpha-Aminoadipic acid (DAA) and dizocilpine maleate (MK-801), both NMDA-specific antagonists, failed to alter vestibular CAPs at any concentration. MK-801 significantly and selectively reduced auditory CAPs at concentrations equal to or greater than 1 mM. Similarly, kynurenic acid (4-hydroxyquinoline-2-carboxylic acid, 1 mM), a glutamate antagonist, significantly reduced auditory but not vestibular CAPs. A non-NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist, 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX), reduced vestibular CAPs significantly but only at the highest concentration tested (1 mM). In contrast, CNQX reduced auditory responses at concentration as low as 1 microM. The CNQX concentration effective in reducing auditory CAPs by 50% (EC(50)) was approximately 20 microM. Glutamate (1 mM) as well as alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA), a glutamate agonist, significantly reduced auditory CAPs (AMPA EC(50)=100 microM). Bicuculline, a GABA(A) receptor antagonist, and L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, failed to alter responses from either modality. These findings support the hypothesis that glutamate receptors mediate auditory CAPs in birds. However, the results underscore a remarkable difference in sensitivity of the vestibular neuroepithelium (here gravity receptors) to non-NMDA receptor antagonists. The basis of the vestibular insensitivity to glutamate blockers is unknown but it may reflect differences in receptors themselves, differences in the transmission modes available to vestibular synapses or differences in the access of compounds to vestibular neuroepithelial receptors from the interstitial-perilymphatic fluid spaces. PMID:15350279

Irons-Brown, Shunda R; Jones, Timothy A

2004-09-01

172

Determination of heavy metal pollution in soils from selected potentially contaminated sites in Tema  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the study was to assess the concentration and determine the level of pollution by harmful heavy metals in soils from selected potentially contaminated sites in Tema. The metals of interest include; mercury, lead, cadmium, cobalt zinc, arsenic, nickel, copper and chromium. A total of forty seven (47) samples comprising thirty eight sub-samples (38) and nine (9) composite samples were collected from nine (9) different locations. These included playgrounds, steel processing factories, used Lead Acid Battery (ULAB) recycling plant, mechanic workshops and the municipal waste disposal site. The samples were prepared after which the elemental concentrations were determined using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) with a secondary target excitation arrangement (5.9 keV). The analysis of the samples yielded the following mean heavy metal concentrations in mg/kg: 424.38 (Cr); 408.68 (Ni); 14427 (Cu); 4129.87 (Zn); 1580.68 (As); 647.48 (Hg); 73361.51 (Pb) and 1176.16 (Co). The mean concentrations of heavy metals in the soils were in the following order Pb>Zn>As>Co>Cu>Hg>Cr>Ni. Mercury was detected at only two of the sites. The average heavy metals in the soils from the sites were generally high since most of them exceeded the optimum and action values of the New Dutch List. The Enrichment Factor (EF) ratios show that the enrichment of the elements in the soils ranged from deficiently to extremely highly enriched. The contamination factor show that the contamination by the heavy metals were low at some of the sites and very high at others. The geoaccumulation indices indicated that the playground (PG) has not been contaminated by any of the metals, C8 is contaminated strongly by mercury only and the contamination at the remaining sites varied from moderately contaminated to extremely contaminated by the metals. The Igeo also indicated that the elements accounting for extreme contamination are lead, arsenic, copper, zinc mercury and chromium. Lead accounted for the most contamination. The Pollution Load Index (PLI) rated Gravita as the mot contaminated of the sites and the Play ground the least contaminated. The pollution load indices indicated that two (2) out of the nine sites in the study were uncontaminated by the heavy metals (PLISS>WD>AFL>TS>L19>C8>PG. (au)

2011-01-01

173

Measurements of simultaneously recorded spiking activity and local field potentials suggest that spatial selection emerges in the frontal eye field.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The frontal eye field (FEF) participates in selecting the location of behaviorally relevant stimuli for guiding attention and eye movements. We simultaneously recorded local field potentials (LFPs) and spiking activity in the FEF of monkeys performing memory-guided saccade and covert visual search tasks. We compared visual latencies and the time course of spatially selective responses in LFPs and spiking activity. Consistent with the view that LFPs represent synaptic input, visual responses appeared first in the LFPs followed by visual responses in the spiking activity. However, spatially selective activity identifying the location of the target in the visual search array appeared in the spikes about 30 ms before it appeared in the LFPs. Because LFPs reflect dendritic input and spikes measure neuronal output in a local brain region, this temporal relationship suggests that spatial selection necessary for attention and eye movements is computed locally in FEF from spatially nonselective inputs.

Monosov IE; Trageser JC; Thompson KG

2008-02-01

174

Measurements of simultaneously recorded spiking activity and local field potentials suggest that spatial selection emerges in the frontal eye field.  

Science.gov (United States)

The frontal eye field (FEF) participates in selecting the location of behaviorally relevant stimuli for guiding attention and eye movements. We simultaneously recorded local field potentials (LFPs) and spiking activity in the FEF of monkeys performing memory-guided saccade and covert visual search tasks. We compared visual latencies and the time course of spatially selective responses in LFPs and spiking activity. Consistent with the view that LFPs represent synaptic input, visual responses appeared first in the LFPs followed by visual responses in the spiking activity. However, spatially selective activity identifying the location of the target in the visual search array appeared in the spikes about 30 ms before it appeared in the LFPs. Because LFPs reflect dendritic input and spikes measure neuronal output in a local brain region, this temporal relationship suggests that spatial selection necessary for attention and eye movements is computed locally in FEF from spatially nonselective inputs. PMID:18304489

Monosov, Ilya E; Trageser, Jason C; Thompson, Kirk G

2008-02-28

175

Automatic Selection of Tube Potential for Radiation Dose Reduction in Vascular and Contrast-Enhanced Abdominopelvic CT.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study is to assess the ability of a novel automatic tube potential selection tool to reduce radiation dose while maintaining diagnostic quality in CT angiography (CTA) and contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT. MATERIALS AND METHODS. One hundred one CTA examinations and 90 contrastenhanced abdominopelvic examinations were performed using an automatic tube potential selection tool on a 128-MDCT scanner. Two vascular radiologists and two abdominal radiologists evaluated the image quality for sharpness, noise, artifact, and diagnostic confidence. In a subset of patients who had undergone prior studies (CTA, 28 patients; abdominopelvic CT, 25 patients), a side-by-side comparison was performed by a separate radiologist. Dose reduction and iodine contrast-to-noise ratio resulting from use of the tool were calculated. RESULTS. For CTA, 80 or 100 kV was selected for 73% of the scans, with a mean dose reduction of 36% relative to the reference 120-kV protocol. For abdominopelvic CT examinations, 80 or 100 kV was used for 55% of the scans, with a mean dose reduction of 25%. Overall dose reduction relative to the reference 120-kV protocol was 25% and 13% for CTA and abdominopelvic CT scans, respectively. Over 98% of scans had acceptable sharpness, noise texture, artifact, and diagnostic confidence for both readers and diagnostic tasks; 94-100% of scans had acceptable noise. Iodine contrast-to-noise ratio was significantly higher than (p < 0.001) or similar to (p = 0.11) that of prior scans, and equivalent quality was achieved despite the dose reduction. CONCLUSION. Automatic tube potential selection provides an efficient and quantitativeway to guide the selection of the optimal tube potential for CTA and abdominopelvic CT examinations.

Yu L; Fletcher JG; Grant KL; Carter RE; Hough DM; Barlow JM; Vrtiska TJ; Williamson EE; Young PM; Goss BC; Shiung M; Leng S; Raupach R; Schmidt B; Flohr T; McCollough CH

2013-08-01

176

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) accumulation in lichen, Phaeophyscia hispidula of DehraDun City, Garhwal Himalayas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The distribution and origin of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the lichen, Phaeophyscia hispidula (Ach.) Essl., collected from nine different road crossings of DehraDun, capital city of Uttaranchal (Garhwal Himalayas) were studied. The origin of PAHs was also assessed using the Phe/Ant, Flu/Pyr, Ant/Ant+Phe, Flu/Flu+Pyr and Naph/Phen concentration ratios. The total concentration of 16 PAHs ranged from 3.38-25.01 mug g(-1) with an average concentration of 12.09 +/- 9.38 (SD). The PAH ratios clearly indicates that PAH were of mixed origin, a major characteristic of urban environment. Significantly higher concentration of phenanthrene, pyrene and acenaphthylene indicates road traffic as major source of PAH pollution in the city. The study establishes the utility of P. hispidula as an excellent biomonitoring organism in monitoring of PAH from foot hill to sub temperate area of the Garhwal Himalayas.

Shukla V; Upreti DK

2009-02-01

177

Astavarga plants – threatened medicinal herbs of the North-West Himalaya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Astavarga eight medicinal plants viz., Kakoli (Roscoea purpurea Smith), Kshirkakoli (Lilium polyphyllum D. Don), Jeevak (Crepidium acuminatum (D. Don) Szlach), Rishbhak (Malaxis muscifera (Lindl.) Kuntze), Meda (Polygonatum verticillatum (Linn.) Allioni), Mahameda (P. cirhifolium (Wall.) Royle), Riddhi (Habenaria intermedia D. Don) and Vriddhi (H. edgeworthii Hook. f. ex Collett). All of these plants have their natural habitats in Himalaya particularly the North-West Himalaya in Jammu & Kashmir, Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh between elevations of 1500 and 4000 m asl. Their natural habitats are specific in ecological environment and hence these occur only in small pockets. Astavarga is important ingredient of various Ayurvedic formulations such as Chavyanprasha. Although some work has been done on identification of medicinal plants mentioned under Astavarga, but still there is need to identify the true representatives of this Astavarga group. The present communication deals with the taxonomical and medicinal properties of these eight medicinal plants.

Acharya BALKRISHNA; Anupam SRIVASTAVA; Rajesh K. MISHRA; Shambhu P. PATEL; Rajiv K. VASHISTHA; Ajay SINGH; Vikas JADON; Parul SAXENA

2012-01-01

178

Conservation status and diversity of some important plants in the Shiwalik Himalaya of Uttarakhand, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Shiwalik Himalaya of Uttarakhand is rich in its floristic composition. It also represents varied population of forest dwellers, locales, and tribal communities which play a vital role in social, cultural, historical, economic and industrial development of any country and in maintaining its ecological balance. Traditionally the folk people and the locales utilize the vegetation of their ambient environment in form of different products as food, fodder, fuel, medicine, fibre, timber etc. Among these useful species most of them are commercially exploited by drug dealers and at present many of such species come in threat categories. Therefore, there is an urgent need for conservation of such species for sustainable development. The members of threatened taxa belong to different families as Acanthaceae, Aceraceae, Asteraceae, Berberidaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Dioscoreaceae, Fabaceae, Hypoxidaceae, Lamiaceae and Liliaceae etc. The present study provides comprehensive infromation on the diversity, conservation status and utilization of plants in Shiwalik Himalaya.

Jyotsana SHARMA; R.D. Gaur; R M PAINULI

2011-01-01

179

Effect of altitude on picroside content in core collections of Picrorhiza kurrooa from the north western Himalayas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth (Scrophulariaceae), commonly known as Kutki, is a major ingredient of many ayurvedic preparations prescribed in the treatment of various diseases. Picrosides I and II are the active agents responsible for the medicinal effects of Kutki, and the variation in content of these compounds in plants at different altitudes is a major question to be addressed. The picroside I and II content in various plant parts of P. kurrooa collected from different altitudes, viz. Sonemarg (2,740 m a.s.l.), Tangmarg (2,690 m a.s.l.), and Pulwama (1,630 m a.s.l.) in the north-western Kashmir Himalayas was analyzed by HPLC. A considerable degree of variation in picroside content was observed. Picroside I and II was highest in populations collected from Sonemarg followed by Tangmarg, suggesting that picroside accumulation is directly correlated with altitudinal change. More picroside I was found in the rhizome and roots of the Pulwama population as compared to Tangmarg samples, whereas the quantity of Picroside II was reduced in plants from Pulwama compared to the Tangmarg population, suggesting that cultivation of P. kurroa at lower altitude reduces the picroside content. The quantities of picrosides also varied spatially, being highest in rhizome followed by roots, inflorescence and leaves in the populations from all three locations. The study concludes that picroside I and II accumulation depends on altitude, which could help in the selection and collection of superior genotypes with uniform effects for utilization by the pharmaceutical industry.

Katoch M; Fazli IS; Suri KA; Ahuja A; Qazi GN

2011-07-01

180

Herbal medicines used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus in Arunachal Himalaya, northeast, India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Medicinal plants have played an important role in treating and preventing a variety of diseases throughout the world. Khampti tribal people living in the far-flung Lohit district of the Eastern Arunachal Himalaya, India still depend on medicinal plants and most of them have a general knowledge of medicinal plants which are used for treating a variety of ailments. This survey was undertaken in Lohit district in order to inventory the medicinal plants used in folk medicine to treat diabetes mellitus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Field investigations were conducted in seventeen remote villages of Lohit district starting from April 2002 to May 2004 through interviews among 251 key informants who were selected randomly during our household survey. To elucidate community domains and determine differences in indigenous traditional knowledge of medicinal plants with anti-diabetic efficacy, we repeated our field survey starting from April 2008 to May 2010 with one hundred traditional healers locally called as "Chau ya" in Khampti of Lohit district. "Chau ya" traditional healers who know and use medicinal plants for treating diabetes mellitus were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. RESULTS: This study reports an ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in Lohit district of Arunachal Pradesh reputed for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Forty-six plant species were identified in the study area to treat diabetes mellitus by the Khamptis "Chau ya" traditional healers. Comparative published literature survey analysis of this study with other ethnobotanical surveys of plants used traditionally in treating diabetes mellitus suggests that eleven plant species make claims of new reports on antidiabetic efficacy. These plant species are Begonia roxburghii, Calamus tenuis, Callicarpa arborea, Cuscuta reflexa, Dillenia indica, Diplazium esculentum, Lectuca gracilis, Millingtonia hortensis, Oxalis griffithii, Saccharum spontaneum, and Solanum viarum. Some of the plants reported in this study have an antidiabetic effect on rodent models but none have sufficient clinical evidence of effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: The wide variety of medicinal plants that are used to treat diabetes mellitus in this area supports the importance of plants in the primary healthcare system of the rural people of Lohit district of Arunachal Pradesh. The finding of new plant uses in the current study reveals the importance of the documentation of such ethnobotanical knowledge.

Tag H; Kalita P; Dwivedi P; Das AK; Namsa ND

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
181

Essential oil composition of Thymus serpyllum cultivated in the Kumaon region of western Himalaya, India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The hydrodistilled essential oil of aerial parts of Thymus serpyllum L. (Lamiaceae), cultivated in the Kumaon region of western Himalaya was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Twenty-nine compounds, representing 91.8% of the oil, were identified. The major components were thymol (58.8%), p-cymene (5.7%), thymol methyl ether (4.0%), borneol (3.8%), sabinene (3.4%), gamma-terpinene (3.4%) and carvacrol methyl ether (3.2%).

Verma RS; Rahman Lu; Chanotiya CS; Verma RK; Singh A; Yadav A; Chauhan A; Yadav AK; Singh AK

2009-07-01

182

Origin and radiative forcing of black carbon transported to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The remote and high elevation regions of central Asia are influenced by black carbon (BC) emissions from a variety of locations. BC deposition contributes to melting of glaciers and questions exist, of both scientific and policy interest, as to the origin of the BC reaching the glaciers. We use the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem model to identify the location from which BC arriving at a variety of locations in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau originates. We then calculate its direct and snow-albedo radiative forcing. We analyze the seasonal variation in the origin of BC using an adjoint sensitivity analysis, which provides a detailed map of the location of emissions that directly contribute to black carbon concentrations at receptor locations. We find that emissions from northern India and central China contribute the majority of BC to the Himalayas, although the precise location varies with season. The Tibetan Plateau receives most BC from western and central China, as well as from India, Nepal, the Middle East, Pakistan and other countries. The magnitude of contribution from each region varies with season and receptor location. We find that sources as varied as African biomass burning and Middle Eastern fossil fuel combustion can significantly contribute to the BC reaching the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. We compute radiative forcing in the snow-covered regions and estimate the forcing due to the BC induced snow-albedo effect at about 5–15 W m?2 within the region, an order of magnitude larger than radiative forcing due to the direct effect, and with significant seasonal variation in the northern Tibetan Plateau. Radiative forcing from reduced snow albedo accelerates glacier melting. Our analysis can help inform mitigation efforts to slow the rate of glacial melt by identifying regions that make the largest contributions to BC deposition in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau.

M. Kopacz; D. L. Mauzerall; J. Wang; E. M. Leibensperger; D. K. Henze; K. Singh

2010-01-01

183

Origin and radiative forcing of black carbon transported to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The remote and high elevation regions of central Asia are influenced by black carbon (BC) emissions from a variety of locations. BC deposition contributes to melting of glaciers and questions exist, of both scientific and policy interest, as to the origin of the BC reaching the glaciers. We use the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem model to identify the location from which BC arriving at a variety of locations in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau originates. We then calculate its direct and snow-albedo radiative forcing. We analyze the seasonal variation in the origin of BC using an adjoint sensitivity analysis, which provides a detailed map of the location of emissions that directly contribute to black carbon concentrations at receptor locations. We find that emissions from northern India and central China contribute the majority of BC to the Himalayas, although the precise location varies with season. The Tibetan Plateau receives most BC from western and central China, as well as from India, Nepal, the Middle East, Pakistan and other countries. The magnitude of contribution from each region varies with season and receptor location. We find that sources as varied as African biomass burning and Middle Eastern fossil fuel combustion can significantly contribute to the BC reaching the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. We compute radiative forcing in the snow-covered regions and find the forcing due to the BC induced snow-albedo effect to vary from 5–15 W m?2 within the region, an order of magnitude larger than radiative forcing due to the direct effect, and with significant seasonal variation in the northern Tibetan Plateau. Radiative forcing from reduced snow albedo likely accelerates glacier melting. Our analysis may help inform mitigation efforts to slow the rate of glacial melt by identifying regions that make the largest contributions to BC deposition in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau.

M. Kopacz; D. L. Mauzerall; J. Wang; E. M. Leibensperger; D. K. Henze; K. Singh

2011-01-01

184

An epigenetic induction of a right-shift in hippocampal asymmetry: selectivity for short- and long-term potentiation but not post-tetanic potentiation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In humans, it is well established that major psychological functions are asymmetrically represented between the left and right cerebral cortices. The developmental origin of such functional lateralization remains unknown. Using the rat as a model system, we examined whether exposing neonates briefly to a novel environment can differentially affect synaptic plasticity in the left and right hippocampi during adulthood. During the first 3 weeks of life, one half of the pups from a litter spent 3 min daily away from their familiar home environment (Novel) while their littermates remained in that familiar environment (Home). At adulthood (7-months old), post-tetanic potentiation (PTP) of excitatory post-synaptic potentials (EPSPs), a very short-lasting form of plasticity, was greater among the Novel than the Home rats in both left and right hippocampi. In contrast, the novelty-induced increases in short- and long-term potentiation (STP, LTP), two relatively longer-lasting forms of plasticity, were found only in the right hippocampus. These findings demonstrate that a phase-selective asymmetry in hippocampal synaptic plasticity can be induced epigenetically by seemingly small systematic differences in early life environment. The selectivity of this asymmetry for the longer-lasting forms of synaptic plasticity suggests that the observed asymmetry in plasticity may contribute specifically to an asymmetric learning process which, in turn, may contribute to a functional asymmetry in the neocortex.

Tang AC; Zou B; Reeb BC; Connor JA

2008-01-01

185

Influence of regional precipitation patterns on stable isotopes in ice cores from the central Himalayas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several ice cores have been recovered from the Dasuopu Glacier and the East Rongbuk (ER) Glacier in the central Himalayas since the 1990s. Although the distance between the ER and the Dasuopu ice core drilling sites is only ?125 km, the stable isotopic record (?18O or ?D) of the ER core is interpreted as a precipitation proxy while the Dasuopu core as a temperature proxy. Thus, the climatological significance of the stable isotopic records of these Himalayan ice cores remains a subject of debate. Based on analysis of regional precipitation patterns over the region, we find that the different interpretations of the Dasuopu and Everest isotopic records may not be contradictive. The north–south and west–east seesaws of the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) precipitation are primarily responsible for precipitation falling at the ER site, which results in a negative correlation between the ER ?18O or ?D record and precipitation amount along the southern slope of the central Himalayas, corresponding to the "amount effect". In addition to the ISM precipitation, non-summer monsoonal precipitation associated with winter westerlies also significantly contributes to precipitation falling at the Dasuopu site, which may cause a positive correlation between the Dasuopu stable isotopic record and temperature, in response to the "temperature effect". Our results have important implications for interpreting the stable isotopic ice core records recovered from different climatological regimes of the Himalayas.

H. Pang; S. Hou; S. Kaspari; P. A. Mayewski

2013-01-01

186

Variation of radon levels in spring water with meteorological parameters and seismic events in Garhwal Himalayas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radon is being measured continuously in spring water at Badshahi Thaul Campus, Tehri Garhwal in Himalayan region by using radon emanometer since December 2002. An effort was made to correlate the variance of radon concentration in spring water with meteorological parameters and seismic events in study area. The positive correlation (coefficient = 0.79, 0.53, 0.60 and 0.70) was observed between measured radon concentration and minimum and maximum temperature, relative humidity and water discharge rate from the spring, respectively. However, no correlation was recorded between radon concentration and rain fall in the study area. Sudden increase in radon concentration in spring water were observed before the earthquakes occurred on 24 January 2003 of magnitude 3.4 on Richter scale having epicenter near Uttarkashi in Garhwal Himalaya and on 31 January 2003 of magnitude 3.1 on Richter scale having epicenter almost in same area. Similar changes in radon concentration were recorded before the earthquakes occurred on 4 April 2003 with magnitude 4.0 having epicenter near Almora in Kumaon Himalaya and on 26 May 2003 having magnitude 3.5 in Chamoli region of Garhwal Himalaya. Regular radon anomaly was recorded with micro seismic events from 5th August to 4th September 2003, which is discussed in detail. The impact of non geophysical and geophysical events on radon concentration in spring water is discussed in details. This type of study will help us to develop earthquake alarm model from radon in near future. (author)

2003-01-24

187

Assessment of biomethanation potential of selected industrial organic effluents in India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Anaerobic digestion is gaining wider acceptance in the present scenario over aerobic treatment due to production of biogas, which can be further used for meeting a part of energy demand. On the basis of primary and secondary data, the energy potential by the anaerobic digestion of the effluent from some of the polluting industries has been estimated in this paper. The pulp and paper industry has been found to have the maximum potential among others of the order of 1131 GWh{sub e}/a followed by distillery with a contribution of 830 GWh{sub e}/a to a total potential of 2963 GWh{sub e}/a equivalent electric energy. A total potential of 565 MW plant installation with anaerobic digestion technology has been estimated. The paper also describes the nature of wastewater generated by each sector, status of technologies for that sector in India and policy measures, which should be adopted for their large-scale adoption.

Lata, Kusum; Kansal, Arun; Balakrishnan, Malini; Rajeshwari, K.V.; Kishore, V.V.N. [Tata Energy Research Institute, Darbari Seth Block, Habitat Place, Lodhi Road, 110 003 New Delhi (India)

2002-05-01

188

Mindfulness as a Potential Intervention for Stimulus Over-Selectivity in Older Adults  

Science.gov (United States)

Ageing is related to significant declines in cognitive functioning. This effect can have a serious impact on the physical and psychological health of older adults as well as their quality of life. One phenomenon linked to cognitive deficits, particularly attention, that has been demonstrated to emerge with ageing is over-selectivity.…

McHugh, Louise; Simpson, Anna; Reed, Phil

2010-01-01

189

Octane boosting potential of catalytic processing of reformate over shape selective zeolites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A post-reforming process using a shape-selective zeolite ZSM-5 as a catalyst for the reforming of naptha to aromatics is described. A line drawing of ZSM-5 which contains two perpendicularly intersecting 10-ring channels, one straight and the other tortuous is shown. The catalytic performances of ZSM-5 are described and are compared with that of erionite. (BLM)

Garwood, W.E.; Chen, N.Y.

1980-02-01

190

Dopamine D3 receptor antagonists: the quest for a potentially selective PET ligand. Part 3: Radiosynthesis and in vivo studies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Compound 1 is a potent and selective antagonist of the dopamine D(3) receptor. With the aim of developing a carbon-11 labeled ligand for the dopamine D(3) receptor, 1 was selected as a potential PET probe. [(11)C]1 was obtained by palladium catalyzed cross coupling using [(11)C]cyanide and 4 with a specific activity of 55.5+/-25.9GBq/micromol (1.5+/-0.7Ci/micromol). [(11)C]1 was tested in porcine and non-human primate models to assess its potential as a radioligand for PET imaging of the dopamine D(3) receptor. We conclude that in both species and despite appropriate in vitro properties, [(11)C]1 does not show any specific signal for the dopamine D(3) receptor.

Bennacef, Idriss; Salinas, Cristian A

2009-01-01

191

Chemical composition and fungitoxic activity of essential oil of Thuja orientalis L. grown in the north-western Himalaya.  

Science.gov (United States)

The essential oil from fresh leaves of Thuja orientalis L. grown in the north-western Himalaya was isolated by means of hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Twenty-two compounds representing 94.0% of the total oil were identified. The leaf oil contained alpha-pinene (29.2%), Delta-3-carene (20.1%), alpha-cedrol (9.8%), caryophyllene (7.5%), alpha-humulene (5.6%), limonene (5.4%), alpha-terpinolene (3.8%) and alpha-terpinyl acetate (3.5%) as major constituents. The essential oil showed antifungal activity against Alternaria alternata in a direct bioautography assay. Two main bioactive compounds named as b1 (Rf = 0.54) and b2 (Rf = 0.80) were observed and tested for antifungal activity; they produced an inhibition zone of 5 and 10 mm in diameter, respectively. The components b1 and b2 were further purified by preparative thin layer chromatography and their antifungal efficacy was re-tested. The minimum inhibitory amount (MIA) of b1 and b2 against A. alternata was determined as 30.5 and 4.5 microg, respectively, using a bioautography assay. The bioactive constituent corresponding to b1 was determined as alpha-cedrol by using GC/MS analysis. The potential of essential oils as a source of natural biocides is discussed. PMID:18533464

Guleria, Sanjay; Kumar, Ashok; Tiku, Ashok Kumar

192

Antioxidant capacities and total polyphenol contents of hydro-ethanolic extract of phytococktail from trans-Himalaya.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant potential of hydro-ethanolic extract of a novel phytococktail comprising of sea buckthorn, apricot, and Rhodiola (SAR) from trans-Himalaya. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity of the extract increased in a dose-dependent manner (upto 0.1 mg/mL), and was found to be about 38% of that of ascorbic acid at 0.1 mg/mL. The hydro-ethanolic extract of SAR also scavenged the ABTS(.+) radical generated by ABTS/potassium persulfate (PPS) system and was found to be about 62% of that of ascorbic acid at 0.1 mg/ mL. The total antioxidant power of the extract was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content was found to be 1.28016 × 10(-3) mol gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract. Total flavonoid and flavonol contents were estimated to be 2.5970 × 10(-4) mol and 4.87 × 10(-4) mol quercetin equivalent/g extract, respectively. The hydro-ethanolic extract of this phytococktail indicated presence of essential phytoconstituents of polyphenols, flavonoids, flavonols, and ascorbic acid, which contributed significantly to its antioxidant capacity. The combination of the 3 plants may well support their use in traditional medicine to combat oxidative stress and high-altitude sickness.

Dhar P; Tayade AB; Bajpai PK; Sharma VK; Das SK; Chaurasia OP; Srivastava RB; Singh SB

2012-02-01

193

Antioxidant capacities and total polyphenol contents of hydro-ethanolic extract of phytococktail from trans-Himalaya.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant potential of hydro-ethanolic extract of a novel phytococktail comprising of sea buckthorn, apricot, and Rhodiola (SAR) from trans-Himalaya. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity of the extract increased in a dose-dependent manner (upto 0.1 mg/mL), and was found to be about 38% of that of ascorbic acid at 0.1 mg/mL. The hydro-ethanolic extract of SAR also scavenged the ABTS(.+) radical generated by ABTS/potassium persulfate (PPS) system and was found to be about 62% of that of ascorbic acid at 0.1 mg/ mL. The total antioxidant power of the extract was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content was found to be 1.28016 × 10(-3) mol gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract. Total flavonoid and flavonol contents were estimated to be 2.5970 × 10(-4) mol and 4.87 × 10(-4) mol quercetin equivalent/g extract, respectively. The hydro-ethanolic extract of this phytococktail indicated presence of essential phytoconstituents of polyphenols, flavonoids, flavonols, and ascorbic acid, which contributed significantly to its antioxidant capacity. The combination of the 3 plants may well support their use in traditional medicine to combat oxidative stress and high-altitude sickness. PMID:22225422

Dhar, P; Tayade, A B; Bajpai, P K; Sharma, V K; Das, S K; Chaurasia, O P; Srivastava, R B; Singh, S B

2012-01-06

194

Geochemical characterization of supraglacial debris via in situ and optical remote sensing methods: a case study in Khumbu Himalaya, Nepal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Surface glacier debris samples and field spectra were collected from the ablation zones of Nepal Himalaya Ngozumpa and Khumbu glaciers in November and December 2009. Geochemical and mineral compositions of supraglacial debris were determined by X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. This composition data was used as ground truth in evaluating field spectra and satellite supraglacial debris composition and mapping methods. Satellite remote sensing methods for characterizing glacial surface debris include visible to thermal infrared hyper- and multispectral reflectance and emission signature identification, semi-quantitative mineral abundance indicies and spectral image composites. Satellite derived supraglacial debris mineral maps displayed the predominance of layered silicates, hydroxyl-bearing and calcite minerals on Khumbu Himalayan glaciers. Supraglacial mineral maps compared with satellite thermal data revealed correlations between glacier surface composition and glacier surface temperature. Glacier velocity displacement fields and shortwave, thermal infrared false color composites indicated the magnitude of mass flux at glacier confluences. The supraglacial debris mapping methods presented in this study can be used on a broader scale to improve, supplement and potentially reduce errors associated with glacier debris radiative property, composition, areal extent and mass flux quantifications.

K. A. Casey; A. Kääb; D. I. Benn

2012-01-01

195

Interactions of biotic and abiotic environmental factors in an ectomycorrhizal symbiosis, and the potential for selection mosaics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Geographic selection mosaics, in which species exert different evolutionary impacts on each other in different environments, may drive diversification in coevolving species. We studied the potential for geographic selection mosaics in plant-mycorrhizal interactions by testing whether the interaction between bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don) and one of its common ectomycorrhizal fungi (Rhizopogon occidentalis Zeller and Dodge) varies in outcome, when different combinations of plant and fungal genotypes are tested under a range of different abiotic and biotic conditions. Results We used a 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment to test the main and interactive effects of plant lineage (two maternal seed families), fungal lineage (two spore collections), soil type (lab mix or field soil), and non-mycorrhizal microbes (with or without) on the performance of plants and fungi. Ecological outcomes, as assessed by plant and fungal performance, varied widely across experimental environments, including interactions between plant or fungal lineages and soil environmental factors. Conclusion These results show the potential for selection mosaics in plant-mycorrhizal interactions, and indicate that these interactions are likely to coevolve in different ways in different environments, even when initially the genotypes of the interacting species are the same across all environments. Hence, selection mosaics may be equally as effective as genetic differences among populations in driving divergent coevolution among populations of interacting species.

Piculell Bridget J; Hoeksema Jason D; Thompson John N

2008-01-01

196

Host selection of potential West Nile virus vectors in Puerto Barrios, Guatemala, 2007.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The selection of vertebrate hosts by Culex mosquitoes relative to West Nile virus (WNV) transmission in neotropical countries such as Guatemala is not described. This study determined the feeding patterns of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. nigripalpus and estimated the relative contribution of two common and frequently infected wild bird species, Turdus grayi and Quiscalus mexicanus, to WNV transmission. Engorged mosquitoes were collected from rural and urban habitats after the dry and wet seasons in the Department of Izabal in 2007. Host selection by Cx. nigripalpus varied significantly between urban and rural habitats. Both Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. nigripalpus fed predominantly on chickens and other domestic animals. Blood meals from wild birds were rare, accounting for 1.1% of blood meals identified from Cx. quinquefasciatus and 6.5% of blood meals from Cx. nigripalpus. Transmission of WNV by these two mosquito species may be dampened by extensive feeding on reservoir-incompetent hosts.

Kading RC; Reiche AS; Morales-Betoulle ME; Komar N

2013-01-01

197

Joint spatial variability of aerosol, clouds and rainfall in the Himalayas from satellite data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Satellite-based precipitation, Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), Cloud Optical Depth (COD), and Aerosol Index (AI) data were used to characterize the linkages among landform and the intra-annual variability of aerosols, cloudiness and rainfall in the Himalayas using Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis. The first modes of AOD and AI show the presence of two branches of dust aerosol: over the Indus River basin and the Thar Desert with a sharp west-east gradient parallel to the southern slopes of the Himalayas – the southern Branch; and the second against the slopes of the Tian Shan and over the Takla Makan Desert in the Tibetan Plateau – the northern branch. The second EOF mode of AOD accounts for about 10% of overall variance of AOD. It is attached to the foothills of the Himalayas east of the Aravalli range peaking in April-May followed by a sharp decrease between June and July during the first active phase of the monsoon. The first and second EOF modes of COD and precipitation show consistent patterns against the Central and Eastern Himalayas and along the ocean-land boundaries in western India and the Bay of Bengal. The break in cloudiness and rainfall between the winter and the monsoon seasons is captured well by the second EOF mode of COD and rainfall concurrent with the aerosol build up mode (March-April-May) over the region depicted by the second mode of AOD. The results show that the Aravalli range separates the two different modes of aerosol variability over northern India with dust aerosols to the west and polluted mixed aerosols to the east consistent with its role in regional circulation and precipitations patterns as per Barros et al. (2004) and Chiao and Barros (2006). The region of spatial overlap of the modes of variability of aerosols, clouds and rainfall is captured by the second EOF of MODIS AOD along the southern slopes of the Himalayas east of the Aravalli. It is proposed that this mode maps the area where the indirect radiative effect of aerosols on cloud properties and rainfall is pronounced.

P. Shrestha; A. P. Barros

2010-01-01

198

Cultivar Model Selection for Processing Tomato(lycopersicon esculentum Mill)with High Yield Potential  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to provide theoretical basis for high yield cultivar selection of processing tomato, 20 tomato jam special cultivars (breeding lines) were used to study the canonical correlation among yield, yield components, grow period factors and morphological characters. Based on the canonical correlation analysis and according to ecological condition, cultivation technique andgermplasms of Xinjiang autonomous region, the model of high yield cultivar was made. The grow period factors and morphological characters of high yield cultivar were optimized.

Wang Yongfei; Wang Ming; Wang Deyuan; Wang Lei

1998-01-01

199

Anthocyanin production as a potential visual selection marker during plant transformation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A mutant allele of the transcription factor gene MYB10 from apple induces anthocyanin production throughout the plant. This gene, including its upstream promoter, gene coding region and terminator sequence, was introduced into apple, strawberry and potato plants to determine whether it could be used as a visible selectable marker for plant transformation as an alternative to chemically selectable markers, such as kanamycin resistance. After transformation, red coloured calli, red shoots and red well-growing plants were scored. Red and green shoots were harvested from apple explants and examined for the presence of the MYB10 gene by PCR analysis. Red shoots of apple explants always contained the MYB10 gene but not all MYB10 containing shoots were red. Strawberry plants transformed with the MYB10 gene showed anthocyanin accumulation in leaves and roots. No visible accumulation of anthocyanin could be observed in potato plants grown in vitro, even the ones carrying the MYB10 gene. However, acid methanol extracts of potato shoots or roots carrying the MYB10 gene contained up to four times higher anthocyanin content than control plants. Therefore anthocyanin production as result of the apple MYB10 gene can be used as a selectable marker for apple, strawberry and potato transformation, replacing kanamycin resistance.

Kortstee AJ; Khan SA; Helderman C; Trindade LM; Wu Y; Visser RG; Brendolise C; Allan A; Schouten HJ; Jacobsen E

2011-12-01

200

Potential Selective Responding in a Parent Questionnaire Study of Post-Institutionalized Children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Selective responding bias, though under-researched, is of particular concern in the study of post-institutionalized children because many studies rely on mailed questionnaires and response rates are often low. The current study addresses the impact of selective responding in a single wave of data collection and in a multi-wave study. Participants were 121 parents from a larger four-wave study of post-institutionalized children, identified as Never Responders, Previous Responders (but not to the current wave), or Wave 4 Responders. Parents were telephoned and asked about their adopted child's family, school, peer, and behavioral adjustment. The children (47% male) ranged in age from 2 to 20 years (M = 10.79, SD = 4.59) and had been adopted between 5 and 54 months of age (M = 15.49, SD = 9.94). There were no differences in parent ratings of adjustment for a single wave of data collection; however, participants who never responded reported poorer family and peer adjustment than those who had responded to at least one wave of data collection. Within a single wave of data collection, there was no evidence that selective responding contributes much bias. Over a multi-wave study, however, results may under-represent adjustment difficulties, especially with family and friends.

Hawk BN; Wright A; Julian MM; Rosas JM; Merz EC; McCall RB

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Patagonian red wines: selection of Lactobacillus plantarum isolates as potential starter cultures for malolactic fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate fifty-three Lactobacillus plantarum isolates obtained from a Patagonian red wine, molecularly identified and typified using RAPD analysis, in order to select starter cultures for malolactic fermentation (MLF). The results obtained suggest a considerable genetic diversity, taking into account that all L. plantarum isolates were obtained from one cellar and one vintage. Based on the capacity to tolerate a concentration of 14 % ethanol in MRS broth for 2 days, eight isolates were selected for the subsequent analysis. The incidence of various wine stress factors (ethanol, acid pH, lysozyme and sulfur dioxide) on isolates growth was studied. Besides, glucosidase and tannase activities were evaluated, and the presence of genes involved in the synthesis of biogenic amines was examined by PCR. A previously characterized indigenous Oenococcus oeni strain was included with comparative purposes. Differences in technologically relevant characteristics were observed among the eight L. plantarum selected isolates, revealing an isolate-dependent behavior. Detectable glucosidase and tannase activities were found in all isolates. The presence of genes encoding histidine and tyrosine descarboxylases and putrescine carbamoyltransferase was not detected. The ability of L. plantarum isolates to grow and consume L-malic acid in simulated laboratory-scale vinifications revealed that two of them could be considered as possible MLF starter cultures for Patagonian red wines. These isolates will be subjected to further analysis, for a final winery technological characterization. PMID:23546829

Bravo-Ferrada, Bárbara Mercedes; Hollmann, Axel; Delfederico, Lucrecia; Valdés La Hens, Danay; Caballero, Adriana; Semorile, Liliana

2013-04-02

202

Patagonian red wines: selection of Lactobacillus plantarum isolates as potential starter cultures for malolactic fermentation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to evaluate fifty-three Lactobacillus plantarum isolates obtained from a Patagonian red wine, molecularly identified and typified using RAPD analysis, in order to select starter cultures for malolactic fermentation (MLF). The results obtained suggest a considerable genetic diversity, taking into account that all L. plantarum isolates were obtained from one cellar and one vintage. Based on the capacity to tolerate a concentration of 14 % ethanol in MRS broth for 2 days, eight isolates were selected for the subsequent analysis. The incidence of various wine stress factors (ethanol, acid pH, lysozyme and sulfur dioxide) on isolates growth was studied. Besides, glucosidase and tannase activities were evaluated, and the presence of genes involved in the synthesis of biogenic amines was examined by PCR. A previously characterized indigenous Oenococcus oeni strain was included with comparative purposes. Differences in technologically relevant characteristics were observed among the eight L. plantarum selected isolates, revealing an isolate-dependent behavior. Detectable glucosidase and tannase activities were found in all isolates. The presence of genes encoding histidine and tyrosine descarboxylases and putrescine carbamoyltransferase was not detected. The ability of L. plantarum isolates to grow and consume L-malic acid in simulated laboratory-scale vinifications revealed that two of them could be considered as possible MLF starter cultures for Patagonian red wines. These isolates will be subjected to further analysis, for a final winery technological characterization.

Bravo-Ferrada BM; Hollmann A; Delfederico L; Valdés La Hens D; Caballero A; Semorile L

2013-09-01

203

Free ion selective radionuclide extraction (FISRE) and the targeting potential of theranostic radio-complexes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The present paper briefly discusses molecular targeting, receptors, and distribution, all set in the context of the use of radiolabelled and chelated peptides in peptide receptor scintigraphy (PRS) and peptide radionuclide therapy (PRRT). The discussion further addresses the potential of compartmental modelling as a tool in optimization approaches for targeting complexes. The latter point is illustrated by the use of FISRE-methods and clinical data on 177Lu-DOTA-Tyr3-octreotate in a preliminary modelling trial, to show the principal relevance of various complex properties for targeting characteristics in optimization exercises. The results indicate that improving the complex dynamic stability may mimic improved complex targeting potential. (author)

2006-01-01

204

Recording strategies and selection potential of feed intake measured using the X-ray method in rainbow trout  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract This study examines the way long-term feed intake should be recorded accurately for selective breeding purposes, and estimates selection potential in feed intake using the X-ray method to record individual daily feed intake in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The analysis showed that the point estimates of daily feed intake displayed low repeatabilities (r = 0.09–0.32). This indicates that a minimum of three repeated records were needed to accurately record average feed intake at a fixed age. To effectively breed for feed intake over the whole growing period, it is necessary to determine average feed intake at different ages, since there were only moderate phenotypic and genetic correlations between average daily feed intake recorded at 140 g, 750 g and 2000 g wet mass. Heritability for average daily feed intake was low (average h2 = 0.10), indicating that modest genetic changes can be obtained in response to selection. It was concluded that selection to genetically change long-term feed intake can be successful, yet repeated observations at several life stages are needed to ensure the accuracy of feed intake estimates and the efficiency of selection.

Kause Antti; Tobin Declan; Dobly Alexandre; Houlihan Dominic; Martin Sam; Mäntysaari Esa A; Ritola Ossi; Ruohonen Kari

2006-01-01

205

YIELD POTENTIAL OF SELECTED MEDICINAL HERBS AT THREE PLANT SPACINGS IN NEW MEXICO  

Science.gov (United States)

Field studies were conducted to determine the production potential of echinacea (Echinacea purpurea), valerian (Valeriana officinalis), mullein (Verbascum thapsus) and yerba mansa (Anemopsis californica) medicinal herbs at two sites in New Mexico. Las Cruces, N.M. is at an elevation of 1,186 m and h...

206

Antioxidant potential of selected supplements in vitro and the problem of its extrapolation for in vivo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: antioxidants, free radicals and oxidative stress have been studied extensively for quite some time but their role in diseases and their prevention has not been clearly determined. Because commercialantioxidants do not need to pass clinical tests in order to be sold over the counter we have decided to test the antioxidant potential of different commercial preparations with the antioxidative properties.Methods: pH, rH and oxidant-reduction potential of different preparations in aqueous solution was measured. Afterwards antioxidant potential using FormPlus® after adding the preparation to human blood as a morecomplex environment with different homeostasis mechanisms was determined.Results: all the results showed expected change compared to the control but the results in aqueous solution did not match the results obtained from the human blood, as was expected.Conclusion: from the experiments it can be concluded that while the preparations did show antioxidant activity, it is very difficult and even wrong to predict the antioxidant potential of an antioxidant preparationadded to human blood, let alone in a living organism, based just on the results obtained in aqueous solution. Further possibilities for research include more extensive studies of antioxidant preparations in more complex environment and last but not least in test organisms or in human trials.

Julija Ogrin Papi?; Borut Poljšak

2012-01-01

207

Surface potential and osteoblast attraction to calcium phosphate compounds is affected by selected alkaline hydrolysis processing.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the link(s) between the suspension behavior of calcium deficient apatites (CDAs) and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), as measured by the zeta-potential, with respect to both whole bone and osteoblasts. CDA is fabricated by hydrolyzing an acidic CaP such as dicalcium diphosphate dihydrate (DCPD; CaHPO4.2H2O) and has a structure and composition close to bone apatite. Sintering CDA results in the formation of BCP ceramics consisting of mixtures of hydroxyapatite (HA) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP), with the HA/beta-TCP weight ratio proportional to the Ca/P ratio of CDA. The choice of the base for the DCPD hydrolysis allows various ionic partial substitution of the formed CDA. Na for Ca partial substitution is of interest because of the resulting improvement in mechanical properties of the resulting BCP ceramics and NH4OH was used as a negative control. The zeta-potential was measured for these materials and the stability of the ceramic to bone interaction calculated. zeta-potential values decrease for CDA(NH4OH) versus CDA(NaOH) and increase for BCP(NH4OH) versus BCP(NaOH). While results of these analyses indicate that NH4OH and NaOH processed CDA and BCP will likely yield osteoblast attachment in vivo, differences in the zeta-potentials may explain varying degrees of cell attachment. PMID:15477734

Smith, I O; Baumann, M J; Obadia, L; Bouler, J-M

2004-08-01

208

Influence of the heteroatom size on the redox potentials of selected polyoxoanions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The apparent formal potentials for the one-electron redox process of most Keggin-type heteropolytungstates, XW(12)O(40)(q-), have long been shown to linearly depend on their overall negative charges, in the absence of proton interference in the process. However, for a given overall negative charge, these formal potentials are also shown here to depend on the specific central heteroatom X. In the present work, cyclic voltammetry was used to study a large variety of Keggin-type anions, under conditions where their comparisons are straightforward. In short, apparent potential values get more negative (the clusters are more difficult to reduce) for smaller central heteroatoms within a given family of Keggin-type heteropolyanions carrying the same overall negative charge. Density functional theory calculations were performed on the same family of Keggin compounds and satisfactorily reproduce these trends. They show that internal XO(4) units affect differently the tungstate oxide cage. The electrostatic potential created by each internal anionic unit in a fragment-like approach (XO(4)(q-)@W(12)O(36)) was analyzed, and it is observed that X atoms of the same group show slight differences. Within each group of the periodic table, X atoms with lower atomic numbers are also smaller in size. The net effect of such a tendency is to produce a more negative potential in the surroundings and thus a smaller capacity to accept electrons. The case of [BW(12)O(40)](5-) illustrates well this conclusion, with the smallest heteroatom of the Keggin series with group III central elements and a very negative reduction potential with respect to the other elements of the same group. Particularly in this case, the electronic structure of the Keggin anion shows the effects of the small size of boron: the highest occupied molecular orbitals of [BW(12)O(40)](5-) appear to be approximately 0.35 eV higher than those in the other clusters of the same charge, explaining that the BO(4) unit is more unstable than AlO(4) or GaO(4) despite carrying the same formal charge. PMID:20586427

Mbomekallé, Israël-Martyr; López, Xavier; Poblet, Josep M; Sécheresse, Francis; Keita, Bineta; Nadjo, Louis

2010-08-01

209

Influence of the heteroatom size on the redox potentials of selected polyoxoanions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The apparent formal potentials for the one-electron redox process of most Keggin-type heteropolytungstates, XW(12)O(40)(q-), have long been shown to linearly depend on their overall negative charges, in the absence of proton interference in the process. However, for a given overall negative charge, these formal potentials are also shown here to depend on the specific central heteroatom X. In the present work, cyclic voltammetry was used to study a large variety of Keggin-type anions, under conditions where their comparisons are straightforward. In short, apparent potential values get more negative (the clusters are more difficult to reduce) for smaller central heteroatoms within a given family of Keggin-type heteropolyanions carrying the same overall negative charge. Density functional theory calculations were performed on the same family of Keggin compounds and satisfactorily reproduce these trends. They show that internal XO(4) units affect differently the tungstate oxide cage. The electrostatic potential created by each internal anionic unit in a fragment-like approach (XO(4)(q-)@W(12)O(36)) was analyzed, and it is observed that X atoms of the same group show slight differences. Within each group of the periodic table, X atoms with lower atomic numbers are also smaller in size. The net effect of such a tendency is to produce a more negative potential in the surroundings and thus a smaller capacity to accept electrons. The case of [BW(12)O(40)](5-) illustrates well this conclusion, with the smallest heteroatom of the Keggin series with group III central elements and a very negative reduction potential with respect to the other elements of the same group. Particularly in this case, the electronic structure of the Keggin anion shows the effects of the small size of boron: the highest occupied molecular orbitals of [BW(12)O(40)](5-) appear to be approximately 0.35 eV higher than those in the other clusters of the same charge, explaining that the BO(4) unit is more unstable than AlO(4) or GaO(4) despite carrying the same formal charge.

Mbomekallé IM; López X; Poblet JM; Sécheresse F; Keita B; Nadjo L

2010-08-01

210

Treatment of overactive bladder: selective use of anticholinergic agents with low drug-drug interaction potential.  

Science.gov (United States)

Overactive bladder (OAB) is highly prevalent in the older population and decreases quality of life. Current therapy consists primarily of anticholinergic drugs. Because older individuals typically take multiple medications, clinicians must pay special attention to potential drug-drug interactions that may cause adverse events or alter drug efficacy. The most clinically important drug-drug interactions occur during cytochrome P450 (CYP450) isoenzyme metabolism, resulting in altered metabolism of one or more of the coadministered agents. Of the drugs indicated for OAB, tolterodine, darifenacin, solifenacin, and oxybutynin are extensively metabolized by CYP450, but trospium is not. Trospium is eliminated as unchanged drug, suggesting that it has lower potential for drug-drug interactions and may, therefore, represent a safer treatment option for OAB, particularly in the context of polypharmacy, a significant concern in older adults. PMID:17489643

Chancellor, Michael B; de Miguel, Fernando

2007-05-01

211

Energy Efficiency Potential in Existing Commercial Buildings: Review of Selected Recent Studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report reviews six recent studies (from 2002 through 2006) by states and utilities to assess the energy saving potential in existing commercial buildings. The studies cover all or portions of California, Connecticut, Vermont, Colorado, Illinois, and the Pacific Northwest. The studies clearly reveal that lighting remains the single largest and most cost effective end use that can be reduced to save energy. Overall the study indicated that with existing technologies and costs, a reasonable range of economic savings potential in existing commercial buildings is between 10 and 20 percent of current energy use. While not a focus of the study, an additional conclusion is that implementation of commercial building monitoring and controls would also play an important role in the nation’s efforts to improve energy efficiency of existing buildings.

Belzer, David B.

2009-04-03

212

Potential biochemical markers for selection of disease resistance in Vigna radiata  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek (Green gram), a major pulse crop is prone to damaging diseases caused by Erysiphe polygoni, Cercospora canescens and Rhizoctonia sp. Therefore, the development of multiple resistance is a major breeding objective in green gram. Resistance to powdery mildew has already been developed, however, there are no reports on the development of resistance to Cercospora in green gram. Owing to limitation of conventional screening methods, the improvement for multiple disease resistance is inadequate, in this crop. It needs an efficient and quick selection method, for screening the plant population at an early stage. It is well established that the resistant interaction, in plants, involves accumulation of antibiotic compound phytoalexin (Genestein in Vigna radiata) and induction of enzymes such as ?-1,3 gulcanase and Chitinases. These compounds are not only induced by pathogens but also pathogen-derived elicitors. These biochemical compounds can be used as resistance indicative biochemical markers for screening the natural or mutagen induced genetic diversity in populations of Vigna radiata in non-destructive manner. It, however, needs a systematic study of plant defense response. This paper deals with the response of resistant and susceptible cultivars of vigna radiata to Cercospora elicitor and development of non-destructive selection method for disease resistance. (author)

2001-01-01

213

Prolonged cultivation of hippocampal neural precursor cells shifts their differentiation potential and selects for aneuploid cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Neural precursor cells (NPCs) are lineage-restricted neural stem cells with limited selfrenewal, giving rise to a broad range of neural cell types, such as neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Despite this developmental potential, the differentiation capacity of NPCs has been controversially discussed concerning the trespassing of lineage restrictions, for instance resulting in hematopoietic competence. Assessing their in vitro plasticity, we isolated Nestin+/Sox2+, NPCs from the adult murine hippocampus. In vitro-expanded, adult NPCs were able to form neurospheres, self-renew and differentiate into neuronal, astrocytic and oligodendrocytic cells. Although NPCs cultivated at early passage efficiently gave rise to neuronal cells in a directed differentiation assay, extensively cultivated NPCs revealed reduced potential for ectodermal differentiation. We further observed successful differentiation of long-term cultured NPCs into osteogenic and adipogenic cell types, suggesting that NPCs underwent a fate switch during culture. NPCs cultivated for more than 12 passages were aneuploid (abnormal chromosome numbers such as 70 chromosomes). Furthermore, they showed growth factor-independent proliferation, a hallmark of tumorigenic transformation. In conclusion, our findings substantiate the lineage restriction of neural precursor cells from adult mammalian hippocampus. Prolonged cultivation results, however, in enhanced differentiation potential which may be attributed to transformation events leading to aneuploid cells.

Nguyen TD; Widera D; Greiner J; Müller J; Martin I; Slotta C; Hauser S; Kaltschmidt C; Kaltschmidt B

2013-10-01

214

The method of assessment of solar potential for selected area with use Geographical Information Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes a method for analyse the spatial distribution of solar energy potential based on calculated solar irradiation with use of GIS (Geographical Information System). Program GIS GRASS gives opportunity to create spatial distribution of solar radiation which is taking into account such important elements like: terrain, atmosphere, pollutants, water and aerosol in atmosphere, clouds. The use of GIS GRASS module - named r.sun gives opportunity to generate spatial distribution of solar radiation on Lower Silesia (south - west part of Poland). In this work the analyse of solar potential to obtain hot water in the individual household were done. This analyse was based on the amount of total solar radiation monthly sums generated by r.sun module. Spatial distribution of solar potential was used to classify the Lower Silesia region in terms of work efficiency solar installations. It is very usefully because it gives people information about the date of the return of the funds invested in the purchase of the solar collectors.

Pietras, M.; Netzel, P.

2012-10-01

215

Ozone exposure - areas of potential ozone risk for selected tree species in Austria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Increased tropospheric ozone concentrations cause damage to both human health and the environment. To assess the exposure of forest areas and selected tree species to ozone, it is necessary to calculate the ozone exposure distribution. The present article describes the application of an ozone interpolation model to the calculation of the ozone exposure distribution in combination with forest inventory data. The exposure of forest regions to ozone was assessed by means of an AOT40 map (accumulated ozone exposure over a threshold of 40 ppb). The calculation was performed by hourly running of the model during the summer term and accumulation of the patterns that exceeded 40 ppb. The exposure of the primary Austrian tree species to ozone can be assessed due to the spatial relation of ozone exposure and tree species patterns. This spatial relation also allows the verification of assumptions concerning ozone-related tree damage. (orig.)

Loibl, W. [Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf (Austria). Environmental Planning Dept.; Smidt, S. [Federal Forest Research Centre, Vienna (Austria). Inst. of Air-Pollution Research and Forest Chemistry

1996-12-31

216

Monitoring injury reporting in selected Australian media: a potential advocacy strategy?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ISSUE ADDRESSED: This review of injury articles describes how selected primary print media sources in Australia report injury events and explores how this may impact on public perception of the injury risk and the opportunities it may present to health professionals. METHODS: Media articles specific to injury, compiled by the Public Health Advocacy Institute of Western Australia (PHAIWA) through their MediaWatch service during 2011, were collated and analysed. Articles were gathered from The West Australian, The Australian and The Sunday Times newspapers and ABC Online. Each article was categorised into injury topics and target groups, and preventive strategies were identified. RESULTS: Of the 546 articles that contained injury as a key word, 424 articles were used for the present study. The majority of articles related to community-based injuries (65%) and the most frequent reported injury was violence and assault. The results also indicate that although there is regular media reporting on injury issues, only one-fifth of reports discuss possible preventive measures. CONCLUSIONS: Selected Australian newspapers and the ABC Online are important and low-cost sources of injury-related information for the general public and can impact how the public perceives injury. It is important for public health professionals to embrace media advocacy strategies to assist in influencing and setting local public policy. So what? Public attitudes and understanding of issues are influenced by media coverage. Media monitoring is one tool to track what media sources are reporting about public health issues, the industry and stakeholders. Influencing the quantity and quality of media coverage is critical to advancing healthy public policy, particularly when advocating for prevention strategies to be reported and acted upon. Advocacy is an important health promotion strategy; it is therefore important for health professionals to understand media advocacy and position public health issues as societal issues with policy solutions.

Stoneham M; Boss A; Daube M

2013-04-01

217

Potential of Mean Force Calculations for Ion Selectivity in a Cyclic Peptide Nanotube  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ion selectivity in a simple cyclic peptide nanotube, composed of four cyclo[-(D-Ala-Glu-D-Ala-Gln)2-] units, is investigated by calculating the PMF profiles of Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, and Cl. ions permeating through the peptide nanotube in water. The final PMF profiles of the ions obtained from the umbrella sampling (US) method show an excellent agreement with those from the thermodynamic integration (TI) method. The PMF profiles of Na{sup +} and K{sup +} display free energy wells while the PMF curve of Cl{sup -} features free energy barriers, indicating the selectivity of the cyclic peptide nanotube to cations. Decomposition of the total mean force into the contribution from each component in the system is also accomplished by using the TI method. The mean force decomposition profiles of Na{sup +} and K{sup +} demonstrate that the dehydration free energy barriers by water molecules near the channel entrance and inside the channel are completely compensated for by attractive electrostatic interactions between the cations and carbonyl oxygens in the nanotube. In the case of Cl{sup -}, the dehydration free energy barriers are not eliminated by an interaction between the anion and the peptide nanotube, leading to the high free energy barriers in the PMF profile. Calculations of the coordination numbers of the ions with oxygen atoms pertaining to either water molecules or carbonyl groups in the peptide nanotube reveal that the stabilization of the cations in the midplane regions of the nanotube arises from the favorable interaction of the cations with the negatively charged carbonyl oxygens

Choi, Kyu Min; Kwon, Chan Ho; Kim, Hong Lae; Hwang, Hyon Seok [Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

2012-03-15

218

Neutron scattering studies of methyl derivatives of benzene selected as potential materials for cold neutron moderators  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Vibrational spectra of toluene, m- and p-xylenes and mesitylene, measured by inelastic incoherent neutron scattering at 20 K, are compared. Internal barriers for methyl rotation in free molecules of these compounds are quite low. External barriers caused by crystal packing significantly increase the frequencies of methyl librations in solid p-xylene and the low temperature phase III of mesitylene. The vibrational spectra of glassy states of mesitylene in solution with toluene and m-xylene indicate relatively low barriers for methyl librations and, typical for disordered solids, additional density of states at low frequencies, which makes these materials preferable as potential moderators for cold neutron sources.

Natkaniec, Ireneusz; Holderna-Natkaniec, Krystyna; Kalus, Jurgen

2004-07-15

219

Selecting biological meaningful environmental dimensions of low discrepancy among ranges to predict potential distribution of Bean plataspid invasion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The Bean plataspid (Megacopta cribraria) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), native to Asia, is becoming an invasive species in North America; its potential spread to soybean producing areas in the US is of great concern. Ecological niche modelling (ENM) has been used increasingly in predicting invasive species' potential distribution; however, poor niche model transferability was sometimes reported, leading to the artifactual conclusion of niche differentiation during species' invasion. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPALS: We aim to improve the geographical transferability of ENM via environmental variable selection to predict the potential distribution of Bean plataspid invasion. Sixteen environmental dimensions between native and introduced Bean plataspid populations were compared, and classified into two datasets with different degrees of discrepancy by the interquartile range (IQR) overlap in boxplot. Niche models based on these two datasets were compared in native model prediction and invading model projection. Classical niche model approaches (i.e., model calibrated on native range and transferred outside) were used to anticipate the potential distribution of Bean plataspid invasion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Niche models based on the two datasets showed little difference in native model predictions; however, when projecting onto the introduced area, models based on the environmental datasets showing low discrepancy among ranges recovered good model transferability in predicting the newly established population of Bean plataspid in the US. Recommendations were made for selecting biological meaningful environmental dimensions of low discrepancy among ranges to improve niche model transferability among these geographically separated areas. Outside of its native range, areas with invasion potential include the southeastern US in North America, southwestern Europe, southeastern South America, southern Africa, and the eastern coastal Australia.

Zhu G; Petersen MJ; Bu W

2012-01-01

220

Energy performance contracting - energy saving potential of selected energy conservation measures (ECM)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report has been developed under the research project 'Etablering af grundlag for energitjenester i Danmark' (project number: ENS-33031-0185) under the Danish research programme - EFP. The objective of this project has been to contribute to the utilisation of the large potential for energy conservations in the building sector within the public, industry and service sectors through the development of a better basis for decision making for both the Energy Service Companies (ESCOes) and the building owners. The EU directive on Energy Service Contracting points at the buildings as the area where the biggest potential market for energy services and energy efficiency improvements are. The EFP-project has two parts: (1) A Danish part and (2) participation in the international cooperation project 'Holistic Assesment Tool-Kit on Energy Efficient Retrofit Measures for Government Buildings (EnERGo)', Annex 46 under the IEA R and D program 'Energy Conservation In Buildings And Community Systems' (ECBCS). This report describes the Danish contributions to the IEA projects subtask B, which has a primary objective to develop a database of energy conservation measures (ECM) with descriptions and performance characteristics of these. (au)

Johansson, M. (Dansk Energi Analyse A/S, Frederiksberg (Denmark)); Langkilde, G.; Olesen, Bjarne W. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, ICIEE, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Moerck, O. (Cenergia Energy Consultants, Herlev (Denmark)); Sundman, O. (DONG Energy, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Engelund Thomsen, K. (Aalborg Univ., SBi, Hoersholm (Denmark))

2008-09-15

 
 
 
 
221

Selection of potential antagonists against asparagus crown and root rot caused by Fusarium spp.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Crown and root rot is one of the most important diseases of asparagus crop worldwide. Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. asparagi and F. proliferatum are the two species more frequently associated to this complex and their prevalence depends on the production area. The control of the disease on asparagus crop is difficult to achieve because its perennial condition and the long survival of the pathogen in the soil as chlamydospores or as mycelium in infected plant debris. Furthermore, Fusarium spp. are easily disseminated with asparagus propagation materials. Thus, control measures should aim at obtaining seedlings protection for longer than achieved with conventional pre-planting chemical treatments. The effectiveness of fungal antagonists on the control of diseases caused by soil borne fungi has been reported. The potential of Trichoderma spp. as a biological control agent against diseases caused by Fusarium spp. in tomato and asparagus has been studied . It has been suggested that microorganisms isolated from the root or rhizosphere of a specific crop may be better adapted to that crop and may provide better disease control than organisms originally isolated from other plant species. The objective of this work was the evaluation of the potential of fungal isolates from symptomless asparagus plants as biocontrol agents of Fusarium crown and root rot.

Rubio-Pérez E; Molinero-Ruiz ML; Melero-Vara JM; Basallote-Ureba MJ

2008-01-01

222

Potential and limitations of multidecadal satellite soil moisture observations for selected climate model evaluation studies  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil moisture is an essential climate variable (ECV) of major importance for land-atmosphere interactions and global hydrology. An appropriate representation of soil moisture dynamics in global climate models is therefore important. Recently, a first multidecadal, observation-based soil moisture dataset has become available that provides information on soil moisture dynamics from satellite observations (ECVSM, essential climate variable soil moisture). The present study investigates the potential and limitations of this new dataset for several applications in climate model evaluation. We compare soil moisture data from satellite observations, reanalysis and simulations from a state-of-the-art land surface model and analyze relationships between soil moisture and precipitation anomalies in the different dataset. Other potential applications like model parameter optimization or model initialization are not investigated in the present study. In a detailed regional study, we show that ECVSM is capable to capture well the interannual and intraannual soil moisture and precipitation dynamics in the Sahelian region. Current deficits of the new dataset are critically discussed and summarized at the end of the paper to provide guidance for an appropriate usage of the ECVSM dataset for climate studies.

Loew, A.; Stacke, T.; Dorigo, W.; de Jeu, R.; Hagemann, S.

2013-09-01

223

WOUND HEALING ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL POTENTIALS OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS USED BY MALAYALI TRIBES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Healing chronic lower extremity wound is a problem worldwide, especially in developing countries. Aim of the present study is to document the traditional knowledge base / medicinal plants pertinent to healing wound popular among Malayali’s in Vattal Hills, Dharmapuri, Tamilnadu, India. Malayali’s in this area use a large number of plants extracts/ decoctions/ pastes to heal wound/ cut. Further, many of the plants used by Malayali’s have not been validated for their wound healing potential. The investigation resulted in the identification of 82 medicinal plants across 39 families to heal wound/cut. Maximum remedies were obtained from herbs (40%) followed by trees (31%) > shrubs (18%) > climbers (10%) and straggler (1%). Most of the healing aliments use leaves (30%) followed by whole plant (16%) > root (15%) > seed (11%) > fruit (10%) > stem (14%) > flower (4%). Further, external application of herbal formulations outnumbered oral consumption to promote wound healing.

Ramya Subramanian; Gopinath Krishnasamy; Aruna Devaraj; Padmavathy Sethuraman; Ramaraj Jayakumararaj

2011-01-01

224

Predicting response to bevacizumab in ovarian cancer: a panel of potential biomarkers informing treatment selection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify and validate novel predictive and/or prognostic serum proteomic biomarkers in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) treated as part of the phase III international ICON7 clinical trial. Experimental design: ICON7 demonstrated a modest but statistically significant benefit in progression-free survival with the addition of bevacizumab to standard chemotherapy. Serum samples from 10 patients who received bevacizumab (5 responders, 5 non-responders) were analysed by mass spectrometry to identify candidate biomarkers. Initial validation by immunoassay across both arms of the trial was undertaken in an independent cohort of 92 patients, followed by a second independent cohort of 115 patients. RESULTS: Three candidate biomarkers were identified, mesothelin, fms-like tyrosine kinase-4 (FLT4) and 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP). Each showed evidence of independent prognostic potential when adjusting for high risk status in initial (p<0.02) and combined (p<0.01) validation cohorts. In cohort I individual biomarkers were not predictive of bevacizumab benefit; however, when combined with CA-125, a signature was developed that was predictive of bevacizumab response and discriminated benefit attributable to bevacizumab better than clinical characteristics. The signature showed weaker evidence of predictive ability in validation cohort II, but was still strongly predictive considering all samples (p=0.001), with an improvement in median PFS of 5.5 months in signature-positive patients in the experimental arm compared to standard arm. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a discriminatory four protein signature as potentially identifying those patients with EOC more likely to benefit from bevacizumab. These results require validation in further patient cohorts.

Collinson F; Hutchinson M; Craven R; Cairns DA; Zougman A; Wind T; Gahir N; Messenger M; Jackson S; Thompson D; Adusei C; Lederman J; Hall GD; Jayson GC; Selby PJ; Banks RE

2013-08-01

225

Serologic survey for selected arboviruses and other potential pathogens in wildlife from Mexico.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During 1988 and 1989, a serologic survey of wildlife was conducted in northeastern Mexico to determine the presence, prevalence, and distribution of arboviruses and other selected disease agents. Eighty mammal specimens were tested. Antibodies to vesicular stomatitis-Indiana, Venezuelan equine encephalitis-Mena II, Rio Grande virus, and vesicular stomatitis-New Jersey were detected predominantly in small mammals. Deer and mouflon (Ovis musimon) had antibodies to bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease. Two species had serologic evidence of recent exposure to Francisella tularensis. A white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) had antibodies to Anaplasma marginale. All specimens tested for antibodies against Yersinia pestis and Brucella abortus were negative. Sera from 315 birds were tested for antibody against five equine encephalitis viruses and six avian pathogens. During 1988, antibodies to Venezuelan equine encephalitis-Mena II, Venezuelan equine encephalitis-TC83, St. Louis encephalitis, eastern equine encephalitis, and western equine encephalitis were detected in birds of several species. Antibodies to Pasteurella multocida and Newcastle disease virus were also detected. Birds from five species presented antibodies to Mycoplasma meleagridis. Specimens tested for M. gallisepticum, M. synoviae, and Chlamydia psittaci were negative. To the best of our knowledge, this survey represents the first serologic evidence of bluetongue, Cache Valley virus, epizootic hemorrhagic disease, Jamestown Canyon virus, vesicular stomatitis-Indiana, vesicular stomatitis-New Jersey, Rio Grande virus, and tularemia reported among wildlife in Mexico.

Aguirre AA; McLean RG; Cook RS; Quan TJ

1992-07-01

226

Cultivar variation and selection potential relevant to the production of cellulosic ethanol from wheat straw  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Optimizing cellulosic ethanol yield depends strongly on understanding the biological variation of feedstocks. Our objective was to study variation in capacity for producing fermentable sugars from straw of winter wheat cultivars with a high-throughput pretreatment and hydrolysis well-plate technique. This technique enabled us to estimate cultivar-related and environmental correlations between sugar yield, chemical composition, agronomic qualities, and distribution of botanical plant parts of wheat straw cultivars. Straws from 20 cultivars were collected in duplicates on two sites in Denmark. Following hydrothermal pretreatment (180 °C for 17.6 min) and co-hydrolysis, sugar release and sugar conversion were measured. Up to 26% difference in sugar release between cultivars was observed. Sugar release showed negative cultivar correlation with lignin and ash content, whereas sugar release showed positive cultivar correlation with content of carbohydrates and plant height. Accessibility to cellulose can impede thesugar conversion rate, and convertibility of each botanical fraction might be more important to overall sugar conversion than the relative proportions of botanical fractions. Our results suggest that selection of cultivars for improved biofuel feedstock of wheat straw is possible, because heritability of sugar release is 57% and there are few adverse correlations to other agronomic traits.

Lindedam, Jane; Andersen, Sven Bode

2012-01-01

227

Phytoremediation potential of Alocasia microrrhiza grown on soil collected from selected dumpsites in Ekiti State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of enhanced phytoextraction on the accumulation of heavy metals by Alocasia microrrhiza cultivated on soil collected from selected dumpsites in Ekiti State, Nigeria. The application of 1g/kg EDTA decreased the heights of plants relative to control, but significantly increased the concentration of heavy metals in various tissues of the plant. Notably, concentration of Pb and Cu were greater than the threshold value of 100mg/kg, indicative of the fact that Alocasia microrrhiza could be a good candidate for Pb and Cuphytoextraction. BF, TF and RR values (1.1–1.6), (4.3-4.8) and (1.4–2.3) revealed the effectiveness of the plant to translocate Pb and Cu to their harvestable portion. RRs values greater than one also indicated the efficiency of plant under chelate-induced phytoextraction. However, the concentration of heavy metals did not vary significantly at p < 0.05 (LSD test) in all dumpsites investigated.

Asaolu S. S.; Awokunmi E. E.; Ajayi O. O.; Adebayo O. A.

2013-01-01

228

Antiplasmodial potential of selected medicinal plants from eastern Ghats of South India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malaria caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is a major health problem of the developing world. In the present study medicinal plants from Eastern Ghats of South India have been extracted with ethyl acetate and assayed for growth inhibition of asexual erythrocytic stages of chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive (3D7) and (CQ)-resistant (INDO) strains of P. falciparum in culture using the fluorescence-based SYBR Green I assay. Studied extracts showed a spectrum of antiplasmodial activities ranging from (a) very good (IC(50)10-15 ?g/mL: Ficus religiosa and Murraya koenigii); (c) moderate (IC(50)>15-25 ?g/mL: Ficus benghalensis); (d) poor activity (IC(50)>25-60 ?g/mL) and (e) inactive (IC(50)>60 ?g/mL). Resistance indices ranging from 0.78 to 1.28 suggest that some of these extracts had equal promise against the CQ resistant INDO strain of P. falciparum. Cytotoxicity assessment of the extracts against HeLa cell line using MTT assay revealed that the selectivity indices in the range of 3-15 suggesting a good margin of safety. PMID:23399920

Kaushik, Naveen Kumar; Bagavan, Asokan; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Mohanakrishnan, Dinesh; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Elango, Gandhi; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Sahal, Dinkar

2013-02-09

229

Antiplasmodial potential of selected medicinal plants from eastern Ghats of South India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Malaria caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is a major health problem of the developing world. In the present study medicinal plants from Eastern Ghats of South India have been extracted with ethyl acetate and assayed for growth inhibition of asexual erythrocytic stages of chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive (3D7) and (CQ)-resistant (INDO) strains of P. falciparum in culture using the fluorescence-based SYBR Green I assay. Studied extracts showed a spectrum of antiplasmodial activities ranging from (a) very good (IC(50)<10-10 ?g/mL: Cyperus rotundus and Zingiber officinale); (b) good (IC(50), >10-15 ?g/mL: Ficus religiosa and Murraya koenigii); (c) moderate (IC(50)>15-25 ?g/mL: Ficus benghalensis); (d) poor activity (IC(50)>25-60 ?g/mL) and (e) inactive (IC(50)>60 ?g/mL). Resistance indices ranging from 0.78 to 1.28 suggest that some of these extracts had equal promise against the CQ resistant INDO strain of P. falciparum. Cytotoxicity assessment of the extracts against HeLa cell line using MTT assay revealed that the selectivity indices in the range of 3-15 suggesting a good margin of safety.

Kaushik NK; Bagavan A; Rahuman AA; Mohanakrishnan D; Kamaraj C; Elango G; Zahir AA; Sahal D

2013-05-01

230

POLYGONATUM VERTICILLATUM (LINN.) ALL. AND POLYGONATUM CIRRHIFOLIUM (WALL.) ROYLE: TWO THREATENED VITAL HEALERS FROM ASTHAVERGA NURTURED BY GARHWAL HIMALAYA, INDIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The biodiversity of Garhwal Himalaya supports a large number of medicinal plants used in various ailments as a drug. Polygonatum verticillatum and Polygonatum cirrhifolium, the healers from 'Asthaverga' of 'Ayurveda', are reported from Garhwal Himalaya, but due to overexploitation are encompassed in threatened category. The present study is a documentation of these plants to facilitate the conservation of these crude drugs in their natural habitat and to domesticate them. The study also provides information regarding the resident’s outlook, living in surrounding area of these species, towards these species.

BISHT POONAM; PRASAD PRATTI; NAUTIYAL BHAGWATI PRASAD

2011-01-01

231

Preliminary evaluation for cancer chemopreventive and cytotoxic potential of naturally growing ethnobotanically selected plants of Pakistan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: Natural products are a very productive source of leads for the development of medicines. Six Pakistani plants were chosen for study based on ethnobotanical data. OBJECTIVE: Exploration of important medicinal plants of Pakistan for cancer treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The crude extracts of the six plants and their fractions were tested for inhibition of nuclear factor ?B (NF?B), aromatase, and nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells, induction of quinone reductase 1 (QR1), agonism of retinoid X receptor, and growth inhibition with MCF-7, LU-1 and MDA-MB-231 cancer cells. RESULTS: Two samples of Withania coagulans (Stocks) Dunal (Solanaceae) demonstrated inhibition of TNF-? induced activity of NF?B with IC?? values of 2.6 and 4.3 µg/mL, respectively. Two fractions from W. coagulans and Euphorbia wallichii Hook F. (Euphorbiaceae) aerial parts inhibited aromatase with IC?? values of 17.0 and 17.7 µg/mL, respectively. A total of 13 samples (five from E. wallichii, one from Acer oblongifolium Hort. ex Dippel (Aceraceae), one from Aster thomsonii C. B. Clarke (Asteraceae) and six from W. coagulans aerial parts with fruits) inhibited NO production with IC?? values ranging from 1.3 to 15.6 µg/mL. Fourteen samples demonstrated induction of QR1 with CD ranging from 1.0 to 20.6 µg/mL, and a total of eight extracts and fractions inhibited the proliferation of cancer cells in culture with IC?? values ranging from 1.2 to 7.8 µg/mL. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Selected plants can be a valuable source of chemopreventive and anticancer products. W. coagulans aerial parts showed the strongest activity.

Ihsan-ul-Haq; Mirza B; Kondratyuk TP; Park EJ; Burns BE; Marler LE; Pezzuto JM

2013-03-01

232

Synthesis and biological evaluation of halogenated curcumin analogs as potential nuclear receptor selective agonists.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This report describes the synthesis of analogs of curcumin, and their analysis in acting as nuclear receptor specific agonists. Curcumin (CM), a turmeric-derived bioactive polyphenol found in curry, has recently been identified as a ligand for the vitamin D receptor (VDR), and it is possible that CM exerts some of its bioeffects via direct binding to VDR and/or other proteins in the nuclear receptor superfamily. Using mammalian-two-hybrid (M2H) and vitamin D responsive element (VDRE) biological assay systems, we tested CM and 11 CM synthetic analogs for their ability to activate VDR signaling. The M2H assay revealed that RXR and VDR association was induced by CM and several of its analogs. VDRE-based assays demonstrated that pure curcumin and eight CM analogs activated transcription of a luciferase plasmid at levels approaching that of the endocrine 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25D) ligand in human colon cancer cells (HCT-116). Additional experiments were performed in HCT-116 utilizing various nuclear receptors and hormone responsive elements to determine the receptor specificity of curcumin binding. CM did not appear to activate transcription in a glucocorticoid responsive system. However, CM along with several analogs elicited transcriptional activation in retinoic acid and retinoid X receptor (RXR) responsive systems. M2H assays using RXR-RXR, VDR-SRC1 and VDR-DRIP revealed that CM and select analogs stimulate RXR homodimerization and VDR-coactivator interactions. These studies may lead to the discovery of novel curcumin analogs that activate nuclear receptors, including RXR, RAR and VDR, resulting in similar health benefits as those for vitamins A and D, such as lowering the risk of epithelial and colon cancers.

Batie S; Lee JH; Jama RA; Browder DO; Montano LA; Huynh CC; Marcus LM; Tsosie DG; Mohammed Z; Trang V; Marshall PA; Jurutka PW; Wagner CE

2013-02-01

233

Role of heterogeneous catalysis in the gas-sensing selectivity of high-temperature mixed potential sensors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The sensitivity of a mixed potential electrochemical sensor is determined by the concentration of the analyte gas at the gas/electrode/electrolyte interface. These concentrations, along with the kinetic properties of the three-phase interface and oxygen partial pressure, establish the mixed potential generated by the device. The selectivity of mixed potential sensors is therefore strongly influenced by the heterogeneous catalytic properties of the surfaces that closely surround the sensor including: the metal oxide electrode, solid electrolyte, other components of the sensor body, and the sensor enclosure. Analysis of the change in CO, C3H6, and C3H8 concentration using gas chromatography shows that the observed preferential sensitivity of a LaCrO3//YSZ//Pt bulk mixed potential sensor towards C3H8 is largely due to heterogeneous catalysis of the C3H6 on the sensor body, which in this work, is YSZ. By blocking YSZ heterogeneous catalysis by using a coating of thick Au, the sensor exhibits nearly identical sensitivity to both C3H6 and C3H8. Although a similar amount of heterogeneous catalytic oxidation of CO takes place, the LaCrO3//YSZ//Pt sensor exhibits only a small response to CO and this therefore may be associated with the electrode kinetics and electrocatalytic properties of the sensor interface towards the electro-oxidation of the CO. Data for HC and CO selectivity will be presented at 1% O2 / 12% CO2 / N2 and at temperatures between 550 and 600 C.

Brosha, E. L. (Eric L.); Mukundan, R. (Rangachary); Garzón F., Fernando

2002-01-01

234

Selection of potential cold water marine species for testing of oil dispersants, and chemically dispersed oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study regarding marine species for toxicity testing for Alaska conditions was presented and the potential adverse impacts of a large marine oil spill in cold water were discussed with the objective to determine if the spill should be treated by the use of oil dispersants. Without dispersion, the oil can pollute marine epifauna and can deposit on beaches. The decision to apply dispersants to a marine oil spill requires knowledge of the toxicity of the undispersed oil to pelagic marine life occurring via natural dispersion as opposed to the toxicity of the oil-dispersant mixture. Most standard toxicity tests apply to warm water species. This paper discussed the need to have a standard test species relevant to Alaska waters for toxicity testing. In this study, toxicity testing was done according to the methods of the Chemical Response to Oil Spills : Ecological Effects Research Forum (CROSERF). The testing included capturing adult species in the winter and holding them until larval hatching. Toxicity testing was completed in a narrow time frame before hatching ceased. Many chemical samples were tested. Topsmelt, urchins, shellfish, mysids, copepods, pink salmon fry, and tidepool sculpin were considered by the author to be the most useful for certain types of toxicity testing. 29 refs.

Perkins, R.A. [Alaska Univ., Fairbanks, AK (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

2000-07-01

235

Selection of potential cold water marine species for testing of oil dispersants, and chemically dispersed oil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study regarding marine species for toxicity testing for Alaska conditions was presented and the potential adverse impacts of a large marine oil spill in cold water were discussed with the objective to determine if the spill should be treated by the use of oil dispersants. Without dispersion, the oil can pollute marine epifauna and can deposit on beaches. The decision to apply dispersants to a marine oil spill requires knowledge of the toxicity of the undispersed oil to pelagic marine life occurring via natural dispersion as opposed to the toxicity of the oil-dispersant mixture. Most standard toxicity tests apply to warm water species. This paper discussed the need to have a standard test species relevant to Alaska waters for toxicity testing. In this study, toxicity testing was done according to the methods of the Chemical Response to Oil Spills : Ecological Effects Research Forum (CROSERF). The testing included capturing adult species in the winter and holding them until larval hatching. Toxicity testing was completed in a narrow time frame before hatching ceased. Many chemical samples were tested. Topsmelt, urchins, shellfish, mysids, copepods, pink salmon fry, and tidepool sculpin were considered by the author to be the most useful for certain types of toxicity testing. 29 refs.

2000-01-01

236

Potential contribution of selected canopy traits to the tolerance of foliar disease by spring barley  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A model of canopy photosynthesis and above-ground growth rate was used to investigate the potential impact of several canopy traits on tolerance of foliar disease by barley. Disease tolerance was defined as the reduction in predicted crop dry-matter growth rate per unit of visible disease symptoms. The traits were canopy area (leaf area index, LAI), light extinction coefficient (k) and the ratio of virtual to visible lesion size (?). The effects of altering the area of the healthy flag leaf and its light-saturated rate of photosynthesis (Pmax) in response to disease elsewhere on the plant were also investigated. The model was parameterized for spring barley and run with a solar radiation and temperature regime typical of north-east Scotland. Predicted reductions in growth rate per unit increase in disease were greatest at high disease severity and when disease was distributed relatively uniformly through the canopy. Tolerance was increased by increasing LAI to >3 and k to >0·3, but the beneficial effects depended on the severity and, to a lesser extent, the distribution of disease. Tolerance was reduced by increasing ?. A sensitivity analysis performed at a single disease severity and distribution showed that tolerance was most sensitive to variations in ? and compensatory adjustments in area and Pmax of the flag leaf, and least sensitive to whole canopy LAI and k. Future research should quantify the genetic variation in these traits within barley germplasm to evaluate the scope for improving the disease tolerance of spring barley.

Bingham IJ; Topp CFE

2009-12-01

237

Investigation of greenhouse gas reduction potential and change in technological selection in Indian power sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to the growing energy needs along with increasing concerns towards control of greenhouse gas emissions, most developing countries are under pressure to find alternative methods for energy conversion and policies to make these technologies economically viable. One of the instruments that have been adopted by many industrial countries is that of the carbon tax. The rate of introducing carbon taxes however, depends upon the local economic conditions and market forces. The case of Indian power sector has been examined by using MARKAL model for introduction of carbon taxes at four different trajectories. Their implications on the power generation choices have been investigated for a time span of 25 years from the year 2000. In general large hydropower plants have emerged as the first choice followed by wind energy systems. However, cheaper availability of coal in India keeps scope of use of coal based technologies for which pressurised fluidised bed combustion technology has been found to be the balanced choice among fossil technologies. There exists a potential of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by about 25% as compared to the 'business-as-usual' case in presence of high carbon tax rates.

2003-01-01

238

Quinolinic acid selectively induces apoptosis of human astrocytes: potential role in AIDS dementia complex  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract There is evidence that the kynurenine pathway (KP) and particularly one of its end products, quinolinic acid (QUIN) play a role in the pathogenesis of several major neuroinflammatory diseases, and more particularly AIDS dementia complex (ADC). We hypothesized that QUIN may be involved in astrocyte apoptosis because: 1) apoptotic astrocytes have been observed in the brains of ADC patients, 2) ADC patients have elevated cerebrospinal fluid QUIN concentrations, and 3) QUIN can induce astrocyte death. Primary cultures of human fetal astrocytes were treated with three pathophysiological concentrations of QUIN. Numeration of apoptotic cells was assessed using double immunocytochemistry for expression of active caspase 3 and for nucleus condensation. We found that treatment of human astrocytes with QUIN induced morphological (cell body shrinking) and biochemical changes (nucleus condensation and over-expression of active caspase 3) of apoptosis. After 24 hours of treatment with QUIN 500 nM and 1200 nM respectively 10 and 14% of astrocytes were undergoing apoptosis. This would be expected to lead to a relative lack of trophic support factors with consequent neuronal dysfunction and possibly death. Astroglial apoptosis induced by QUIN provides another potential mechanism for the neurotoxicity of QUIN during ADC.

Guillemin Gilles J; Wang Lily; Brew Bruce J

2005-01-01

239

Pramlintide, an amylin analog, selectively delays gastric emptying: potential role of vagal inhibition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The amylin analog pramlintide delays gastric emptying in type I diabetics. The effects of multiple doses of pramlintide and the mechanism of action in non-amylin-deficient humans are unknown. We investigated the effects of pramlintide on gastrointestinal and colonic transit and on the plasma pancreatic polypeptide response to the meal in a parallel-group dose-response study with subjects randomized to placebo, or 30 or 60 microg (tid, sc) of pramlintide. Pramlintide delayed gastric emptying [half-time (t(1/2)): 112 min (SE 8.7 min), 169 min (SE 12 min), or 177 min (SE 25 min) after placebo or 30- or 60-microg pramlintide treatment, respectively; P = 0.033]. Pramlintide did not significantly affect small bowel or colonic transit. Pancreatic polypeptide concentrations in the first postprandial hour were lower with pramlintide than with placebo (P<0.01 for drug effect). An inverse correlation was observed between mean pancreatic polypeptide concentrations in the first postprandial hour and gastric emptying t(1/2) [Spearman correlation coefficient (R(s)) = 0.48; P = 0.044]. Pramlintide at 30 and 60 microg delays gastric emptying in healthy humans without affecting small bowel or colonic transit. Vagal inhibition is a potential mechanism of the effects of pramlintide on gastric emptying.

Samsom M; Szarka LA; Camilleri M; Vella A; Zinsmeister AR; Rizza RA

2000-06-01

240

Antioxidant activity of selected plant species; potential new sources of natural antioxidants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to examine six plants from Serbia for their potential antioxidant activity. Therefore, six antioxidant activity assays were carried out, including: total antioxidant capacity, DPPH free-radical scavenging, the inhibitory activity toward lipid peroxidation, Fe(3+)- reducing power, Fe(2+)- chelating ability and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also determined for each alcoholic extract. Cotinus coggygria extract contained the highest amount of total phenols (413mg GAE /g dry extract), while the highest proportion of flavonoids was found in the Echium vulgare methanol extract (105 mg RU/g). Cotinus coggygria and Halacsya sendtneri alcoholic extracts showed the highest total antioxidant capacity (313 and 231 mg AA/g dry extract), as well as DPPH free-radical scavenging (IC(50)=9 and 99 ?g/ml), inhibitory activity toward lipid peroxidation (IC(50)=3 and 17 ?g/ml) and reducing power. Whereas, the greatest hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, as well as ferrous ion chelating ability showed Echium vulgare, Echium rubrum and Halacsya sendtneri.

Ni?iforovi? N; Mihailovi? V; Maskovi? P; Soluji? S; Stojkovi? A; Pavlovi? Muratspahi? D

2010-11-01

 
 
 
 
241

Antioxidant activity of selected plant species; potential new sources of natural antioxidants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to examine six plants from Serbia for their potential antioxidant activity. Therefore, six antioxidant activity assays were carried out, including: total antioxidant capacity, DPPH free-radical scavenging, the inhibitory activity toward lipid peroxidation, Fe(3+)- reducing power, Fe(2+)- chelating ability and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also determined for each alcoholic extract. Cotinus coggygria extract contained the highest amount of total phenols (413mg GAE /g dry extract), while the highest proportion of flavonoids was found in the Echium vulgare methanol extract (105 mg RU/g). Cotinus coggygria and Halacsya sendtneri alcoholic extracts showed the highest total antioxidant capacity (313 and 231 mg AA/g dry extract), as well as DPPH free-radical scavenging (IC(50)=9 and 99 ?g/ml), inhibitory activity toward lipid peroxidation (IC(50)=3 and 17 ?g/ml) and reducing power. Whereas, the greatest hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, as well as ferrous ion chelating ability showed Echium vulgare, Echium rubrum and Halacsya sendtneri. PMID:20728497

Ni?iforovi?, N; Mihailovi?, V; Maskovi?, P; Soluji?, S; Stojkovi?, A; Pavlovi? Muratspahi?, D

2010-08-20

242

Epidemiological study of chronic mountain sickness in natives of spiti valley in the greater himalayas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Negi, Prakash Chand, Sanjeev Asotra, Ravi Kumar, Rajeev Marwah, Arvind Kandoria, Neeraj Kumar Ganju, Rajesh Sharma, and Rajeev Bhardwaj. Epidemiological study of chronic mountain sickness in natives of Spiti Valley in the Greater Himalayas. High Alt Med Biol 14:220-229, 2013.-Aims: This study determined the prevalence of chronic mountain sickness (CMS) and its predisposing factors among natives of Spiti Valley in the northern state of Indian Himalayas. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in natives of Spiti Valley aged ?20 years residing at altitudes of 3000 to 4200 meters. CMS was diagnosed using Qinghai criteria. Demographics, behavioral characteristics, specified symptoms of CMS were recorded, including BP, anthropometrics, evidence of RHF, PAH, and severe cyanosis. ECG, echocardiography, PFT, and Sao2 were recorded, and Hb level was estimated with the cyanmethhemoglobin method. Results: 694 subjects free of cardiorespiratory diseases were analyzed. Prevalence of CMS was 28.7%, (95% C.I. of 25.9%-32.8%) and was higher in women than in men (36.6% vs. 15.7%, p<0.001). Erythrocythemia and hypoxemia were recorded in 10.5% and 7.5%, respectively. Age, truncal obesity, female gender, altitude of residence, and physical activity index were independent predictors of CMS with z statistics of 4.2, 2.29, -3.7, 2.8, and -2.8, respectively, and were statistically significant p<0.001. 6.2% of the surveyed population had HAPH. Conclusion: 28.7% (95% C.I. of 25.9%-32.8%) of the natives of the Spiti Valley in the Indian Himalayas are affected with CMS. Higher prevalence of CMS amongst women needs further studies. Westernized lifestyle appears to have predisposition to CMS. PMID:24067183

Negi, Prakash Chand; Asotra, Sanjeev; V, Ravi Kumar; Marwah, Rajeev; Kandoria, Arvind; Ganju, Neeraj Kumar; Sharma, Rajesh; Bhardwaj, Rajeev

2013-09-01

243

Epidemiological study of chronic mountain sickness in natives of spiti valley in the greater himalayas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Negi, Prakash Chand, Sanjeev Asotra, Ravi Kumar, Rajeev Marwah, Arvind Kandoria, Neeraj Kumar Ganju, Rajesh Sharma, and Rajeev Bhardwaj. Epidemiological study of chronic mountain sickness in natives of Spiti Valley in the Greater Himalayas. High Alt Med Biol 14:220-229, 2013.-Aims: This study determined the prevalence of chronic mountain sickness (CMS) and its predisposing factors among natives of Spiti Valley in the northern state of Indian Himalayas. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in natives of Spiti Valley aged ?20 years residing at altitudes of 3000 to 4200 meters. CMS was diagnosed using Qinghai criteria. Demographics, behavioral characteristics, specified symptoms of CMS were recorded, including BP, anthropometrics, evidence of RHF, PAH, and severe cyanosis. ECG, echocardiography, PFT, and Sao2 were recorded, and Hb level was estimated with the cyanmethhemoglobin method. Results: 694 subjects free of cardiorespiratory diseases were analyzed. Prevalence of CMS was 28.7%, (95% C.I. of 25.9%-32.8%) and was higher in women than in men (36.6% vs. 15.7%, p<0.001). Erythrocythemia and hypoxemia were recorded in 10.5% and 7.5%, respectively. Age, truncal obesity, female gender, altitude of residence, and physical activity index were independent predictors of CMS with z statistics of 4.2, 2.29, -3.7, 2.8, and -2.8, respectively, and were statistically significant p<0.001. 6.2% of the surveyed population had HAPH. Conclusion: 28.7% (95% C.I. of 25.9%-32.8%) of the natives of the Spiti Valley in the Indian Himalayas are affected with CMS. Higher prevalence of CMS amongst women needs further studies. Westernized lifestyle appears to have predisposition to CMS.

Negi PC; Asotra S; V RK; Marwah R; Kandoria A; Ganju NK; Sharma R; Bhardwaj R

2013-09-01

244

Recent temperature trends at mountain stations on the southern slope of the central Himalayas  

Science.gov (United States)

Insufficient long-term in situ observations and complex topographic conditions pose major problems in quantifying the magnitude of climatic trends in mountainous regions such as Nepal. Presented here is three decades (1980-2009) of data on annual maximum, minimum and average temperature trends from 13 mountain stations on the southern slope of the central Himalayas. The stations are located at elevations between 1304 and 2566 m above sea level and with varied topography. Spatial analyses of the average temperature trend show warming in most of the stations. The magnitude of warming is higher for maximum temperatures, while minimum temperatures exhibit larger variability such as positive, negative or no change. These results are consistent with patterns reported in some parts of the Indian subcontinent and Upper Indus Basin, but different from conditions on the Tibetan Plateau (China), where the warming of minimum temperatures is more prominent than that of the maximum temperatures. From the temporal variations, a dramatic increase in temperature is observed in the latest decade, particularly in the average and maximum temperatures. The results from the cumulative sum chart analyses suggest that the thermal regime shifted in 1997. The dramatic enhancement of average temperature in the last decade is strongly consistent with the result of contemporary studies of the surrounding regions, where warming is attributed to an increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gases. However, as in the western Himalayas and the Upper Indus Basin, the mountain stations on the southern slope of the central Himalayas show variability in temperature trends, particularly for the minimum temperature. This inhomogeneous trend is likely ascribed to the differences in topography and microclimatic regime of the observed stations.

Kattel, Dambaru Ballab; Yao, Tandong

2013-02-01

245

Aerosol optical properties variations over the southern and northern slopes of the Himalayas  

Science.gov (United States)

The Himalayas is the highest mountain on the earth. It blocks off the aerosols obviously, especially during the monsoon seasons. The aerosol optical properties derived from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) dataset over the southern (Pokhara station in Nepal and EVK2-CNR station in Nepal) and northern (Qomolangma(Mt. Everest) station (QOMS_CAS) in Tibet, China) slopes of the Himalayas are analyzed in this study. The low aerosol optical depth (AOD) at QOMS_CAS and EVK2-CNR indicates they are background sites in Himalaya regions. AOD at Pokhara is much higher than the former two sites with a seasonal variation pattern. This is maybe because Pokhara is more influenced by human activities and India summer monsoon. There are both fine and coarse particle mode aerosol in all three sites. Diurnal variation of AOD and Ångström exponent (AE) has a wide range at all three stations. QOMS_CAS mostly influenced by distant sources reveals AOD has no diurnal cycle in all seasons. Simultaneously, there are smaller particles in the morning and late afternoon, however, particles are larger at noon. The diurnal variation at Pokhara shows a higher AOD value in the morning and late afternoon, and reaches its minimum at noon except JJA (June to August). In all seasons, AOD at EVK2-CNR increases continuously during a day, and reaches maximum at late afternoon due to evolution of mountain-valley flows. AE indicating the particle size has no fixed mode at Pokhara and EVK2-CNR. The aerosols in the northern slope are mostly from distinct regions, and transport from the upper troposphere to atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) probably. The changes of ABL make no apparent effect on aerosol daytime variation. Conversely, the aerosols in the southern slope are mostly from local regions, and maybe spread upwards from the ground gradually. Atmospheric mixing layer height changes with the evolution of the ABL, which diffuses aerosols in the troposphere. Therefore, this process leads aerosol daytime variation.

Xu, Chao; Ma, Yaoming; Yang, Kun; Qin, Jun; Zhu, Zhikun

2013-04-01

246

[Selection of winter plant species for wetlands constructed as sewage treatment systems and evaluation of their wastewater purification potentials].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to establish an evaluation system for selection of winter wetland plants possessing high wastewater purification potentials in subtropics areas, designed sewage treatment experiments were carried out by introducing into the constructed wetlands 25 species of winter wetland plants. Cluster analysis was performed by including harmful environment-resistant enzyme and substrate enzyme activities into the commonly applied plant screening and assessment indexes system. The obtained results indicated that there were significant differences among the tested winter plants in their root length and vigor, leaf malonaldehyde (MDA), biomass, average nitrogen and phosphorus concentration and uptake, and urease and phosphoric acid enzyme activities in the root areas. Based on the established evaluation system, the tested plants were clustered into 3 groups. The plants in the 1st group possessing high purification potentials are Oenanthe javanica, Brassicacapestris, Juncus effusu, Saxifragaceae, Iris pseudoacorus, Osmanthus fragrans and Iris ensata; those in the 2nd group possessing moderate purification potentials are Brassica oleracea var acephala, Calendula officinalis, Aucuba japonica, Ligustrum lucidu, Beta vulgaris, Rhododendron simsii and Ilex latifolia; and those in the 3rd group with low purification potentials are Brassica oleracea var acephala, Calistephus chinensis, Rosa chinensis, Antirrhinums, Liriope palatyphylla, Zephyranthes candida, Fatshedera lizei, Petunia hybrida, Ilex quihoui, Dianthus caryophyllus and Loropetalum chinensis.

Chen YH; Wu XF; Chen ML; Jiang LJ; Li KL; Lei D; Wang HB

2010-08-01

247

[Selection of winter plant species for wetlands constructed as sewage treatment systems and evaluation of their wastewater purification potentials].  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to establish an evaluation system for selection of winter wetland plants possessing high wastewater purification potentials in subtropics areas, designed sewage treatment experiments were carried out by introducing into the constructed wetlands 25 species of winter wetland plants. Cluster analysis was performed by including harmful environment-resistant enzyme and substrate enzyme activities into the commonly applied plant screening and assessment indexes system. The obtained results indicated that there were significant differences among the tested winter plants in their root length and vigor, leaf malonaldehyde (MDA), biomass, average nitrogen and phosphorus concentration and uptake, and urease and phosphoric acid enzyme activities in the root areas. Based on the established evaluation system, the tested plants were clustered into 3 groups. The plants in the 1st group possessing high purification potentials are Oenanthe javanica, Brassicacapestris, Juncus effusu, Saxifragaceae, Iris pseudoacorus, Osmanthus fragrans and Iris ensata; those in the 2nd group possessing moderate purification potentials are Brassica oleracea var acephala, Calendula officinalis, Aucuba japonica, Ligustrum lucidu, Beta vulgaris, Rhododendron simsii and Ilex latifolia; and those in the 3rd group with low purification potentials are Brassica oleracea var acephala, Calistephus chinensis, Rosa chinensis, Antirrhinums, Liriope palatyphylla, Zephyranthes candida, Fatshedera lizei, Petunia hybrida, Ilex quihoui, Dianthus caryophyllus and Loropetalum chinensis. PMID:21090294

Chen, Yong-hua; Wu, Xiao-fu; Chen, Ming-li; Jiang, Li-juan; Li, Ke-lin; Lei, Dian; Wang, Hai-bin

2010-08-01

248

Seleção de plantas com potencial para fitorremediação de tebuthiuron/ Plant selection with potential for tebuthiuron phytodecontamination  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivo selecionar espécies tolerantes ao tebuthiuron, visando utilizá-las em programas de fitorremediação de solos contaminados com esse herbicida. Foram avaliadas: Amaranthus hybridus, Crotalaria juncea, Chamaesyce hyssopifolia, C. hirta, Canavalia ensiformes, Helianthus annus, Pennisetum typhoides, Estizolobium aterrimum, Raphanus raphanistrum e Crotalaria incana. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, em vasos contendo 3 dm³ (more) de solo de textura argilo-arenosa com 2,18 dag kg¹ de matéria orgânica. O experimento foi delineado em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições de tratamentos em fatorial 10 x 4 x 4, os quais foram constituídos por 10 espécies, quatro doses de tebuthiuron (0,0; 5,0; 1,0; e 2,0 kg ha-1), aplicadas em pré-emergência, e quatro épocas de avaliação (15, 30, 45 e 60 dias após a semeadura). Foram avaliadas a fitotoxicidade do herbicida, a altura de plantas e a massa de matéria seca da parte aérea, de raízes e do total da planta. Canavalia ensiformes e Pennisetum typhoides foram tolerantes ao tebuthiuron na dose de 0,5 kg ha-1. Estizolobium aterrimum tolerou tebuthiuron até a dose de 1,0 kg ha¹, apresentando fitotoxicidade menos acentuada e menor redução de altura de plantas e da massa de matéria seca da parte aérea, de raízes e do total da planta em relação ao tratamento testemunha. Abstract in english This study aimed to select tebuthiuron- tolerant plants to use them in phytoremediation programs in contaminated soils. The evaluated species were: Amaranthus hybridus, Crotalaria juncea, C. hyssopifolia, Chamaesyce hirta, Canavalia ensiformes, Helianthus annus, Pennisetum typhoides, Estizolobium aterrimum, Raphanus raphanistrum and Crotalaria incana. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, with a sandy-clay soil with 2.18 dag kg-1 of organic matter, in pots of 3 (more) dm³ capacity. The experiment was arranged in a 10 x 4 x 4 factorial scheme in a randomized block design with three replications. The treatments consisted of: 10 species, four tebuthiuron doses (0.0; 0.5; 1.0 e 2.0 kg ha-1) applied in pre-emergence, and four evaluation times (15, 30, 45, and 60 days after sowing). Phytotoxicity, plant height and, above-ground, root and total biomass dry matter were evaluated. Canavalia ensiformes and Pennisetum typhoides were tolerant to tebuthiuron at the dose of 0.5 kg ha-1, and Estizolobium aterrimum up to the dose of 1.0 kg ha-1, with the latter showing less phytotoxicity symptoms and a smaller reduction of plant height, above-ground, root, and total biomass dry matter, as compared to the control treatment.

Pires, F.R.; Souza, C.M.; Silva, A.A.; Queiroz, M.E.L.R.; Procópio, S.O.; Santos, J.B.; Santos, E.A.; Cecon, P.R.

2003-12-01

249

Seleção de plantas com potencial para fitorremediação de tebuthiuron Plant selection with potential for tebuthiuron phytodecontamination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo selecionar espécies tolerantes ao tebuthiuron, visando utilizá-las em programas de fitorremediação de solos contaminados com esse herbicida. Foram avaliadas: Amaranthus hybridus, Crotalaria juncea, Chamaesyce hyssopifolia, C. hirta, Canavalia ensiformes, Helianthus annus, Pennisetum typhoides, Estizolobium aterrimum, Raphanus raphanistrum e Crotalaria incana. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, em vasos contendo 3 dm³ de solo de textura argilo-arenosa com 2,18 dag kg¹ de matéria orgânica. O experimento foi delineado em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições de tratamentos em fatorial 10 x 4 x 4, os quais foram constituídos por 10 espécies, quatro doses de tebuthiuron (0,0; 5,0; 1,0; e 2,0 kg ha-1), aplicadas em pré-emergência, e quatro épocas de avaliação (15, 30, 45 e 60 dias após a semeadura). Foram avaliadas a fitotoxicidade do herbicida, a altura de plantas e a massa de matéria seca da parte aérea, de raízes e do total da planta. Canavalia ensiformes e Pennisetum typhoides foram tolerantes ao tebuthiuron na dose de 0,5 kg ha-1. Estizolobium aterrimum tolerou tebuthiuron até a dose de 1,0 kg ha¹, apresentando fitotoxicidade menos acentuada e menor redução de altura de plantas e da massa de matéria seca da parte aérea, de raízes e do total da planta em relação ao tratamento testemunha.This study aimed to select tebuthiuron- tolerant plants to use them in phytoremediation programs in contaminated soils. The evaluated species were: Amaranthus hybridus, Crotalaria juncea, C. hyssopifolia, Chamaesyce hirta, Canavalia ensiformes, Helianthus annus, Pennisetum typhoides, Estizolobium aterrimum, Raphanus raphanistrum and Crotalaria incana. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, with a sandy-clay soil with 2.18 dag kg-1 of organic matter, in pots of 3 dm³ capacity. The experiment was arranged in a 10 x 4 x 4 factorial scheme in a randomized block design with three replications. The treatments consisted of: 10 species, four tebuthiuron doses (0.0; 0.5; 1.0 e 2.0 kg ha-1) applied in pre-emergence, and four evaluation times (15, 30, 45, and 60 days after sowing). Phytotoxicity, plant height and, above-ground, root and total biomass dry matter were evaluated. Canavalia ensiformes and Pennisetum typhoides were tolerant to tebuthiuron at the dose of 0.5 kg ha-1, and Estizolobium aterrimum up to the dose of 1.0 kg ha-1, with the latter showing less phytotoxicity symptoms and a smaller reduction of plant height, above-ground, root, and total biomass dry matter, as compared to the control treatment.

F.R. Pires; C.M. Souza; A.A. Silva; M.E.L.R. Queiroz; S.O. Procópio; J.B. Santos; E.A. Santos; P.R. Cecon

2003-01-01

250

Mineral concentration in selected native temperate grasses with potential use as biofuel feedstock.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Stands of native grasses along roadways, in buffer strips, riparian zones and grass prairies have potential utility as feedstock for bioenergy production. The sustainability of harvesting these stands is reliant, in part, on knowledge of the mineral concentration of the harvested grasses because removal of mineral nutrients such as phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) can impact subsequent biomass production and ecosystem services associated with these stands. Mineral content of biomass, particularly that of silicon (Si), chlorine (Cl), and sulfur (S) also impacts thermochemical conversion approaches that convert grasses into bioproducts. This study quantified Cl, S, Si, P and K in Bromus marginatus, Elymus glaucus, Poa secunda, Pseudoroegneria, Elymus lanceolatus, Elymus trachycaulus, Leymus cinereus, Leymus triticoides, and Pseudoroegneria spicata collected at three growth developmental stages from four plant introduction stations located in the western US. Differences (P< or =0.05) in mineral concentrations were associated with developmental stage, species, and location. Variability was greatest in Si concentrations which ranged from 1847 to 28620 mg kg(-1), similar to those recorded in other grasses. Variability in Cl and S concentrations also occurred, but at less magnitude than that of Si. Concentrations of P and K, two mineral fertilizer components, varied approximately threefold among these grasses. Differences in mineral concentrations among these grasses were not completely dependent upon soil mineral content. Long-term evaluations of available soil mineral concentrations under contrasting management practices are needed to quantify how local conditions impact mineral cycling, and in turn, the sustainability of harvesting these stands. The data presented here establish baselines for these species in locations subject to contrasting environmental and microbiological conditions that affect mineral cycling and availability.

El-Nashaar HM; Griffith SM; Steiner JJ; Banowetz GM

2009-07-01

251

Acylated flavonol glycosides from Epimedium elatum, a plant endemic to the Western Himalayas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Herba Epimedii is a well-known Botanical preparation used over long time in traditional Chinese medicine. The extracts and chemical constituents from Epimedium species are aphrodisiac as well as to treat many ailments. Chemical investigation of lonely species growing in Kashmir Himalaya Epimedium elatum was undertaken to evaluate its chemical profile. Two unusual substituted acylated flavonol glycosides named Elatoside A (1) and Elatoside B (2) have been isolated from the ethanolic extract of E. elatum along with 23 previously known ones (3-25). All isolates were evaluated for antimicrobial and PPAR-? ligand binding activity, and some of them appeared to be modestly active. PMID:22366553

Tantry, Mudasir A; Dar, Javid A; Idris, Ahmed; Akbar, Seema; Shawl, Abdul S

2012-02-18

252

Acylated flavonol glycosides from Epimedium elatum, a plant endemic to the Western Himalayas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Herba Epimedii is a well-known Botanical preparation used over long time in traditional Chinese medicine. The extracts and chemical constituents from Epimedium species are aphrodisiac as well as to treat many ailments. Chemical investigation of lonely species growing in Kashmir Himalaya Epimedium elatum was undertaken to evaluate its chemical profile. Two unusual substituted acylated flavonol glycosides named Elatoside A (1) and Elatoside B (2) have been isolated from the ethanolic extract of E. elatum along with 23 previously known ones (3-25). All isolates were evaluated for antimicrobial and PPAR-? ligand binding activity, and some of them appeared to be modestly active.

Tantry MA; Dar JA; Idris A; Akbar S; Shawl AS

2012-06-01

253

Medicinal flora and ethnoecological knowledge in the Naran Valley, Western Himalaya, Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Mountain ecosystems all over the world support a high biological diversity and provide home and services to some 12% of the global human population, who use their traditional ecological knowledge to utilise local natural resources. The Himalayas are the world's youngest, highest and largest mountain range and support a high plant biodiversity. In this remote mountainous region of the Himalaya, people depend upon local plant resources to supply a range of goods and services, including grazing for livestock and medicinal supplies for themselves. Due to their remote location, harsh climate, rough terrain and topography, many areas within this region still remain poorly known for its floristic diversity, plant species distribution and vegetation ecosystem service. Methods The Naran valley in the north-western Pakistan is among such valleys and occupies a distinctive geographical location on the edge of the Western Himalaya range, close to the Hindu Kush range to the west and the Karakorum Mountains to the north. It is also located on climatic and geological divides, which further add to its botanical interest. In the present project 120 informants were interviewed at 12 main localities along the 60 km long valley. This paper focuses on assessment of medicinal plant species valued by local communities using their traditional knowledge. Results Results revealed that 101 species belonging to 52 families (51.5% of the total plants) were used for 97 prominent therapeutic purposes. The largest number of ailments cured with medicinal plants were associated with the digestive system (32.76% responses) followed by those associated with the respiratory and urinary systems (13.72% and 9.13% respectively). The ailments associated with the blood circulatory and reproductive systems and the skin were 7.37%, 7.04% and 7.03%, respectively. The results also indicate that whole plants were used in 54% of recipes followed by rhizomes (21%), fruits (9.5%) and roots (5.5%). Conclusion Our findings demonstrate the range of ecosystem services that are provided by the vegetation and assess how utilisation of plants will impact on future resource sustainability. The study not only contributes to an improved understanding of traditional ethno-ecological knowledge amongst the peoples of the Western Himalaya but also identifies priorities at species and habitat level for local and regional plant conservation strategies.

Khan Shujaul M; Page Sue; Ahmad Habib; Shaheen Hamayun; Ullah Zahid; Ahmad Mushtaq; Harper David M

2013-01-01

254

Joint spatial variability of aerosol, clouds and rainfall in the Himalayas from satellite data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Satellite-based precipitation, Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), Cloud Optical Depth (COD), and Aerosol Index (AI) data were used to characterize the linkages among landform and the intra-annual variability of aerosols, cloudiness and rainfall in the Himalayas using empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis. The first modes of AOD and AI show the presence of two branches of dust aerosol: over the Indus river basin and the Thar desert with a sharp west-east gradient parallel to the southern slopes of the Himalayas – the Southern Branch; and the second against the slopes of the Tian Shan and over the Takla Makan desert in the Tibetan Plateau-the Northern branch. The third EOF mode of AOD accounts for about 7% of overall variance of AOD. It is attached to the foothills of the Himalayas east of the Aravalli range peaking in April-May-June followed by a sharp decrease in July during the first active phase of the monsoon. The first and second EOF modes of COD and precipitation show consistent patterns against the central and eastern Himalayas and along the ocean-land boundaries in western India and the Bay of Bengal. The break in cloudiness and rainfall between the winter and the monsoon seasons is captured well by the second EOF mode of COD and rainfall concurrent with the aerosol build up mode (April–May) over the region depicted by the third mode of AOD. The results show that the Aravalli range separates the two different modes of aerosol variability over northern India with dust aerosols to the west and polluted mixed aerosols to the east consistent with its role in regional circulation and precipitations patterns as per Barros et al. (2004) and Chiao and Barros (2007). SVD analysis between rainfall, COD and AOD showed a pattern of aerosol loading (resembling EOF3 of MODIS AOD) extending from 80° E~90° E that peaks during the winter and pre-monsoon seasons and decays abruptly during the monsoon: the regions of aerosol buildup during the pre-monsoon season and the areas of high rainfall/cloudiness during the monsoon are collocated and have opposite signs suggesting aerosol-cloud-rainfall interaction. It is proposed that the third EOF of AOD maps the area where aerosol-cloud-rainfall interactions play an important role in the regional hydro-climatology.

P. Shrestha; A. P. Barros

2010-01-01

255

Similarities and differences of aerosol optical properties between southern and northern slopes of the Himalayas  

Science.gov (United States)

The Himalayas is located at the southern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, and it acts as a natural barrier for the transport of atmospheric aerosols, e.g. from the polluted regions of South Asia to the main body of the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we investigate the seasonal and diurnal variations of aerosol optical properties measured at the three Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites over the southern (Pokhara station and EVK2-CNR station in Nepal) and northern (Qomolangma (Mt. Everest) station for Atmospheric and Environmental Observation and Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (QOMS_CAS) in Tibet, China) slopes of the Himalayas. While observations at QOMS_CAS and EVK2-CNR can generally be representative of a remote background atmosphere, Pokhara is an urban site with much higher aerosol load due to the influence of local anthropogenic activities. The annual mean of aerosol optical depth (AOD) during the investigated period was 0.06 at QOMS_CAS, 0.04 at EVK2-CNR and 0.51 at Pokhara, respectively. Seasonal variations of aerosols are profoundly affected by large scale atmospheric circulation. Vegetation fires, peaking during April in the Himalayan region and northern India, contribute to a growing fine mode AOD at 500 nm at the three stations. Dust transported to these sites results in an increase of coarse mode AOD during the monsoon season at the three sites. Meanwhile, coarse mode AOD at EVK2-CNR is higher than QOMS_CAS from July to September, indicating the Himalayas blocks the coarse particles carried by the southwest winds. The precipitation scavenging effect is obvious at Pokhara, which can significantly reduce the aerosol load during the monsoon season. Unlike the seasonal variations, diurnal variations are mainly influenced by meso-scale systems and local topography. In general, precipitation can lead to a decrease of the aerosol load and the average particle size at each station. AOD changes in a short time with the emission rate near the emission source at Pokhara, while does not at the other two stations in remote regions. AOD increases during daytime due to the valley winds at EVK2-CNR, while this diurnal variation of AOD is absent at the other two stations. The surface heating influences the local convection, which further controls the vertical aerosol exchange and the diffusion rate of pollutions to the surrounding areas. The Himalayas blocks most of the coarse particles across the mountains. Fine and coarse mode particles are mixed to make atmospheric composition more complex on the southern slope in spring, which leads to the greater inter-annual difference in diurnal cycles of Ångström exponent (AE) at EVK2-CNR than that at QOMS_CAS.

Xu, C.; Ma, Y. M.; Yang, K.; Zhu, Z. K.; Wang, J. M.; Amatya, P. M.; Zhao, L.

2013-08-01

256

Selection pressures have caused genome-wide population differentiation of Anthoxanthum odoratum despite the potential for high gene flow.  

Science.gov (United States)

The extent to which divergent selection can drive genome-wide population differentiation remains unclear. Theory predicts that in the face of ongoing gene flow, population differentiation should be apparent only at those markers that are directly or indirectly (i.e. through linkage) under selection. However, if reproductive barriers limit gene flow, genome-wide population differentiation may occur even in geographically proximate populations. Some insight into the link between selection and genetic differentiation in the presence of ongoing gene flow can come from long-term experiments such as The Park Grass Experiment, which has been running for over 150 years, and provides a unique example of a heterogeneous environment with a long and detailed history. Fertilizer treatments applied in the Park Grass Experiment have led to rapid evolutionary change in sweet vernal grass Anthoxanthum odoratum, but until now, nothing was known of how these changes would be reflected in neutral molecular markers. We have genotyped ten A. odoratum populations from the Park Grass Experiment using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs). Our data show that nutrient additions have resulted in genome-wide divergence among plots despite the high potential for ongoing gene flow. This provides a well-documented example of concordance between genomes and environmental conditions that has arisen in continuous populations across a time span of fewer than 75 generations. PMID:20163507

Freeland, J R; Biss, P; Conrad, K F; Silvertown, J

2010-02-12

257

Selection pressures have caused genome-wide population differentiation of Anthoxanthum odoratum despite the potential for high gene flow.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The extent to which divergent selection can drive genome-wide population differentiation remains unclear. Theory predicts that in the face of ongoing gene flow, population differentiation should be apparent only at those markers that are directly or indirectly (i.e. through linkage) under selection. However, if reproductive barriers limit gene flow, genome-wide population differentiation may occur even in geographically proximate populations. Some insight into the link between selection and genetic differentiation in the presence of ongoing gene flow can come from long-term experiments such as The Park Grass Experiment, which has been running for over 150 years, and provides a unique example of a heterogeneous environment with a long and detailed history. Fertilizer treatments applied in the Park Grass Experiment have led to rapid evolutionary change in sweet vernal grass Anthoxanthum odoratum, but until now, nothing was known of how these changes would be reflected in neutral molecular markers. We have genotyped ten A. odoratum populations from the Park Grass Experiment using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs). Our data show that nutrient additions have resulted in genome-wide divergence among plots despite the high potential for ongoing gene flow. This provides a well-documented example of concordance between genomes and environmental conditions that has arisen in continuous populations across a time span of fewer than 75 generations.

Freeland JR; Biss P; Conrad KF; Silvertown J

2010-04-01

258

A novel series of potent and selective PDE5 inhibitors with potential for high and dose-independent oral bioavailability.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sildenafil (5-[2-ethoxy-5-(4-methyl-1-piperazinylsulfonyl)phenyl]-1-methyl-3-n-propyl-1,6-dihydro-7H-pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidin-7-one), a potent and selective phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor, provided the first oral treatment for male erectile dysfunction. The objective of the work reported in this paper was to combine high levels of PDE5 potency and selectivity with high and dose-independent oral bioavailability, to minimize the impact on the C(max) of any interactions with coadministered drugs in the clinic. This goal was achieved through identification of a lower clearance series with a high absorption profile, by replacing the 5'-piperazine sulfonamide in the sildenafil template with a 5'-methyl ketone. This novel series provided compounds with low metabolism in human hepatocytes, excellent caco-2 flux, and the potential for good aqueous solubility. The in vivo oral and iv pharmacokinetic profiles of example compounds confirmed the high oral bioavailability predicted from these in vitro screens. 5-(5-Acetyl-2-butoxy-3-pyridinyl)-3-ethyl-2-(1-ethyl-3-azetidinyl)-2,6-dihydro-7H-pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidin-7-one (2) was selected for progression into the clinic.

Allerton CM; Barber CG; Beaumont KC; Brown DG; Cole SM; Ellis D; Lane CA; Maw GN; Mount NM; Rawson DJ; Robinson CM; Street SD; Summerhill NW

2006-06-01

259

A novel series of potent and selective PDE5 inhibitors with potential for high and dose-independent oral bioavailability.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sildenafil (5-[2-ethoxy-5-(4-methyl-1-piperazinylsulfonyl)phenyl]-1-methyl-3-n-propyl-1,6-dihydro-7H-pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidin-7-one), a potent and selective phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor, provided the first oral treatment for male erectile dysfunction. The objective of the work reported in this paper was to combine high levels of PDE5 potency and selectivity with high and dose-independent oral bioavailability, to minimize the impact on the C(max) of any interactions with coadministered drugs in the clinic. This goal was achieved through identification of a lower clearance series with a high absorption profile, by replacing the 5'-piperazine sulfonamide in the sildenafil template with a 5'-methyl ketone. This novel series provided compounds with low metabolism in human hepatocytes, excellent caco-2 flux, and the potential for good aqueous solubility. The in vivo oral and iv pharmacokinetic profiles of example compounds confirmed the high oral bioavailability predicted from these in vitro screens. 5-(5-Acetyl-2-butoxy-3-pyridinyl)-3-ethyl-2-(1-ethyl-3-azetidinyl)-2,6-dihydro-7H-pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidin-7-one (2) was selected for progression into the clinic. PMID:16759100

Allerton, Charlotte M N; Barber, Christopher G; Beaumont, Kevin C; Brown, David G; Cole, Susan M; Ellis, David; Lane, Charlotte A L; Maw, Graham N; Mount, Natalie M; Rawson, David J; Robinson, Colin M; Street, Stephen D A; Summerhill, Nicholas W

2006-06-15

260

Violation of the electric dipole selection rules in indirect multiphoton excitation of image potential states on Ag(100)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Full text: Photoemission from image potential states (IPS) on Ag(100) is investigated using angle resolved multiphoton photoemission induced by 150 fs laser pulses. For the first time we demonstrate that IPS populated by indirect transitions can be observed with light polarized parallel to the plane of incidence and light polarized normal to the plane of incidence. The latter is a process normally forbidden by the dipole transition selection rules. These findings are related to the creation of a hot electron population. This interpretation is supported by the reduction of the IPS electron effective mass, about 6%, when measured by indirect multiphoton population, followed by one- photon photoemission. The change of the effective mass is attributed to the interaction, with momentum exchange, between the non-equilibrium electron population in the bulk and the IPS. As a result of the momentum exchange the electronic excitations are not restricted anymore by the polarization selection rules. In the figure, panel A, photoemission spectra at hv = 4.28 eV in s and p polarization are shown. The inset represents a schematic energy level diagram at k parallel 0 of Ag(100) surface states, showing a direct one-photon population, two-photon photoemission via the n=1 IPS. In panel B, the spectra at hv 3.14 eV in s and p polarization are shown. In this case a direct population would be forbidden by dipole selection rules in s polarization, hence a indirect mechanism must be invoked

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Repurposing screens identify rifamycins as potential broad-spectrum therapy for multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and select agent microorganisms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: Estimates suggest that the drug discovery and development processes take between 10 and 15 years, with costs ranging between US$500 million and $2 billion. A growing number of bacteria have become resistant to approved antimicrobials. For example, the Gram-negative bacterium Acinetobacter baumannii has become multidrug resistant (MDR) and is now an important pathogen to the US military in terms of wound infections. Industry experts have called for a 'disruptive' transformation of the drug discovery process to find new chemical entities for treating drug-resistant infections. One such attempt is drug 'repurposing' or 'repositioning' - that is, identification and development of new uses for existing or abandoned pharmacotherapies. MATERIALS & METHODS: Using a novel combination of screening technologies based on cell growth and cellular respiration, we screened 450 US FDA-approved drugs from the NIH National Clinical Collection against a dozen clinical MDR A. baumannii (MDRAb) isolates from US soldiers and Marines. We also screened the collection against a diverse set of select agent surrogate pathogens. RESULTS: Seventeen drugs showed promising antimicrobial activity against all MDRAb isolates and select agent surrogates; three of these compounds - all rifamycins - were found to be effective at preventing growth and preventing cellular respiration of MDRAb and select agent surrogate bacteria when evaluated in growth prevention assays, highlighting the potential for repurposing. CONCLUSION: We report the discovery of a class of known compounds whose repurposing may be useful in solving the current problem with MDRAb and may lead to the discovery of broad-spectrum antimicrobials.

Chromy BA; Elsheikh M; Christensen TL; Livingston D; Petersen K; Bearinger JP; Hoeprich PD

2012-08-01

262

Selecting the optimal method to calculate daily global reference potential evaporation from CFSR reanalysis data  

Science.gov (United States)

Potential evaporation (PET) is one of the main inputs of hydrological models. Yet, there is limited consensus on which PET equation is most applicable in hydrological climate impact assessments. In this study six different methods to derive global scale reference PET time series from CFSR reanalysis data are compared: Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor and original and modified versions of the Hargreaves and Blaney-Criddle method. The calculated PET time series are (1) evaluated against global monthly Penman-Monteith PET time series calculated from CRU data and (2) tested on their usability for modeling of global discharge cycles. The lowest root mean squared differences and the least significant deviations (95 % significance level) between monthly CFSR derived PET time series and CRU derived PET were obtained for the cell specific modified Blaney-Criddle equation. However, results show that this modified form is likely to be unstable under changing climate conditions and less reliable for the calculation of daily time series. Although often recommended, the Penman-Monteith equation did not outperform the other methods. In arid regions (e.g., Sahara, central Australia, US deserts), the equation resulted in relatively low PET values and, consequently, led to relatively high discharge values for dry basins (e.g., Orange, Murray and Zambezi). Furthermore, the Penman-Monteith equation has a high data demand and the equation is sensitive to input data inaccuracy. Therefore, we preferred the modified form of the Hargreaves equation, which globally gave reference PET values comparable to CRU derived values. Although it is a relative efficient empirical equation, like Blaney-Criddle, the equation considers multiple spatial varying meteorological variables and consequently performs well for different climate conditions. In the modified form of the Hargreaves equation the multiplication factor is uniformly increased from 0.0023 to 0.0031 to overcome the global underestimation of CRU derived PET obtained with the original equation. It should be noted that the bias in PET is not linearly transferred to actual evapotranspiration and runoff, due to limited soil moisture availability and precipitation. The resulting gridded daily PET time series provide a new reference dataset that can be used for future hydrological impact assessments or, more specifically, for the statistical downscaling of daily PET derived from raw GCM data.

Sperna Weiland, F. C.; Tisseuil, C.; Dürr, H. H.; Vrac, M.; van Beek, L. P. H.

2011-07-01

263

Selecting the optimal method to calculate daily global reference potential evaporation from CFSR reanalysis data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Potential evaporation (PET) is one of the main inputs of hydrological models. Yet, there is limited consensus on which PET equation is most applicable in hydrological climate impact assessments. In this study six different methods to derive global scale reference PET time series from CFSR reanalysis data are compared: Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor and original and modified versions of the Hargreaves and Blaney-Criddle method. The calculated PET time series are (1) evaluated against global monthly Penman-Monteith PET time series calculated from CRU data and (2) tested on their usability for modeling of global discharge cycles. The lowest root mean squared differences and the least significant deviations (95 % significance level) between monthly CFSR derived PET time series and CRU derived PET were obtained for the cell specific modified Blaney-Criddle equation. However, results show that this modified form is likely to be unstable under changing climate conditions and less reliable for the calculation of daily time series. Although often recommended, the Penman-Monteith equation did not outperform the other methods. In arid regions (e.g., Sahara, central Australia, US deserts), the equation resulted in relatively low PET values and, consequently, led to relatively high discharge values for dry basins (e.g., Orange, Murray and Zambezi). Furthermore, the Penman-Monteith equation has a high data demand and the equation is sensitive to input data inaccuracy. Therefore, we preferred the modified form of the Hargreaves equation, which globally gave reference PET values comparable to CRU derived values. Although it is a relative efficient empirical equation, like Blaney-Criddle, the equation considers multiple spatial varying meteorological variables and consequently performs well for different climate conditions. In the modified form of the Hargreaves equation the multiplication factor is uniformly increased from 0.0023 to 0.0031 to overcome the global underestimation of CRU derived PET obtained with the original equation. It should be noted that the bias in PET is not linearly transferred to actual evapotranspiration and runoff, due to limited soil moisture availability and precipitation. The resulting gridded daily PET time series provide a new reference dataset that can be used for future hydrological impact assessments or, more specifically, for the statistical downscaling of daily PET derived from raw GCM data.

F. C. Sperna Weiland; C. Tisseuil; H. H. Dürr; M. Vrac; L. P. H. van Beek

2011-01-01

264

The potential for a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor in the prevention of liver metastasis in human colorectal cancer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: In a previous report we noted that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in clinical colorectal cancer is closely related to liver metastasis and survival. The aim of the present study was to clarify the role of COX-2 in liver metastasis and to examine the potential for a selective COX-2 inhibitor as a novel therapeutic agent in the treatment of colorectal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: COX-2 expression of 6 kinds of human colon cancer cell lines, with various potentials for liver metastasis, were assessed by Western blot and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In human tumor xenografts/severe combined immune-deficient (SCID) mouse, we examined the effects of a selective COX-2 inhibitor (JTE-522) on tumor growth or liver metastasis of HT-29, a highly-metastatic cell line, or on COLO205, a non-metastatic cell line. The effect of JTE-522 on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in HT-29 and COLO205 were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and gelatin zymography, respectively. RESULTS: COX-2 was expressed in all metastatic cell lines but not in the non-metastatic lines. JTE-522 prevented the liver metastasis of HT-29, but not the subcutaneous growth of HT-29 and COLO205 in SCID mice. In vitro, JTE-522 suppressed VEGF expression, but did not affect MMP production in HT-29; an inhibitory effect was not found in COLO205. CONCLUSION: A selective COX-2 inhibitor of JTE-522, was found to prevent liver metastases of colon cancer by suppressing VEGF expression, and therefore, COX-2 possibly plays an important role in liver metastasis of human colon cancer via the regulation of VEGF expression.

Yamauchi T; Watanabe M; Hasegawa H; Nishibori H; Ishii Y; Tatematsu H; Yamamoto K; Kubota T; Kitajima M

2003-01-01

265

Improvement of Sexual Destination in Atropa acuminata Royle (Solanaceae)-A Critically Endangered Medicinal Plant of Northwestern Himalaya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Good seed set is no guarantee of absolute sexual destination in plants. Seed viability and seed vigour are crucial phases in the life cycle of every sexually reproducing plant. The present study was an attempt to improve the sexual destination-the germination and seedling survival of Atropa acuminata Royle (Solanaceae), an endemic and extremely restricted sub-alpine medicinal plant of North West Himalayas under ex situ conditions at (1580 m) with an aim to develop a successful germination protocol and agrotechnique in order to revegetate disturbed areas. Among various treatments given to the seeds, GA3, Scarification, warm water treatment and chilling at 4°C for 90 days were found to be most effective with percentage germination of 73.3±18.80, 79.95±9.40, 66.6±6.6, 45±7.07 (X±SE), respectively. The results reveal that the seeds do not germinate unless specific environmental signals or events occur which trigger the genetic and hormonal response of the seeds thereby facilitating their germination. The diversity and the extent of the dormancy mechanisms encountered here suggest that under harsh conditions, natural selection may favour seeds with a genetic system for dormancy and delayed germination. A relation was observed between seed size/weight,%age germination and subsequent seedling survival. Seedling survival is also effected by specific habitat requirement and stiff intra and inter-specific competition particularly the whimsical behaviour of Sambucus wigthiana (an alien species which grows in the vicinity of Atropa) is beyond the ken of Atropa, adding fuel to the already burning candle apart from habitat fragmentation and herbivory.

Parvaiz A. Wani; Irshad A. Nawchoo; B.A. Wafai

2007-01-01

266

Effect of altitude on picroside content in core collections of Picrorhiza kurrooa from the north western Himalayas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth (Scrophulariaceae), commonly known as Kutki, is a major ingredient of many ayurvedic preparations prescribed in the treatment of various diseases. Picrosides I and II are the active agents responsible for the medicinal effects of Kutki, and the variation in content of these compounds in plants at different altitudes is a major question to be addressed. The picroside I and II content in various plant parts of P. kurrooa collected from different altitudes, viz. Sonemarg (2,740 m a.s.l.), Tangmarg (2,690 m a.s.l.), and Pulwama (1,630 m a.s.l.) in the north-western Kashmir Himalayas was analyzed by HPLC. A considerable degree of variation in picroside content was observed. Picroside I and II was highest in populations collected from Sonemarg followed by Tangmarg, suggesting that picroside accumulation is directly correlated with altitudinal change. More picroside I was found in the rhizome and roots of the Pulwama population as compared to Tangmarg samples, whereas the quantity of Picroside II was reduced in plants from Pulwama compared to the Tangmarg population, suggesting that cultivation of P. kurroa at lower altitude reduces the picroside content. The quantities of picrosides also varied spatially, being highest in rhizome followed by roots, inflorescence and leaves in the populations from all three locations. The study concludes that picroside I and II accumulation depends on altitude, which could help in the selection and collection of superior genotypes with uniform effects for utilization by the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:21347670

Katoch, Meenu; Fazli, I S; Suri, K A; Ahuja, A; Qazi, G N

2011-02-24

267

Triphenylphosphine oxide is a potent and selective inhibitor of the transient receptor potential melastatin-5 ion channel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transient receptor potential melastatin-5 (TRPM5) is a calcium-gated monovalent cation channel expressed in highly specialized cells of the taste bud and gastrointestinal tract, as well as in pancreatic ?-cells. Well established as a critical signaling protein for G protein-coupled receptor-mediated taste pathways, TRPM5 also has recently been implicated as a regulator of incretin and insulin secretion. To date, no inhibitors of practical use have been described that could facilitate investigation of TRPM5 functions in taste or secretion of metabolic hormones. Using recombinant TRPM5-expressing cells in a fluorescence imaging plate reader-based membrane potential assay, we identified triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO) as a selective and potent inhibitor of TRPM5. TPPO inhibited both human (IC???=?12??M) and murine TRPM5 (IC???=?30??M) heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells, but had no effect (up to 100??M) on the membrane potential responses of TRPA1, TRPV1, or TRPM4b. TPPO also inhibited a calcium-gated TRPM5-dependent conductance in taste cells isolated from the tongues of transgenic TRPM5(+/)? mice. In contrast, TPP had no effect on TRPM5 responses, indicating a strict requirement of the oxygen atom for activity. Sixteen additional TPPO derivatives also inhibited TRPM5 but none more potently than TPPO. Structure-activity relationship of tested compounds was used for molecular modeling-based analysis to clarify the positive and negative structural contributions to the potency of TPPO and its derivatives. TPPO is the most potent TRPM5 inhibitor described to date and is the first demonstrated to exhibit selectivity over other channels. PMID:21158685

Palmer, R Kyle; Atwal, Karnail; Bakaj, Ivona; Carlucci-Derbyshire, Stacy; Buber, M Tulu; Cerne, Rok; Cortés, Rosa Y; Devantier, Heather R; Jorgensen, Vincent; Pawlyk, Aaron; Lee, S Paul; Sprous, Dennis G; Zhang, Zheng; Bryant, Robert

2010-12-01

268

Triphenylphosphine oxide is a potent and selective inhibitor of the transient receptor potential melastatin-5 ion channel.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Transient receptor potential melastatin-5 (TRPM5) is a calcium-gated monovalent cation channel expressed in highly specialized cells of the taste bud and gastrointestinal tract, as well as in pancreatic ?-cells. Well established as a critical signaling protein for G protein-coupled receptor-mediated taste pathways, TRPM5 also has recently been implicated as a regulator of incretin and insulin secretion. To date, no inhibitors of practical use have been described that could facilitate investigation of TRPM5 functions in taste or secretion of metabolic hormones. Using recombinant TRPM5-expressing cells in a fluorescence imaging plate reader-based membrane potential assay, we identified triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO) as a selective and potent inhibitor of TRPM5. TPPO inhibited both human (IC???=?12??M) and murine TRPM5 (IC???=?30??M) heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells, but had no effect (up to 100??M) on the membrane potential responses of TRPA1, TRPV1, or TRPM4b. TPPO also inhibited a calcium-gated TRPM5-dependent conductance in taste cells isolated from the tongues of transgenic TRPM5(+/)? mice. In contrast, TPP had no effect on TRPM5 responses, indicating a strict requirement of the oxygen atom for activity. Sixteen additional TPPO derivatives also inhibited TRPM5 but none more potently than TPPO. Structure-activity relationship of tested compounds was used for molecular modeling-based analysis to clarify the positive and negative structural contributions to the potency of TPPO and its derivatives. TPPO is the most potent TRPM5 inhibitor described to date and is the first demonstrated to exhibit selectivity over other channels.

Palmer RK; Atwal K; Bakaj I; Carlucci-Derbyshire S; Buber MT; Cerne R; Cortés RY; Devantier HR; Jorgensen V; Pawlyk A; Lee SP; Sprous DG; Zhang Z; Bryant R

2010-12-01

269

5-Chlorodeoxycytidine when coadministered with modulators of pyrimidine metabolism is an effective and potentially tumor-selective in vivo radiosensitizer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

5-Chlorodeoxycytidine, a halogenated pyrimidine nucleoside analog, was coadministered with several modulators of pyrimidine metabolism, in order to achieve tumor selective radiosensitization in murine tumor models. The modulators were tetrahydrouridine (an inhibitor of cytidine deaminase), PALA (an inhibitor of aspartate transcarbamylase), 5-fluorodeoxycytidine (which acts to inhibit thymidylate synthetase, and also produces single and double strand breaks in DNA, through incorporation of FdUTP and dUTP into DNA, and subsequent repair) and 5-benzylacyclourindine (an inhibitor of uridine phosphorylase). Several experimental approaches were utilized to determine the extent of tumor radiosensitization and selectivity. Studies measuring the levels of the various metabolites of CldC one hour following CldC administration with or without the various modulators of metabolism showed that it is possible to selectively generate CldU and CldUMP in the tumor compared to normal tissues. DNA incorporation studies measuring the extent of substitution of CldU (derived from CldC) for thymidine also demonstrated the potential for tumor selectivity. Incorporation positively correlated with the levels of cytidine deaminase and dCMP deaminase (two enzymes involved in the metabolism of CldC) in a particular tissue. The levels of these enzymes have been reported to be elevated in many human malignancies. Two model systems were used to assay tumor radiosensitization. The optimum CldC treatment protocol (with tetrahydrouridine, PALA, and 5-fluorodeoxycytidine) yielded a two-fold dose enhancement ratio with the RIF-1 tumor model irradiated in vivo (cell survival was assayed via clonogenic assay). Utilizing the Lewis lung carcinoma model and measuring tumor growth over time, tumor growth was completely arrested for six days following irradiation, with the CldC protocol.

Santos, O.

1989-01-01

270

5-Chlorodeoxycytidine when coadministered with modulators of pyrimidine metabolism is an effective and potentially tumor-selective in vivo radiosensitizer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

5-Chlorodeoxycytidine, a halogenated pyrimidine nucleoside analog, was coadministered with several modulators of pyrimidine metabolism, in order to achieve tumor selective radiosensitization in murine tumor models. The modulators were tetrahydrouridine (an inhibitor of cytidine deaminase), PALA (an inhibitor of aspartate transcarbamylase), 5-fluorodeoxycytidine (which acts to inhibit thymidylate synthetase, and also produces single and double strand breaks in DNA, through incorporation of FdUTP and dUTP into DNA, and subsequent repair) and 5-benzylacyclourindine (an inhibitor of uridine phosphorylase). Several experimental approaches were utilized to determine the extent of tumor radiosensitization and selectivity. Studies measuring the levels of the various metabolites of CldC one hour following CldC administration with or without the various modulators of metabolism showed that it is possible to selectively generate CldU and CldUMP in the tumor compared to normal tissues. DNA incorporation studies measuring the extent of substitution of CldU (derived from CldC) for thymidine also demonstrated the potential for tumor selectivity. Incorporation positively correlated with the levels of cytidine deaminase and dCMP deaminase (two enzymes involved in the metabolism of CldC) in a particular tissue. The levels of these enzymes have been reported to be elevated in many human malignancies. Two model systems were used to assay tumor radiosensitization. The optimum CldC treatment protocol (with tetrahydrouridine, PALA, and 5-fluorodeoxycytidine) yielded a two-fold dose enhancement ratio with the RIF-1 tumor model irradiated in vivo (cell survival was assayed via clonogenic assay). Utilizing the Lewis lung carcinoma model and measuring tumor growth over time, tumor growth was completely arrested for six days following irradiation, with the CldC protocol

1989-01-01

271

Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors potentiate gene blunting induced by repeated methylphenidate treatment: Zif268 versus Homer1a.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is a growing use of psychostimulants, such as methylphenidate (Ritalin; dopamine re-uptake inhibitor), for medical treatments and as cognitive enhancers in the healthy. Methylphenidate is known to produce some addiction-related gene regulation. Recent findings in animal models show that selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs), including fluoxetine, can potentiate acute induction of gene expression by methylphenidate, thus indicating an acute facilitatory role for serotonin in dopamine-induced gene regulation. We investigated whether repeated exposure to fluoxetine, in conjunction with methylphenidate, in adolescent rats facilitated a gene regulation effect well established for repeated exposure to illicit psychostimulants such as cocaine-blunting (repression) of gene inducibility. We measured, by in situ hybridization histochemistry, the effects of a 5-day repeated treatment with methylphenidate (5?mg/kg), fluoxetine (5?mg/kg) or a combination on the inducibility (by cocaine) of neuroplasticity-related genes (Zif268, Homer1a) in the striatum. Repeated methylphenidate treatment alone produced minimal gene blunting, while fluoxetine alone had no effect. In contrast, fluoxetine added to methylphenidate robustly potentiated methylphenidate-induced blunting for both genes. This potentiation was widespread throughout the striatum, but was most robust in the lateral, sensorimotor striatum, thus mimicking cocaine effects. For illicit psychostimulants, blunting of gene expression is considered part of the molecular basis of addiction. Our results thus suggest that SSRIs, such as fluoxetine, may increase the addiction liability of methylphenidate.

Van Waes V; Vandrevala M; Beverley J; Steiner H

2013-06-01

272

Sensitive and selective determination of molybdenum by flow injection chemiluminescence method combined with controlled potential electrolysis technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A sensitive and selective flow injection chemiluminescence (CL) method combined with controlled potential electrolysis technique was described for the determination of molybdenum. The method is based on the chemiluminescence reaction of luminol with unstable molybdenum(III) in alkaline solution. The molybdenum(III) was on-line reduced from molybdenum(VI) via controlled potential electrolysis technique using a homemade flow-through carbon electrolytic cell at the potential of -0.6 V (versus Ag/AgCl). The method allows the determination of molybdenum in the 5.0x10-10 to 5.0x10-7 g ml-1 range with a limit of detection (3?) of 5x10-11 g ml-1 molybdenum. The relative standard deviation is 2.6% for the 1.0x10-9 g ml-1 molybdenum solution in 11 repeated measurements. This method was successfully applied to the determination of molybdenum in water samples

2003-04-03

273

Sensitive and selective determination of molybdenum by flow injection chemiluminescence method combined with controlled potential electrolysis technique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A sensitive and selective flow injection chemiluminescence (CL) method combined with controlled potential electrolysis technique was described for the determination of molybdenum. The method is based on the chemiluminescence reaction of luminol with unstable molybdenum(III) in alkaline solution. The molybdenum(III) was on-line reduced from molybdenum(VI) via controlled potential electrolysis technique using a homemade flow-through carbon electrolytic cell at the potential of -0.6 V (versus Ag/AgCl). The method allows the determination of molybdenum in the 5.0x10{sup -10} to 5.0x10{sup -7} g ml{sup -1} range with a limit of detection (3{sigma}) of 5x10{sup -11} g ml{sup -1} molybdenum. The relative standard deviation is 2.6% for the 1.0x10{sup -9} g ml{sup -1} molybdenum solution in 11 repeated measurements. This method was successfully applied to the determination of molybdenum in water samples.

Du Jianxiu; Li Jianjun; Yang Lingjuan; Lu Jiuru

2003-04-03

274

Endorsing the declining indigenous ethnobotanical knowledge system of seabuckthorn in Central Himalaya, India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM OF THE STUDY: Based on research findings this study is aimed to generate database on ethnobotanical aspects, sustainable utilization by value addition and awareness generation through outreach programme related to Hippophae salicifolia D. Don. (Elaeagnaceae) in the higher Himalayan zone of Uttarakhand in Central Himalaya, India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An in-depth survey from June 2004 to July 2006 followed by 480 interviews with the help of semi-structured questionnaires was carried out in 24 Hippophae growing locations in 12 different valleys of Uttarakhand. RESULTS: Plant has immense multipurpose properties and is traditionally utilized for food (20(Min)-90%(Max)), medicine (10(Min)-60%(Max)), veterinary (20(Min)-100%(Max)), fuel (10(Min)-80%(Max)), fencing (20(Min)-80%(Max)), agricultural tools (20(Min)-50%(Max)) and dye mordant (60%). Besides, awareness programmes and value added product demonstration resulted in economical upliftment of local inhabitants of Central Himalaya. CONCLUSION: The present manuscript will certainly provide an ethnobotanical statistics' impact on the modern scientific societies regarding conservation, cultivation and popularization of this underutilized wild edible species at mass scale. Simultaneously, these findings have important connotations in light of upcoming organic food and nutraceutical industries in the country.

Dhyani D; Maikhuri RK; Misra S; Rao KS

2010-02-01

275

Recovery and Restoration of Some Critically Endangered Endemic Angiosperms of the Kashmir Himalaya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Floristic diversity constitutes an indispensable resource-base for the human livelihood. Plants, being vital components of the biodiversity and the ecosystems they form, are essential for human progress and survival. In the recent past, however, human actions have brought a large number of plant species at the brink of extinction. One of the conservative estimates suggests that 60,000 to 100,000 plant species are threatened worldwide. These include a large number of endemic taxa, which being of considerable phytogeographic importance, need immediate attention of the botanists and conservationists. The Kashmir Himalaya harbours a rich angiosperm-flora, about 152 species of which are endemic exclusively to the Kashmir region. Many of these endemics are of great economic value, especially in food and fodder, local and commercial medicine, etc. Due to over-exploitation, habitat destruction and other anthropogenic activities, together with their innate sensitiveness, many of these endemics have become rare and threatened. This necessitates a thorough study of the threatened endemics of Kashmir so as to pave way for their conservation. The present study aims to dilate upon the taxonomy and the ex situ conservation aspects of five critically endangered endemic flowering-plant species of the Kashmir Himalaya, viz. Aquilegia nivalis, Aconitum kashmiricum, Lagotis cashmeriana, Megacarpaea polyandra and Saussurea costus.

A.R. Dar; G.H. Dar; Zafar Reshi

2006-01-01

276

Tree ring-based seven-century drought records for the Western Himalaya, India  

Science.gov (United States)

The paucity of available instrumental climate records in cold and arid regions of the western Himalaya, India, hampers our understanding of the long-term variability of regional droughts, which seriously affect the agrarian economy of the region. Using ring width chronologies of Cedrus deodara and Pinus gerardiana together from a network of moisture-stressed sites, Palmer Drought Severity Index values for October-May back to 1310 A.D. were developed. The twentieth century features dominant decadal-scale pluvial phases (1981-1995, 1952-1968, and 1918-1934) as compared to the severe droughts in the early seventeenth century (1617-1640) as well as late fifteenth to early sixteenth (1491-1526) centuries. The drought anomalies are positively (negatively) associated with central Pacific (Indo-Pacific Warm Pool) sea surface temperature anomalies. However, non-stationarity in such relationships appears to be the major riddle in the predictability of long-term droughts much needed for the sustainable development of the ecologically sensitive region of the Himalayas.

Yadav, Ram R.

2013-05-01

277

Volatile constituents of Saussurea costus roots cultivated in Uttarakhand Himalayas, India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipschitz, syn Saussurea lappa C.B. Clarke, one of the best-known species within this genus, is commonly known as costus. Due to the remarkable biological activity of S. costus and its constituents it will have an appropriate place in various systems of medicines all over the globe. OBJECTIVE: The main aim is to study the volatile constituents of S costus cultivated in Uttarakhand Himalayas. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The volatile constituents were isolated from the root of S costus cultivated in Chamoli district of Uttrarakhand by hydro distillation and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). RESULTS: A total 35 aroma compounds representing about 92.81% of the total composition were identified. Aldehyde like (7Z, 10Z, 13Z)-7, 10, 13-hexadecaterinal (25.5%) was found as a major compound including other ketones like dehydrocostus lactone (16.7%), alcohols like elemol (5.84%), ?-costol (1.80%), vulgarol B (3.14%), valerenol (4.20%), and terpinen-4-ol (1.60%), etc. Esters and acids were found to be completely absent in our samples. CONCLUSION: S. costus volatile oil constituents are superior in terms of total identified constituents. Where relative area quantum is higher in Uttarakhand Himalayas samples, when compared with those originated to China and Korea.

Gwari G; Bhandari U; Andola HC; Lohani H; Chauhan N

2013-07-01

278

Planktonic Desmid Flora of South of the Eastern Himalayas: A Systematic Approach on Algae-I  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Desmids are freshwater algae often considered as indicator of oligotrophic environment for water bodies. There are ample examples of works done by various workers throughout the world. Though desmids are reported from many parts of India, North East India, located in South of the Eastern Himalaya, is lacking behind in the study of this particular microflora in spite of its rich biodiversity. Therefore, an attempt has been made to study the planktonic desmid flora of North East India. Samples are collected with the help of planktonic net, wide mouth bottles and natural periphytons. Species are identified with the help of standard literature. In the present investigation, a total no. of 38 taxa of desmids including 8 species of genera Closterium, 10 species of Cosmarium, 5 species of Euastrum, 5 species of Micrasterias, 1 species of Netrium, Tortitaenia and Gonatozygon, 2 species of Pleurotaenium and 5 species of Staurastrum were recorded as phytoplankton during August 2009 to 2010 which are new records from the South of the Eastern Himalayas. Among them Closterium and Cosmarium are found to be more abundant indicating their oligotrophic nature which are need to be conserved.

F. Yasmin; B.B. Buragohain; K.K. Medhi

2011-01-01

279

Longest time series of glacier mass changes in the Himalaya based on stereo imagery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mass loss of Himalayan glaciers has wide-ranging consequences such as declining water resources, sea level rise and an increasing risk of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). The assessment of the regional and global impact of glacier changes in the Himalaya is, however, hampered by a lack of mass balance data for most of the range. Multi-temporal digital terrain models (DTMs) allow glacier mass balance to be calculated since the availability of stereo imagery. Here we present the longest time series of mass changes in the Himalaya and show the high value of early stereo spy imagery such as Corona (years 1962 and 1970) aerial images and recent high resolution satellite data (Cartosat-1) to calculate a time series of glacier changes south of Mt. Everest, Nepal. We reveal that the glaciers are significantly losing mass with an increasing rate since at least ~1970, despite thick debris cover. The specific mass loss is 0.32 ± 0.08 m w.e. a?1, however, not higher than the global average. The spatial patterns of surface lowering can be explained by variations in debris-cover thickness, glacier velocity, and ice melt due to exposed ice cliffs and ponds.

T. Bolch; T. Pieczonka; D. I. Benn

2010-01-01

280

Landslide susceptibility mapping along road corridors in the Indian Himalayas using Bayesian logistic regression models  

Science.gov (United States)

Landslide susceptibility mapping (LSM) along road corridors in the Indian Himalayas is an essential exercise that helps planners and decision makers in determining the severity of probable slope failure areas. Logistic regression is commonly applied for this purpose, as it is a robust and straightforward technique that is relatively easy to handle. Ordinary logistic regression as a data-driven technique, however, does not allow inclusion of prior information. This study presents Bayesian logistic regression (BLR) for landslide susceptibility assessment along road corridors. The methodology is tested in a landslide-prone area in the Bhagirathi river valley in the Indian Himalayas. Parameter estimates from BLR are compared with those obtained from ordinary logistic regression. By means of iterative Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation, BLR provides a rich set of results on parameter estimation. We assessed model performance by the receiver operator characteristics curve analysis, and validated the model using 50% of the landslide cells kept apart for testing and validation. The study concludes that BLR performs better in posterior parameter estimation in general and the uncertainty estimation in particular.

Das, Iswar; Stein, Alfred; Kerle, Norman; Dadhwal, Vinay K.

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
281

Traditional use of medicinal plants among the tribal communities of Chhota Bhangal, Western Himalaya.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The importance of medicinal plants in traditional healthcare practices, providing clues to new areas of research and in biodiversity conservation is now well recognized. However, information on the uses for plants for medicine is lacking from many interior areas of Himalaya. Keeping this in view the present study was initiated in a tribal dominated hinterland of western Himalaya. The study aimed to look into the diversity of plant resources that are used by local people for curing various ailments. Questionnaire surveys, participatory observations and field visits were planned to illicit information on the uses of various plants. It was found that 35 plant species are commonly used by local people for curing various diseases. In most of the cases (45%) under ground part of the plant was used. New medicinal uses of Ranunculus hirtellus and Anemone rupicola are reported from this area. Similarly, preparation of "sik" a traditional recipe served as a nutritious diet to pregnant women is also not documented elsewhere. Implication of developmental activities and changing socio-economic conditions on the traditional knowledge are also discussed.

Uniyal SK; Singh KN; Jamwal P; Lal B

2006-01-01

282

Traditional use of medicinal plants among the tribal communities of Chhota Bhangal, Western Himalaya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The importance of medicinal plants in traditional healthcare practices, providing clues to new areas of research and in biodiversity conservation is now well recognized. However, information on the uses for plants for medicine is lacking from many interior areas of Himalaya. Keeping this in view the present study was initiated in a tribal dominated hinterland of western Himalaya. The study aimed to look into the diversity of plant resources that are used by local people for curing various ailments. Questionnaire surveys, participatory observations and field visits were planned to illicit information on the uses of various plants. It was found that 35 plant species are commonly used by local people for curing various diseases. In most of the cases (45%) under ground part of the plant was used. New medicinal uses of Ranunculus hirtellus and Anemone rupicola are reported from this area. Similarly, preparation of "sik" a traditional recipe served as a nutritious diet to pregnant women is also not documented elsewhere. Implication of developmental activities and changing socio-economic conditions on the traditional knowledge are also discussed.

Uniyal Sanjay Kr; Singh KN; Jamwal Pankaj; Lal Brij

2006-01-01

283

Aerosol Characteristics at a High Altitude Location in Central Himalayas: Optical Properties and Radiative Forcing  

CERN Multimedia

Collocated measurements of the mass concentrations of aerosol black carbon (BC) and composite aerosols near the surface were carried out along with spectral aerosol optical depths (AODs) from a high altitude station, Manora Peak in Central Himalayas, during a comprehensive aerosol field campaign in December 2004. Despite being a pristine location in the Shivalik Ranges of Central Himalayas, and having a monthly mean AOD (at 500 nm) of 0.059 $\\pm$ 0.033 (typical to this site), total suspended particulate (TSP) concentration was in the range 15 - 40 micro g m^(-3) (mean value 27.1 $\\pm$ 8.3 micro g m^(-3)). Interestingly, aerosol BC had a mean concentration of 1.36 $\\pm$ 0.99 micro g m^(-3), contributed to ~5.0 $\\pm$ 1.3 % to the composite aerosol mass. This large abundance of BC is found to have linkages to the human activities in the adjoining valley and to the boundary layer dynamics. Consequently, the inferred single scattering albedo lies in the range of 0.87 to 0.94 (mean value 0.90 $\\pm$ 0.03), indicatin...

Pant, P; Dumka, U C; Sagar, R; Satheesh, S K; Moorthy, K K; Sagar, Ram

2006-01-01

284

Identification and conservation of important plant areas (IPAS) for the distribution of medicinal, aromatic and economic plants in the Hindukush-Himalaya mountain range  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Study on the identification of Important Plant Areas (IPAs) was conducted in seven valleys of Hindukush-Himalayas mountainous ranges of Pakistan during 2005 and 2006. The principal aim of the study is to search new avenues for the conservation and sustainable utilization of threatened medicinal and economic plants and their habitats in IPAs. IPAs are sites of tremendous ecological and economic values that still exist in the world and are being managed on specific sites to study wild plant diversity. Several of such plants are used in the traditional medicines that are being used since the dawn of history to provide basic healthcare to people the world over. According to WHO, 80% of the human population of Africa still use medicinal plants in their primary healthcare. The popularity of herbal drugs is on the constant rise in many developed countries of the world, while in developing countries like Pakistan; medicinal plants contribute significantly to the income sources of people living in remote areas. Keeping such importance in view, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched a global vision in the form of 'Global Strategy for Plant Conservation' having various targets and mile stones. Target 5 of the strategy required for the global integration of the herbal medicine in health care system with proper identification of medicinal plants and the conservation of sites where such plants are found naturally, as its basic elements. In order to contribute to the specified target, WHO advised the relevant institutions to develop research plans and conservation programmes that are focused on the Global strategy in general and target 5 in specific. While complementing the appeal and contributing to its vision, a study was conducted in various eco-systems of the Pakistan's Hindukush-Himalayas region, identifying Important Plant Areas (IPAs) for their subsequent conservation and uses for scientific purposes. Site selection for the study was based on: 1). Exceptional vegetation richness for the representative bio-geographic zone; 2). Presence of naturally occurring medicinal herbs with species of global or regional concern, and (3). Threatened habitats that are supporting plant species of medicinal and economic values. Apart from various values of the selected sites such as their scientific and economic importance, the selected sites had a treasure of indigenous knowledge related to the wise uses and conservation of medicinal plants. The study also focused on exploring the complex natural interactions between plants and other organisms; their dependence under various environmental parameters; traditional knowledge of the local inhabitants; and the significance of the landscape to Conserve such plants on long-term basis. (author)

2012-01-01

285

Economic potential analysis of cogeneration using natural gas in the selected sectors; Analise do potencial economico de cogeracao a gas natural nos setores selecionados  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This chapter presents the results of the economic potential of the natural gas cogeneration under topping regime, in the selected sectors of beverage industry, editorial and graphic industries, shopping centers, hospitals and hotels.

NONE

2003-07-01

286

Microwave selective thermal development of latent fingerprints on porous surfaces: potentialities of the method and preliminary experimental results.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The thermal development of latent fingerprints on paper surfaces is a simple, safe, and chemicals-free method, based on the faster heating of the substrate underlying the print residue. Microwave heating is proposed for the first time for the development of latent fingerprints on cellulose-based substrate, in order to add to the thermal development mechanism the further characteristic of being able to heat the fingerprint residues to a different extent with respect to the substrate, due to the intrinsic difference in their dielectric properties. Numerical simulation was performed to confirm and highlight the selectivity of microwaves, and preliminary experimental results point out the great potentialities of this technique, which allowed developing both latent sebaceous-rich and latent eccrine-rich fingerprints on different porous surfaces, in less than 30 sec time with an applied output power of 500 W. Microwaves demonstrated more effectiveness in the development of eccrine-rich residues, aged up to 12 weeks.

Rosa R; Veronesi P; Leonelli C

2013-09-01

287

Clinical and pathologic differential diagnosis of selected potential bioterrorism agents of interest to pediatric health care providers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The early recognition of potential bioterrorism agents has been of increasing concern in recent years. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has categorized and listed biological terrorism agents. Although any or all of the highest risk biological agents (including inhalation anthrax, pneumonic plague, smallpox, tularemia, botulism, and viral hemorrhagic fevers) can be seen in the pediatric patient, several agents might closely resemble--at least in their initial stages-some of the more common childhood illnesses. The awareness of these similarities and, more importantly,their differences, are critical for all health care professionals. Selected examples of some typical childhood illnesses are presented and then compared with three of the most virulent biological agents (smallpox, anthrax and plague) that might be used in a bioterrorism attack.

Stocker JT

2006-06-01

288

Clinical and pathologic differential diagnosis of selected potential bioterrorism agents of interest to pediatric health care providers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The early recognition of potential bioterrorism agents has been of increasing concern in recent years. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has categorized and listed biological terrorism agents. Although any or all of the highest risk biological agents (including inhalation anthrax, pneumonic plague, smallpox, tularemia, botulism, and viral hemorrhagic fevers) can be seen in the pediatric patient, several agents might closely resemble--at least in their initial stages-some of the more common childhood illnesses. The awareness of these similarities and, more importantly,their differences, are critical for all health care professionals. Selected examples of some typical childhood illnesses are presented and then compared with three of the most virulent biological agents (smallpox, anthrax and plague) that might be used in a bioterrorism attack. PMID:16815456

Stocker, J Thomas

2006-06-01

289

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors potentiate the rapid antidepressant-like effects of serotonin4 receptor agonists in the rat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: We have recently reported that serotonin(4) (5-HT(4)) receptor agonists have a promising potential as fast-acting antidepressants. Here, we assess the extent to which this property may be optimized by the concomitant use of conventional antidepressants. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that, in acute conditions, the 5-HT(4) agonist prucalopride was able to counteract the inhibitory effect of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) fluvoxamine and citalopram on 5-HT neuron impulse flow, in Dorsal Raphé Nucleus (DRN) cells selected for their high (>1.8 Hz) basal discharge. The co-administration of both prucalopride and RS 67333 with citalopram for 3 days elicited an enhancement of DRN 5-HT neuron average firing rate, very similar to what was observed with either 5-HT(4) agonist alone. At the postsynaptic level, this translated into the manifestation of a tonus on hippocampal postsynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors, that was two to three times stronger when the 5-HT(4) agonist was combined with citalopram. Similarly, co-administration of citalopram synergistically potentiated the enhancing effect of RS 67333 on CREB protein phosphorylation within the hippocampus. Finally, in the Forced Swimming Test, the combination of RS 67333 with various SSRIs (fluvoxamine, citalopram and fluoxetine) was more effective to reduce time of immobility than the separate administration of each compound. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings strongly suggest that the adjunction of an SSRI to a 5-HT(4) agonist may help to optimize the fast-acting antidepressant efficacy of the latter.

Lucas G; Du J; Romeas T; Mnie-Filali O; Haddjeri N; Piñeyro G; Debonnel G

2010-01-01

290

Immunological traits have the potential to improve selection of pigs for resistance to clinical and subclinical disease  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

It was reasoned that, if we used a large sample of pigs, we could demonstrate that total and differential numbers of leukocytes, expression levels of swine leukocyte antigens (SLA) I and II, and serum concentrations of IgG and haptoglobin show additive genetic variation and are, therefore, potentially useful as criteria to improve selection of pigs for resistance to clinical and subclinical disease. We tested this premise by assessing 4204 male pigs from the Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire breeds for total and differential numbers of leukocytes and serum concentrations of IgG and haptoglobin; 1217 of the Duroc and Landrace pigs were also assessed for expression levels of SLA I and II. We estimated the amount of additive genetic variation by fitting linear animal models to the total and differential numbers of leukocytes and serum concentrations of IgG and haptoglobin. We fitted linear sire models to the expression levels of SLA I and II. We detected additive genetic variation for each group of traits. Total and differential numbers of leukocytes were moderately heritable (h(2) = 0.22 to 0.30), expression levels of SLA I and II were moderate-to-highly heritable (h(2) = 0.46 to 1.23), while serum concentrations of IgG and haptoglobin were lowly heritable (h(2) = 0.14 to 0.16). The additive genetic variation shown for the immunological traits is encouraging for pig breeders. It indicates that these traits are potentially useful as criteria to improve selection of pigs for resistance to clinical and subclinical disease.

Henryon, M.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

2006-01-01

291

Potential social, institutional, and environmental impacts of selected energy-conservation measures in two Washington communities. [Seattle and Yakima  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The likely environmental, social, and institutional impacts of selected energy-conservation measures in two communities in Washington state are reported. The five conservation measures investigated in this study were: (1) retrofitting existing buildings; (2) district heating and Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES); (3) small automobiles and vehicle redesign; (4) land-use and housing modifications; and (5) electric-utility rate reform. Twenty potential impact areas were selected for analysis. These areas were divided into five categories of environmental impacts, economic impacts, community impacts, personal impacts, and overall quality of life in the community. The research was conducted in Seattle and Yakima, Washington. In each location, about two dozen public officials and business, labor, and community leaders were interviewed. Their diverse views are summarized. The Seattle respondents saw energy conservation as a highly desirable policy with a number of temporary, transitional problems arising as energy-conservation measures were implemented. Yakima respondents, in contrast, did not expect to encounter many serious energy problems in the foreseeable future and consequently viewed energy conservation as a relatively minor community concern. Moreover, they anticipated that many conservation measures, if implemented by the government, would encounter either apathy or resistance in their community. Two broad generalizations can bedrawn from these interviews: (1) energy conservation will basically be beneficial for the natural environment and our society; and (2) if energy conservation does become a dominant thrust in our society, it could stimulate and reinforce a much broader process of fundamental social change. (LCL)

Edelson, E.; Olsen, M.

1980-03-01

292

Lung-selective gene responses to alveolar hypoxia: potential role for the bone morphogenetic antagonist gremlin in pulmonary hypertension.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pulmonary hypoxia is a common complication of chronic lung diseases leading to the development of pulmonary hypertension. The underlying sustained increase in vascular resistance in hypoxia is a response unique to the lung. Thus we hypothesized that there are genes for which expression is altered selectively in the lung in response to alveolar hypoxia. Using a novel subtractive array strategy, we compared gene responses to hypoxia in primary human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-L) with those in cardiac microvascular endothelium and identified 90 genes (forming 9 clusters) differentially regulated in the lung endothelium. From one cluster, we confirmed that the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist, gremlin 1, was upregulated in the hypoxic murine lung in vivo but was unchanged in five systemic organs. We also demonstrated that gremlin protein was significantly increased by hypoxia in vivo and inhibited HMVEC-L responses to BMP stimulation in vitro. Furthermore, significant upregulation of gremlin was measured in lungs of patients with pulmonary hypertensive disease. From a second cluster, we showed that CXC receptor 7, a receptor for the proangiogenic chemokine CXCL12, was selectively upregulated in the hypoxic lung in vivo, confirming that our subtractive strategy had successfully identified a second lung-selective hypoxia-responsive gene. We conclude that hypoxia, typical of that encountered in pulmonary disease, causes lung-specific alterations in gene expression. This gives new insights into the mechanisms of pulmonary hypertension and vascular loss in chronic lung disease and identifies gremlin 1 as a potentially important mediator of vascular changes in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension.

Costello CM; Howell K; Cahill E; McBryan J; Konigshoff M; Eickelberg O; Gaine S; Martin F; McLoughlin P

2008-08-01

293

Transport of sediments in Himalaya-Karakorum and its influence on hydropower plants; Sedimenttransportprozesse im Himalaya-Karakorum und ihre Bedeutung fuer Wasserkraftanlagen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the present study the sediment transport processes in alpine mountain areas and their impact on hydropower development projects are investigated. The aim of the present work is to contribute to the understanding of the transport process system, which is characterized by high magnitude-low frequency - events, to ensure an appropriate layout of high head hydropower projects in mountain regions. The sediment transport in large areas in the macro scale is triggered by natural hazards, such as earthquakes, rock slides, earth movements, debris flows, glacial lake outbursts and floods. The basic principle of complex transport processes in this scale is described and explained on the example of the Himalaya-Karakorum-region. The sediment transport process in the smaller scale, so called meso scale, is investigated by means of extensive field measurements at river reaches of 16 different mountain rivers of a 80000 km{sup 2} large project area. The measurements include topographic survey works and measurements of discharge, bed load and suspended load. Since the conditions of mountain rivers in terms of size of bed material as well as available flow velocities can be considered as extreme, an appropriate bed load sampler named B-69 was developed, constructed and used in the field. Moreover the hydraulic as well as the sedimentological efficiency of the sampler was tested in the laboratory tests. Due to the nice performance of the bed load sampler B-69 at high flow velocities it might be useful for flood conditions in gravel-bed rivers in other parts of the world as well. Based on the results of the study the parameter of the river slope can be considered as the most important one for the characteristics of the morphology, the flow conditions, the bed stability as well as the bed load transport in steep mountain rivers. With increasing slope morphological structures in the longitudinal direction will develop from flat bed conditions. The so called step-pool-systems consist of a cascade of staircase local falls. Their distance in-between the falls as well as their height difference at the steps is strongly depending on the river slope. (orig.) [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit beschaeftigt sich mit den Sedimenttransportprozessen in alpinen Gebirgsregionen und deren Auswirkungen auf Wasserkraftanlagen. Ziel der Arbeit ist es, zum Verstaendnis des natuerlichen Sedimenttransportes mit der fuer Gebirgsregionen typischen Charakteristik von 'High Magnitude-Low Frequency - Prozessen' beizutragen, um eine den Transportverhaeltnissen geeignete Auslegung von geplanten Wasserkraftanlagen zu finden. Am Beispiel der Gebirgsregion des Himalaya-Karakorums werden die komplexen Transportvorgaenge im grossraeumigen Raum des Makromassstabes erlaeutert. Dabei wird auf die Massentransporte eingegangen, die durch Naturgefahren wie Erdbeben, Felsgleitungen, Erdrutsche, Muren, Gletscherbrueche und Hochwaesser ausgeloest werden. Der Schwerpunkt der Arbeit liegt in der Durchfuehrung von umfangreichen Naturmessungen im untergeordneten Raum des Mesomassstabes im Bereich von einzelnen Flussabschnitten. Die Naturmessungen umfassen morphologische und topographische Aufnahmen, Abfliessmessungen, Geschiebe- sowie Schwebstoffmessungen an 16 Gebirgsfluessen eines insgesamt 80000 km{sup 2} grossen Projektgebietes im Himalaya-Karakorum. Aufgrund der extremen Verhaeltnisse der Gebirgsfluesse der Region hinsichtlich vorhandener Korngroesse des Bettmaterials sowie die Groessenordnung der Fliessgeschwindigkeiten wurde fuer die Untersuchungen eigens der mobile Geschiebesammler B-69 entwickelt, gebaut und auf seine hydraulische und sedimentologische Effizienz hin geprueft. Der Einsatz des B-69 hat sich im Feld bewaehrt und ist fuer weitere Anwendungen bei Hochwasserereignissen in kiesfuehrenden Fluessen geeignet. Als massgebender Parameter zur Beschreibung der Morphologie, der Stroemung, der Sohlenstabilitaet und des Geschiebetransportes von Gebirgsfluessen im Mesomassstab konnte das Gefaelle I festgestellt werden. Das Gefaelle ist bestimmend fuer die Ausbildung d

Palt, S.M.

2001-07-01

294

An evaluation of the allelopathic potential of selected perennial groundcovers: foliar volatiles of catmint (Nepeta x faassenii) inhibit seedling growth.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Six perennial groundcovers including Alchemilla mollis, Nepeta x faassenii, Phlox subulata, Sedum acre, Solidago cutleri, and Thymus praecox were investigated for the allelopathic potential of their respective foliar tissues via evaluation of volatile constituents produced by foliage. These groundcovers were selected for further laboratory evaluation because of superior performance as weed-suppressive groundcovers in previous field experiments. Foliar volatile components of N. x faassenii exhibited the strongest inhibitory effects on seedling growth of curly cress (Lepidium sativum), but S. cutleri also showed allelopathic potential by reducing shoot growth of curly cress seedlings with extracted volatiles. Although A. mollis and P. subulata exhibited strong weed-suppressive traits in past field experiments, weed suppression is apparently associated with either competition for resources or other allelopathic mechanisms rather than an allelopathic effect caused by volatiles. Volatiles of N. x faassenii were further evaluated with gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 21 chemical constituents were identified in the volatile cocktail; 17 components were identified from a direct crude leaf sample extraction, including sabinene, beta-pinene, beta-myrcene, 2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)-ethanol, 1,8-cineole, ocimene, neryl Acetate, 4aalpha,7alpha,7aalpha-nepetalactone, alpha-copaene, trans-caryophyllene, alloaromadendrene, 4abeta,7alpha,7abeta-nepetalactone, germacrene D, beta-farnesene, chi-cadinene, germacrene B, and beta-sesquiphellandrene. Five additional constituents were identified in a methanolic extract of dried of N. x faassenii foliage, but not the volatile cocktail collected from N. x faassenii foliage. These included methyl benzoate, 2,4-decadienal, neryl acetate, isodihydronepetalactone, and caryophyllene oxide. Three components, 2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)-ethanol, alloaromadendrene, and chi-cadinene, were not only detected in both the volatile mixture and the methanolic extract, but also in an aqueous foliar extract that exhibited potential allelopathic activity.

Eom SH; Yang HS; Weston LA

2006-08-01

295

An evaluation of the allelopathic potential of selected perennial groundcovers: foliar volatiles of catmint (Nepeta x faassenii) inhibit seedling growth.  

Science.gov (United States)

Six perennial groundcovers including Alchemilla mollis, Nepeta x faassenii, Phlox subulata, Sedum acre, Solidago cutleri, and Thymus praecox were investigated for the allelopathic potential of their respective foliar tissues via evaluation of volatile constituents produced by foliage. These groundcovers were selected for further laboratory evaluation because of superior performance as weed-suppressive groundcovers in previous field experiments. Foliar volatile components of N. x faassenii exhibited the strongest inhibitory effects on seedling growth of curly cress (Lepidium sativum), but S. cutleri also showed allelopathic potential by reducing shoot growth of curly cress seedlings with extracted volatiles. Although A. mollis and P. subulata exhibited strong weed-suppressive traits in past field experiments, weed suppression is apparently associated with either competition for resources or other allelopathic mechanisms rather than an allelopathic effect caused by volatiles. Volatiles of N. x faassenii were further evaluated with gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 21 chemical constituents were identified in the volatile cocktail; 17 components were identified from a direct crude leaf sample extraction, including sabinene, beta-pinene, beta-myrcene, 2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)-ethanol, 1,8-cineole, ocimene, neryl Acetate, 4aalpha,7alpha,7aalpha-nepetalactone, alpha-copaene, trans-caryophyllene, alloaromadendrene, 4abeta,7alpha,7abeta-nepetalactone, germacrene D, beta-farnesene, chi-cadinene, germacrene B, and beta-sesquiphellandrene. Five additional constituents were identified in a methanolic extract of dried of N. x faassenii foliage, but not the volatile cocktail collected from N. x faassenii foliage. These included methyl benzoate, 2,4-decadienal, neryl acetate, isodihydronepetalactone, and caryophyllene oxide. Three components, 2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)-ethanol, alloaromadendrene, and chi-cadinene, were not only detected in both the volatile mixture and the methanolic extract, but also in an aqueous foliar extract that exhibited potential allelopathic activity. PMID:16900434

Eom, Seok Hyun; Yang, Hyun Seuk; Weston, Leslie A

2006-08-03

296

Chymotrypsin selectively digests ?-lactoglobulin in whey protein isolate away from enzyme optimal conditions: potential for native ?-lactalbumin purification.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study examines the resistance of the ?-lactalbumin to ?-chymotrypsin (EC 3.4.21.1) digestion under various experimental conditions. Whey protein isolate (WPI) was hydrolysed using randomised hydrolysis conditions (5 and 10% of WPI; pH 7.0, 7.8 and 8.5; temperature 25, 37 and 50 °C; enzyme-to-substrate ratio, E/S, of 0.1%, 0.5 and 1%). Reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was used to analyse residual proteins. Heat, pH adjustment and two inhibitors (Bowman-Birk inhibitor and trypsin inhibitor from chicken egg white) were used to stop the enzyme reaction. While operating outside of the enzyme optimum it was observed that at pH 8.5 selective hydrolysis of ?-lactoglobulin was improved because of a dimer-to-monomer transition while ?-la remained relatively resistant. The best conditions for the recovery of native and pure ?-la were at 25 °C, pH 8.5, 1% E/S ratio, 5% WPI (w/v) while the enzyme was inhibited using Bowman-Birk inhibitor with around 81% of original ?-la in WPI was recovered with no more ?-lg. Operating conditions for hydrolysis away from the chymotrypsin optimum conditions offers a great potential for selective WPI hydrolysis, and removal, of ?-lg with production of whey protein concentrates containing low or no ?-lg and pure native ?-la. This method also offers the possibility for production of ?-lg-depleted milk products for sensitive populations.

Lisak K; Toro-Sierra J; Kulozik U; Božani? R; Cheison SC

2013-02-01

297

Selection for high muscle fat in rainbow trout induces potentially higher chylomicron synthesis and PUFA biosynthesis in the intestine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two lines of rainbow trout divergently selected for muscle fat content, fat line (F) and lean line (L) were used to investigate the effect of genetic selection on digestion, intestinal nutrient transport and fatty acid bioconversion, in relation to dietary starch intake. This study involved a digestibility trial for 2 weeks using Cr(2)O(3) as inert marker, followed by a feeding trial for 4 weeks. For the entire duration, juvenile trout from the two lines were fed diets with or without gelatinized starch. Blood, pyloric ceca, midgut and hindgut were sampled at 24 h after the last meal. Transcripts of the proteins involved in nutrient transport and fatty acid bioconversion were abundant in the proximal intestine. GLUT2 transcripts were slightly higher in the F line ceca than in the L line. Dietary starch intake did not enhance the transcription of intestinal glucose transporters, SGLT1 and GLUT2; but it was associated with the higher expression of ApoA1 and PepT1 in the midgut. Significantly, the F line exhibited higher intestinal mRNA levels of MTP, ApoA4, Elovl2, Elovl5 and D6D than the L line, linked to chylomicron assembly and fatty acid bioconversion. Apparent digestibility coefficients of protein, lipid and starch were high in both lines, but not significantly different between them. In conclusion, we found a higher potential of chylomicron synthesis and fatty acid bioconversion in the intestine of F line, but no adaptive transcriptional response of glucose transporters to dietary starch and no genotypic differences in nutrient digestibility.

Kamalam BS; Panserat S; Aguirre P; Geurden I; Fontagné-Dicharry S; Médale F

2013-02-01

298

Selection for high muscle fat in rainbow trout induces potentially higher chylomicron synthesis and PUFA biosynthesis in the intestine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two lines of rainbow trout divergently selected for muscle fat content, fat line (F) and lean line (L) were used to investigate the effect of genetic selection on digestion, intestinal nutrient transport and fatty acid bioconversion, in relation to dietary starch intake. This study involved a digestibility trial for 2 weeks using Cr(2)O(3) as inert marker, followed by a feeding trial for 4 weeks. For the entire duration, juvenile trout from the two lines were fed diets with or without gelatinized starch. Blood, pyloric ceca, midgut and hindgut were sampled at 24 h after the last meal. Transcripts of the proteins involved in nutrient transport and fatty acid bioconversion were abundant in the proximal intestine. GLUT2 transcripts were slightly higher in the F line ceca than in the L line. Dietary starch intake did not enhance the transcription of intestinal glucose transporters, SGLT1 and GLUT2; but it was associated with the higher expression of ApoA1 and PepT1 in the midgut. Significantly, the F line exhibited higher intestinal mRNA levels of MTP, ApoA4, Elovl2, Elovl5 and D6D than the L line, linked to chylomicron assembly and fatty acid bioconversion. Apparent digestibility coefficients of protein, lipid and starch were high in both lines, but not significantly different between them. In conclusion, we found a higher potential of chylomicron synthesis and fatty acid bioconversion in the intestine of F line, but no adaptive transcriptional response of glucose transporters to dietary starch and no genotypic differences in nutrient digestibility. PMID:23238590

Kamalam, Biju Sam; Panserat, Stephane; Aguirre, Peyo; Geurden, Inge; Fontagné-Dicharry, Stéphanie; Médale, Françoise

2012-12-11

299

Analysis of wind speed data and wind energy potential in three selected locations in south-east Nigeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, the wind speed characteristics and energy potential in selected three locations in south eastern part of Nigeria were investigated using wind speed data that span between 24 and 37 years measured at 10m height. It was shown that the annual mean wind speed at height of 10 m for Enugu, Owerri, and Onitsha are 5.42 m/s, 3.36 m/s, and 3.59 m/s, respectively, while the annual mean power densities are, respectively, 96.98 W/m2, 23.23 W/m2 and 28.34 W/m{sup 2}. It was further shown that the mean annual value of the most probable wind speed are 5.47m/s, 3.72m/s and 3.50m/s for Enugu, Owerri and Onitsha, respectively, while the respective annual value of the wind speed carrying maximum energy 6.48m/s, 4.33m/s, and 3.90m/s.The performance of selected commercial wind turbine models (with rated power between 50kW and 1000kW) designed for electricity generation and a windmill (rated power of 0.36kW) for water pumping located in these sites were examined.The annual energy output and capacity factor for these turbines as well as the water produced by the windmill were determined. The minimum required design parameters for a wind turbine to be a viable option for electricity generation in each location are also suggested. (orig.)

Oyedepo, Sunday O. [Covenant Univ., Ota, Ogun State (Nigeria). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Adaramola, Muyiwa S. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Energy and Process Engineering; Paul, Sunday S. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

2012-07-01

300

A pyridoxine cyclic phosphate and its 6-azoaryl derivative selectively potentiate and antagonize activation of P2X1 receptors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Analogues of the P2 receptor antagonists pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and the 6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonate derivative (PPADS), in which the phosphate group was cyclized by esterification to a CH2OH group at the 4-position, were synthesized. The cyclic pyridoxine-alpha4, 5-monophosphate, compound 2 (MRS 2219), was found to be a selective potentiator of ATP-evoked responses at rat P2X1 receptors with an EC50 value of 5.9 +/- 1.8 microM, while the corresponding 6-azophenyl-2',5'-disulfonate derivative, compound 3 (MRS 2220), was a selective antagonist. The potency of compound 3 at the recombinant P2X1 receptor (IC50 10.2 +/- 2.6 microM) was lower than PPADS (IC50 98.5 +/- 5.5 nM) or iso-PPADS (IC50 42.5 +/- 17.5 nM), although unlike PPADS its effect was reversible with washout and surmountable. Compound 3 showed weak antagonistic activity at the rat P2X3 receptor (IC50 58.3 +/- 0.1 microM), while at recombinant rat P2X2 and P2X4 receptors no enhancing or antagonistic properties were evident. Compounds 2 and 3 were found to be inactive as either agonists or antagonists at the phospholipase C-coupled P2Y1 receptor of turkey erythrocytes, at recombinant human P2Y2 and P2Y4 receptors, and at recombinant rat P2Y6 receptors. Similarly, compounds 2 and 3 did not have measurable affinity at adenosine A1, A2A, or A3 receptors. The lack of an aldehyde group in these derivatives indicates that Schiff's base formation with the P2X1 receptor is not necessarily required for recognition of pyridoxal phosphate derivatives. Thus, compounds 2 and 3 are relatively selective pharmacological probes of P2X1 receptors, filling a long-standing need in the P2 receptor field, and are also important lead compounds for future studies.

Jacobson KA; Kim YC; Wildman SS; Mohanram A; Harden TK; Boyer JL; King BF; Burnstock G

1998-06-01

 
 
 
 
301

The potential of aspen clonal forestry in Alberta: breeding regions and estimates of genetic gain from selection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Aspen naturally grows in large, single-species, even-aged stands that regenerate clonally after fire disturbance. This offers an opportunity for an intensive clonal forestry system that closely emulates the natural life history of the species. In this paper, we assess the potential of genetic tree improvement and clonal deployment to enhance the productivity of aspen forests in Alberta. We further investigate geographic patterns of genetic variation in aspen and infer forest management strategies under uncertain future climates. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Genetic variation among 242 clones from Alberta was evaluated in 13 common garden trials after 5-8 growing seasons in the field. Broad-sense heritabilities for height and diameter at breast height (DBH) ranged from 0.36 to 0.64, allowing 5-15% genetic gains in height and 9-34% genetic gains in DBH. Geographic partitioning of genetic variance revealed predominant latitudinal genetic differentiation. We further observed that northward movement of clones almost always resulted in increased growth relative to local planting material, while southward movement had a strong opposite effect. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Aspen forests are an important natural resource in western Canada that is used for pulp and oriented strandboard production, accounting for ~40% of the total forest harvest. Moderate to high broad-sense heritabilities in growth traits suggest good potential for a genetic tree improvement program with aspen. Significant productivity gains appear possible through clonal selection from existing trials. We propose two breeding regions for Alberta, and suggest that well-tested southern clones may be used in the northern breeding region, accounting for a general warming trend observed over the last several decades in Alberta.

Gylander T; Hamann A; Brouard JS; Thomas BR

2012-01-01

302

Earthquake Risk Analysis and Science for Peace in Western/ Kashmir Himalayas - A Road Map for Transnational Subsurface Earth Imaging  

Science.gov (United States)

In light of immense human tragedy caused by the Kashmir earthquake of October 8, 2005, there is a need for transnational science for the assessment of future earthquake risks and understanding continental dynamics within the Western and Kashmir Himalayas. One can approach such a test to our society through understanding what causes these earthquakes in Kashmir in the first place in a rigorous manner and also try to determine how often do they happen in Western/ Kashmir Himalayas. Geophysical measurements (passive source, active source seismology, magnetotelluric measurements, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)) are imaging techniques for earth's deeper as well as shallow structure. When such imaging techniques are used on scales of earth's crust and beyond (~30 km to 100 km) and also on near the surface (~10 to100 meters) of the earth, it helps us understand both the processes for the origin and frequency of the earthquakes. Here, I will only concentrate on a road map for planning regional reflection seismology (active source seismology) surveys within the context of National Science Foundation (NSF) led Science for Peace Initiative primarily involving USA, India, and Pakistan. The proposal here is to initiate shallow and deep active source surveys in mega-population cities in Punjab and adjoining areas in Western Himalayas on either side of the political boundaries of India and Pakistan as separate ventures for first few years but a start for future collaboration. Once the core scientific teams are formed involving Indian, Pakistani, American, and scientists from other nations too, then the Indus Kohistan Seismic Zone in the Kashmir Himalayas should be the target for detailed geophysical and geological investigations. The idea presented here was first formed for the NSF sponsored International Karakoram-Kashmir Workshop that was supposed to be held in Islamabad (Pakistan), May 2006 with around 100 invitees from 10 nations for forming joint scientific initiatives. However, due to security concerns by the Government of Pakistan, the meeting was postponed at the 11th hour. Such political constraints invariably become the most dominant factor whether such bold endeavors can even be initiated, and the first order business is to convince the policy makers and scientists from India, Pakistan, USA, and other countries at all possible forums including AGU, the need and urgency for such transnational initiatives. The broader impacts are science and earthquake risk analysis in Western/ Kashmir Himalayas, lay framework for long-term policy decisions for earthquake hazards in Himalayas, and instrument for peace initiative.

Tandon, K.

2006-12-01

303

Ethnomedicinal and ecological status of plants in Garhwal Himalaya, India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The northern part of India harbours a great diversity of medicinal plants due to its distinct geography and ecological marginal conditions. The traditional medical systems of northern India are part of a time tested culture and honored still by people today. These traditional systems have been curing complex disease for more than 3,000 years. With rapidly growing demand for these medicinal plants, most of the plant populations have been depleted, indicating a lack of ecological knowledge among communities using the plants. Thus, an attempt was made in this study to focus on the ecological status of ethnomedicinal plants, to determine their availability in the growing sites, and to inform the communities about the sustainable exploitation of medicinal plants in the wild. METHODS: The ecological information regarding ethnomedicinal plants was collected in three different climatic regions (tropical, sub-tropical and temperate) for species composition in different forest layers. The ecological information was assessed using the quadrate sampling method. A total of 25 quadrats, 10 × 10 m were laid out at random in order to sample trees and shrubs, and 40 quadrats of 1 × 1 m for herbaceous plants. In each climatic region, three vegetation sites were selected for ecological information; the mean values of density, basal cover, and the importance value index from all sites of each region were used to interpret the final data. Ethnomedicinal uses were collected from informants of adjacent villages. About 10% of inhabitants (older, experienced men and women) were interviewed about their use of medicinal plants. A consensus analysis of medicinal plant use between the different populations was conducted. RESULTS: Across the different climatic regions a total of 57 species of plants were reported: 14 tree species, 10 shrub species, and 33 herb species. In the tropical and sub-tropical regions, Acacia catechu was the dominant tree while Ougeinia oojeinensis in the tropical region and Terminalia belerica in the sub-tropical region were least dominant reported. In the temperate region, Quercus leucotrichophora was the dominant tree and Pyrus pashia the least dominant tree. A total of 10 shrubs were recorded in all three regions: Adhatoda vasica was common species in the tropical and sub-tropical regions however, Rhus parviflora was common species in the sub-tropical and temperate regions. Among the 33 herbs, Sida cordifolia was dominant in the tropical and sub-tropical regions, while Barleria prionitis the least dominant in tropical and Phyllanthus amarus in the sub-tropical region. In temperate region, Vernonia anthelmintica was dominant and Imperata cylindrica least dominant. The consensus survey indicated that the inhabitants have a high level of agreement regarding the usages of single plant. The index value was high (1.0) for warts, vomiting, carminative, pain, boils and antiseptic uses, and lowest index value (0.33) was found for bronchitis. CONCLUSION: The medicinal plants treated various ailments. These included diarrhea, dysentery, bronchitis, menstrual disorders, gonorrhea, pulmonary affections, migraines, leprosy. The ecological studies showed that the tree density and total basal cover increased from the tropical region to sub-tropical and temperate regions. The species composition changed with climatic conditions. Among the localities used for data collection in each climatic region, many had very poor vegetation cover. The herbaceous layer decreased with increasing altitude, which might be an indication that communities at higher elevations were harvesting more herbaceous medicinal plants, due to the lack of basic health care facilities. Therefore, special attention needs to be given to the conservation of medicinal plants in order to ensure their long-term availability to the local inhabitants. Data on the use of individual species of medicinal plants is needed to provide an in-depth assessment of the plants availability in order to design conservation strategies to protect individual species.

Kumar M; Sheikh MA; Bussmann RW

2011-01-01

304

Tree diversity and carbon stocks of some major forest types of Garhwal Himalaya, India  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Four forest stands each of twenty major forest types in sub-tropical to temperate zones (350m asl-3100m asl) of Garhwal Himalaya were studied. The aim of the study was to assess the stem density, tree diversity, biomass and carbon stocks in these forests and make recommendations for forest management based on priorities for biodiversity protection and carbon sequestration. Stem density ranged between 295 and 850Nha?¹, while total biomass ranged from 129 to 533Mgha?¹. Total carbon storage ranged between 59 and 245Mgha?¹. The range of Shannon-Wiener diversity index was between 0.28 and 1.75. Most of the conifer-dominated forest types had higher carbon storage than broadleaf-dominated forest types. Protecting conifer-dominated stands, especially those dominated by Abies pindrow and Cedrus deodara, would have the largest impact, per unit area, on reducing carbon emissions from deforestation.

Sharma ChandraM; Baduni NarendraP; Gairola Sumeet; Ghildiyal SunilK; Suyal Sarvesh

2010-12-01

305

Climate variability, vulnerability, and coping mechanism in Alaknanda catchment, Central Himalaya, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was carried out to discover trends in the rainfall and temperature pattern of the Alaknanda catchment in the Central Himalaya. Data on the annual rainfall, monsoon rainfall for the last decade, and average annual temperatures over the last few decades were analyzed. Nonparametric methods (Mann-Kendall and Sen's method) were employed to identify trends. The Mann-Kendall test shows a decline in rainfall and rise in temperature, and these trends were found to be statistically significant at the 95% confidence level for both transects. Sen's method also confirms this trend. This aspect has to be considered seriously for the simple reason that if the same trend continues in the future, more chances of drought are expected. The impact of climate change has been well perceived by the people of the catchment, and a coping mechanism has been developed at the local level. PMID:18686508

Kumar, Kireet; Joshi, Sneh; Joshi, Varun

2008-06-01

306

Climate variability, vulnerability, and coping mechanism in Alaknanda catchment, Central Himalaya, India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A study was carried out to discover trends in the rainfall and temperature pattern of the Alaknanda catchment in the Central Himalaya. Data on the annual rainfall, monsoon rainfall for the last decade, and average annual temperatures over the last few decades were analyzed. Nonparametric methods (Mann-Kendall and Sen's method) were employed to identify trends. The Mann-Kendall test shows a decline in rainfall and rise in temperature, and these trends were found to be statistically significant at the 95% confidence level for both transects. Sen's method also confirms this trend. This aspect has to be considered seriously for the simple reason that if the same trend continues in the future, more chances of drought are expected. The impact of climate change has been well perceived by the people of the catchment, and a coping mechanism has been developed at the local level.

Kumar K; Joshi S; Joshi V

2008-06-01

307

Changing lichen diversity in and around urban settlements of Garhwal Himalayas due to increasing anthropogenic activities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Decrease in lichen diversity is an important biometric tool to assess the prevailing environmental condition in an area. An attempt has been made to explore the utility of lichen diversity in the monitoring of air pollution in the city of Pauri and Srinagar, Garhwal Himalayas, Uttaranchal. Eighty five lichen species were recorded from Pauri and Srinagar (Garhwal) in June 2005. It was observed that polluted sites had very low lichen diversity, mostly dominated by members of lichen family Physciaceae. Kiyonkaleshwar area is the site with maximum lichen diversity (46 lichen taxa) located in a more or less pollution-free area of Pauri city. Two-dimensional principal components analysis plot revealed significant positive contribution of natural (unaltered) sites towards lichen biodiversity, thus affirming the utility of lichen diversity in biomonitoring studies in a wide geographical area.

Shukla V; Upreti DK

2011-03-01

308

Evaluation of small millet genotypes against endemic diseases in mid-western Himalayas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An attempt has been made to identify the suitable small millet genotypes, which can be exploited for developing resistant cultivars against important endemic diseases present in mid-western Himalayas. Results revealed that nine finger millet genotypes viz; VL 234, SANJI 1, PRM 9802, VL 328, VL 333, ED 201- 5A, VR 708, SANJI 1 and VL 324 were completely free from neck and finger blast disease. However, three genotypes of barnyard millet namely; PRB 402, TNAU 92 and VL 216 showed complete resistance against smuts (grain and head smut) and brown spot diseases, while, seven genotypes of foxtail millet viz; GPUS 27, SiA 3039, SiA 3059, SiA 3066, SiA 3088, TNAU 213 and TNAU 235 were found completely free from brown spot. disease.

BIJENDER KUMAR* and J. KUMAR

2011-01-01

309

Ethnomycological studies of some wild medicinal and edible mushrooms in the Kashmir Himalayas (India).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The medicinal use of mushrooms has a very long tradition in Asian countries because of their use as a valuable tonic, food, and in herbal medicines. A study was carried out to document the indigenous uses of various mushrooms growing in the Kashmir Himalayas. After consulting local herbal healers (Hakims) and people from tribal communities inhabiting inaccessible hinterlands of the region regarding the use of mushrooms growing in their locality, it was found that 35 species of mushrooms belonging to different ecological and taxonomical groups were used for their nutritional and medicinal values. These mushrooms were used for their activities against a broad spectrum of diseases, ranging from simple skin diseases to present-day complex diseases such as diabetes and tumors.

Pala SA; Wani AH; Bhat MY

2013-01-01

310

Pictorial keys for predominant Bactrocera and Dacus fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) of north western Himalaya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A pictorial key for 13 species of fruit flies under 2 genera namely Bactrocera and Dacus of subfamily Dacinae (Diptera: Tephritidae) is presented in this paper based on actual photographs of fruit flies collected from north western Himalaya of India during 2009-2010. Among these, Bactrocera diversa (Coquillett), Bactrocera scutellaris (Bezzi), Bactrocera tau (Walker), Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi), Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) and Dacus ciliatus Loew are the pests of agricultural and horticultural ecosystems. Bactrocera latifrons, Bactrocera nigrofemoralis White and Tsuruta, Dacus longicornis Wiedemann and Dacus sphaeroidalis (Bezzi) are the new records from the region of which host range has yet to be investigated. The pictorial keysdeveloped for these species will help the researchers for their easy and accurate identification.

C. S. Prabhakar; Pankaj Sood; P. K. Mehta

2012-01-01

311

Population genetic study of Fagopyrum tataricum from Western Himalaya using ISSR markers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were used to analyze genetic diversity and relatedness of 15 germplasms of Fagopyrum tataricum. Samples representing 75 individuals were collected from a range of altitudes in the Western Himalaya. The 13 ISSR primers revealed 98.1% polymorphism among populations, whereas average polymorphism was extremely low (2.18%) within populations. The coefficient of population differentiation was 0.9750, with limited gene flow (N m) of 0.0128. The average PIC value of the ISSR markers was high (0.812), with a marker ratio of 0.65 and marker index of 6.66. The genetic diversity of F. tataricum significantly correlated with altitude and gene diversity, Shannon's index, and the percentage of polymorphic bands. The genetic diversity among populations showed broad genetic base and provided a developmental strategy for crop improvement. PMID:23743875

Kishore, Garima; Pandey, Anjana; Dobhal, Rajendra; Gupta, Sanjay

2013-06-07

312

The hydrologic sensitivity of the upper Indus River to glacier changes in the western Karakoram Himalayas  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent controversy regarding the rates of disappearance of glaciers in the Himalayas, the world's highest mountain chain, has primarily been focused on the eastern Himalayas. Studies carried out in the Central Karakoram Himalayan region suggest an expansion of glaciers. Little information exists about long-term glacier changes and their impact on streamflow in the Karakoram Himalayas where field surveys are difficult due to complex terrain and long term measurements have not been collected. The availability of global remotely sensed and climate datasets in the public domain provides an opportunity for studying large data sparse drainage basins. Following this approach, here I use remotely sensed datasets in combination with observational-based and simulated climate data to estimate glacier changes and their impact on streamflow variability in the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) located in the Karakoram Himalayas. Using Landsat images acquired between 1977 and 2006 and climate data from the Climate Research Unit (CRU), change detection analysis shows that the extent of perennial snow cover at higher elevations in the Central Karakoram has increased coinciding with a significant increase in winter precipitation and a decrease in summer temperature. Similarly, analysis of glacier thickness change estimated from the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) altimeter data available between 2003 and 2008 with respect to the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation data acquired in year 2000 identifies two clear patterns of change in the UIB. Strong thickening rates are observed within highly glacierized northern sub-watersheds (i.e. the Hunza and Shyok River basins), while thinning glaciers are identified in southern sub-watersheds. Statistically significant decreasing streamflow trends identified in all seasons for the Hunza River basin and increasing trends identified in other sub-basins of UIB for the period of 1974 -- 2000 illustrate that observed streamflow response among sub-watersheds is closely related to the existence of distinct patterns in observed glacier changes. Trend analysis of water equivalence, snowmelt and glacier melt simulated using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, modified to represent glacier storage and melt, clarifies that increasing trends in ice and snow water equivalence and positive glacier thickening rates in the Hunza River basin decrease the melt contribution from higher altitude areas. Conversely, in other sub-basins increasing trends in streamflow are associated with increases in snow and ice melt contributions to the total streamflow. As a result of this study, an improved understanding of the governing factors of annual variability and timing of flows allow us to better assess the impacts of glaciers on streamflow in a changing climate. Additionally, the presented methodology for estimating glacier changes and their impact on streamflow requires relatively few data, mostly derived from global datasets. It therefore can be utilized for other data sparse drainage basins of the world.

Naz, Bibi S.

313

Radon anomalies and their correlation with microseismicity in N-W Himalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Evidence for radon anomalies in soil-gas and groundwater as earthquake precursor phenomenon is recorded in Kangra and Chamba valleys of Himachal Pradesh, India based on micro-seismicity trends in N-W Himalaya. Radon monitoring is being carried out at Palampur, Jawalamukhi, Dalhousie and Chamba stations using emanometry for discrete measurements and alpha-logger technique for continuous recording of time-series radon data from June 1996 to September 1997. Radon anomalies in both type of data are correlated with some of the micro-earthquakes recorded during the time-window by the seismographic network of Indian Meteorological Department (IMD). A critical analysis is made of radon data to find confidence level and sensitivity of each recording station

2000-01-01

314

Population Genetic Study of Fagopyrum tataricum from Western Himalaya Using ISSR Markers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were used to analyze genetic diversity and relatedness of 15 germplasms of Fagopyrum tataricum. Samples representing 75 individuals were collected from a range of altitudes in the Western Himalaya. The 13 ISSR primers revealed 98.1% polymorphism among populations, whereas average polymorphism was extremely low (2.18%) within populations. The coefficient of population differentiation was 0.9750, with limited gene flow (N m) of 0.0128. The average PIC value of the ISSR markers was high (0.812), with a marker ratio of 0.65 and marker index of 6.66. The genetic diversity of F. tataricum significantly correlated with altitude and gene diversity, Shannon's index, and the percentage of polymorphic bands. The genetic diversity among populations showed broad genetic base and provided a developmental strategy for crop improvement.

Kishore G; Pandey A; Dobhal R; Gupta S

2013-10-01

315

Radon measurements in soil and water and its relation with geology, Garhwal Himalaya, India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radon concentrations were measured in soil and spring water in the Garhwal Himalaya using radon emanometer. The measurements were made in the Berinag, Bhatwari and Munsiari Formations. The main rock types in the area are sheared granitic gneiss, porphyritic gneiss, chlorite schist, mica schist, mylonite, slate, phyllite, quartzite and metabasic. The radon concentrations were found to vary from 1.2 kBq/m{sup 3} to 56.5 kBq/m{sup 3} in soil and 0.4 Bq/l to 887 Bq/l in water. The results suggest that the radon emanation is controlled not only by uranium content of the rock and soil but also by structural zones (thrust, fault, etc.) which help in the easy migration of radon from the deeper parts of the earth crust. (author)

Choubey, V.M. [Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehra Dun (India)

1998-12-31

316

Herbal therapies for type 2 diabetes mellitus: chemistry, biology, and potential application of selected plants and compounds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diabetes mellitus has been recognized since antiquity. It currently affects as many as 285 million people worldwide and results in heavy personal and national economic burdens. Considerable progress has been made in orthodox antidiabetic drugs. However, new remedies are still in great demand because of the limited efficacy and undesirable side effects of current orthodox drugs. Nature is an extraordinary source of antidiabetic medicines. To date, more than 1200 flowering plants have been claimed to have antidiabetic properties. Among them, one-third have been scientifically studied and documented in around 460 publications. In this review, we select and discuss blood glucose-lowering medicinal herbs that have the ability to modulate one or more of the pathways that regulate insulin resistance, ?-cell function, GLP-1 homeostasis, and glucose (re)absorption. Emphasis is placed on phytochemistry, anti-diabetic bioactivities, and likely mechanism(s). Recent progress in the understanding of the biological actions, mechanisms, and therapeutic potential of compounds and extracts of plant origin in type 2 diabetes is summarized. This review provides a source of up-to-date information for further basic and clinical research into herbal therapy for type 2 diabetes. Emerging views on therapeutic strategies for type 2 diabetes are also discussed. PMID:23662132

Chang, Cicero L T; Lin, Yenshou; Bartolome, Arlene P; Chen, Yi-Ching; Chiu, Shao-Chih; Yang, Wen-Chin

2013-04-04

317

Herbal therapies for type 2 diabetes mellitus: chemistry, biology, and potential application of selected plants and compounds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Diabetes mellitus has been recognized since antiquity. It currently affects as many as 285 million people worldwide and results in heavy personal and national economic burdens. Considerable progress has been made in orthodox antidiabetic drugs. However, new remedies are still in great demand because of the limited efficacy and undesirable side effects of current orthodox drugs. Nature is an extraordinary source of antidiabetic medicines. To date, more than 1200 flowering plants have been claimed to have antidiabetic properties. Among them, one-third have been scientifically studied and documented in around 460 publications. In this review, we select and discuss blood glucose-lowering medicinal herbs that have the ability to modulate one or more of the pathways that regulate insulin resistance, ?-cell function, GLP-1 homeostasis, and glucose (re)absorption. Emphasis is placed on phytochemistry, anti-diabetic bioactivities, and likely mechanism(s). Recent progress in the understanding of the biological actions, mechanisms, and therapeutic potential of compounds and extracts of plant origin in type 2 diabetes is summarized. This review provides a source of up-to-date information for further basic and clinical research into herbal therapy for type 2 diabetes. Emerging views on therapeutic strategies for type 2 diabetes are also discussed.

Chang CL; Lin Y; Bartolome AP; Chen YC; Chiu SC; Yang WC

2013-01-01

318

Attention to color: an analysis of selection, controlled search, and motor activation, using event-related potentials.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study the organization of information processing in a selective search task was examined by analyzing event-related potentials. This task consisted of searching for target letters in a relevant (attended) color. The ERPs revealed two different effects of attention: an early occipital negativity (+/- 150 ms) reflecting feature-specific attention, and a later, central N2b component (+/- 240 ms) reflecting covert orienting of attention. A later, prolonged negativity (search-related negativity) (+/- 300 ms), maximal at Cz, was related to controlled search to letters in the attended color. Detection of relevant targets resulted in a parietal P3b component. Depending on stimulus presentation conditions an earlier response to both attended and unattended targets was found: an N2 component (+/- 250 ms). In these same conditions, C'3-C'4 asymmetries (Corrected Motor Asymmetries--CMA) suggested motor activation at +/- 300 ms, in the same time range as search-related negativity. It was argued that N2 and CMA suggest the existence of a preattentive target detection system, operating in parallel with a slower serial attentive system, as reflected by N2b and search negativity. PMID:2922460

Wijers, A A; Mulder, G; Okita, T; Mulder, L J; Scheffers, M K

1989-01-01

319

Multilocation trial of potential selected mutant lines of groundnut (arachis hypogaea) at 3 location in Peninsular Malaysia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two fixed mutant lines of groundnut derived from cultivar Matjan were selected for their yield potential at M10 generation. Multilocation trial of these mutants (MJ40/42 and MJ20/165-5) was carried out to evaluate genotype stability at different climate and soil types in Peninsular Malaysia. The mutant lines were planted and compared with their parent (Matjan) and control variety (MKT1). The identified locations were in Taiping (Perak), Machang (Kelantan), and Air Hitam (Johor). The soils at the locations were of the Serdang, Bungor and Rengam series, respectively. The trial was carried out simultaneously in the same year at each location. Mutant MJ20/165-5 showed stable performance at all location compared to other genotypes tested. Its yield was higher than the parent in Kelantan and Johor trial and showed similar performance in Perak. This mutant also showed better yield performance than the control varieties in the Kelantan trial. Meanwhile, mutant line MJ40/42 gave better yield in Kelantan and Johor but did not perform well in Perak as compared to its parent and control varieties. (Author)

2002-01-01

320

Magnetostratigraphy of the Neogene Siwalik Group in the far eastern Himalaya: Kameng section, Arunachal Pradesh, India  

Science.gov (United States)

The Siwalik Group was deposited from the Mid-Miocene to the Pliocene in the foreland of the Himalaya and records the unroofing history of the mountain belt. In this study we provide the first magnetostratigraphic data for the eastern Himalayan foreland basin. We analyzed two sections of the lower to upper Siwalik Group along the Kameng River in Arunachal Pradesh, India. Magnetostratigraphic data were acquired from 395 sites within a 5.8 km-thick molassic series. Thermal demagnetization and magnetic rock-property analyses indicate a relatively low temperature (150-340 °C) Characteristic Remanent Magnetization (ChRM) yielding reliable primary directions carried by iron sulfides such as greigite. The results show local counter-clockwise rotation of the thrust sheets, which is consistent with partitioning of arc-normal and left-lateral strain along the Himalaya. Nineteen polarity zones have been identified in the two sections. Detrital fission-track data from the top and bottom of the sections are used to constrain correlations with the geomagnetic polarity time scale (GPTS) from chron C5Ar.1n to chron C2An.2n. From these results, we propose that the Siwalik Formation in Arunachal Pradesh was deposited between 13 and 2.5 Ma. The transition between the lower and middle Siwaliks is dated at about 10.5 Ma and the middle to upper Siwaliks transition is dated at 2.6 Ma. These results, coupled with sedimentological observations, suggest that the eastern Himalayan chrono-stratigraphic record is nearly synchronous with that analyzed in other parts of the Neogene Himalayan foreland basin. Nevertheless, some differences in the evolution of the sedimentation rate and in the thickness of the middle Siwaliks suggest that Indian plate flexure in the East is different from that observed in other parts of the Indian foreland basin, and could be affected by the presence of the Shillong Plateau to the south.

Chirouze, François; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Huyghe, Pascale; Beek, Peter van der; Chakraborti, Tapan; Bernet, Matthias; Erens, Véronique

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Long-term hydroclimatic variability in monsoon shadow zone of western Himalaya, India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tree-ring-width data of Himalayan cedar [Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) G. Don] from 11 homogeneous moisture stressed sites in the monsoon shadow zone of the western Himalaya were used to develop a mean chronology extending back to ad 1353. The chronology developed using Regional Curve Standardization method is the first from the Himalayan region of India showing centennial-scale variations. The calibration of ring-width chronology with instrumental precipitation data available from stations close to the tree ring sampling sites showed strong, direct relationship with March-April-May-June (MAMJ) precipitation. This strong relationship was used to supplement the instrumental precipitation data back to ad 1410. The precipitation reconstruction showed extended period of drought in fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Increasingly pluvial conditions were recorded since eighteenth century, with the highest precipitation in the early part of the nineteenth century. The decreasing trend in reconstructed precipitation in the last decade of the twentieth century, consistent with the instrumental records, is associated with the decreasing trend in frequency of western disturbances. MAMJ precipitation over the monsoon shadow zone in the western Himalaya is directly associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and NINO3-SST index of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the leading modes of climate variability influencing climate over large parts of the Northern Hemisphere. However, the relationship between ENSO and MAMJ precipitation collapsed completely during 1930-1960. The breakdown in this relationship is associated with the warm phase of Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). A spectral analysis of reconstructed MAMJ precipitation indicates frequencies in the range of the variability associated with modes of NAO, ENSO and AMO. (orig.)

Yadav, Ram R. [Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow (India)

2011-04-15

322

Long-term hydroclimatic variability in monsoon shadow zone of western Himalaya, India  

Science.gov (United States)

Tree-ring-width data of Himalayan cedar [ Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) G. Don] from 11 homogeneous moisture stressed sites in the monsoon shadow zone of the western Himalaya were used to develop a mean chronology extending back to ad 1353. The chronology developed using Regional Curve Standardization method is the first from the Himalayan region of India showing centennial-scale variations. The calibration of ring-width chronology with instrumental precipitation data available from stations close to the tree ring sampling sites showed strong, direct relationship with March-April-May-June (MAMJ) precipitation. This strong relationship was used to supplement the instrumental precipitation data back to ad 1410. The precipitation reconstruction showed extended period of drought in fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Increasingly pluvial conditions were recorded since eighteenth century, with the highest precipitation in the early part of the nineteenth century. The decreasing trend in reconstructed precipitation in the last decade of the twentieth century, consistent with the instrumental records, is associated with the decreasing trend in frequency of western disturbances. MAMJ precipitation over the monsoon shadow zone in the western Himalaya is directly associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and NINO3-SST index of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the leading modes of climate variability influencing climate over large parts of the Northern Hemisphere. However, the relationship between ENSO and MAMJ precipitation collapsed completely during 1930-1960. The breakdown in this relationship is associated with the warm phase of Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). A spectral analysis of reconstructed MAMJ precipitation indicates frequencies in the range of the variability associated with modes of NAO, ENSO and AMO.

Yadav, Ram R.

2011-04-01

323

Climatic and geologic controls on suspended sediment flux in the Sutlej River Valley, western Himalaya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The sediment flux through Himalayan rivers directly impacts water quality and is important for sustaining agriculture as well as maintaining drinking-water and hydropower generation. Despite the recent increase in demand for these resources, little is known about the triggers and sources of extreme sediment flux events, which lower water quality and account for extensive hydropower reservoir filling and turbine abrasion. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the spatiotemporal trends in suspended sediment flux based on daily data during the past decade (2001–2009) from four sites along the Sutlej River and from four of its main tributaries. In conjunction with satellite data depicting rainfall and snow cover, air temperature and earthquake records, and field observations, we infer climatic and geologic controls of peak suspended sediment concentration (SSC) events. Our study identifies three key findings: First, peak SSC events (? 99th SSC percentile) coincide frequently (57–80%) with heavy rainstorms and account for about 30% of the suspended sediment flux in the semi-arid to arid interior of the orogen. Second, we observe an increase of suspended sediment flux from the Tibetan Plateau to the Himalayan Front at mean annual timescales. This sediment-flux gradient suggests that averaged, modern erosion in the western Himalaya is most pronounced at frontal regions, which are characterized by high monsoonal rainfall and thick soil cover. Third, in seven of eight catchments, we find an anticlockwise hysteresis loop of annual sediment flux variations with respect to river discharge, which appears to be related to enhanced glacial sediment evacuation during late summer. Our analysis emphasizes the importance of unconsolidated sediments in the high-elevation sector that can easily be mobilized by hydrometeorological events and higher glacial-meltwater contributions. In future climate change scenarios, including continuous glacial retreat and more frequent monsoonal rainstorms across the Himalaya, we expect an increase in peak SSC events, which will decrease the water quality and impact hydropower generation.

H. Wulf; B. Bookhagen; D. Scherler

2012-01-01

324

Impact of anthropogenic activities on water quality of Lidder River in Kashmir Himalayas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The pristine waters of Kashmir Himalaya are showing signs of deterioration due to multiple reasons. This study researches the causes of deteriorating water quality in the Lidder River, one of the main tributaries of Jhelum River in Kashmir Himalaya. The land use and land cover of the Lidder catchment were generated using multi-spectral, bi-seasonal IRS LISS III (October 2005 and May 2006) satellite data to identify the extent of agriculture and horticulture lands that are the main non-point sources of pollution at the catchment scale. A total of 12 water quality parameters were analyzed over a period of 1 year. Water sampling was done at eight different sampling sites, each with a varied topography and distinct land use/land cover, along the length of Lidder River. It was observed that water quality deteriorated during the months of June-August that coincides with the peak tourist flow and maximal agricultural/horticultural activity. Total phosphorus, orthophosphate phosphorus, nitrate nitrogen, and ammoniacal nitrogen showed higher concentration in the months of July and August, while the concentration of dissolved oxygen decreased in the same period, resulting in deterioration in water quality. Moreover, tourism influx in the Lidder Valley shows a drastic increase through the years, and particularly, the number of tourists visiting the valley has increased in the summer months from June to September, which is also responsible for deteriorating the water quality of Lidder River. In addition to this, the extensive use of fertilizers and pesticides in the agriculture and horticulture lands during the growing season (June-August) is also responsible for the deteriorating water quality of Lidder River.

Rashid I; Romshoo SA

2013-06-01

325

Chemical characteristics of pond waters within the debris area of Lirung Glacier in Nepal Himalaya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water samples were analyzed from ponds developed within the debris-covered area of Lirung Glacier (28º 12.9’N, 86º 39.9’E; 4000 m a.s.l.) in the Himalayas of Nepal during the pre-monsoon to post-monsoon period of 1996. Major chemical species were classified into three groups based on their relationships relative to the sum of cations: conservative (SiO2, Ca2+, K+, and Alkalinity), semiconservative (Na+, Mg2+, and SO4 2-) and non-conservative (NH4 +, NO3 - and Cl-). The dominant processes determining the chemical composition of glacier pond water were sulfide oxidation coupled with carbonate dissolution and chemical weathering of aluminosilicate as indicated by the conservative and semi-conservative species. Calcium and alkalinity appeared as the dominant cation and anion, respectively, among all samples within the basin. Compared to the discharge waters at the outlet of the glacier, most of these pond waters have lower major solutes as well as alkalinity. The availability of fresh reactive minerals at the base of the glacier, coupled with higher temperature in discharge waters than in the ponds, may be the prime factors resulting in higher concentrations of most solutes in the discharge waters than in the ponds. In the ponds, higher concentrations of major solutes as well as alkalinity were observed in the monsoon than the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons, suggesting the role of hydrolysis condition in chemical weathering rates. Ponds within the debris area of Lirung glacier in central Nepal Himalaya are likely to increase in importance if global warming accelerates the rate of glacial melting.

Maya P. BHATT; Toshiyuki MASUZAWA; Mineko YAMAMOTO; Nozomu TAKEUCHI

2007-01-01

326

Re-description of Daphnia (Ctenodaphnia) from lakes in the Khumbu Region, Nepalese Himalayas, with the erection of a new species, Daphnia himalaya, and a note on an intersex individual  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present here a detailed description of Ctenodaphnia-type Daphnia specimens collected from lakes in the Nepalese Himalayas between 1994 and 2004, including mature females and adult males. The specimens examined share certain diagnostic traits with Daphnia tibetana (Sars 1903), and others with Daphnia fusca (Gurney 1906). A re-appraisal of their previous synonymy with D. fusca and a comparison with all published descriptions of similar species from the region indicate that they represent a new species named here as Daphnia himalaya. The chance discovery of a sex intergrade of the same species allowed a description of the secondary sexual characteristics in this interesting and rare intermediate state to be reported, and its possible ecological implications to be discussed, as well.

Marina MANCA; Patrick MARTIN; Dinora Carolina PEÑALVA-ARANA; John A.H. BENZIE

2006-01-01

327

Radiosynthesis of [11C]SB-705498, a selective transient receptor potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor antagonist  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows: Objectives: The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor, previously known as the vanilloid receptor 1 (VR1), is a non-selective cation channel activated by a range of noxious stimuli and highly expressed in nociceptive fibres. TRPV1 receptor is involved in pain and sensitisation associated with tissue injury and inflammation and therefore represents a pharmacological target of choice for the development of novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of chronic pain, migraine and gastrointestinal disorders. Among a novel series of pyrrolidinyl ureas recently discovered by GSK, SB-705498 (1, namely 1-(2-bromophenyl)-3-[(R)-1-(5- trifluoromethylpyridin-2-yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl]urea) has been identified as a potent, selective and orally bioavailable TRPV1 antagonist and considered for positron emission tomography studies. SB-705498 (1) has therefore been isotopically labelled with the short-lived positron-emitter carbon-11 (t1/2: 20.38 min) at its urea site using [11C]phosgene in a one-pot two-step process, via the intermediate preparation of 2-bromophenyl [11C]isocyanate. Methods: Carbon-11-labeling of SB-705498 comprises: (A) Trapping of [11C]phosgene (radio-synthesized from cyclotron-produced [11C]methane via [11C]carbon tetrachloride using minor modifications of published processes) at room temperature for 1 to 2 minutes in 250 ?L of acetonitrile containing 0.6 ?mole of 2-bromoaniline (2) giving 2-bromophenyl [11C]isocyanate ([11C]-3), followed by (B) addition of an excess of chiral (R)-1-(5- trifluoromethylpyridin-2-yl)pyrrolidin-3-ylamine (4, 40 ?moles in 500 ?L of acetonitrile) as the second amine and reaction at room temperature for an additional one minute giving the desired urea derivative ([11C]SB-705498 ([11C]-1)), (C) dilution of the crude reaction mixture with water (500 ?L) containing 4% (v:v) of DEA, injection and purification on a semi-preparative Waters SymmetryR C18 HPLC column (eluent: H2O / CH3CN / TFA: 72 / 28 / 0.1 (v/v/v) - flowrate: 8 mL/min), and finally (D) removal of the HPLC solvents using a SepPakR Plus C18 device (recovery of [11C]SB-705498 ([11C]-1) as ethanol solution), sterile-filtration (Millex FG 0.22 ?m filter, Millipore) and final formulation as an i.v. injectable solution. Results: [11C]SB-705498 ([11C]-1) was obtained in 8.9-13.6% non-decay-corrected yields, based on starting [11C]methane. Starting from a 26 GBq cyclotron-produced [11C]methane batch, 2.3 to 3.5 GBq of [11C]SB-705498 ([11C]-1), ? 99% radiochemically pure and ready-to-inject, were obtained in a one-pot two-step process within 30 minutes (including HPLC-purification, Rt: 9-10 min, and formulation). Specific radioactivities ranged from 75 to 150 GBq/?mol. Conclusions: SB-705498 (1) was isotopically labelled with carbon-11 at its urea function using [11C]phosgene. The non-decay-corrected overall yields for the preparation of [11C]SB-705498 were 8.9%-13.6%. Dynamic PET studies in baboons are currently underway to evaluate the potential of [11C]SB-705498 to image central transient receptor potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor in vivo

2011-09-02

328

Aerosol optical properties and radiative forcing in the high Himalaya based on measurements at the Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid site (5079 m a.s.l.)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intense anthropogenic emissions over the Indian sub-continent lead to the formation of layers of particulate pollution that can be transported to the high altitude regions of the Himalaya-Hindu-Kush (HKH). Aerosol particles contain a substantial fraction of strongly absorbing material, including black carbon (BC), organic compounds (OC), and dust all of which can contribute to atmospheric warming, in addition to greenhouse gases. Using a 3-year record of continuous measurements of aerosol optical properties, we present a time series of key climate relevant aerosol properties including the aerosol absorption (?ap) and scattering (?sp) coefficients as well as the single-scattering albedo (w0). Results of this investigation show substantial seasonal variability of these properties, with long range transport during the pre- and post-monsoon seasons and efficient precipitation scavenging of aerosol particles during the monsoon season. The monthly averaged scattering coefficients range from 0.1 Mm?1 (monsoon) to 20 Mm?1 while the average absorption coefficients range from 0.5 Mm?1 to 3.5 Mm?1. Both have their maximum values during the pre-monsoon period (April) and reach a minimum during Monsoon (July–August). This leads to dry w0 values from 0.86 (pre-monsoon) to 0.79 (monsoon) seasons. Significant diurnal variability due to valley wind circulation is also reported. Using aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements, we calculated the resulting direct local radiative forcing due to aerosols for selected air mass cases. We found that the presence of absorbing particulate material can locally induce an additional top of the atmosphere (TOA) forcing of 10 to 20 W m?2 for the first atmospheric layer (500 m above surface). The TOA positive forcing depends on the presence of snow at the surface, and takes place preferentially during episodes of regional pollution occurring on a very regular basis in the Himalayan valleys. Warming of the first atmospheric layer is paralleled by a substantial decrease of the amount of radiation reaching the surface. The surface forcing is estimated to range from ?4 to ?20 W m?2 for small-scale regional pollution events and large-scale pollution events, respectively. The calculated surface forcing is also very dependent on surface albedo, with maximum values occurring over a snow-covered surface. Overall, this work presents the first estimates of aerosol direct radiative forcing over the high Himalaya based on in-situ aerosol measurements, and results suggest a TOA forcing significantly greater than the IPCC reported values for green house gases.

S. Marcq; P. Laj; J. C. Roger; P. Villani; K. Sellegri; P. Bonasoni; A. Marinoni; P. Cristofanelli; G. P. Verza; M. Bergin

2010-01-01

329

Tropospheric ozone variations at the Nepal climate observatory – pyramid (Himalayas, 5079 m a.s.l.) and influence of stratospheric intrusion events  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents the first 2-years of continuous surface ozone (O3) observations and systematic assessment of the influence of stratospheric intrusions (SI) at the Nepal Climate Observatory at Pyramid (NCO-P; 27°57' N, 86°48' E), located in the Southern Himalayas at 5079 m a.s.l. Continuous O3 monitoring has been carried out at this GAW-WMO station in the framework of the Ev-K2-CNR SHARE and UNEP ABC projects since March 2006. Over the period March 2006–February 2008, an average O3 value of 49±12 ppbv (±1?) was recorded, with a large annual cycle characterized by a maximum during the pre-monsoon (61±9 ppbv) and a minimum during the monsoon (39±10 ppbv). In general, the average O3 diurnal cycles had different shapes in the different seasons, suggesting an important interaction between the synoptic-scale circulation and the local mountain wind regime. Short-term O3 behaviour in the middle/lower troposphere (e.g. at the altitude level of NCO-P) can be significantly affected by deep SI which, representing the most important natural input for tropospheric O3, can also influence the regional atmosphere radiative forcing. To identify days possibly influenced by SI at the NCO-P, analyses were performed on in-situ observations (O3 and meteorological parameters), total column O3 data from OMI satellite and air-mass potential vorticity provided by the LAGRANTO back-trajectory model. In particular, a specially designed statistical methodology was applied to the time series of the observed and modelled stratospheric tracers. On this basis, during the 2-year investigation, 14.1% of analysed days were found to be affected by SI. The SI frequency showed a clear seasonal cycle, with minimum during the summer monsoon (1.2%) and higher values during the rest of the year (21.5%). As suggested by the LAGRANTO analysis, the position of the subtropical jet stream could play an important role in determining the occurrence of deep SI transport on the Southern Himalayas. In order to estimate the fraction of O3 due to air-mass transport from the stratosphere at the NCO-P, the 30 min O3 concentrations recorded during the detected SI days were analysed. In particular, in-situ relative humidity and black carbon observations were used to exclude influence from wet and polluted air-masses transported by up-valley breezes. This analysis led to the conclusion that during SI O3 significantly increased by 27.1% (+13 ppbv) with respect to periods not affected by such events. Moreover, the integral contribution of SI (O3S) to O3 at the NCO-P was also calculated, showing that 13.7% of O3 recorded at the measurement site could be attributed to SI. On a seasonal basis, the lowest SI contributions were found during the summer monsoon (less than 0.1%), while the highest were found during the winter period (24.2%). These results indicated that, during non-monsoon periods, high O3 levels could affect NCO-P during SI, thus influencing the variability of tropospheric O3 over the Southern Himalayas. Being a powerful regional greenhouse gas, these results indicate that the evaluation of the current and future regional climate cannot be assessed without properly taking into account the influence of SI to tropospheric O3 in this important area.

P. Cristofanelli; A. Bracci; M. Sprenger; A. Marinoni; U. Bonafè; F. Calzolari; R. Duchi; P. Laj; J. M. Pichon; F. Roccato; H. Venzac; E. Vuillermoz; P. Bonasoni

2010-01-01

330

Rb-Sr systematics of granitoids of the central gneissic complex, Arunachal Himalaya: implications on tectonism, stratigraphy and source  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Precambrian central gneissic complex (CGC) in the Kameng district of Arunachal Pradesh comprises the oldest Sela group thrusting over the Bomdila group, with the Salari group being the youngest. Augen gneiss of the Bomdila group, granite of the Salari group and hornblende granite gneiss of the Sela group define Rb-Sr isochron ages of 1914±23, 1536±60 and 481± 23 Ma, respectively. The 481 Ma age on the hornblende gneiss from the oldest Sela group is attributed to the resetting of Rb-Sr clock due to tectonic imprint of the main central thrust (MCT). The 1914 Ma age of the augen gneiss, the oldest reported so far from the Arunachal Himalaya, is either the emplacement age or latest metamorphic event. The 1536 Ma old emplacement age of the granite intruding the black shale of the Salari group disproves the hitherto considered Gondwana age for the black shale, and, thus, necessitates revision in its chronostratigraphy (87Sr/86Sr), of the hornblende granite gneiss and Salari granite is high (0.719 and 0.709) indicating a crustal source for these, whereas it is low for the augen gneiss (0.703) suggesting an inherited signature of the upper mantle source together with some crustal contamination. Rb-Sr whole-rock isochron ages from the Arunachal Himalaya are correlatable with those reported from other parts of the Indian Himalaya. These cumulatively point to at least three major periods of activity in the Himalaya at ca. 2060±250, 1530±90 and 530± 75 Ma. (author). 22 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

1995-01-01

331

Chigger mites (Acari: Trombiculidae) from Makalu region in Nepal Himalaya, with a description of three new species.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Three new species of chigger mites, Neotrombicula kounickyi sp. n., Leptotrombidium angkamii sp. n., and Doloisia vlastae sp. n., are described from two species of small mammals collected in the Barun Glacier Valley, Makalu region, Nepal Himalaya. Two species, Trombiculindus mehtai Fernandes et Kulkarni, 2003 and Cheladonta ikaoensis (Sasa et al., 1951) are recorded for the first time in Nepal. Data on altitude distribution of chiggers and their host preferences are given.

Daniel M; Stekol'nikov AA

2009-07-01

332

Chigger mites (Acari: Trombiculidae) from Makalu region in Nepal Himalaya, with a description of three new species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three new species of chigger mites, Neotrombicula kounickyi sp. n., Leptotrombidium angkamii sp. n., and Doloisia vlastae sp. n., are described from two species of small mammals collected in the Barun Glacier Valley, Makalu region, Nepal Himalaya. Two species, Trombiculindus mehtai Fernandes et Kulkarni, 2003 and Cheladonta ikaoensis (Sasa et al., 1951) are recorded for the first time in Nepal. Data on altitude distribution of chiggers and their host preferences are given. PMID:19645277

Daniel, M; Stekol'nikov, A A

2009-07-01

333

Records of the Genus Paramerina (Diptera: Chironomidae: Tanypodinae) from Eastern Himalaya and Satpura Hill Regions of India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The pupa and the male imago of Paramerina valida n. sp. and the larva of Paramerina inficia Chaudhuri & Debnath are described and illustrated along with a brief re-description of the adult of P. inficia from the Eastern Himalaya and Satpura hill regions of India. A key to the adult males of the Indian species of the genus Paramerina Fittkau is provided. The notes on ecology of the two species are also provided.

Paul N; Hazra N; Mazumdar A

2013-08-01

334

A new orthoclad species of Rheocricotopus Thienemann & Harnisch (Diptera, Chironomidae) from the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalayas in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The adults and pupa of a new species, Rheocricotopus rarispina are described from the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalayas in India. The species is distinguished by the few spines on the thoracic horn, anal lobe without fringe and bristle-like L setae and presence of ovoid humeral pit, nine squamal setae, structure of anal point and triangular and subterminal crista dorsalis in the adult male. With this new species, the number of Indian species of the genus rises to six

Hazra, N.; Chaudhuri, P. K.

2004-01-01

335

Site selection in global clinical trials in patients hospitalized for heart failure: perceived problems and potential solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are over 1 million hospitalizations for heart failure (HF) annually in the United States alone, and a similar number has been reported in Europe. Recent clinical trials investigating novel therapies in patients with hospitalized HF (HHF) have been negative, and the post-discharge event rate remains unacceptably high. The lack of success with HHF trials stem from problems with understanding the study drug, matching the drug to the appropriate HF subgroup, and study execution. Related to the concept of study execution is the importance of including appropriate study sites in HHF trials. Often overlooked issues include consideration of the geographic region and the number of patients enrolled at each study center. Marked differences in baseline patient co-morbidities, serum biomarkers, treatment utilization and outcomes have been demonstrated across geographic regions. Furthermore, patients from sites with low recruitment may have worse outcomes compared to sites with higher enrollment patterns. Consequently, sites with poor trial enrollment may influence key patient end points and likely do not justify the costs of site training and maintenance. Accordingly, there is an unmet need to develop strategies to identify the right study sites that have acceptable patient quantity and quality. Potential approaches include, but are not limited to, establishing a pre-trial registry, developing site performance metrics, identifying a local regionally involved leader and bolstering recruitment incentives. This manuscript summarizes the roundtable discussion hosted by the Food and Drug Administration between members of academia, the National Institutes of Health, industry partners, contract research organizations and academic research organizations on the importance of selecting optimal sites for successful trials in HHF. PMID:23099992

Gheorghiade, Mihai; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Greene, Stephen J; Mentz, Robert J; Adams, Kirkwood F; Anker, Stefan D; Arnold, Malcolm; Baschiera, Fabio; Cleland, John G F; Cotter, Gadi; Fonarow, Gregg C; Giordano, Christopher; Metra, Marco; Misselwitz, Frank; Mühlhofer, Eva; Nodari, Savina; Frank Peacock, W; Pieske, Burkert M; Sabbah, Hani N; Sato, Naoki; Shah, Monica R; Stockbridge, Norman L; Teerlink, John R; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Zalewski, Andrew; Zannad, Faiez; Butler, Javed

2012-10-26

336

Site selection in global clinical trials in patients hospitalized for heart failure: perceived problems and potential solutions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There are over 1 million hospitalizations for heart failure (HF) annually in the United States alone, and a similar number has been reported in Europe. Recent clinical trials investigating novel therapies in patients with hospitalized HF (HHF) have been negative, and the post-discharge event rate remains unacceptably high. The lack of success with HHF trials stem from problems with understanding the study drug, matching the drug to the appropriate HF subgroup, and study execution. Related to the concept of study execution is the importance of including appropriate study sites in HHF trials. Often overlooked issues include consideration of the geographic region and the number of patients enrolled at each study center. Marked differences in baseline patient co-morbidities, serum biomarkers, treatment utilization and outcomes have been demonstrated across geographic regions. Furthermore, patients from sites with low recruitment may have worse outcomes compared to sites with higher enrollment patterns. Consequently, sites with poor trial enrollment may influence key patient end points and likely do not justify the costs of site training and maintenance. Accordingly, there is an unmet need to develop strategies to identify the right study sites that have acceptable patient quantity and quality. Potential approaches include, but are not limited to, establishing a pre-trial registry, developing site performance metrics, identifying a local regionally involved leader and bolstering recruitment incentives. This manuscript summarizes the roundtable discussion hosted by the Food and Drug Administration between members of academia, the National Institutes of Health, industry partners, contract research organizations and academic research organizations on the importance of selecting optimal sites for successful trials in HHF.

Gheorghiade M; Vaduganathan M; Greene SJ; Mentz RJ; Adams KF Jr; Anker SD; Arnold M; Baschiera F; Cleland JG; Cotter G; Fonarow GC; Giordano C; Metra M; Misselwitz F; Mühlhofer E; Nodari S; Frank Peacock W; Pieske BM; Sabbah HN; Sato N; Shah MR; Stockbridge NL; Teerlink JR; van Veldhuisen DJ; Zalewski A; Zannad F; Butler J

2012-10-01

337

Pathologic response to non-surgical locoregional therapies as potential selection criteria for liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Preoperative locoregional treatments (PLT) are performed to avoid progression before liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The objective of this study was to analyze the prognostic factors affecting the outcome in patients who received PLT. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients who underwent liver transplantation (LT) was performed. All patients who underwent PLT with confirmed pathological diagnosis of HCC were included. The rate of tumor necrosis (TN) was assessed by microscopic histological examination. RESULTS: From January 1997 to December 2010, PLT was performed in 154 patients ROC analysis individuated a TN cut-off value at 40%. Ninety-one patients (59.1%) of the patients presented TN>40%. At multivariate analysis, TN<40% (HR=1.76; p=0.04) and vascular invasion (VI) (HR=2.16; p<0.01) were associated with lower Overall Survival (OS). At multivariate analysis, TN<40% (HR=1.59; p=0.001) and VI (HR=2.51; p=0.001) were significant associated with lower Disease Free Survival (DFS). One, 3 and 5 years OS was 87.9%, 82.0% and 69.1% for patients with TN>40% and 82.5%, 64.2% and 53.2% for those with TN<40% (p=0.02). Tumour size <5 cm (p=0.02); age <55 years (p=0.02); absence of VI (p=0.02) and multiple procedures (p=0.04) were predictive factors for TN>40%. CONCLUSIONS: Response to preoperative locoregional treatment can be used as potential selection criteria for LT.

Cantu M; Piardi T; Sommacale D; Ellero B; Woehl-Jaegle ML; Audet M; Ntourakis D; Wolf P; Pessaux P

2013-01-01

338

Combined Use of Automatic Tube Potential Selection with Tube Current Modulation and Iterative Reconstruction Technique in Coronary CT Angiography.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Purpose:To analyze the effect of automatic tube potential selection with tube current modulation (APSCM) and iterative reconstruction on image quality, diagnostic accuracy, and radiation dose at computed tomographic (CT) angiography and compare it with APSCM-only and body mass index (BMI)-based examination protocols.Materials and Methods:This study was approved by the institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. Images from 185 patients who underwent a BMI-based protocol and 197 patients who underwent an APSCM protocol with filtered back projection (FBP) and an APSCM protocol with sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) were retrospectively evaluated. Diagnostic performance was compared with that of conventional coronary angiography in a subgroup of 51 patients. Statistical analysis was performed by using the independent or paired t test, Mann-Whitney U test, Wilcoxon signed rank test, ?(2) statistics, linear weighted ? statistics, and generalized estimating equation.Results:The APSCM group with SAFIRE had a significant reduction in image noise and a significant increase in CT number, contrast enhancement, signal-to-noise ratio, and contrast-to-noise ratio compared with the APSCM group with FBP (P < .0001) and the BMI-based group (P < .001, except P = .002 for image noise). Image quality and diagnostic accuracy showed no significant difference between the three groups. The use of APSCM resulted in a significant reduction in radiation dose compared with the BMI-based protocol.Conclusion:The combination of SAFIRE and APSCM at coronary CT angiography significantly improves objective image quality while maintaining diagnostic accuracy and reduced radiation dose.© RSNA, 2013Supplemental material: http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.13130408/-/DC1.

Suh YJ; Kim YJ; Hong SR; Hong YJ; Lee HJ; Hur J; Choi BW

2013-08-01

339

A model study of the energy and mass balance of Chhota Shigri glacier in the Western Himalaya, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The impact of climate change on Himalaya mountain glaciers is increasingly subject of public and scientific debate. However, observational data are sparse and important knowledge gaps remain in the understanding of what drives changes in these glaciers' mass balances. The present study investigates the glacier regime on Chhota Shigri, a benchmark glacier for the observation of climate change in the monsoon-arid transition zone of Western Himalaya. Results of an energy-balance model driven by reanalysis data and the observed mass balances from three years on 50 m altitude intervals across the glacier display a correlation coefficient of 0.974. Contrary to prior assumptions, monsoon precipitation accounts for a quarter to a third of total accumulation. It has an additional importance because it lowers the surface albedo during the ablation season. Results confirm radiation as the main energy source for melt on Himalaya glaciers. Latent heat flux acts as an important energy sink in the pre-monsoon season. Mass balance is most sensitive to changes in atmospheric humidity, changing by 900 mm w.e. per 10% change in humidity. Temperature sensitivity is 220 mm w.e.K?1. Model results using 21st century anomalies from a regional climate model based on the SRES A2 scenario suggest that a monsoon increase might offset the effect of warming.

F. Pithan

2011-01-01

340

The rise of the Himalaya enforced the diversification of SE Asian ferns by altering the monsoon regimes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The rise of high mountain chains is widely seen as one of the factors driving rapid diversification of land plants and the formation of biodiversity hotspots. Supporting evidence was reported for the impact of the rapid rise of the Andean mountains but this hypothesis has so far been less explored for the impact of the “roof of the world”. The formation of the Himalaya, and especially the rise of the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau in the recent 20 million years, altered the monsoon regimes that dominate the current climates of South East Asia. Here, we infer the hypothesis that the rise of Himalaya had a strong impact on the plant diversity in the biodiversity hotspot of the Southwest Chinese Mountains. Results Our analyses of the diversification pattern of the derived fern genus Lepisorus recovered evidence for changes in plant diversity that correlated with the strengthening of South East Asian monsoon. Southwest China or Southwest China and Japan was recovered as the putative area of origin of Lepisorus and enhancing monsoon regime were found to shape the early diversification of the genus as well as subsequent radiations during the late Miocene and Pliocene. Conclusions We report new evidence for a coincidence of plant diversification and changes of the climate caused by the uplift of the Himalaya. These results are discussed in the context of the impact of incomplete taxon sampling, uncertainty of divergence time estimates, and limitations of current methods used to assess diversification rates.

Wang Li; Schneider Harald; Zhang Xian-Chun; Xiang Qiao-Ping

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Characterization of glacier debris cover via in situ and optical remote sensing methods: a case study in the Khumbu Himalaya, Nepal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Field spectrometry and physical samples of debris, snow and ice were collected from the ablation zones of Ngozumpa and Khumbu glaciers of the Khumbu Himalaya, Nepal in November and December 2009. Field acquired spectral reflectances and mineral and chemical composition of samples were used as ground truth for comparison with satellite optical remote sensing data. Supraglacial debris was characterized by several optical remote sensing methods, including hyperspectral reflectance analysis, multispectral band composites and indices, spectral angle relationships, thermal band temperature and emissivity analysis, as well as repeat image derived glacier velocity and theoretical supraglacial particle transport. Supraglacial mineral components were identified and mineral abundances were estimated on Khumbu Himalayan glaciers. Mass flux was estimated by false color composites and glacier velocity displacement fields. Supraglacial temperatures were compared with mineral abundances, implying potential parameters to estimate differential melt. Overall, glaciologic implications of debris cover characterizations are applicable to (1) glacier energy balance, (2) glacial kinematics and (3) mapping glacial extent. The methods presented can be used in synergy to improve supraglacial debris quantification and reduce errors associated with debris covered ice extent mapping, surface radiative properties, as well as debris covered ice mass flux and loss estimations.

K. A. Casey; A. Kääb; D. I. Benn

2011-01-01

342

In vitro Antioxidant, PTP-1B Inhibitory Effects and in vivo Hypoglycemic Potential of Selected Medicinal Plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The therapeutic potential of plants varies according to their parts. The present study was aimed to ascertain the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of crude fractions obtained from different parts of 6 medicinal plants, Centratherum anthelminticum, Cissus quadrangularis, Terminalia bellerica...

A. Arya; C.Y. Looi; W.F. Wong; M.I. Noordin; S. Nyamathulla; M.R. Mustafa; M. Ali Mohd

343

F 11440, a potent, selective, high efficacy 5-HT1A receptor agonist with marked anxiolytic and antidepressant potential.  

Science.gov (United States)

F 11440 (4-methyl-2-[4-(4-(pyrimidin-2-yl)-piperazino)-butyl]-2H, 4H-1,2,4-triazin-3,5-dione) was the outcome of a research effort guided by the hypothesis that the magnitude of the intrinsic activity of agonists at 5-HT1A receptors determines the magnitude of their antidepressant and anxiolytic-like effects. The affinity of F 11440 for 5-HT1A binding sites (pKi, 8.33) was higher than that of buspirone (pKi, 7.50), and somewhat lower than that of flesinoxan (pKi, 8.91). In vivo, F 11440 was 4- to 20-fold more potent than flesinoxan, and 30- to 60-fold more potent than buspirone, in exerting 5-HT1A agonist activity at pre- and postsynaptic receptors in rats (measured by, for example, its ability to decrease hippocampal extracellular serotonin (5-HT) levels and to increase plasma corticosterone levels, respectively). F 11440 did not have detectable antidopaminergic activity (unlike buspirone, which inhibited all of the directly observable behavioral effects of methylphenidate in rats), showed no evidence of antihistaminergic activity (unlike flesinoxan, which protected against the effects of a histamine aerosol in guinea pigs), and had a 70-fold separation between its 5-HT1A agonist and alpha-1 adrenergic antagonist properties (measured as the ability to inhibit the methoxamineinduced increase in blood pressure in rats), unlike flesinoxan, which showed a <3-fold separation. In HeLa cells expressing human 5-HT1A receptors, F 11440 decreased the forskolin-induced increase in AMP, and, based on its maximal effect, was found to have an intrinsic activity of 1.0 relative to that of 5-HT, which was significantly higher than that of buspirone (0.49), ipsapirone (0.46) and flesinoxan (0.93). Consistent with the aforementioned hypothesis, F 11440 produced anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects in animal models (i.e., increased punished responding in a pigeon conflict procedure and decreased immobility in a rat forced swimming test, respectively) that were more substantial than those of buspirone, ipsapirone and flesinoxan. Thus, F 11440, shown here to be a potent, selective, high efficacy 5-HT1A receptor agonist, appears to have the potential to exert marked anxiolytic and antidepressant activity in humans. PMID:9765347

Koek, W; Patoiseau, J F; Assié, M B; Cosi, C; Kleven, M S; Dupont-Passelaigue, E; Carilla-Durand, E; Palmier, C; Valentin, J P; John, G; Pauwels, P J; Tarayre, J P; Colpaert, F C

1998-10-01

344

Seasonal and annual mass balances of Mera and Pokalde glaciers (Nepal Himalaya) since 2007  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the Everest region, Nepal, ground-based monitoring programs were started on the debris-free Mera Glacier (27.7° N, 86.9° E; 5.1 km2, 6420 to 4940 m a.s.l.) in 2007 and on the small Pokalde Glacier (27.9° N, 86.8° E; 0.1 km2, 5690 to 5430 m a.s.l., ? 25 km North of Mera Glacier) in 2009. These glaciers lie on the southern flank of the central Himalaya under the direct influence of the Indian monsoon and receive more than 80% of their annual precipitation in summer (June to September). Despite a large inter-annual variability with glacier-wide mass balances ranging from ?0.77± 0.40 m w.e. in 2011–2012 (Equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) at ? 6055 m a.s.l.) to + 0.46 ± 0.40 m w.e. in 2010–2011 (ELA at ? 5340 m a.s.l.), Mera Glacier has been shrinking at a moderate mass balance rate of ?0.10± 0.40 m w.e. yr?1 since 2007. Ice fluxes measured at two distinct transverse cross sections at ? 5350 m a.s.l. and ? 5520 m a.s.l. confirm that the mean state of this glacier over the last one or two decades corresponds to a limited mass loss, in agreement with remotely-sensed region-wide mass balances of the Everest area. Seasonal mass balance measurements show that ablation and accumulation are concomitant in summer which in turn is the key season controlling the annual glacier-wide mass balance. Unexpectedly, ablation occurs at all elevations in winter due to wind erosion and sublimation, with remobilized snow likely being sublimated in the atmosphere. Between 2009 and 2012, the small Pokalde Glacier lost mass more rapidly than Mera Glacier with respective mean glacier-wide mass balances of ?0.72 and ?0.26 ± 0.40 m w.e. yr?1. Low-elevation glaciers, such as Pokalde Glacier, have been usually preferred for in-situ observations in Nepal and more generally in the Himalayas, which may explain why compilations of ground-based mass balances are biased toward negative values compared with the regional mean under the present-day climate.

P. Wagnon; C. Vincent; Y. Arnaud; E. Berthier; E. Vuillermoz; S. Gruber; M. Ménégoz; A. Gilbert; M. Dumont; J. M. Shea; D. Stumm; B. K. Pokhrel

2013-01-01

345

Assessing hydrologic components of a glaciated catchment in the central Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

The Hindu-Kush Karakoram and Himalaya (HKKH) mountains are the water towers of Asia, as they deliver water to nearly half of the world's population. Despite so, it is mostly unclear what is the relative contribution of rainfall, snow and ice-melt to hydrological fluxes in this area. Here, we study the Dudh Kosi River catchment (450 to 8848 m asl, ca. 4000 km2) in central Nepal, including the Khumbu glacier at Mt. Everest's toe. Two critical components for predicting hydrologic fluxes in steep mountain ranges are: (1) accurate information of energy and mass fluxes, especially at high altitudes, and (2) depiction of rainfall and snowfall amount and dynamics. In this study, we use a combination of unique ground-control data and remote-sensing data to provide realistic hydrologic modeling boundary conditions. We primarily relied on and validated (1) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) product MOD11/MYD11, to calculate day/night land surface temperatures and monthly lapse rates; (2) Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) 3-hourly rainfall data from TRMM product 3B42 with 0.25° x 0.25° spatial resolution; and (3) MODIS product MOD10/MYD10 to derive daily snow covered areas. Ground-control data are derived from high altitude stations provided by the Ev-K2-CNR Committee of Italy, as well as from data of the Department of Hydrology and Meteorology (DHM) at lower elevations. We model hydrological run-off processes with a semi-distributed, altitude-belt based model. While the validated remote-sensing data generally provide good agreement with station data, snowfall component is not well depicted. We rely upon a correlation of precipitation with altitude combined with snow depth measurements at the EV-K2-CNR Pyramid (5050 m asl) to evaluate snowfall contribution. We use a degree-day approach and explicitly treat debris coverage on ice and snow. Our preliminary results indicate that approximately 20% of annual discharge is derived from snow and ice melt. Ice melting is highest during the late summer season, when air temperature and solar radiation exert a strong forcing upon snow free ice. Our combined approach of remote-sensing and ground-control stations provide realistic hydrologic-modeling parameters that can used for predicting water resources in this sparsely-monitored region. Keywords: Himalaya; hydrological models; water resources; remote sensing.

Paramithiotti, Vittoria; Bookhagen, Bodo; Soncini, Andrea; Confortola, Gabriele; Vuillermoz, Elisa; Diolaiuti, Guglielmina; Bocchiola, Daniele

2013-04-01

346

Genetic correlations between adults and larvae in a marine fish: potential effects of fishery selection on population replenishment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Correlated genetic responses have been hypothesized as important components of fishery-induced evolution, although predictive data from wild populations have been difficult to obtain. Here, we demonstrate substantial genetic correlations between a trait often subjected to fishery selection (adult body length) and traits that affect survival of larvae (length and swimming performance) in a wild population of a marine fish (bicolor damselfish, Stegastes partitus). Through both genetic covariance and size-dependent maternal effects, selection on adult size may cause a considerable, correlated response in larval traits. To quantify how variation in larval traits may affect survival, we introduce a flexible method that uses information from selection measurements to account for frequency dependence and estimate the relationship between phenotype and relative survival across a broad range of phenotypic values. Using this method, we synthesize studies of selective mortality on larval size for eight species of fish and show that variation in larval size may result in considerable variation in larval survival. We predict that observed rates of fishery selection on adult marine fishes may substantially reduce larval size and survival. The evolution of smaller larvae in response to fishery selection may therefore have substantial consequences for the viability of fished populations.

Johnson DW; Christie MR; Moye J; Hixon MA

2011-04-01

347

Phase I report: inventory of potential small-scale hydropower sites in Illinois and selection of projects exhibiting potential for development. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study of the potential for small-scale hydroelectric generation in Illinois, commissioned by the Illinois Institute of Natural Resources, reflects the logical first step by the State of Illinois in the development of this alternative energy source. Although the development of small-scale hydroelectric facilities (any hydroelectric generating facility with a capacity of 15 MW or less) in Illinois has the potential for increasing Illinois total generating capacity by only a small amount, the development of any hydroelectric power sources that are economical will represent progress. Any increase in the State's hydroelectric generating capacity will contribute to the reduction of the State's reliance on non-renewable energy sources.

Lindsey, G.; Kelly, G.M.; Sweeney, D.

1981-01-01

348

Selection of candidate container materials for the conceptual waste package design for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preliminary selection criteria have been developed, peer-reviewed, and applied to a field of 41 candidate materials to choose three alloys for further consideration during the advanced conceptual design phase of waste package development for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These three alloys are titanium grade 12, Alloy C-4, and Alloy 825. These selections are specific to the particular conceptual design outlined in the Site Characterization Plan. Other design concepts that may be considered in the advanced conceptual design phase may favor other materials choices

1993-01-01

349

Antagonistic and plant growth activity of Trichoderma isolates of Western Himalayas.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genus Trichoderma is rapidly growing colonies bearing tufted or postulate, repeatedly branched conidiophores with lageniform phialides and hyaline or green conidia born in slimy heads. 62 isolates of Trichoderma species were isolated from different rhizospheric soil samples collected from different places located in Western Himalayas region. Out of these only two species were found i.e. Trichoderma hazianum and Trichoderma viride. Their efficacy against soil borne plant pathogens like Sclerotium rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum revealed that only three isolates amounting to 5% of the total collected isolates of this region were found highly antagonist. Among them 5% isolates were found against S. rolfsii, 13% isolates against R. solani, 10% against sclerotium caused above 80% inhibition of mycelial growth respectively. 6% isolates out of twenty seven utilized chitin by more than 80 and 16% isolates consumed cellulose by above 80% and therefore are producers of chitinase and cellulases. 58% isolates produced colonies having cottony texture and 41% produced dark green colonies. Pigmentation as observed from reverse side of the colony revealed that 70% of them did not produced pigment in the medium. Plant growth promotion measured as root and shoot lengths were significantly higher than in control. The maximum root length and shoot length were recorded when seeds were treated with isolates were recorded at Srinagar Garhwal was 4.70 and 4.75 cm out of all the isolates in which isolate recorded from Srinagar no 3 caused maximum percent seed germination which was significantly higher 79.49%. PMID:21506476

Joshi, B B; Bhatt, R P; Bahukhandi, D

2010-11-01

350

Energy budget studies of some multiple cropping patterns of the Central Himalaya  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy budget of some multiple cropping systems of the Central Himalaya has been studied. The energy input was greater for the crops grown in irrigated fields than for the same crops grown in rainfed fields. The agronomic yield in irrigated fields was also greater than that for the same crop in rainfed fields. Owing to disproportional increased input and agronomic yield, the output:input ratios for wheat and rice were greater in rainfed than in irrigated conditions. The output:input ratios were far greater for associated crops than for the main crops (rice, wheat and finger millet). Among different cropping patterns, the total energy input in irrigated fields was about five times greater than the same cropping pattern in rainfed fields. Chemical fertilizer was not applied in the finger millet + soya bean and rice + soya bean patterns of rainfed fields. Among the different patterns, rice + soya bean was the most productive, but wheat + mustard was the most efficient with an output:input ratio of 4.4 for agronomic yield and 11.0 for total energy output. Multiple cropping patterns are more efficient in rainfed than in irrigated conditions. 6 tabs.

Sharma, S. (G.B. Pant Inst. of Himalayan Environment and Development, Almora (India))

1991-08-01

351

Genetic insights into the origins of Tibeto-Burman populations in the Himalayas.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Himalayan mountain range has played a dual role in shaping the genetic landscape of the region by (1) delineating east-west migrations including the Silk Road and (2) restricting human dispersals, especially from the Indian subcontinent into the Tibetan plateau. In this study, 15 hypervariable autosomal STR loci were employed to evaluate the genetic relationships of three populations from Nepal (Kathmandu, Newar and Tamang) and a general collection from Tibet. These Himalayan groups were compared to geographically targeted worldwide populations as well as Tibeto-Burman (TB) speaking groups from Northeast India. Our results suggest a Northeast Asian origin for the Himalayan populations with subsequent gene flow from South Asia into the Kathmandu valley and the Newar population, corroborating a previous Y-chromosome study. In contrast, Tamang and Tibet exhibit limited genetic contributions from South Asia, possibly due to the orographic obstacle presented by the Himalayan massif. The TB groups from Northeast India are genetically distinct compared to their counterparts from the Himalayas probably resulting from prolonged isolation and/or founder effects. PMID:19282873

Gayden, Tenzin; Mirabal, Sheyla; Cadenas, Alicia M; Lacau, Harlette; Simms, Tanya M; Morlote, Diana; Chennakrishnaiah, Shilpa; Herrera, Rene J

2009-02-27

352

Genetic insights into the origins of Tibeto-Burman populations in the Himalayas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Himalayan mountain range has played a dual role in shaping the genetic landscape of the region by (1) delineating east-west migrations including the Silk Road and (2) restricting human dispersals, especially from the Indian subcontinent into the Tibetan plateau. In this study, 15 hypervariable autosomal STR loci were employed to evaluate the genetic relationships of three populations from Nepal (Kathmandu, Newar and Tamang) and a general collection from Tibet. These Himalayan groups were compared to geographically targeted worldwide populations as well as Tibeto-Burman (TB) speaking groups from Northeast India. Our results suggest a Northeast Asian origin for the Himalayan populations with subsequent gene flow from South Asia into the Kathmandu valley and the Newar population, corroborating a previous Y-chromosome study. In contrast, Tamang and Tibet exhibit limited genetic contributions from South Asia, possibly due to the orographic obstacle presented by the Himalayan massif. The TB groups from Northeast India are genetically distinct compared to their counterparts from the Himalayas probably resulting from prolonged isolation and/or founder effects.

Gayden T; Mirabal S; Cadenas AM; Lacau H; Simms TM; Morlote D; Chennakrishnaiah S; Herrera RJ

2009-04-01

353

Deformation mechanisms in the frontal Lesser Himalayan Duplex in Sikkim Himalaya, India  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding deformation mechanisms in Himalayan rocks is a challenging proposition due to the complex nature of the deformed rocks and their genesis. Crustal deformation in the Himalayan thrust belt typically occurs in elastico-frictional (EF) or quasi-plastic (QP) regimes at depths controlled mainly by regional strain-rate and geothermal gradient. However, material property, grain-size and their progressive changes during deformation are also important controlling factors. We present evidence of EF deformation from Gondwana rocks developed during the emplacement of one of the frontal horses (Jorthang horse) in the Lesser Himalayan Duplex (LHD) structure associated with Lesser Himalayan rocks