WorldWideScience

Sample records for himalayas selection potential

  1. Permafrost in the Himalayas: specific characteristics, evolution vs. climate change and impacts on potential natural hazards

    Fort, Monique

    2015-04-01

    Mountain environments are very sensitive to climate change, yet assessing the potential impacts of these changes is not easy because of the complexity and diversity of mountain systems. The Himalayan permafrost belt presents three main specificities: (1) it develops in a geodynamically active mountain, which means that the controlling factors are not only temperature but also seismo-tectonic activity; (2) due to the steepness of the southern flank of the Greater Himalaya and potential large scale rock failures, permafrost evidence manifests itself best in the inner valleys and on the northern, arid side of the Himalayas (elevations >4000m); (3) the east-west strike of the mountain range creates large spatial discontinuity in the "cold" belt, mostly related to precipitation nature and availability. Only limited studies have been carried to date, and there is no permanent "field laboratory", nor continuous records but a few local studies. Based on preliminary observations in the Nepal Himalayas (mostly in Mustang and Dolpo districts), and Indian Ladakh, we present the main features indicating the existence of permafrost (either continuous or discontinuous). Rock-glaciers are quite well represented, though their presence may be interpreted as a combined result from both ground ice and large rock collapse. The precise altitudinal zonation of permafrost belt (specifying potential permafrost, probable permafrost, observed permafrost belts) still requires careful investigations in selected areas. Several questions arise when considering the evolution of permafrost in a context of climate change, with its impacts on the development of potential natural hazards that may affect the mountain population. Firstly, permafrost degradation (ground ice melting) is a cause of mountain slope destabilization. When the steep catchments are developed in frost/water sensitive bedrock (shales and marls) and extend to high elevations (as observed in Mustang or Dolpo), it would supply more

  2. Meiotic studies in some selected angiosperms from the Kashmir Himalayas

    Syed Mudassir JEELANI; Santosh KUMARI; Raghbir Chand GUPTA

    2012-01-01

    As a part of our program to explore and evaluate genetic diversity of flowering plants of the Kashmir Himalayas,meiotic studies have been carried out on 150 wild species.Of these,Caltha alba (2n =32),Delphinium roylei (2n =16),D.uncinatum (2n =16),Ranunculus palmatifidus (2n =28),and Sedum heterodontum (2n =14) have been cytologically worked out for the first time.New intraspecific diploid or polyploid cytotypes have been recorded for Alchemilla vulgaris (2n =34,96),Arabis amplexicaulis (2n =16),Impatiens amphorata (2n =14),Ⅰ.racemosa (2n =12),Ⅰ.sutcata (2n =16,12),Meconopsis latifolia (2n =14),Potentilla supina (2n =14),Saxifraga cernua (2n =16),Sium latijugam (2n =24),and Vicatia coniifolia (2n =44).Four species,Arabidopsis thaliana (2n =10),Berberis vulgaris (2n =28),Potentilla nubicola (2n =14),and P.sericea (2n =28),have been cytologically reported for the first time from India.A large number of meiotic abnormalities have been observed in most of these species,leading to a reduction in pollen fertility and production of heterogeneous-sized pollen grains.

  3. Hazard Assessment of Glacial Lake Outburst Flood and Potential of ICTs for Coping: A Case of Eastern Himalaya of Nepal

    Bhattarai, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    Retreat of glaciers and formation of glacial lakes in Nepal Himalaya have been reported to be related with the temperature rise in the region. Glacier Lake Outburst Floods (GLOF) are the growing climate induced hazards in the Himalaya. GLOF has increased the vulnerability of community and fragile ecosystem in the mountain valleys. This study has analyzed the potential impacts from GLOF in the highland of eastern Nepal and the potential role of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) to cope with such impacts. I analyzed the trend of climatic pattern (temperature and precipitation) of the Eastern Himalaya Region of Nepal available from the Department of Hydrology and Meteorology, Government of Nepal, and prepared the latest location map of the glacial lakes using google earth and ArcGIS applications in the highland of the Kanchanjungha Conservation Area of the region. Tiptala glacial lake, located at an elevation of 4950 m, within the conservation area, was selected for the GLOF hazard assessment. I used semi-structured questionnaire survey and key informants' interviews in the community in order to assess the potential hazard of GLOF. With the varying sizes, 46 glacial lakes were located in the region, which covers over 2.57 sq. km in total. Though the larger portion of the downstream area of the Tiptala glacial lake fall in the remote location away from major residential area, few villages, major pasture lands for Yaks, foot trails, and several bridges across the Tamor River below the lake are in risk of GLOF. Poor access due to extreme geographical remoteness and capacity to afford the modern technologies in the community are the major limiting factor to the knowledge and information about the climate change and related impacts. Modern ICTs has high potential to reduce the risk of climate related hazards in the remote area by information dissemination and awareness.

  4. Describing earthquakes potential through mountain building processes: an example within Nepal Himalaya

    Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Huai; Shi, Yaolin; Mary, Baptiste; Wang, Liangshu

    2016-04-01

    portion rupturing in Sub-Himalaya is mainly great Himalaya earthquakes (M>8), with enough energy to rupture the whole MHT, while the thrusting family 2 and 3 will cause mainly large earthquakes. The averaged lifespan of single segment (inclined short lines) is growing from the deformation front to the hinterland, while the occurrence frequency is just in the opposite way. Thrusting slips in family 1-3 will enhance the coulomb wedge development resulting in mountain building. Note that, all the large earthquake behaviors described in this paper is a statistical characteristic, just the tendency distribution on the MHT in one interval. Although our research domain is a section of the Nepal Himalaya, the treatment proposed in this paper has universality in continental collisional orogenic belt which having the same interseismic pattern. We also summary the differences of seismogenic zones in oceanic subduction zone (Cascadia subduction zone) and arc-continental subduction zone (Taiwan area). The different types of interseismic pattern(mechanical patterns) are the controlling factors controlling seismic potential on megathrust and thus impacting the mountain building history.

  5. Stalagmite growth perturbations from the Kumaun Himalaya as potential earthquake recorders

    Rajendran, C. P.; Sanwal, Jaishri; Morell, Kristin D.; Sandiford, Mike; Kotlia, B. S.; Hellstrom, John; Rajendran, Kusala

    2016-04-01

    The central part of the Himalaya (Kumaun and Garhwal Provinces of India) is noted for its prolonged seismic quiescence, and therefore, developing a longer-term time series of past earthquakes to understand their recurrence pattern in this segment assumes importance. In addition to direct observations of offsets in stratigraphic exposures or other proxies like paleoliquefaction, deformation preserved within stalagmites (speleothems) in karst system can be analyzed to obtain continuous millennial scale time series of earthquakes. The Central Indian Himalaya hosts natural caves between major active thrusts forming potential storehouses for paleoseismological records. Here, we present results from the limestone caves in the Kumaun Himalaya and discuss the implications of growth perturbations identified in the stalagmites as possible earthquake recorders. This article focuses on three stalagmites from the Dharamjali Cave located in the eastern Kumaun Himalaya, although two other caves, one of them located in the foothills, were also examined for their suitability. The growth anomalies in stalagmites include abrupt tilting or rotation of growth axes, growth termination, and breakage followed by regrowth. The U-Th age data from three specimens allow us to constrain the intervals of growth anomalies, and these were dated at 4273 ± 410 years BP (2673-1853 BC), 2782 ± 79 years BP (851-693 BC), 2498 ± 117 years BP (605-371 BC), 1503 ± 245 years BP (262-752 AD), 1346 ± 101 years BP (563-765 AD), and 687 ± 147 years BP (1176-1470 AD). The dates may correspond to the timings of major/great earthquakes in the region and the youngest event (1176-1470 AD) shows chronological correspondence with either one of the great medieval earthquakes (1050-1250 and 1259-1433 AD) evident from trench excavations across the Himalayan Frontal Thrust.

  6. Carbon Stock Potential of Oak and Pine Forests in Garhwal Region in Indian Central Himalayas

    Nanda Nautiyal; Vir Singh

    2013-01-01

    Oak (Quercus leucotichophora) and pine (Pinus roxburghii) are the two most dominant forest types occurring in Indian Central Himalayas. CO2 mitigation potential of these two forest types was observed in the present study. Carbon stock densities for AGTB, BB, LHG, DWS, AGSB and SOC were estimated and higher values were recorded in oak forest stands. Total carbon density estimated was 2420.54 Mg/ha for oak forest of Gopeshwar and 986.93 Mg/ha for pine forest of Nandprayag. CO2 mitigation potent...

  7. Carbon Stock Potential of Oak and Pine Forests in Garhwal Region in Indian Central Himalayas

    Nanda Nautiyal

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Oak (Quercus leucotichophora and pine (Pinus roxburghii are the two most dominant forest types occurring in Indian Central Himalayas. CO2 mitigation potential of these two forest types was observed in the present study. Carbon stock densities for AGTB, BB, LHG, DWS, AGSB and SOC were estimated and higher values were recorded in oak forest stands. Total carbon density estimated was 2420.54 Mg/ha for oak forest of Gopeshwar and 986.93 Mg/ha for pine forest of Nandprayag. CO2 mitigation potential of oak forest of Gopeshwar was recorded to be 8,713.94 CO2e and of pine forests 3552.95 CO2e.

  8. Selection of suitable lichen bioindicator species for monitoring climatic variability in the Himalaya.

    Bajpai, Rajesh; Shukla, Vertika; Upreti, D K; Semwal, Manoj

    2014-10-01

    Interspecific comparison in metals and PAHs profile in three lichen species, Flavoparmelia caperata, Phaeophyscia hispidula and Pyxine sorediata, were studied in different altitudinal gradients of the Western Himalayas. The species collected from 14 sites, enroute from Dehradun to Morinda (243 Km) including the trekking route 42 Km from Taluka to Morinda having an altitudinal gradient between 850-3,750 m, were analysed for their metals and PAHs. The species showed similar metal as well as PAHs profile under similar altitudinal gradients in the sequence of F. caperata > P. hispidula > P. sorediata. The difference in pollutant concentrations within each lichen species may be related to intrinsic attributes of the species, such as thallus morphology and the presence of lichen substances which are responsible for the sensitivity and accumulation potential of a particular species. Novelty of the present study lies on the fact that all the species show a similar efficiency of reflecting the environmental condition of the area, albeit the coefficient values of individual species for individual pollutant obtained by three-factor ANOVA revealed that the bioaccumulation affinity of F. caperata is significantly higher than P. hispidula and P. sorediata. For individual metals, F. caperata has a higher affinity for Al, Cr, Fe, Pb and Zn while P. hispidula has a significant positive affinity for Fe and Pb. PCA analysis of sites with respect to pollutant revealed the segregation of sites based on source and distance. Combining the bioaccumulation potential parameters along with geostatistical (GIS) techniques establishes that F. caperata species is a better accumulator of metals and PAHs in comparison to P. hispidula and P. sorediata in the temperate regions of the Himalaya. PMID:24888615

  9. Selecting and weighting spatial predictors for empirical modeling of landslide susceptibility in the Darjeeling Himalayas (India)

    Ghosh, Saibal; Carranza, Emmanuel John M.; van Westen, Cees J.; Jetten, Victor G.; Bhattacharya, Dipendra N.

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we created predictive models for assessing the susceptibility to shallow translational rocksliding and debris sliding in the Darjeeling Himalayas (India) by empirically selecting and weighting spatial predictors of landslides. We demonstrate a two-stage methodology: (1) quantifying associations of individual spatial factors with landslides of different types using bivariate analysis to select predictors; and (2) pairwise comparisons of the quantified associations using an analytical hierarchy process to assign predictor weights. We integrate the weighted spatial predictors through multi-class index overlay to derive predictive models of landslide susceptibility. The resultant model for shallow translational landsliding based on selected and weighted predictors outperforms those based on all weighted predictors or selected and unweighted predictors. Therefore, spatial factors with negative associations with landslides and unweighted predictors are ineffective in predictive modeling of landslide susceptibility. We also applied logistic regression to model landslide susceptibility, but some of the selected predictors are less realistic than those from our methodology, and our methodology gives better prediction rates. Although previous predictive models of landslide susceptibility indicate that multivariate analyses are superior to bivariate analyses, we demonstrate the benefit of the proposed methodology including bivariate analyses.

  10. Forest structure, diversity and regeneration potential along altitudinal gradient in Dhanaulti of Garhwal Himalaya

    Sushil Saha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The aim of the present study was to understatnd the forest composition, structure, diversity and regeneration potential along altitudinal gradient. Area of study: The study was carried out in Dhanaulti forest which falls under temperate region of Garhwal Himalaya in Uttarakhand state, India. Material and Methods: Vegetation analysis was carried out using 10 quadrats at each altitude using a quadrate size of 10×10 m2. In each quadrate, categories of trees >30 cm cbh were considered as trees, 10-30cm cbh as saplings and <10 cm cbh as seedlings. The data were quantitatively analyzed. Main results: In upper and middle altitudes, Cedrus deodara was reported dominant tree whereas, in lower altitude Quercus leucotrichophora was reported dominant. Tree density was highest in lower altitude which reduced middle and upper altitudes whereas, total basal cover increased with increasing altitude. The increasing total basal cover with altitude could be because of the presence of Cedrus deodara trees having higher girth classes. In tree, sapling and seedling layers, diversity (H and equitabiltiy (EC decreased with increasing altitude. However, concentrations of dominace (CD and beta diversity (BD have shown reverse trend with H and EC which increased with increasing altitudes, in each layer of tree, sapling and seedling. The distribution pattern of most species in all layers of trees, saplings and seedlings was contagious. The regeneration potential of the species has shown that some of the species in the absence of tree layer are still regenerating particularly, Rhododendron arboreum, Benthamidia capitata, Neolitsea pallens etc. It indicates that most of the species are shifting upward as they are getting suitable conditions. Research highlights: Altitude influence species composition, diversity and regeneration potential of species. Key words: Distribution pattern; tree diversity; regeneration; mountains; temperate; Himalaya.

  11. Impact of climate change on potential distribution of Chinese caterpillar fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis in Nepal Himalaya.

    Uttam Babu Shrestha

    Full Text Available Climate change has already impacted ecosystems and species and substantial impacts of climate change in the future are expected. Species distribution modeling is widely used to map the current potential distribution of species as well as to model the impact of future climate change on distribution of species. Mapping current distribution is useful for conservation planning and understanding the change in distribution impacted by climate change is important for mitigation of future biodiversity losses. However, the current distribution of Chinese caterpillar fungus, a flagship species of the Himalaya with very high economic value, is unknown. Nor do we know the potential changes in suitable habitat of Chinese caterpillar fungus caused by future climate change. We used MaxEnt modeling to predict current distribution and changes in the future distributions of Chinese caterpillar fungus in three future climate change trajectories based on representative concentration pathways (RCPs: RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, and RCP 6.0 in three different time periods (2030, 2050, and 2070 using species occurrence points, bioclimatic variables, and altitude. About 6.02% (8,989 km2 area of the Nepal Himalaya is suitable for Chinese caterpillar fungus habitat. Our model showed that across all future climate change trajectories over three different time periods, the area of predicted suitable habitat of Chinese caterpillar fungus would expand, with 0.11-4.87% expansion over current suitable habitat. Depending upon the representative concentration pathways, we observed both increase and decrease in average elevation of the suitable habitat range of the species.

  12. Impact of climate change on potential distribution of Chinese caterpillar fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) in Nepal Himalaya.

    Shrestha, Uttam Babu; Bawa, Kamaljit S

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has already impacted ecosystems and species and substantial impacts of climate change in the future are expected. Species distribution modeling is widely used to map the current potential distribution of species as well as to model the impact of future climate change on distribution of species. Mapping current distribution is useful for conservation planning and understanding the change in distribution impacted by climate change is important for mitigation of future biodiversity losses. However, the current distribution of Chinese caterpillar fungus, a flagship species of the Himalaya with very high economic value, is unknown. Nor do we know the potential changes in suitable habitat of Chinese caterpillar fungus caused by future climate change. We used MaxEnt modeling to predict current distribution and changes in the future distributions of Chinese caterpillar fungus in three future climate change trajectories based on representative concentration pathways (RCPs: RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, and RCP 6.0) in three different time periods (2030, 2050, and 2070) using species occurrence points, bioclimatic variables, and altitude. About 6.02% (8,989 km2) area of the Nepal Himalaya is suitable for Chinese caterpillar fungus habitat. Our model showed that across all future climate change trajectories over three different time periods, the area of predicted suitable habitat of Chinese caterpillar fungus would expand, with 0.11-4.87% expansion over current suitable habitat. Depending upon the representative concentration pathways, we observed both increase and decrease in average elevation of the suitable habitat range of the species. PMID:25180515

  13. Climate Change in the Himalayas: Current State of Knowledge

    Gautam, Mahesh R.; Timilsina, Govinda R.; Kumud ACHARYA

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the potential biophysical and economic impacts of climate change in the Himalayas. Existing observations indicate that the temperature is rising at a higher rate in Nepal and Chinese regions of the Himalayas compared with rest of the Himalayas. A declining trend of monsoon in the western Indian Himalayas and an increasing trend in the eastern Indian Him...

  14. Climate change in the Himalayas : current state of knowledge

    Gautam, Mahesh R.; Timilsina, Govinda R.; Kumud ACHARYA

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the potential biophysical and economic impacts of climate change in the Himalayas. Existing observations indicate that the temperature is rising at a higher rate in Nepal and Chinese regions of the Himalayas compared with rest of the Himalayas. A declining trend of monsoon in the western Indian Himalayas and an increasing trend in the eastern Indian Himalayas have been observed, whereas increasing precipitation and stream flow in many parts of Tibetan Plat...

  15. Seedling growth and survival of selected wild edible fruit species of the Sikkim Himalaya, India

    Sundriyal, Manju; Sundriyal, R. C.

    2005-07-01

    In the Sikkim Himalaya, an enormous variety of wild growing plants are exploited at large scale for collection of their edible parts, of which six most prominently utilized fruit species (viz., Baccaurea sapida, Diploknema butyracea, Elaeagnus latifolia, Eriolobus indica, Machilus edulis and Spondias axillaris) were investigated. The growth of nursery raised seedlings was measured at 3 month intervals until two years old in terms of absolute growth rate (AGR), relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), leaf area ratio (LAR), leaf weight ratio (LWR), stem weight ratio (SWR), root weight ratio (RWR) and root-shoot ratio (RSR). Spondias axillaris and Machilus edulis had the maximum AGR, RGR, LAR and SWR among all species. LWR was highest for B. sapida. RGR, LAR and LWR declined with the age of seedlings. RGR was negatively correlated with NAR, SWR, RWR and RSR, though it showed a positive relationship with LAR. For all species, seedlings attained significant sizes after one year of age, and showed reasonable survival after transplantation into the farmers' fields. It is expected that information on the growth behaviour of these species would be useful while they are adopted into agroforestry systems. It is suggested that these species should be multiplied at large scale and distributed to the local inhabitants to reduce pressure on them in natural stands as well as provide economic benefit to the subsistence farmers.

  16. Phytoremediation potential of Phragmites australis in Hokersar wetland - a Ramsar site of Kashmir Himalaya.

    Ahmad, Syed Shakeel; Reshi, Zafar A; Shah, Manzoor A; Rashid, Irfan; Ara, Roshan; Andrabi, Syed M A

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals are an important class of pollutants with both lethal and sublethal effects on organisms. Wetlands are cheap natural alternatives for removal of heavy metals from soils; however, wetland plants vary greatly in their degree of metal uptake. Hokersar wetland, a Ramsar site of Kashmir Himalaya, India is a game reserve of international importance that provides suitable habitat for resident birds and an excellent stopover point for migratory birds visiting from Palaearctic breeding grounds in Central Asia, China, N-Europe and Siberia. The toxicity of chronic dietary metal exposure in birds may have adverse reproductive effects which include decreased egg production, decreased hatchability, and increased hatchling mortality. Thus, the present study aimed to assess the heavy metal sequestration capability of one of the most common wetland plant species Phragmites australis in Hokersar wetland. The accumulation of the different elements was in order of Al > Mn > Ba > Zn > Cu > Pb > Mo > Co > Cr > Cd > Ni. Translocation factor, i.e. ratio of shoot to root metal concentration revealed that metals were largely retained in the roots of P. australis, thus reducing the supply of metals to avifauna and preventing their bio-accumulation. PMID:24933910

  17. Forage selection by Royle's pika (Ochotona roylei) in the western Himalaya, India.

    Bhattacharyya, Sabuj; Adhikari, Bhupendra S; Rawat, Gopal S

    2013-10-01

    Forage selection decisions of herbivores are often complex and dynamic; they are modulated by multiple cues, such as quality, accessibility and abundance of forage plants. To advance the understanding of plant-herbivore interactions, we explored foraging behavior of the alpine lagomorph Royle's pika (Ochotona roylei) in Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary, India. Pika bite counts on food plants were recorded through focal sampling in three permanently marked plots. Food plant abundance was recorded by traditional quadrat procedures; forage selection was estimated with Jacob's selection index. Multiple food-choice experiments were conducted to determine whether forage selection criteria would change with variation in food plant composition. We also analyzed leaf morphology and nutrient content in both major food plants and abundantly available non-food plants. Linear regression models were used to test competing hypotheses in order to identify factors governing forage selection. Royle's pika fed primarily on 17 plant species and each forage selection decision was positively modulated by leaf area and negatively modulated by contents of avoided substances (neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, acid detergent lignin and tannin) in food plants. Furthermore, significance of the interaction term "leaf size × avoided substance" indicates that plants with large leaves were selected only when they had low avoided substance content. The forage selection criteria did not differ between field and laboratory experiments. The parameter estimates of best fit models indicate that the influence of leaf size or amount of avoided substance on pika forage selection was modulated by the magnitude of predation risk. PMID:23932023

  18. Impact of Climate Change on Potential Distribution of Chinese Caterpillar Fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) in Nepal Himalaya

    Shrestha, Uttam Babu; Bawa, Kamaljit S.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has already impacted ecosystems and species and substantial impacts of climate change in the future are expected. Species distribution modeling is widely used to map the current potential distribution of species as well as to model the impact of future climate change on distribution of species. Mapping current distribution is useful for conservation planning and understanding the change in distribution impacted by climate change is important for mitigation of future biodiversit...

  19. Sesquiterpene lactones from Inula falconeri, a plant endemic to the Himalayas, as potential anti-inflammatory agents.

    Cheng, Xiangrong; Zeng, Qi; Ren, Jie; Qin, Jiangjiang; Zhang, Shoude; Shen, Yunheng; Zhu, Jiaxian; Zhang, Fei; Chang, Ruijie; Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Weidong; Jin, Huizi

    2011-11-01

    A phytochemical investigation of Inula falconeri, a plant endemic to the Himalayas, afforded 10 new sesquiterpenoids and 26 known sesquiterpene lactones, including those bearing guaiane, pseudoguaiane, xanthane, eudesmane, germacrane, rare secocaryophyllane, chromolaevane, and carabrane frameworks. The structures were elucidated via spectroscopic analysis and compared with data from literature. All the isolates were assessed for their inhibitory effects against LPS-induced nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 macrophages. Compounds 4, 11, 24, and 31 showed stronger inhibitory activities than the positive control with IC(50) values of 0.13, 0.07, 0.11, and 0.11 μM, respectively. These studies also led to a better understanding of the structure-activity relationships for the sesquiterpene lactone family of compounds. PMID:21924800

  20. Natural hazards versus climate change and their potential impacts in the dry, northern Himalayas: focus on the upper Kali Gandaki (Mustang District, Nepal)

    Fort, Monique

    2014-01-01

    In the Himalayas, the consequences of climate change are a fairly debated issue, mainly questioning the availability of water resources to the lowland population. North of the monsoon Himalayas, a semi-arid, continental climate prevails and settlements rely economically mostly on irrigated crops, high altitude rangelands, trade and tourism. The upper Kali Gandaki (Mustang) is situated in this area, with sharp contrasts between valley bottoms (\\3,000 m) and high, glaciated peaks (up to [8,000 ...

  1. Detection of snow melt and freezing in Himalaya using OSCAT data

    Rajashree V Bothale; P V N Rao; C B S Dutt; V K Dadhwal

    2015-02-01

    A study of the snow cover melt and freeze using Ku band Oceansat scatterometer (OSCAT) HH polarised backscatter coefficient (0HH) for 2011 and 2012 is reported for the Himalayas, which contain the world’s largest reserve of ice and snow outside polar regions. The analysis shows spatial and temporal inter-annual variations in the onset of melt/freeze across four regions (Upper Himalaya, Western Himalaya, Central Himalaya, and Eastern Himalaya), nine elevation bands and four aspect zones. A threshold based on temperature–0HH relation and average 0HH for the months January–March was used for melt/freeze detection. When the three consecutive images (6 days) satisfied the threshold, the day of first image was selected as melt onset/freeze day. The average melt onset dates were found to be March 11 ± 11 days for Eastern Himalaya, April 3 ± 18 days for Central Himalaya, April 16 ± 27 days for Western Himalaya, and May 12 ± 18 days for Upper Himalaya. Similarly average freeze onset dates were found to be August 23 ± 27 days for Eastern Himalaya, September 08 ± 24 days for Central Himalaya, August 27 ± 11 days for Western Himalaya, and September 13 ± 11 days for Upper Himalaya. All the zones experienced the melt onset earlier by around 20 days in 2011 at elevation above 5000 m. All the zones experienced freeze earlier in 2012, with onset being 18, 19, 11, and 21 days earlier in Eastern, Central, Western, and Upper Himalaya, respectively.

  2. Hydropower development in the Central Himalayas

    Singh, N. (Irrigation Design Organization, Rourkee (India))

    1992-10-01

    The Central Himalayas comprise eight hill districts of the State of Uttar Pradesh, India. These mountains are the source of the Ganga and its main tributaries: the Yamuna, Ramganga and Sarda rivers. The identified hydro potential of the Ganga, Yamuna, Sarda and their tributaries in the Central Himalayas is about 30 000 MW, with an annual average energy potential of 100 TWh. The projects which have been completed so far have only developed 3.2 per cent of this potential. The projects which are now under construction will exploit another 10.4 per cent of the potential. Thus, the untapped potential is as much as 85 per cent of the total. The minor tributaries also offer vast potential for mini and micro hydroelectric stations. In most conservative estimates, this potential is about 2000 MW. (author).

  3. Export market potential for selected horticultural crops

    This paper examines the feasibility of utilising an irradiation plant to disinfest fresh fruit and vegetables destined for export markets. It examines the export market potential of selected crops with the prime view of estimating likely trends in export markets in the future. These trends will have a significant bearing on throughput levels, and hence on the economic viability of an ionising energy plant

  4. Himalaya evolution at Paleogene-Neogene boundary unraveled by zircon age spectrum from Arabian Sea Sediments

    Feng, Han; Lu, Huayu; Zhang, Hanzhi

    2016-04-01

    Although virtually all the intensive orogenic activities of Himalaya occurred in Neogene, the tectonic evolution of this high mountain range in Paleogene is poorly understood. Investigations of tectonic change pattern at Paleogene-Neogene boundary are important to better understand the interaction between mountain building and climate evolution. Here we present new U-Pb ages of zircon grains from Indus Fan sediments to constrain the orogenic history of Himalaya at Paleogene-Neogene boundary. 11 samples between late Oligocene and early Miocene from ODP 117 cores are dated by the zircon U-Pb technique. We calculate relative contributions of potential sources by counting zircon grains for each sample, and the quantized results indicate Himalaya contributed sediments to the coring site, and an extremely high input from Great and Tethyan Himalaya during late Oligocene-early Miocene. Four samples in Pleistocene are also dated for comparison, which indicates that high proportion of Lesser Himalaya has contributed to the sediment in Pleistocene. Our results suggest that the high contribution of Great and Tethyan Himalaya at Paleogene-Neogene boundary might correlate with the beginning of activity of MCT and extension of STD with leucogranite intrusion along Himalaya, which give rise to the extensive Great Himalaya exhumation. Our study demonstrates that zircon U-Pb dating technique is a good tool to reconstruct erosional history of mountain building on a tectonic timescale. Key words: ODP, Himalaya, Indus Fan, zircon U-Pb dating, Paleogene-Neogene boundary

  5. Glacier Ecosystems of Himalaya

    Kohshima, S.; Yoshimura, Y.; Takeuchi, N.; Segawa, T.; Uetake, J.

    2012-12-01

    Biological activity on glaciers has been believed to be extremely limited. However, we found various biotic communities specialized to the glacier environment in various part of the world, such as Himalaya, Patagonia and Alaska. Some of these glacier hosted biotic communities including various cold-tolerant insects, annelids and copepods that were living in the glacier by feeding on algae and bacteria growing in the snow and ice. Thus, the glaciers are simple and relatively closed ecosystems sustained by the primary production in the snow and ice. In this presentation, we will briefly introduce glacier ecosystems in Himalaya; ecology and behavior of glacier animals, altitudinal zonation of snow algal communities, and the structure of their habitats in the glacier. Since the microorganisms growing on the glacier surface are stored in the glacial strata every year, ice-core samples contain many layers with these microorganisms. We showed that the snow algae in the ice-core are useful for ice core dating and could be new environmental signals for the studies on past environment using ice cores. These microorganisms in the ice core will be important especially in the studies of ice core from the glaciers of warmer regions, in which chemical and isotopic contents are often heavily disturbed by melt water percolation. Blooms of algae and bacteria on the glacier can reduce the surface albedo and significantly affect the glacier melting. For example, the surface albedo of some Himalayan glaciers was significantly reduced by a large amount of dark-colored biogenic material (cryoconite) derived from snow algae and bacteria. It increased the melting rates of the surfaces by as much as three-fold. Thus, it was suggested that the microbial activity on the glacier could affect the mass balance and fluctuation of the glaciers.

  6. Methanogens at the top of the world: occurrence and potential activity of methanogens in newly deglaciated soils in high-altitude cold deserts in the Western Himalayas

    Katrin eAschenbach

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Methanogens typically occur in reduced anoxic environments. However, in recent studies it has been shown that many aerated upland soils, including desert soils also host active methanogens. Here we show that soil samples from high–altitude cold deserts in the western Himalayas (Ladakh, India produce CH4 after incubation as slurry under anoxic conditions at rates comparable to those of hot desert soils. Samples of matured soil from three different vegetation belts (arid, steppe, and subnival were compared with younger soils originating from frontal and lateral moraines of receding glaciers. While methanogenic rates were higher in the samples from matured soils, CH4 was also produced in the samples from the recently deglaciated moraines. In both young and matured soils, those covered by a biological soil crust (biocrust were more active than their bare counterparts. Isotopic analysis showed that in both cases CH4 was initially produced from H2/CO2 but later mostly from acetate. Analysis of the archaeal community in the in situ soil samples revealed a clear dominance of sequences related to Thaumarchaeota, while the methanogenic community comprised only a minor fraction of the archaeal community. Similar to other aerated soils, the methanogenic community was comprised almost solely of the genera Methanosarcina and Methanocella, and possibly also Methanobacterium in some cases. Nevertheless, approximately 103 gdw-1 soil methanogens were already present in the young moraine soil together with cyanobacteria. Our results demonstrate that Methanosarcina and Methanocella not only tolerate atmospheric oxygen but are also able to survive in these harsh cold environments. Their occurrence in newly deglaciated soils shows that they are early colonisers of desert soils, similar to cyanobacteria, and may play a role in the development of desert biocrusts.

  7. Ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India.

    Itoo, Zahoor Ahmad; Reshi, Zafar A

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to document the ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India. The extensive field surveys carried out in the Kashmir Himalaya at five study sites resulted in the collection and identification of 76 potential ectomycorrhizal fungal species associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana. Maximum 32 number of species were found associated with Pinus wallichiana, 19 with Cedrus deodara and 25 species were found growing in association with both the conifers. The present study reveals that Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India harbour diverse ectomycorrhizal fungal species. PMID:24783775

  8. Exploration of nifH gene through soil metagenomes of the western Indian Himalayas

    Soni, Ravindra; Suyal, Deep Chandra; Sai, Santosh; Goel, Reeta

    2016-01-01

    This group has previously highlighted the prevalence of Csp genes from cold Himalayan environments. However, this study has explored the uncultured diazotrophs from metagenomes of western Indian Himalayas. The metagenomic nifH gene clone library was constructed from the Temperate, Subtropical and Tarai soils of Western Himalaya, India followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. After preliminary screening, selected clones were sequenced. In silico analysis of the clones was don...

  9. Copycats of the Central Himalayas

    P.A. Arora (Payal)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis case study highlights practices of a rarely documented group of neo-users of the Internet or newbies from Central Himalayas, serving as a catalyst for delving deeply into the act of ‘plagiarism’ in online learning By looking at such ‘learning’ practices away from schools, namely at

  10. Transboundary Air Pollution over the Central Himalayas: Monitoring network and Preliminary Results

    Zhang, Qianggong; Kang, Shichang

    2016-04-01

    The Himalayas, stretching over 3000 kms along west-east, separates South Asia continent and the Tibetan Plateau with its extreme high altitudes. The South Asia is being increasingly recognized to be among the hotspots of air pollution, posing multi-effects on regional climate and environment. Recent monitoring and projection have indicated an accelerated decrease of glacier and increasing glacier runoff in the Himalayas, and a remarkable phenomenon has been recognized in the Himalayas that long-range transport atmospheric pollutants (e.g., black carbon and dust) deposited on glacier surface can promote glacier melt, and in turns, may liberate historical contaminant legacy in glaciers into downward ecosystems. To understand the air pollution variation and how they can infiltrate the Himalayas and beyond, we started to operate a coordinated atmospheric pollution monitoring network composing 11 sites with 5 in Nepal and 6 in Tibet since April 2013. Atmospheric total suspended particles ( TSP metals (particulate-bounded mercury) are measured to reveal their spatial and temporal distributions. Results revealed a consistent gradient decrease in almost all analyzed parameters along south-north gradient across the Himalayas, with a clear seasonal variation of higher values in pre-monsoon seasons. Analysis of geochemical signatures of carbonaceous aerosols indicated dominant sources from biomass burning and vehicle exhaust. PAHs concentrations and signatures from soils and aerosols indicated that low-ring PAHs can readily transport across the Himalayas. Integrated analysis of satellite images and air mass trajectories suggested that the transboundary air pollution over the Himalayas is episodic and is likely concentrated in pre-monsoon seasons. Our results emphasis the potential transport and impact of air pollution from South Asia to Himalayas and further inland Tibetan Plateau. The monitoring network will be continuously operated to provide basis for defining the

  11. Prospects of Sustainable Livestock Farming in the Uttarakhand Himalaya, India

    V. P. Sati; R. B. Singh

    2010-01-01

    Livestock farming forms an integral part in the economy of the Uttarakhand Himalaya and plays an important role in the mixed crop farming system. In addition, high diversity in livestock composition is the characteristic features of the mainland of Uttarakhand. The state obtains high potential of milk production because of availability of fodder as a form of extensive grasslands, which are locally known as bugyals or kharaks and fodder trees. Livestock, other than milk production, are widely ...

  12. Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Surface Irradiance in the Himalaya

    Dobreva, I. D.; Bishop, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Climate-glacier dynamics in the Himalaya are complex. Research indicates extreme local variability in glacier fluctuations and the presence of regional trends. The glaciers in the Karakoram Himalaya depart from world trends of glacier recession, as many are advancing or surging. Nevertheless, glacier sensitivity to climate change has yet to be quantitatively assessed given numerous controlling factors. We attempt to address part of the problem by evaluating the role of topography in explaining variations in surface irradiance. Specifically, we developed a spectral-based topographic solar radiation model that accounts for multi-scale topographic effects. We evaluate surface irradiance simulations over a multitude of glaciers across the Karakoram and Nepalese Himalaya and examine spatio-temporal patterns to determine which alpine glaciers are more susceptible to radiation forcing. Simulation results reveal that many Nepalese glaciers characterized by rapid downwasting, retreat and expanding proglacial lakes, exhibit relatively high-magnitude daily irradiance patterns spatially focused over the terminus region, while other glacier surface areas received less short-wave irradiance. These results were found to be associated with basin-scale relief conditions and topographic shielding. Altitudinal variation in glacier surface irradiance was found to increase during the later portion of the ablation season, as changes in solar geometry produce more cast shadows that protect glaciers given extreme relief. Topographic effects on surface irradiance vary significantly from glacier to glacier, demonstrating the important role of glacier and mountain geodynamics on glacier sensitivity to climate change. Spatial and altitudinal patterns, coupled with information regarding supraglacial debris distribution, depth and ice-flow velocities, may potentially explain glacier sensitivity to climate change and the local variability of glacier fluctuations in the Himalaya.

  13. Persistent organic pollutants and mercury in the Himalaya and Tibetan Plateau

    Loewen, Mark

    Persistent organic pollutants and mercury are important contaminants due to their persistence in the environment and potential toxic effects on ecosystems and humans. Concerns related to these contaminants are particularly pertinent in Asia where the use of pesticides and mercury emissions have been increasing dramatically due to changing agricultural practices and rapidly expanding industrialization. Based on studies in European and North American mountain regions, evidence is increasing that alpine regions function as regional convergence zones for selected organic pollutants due to an effect called orographic cold trapping. It is hypothesized that such an effect may be particularly pronounced in the Himalaya because of dramatic elevational temperature and precipitation gradients relative to contaminant source regions in its immediate vicinity, and because of the regional monsoon system that has been shown to deliver particles and inorganic air pollutants to higher altitudes. We report here evidence for the movement of select environmentally relevant chlorinated organic pesticides into the Central Himalaya with strong seasonal differences due to the Indian monsoon. Atmospheric concentrations of these chemicals are positively correlated with altitude in summer up to an elevation of 5000m a.s.l and then decrease at higher elevation. In winter the atmospheric concentrations are negatively correlated with altitude indicating that during this season remote sites are above the boundary layer. Soil concentrations appear to follow the gradient of forestation, with maximum concentrations at 2600m a.s.l. and then declining above that altitude. Mercury in three Tibetan snow pits, well above the boundary layer shows the likelihood of particulate deposition in winter when particulate concentrations are highest. Strong dust storm activity is the largest source of mercury deposition on the plateau, though it is unsure if the mercury is transported on dust long distances or if

  14. Event Related Potential Analysis of Stimulus Over-Selectivity

    Reed, Phil; Savile, Amy; Truzoli, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Stimulus over-selectivity is a phenomenon often displayed by individuals with many forms of developmental and intellectual disabilities, and also by individuals lacking such disabilities who are under cognitive strain. It occurs when only one of potentially many aspects of the environment controls behavior. Adult participants were trained and…

  15. Simulation Games: Practical References, Potential Use, Selected Bibliography.

    Kidder, Steven J.

    Several recently published books on simulation and games are briefly discussed. Selected research studies and demonstration projects are examined to show the potential of simulation and gaming for teaching and training and for the study of social and psychological processes. The bibliography lists 113 publications which should lead the reader to…

  16. Selection theory of free dendritic growth in a potential flow.

    von Kurnatowski, Martin; Grillenbeck, Thomas; Kassner, Klaus

    2013-04-01

    The Kruskal-Segur approach to selection theory in diffusion-limited or Laplacian growth is extended via combination with the Zauderer decomposition scheme. This way nonlinear bulk equations become tractable. To demonstrate the method, we apply it to two-dimensional crystal growth in a potential flow. We omit the simplifying approximations used in a preliminary calculation for the same system [Fischaleck, Kassner, Europhys. Lett. 81, 54004 (2008)], thus exhibiting the capability of the method to extend mathematical rigor to more complex problems than hitherto accessible. PMID:23679427

  17. Imaging the Indian subcontinent beneath the Himalaya.

    Schulte-Pelkum, Vera; Monsalve, Gaspar; Sheehan, Anne; Pandey, M R; Sapkota, Som; Bilham, Roger; Wu, Francis

    2005-06-30

    The rocks of the Indian subcontinent are last seen south of the Ganges before they plunge beneath the Himalaya and the Tibetan plateau. They are next glimpsed in seismic reflection profiles deep beneath southern Tibet, yet the surface seen there has been modified by processes within the Himalaya that have consumed parts of the upper Indian crust and converted them into Himalayan rocks. The geometry of the partly dismantled Indian plate as it passes through the Himalayan process zone has hitherto eluded imaging. Here we report seismic images both of the decollement at the base of the Himalaya and of the Moho (the boundary between crust and mantle) at the base of the Indian crust. A significant finding is that strong seismic anisotropy develops above the decollement in response to shear processes that are taken up as slip in great earthquakes at shallower depths. North of the Himalaya, the lower Indian crust is characterized by a high-velocity region consistent with the formation of eclogite, a high-density material whose presence affects the dynamics of the Tibetan plateau. PMID:15988523

  18. Generalized Selectivity Description for Polymeric Ion-Selective Electrodes Based on the Phase Boundary Potential Model

    Bakker, Eric

    2010-01-01

    A generalized description of the response behavior of potentiometric polymer membrane ion-selective electrodes is presented on the basis of ion-exchange equilibrium considerations at the sample—membrane interface. This paper includes and extends on previously reported theoretical advances in a more compact yet more comprehensive form. Specifically, the phase boundary potential model is used to derive the origin of the Nernstian response behavior in a single expression, which is valid for a me...

  19. The role of glaciers in stream flow from the Nepal Himalaya

    D. Alford

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent concerns related to the potential impacts of the retreat of Himalayan glaciers on the hydrology of rivers originating in the catchment basins of the Himalaya have been accompanied by few analyses describing the role of glaciers in the hydrologic regime of these mountains. This is, at least in part, a result of the relative inaccessibility of the glaciers of the Himalaya, at altitudes generally between 4000–7000 m, and the extreme logistical difficulties of: 1 reaching the glaciers, and 2 conducting meaningful research once they have been reached. It is apparent that an alternative to traditional "Alpine" glaciology is required in the mountains of the Hindu Kush-Himalaya region. The objectives of the study discussed here have been to develop methodologies that will begin to quantify the role of complete glacier systems in the hydrologic regime of the Nepal Himalaya, and to develop estimates of the potential impact of a continued retreat of these glacier, based on the use of disaggregated low-altitude data bases, topography derived from satellite imagery, and simple process models of water and energy exchange in mountain regions.

    While the extent of mesoscale variability has not been established by studies to date, it is clear that the dominant control on the hydrologic regime of the tributaries to the Ganges Basin from the eastern Himalaya is the interaction between the summer monsoon and the 8000 m of topographic relief represented by the Himalayan wall. All the available evidence indicates that the gradient of specific runoff with altitude resulting from this interaction is moderately to strongly curvilinear, with maximum runoff occurring at mid-altitudes, and minima at the altitudinal extremes. At the upper minimum of this gradient, Himalayan glaciers exist in what has been characterized as an "arctic desert".

    The methodologies developed for this study involve the relationship between area-altitude distributions of

  20. Flora of the Pan-Himalayas: General guidelines

    2011-01-01

    Editorial Committee,Flora of the Pan-Himalayas [May 2011]1.The Pan-Himalayas (the Himalayas and adjacent regions) forms a natural geographic unit,from the Wakhan Corridor and northeastern Hindu Kush eastwards to the Hengduan Mountains by way of Karakorum and the Himalayas.This region covers the northeastern corner of Afghanistan,northern Pakistan,northern India,Nepal,Bhutan,northern Myanmar,and southwest China (S Tibet,SE Qinghai,SE Gansu,W Sichuan,and NW Yunnan).

  1. Evolution of earthquake-triggered landslides in the Kashmir Himalaya, northern Pakistan

    Khattak, G.A.; Owen, L.A.; Kamp, U.; Harp, E.L.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of the 08 October 2005 Kashmir earthquake and subsequent snow melt and monsoon rainfall on slope stability was evaluated using repeat photography in the Kashmir Himalaya of northern Pakistan. Sixty-eight landslide-affected locations were selected and photographed in November 2005, May/June 2006, June 2007, and August 2007 to evaluate all potential geomorphic changes. Eighty percent of the locations showed no or very little change, 11% of the locations showed a partial vegetation recovery on the slopes, while 9% showed an increase in the landslide area. All those locations that showed an increase in landsliding were located along rivers and/or roads. The small change in landslide extent is remarkable given that the region experienced one of the heaviest monsoon seasons in the last decade and is counter to earlier predictions of accelerated slope erosion by landsliding in the immediate years following the earthquake. Extensive fissures and ground cracks at many localities, however, still present a potential of future landsliding under wetter conditions. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. CODA Q estimates for Kumaun Himalaya

    A Paul; S C Gupta; Charu C Pant

    2003-12-01

    Coda (c) estimates for the Kumaun Himalaya region have been obtained in high frequency range. Local earthquakes, recorded by a digital seismic network in the region, which fall in the epicentral distances range of 10 to 80km and with a local magnitude range of 1.4 to 2.8, have been used. The coda waves of 30 sec window length, filtered at seven frequency bands centered at 1.5, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 Hz, have been analysed using the single backscattering model. The values of c estimates vary from 65 to 283 at 1.5 Hz to 2119 to 3279 at 24.0 Hz which showed that c is frequency dependent and its value increases as frequency increases. A frequency-dependent c relationship, c = (92 ± 4.73) (1.07 ± .023), is obtained for the region representing the average attenuation characteristics of seismic waves for Kumaun Himalaya region.

  3. The economics of reducing emissions from community managed forests in Nepal Himalaya

    Karky, Bhaskar Singh

    2008-01-01

    The climate change agenda is more important in global politics today than ever before. This research set out to examine whether community forest management (CFM) can play a signifi cant role in reducing global emissions, by taking Nepal’s community forestry sector as a case. The thesis selects three community managed forests in Nepal’s Himalaya region to investigate the extent to which management of such forests by the local communities can successfully contribute towards reducing global atmo...

  4. Selective potentiation of alpha 1 glycine receptors by ginkgolic acid

    Galyna Maleeva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Glycine receptors (GlyRs belong to the superfamily of pentameric cys-loop receptor-operated channels and are involved in numerous physiological functions, including movement, vision and pain. In search for compounds performing subunit-specific modulation of GlyRs we studied action of ginkgolic acid, an abundant Ginkgo biloba product. Using patch-clamp recordings, we analysed the effects of ginkgolic acid in concentrations from 30nM to 25µM on α1- α3 and α1/β configurations of GlyR and on GABAARs expressed in cultured CHO-K1 cells and mouse neuroblastoma (N2a cells. Ginkgolic acid caused an increase in the amplitude of currents mediated by homomeric α1 and heteromeric α1/β GlyRs and provoked a left-shift of the concentration-dependent curves for glycine. Even at high concentrations (10-25 µM ginkgolic acid was not able to augment ionic currents mediated by α2 and α3 GlyRs, or by GABAAR consisting of α1/β2/γ2 subunits. Mutation of three residues (T59A/A261G/A303S in the α2 GlyR subunit to the corresponding ones from the α1 converted the action of ginkgolic acid to potentiation with a distinct decrease in EC50 for glycine, suggesting an important role for these residues in modulation by ginkgolic acid. Our results suggest that ginkgolic acid is a novel selective enhancer of α1 GlyRs

  5. Atmospheric carbonaceous aerosols from Indo-Gangetic Plain and Central Himalaya: impact of anthropogenic sources.

    Ram, Kirpa; Sarin, M M

    2015-01-15

    In the present-day scenario of growing anthropogenic activities, carbonaceous aerosols contribute significantly (∼20-70%) to the total atmospheric particulate matter mass and, thus, have immense potential to influence the Earth's radiation budget and climate on a regional to global scale. In addition, formation of secondary organic aerosols is being increasingly recognized as an important process in contributing to the air-pollution and poor visibility over urban regions. It is, thus, essential to study atmospheric concentrations of carbonaceous species (EC, OC and WSOC), their mixing state and absorption properties on a regional scale. This paper presents the comprehensive data on emission sources, chemical characteristics and optical properties of carbonaceous aerosols from selected urban sites in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) and from a high-altitude location in the central Himalaya. The mass concentrations of OC, EC and WSOC exhibit large spatio-temporal variability in the IGP. This is attributed to seasonally varying emissions from post-harvest agricultural-waste burning, their source strength, boundary layer dynamics and secondary aerosol formation. The high concentrations of OC and SO4(2-), and their characteristic high mass scattering efficiency, contribute significantly to the aerosol optical depth and scattering coefficient. This has implications to the assessment of single scattering albedo and aerosol radiative forcing on a regional scale. PMID:25199599

  6. Arc parallel extension in Higher and Lesser Himalayas, evidence from western Arunachal Himalaya, India

    Sharmistha De Sarkar; George Mathew; Kanchan Pande

    2013-06-01

    The existence of E–W extensional features from northeast (NE) Himalaya is poorly documented. Our investigation in the western part of Arunachal Himalaya provides evidences of active Quaternary E–W arc-parallel extensional features in the Higher and Lesser Himalayas. They are represented by arcperpendicular normal faults and arc-parallel sinistral strike-slip faults. We discuss the occurrences of these arc-parallel extensional features in terms of oblique convergence and radial expansion models. The partitioning of stress due to oblique convergence is argued based on evidences of left-lateral slip in NEHimalaya, right-lateral slip in NW-Himalaya and absence of translation in the central part. The amount of arc-parallel extension in the hinterland regions is correlated to the amount of radial shortening in the foreland. The computation of arc-parallel extension in the NE Himalayan arc is carried out by defining a small-circle centered at 88° 39′ ± 0.7′E longitude and 33° 40′ ± 0.6′N latitude having a radius of 770.7 ± 15.1 km, for the segment between 92° 01′ and 95° 16′E longitudes. The amount of arc-parallel extension estimated is ∼110 km for the NE Himalayan segment. Our result agrees closely with the 104 km extension determined based on geodetically computed extension rate and age of initiation of rifting in southern Tibet.

  7. Selective 5-HT2C agonists as potential antidepressants.

    Leysen, D C

    1999-02-01

    The antidepressants currently used need improvement, especially in terms of efficacy, relapse rate and onset of action. In this review the clinical and experimental data which support the rationale for 5-HT2C agonists in the treatment of depression are listed. Next, the results obtained with the non-selective 5-HT2C agonists on the market and in clinical development are described. Finally, the preclinical data on the more selective 5-HT2C agonists are summarized. These recent preclinical results reveal a greater potency and effect size compared to fluoxetine, good tolerability and no evidence of tolerance development. Selective 5-HT2C agonists might become innovative drugs for the treatment of depression, panic, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), some forms of aggression and eating disorders. PMID:16160946

  8. Identification of seismically susceptible areas in western Himalaya using pattern recognition

    Mridula; Sinvhal, Amita; Wason, Hans Raj

    2016-06-01

    Seismicity in the western Himalayas is highly variable. Several historical and instrumentally recorded devastating earthquakes originated in the western Himalayas which are part of the Alpine-Himalayan belt. Earthquakes cause tremendous loss of life and to the built environment. The amount of loss in terms of life and infrastructure has been rising continuously due to significant increase in population and infrastructure. This study is an attempt to identify seismically susceptible areas in western Himalaya, using pattern recognition technique. An area between latitude 29∘-36∘N and longitude 73∘-80∘E was considered for this study. Pattern recognition starts with identification, selection and extraction of features from seismotectonic data. These features are then subjected to discriminant analysis and the study area was classified into three categories, viz., Area A: most susceptible area, Area B: moderately susceptible area, and Area C: least susceptible area. Results show that almost the entire states of Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand and a portion of Jammu & Kashmir are classified as Area A, while most of Jammu & Kashmir is classified as Area B and the Indo-Gangetic plains are classified as Area C.

  9. Floristic diversity and distribution pattern of plant communities along altitudinal gradient in Sangla Valley, Northwest Himalaya.

    Sharma, Pankaj; Rana, J C; Devi, Usha; Randhawa, S S; Kumar, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Himalayas are globally important biodiversity hotspots and are facing rapid loss in floristic diversity and changing pattern of vegetation due to various biotic and abiotic factors. This has necessitated the qualitative and quantitative assessment of vegetation here. The present study was conducted in Sangla Valley of northwest Himalaya aiming to assess the structure of vegetation and its trend in the valley along the altitudinal gradient. In the forest and alpine zones of the valley, 15 communities were recorded. Study revealed 320 species belonging to 199 genera and 75 families. Asteraceae, Rosaceae, Apiaceae, and Ranunculaceae were dominant. Among genera, Artemisia followed by Polygonum, Saussurea, Berberis, and Thalictrum were dominant. Tree and shrub's density ranged from 205 to 600 and from 105 to 1030 individual per hectare, respectively, whereas herbs ranged from 22.08 to 78.95 individual/m(2). Nearly 182 species were native to the Himalaya. Maximum altitudinal distribution of few selected climate sensitive species was found to be highest in northeast and north aspects. This study gives an insight into the floristic diversity and community structure of the fragile Sangla Valley which was hitherto not available. PMID:25383363

  10. Identification of seismically susceptible areas in western Himalaya using pattern recognition

    Mridula; Amita Sinvhal; Hans Raj Wason

    2016-06-01

    Seismicity in the western Himalayas is highly variable. Several historical and instrumentally recordeddevastating earthquakes originated in the western Himalayas which are part of the Alpine–Himalayanbelt. Earthquakes cause tremendous loss of life and to the built environment. The amount of loss interms of life and infrastructure has been rising continuously due to significant increase in population andinfrastructure. This study is an attempt to identify seismically susceptible areas in western Himalaya,using pattern recognition technique. An area between latitude 29◦–36◦N and longitude 73◦–80◦E wasconsidered for this study. Pattern recognition starts with identification, selection and extraction of featuresfrom seismotectonic data. These features are then subjected to discriminant analysis and the studyarea was classified into three categories, viz., Area A: most susceptible area, Area B: moderately susceptiblearea, and Area C: least susceptible area. Results show that almost the entire states of HimachalPradesh and Uttarakhand and a portion of Jammu & Kashmir are classified as Area A, while most ofJammu & Kashmir is classified as Area B and the Indo-Gangetic plains are classified as Area C.

  11. Protection from potential exposures: application to selected radiation sources

    This ICRP Report begins with the general principles of radiation protection in the case of potential exposures, followed by special issues in application and compliance with regulatory aims. The rest of the report uses event trees or fault trees to derive the logical structure of six scenarios of potential exposure, i.e. two irradiators, a large research accelerator, an accelerator for industrial isotope production, an industrial radiography device using a mobile source of radiation, and finally a medical gamma radiotherapy device. (UK)

  12. Selection of potential microorganism for sago starch fermentation

    RUTH MELLIAWATI; ROHMATUSSOLIHAT; FERRA OCTAVINA

    2006-01-01

    Fermentation process of sago starch for the production of bioproduct requires potential microorganism that have ability to hydrolyze sago starch. The purpose of this research was to get the potential of amylolytic microorganisms for their capability of amyloglucosidase activity and to know the sugar strains of the fermentation result. Eleven amylolytic microorganisms (9 strains of mold and 2 strains of yeast) were obtained from the collection Research Centre for Biotechnology – Indonesian Ins...

  13. A study of algal biomass potential in selected Canadian regions.

    Passell, Howard David; Roach, Jesse Dillon; Klise, Geoffrey T.

    2011-11-01

    A dynamic assessment model has been developed for evaluating the potential algal biomass and extracted biocrude productivity and costs, using nutrient and water resources available from waste streams in four regions of Canada (western British Columbia, Alberta oil fields, southern Ontario, and Nova Scotia). The purpose of this model is to help identify optimal locations in Canada for algae cultivation and biofuel production. The model uses spatially referenced data across the four regions for nitrogen and phosphorous loads in municipal wastewaters, and CO{sub 2} in exhaust streams from a variety of large industrial sources. Other data inputs include land cover, and solar insolation. Model users can develop estimates of resource potential by manipulating model assumptions in a graphic user interface, and updated results are viewed in real time. Resource potential by location can be viewed in terms of biomass production potential, potential CO{sub 2} fixed, biocrude production potential, and area required. The cost of producing algal biomass can be estimated using an approximation of the distance to move CO{sub 2} and water to the desired land parcel and an estimation of capital and operating costs for a theoretical open pond facility. Preliminary results suggest that in most cases, the CO{sub 2} resource is plentiful compared to other necessary nutrients (especially nitrogen), and that siting and prospects for successful large-scale algae cultivation efforts in Canada will be driven by availability of those other nutrients and the efficiency with which they can be used and re-used. Cost curves based on optimal possible siting of an open pond system are shown. The cost of energy for maintaining optimal growth temperatures is not considered in this effort, and additional research in this area, which has not been well studied at these latitudes, will be important in refining the costs of algal biomass production. The model will be used by NRC-IMB Canada to identify

  14. Tree ring imprints of long-term changes in climate in western Himalaya, Indi

    R R Yadav

    2009-11-01

    Tree-ring analyses from semi-arid to arid regions in western Himalaya show immense potential for developing millennia long climate records. Millennium and longer ring-width chronologies of Himalayan pencil juniper (Juniperus polycarpos), Himalayan pencil cedar (Cedrus deodara) and Chilgoza pine (Pinus gerardiana) have been developed from different sites in western Himalaya. Studies conducted so far on various conifer species indicate strong precipitation signatures in ring-width measurement series. The paucity of weather records from stations close to tree-ring sampling sites poses difficulty in calibrating tree-ring data against climate data especially precipitation for its strong spatial variability in mountain regions. However, for the existence of strong coherence in temperature, even in data from distant stations, more robust temperature reconstructions representing regional and hemispheric signatures have been developed. Tree-ring records from the region indicate multi-century warm and cool anomalies consistent with the Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age anomalies. Significant relationships noted between mean premonsoon temperature over the western Himalaya and ENSO features endorse utility of climate records from western Himalayan region in understanding long-term climate variability and attribution of anthropogenic impact.

  15. Regional Glacier Sensitivity to Climate Change in the Monsoonal Himalaya: Implications for Water Resources

    Rupper, S.; Maurer, J. M.; Schaefer, J. M.; Tsering, K.; Rinzin, T.; Dorji, C.; Johnson, E. S.; Cook, E. R.

    2014-12-01

    The rapid retreat of many glaciers in the monsoonal Himalaya is of potential societal concern. However, the retreat pattern in the region has been very heterogeneous, likely due in part to the inherent heterogeneity of climate and glaciers within the region. Assessing the impacts of glacier change on water resources, hydroelectric power, and hazard potential requires a detailed understanding of this potentially complex spatial pattern of glacier sensitivity to climate change. Here we quantify glacier surface-mass balance and meltwater flux across the entire glacierized region of the Bhutanese watershed using a full surface-energy and -mass balance model validated with field data. We then test the sensitivity of the glaciers to climatic change and compare the results to a thirty-year record of glacier volume changes. Bhutan is chosen because it (1) sits in the bulls-eye of the monsoon, (2) has >600 glaciers that exhibit the extreme glacier heterogeneity typical of the Himalayas, and (3) faces many of the economic and hazard challenges associated with glacier changes in the Himalaya. Therefore, the methods and results from this study should be broadly applicable to other regions of the monsoonal Himalaya. Our modeling results show a complex spatial pattern of glacier sensitivity to changes in climate across the Bhutanese Himalaya. However, our results also show that 90% of the total meltwater flux, and that these glaciers are uniformly the glaciers most sensitive to changes in temperature (and less sensitive to other climate variables). We compare these results to a thirty-year record of glacier volume changes over the same region. In particular, we extract DEMs and orthorectified imagery from 1976 historical spy satellite images and 2006 ASTER images. DEM differencing shows that the glaciers that have changed most over the past thirty years also have the highest modeled temperature sensitivity. These results suggest that, despite the complex glacier heterogeneity in

  16. A novel approach for the potential parameters selection of Peyrard-Bishop model

    Behnia, S., E-mail: s.behnia@iaurmia.ac.i [Department of Physics, IAU, Orumieh Branch, Orumieh (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Panahi, M.; Mobaraki, A. [Department of Physics, IAU, Orumieh Branch, Orumieh (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Akhshani, A. [Department of Physics, IAU, Orumieh Branch, Orumieh (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia)

    2011-02-14

    The selection of the potential parameters is a very difficult question because the potentials entering the model are effective potentials. In this Letter, an approach for selecting potential parameters of the Peyrard-Bishop model by mean Lyapunov exponent is presented. Using the theory introduced by Shibata [H. Shibata, Physica A 264 (1999) 226] on the Peyrard-Bishop model shows that, the system is very sensitive to the parameters selection. The obtained results demonstrate that the best range for parameters are where the mean Lyapunov exponent has low values. Furthermore, there is a good correspondence between our results and other reports.

  17. A novel approach for the potential parameters selection of Peyrard-Bishop model

    The selection of the potential parameters is a very difficult question because the potentials entering the model are effective potentials. In this Letter, an approach for selecting potential parameters of the Peyrard-Bishop model by mean Lyapunov exponent is presented. Using the theory introduced by Shibata [H. Shibata, Physica A 264 (1999) 226] on the Peyrard-Bishop model shows that, the system is very sensitive to the parameters selection. The obtained results demonstrate that the best range for parameters are where the mean Lyapunov exponent has low values. Furthermore, there is a good correspondence between our results and other reports.

  18. Selective attention to orientation and closure: An event- related potential study

    傅世敏; 范思陆; 陈霖

    2000-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded when the subjects attended selectively to stimuli in one visual field and responded to the targets including designated feature (orientation or closure) value. Attention to spatial location elicited enlarged PI and Nl at posterior electrodes contralater-al to the stimulus location, whereas selection to orientation or closure elicited selection negativity (SN) and a late negative component (LNC). The selection of spatial location was prior to the selection of orientation or closure. SN was elicited only by the stimuli in the attended visual field, suggesting that the selection of orientation and closure are contingent on the prior selection of location. Moreover, the onset latency of SN was earlier for closure selection than for orientation selection, indicating that the processing of closure occurred earlier than the processing of orientation. The results are consistent with the early-selection theories of attention and provide psycho-physiological evidence

  19. Selective attention to orientation and closure: An event-related potential study

    2000-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded when the subjects attended selectively to stimuli in one visual field and responded to the targets including designated feature (orientation or closure) value. Attention to spatial location elicited enlarged P1 and N1 at posterior electrodes contralateral to the stimulus location, whereas selection to orientation or closure elicited selection negativity (SN) and a late negative component (LNC). The selection of spatial location was prior to the selection of orientation or closure. SN was elicited only by the stimuli in the attended visual field, suggesting that the selection of orientation and closure are contingent on the prior selection of location. Moreover, the onset latency of SN was earlier for closure selection than for orientation selection, indicating that the processing of closure occurred earlier than the processing of orientation. The results are consistent with the early-selection theories of attention and provide psycho-physiological evidence for the topology theory of visual perception.

  20. Trypanosomosis: Potential driver of selection in African cattle

    Anamarija eSmetko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosomosis is a serious cause of reduction in productivity of cattle in tsetse-fly infested areas. Baoule and other local Taurine cattle breeds in Burkina Faso are trypanotolerant. Zebuine cattle, which are also kept there are susceptible to trypanosomosis but bigger in body size. Farmers have continuously been intercrossing Baoule and Zebu animals to increase production and disease tolerance. The aim of this study was to compare levels of zebuine and taurine admixture in genomic regions potentially involved in trypanotolerance with background admixture of composites to identify differences in allelic frequencies of tolerant and non tolerant animals. The study was conducted on 214 animals (90 Baoule, 90 Zebu and 34 composites, genotyped with 25 microsatellites across the genome and with 155 SNPs in 23 candidate regions. Degrees of admixture of composites were analyzed for microsatellite and SNP data separately. Average Baoule admixture based on microsatellites across the genomes of the Baoule-Zebu composites was 0.31, which was smaller than the average Baoule admixture in the trypanosomosis candidate regions of 0.37 (P=0.15. Fixation index FST measured in the overall genome based on microsatellites or with SNPs from candidate regions indicates strong differentiation between breeds. Nine out of 23 regions had FST ≥ 0.20 calculated from haplotypes or individual SNPs. The levels of admixture were significantly different from background admixture, as revealed by microsatellite data, for six out of the nine regions. Five out of the six regions showed an excess of Baoule ancestry. Information about best levels of breed composition would be useful for future breeding activities, aiming at trypanotolerant animals with higher productive capacity.

  1. EVALUATION OF GARHWAL HIMALAYA WILD EDIBLE TUBER DIOSCOREA DELTOIDEA

    Chandra Subhash

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Uttarakhand is highly enriched with edible wild tubers. Such tubers are highly potential with medicinal value and nutritional value due to the presence of bio-actives. These tubers are consumed by local inhabitants to play a significant role as supplementary food. The present study is aimed at evaluating the nutritional value, successive extraction, thin layer chromatography of medicinal plant, Dioscorea deltoidea. It is a popular wild edible tubers bearing plant of Indian Himalaya having good nutritional and medicinal potential. These will be the best source of the nutraceuticals. Since tubers are richer in micronutrients and bioactive secondary metabolites, The medicinal plant tuber contain ash value, (total ash 3.34 ± 0.15%, moisture 58.92±0.10%, crude fat 0.60±0.20% and crude fiber 7.50±0.14%, the successive extractive values were studied fresh part weight. The preliminary phytochemical analysis test showed the presence of carbohydrates and glycosides, alkaloid, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, unsaturated triterpenoids and sterol, resin.

  2. Measurement of radon concentration in groundwater of Kumaon Himalaya

    In this study, radon concentration in springs and hand pumps of Kumaon Himalaya, India was measured using radon emanometry technique. The radon measurements were made in springs and groundwater from the hand pumps being used as drinking water sources by general population. The hand pumps and springs were selected near the dwellings and workplaces, where the general public utilizes these water sources for their daily needs. The water samples from springs were collected in an air-tight bottle from the original discharge point (outlet) of the spring having distinct geological unit and geohydrological regime. The water was transferred from discharge point of the spring to the bottom of the bottle using PVC tubing. For hand pumps, the water was pumped out for some time and the samples were collected in 1 L bottle directly from the pump outlet. After allowing the sample bottle to over flow for a while and when no bubbles were visually observed, the sample volume was reduced to a pre-marked position leaving 250 ml of air in the bottle above the water surface. The sample bottle was then connected in a close circuit with Lucas cell, hand operated rubber pump and a glass tube containing CaCl2 to absorb the moisture. The air was then circulated in close circuit for a period of 15 mm till the radon formed a uniform mixture with the air and the resulting alpha activity was recorded. The resulting numbers of the alpha counts were then converted into Bq/l by using the calibration factor 1 cpm = 0.0663 Bq/l. The results of radon measurements in springs and hand pumps from the study area are given. Field measurements were taken in different geological units of Kumaun region in Himalaya. The radon concentration in spring water varies from 1 Bq/l to 76 Bq/l with geometric mean 10 Bq/l, whereas in hand pumps it varies from 3 Bq/l to 392 Bq/l with geometric mean of 40 Bq/l. The higher values of radon in the water samples of hand pumps are possibly because of its greater depth, which

  3. Comparison of multiple glacier inventories with a new inventory derived from high-resolution ALOS imagery in the Bhutan Himalaya

    NAGAI, Hiroto; Fujita, Koji; Sakai,Akiko; Nuimura, Takayuki; Tadono, Takeo; 永井, 裕人; 藤田, 耕史; 坂井,亜規子; 縫村, 崇行; 田殿, 武雄

    2016-01-01

    Digital glacier inventories are invaluable data sets for revealing the characteristics of glacier distribution and for upscaling measurements from selected locations to entire mountain ranges. Here, we present a new inventory of Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) imagery and compare it with existing inventories for the Bhutan Himalaya. The new inventory contains 1583 glaciers (1487 plus or minus 235 sq km, km2), thereof 219 debris-covered glaciers (951 plus or minus 193 sq km, km2) and...

  4. Spatial variability of glacier decline in the Indian and Nepalese Himalaya since the 1960s

    Wilson, R.; Rivera, A.; Collins, D. N.; Entwistle, N. S.

    2013-12-01

    Since reaching their Little Ice Age Maximums, Himalayan glaciers have generally undergone a period of retreat, evident from large moraines left at former ice limits. Currently, however, detailed assessments of Himalayan glacier fluctuations over the past century are limited and fail to compare spatially or temporally to records available in Central Europe, North America and Scandinavia. Consequently, the variability and magnitude of glacial change across the Himalayas, a region that is typified by complex climatic settings, is still yet to be fully understood. Against a back drop of poor data availability, 1960s Corona stereo-imagery and historic GLIMS glacier outlines now offer an opportunity to assess glacier extent in regions of the Himalayas pre-1980. Comparing glacier measurements derived from Corona and GLIMS datasets with those made from more contemporary ASTER data, changes in glacier area and length, between the 1960/70s and 2000s, were quantified for selected glaciers located in Uttaranchal, India (Bhagirathi and Pindar/Kali basins) and Central Nepal (Seti and Trisula basins). Most notably, results indicate that glaciers selected in the Bhagirathi and Pindar/Kali basins reduced in area by 7.97% and 7.54%, respectively. Contrastingly, glaciers located in the Seti and Trisula basins experienced a significantly higher rate of decline, reducing in area by 29.78% and 50.55%, respectively. After reviewing other Himalayan glacier change records, it is suggested that the comparatively limited decline of Uttaranchal glaciers may be attributed to the existence of a climatic transitional zone in this region where glaciers benefit from large amounts of both summer and winter snowfall enabling them to greater withstand recent climate changes. The spatial variability of glacier decline shown here has important implications when considering the future impacts of continued retreat on regional water resources across the Himalaya.

  5. Variations in radon concentration in groundwater of Kumaon Himalaya, India.

    Bourai, A A; Gusain, G S; Rautela, B S; Joshi, V; Prasad, G; Ramola, R C

    2012-11-01

    The radon content in groundwater sources depends on the radium concentration in the rock of the aquifer. Radon was measured in water in many parts of the world, mostly for the risk assessment due to consumption of drinking water. The exposure to radon through drinking water is largely by inhalation and ingestion. Airborne radon can be released during normal household activities and can pose a greater potential health risk than radon ingested with water. Transport of radon through soil and bedrock by water depends mainly on the percolation of water through the pores and along fracture planes of bedrock. In this study, the radon concentration in water from springs and hand pumps of Kumaun Himalaya, India was measured using the radon emanometry technique. Radon concentration was found to vary from 1 to 392 Bq l(-1) with a mean of 50 Bq l(-1) in groundwater in different lithotectonic units. The radon level was found to be higher in the area consisting of granite, quartz porphyry, schist, phyllites and lowest in the area having sedimentary rocks, predominantly dominated by quartzite rocks. PMID:22914330

  6. Global warming may lead to catastrophic floods in the Himalayas

    In Nepal, data from 49 surveillance stations show that there has been a distinct temperature increase since the middle of the 1970s, the greatest changes being on the highest summits. When lakes overfill and beaches threaten to break down, this is a result of the global warming that melts the glaciers. The glaciers in Bhutan are observed to decrease by 30 - 40 metres per year, in some years as much as 100 metres. In the village of Tribeni an advanced warning system has been established to warn the 10 000 inhabitants of a potential flood from Lake Tsho Rolpa 108 km upstream. Research from the Himalayas also point to another serious threat. The melting threatens not only human lives, tourism, foot paths, roads, bridges and power stations. Since the mountains are the water towers of the world, filling rivers and lakes with water upon which all life depends, continued shrinking of the world's glaciers as is now observed will cause many rivers and fresh-water systems to dry out. Researchers from the UN Unep programme and International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development have registered at least 44 glacier lakes that are increasing so fast that they may cause outburst floods within five years. Similar investigations are being planned in India, Pakistan and China

  7. Variations in radon concentration in groundwater of Kumaon Himalaya, India

    The radon content in groundwater sources depends on the radium concentration in the rock of the aquifer. Radon was measured in water in many parts of the world, mostly for the risk assessment due to consumption of drinking water. The exposure to radon through drinking water is largely by inhalation and ingestion. Airborne radon can be released during normal household activities and can pose a greater potential health risk than radon ingested with water. Transport of radon through soil and bedrock by water depends mainly on the percolation of water through the pores and along fracture planes of bedrock. In this study, the radon concentration in water from springs and hand pumps of Kumaun Himalaya (India)) was measured using the radon emanometry technique. Radon concentration was found to vary from 1 to 392 Bq I-1 with a mean of 50 Bq I-1 in groundwater in different litho-tectonic units. The radon level was found to be higher in the area consisting of granite, quartz porphyry, schist, phyllites and lowest in the area having sedimentary rocks, predominantly dominated by quartzite rocks. (authors)

  8. Streaming potentials in gramicidin channels measured with ion-selective microelectrodes.

    Tripathi, S; Hladky, S B

    1998-01-01

    Streaming potentials have been measured for gramicidin channels with a new method employing ion-selective microelectrodes. It is shown that ideally ion-selective electrodes placed at the membrane surface record the true streaming potential. Using this method for ion concentrations below 100 mM, approximately seven water molecules are transported whenever a sodium, potassium, or cesium ion, passes through the channel. This new method confirms earlier measurements (Rosenberg, P.A., and A. Finke...

  9. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology of the Siwalik Group of the Nepal Himalaya: implications for provenance analysis

    Baral, Upendra; Lin, Ding; Chamlagain, Deepak

    2016-04-01

    This paper deals with the provenance analysis of the Neogene foreland basin sediments of the Siwalik Group in the Nepal Himalaya. This study adopts the techniques of the optical petrography and detrital zircon U-Pb ages from two river sections: the Koshi Nadi in eastern Nepal and the Surai Khola in western Nepal Himalaya. The optical petrography data and resulting QFL plot show a "recycled orogeny" field for the studied sandstone samples, indicating northern lithotectonic units; Tethys Himalaya, Higher Himalaya and Lesser Himalaya as the source of the foreland basin sediments. The detrital zircon geochronological data set has clearly revealed that the cluster ages are younger than ~1000 Ma; however, the older grains (>1000 Ma) are significantly fewer. The obtained age spectrum is similar to the Tethys Himalaya and the upper Lesser Himalaya, but the lower Lesser Himalayan rocks were not distinct, which indicates that sediments in the Neogene foreland basin of the Nepal Himalaya were primarily sourced from the Tethys Himalaya and upper Lesser Himalaya. The minor subordinate scattered peaks that roughly correspond to the age of the Higher Himalaya and lower Lesser Himalaya may indicate that a lower proportion of the sediments might have a link with the Higher Himalaya and lower Lesser Himalaya. Therefore, the provenance of the Siwalik Group in the Nepal Himalaya might have witnessed a mixed type of provenance similar to the northwestern Himalaya.

  10. Brief Communication: Contending estimates of 2003–2008 glacier mass balance over the Pamir–Karakoram–Himalaya

    Kääb, A.; D. Treichler; C. Nuth; Berthier, E.

    2015-01-01

    We present glacier thickness changes over the entire Pamir–Karakoram–Himalaya arc based on ICESat satellite altimetry data for 2003–2008. We highlight the importance of C-band penetration for studies based on the SRTM elevation model. This penetration seems to be of potentially larger magnitude and variability than previously assumed. The most negative rate of region-wide glacier elevation change (

  11. Can grass phytoliths and indices be relied on during vegetation and climate interpretations in the eastern Himalayas? Studies from Darjeeling and Arunachal Pradesh, India

    Biswas, Oindrila; Ghosh, Ruby; Paruya, Dipak Kumar; Mukherjee, Biswajit; Thapa, Kishore Kumar; Bera, Subir

    2016-02-01

    While documenting the vegetation response to climatic changes in mountains, the use of grass phytolith data relies on the ability of phytolith assemblages or indices to differentiate the elevationally stratified vegetation zones. To infer the potential and limitations of grass phytolith assemblages and indices to reconstruct vegetation vis-à-vis climate in the Himalayan mountain regions, we analyzed phytolith assemblages from 66 dominant grasses and 153 surface soils from four different forest types along the c. 130-4000 m a.s.l. elevation gradients in the Darjeeling and Arunachal Himalayas. Grass short cell phytolith assemblages from modern grasses show significant variability with rising elevation. To test the reliability of the above observation, phytoliths from the soil samples were subjected to linear discriminant analysis (DA). DA classified 85.3% and 92.3% of the sites to their correct forest zones in the Darjeeling and Arunachal Himalayas respectively. Relative abundance of bilobate, cross, short saddle, plateau saddle, rondel and trapeziform types allow discrimination of the phytolith assemblage along the elevation gradient. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) on the soil phytolith data further revealed their relationships with the climatic variables. Temperature and evapotranspiration were found to be the most influential for differential distribution of grass phytolith assemblages with rising elevation in the eastern Himalayas. We also tested the reliability of phytolith indices (Ic, Iph and Fs) for tracing the dominance of different grass subfamilies in the eastern Himalayas. Ic proved to be most reliable in discriminating C3/C4 grass along the elevation gradient while Iph and Fs proved to be less reliable. We observed that in the monsoon dominated eastern Himalayas, a little adjustment in Ic index may enhance the accuracy of interpretations. In future studies more precise identification of phytolith sub-types from additional sites in the eastern

  12. Response of monsoon variability in Himalayas to global warming

    2002-01-01

    Reconstructed annual net accumulation from the Dasuopu ice core recovered in Himalayas, with a good correlation to Indian monsoon, reflects a major precipitation trend in central Himalayas. The Dasuopu accumulation (DSP An) also shows a strong correlation to the Northern Hemispheric temperature. Generally, as the Northern Hemispheric temperature increases by 0.1 K, the accumulation decreases by about 90 mm and vise versa. Under the condition of global warming, especially since 1920, the Northern Hemispheric mean temperature has increased by about 0.5 K, whereas accumulation in Dasuopu ice core has decreased by about 450 mm. According to the relationship between accumulation and temperature, a scenario prediction of monsoon rainfall in central Himalayas is made.

  13. Himalayas as seen from STS-66 shuttle Atlantis

    1994-01-01

    View is southeastward across China (Tibet), half of Nepal and India. The partly frozen lake near the center of the frame is Pei-Ku T'so ('Bos-tie Lake'). The central Himalaya stretches from Mount Everest on the left past Annapurna on the right. Large tributaries converge to form the Ganges River, flowing through the lowland basin south of the Himalaya. This photograph illustrates the rain shadow effect of the Himalaya Chain; wet, warm air from the Indian Ocean is driven against the mountains, lifted, and drained of water that forms ice caps, the abundant rivers, and forests of the foothills. In contrast the high plateau of Tibet is arid, composed largely of topographically-closed basins because stream flow is inadequate to form integrated drainage networks.

  14. Probiotic attributes of indigenous Lactobacillus spp. isolated from traditional fermented foods and beverages of north-western Himalayas using in vitro screening and principal component analysis.

    Kumari, Anila; Angmo, Kunzes; Monika; Bhalla, Tek Chand

    2016-05-01

    The present research was designed to explore indigenous probiotic Lactic acid bacteria from traditional fermented foods and beverages of North-western Himalayas for their probiotic potential. It was achieved through a step-by step approach focused on the technological characterization, evaluation of the probiotic traits and adherence ability. Fifty one LAB isolates from traditional fermented foods and beverages were initially screened for their technological properties and among them twenty isolates were selected. These isolates were further characterized and identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Lactobacillus brevis (7 isolates), Lactobacillus casei (5), Lactobacillus paracasei (2), Lactobacillus buchneri (1), Lactobacillus plantarum (1) and Lactobacillus sp. (3). Identified isolates were evaluated by in vitro methods including survival in gastrointestinal tract, antibiotic susceptibility, antimicrobial activity, cell surface characteristics, exopolysacharride production and haemolytic activity. The results of these experiments were used as input data for Principal Component Analysis; thus, to select the most promising probiotic isolates. Three isolates (L. brevis PLA2, L. paracasei PLA8 and L. brevis PLA16) were found to be most technological relevant and promising probiotic candidates in comparison to commercial probiotic strains. L. brevis PLA2 was selected as best isolate with probiotic potential by in vitro adherence to the human intestinal HT-29 cell line. PMID:27407213

  15. Atmospheric brown clouds reach the Tibetan Plateau by crossing the Himalayas

    Z. L. Lüthi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau region (HTP, despite being a remote and sparsely populated area, is regularly exposed to polluted air masses with significant amounts of aerosols including black carbon. These dark, light-absorbing particles are known to exert a great melting potential on mountain cryospheric reservoirs through albedo reduction and radiative forcing. This study combines ground-based and satellite remote sensing data to identify a severe aerosol pollution episode observed simultaneously in central Tibet and on the southern side of the Himalayas during 13–19 March 2009 (pre-monsoon. Trajectory calculations based on the high-resolution numerical weather prediction model COSMO are used to locate the source regions and study the mechanisms of pollution transport in the complex topography of the HTP. We detail how polluted air masses from an atmospheric brown cloud (ABC over South Asia reach the Tibetan Plateau within a few days. Lifting and advection of polluted air masses over the great mountain range is enabled by a combination of synoptic-scale and local meteorological processes. During the days prior to the event, winds over the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP are generally weak at lower levels, allowing for accumulation of pollutants and thus the formation of ABCs. The subsequent passing of synoptic-scale troughs leads to southwesterly flow in the middle troposphere over northern and central India, carrying the polluted air masses across the Himalayas. As the IGP is known to be a hotspot of ABCs, the cross-Himalayan transport of polluted air masses may have serious implications for the cryosphere in the HTP and impact climate on regional to global scales. Since the current study focuses on one particularly strong pollution episode, quantifying the frequency and magnitude of similar events in a climatological study is required to assess the total impact.

  16. Automatic selection of tube potential for radiation dose reduction in CT: A general strategy

    Purpose: To optimize radiation dose efficiency in CT while maintaining image quality, it is important to select the optimal tube potential. The selection of optimal tube potential, however, is highly dependent on patient size and diagnostic task. The purpose of this work was to develop a general strategy that allows for automatic tube potential selection for each individual patient and each diagnostic task. Methods: The authors propose a general strategy that allows automatic adaptation of the tube potential as a function of patient size and diagnostic task, using a novel index of image quality, ''iodine contrast to noise ratio with a noise constraint (iCNRNC),'' to characterize the different image quality requirements by various clinical applications. The relative dose factor (RDF) at each tube potential to achieve a target image quality was then determined as a function of patient size and the noise constraint parameter. A workflow was developed to automatically identify the optimal tube potential that is both dose efficient and practically feasible, incorporating patient size and diagnostic task. An experimental study using a series of semianthropomorphic thoracic phantoms was used to demonstrate how the proposed general strategy can be implemented and how the radiation dose reduction achievable by the tube potential selection depends on phantom sizes and noise constraint parameters. Results: The proposed strategy provides a flexible and quantitative way to select the optimal tube potential based on the patient size and diagnostic task. The noise constraint parameter α can be adapted for different clinical applications. For example, α=1 for noncontrast routine exams; α=1.1-1.25 for contrast-enhanced routine exams; and α=1.5-2.0 for CT angiography. For the five thoracic phantoms in the experiment, when α=1, the optimal tube potentials were 80, 100, 100, 120, 120, respectively. The corresponding RDFs (relative to 120 kV) were 78.0%, 90.9%, 95.2%, 100%, and

  17. Rapid response to selection, competitive release and increased transmission potential of artesunate-selected Plasmodium chabaudi malaria parasites.

    Laura C Pollitt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of drug resistance, a key challenge for our ability to treat and control infections, depends on two processes: de-novo resistance mutations, and the selection for and spread of resistant mutants within a population. Understanding the factors influencing the rates of these two processes is essential for maximizing the useful lifespan of drugs and, therefore, effective disease control. For malaria parasites, artemisinin-based drugs are the frontline weapons in the fight against disease, but reports from the field of slower parasite clearance rates during drug treatment are generating concern that the useful lifespan of these drugs may be limited. Whether slower clearance rates represent true resistance, and how this provides a selective advantage for parasites is uncertain. Here, we show that Plasmodium chabaudi malaria parasites selected for resistance to artesunate (an artemisinin derivative through a step-wise increase in drug dose evolved slower clearance rates extremely rapidly. In single infections, these slower clearance rates, similar to those seen in the field, provided fitness advantages to the parasite through increased overall density, recrudescence after treatment and increased transmission potential. In mixed infections, removal of susceptible parasites by drug treatment led to substantial increases in the densities and transmission potential of resistant parasites (competitive release. Our results demonstrate the double-edged sword for resistance management: in our initial selection experiments, no parasites survived aggressive chemotherapy, but after selection, the fitness advantage for resistant parasites was greatest at high drug doses. Aggressive treatment of mixed infections resulted in resistant parasites dominating the pool of gametocytes, without providing additional health benefits to hosts. Slower clearance rates can evolve rapidly and can provide a strong fitness advantage during drug treatment in both

  18. Rapid response to selection, competitive release and increased transmission potential of artesunate-selected Plasmodium chabaudi malaria parasites.

    Pollitt, Laura C; Huijben, Silvie; Sim, Derek G; Salathé, Rahel M; Jones, Matthew J; Read, Andrew F

    2014-04-01

    The evolution of drug resistance, a key challenge for our ability to treat and control infections, depends on two processes: de-novo resistance mutations, and the selection for and spread of resistant mutants within a population. Understanding the factors influencing the rates of these two processes is essential for maximizing the useful lifespan of drugs and, therefore, effective disease control. For malaria parasites, artemisinin-based drugs are the frontline weapons in the fight against disease, but reports from the field of slower parasite clearance rates during drug treatment are generating concern that the useful lifespan of these drugs may be limited. Whether slower clearance rates represent true resistance, and how this provides a selective advantage for parasites is uncertain. Here, we show that Plasmodium chabaudi malaria parasites selected for resistance to artesunate (an artemisinin derivative) through a step-wise increase in drug dose evolved slower clearance rates extremely rapidly. In single infections, these slower clearance rates, similar to those seen in the field, provided fitness advantages to the parasite through increased overall density, recrudescence after treatment and increased transmission potential. In mixed infections, removal of susceptible parasites by drug treatment led to substantial increases in the densities and transmission potential of resistant parasites (competitive release). Our results demonstrate the double-edged sword for resistance management: in our initial selection experiments, no parasites survived aggressive chemotherapy, but after selection, the fitness advantage for resistant parasites was greatest at high drug doses. Aggressive treatment of mixed infections resulted in resistant parasites dominating the pool of gametocytes, without providing additional health benefits to hosts. Slower clearance rates can evolve rapidly and can provide a strong fitness advantage during drug treatment in both single and mixed strain

  19. Temporal and spatial variations in erosion rate in the Sikkim Himalaya as a function of climate and tectonics

    Abrahami, Rachel; Huyghe, Pascale; van der Beek, Peter; Carcaillet, Julien

    2014-05-01

    The Tista River is a major tributary of the Brahmaputra drainage system (Eastern Himalaya). Its headwaters are located in the glaciated northernmost parts of the Sikkim and its catchment area amounts to more than 12,000 km2 including a depositional megafan (extending mostly in Bangladesh and West Bengal-India). The Tista has recently incised its megafan at the topographic front of the mountain range by about 30 meters. Neither the timing of deposition/incision of the megafan sediments, nor the erosion rates of the source areas as well as their potential relationships, have been investigated in detail. Comparing these data is essential to distinguish between a climatic and/or tectonic control of the evolution of the Sikkim Himalaya and piedmont. To constrain erosion rates in the hinterland at different temporal scales (respectively millenial and geological timescales), we report cosmogenic nuclide (10Be) and thermochronological (apatite fission-tracks) data on modern river sands. Results were mapped to evidence spatial variations of erosion/exhumation rates in the Tista catchment. Cosmogenic nuclides were also used to date the onset of incision of the megafan and relate it to potential changes in hinterland erosion. In addition, isotope geochemistry (ɛNd and 87Sr/86Sr) performed on modern river sands and Late-Quaternary megafan sediments allows characterizing the isotopic signature of the different source areas and constraining variations in provenance of the Tista megafan deposits through time in response to changing climatic conditions. Results show that the Tista fan deposits are mainly sourced from the High Himalayan Crystalline domain with excursions more influenced by the Lesser Himalaya domain. These data provide a new comprehensive view on modern erosion and long-term exhumation of the Sikkim Himalaya. This study of a "closed system" will help our knowledge and understanding of erosional processes and sediment fluxes in mountainous environments as a

  20. Active Faults of the Northwest Himalaya: Pattern, Rate, and Timing of Surface Rupturing Earthquakes

    Yule, J.; Madden, C.; Gavillot, Y.; Hebeler, A.; Meigs, A.; Hussein, A.; Malik, M.; Bhat, M.; Kausar, A.; Ramzan, S.; Sayab, M.; Yeats, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    2 surface rupturing events in the latest Quaternary and a shortening rate of 0.3 to 1.3 mm/yr. The active structures described above can account for 15 to 50% of India-Asia convergence, with up to ~20% of the shortening occurring on structures within the orogenic belt. Seismicity in the NW Himalaya is also broadly distributed but tends to concentrate in several places (e.g., the Indus-Kohistan and Hazara Lower seismic zones). Like in the central Himalaya, the zones of seismicity in the NW Himalaya may locate regions where interseismic strain accumulates, possibly in the middle crust along thrust ramps, and is released during large (>Mw 7.5) events. These relatively infrequent earthquakes likely activate portions (all?) of the plate boundary detachment fault and/or the within-plate fault systems. It may be possible for the region to generate earthquakes as large as >Mw 8.5, taking into account a reasonable average slip value and maximum possible rupture area. Recognition of internal surface-rupturing reverse faults indicates probabilistic models for seismic hazards in the NW Himalaya ought to account for great earthquakes on the Main Himalayan thrust (the basal detachment), moderate earthquakes on upper plate faults, and potentially events in the down-going Indian plate.

  1. Selected constants oxidation-reduction potentials of inorganic substances in aqueous solution

    Charlot, G; Marchon, M J C

    2013-01-01

    Selected Constants: Oxidation-reduction Potentials of Inorganic Substances in Aqueous Solution presents tables that will aid chemists in finding the best or most probable value of the normal or formal oxidation-reduction potential of oxidation-reduction systems. The book first presents numerical calculations that show the degree of oxidation and real oxidation-reduction systems, including the value of the potential, temperature, nature and composition of the medium, and the method of determination used. The text then takes a look at the choice of data, as well as intensity/potential curves an

  2. Potential benefits of genomic selection on genetic gain of small ruminant breeding programs

    Raoul, J.; Astruc, Jean-Michel; Palhiere, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    In conventional small ruminant breeding programs, only pedigree and phenotype records are used to make selection decisions but prospects of including genomic information are now under consideration. The objective of this study was to assess the potential benefits of genomic selection on the genetic gain in French sheep and goat breeding designs of today. Traditional and genomic scenarios were modeled with deterministic methods for 3 breeding programs. The models included decisional variables ...

  3. The potential for selected Indian horticultural products on the European market (NRI Marketing Series 11)

    Gray, A.; Kleih, U.

    1997-01-01

    The current situation regarding imports of selected horticultural products from India into the European market in general, and the UK market in particular, is examined. The products selected for review are mango, melon, pomegranate, sapodilla, onion, and various Asian vegetables (okra, tindori, kantola and parval). The potential for either beginning or increasing volumes of sea-shipment is also investigated. In 1994, India exported about 3000 tonnes of mango to Europe, 1000 of which went to t...

  4. Considering Future Potential Regarding Structural Diversity in Selection of Forest Reserves

    Lundström, Johanna; Öhman, Karin; Rönnqvist, Mikael; Gustafsson, Lena

    2016-01-01

    A rich structural diversity in forests promotes biodiversity. Forests are dynamic and therefore it is crucial to consider future structural potential when selecting reserves, to make robust conservation decisions. We analyzed forests in boreal Sweden based on 17,599 National Forest Inventory (NFI) plots with the main aim to understand how effectiveness of reserves depends on the time dimension in the selection process, specifically by considering future structural diversity. In the study both...

  5. Contrasting Subduction Modes with Slab Tearing beneath Eastern Himalaya: Evidence from Teleseismic P-wave Tomography

    Peng, M.; Jiang, M.; Li, Z. H.; Xu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Chan, W. W. W.; Wang, Y.; Yu, C.; Lei, J.

    2014-12-01

    On the eastern margin of the Himalayan orogenic belt, the rapid uplift of the Namche Barwa metamorphic terrane and the significant bending of the Yarlung Zangbo suture zone occur. However, the formation mechanism and dynamics of the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis is still debated. In order to better understand the deep structures beneath eastern Himalaya, we further deployed 35 broadband seismic stations (2010-2013) around the Namche Barwa Mountain, which is integrated with the existing Lehigh data sets of 45 stations (2003-2004). We totally selected 18,979 high-quality P-wave arrival times from 2,140 teleseismic events to image P-wave teleseismic tomography. The results demonstrate complex deep structures and significantly different subduction modes in the eastern Himalaya. In contrast to the steep subduction of the Indian lithosphere beneath the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis, the Indian slab flatly subducted in the west, which might extend close to the Bangong-Nujiang Suture and then steeply sink and bend over. The contrasting subduction model results in the tearing and fragmentation of the Indian lithosphere in the transition zone between the flat and steep subduction. Consequently, the upwelling of hot asthenospheric mantle may occur through the slab tear window, which might further lead to the rapid uplift of Namche Barwa and the formation of the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis. The lateral variation in subduction mode and slab tearing induced asthenospheric mantle upwelling is similar to that observed in the Hellenide and Anatolide domains of the Tethyan orogen.

  6. Accuracy assessment of gridded precipitation datasets in the Himalayas

    Khan, A.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate precipitation data are vital for hydro-climatic modelling and water resources assessments. Based on mass balance calculations and Turc-Budyko analysis, this study investigates the accuracy of twelve widely used precipitation gridded datasets for sub-basins in the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) in the Himalayas-Karakoram-Hindukush (HKH) region. These datasets are: 1) Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP), 2) Climate Prediction Centre (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP), 3) NCEP / NCAR, 4) Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC), 5) Climatic Research Unit (CRU), 6) Asian Precipitation Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE), 7) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), 8) European Reanalysis (ERA) interim data, 9) PRINCETON, 10) European Reanalysis-40 (ERA-40), 11) Willmott and Matsuura, and 12) WATCH Forcing Data based on ERA interim (WFDEI). Precipitation accuracy and consistency was assessed by physical mass balance involving sum of annual measured flow, estimated actual evapotranspiration (average of 4 datasets), estimated glacier mass balance melt contribution (average of 4 datasets), and ground water recharge (average of 3 datasets), during 1999-2010. Mass balance assessment was complemented by Turc-Budyko non-dimensional analysis, where annual precipitation, measured flow and potential evapotranspiration (average of 5 datasets) data were used for the same period. Both analyses suggest that all tested precipitation datasets significantly underestimate precipitation in the Karakoram sub-basins. For the Hindukush and Himalayan sub-basins most datasets underestimate precipitation, except ERA-interim and ERA-40. The analysis indicates that for this large region with complicated terrain features and stark spatial precipitation gradients the reanalysis datasets have better consistency with flow measurements than datasets derived from records of only sparsely distributed climatic

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from the Central-Himalaya region: Distribution, sources, and risks to humans and wildlife.

    Bi, Xiang; Luo, Wei; Gao, Jiajia; Xu, Lan; Guo, Junming; Zhang, Qianggong; Romesh, Kumar Y; Giesy, John P; Kang, Shichang; de Boer, Jacob

    2016-06-15

    The Central Himalayas are not only a natural boundary between China and Nepal but also a natural barrier for transport of air masses from South Asia. In this study, 99 samples of surface soil were collected from five regions of Nepal on the southern side of the Central Himalayas, and 65 samples of surface soil were obtained from the northern side on the edge of the Tibetan Plateau, China (TPC). Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils were measured to determine their distribution, potential for accumulation, and sources, as well as risks to humans and the environment. Mean concentrations of Σ16PAHs were 2.4×10(2) and 3.3×10(2)ng/g dry mass (dm) in soils collected from the TPC and Nepal, respectively. Significant correlations between concentrations of lower molecular weight PAHs (LMW-PAHs) in soils and altitude were found. Total organic carbon (TOC) in soil was positively but weakly correlated with concentrations of PAHs in the study area, which suggested little role of TOC in adsorption of PAHs. The cities of Kathmandu and Pokhara in Nepal and Nyemo (especially Zhangmu Port), Shigatse, and Lhasa on the TPC, were areas with relatively great concentrations of PAHs in soils. The main sources of PAHs identified by positive matrix factorization were emissions from motor vehicles and combustion of coal and biomass in the Central Himalayas. Calculated total benzo[a]pyrene potency equivalents of 0.23-44ng/gdm and index of additive cancer risk of 3.8×10(-3)-9.2×10(-1) indicated that PAHs in almost all soils investigated posed de minimis risk of additional cancer to residents via direct contact and had no significant risk of additional cancers through consumption of potable water. Mean risk quotient values indicated that 39% of soils had a slight risk to wildlife and the ambient environment of the Central Himalayas. PMID:26971206

  8. Energy Planning in Selected European Regions - Methods for Evaluating the Potential of Renewable Energy Sources

    Sliz-Szkliniarz, Beata

    2012-01-01

    Given their potentially positive impact on climate protection and the preservation of fossil resources, alternative energy sources have become increasingly important for the energy supply over the past years. However, the questions arises what economic and ecological impacts and potential conflicts over land use resources are associated with the promotion of renewable energy production. Using the examples of three selected European Regions in Poland, France and German, the dissertation discus...

  9. Effects of 20 Selected Fruits on Ethanol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts

    Zhang, Yu-Jie; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-jiao; Li, Sha; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of alcohol is often accompanied by other foods, such as fruits and vegetables. This study is aimed to investigate the effects of 20 selected fruits on ethanol metabolism to find out their potential health benefits and harmful impacts. The effects of the fruits on ethanol metabolism were characterized by the concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood, as well as activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase in liver of mice. Furthermore, potential ...

  10. Seasonality controls on glacial erosion in the Himalaya and Karakoram

    Scherler, D.; Bookhagen, B.; Strecker, M. R.

    2009-04-01

    The waxing and waning of mountain glaciers during the Quaternary left a clear imprint of glacial erosion in form of deeply incised, U-shaped valleys in many mountain ranges around the world. Temperature changes and the availability of moisture are generally thought of as the limiting factors for the geomorphic work that glaciers accomplish. Here, we present evidence that the seasonality of moisture supply strongly affects glacial flow velocities, and thus the erosional efficiency of glaciers. We used ASTER satellite imagery to measure flow velocities of glaciers in the Himalaya and Karakoram during the last decade. Being situated in the transition between moisture sources rooted in the Indian Summer Monsoon and the Northern Hemisphere Westerlies, this region provides a natural laboratory to study the influence of seasonally different moisture sources on glacier dynamics. We interpret the measured surface velocities to reflect ice flux, and use them as a proxy for glacial erosion. We tie our observations to east-west gradients in climate and how they affect the mass balance of glaciers. In the central Himalaya, glaciers characterized by summer accumulation, flow at generally lower velocities compared to glaciers in the Karakoram in a winter accumulation regime. The data also show that most ice flux occurs near the equilibrium line altitude (ELA), and thereby provide empirical support for focused glacial erosion at distinct, climate controlled altitudinal sectors. These zones are presently located at approx. 4.8-5 +/- 0.5 km in the Karakoram and western Himalaya, and at approx. 5.5 +/- 0.5 km in the central and eastern Himalaya. A mean position of the Quaternary ELA, depressed by approx. 500 m, delineates a zone of focused glacial erosion that corresponds well with areas of western end of the Asian highlands, including the western Himalaya, the Karakoram, eastern Hindukush, and the Pamir. Here, aridity constrains the efficiency of fluvial erosion and we suggest that

  11. Potential effect of future climate changes on productivity of selected crops in Poland

    Brzóska Barbara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Potential effect of future climate changes on productivity of selected crops in Poland. Future projections of selected climate indices have been used to assess potential effects of climate changes on productivity of selected crops in Poland. CMIP5 global climate models’ results for the future period (2006-2035 and historical one (1981-2010 are used in the study. Models predict decrease in count of days with extreme low temperatures and increase in count of days with extreme high temperatures. An increase in the number of days with very heavy precipitation is also predicted. Not all climate change effects have negative impact on crop productivity in Poland but all of them confirm requirements to put into practice mitigation and adaptation strategies for Poland’s agriculture.

  12. Morphometric analysis of Suketi river basin, Himachal Himalaya, India

    Anil M Pophare; Umesh S Balpande

    2014-10-01

    Suketi river basin is located in the Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh, India. It encompasses a central inter-montane valley and surrounding mountainous terrain in the Lower Himachal Himalaya. Morphometric analysis of the Suketi river basin was carried out to study its drainage characteristics and overall groundwater resource potential. The entire Suketi river basin has been divided into five sub-basins based on the catchment areas of Suketi trunk stream and its major tributaries. Quantitative assessment of each sub-basin was carried out for its linear, areal, and relief aspects. The analysis reveals that the drainage network of the entire Suketi river basin constitutes a 7th order basin. Out of five sub-basins, Kansa khad sub-basin (KKSB), Gangli khad sub-basin (GKSB) and Ratti khad sub-basin (RKSB) are 5th order subbasins. The Dadour khad sub-basin (DKSB) is 6th order sub-basin, while Suketi trunk stream sub-basin (STSSB) is a 7th order sub-basin. The entire drainage basin area reflects late youth to early mature stage of development of the fluvial geomorphic cycle, which is dominated by rain and snow fed lower order streams. It has low stream frequency (Fs) and moderate drainage density (Dd) of 2.69 km/km2. Bifurcation ratios (Rb) of various stream orders indicate that streams up to 3rd order are surging through highly dissected mountainous terrain, which facilitates high overland flow and less recharge into the subsurface resulting in low groundwater potential in the zones of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order streams of the Suketi river basin. The circulatory ratio (Rc) of 0.65 and elongation ratio (Re) of 0.80 show elongated nature of the Suketi river basin, while infiltration number (If) of 10.66 indicates dominance of relief features and low groundwater potential in the high altitude mountainous terrain. The asymmetry factor (Af) of Suketi river basin indicates that the palaeo-tectonic tilting, at drainage basin scale, was towards the downstream right side of the

  13. Considering Future Potential Regarding Structural Diversity in Selection of Forest Reserves

    Lundström, Johanna; Öhman, Karin; Rönnqvist, Mikael; Gustafsson, Lena

    2016-01-01

    A rich structural diversity in forests promotes biodiversity. Forests are dynamic and therefore it is crucial to consider future structural potential when selecting reserves, to make robust conservation decisions. We analyzed forests in boreal Sweden based on 17,599 National Forest Inventory (NFI) plots with the main aim to understand how effectiveness of reserves depends on the time dimension in the selection process, specifically by considering future structural diversity. In the study both the economic value and future values of 15 structural variables were simulated during a 100 year period. To get a net present structural value (NPSV), a single value covering both current and future values, we used four discounting alternatives: (1) only considering present values, (2) giving equal importance to values in each of the 100 years within the planning horizon, (3) applying an annual discount rate considering the risk that values could be lost, and (4) only considering the values in year 100. The four alternatives were evaluated in a reserve selection model under budget-constrained and area-constrained selections. When selecting young forests higher structural richness could be reached at a quarter of the cost over almost twice the area in a budget-constrained selection compared to an area-constrained selection. Our results point to the importance of considering future structural diversity in the selection of forest reserves and not as is done currently to base the selection on existing values. Targeting future values increases structural diversity and implies a relatively lower cost. Further, our results show that a re-orientation from old to young forests would imply savings while offering a more extensive reserve network with high structural qualities in the future. However, caution must be raised against a drastic reorientation of the current old-forest strategy since remnants of ancient forests will need to be prioritized due to their role for disturbance

  14. Considering Future Potential Regarding Structural Diversity in Selection of Forest Reserves.

    Johanna Lundström

    Full Text Available A rich structural diversity in forests promotes biodiversity. Forests are dynamic and therefore it is crucial to consider future structural potential when selecting reserves, to make robust conservation decisions. We analyzed forests in boreal Sweden based on 17,599 National Forest Inventory (NFI plots with the main aim to understand how effectiveness of reserves depends on the time dimension in the selection process, specifically by considering future structural diversity. In the study both the economic value and future values of 15 structural variables were simulated during a 100 year period. To get a net present structural value (NPSV, a single value covering both current and future values, we used four discounting alternatives: (1 only considering present values, (2 giving equal importance to values in each of the 100 years within the planning horizon, (3 applying an annual discount rate considering the risk that values could be lost, and (4 only considering the values in year 100. The four alternatives were evaluated in a reserve selection model under budget-constrained and area-constrained selections. When selecting young forests higher structural richness could be reached at a quarter of the cost over almost twice the area in a budget-constrained selection compared to an area-constrained selection. Our results point to the importance of considering future structural diversity in the selection of forest reserves and not as is done currently to base the selection on existing values. Targeting future values increases structural diversity and implies a relatively lower cost. Further, our results show that a re-orientation from old to young forests would imply savings while offering a more extensive reserve network with high structural qualities in the future. However, caution must be raised against a drastic reorientation of the current old-forest strategy since remnants of ancient forests will need to be prioritized due to their role for

  15. Considering Future Potential Regarding Structural Diversity in Selection of Forest Reserves.

    Lundström, Johanna; Öhman, Karin; Rönnqvist, Mikael; Gustafsson, Lena

    2016-01-01

    A rich structural diversity in forests promotes biodiversity. Forests are dynamic and therefore it is crucial to consider future structural potential when selecting reserves, to make robust conservation decisions. We analyzed forests in boreal Sweden based on 17,599 National Forest Inventory (NFI) plots with the main aim to understand how effectiveness of reserves depends on the time dimension in the selection process, specifically by considering future structural diversity. In the study both the economic value and future values of 15 structural variables were simulated during a 100 year period. To get a net present structural value (NPSV), a single value covering both current and future values, we used four discounting alternatives: (1) only considering present values, (2) giving equal importance to values in each of the 100 years within the planning horizon, (3) applying an annual discount rate considering the risk that values could be lost, and (4) only considering the values in year 100. The four alternatives were evaluated in a reserve selection model under budget-constrained and area-constrained selections. When selecting young forests higher structural richness could be reached at a quarter of the cost over almost twice the area in a budget-constrained selection compared to an area-constrained selection. Our results point to the importance of considering future structural diversity in the selection of forest reserves and not as is done currently to base the selection on existing values. Targeting future values increases structural diversity and implies a relatively lower cost. Further, our results show that a re-orientation from old to young forests would imply savings while offering a more extensive reserve network with high structural qualities in the future. However, caution must be raised against a drastic reorientation of the current old-forest strategy since remnants of ancient forests will need to be prioritized due to their role for disturbance

  16. Potential-energy surfaces of local excited states from subsystem- and selective Kohn–Sham-TDDFT

    Research highlights: ► Application of selective TDDFT for potential-energy surfaces. ► Improved eigenvector guesses for convergence speed-up. ► Intuitive single-orbital transition picture breaks down in adsorbate–surface model. ► Comparison of frozen-density embedding with classical point-charge models. ► Frozen-density embedding yields smooth potential-energy surfaces for adsorbate states. - Abstract: Calculating excited-state potential-energy surfaces for systems with a large number of close-lying excited states requires the identification of the relevant electronic transitions for several geometric structures. Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is very efficient in such calculations, but the assignment of local excited states of the active molecule can be difficult. We compare the results of the frozen-density embedding (FDE) method with those of standard Kohn–Sham density-functional theory (KS-DFT) and simpler QM/MM-type methods. The FDE results are found to be more accurate for the geometry dependence of excitation energies than classical models. We also discuss how selective iterative diagonalization schemes can be exploited to directly target specific excitations for different structures. Problems due to strongly interacting orbital transitions and possible solutions are discussed. Finally, we apply FDE and the selective KS-TDDFT to investigate the potential energy surface of a high-lying π → π∗ excitation in a pyridine molecule approaching a silver cluster.

  17. A preliminary assessment of the role of glaciers in the hydrologic regime of the Nepal Himalaya

    Armstrong, R.; Alford, D.; Racoviteanu, A.

    2009-04-01

    The hydrologic regime of the Himalaya is not well-defined and there is a lack of a basic data to support the understanding of the runoff sources and timing in many mountain rivers of the region. Because of this absence of data, applying of hydrologic concepts and models developed for mountain catchments in Europe or North America is often impossible and likely to be inappropriate. Thus, determining the impact of the retreat of Himalayan glaciers on regional-scale water supplies is problematic. Current concerns about the retreat of Himalayan glaciers have been accompanied by little, if any, comprehensive analysis of the actual role of glaciers in the total hydrologic regime and such assessments have typically disregarded mass balance relationships across the approximately 3,000 meters of topographic relief between the glacier termini and the highest accumulation zones. The ultimate purpose of the study described here is to assess, and begin to quantify, the role of complete glacier systems in the hydrologic regime of the Nepal Himalaya, and to develop estimates of the potential impact of a continued retreat of these glaciers. There are approximately 3250 glaciers in the Nepal Himalaya, covering an area of slightly more than 5,300 km2, and containing some 460 km3 of ice. These glaciers cover approximately 4% of the total 147,000 km2 surface area of Nepal, and are located on, or near, the crest of the Himalaya, with the bulk of the ice contained in basins that are at altitudes generally between 4,000 - 6000 meters above sea level. In this study we apply methods which disaggregate available data sets to reflect the altitudinal gradients that define the mountain hydrologic regime. For glacier mass balance estimates, the input variables are: 1) surface areas of both basins and glaciers, 2) basin and glacier area-altitude distributions, 3) glacier equilibrium line altitudes, 4) slope of the ablation gradient for the glaciers of Nepal, 5) maximum altitude of the 00 C

  18. Environmental change and challenge in the Himalaya. A historical perspective

    Ives, Jack D.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This overview, or retrospective, has two objectives. The first is to demonstrate how the principles of ‘mountain geoecology’ were applied in an attempt to counteract the political and socio-economic impacts of a major and misguided environmental orthodoxy-the Theory of Himalayan Environmental Degradation (henceforth to be referred to as the ‘Theory’. The second is to explore the difficulties of transferring the results of on-going scholarly mountain research into the public and political decision-making process. In this sense the paper should be regarded as a case study of the potentially serious effects of exaggerated and emotionally based responses to orthodoxies founded on assumptions and latter-day myths. A third objective, reserved for the companion paper in this issue, outlines the origins of mountain geoecology and explores how academic research influenced the inclusion of high level concern for mountain problems within AGENDA 21, one of the principal results of the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development (popularly known as the Rio Earth Summit and declaration of 2002 as the International Year of Mountains. The original environmental orthodoxy (the Theory has been eclipsed since the turn of the Millennium by a new populist alarm proposing that the current climate warming will cause all the Himalayan glaciers to disappear in the near future. From this it would follow that, as the glacier melt progresses, numerous large glacial lakes, forming as a consequence, would burst and the ensuing floods would annihilate many millions of people. Eventually, as the glaciers disappeared vital rivers, such as the Ganges and Brahmaputra, would wither to seasonal streams heralding further massive loss of life due to desertification and starvation. This current environmental alarm could be regarded as a present day parallel to the original Theory and will be examined in the final section of the paper. Between 1970 and about 1985 it was

  19. A Potential Waste to be Selected as Media for Metal and Nutrient Removal

    Zayadi, N.; Othman, N.; Hamdan, R.

    2016-07-01

    This study describes the potential of application of cassava peel, banana peel, coconut shell, and coconut coir to be selected as metal removal while limestone and steel slag for nutrient removal. The media were characterized by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-Ray (FESEM-EDX), and X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRD). The results of XRF analysis medias show the present of calcium oxide, CaO which confirm the high efficiency in adsorbing metal ions and nutrient which is in agreement with the result of XRD. The characteristics of medias by FTIR analysis also confirmed the involvement of alcohol, carboxylic, alkanes, amines and ethers which play important role to reduce ions while FESEM-EDX indicates the porous structures of study medias. The characterization analysis highlight that cassava peel and steel slag were selected as a potential media in this study.

  20. Diagnostic potentialities of pneumomediastinography and selective phlebography in the evaluation of thymus evolution in myasthenia

    Basing on an analysis of X-ray, intraoperative and histological findings in 124 operated on patients (thymectomy) with myasthenia the authors describe potentialities of pneumomediastinography (PMG) (pheumomediastinotomography-PMTG) in the determination of its main variants (hyperplasia, involUtion, tumor). Clear knowledge of the variants of x-ray image of the normal anatomical structures of the anterior mediastinum and age peculiarities of the thymus for correct interpretation of pneumomediastinograms is necessary. The importance of selective phlebography of the thymus for differential diagnosis of thymomas and nodular indurations of the fatty tissue in the anterior mediastinum, thymomas and fatty involution of the thymus, residual thymus and zones of fibrous-adipose tissue in the mediastinum is stressed. Selective phlebography is a simple and safe method that adds to PMG (PMTG) potentialities in the evaluation of thymus evolution in myasthenia

  1. Diagnostic potentialities of pneumomediastinography and selective phlebography in the evaluation of thymus evolution in myasthenia

    Vasil' ev, V.N.; Bel' chikova, N.S.; Kuksinskij, V.E. (Leningradskij Inst. Usovershenstvovaniya Vrachej (USSR))

    1983-01-01

    Based on an analysis of X-ray, intraoperative and histological findings in 124 operated on patients (thymectomy) with myasthenia the authors describe potentialities of pneumomediastinography (PMG) (pheumomediastinotomography-PMTG) in the determination of its main variants (hyperplasia, involution, tumor). Clear knowledge of the variants of x-ray image of the normal anatomical structures of the anterior mediastinum and age peculiarities of the thymus for correct interpretation of pneumomediastinograms is necessary. The importance of selective phlebography of the thymus for differential diagnosis of thymomas and nodular indurations of the fatty tissue in the anterior mediastinum, thymomas and fatty involution of the thymus, residual thymus and zones of fibrous-adipose tissue in the mediastinum is stressed. Selective phlebography is a simple and safe method that adds to PMG (PMTG) potentialities in the evaluation of thymus evolution in myasthenia.

  2. Crossmodal effects of Guqin and piano music on selective attention: an event-related potential study.

    Zhu, Weina; Zhang, Junjun; Ding, Xiaojun; Zhou, Changle; Ma, Yuanye; Xu, Dan

    2009-11-27

    To compare the effects of music from different cultural environments (Guqin: Chinese music; piano: Western music) on crossmodal selective attention, behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) data in a standard two-stimulus visual oddball task were recorded from Chinese subjects in three conditions: silence, Guqin music or piano music background. Visual task data were then compared with auditory task data collected previously. In contrast with the results of the auditory task, the early (N1) and late (P300) stages exhibited no differences between Guqin and piano backgrounds during the visual task. Taking our previous study and this study together, we can conclude that: although the cultural-familiar music influenced selective attention both in the early and late stages, these effects appeared only within a sensory modality (auditory) but not in cross-sensory modalities (visual). Thus, the musical cultural factor is more obvious in intramodal than in crossmodal selective attention. PMID:19766172

  3. Integrated Natural Resource Management: Approaches and Lessons from the Himalaya

    R. K. Maikhuri

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Losses of forest cover, biodiversity, agricultural productivity, and ecosystem services in the Himalayan mountain region are interlinked problems and threats to the sustainable livelihoods of 115 x 106 mountain people as well as the inhabitants of the adjoining Indo-gangetic plains. Until the 1970s, environmental conservation, food security, and rural economic development were treated as independent sectors. The poor outcomes of sector-oriented approaches catalyzed efforts to address environmental and socioeconomic problems concurrently. The identification of "key" natural resource management interventions is an important dimension of integrated management. Projects to rehabilitate the degraded lands that cover 40% of the Indian Himalaya could be key interventions provided that they address both socioeconomic and environmental concerns across spatial and temporal scales. However, projects of this type, e.g., investments in conifer plantations on degraded forest lands, have failed because their designs did not take into account the needs of local residents. This study illustrates a case of land rehabilitation in a small isolated village close to the alpine zone. Vital elements of this project strategy included identifying local perceptions and knowledge and involving the local people in the selection and implementation of the interventions needed to restore the land. Communities were found to be more concerned with the immediate economic benefits from bamboo and medicinal species than the long-term benefits of tree planting. The villagers eventually reached a consensus to plant broadleaved multipurpose trees in association with bamboo and medicinal species. Despite assurances that all the economic benefits from rehabilitation would go to the community, the people would not agree to voluntary labor, although they did absorb significant costs by providing social fencing, farmyard manure, and propagules from community forests. Households shared

  4. Comparison of multiple glacier inventories with a new inventory derived from high-resolution ALOS imagery in the Bhutan Himalaya

    Nagai, H.; Fujita, K; Sakai, A.; T. Nuimura; Tadono, T.

    2016-01-01

    Digital glacier inventories are invaluable data sets for revealing the characteristics of glacier distribution and for upscaling measurements from selected locations to entire mountain ranges. Here, we present a new inventory of Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) imagery and compare it with existing inventories for the Bhutan Himalaya. The new inventory contains 1583 glaciers (1487 ± 235 km2), thereof 219 debris-covered glaciers (951 ± 193 km2) and 1364 debris-free gla...

  5. Selection of potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria from fermented olives by in vitro tests

    Argyri, Anthoula; Zoumpopoulou, Georgia; Karatzas, Kimon Andreas; Tsakalidou, Effie; Nychas, George John; Panagou, Efstathios; Tassou, Chrysoula

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from naturally fermented olives and select candidates to be used as probiotic starters for the improvement of the traditional fermentation process and the production of newly added value functional foods. Seventy one (71) lactic acid bacterial strains (17 Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 1 Ln. pseudomesenteroides, 13 Lactobacillus plantarum, 37 Lb. pentosus, 1 Lb. paraplantarum, and 2 Lb. paracasei sub...

  6. Selection and characterization of potential probiotic bacteria for Litopenaeus stylirostris shrimp hatcheries in New Caledonia

    Pham, Dominique; Ansquer, Dominique; Chevalier, Anne; Dauga, Clement; Peyramale, Aude; Wabete, Nelly; Labreuche, Yannick

    2014-01-01

    In New Caledonia, shrimp hatcheries are confronted with mass mortality in the larval stages, a phenomenon poorly understood as no specific causative agent has been identified. This has resulted in an excessive use of prophylactic antibiotics, although their adverse effects in aquaculture are notorious. The present work was thus aimed at selecting potential probiotic strains for penaeid hatcheries. From a pool of more than 400 marine bacterial isolates sampled from the local marine environ...

  7. Evolutionary Dynamics of MERS-CoV: Potential Recombination, Positive Selection and Transmission.

    Zhang, Zhao; Shen, Libing; Gu, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) belongs to beta group of coronavirus and was first discovered in 2012. MERS-CoV can infect multiple host species and cause severe diseases in human. We conducted a series of phylogenetic and bioinformatic analyses to study the evolution dynamics of MERS-CoV among different host species with genomic data. Our analyses show: 1) 28 potential recombinant sequences were detected and they can be classified into seven potential recombinant types; 2) The spike (S) protein of MERS-CoV was under strong positive selection when MERS-CoV transmitted from their natural host to human; 3) Six out of nine positive selection sites detected in spike (S) protein are located in its receptor-binding domain which is in direct contact with host cells; 4) MERS-CoV frequently transmitted back and forth between human and camel after it had acquired the human-camel infection capability. Together, these results suggest that potential recombination events might have happened frequently during MERS-CoV's evolutionary history and the positive selection sites in MERS-CoV's S protein might enable it to infect human. PMID:27142087

  8. Treeline dynamics with climate change at the central Nepal Himalaya

    N. P. Gaire; Koirala, M.; D. R. Bhuju; H. P. Borgaonkar

    2014-01-01

    Treeline shifting in tandem with climate change has widely been reported from various parts of the world. In Nepal, several impacts of climate change on the physical environment have been observed, but study on the biological impacts is lacking. This dendrochronological study was carried out at the treeline in the high mountain slope of Kalchuman Lake (3750–4003 m a.s.l.) area of Manaslu Conservation Area in the central Nepal Himalaya to explore the impact of climate change ...

  9. Climate change and water resources in the Himalayas

    Smadja, Joëlle; Aubriot, Olivia; Puschiasis, Ornella; Duplan, Thierry; Grimaldi, Juliette; Hugonnet, Mickaël; Buchheit, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    In the Himalayas, where the increase in temperatures is higher than the world average, climate change is expected to impact water resources in a particularly significant manner. Whereas climate specialists using measurements and simulations play down this statement by underlining uncertainties and differences between the west and east of the range, the media and development agencies tend to paint a uniform picture of a water shortage now and in the future. As part of an interdisciplinary prog...

  10. Electrical resistivity imaging of seismically active frontal Himalaya

    Complete text of publication follows. Given the sensitivity of resistivity to rheology, magnetotelluric measurement are undertaken to study deep crustal electrical structures and their possible linkage to the space-depth distribution of seismicity. Magnetotelluric investigations at Thirty three sites along Bijnaur-Mallari profile cutting across major litho tectonic units of Himalaya starting from Indo Ganges plain, Siwalik, Lesser, Higher Himalaya to Tethys Himalaya. Observing the low solar activity during the survey period each site was occupied for five days. Longer occupancy allowed estimation of impedance tensor at periods greater than 500 sec at most of the stations. However at few stations electric field recordings were very noisy perhaps due to unbalanced power network of the region. This is reflected in larger error bars in estimated impedance tensors. Skewness and other dimensionality parameter indicate the validity of 2-D regional model. Robust impedance decomposition for the period band of 10 Hz- 1000 sec of eleven stations reveal that EM strike coincides with the geologic fabric. Considering regional strike EM field were decoupled in TE, TM mode and then inverted for frequency dependent conductivity distribution along the profile. The most conspicuous feature of the inverted resistivity section is the low resistivity zone at a shallow depth of 10 km beneath the Indo-Gangetic Plains that dips down at a low-angle and extends as a continuous plane right up to the northern limit of the profile. The geometry of this layer is correlated with the basement thrust separating the top of the under thrusting Indian Plate from the over-riding sedimentary wedge of lesser Himalaya. The paper will discuss the tectonic and rheological significance of the results of resistivity imaging using magnetotelluric method along the profile from Bijnaur to Mallari.

  11. Altitude-related deaths in seven trekkers in the Himalayas.

    Dickinson, J; Heath, D.; Gosney, J.; Williams, D

    1983-01-01

    The clinical features and necropsy findings are described for seven trekkers in the Himalayas whose deaths were related to high altitude. The fatal outcome was due to serious pulmonary and cerebral disease. Oedema of the lungs and brain was prominent but so was thrombosis and haemorrhage, features of acute mountain sickness that have received insufficient recognition in the past. Most of the men were middle aged. Some began their trekking soon after flying to high altitude before becoming acc...

  12. How Bar-Headed Geese Fly Over the Himalayas

    Scott, Graham R.; Hawkes, Lucy A.; Frappell, Peter B.; Butler, Patrick J.; Bishop, Charles M.; Milsom, William K.

    2015-01-01

    Bar-headed geese cross the Himalayas on one of the most iconic high-altitude migrations in the world. Heart rates and metabolic costs of flight increase with elevation and can be near maximal during steep climbs. Their ability to sustain the high oxygen demands of flight in air that is exceedingly oxygen-thin depends on the unique cardiorespiratory physiology of birds in general along with several evolved specializations across the O2 transport cascade.

  13. ANTI – CANCER DRUGS FROM U.P. HIMALAYA

    Uniyal, M. R.; Tewari, L. C.

    1991-01-01

    Many ayurvedic texts mention arbuda which is considered as an equivalent of cancer. Vagbhata mentions arbuda of mouth, tongue, eyes, nose, breast and uterus. Caraka and Susruta also provide plenty of information on this dreaded group of diseases. Considering the importance of this disease in present day health care, the authors mention in this paper several plants of the Himalaya, used in the treatment of cancer.

  14. Eocene Tibetan plateau remnants preserved in the northwest Himalaya

    van der Beek, Peter; van Melle, Jérémie; Guillot, Stéphane; Pêcher, Arnaud; Reiners, Peter W.; Nicolescu, Stefan; Latif, Mohammad

    2009-05-01

    The northwest Himalaya shows strongly contrasting relief. Deeply incised mountain ranges that are characterized by extremely rapid exhumation and some of the highest peaks in the world are in contrast with high-elevation, low-relief areas such as the Deosai plateau in northern Pakistan, which lies at an altitude of 4,000m. The origin and evolution of such plateau regions at the convergence of the most active continental collision in the world remain elusive. Here we report low-temperature thermochronology data from the Deosai plateau and use thermal history modelling to show that the plateau has undergone continuous slow denudation at rates below 250mMyr-1 for the past 35Myr at least. This finding suggests tectonic and morphologic stability of the plateau since at least Eocene times, only 15-20Myr after the onset of the India-Asia collision. Our work contradicts the hypothesis that widespread low-relief surfaces in the northwest Himalaya result from efficient kilometre-scale glacial erosion during Quaternary times. We show that similarly stable surfaces exist throughout the entire northwest Himalaya and share common morphologic characteristics and denudation histories, which are comparable to those of the western Tibetan plateau. Our results suggest that these surfaces are preserved remnants of an Eocene southwestern Tibetan plateau that was more extensive than today.

  15. Tunnelling through weak and fragile rocks of Himalayas

    Goel R.K.

    2014-01-01

    A considerable amount of tunnelling has been going on in India for various projects such as hydroelectric power, irrigation, roads and railways. Most of these projects are located in Himalayas, far away from the urban areas. Tunnelling through weak and jointed rock masses such as the one in the Himalayas is a challenging task for the planners, designers, engineers and geologists because of high overburden, thickly vegetated surface, weak, poor and fragile rocks and highly varying geology with the presence of numerous small and big shear zones, faults, etc. Due to these reasons, various tunnelling problems have been faced in the past and are still being encountered. Failures and the problems may be regarded as challenges and opportunities for generating new knowledge base and thereby increasing self-reliance in tunnelling. The experiences of Himalayan tunnelling through weak and fragile rocks covering varying and mixed geology, understanding on tunnelling in squeezing ground conditions and applicability of TBM in Himalayas are presented. It has also been highlighted that the probe holes planning, drilling and mon-itoring shall be followed seriously to reduce the geological surprises.

  16. Projected hydrologic changes in monsoon-dominated Himalaya Mountain basins with changing climate and deforestation

    Neupane, Ram P.; White, Joseph D.; Alexander, Sara E.

    2015-06-01

    In mountain headwaters, climate and land use changes affect short and long term site water budgets with resultant impacts on landslide risk, hydropower generation, and sustainable agriculture. To project hydrologic change associated with climate and land use changes in the Himalaya Mountains, we used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) calibrated for the Tamor and Seti River basins located at eastern and western margins of Nepal. Future climate change was modeled using averaged temperature and precipitation for 2080 derived from Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) (B1, A1B and A2) of 16 global circulation models (GCMs). Land use change was modeled spatially and included expansion of (1) agricultural land, (2) grassland, and (3) human settlement area that were produced by considering existing land use with projected changes associated with viability of elevation and slope characteristics of the basins capable of supporting different land use type. From these simulations, higher annual stream discharge was found for all GCM-derived scenarios compared to a baseline simulation with maximum increases of 13 and 8% in SRES-A2 and SRES-A1B for the Tamor and Seti basins, respectively. On seasonal basis, we assessed higher precipitation during monsoon season in all scenarios that corresponded with higher stream discharge of 72 and 68% for Tamor and Seti basins, respectively. This effect appears to be geographically important with higher influence in the eastern Tamor basin potentially due to longer and stronger monsoonal period of that region. However, we projected minimal changes in stream discharge for the land use scenarios potentially due to higher water transmission to groundwater reservoirs associated with fractures of the Himalaya Mountains rather than changes in surface runoff. However, when combined the effects of climate and land use changes, discharge was moderately increased indicating counteracting mechanisms of hydrologic yield in these mountains

  17. Analysis of soil moisture variation by forest cover structure in lower western Himalayas, India

    J.v.Tyagi; Nuzhat Qazi; S.P.Rai; M.P.Singh

    2013-01-01

    Soil moisture affects various hydrological processes,including evapotranspiration,infiltration,and runoff.Forested areas in the lower western Himalaya in India constitute the headwater catchments for many hill streams and have experienced degradation in forest cover due to grazing,deforestation and other human activities.This change in forest cover is likely to alter the soil moisture regime and,consequently,flow regimes in streams.The effect of change in forest cover on soil moisture regimes of this dry region has not been studied through long term field observations.We monitored soil matric potentials in two small watersheds in the lower western Himalaya of India.The watersheds consisted of homogeneous land covers of moderately dense oak forest and moderately degraded mixed oak forest.Observations were recorded at three sites at three depths in each watershed at fortnightly intervals for a period of three years.The soil moisture contents derived from soil potential measurements were analyzed to understand the spatial,temporal and profile variations under the two structures of forest cover.The analysis revealed large variations in soil moisture storage at different sites and depths and also during different seasons in each watershed.Mean soil moisture storage during monsoon,winter and summer seasons was higher under dense forest than under degraded forest.Highest soil moisture content occurred at shallow soil profiles,decreasing with depth in both watersheds.A high positive correlation was found between tree density and soil moisture content.Mean soil moisture content over the entire study period was higher under dense forest than under degraded forest.This indicated a potential for soil water storage under well managed oak forest.Because soil water storage is vital for sustenance of low flows,attention is needed on the management of oak forests in the Himalayan region.

  18. Towards an improved inventory of Glacial Lake Outburst Floods in the Himalayas

    Veh, Georg; Walz, Ariane; Korup, Oliver; Roessner, Sigrid

    2016-04-01

    The retreat of glaciers in the Himalayas and the associated release of meltwater have prompted the formation and growth of thousands of glacial lakes in the last decades. More than 2,200 of these lakes have developed in unconsolidated moraine material. These lakes can drain in a single event, producing potentially destructive glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). Only 44 GLOFs in the Himalayas have been documented in more detail since the 1930s, and evidence for a change, let alone an increase, in the frequency of these flood events remains elusive. The rare occurrence of GLOFs is counterintuitive to our hypothesis that an increasing amount of glacial lakes has to be consistent with a rising amount of outburst floods. Censoring bias affects the GLOF record, such that mostly larger floods with commensurate impact have been registered. Existing glacial lake inventories are also of limited help for the identification of GLOFs, as they were created in irregular time steps using different methodological approach and covering different regional extents. We discuss the key requirements for generating a more continuous, close to yearly time series of glacial lake evolution for the Himalayan mountain range using remote sensing data. To this end, we use sudden changes in glacial lake areas as the key diagnostic of dam breaks and outburst floods, employing the full archive of cloud-free Landsat data (L5, L7 and L8) from 1988 to 2015. SRTM and ALOS World 3D topographic data further improve the automatic detection of glacial lakes in an alpine landscape that is often difficult to access otherwise. Our workflow comprises expert-based classification of water bodies using thresholds and masks from different spectral indices and band ratios. A first evaluation of our mapping approach suggests that GLOFs reported during the study period could be tracked independently by a significant reduction of lake size between two subsequent Landsat scenes. This finding supports the feasibility

  19. Satellite Remote Sensing of Snow/Ice Albedo over the Himalayas

    Hsu, N. Christina; Gautam, Ritesh

    2012-01-01

    The Himalayan glaciers and snowpacks play an important role in the hydrological cycle over Asia. The seasonal snow melt from the Himalayan glaciers and snowpacks is one of the key elements to the livelihood of the downstream densely populated regions of South Asia. During the pre-monsoon season (April-May-June), South Asia not only experiences the reversal of the regional meridional tropospheric temperature gradient (i.e., the onset of the summer monsoon), but also is being bombarded by dry westerly airmass that transports mineral dust from various Southwest Asian desert and arid regions into the Indo-Gangetic Plains in northern India. Mixed with heavy anthropogenic pollution, mineral dust constitutes the bulk of regional aerosol loading and forms an extensive and vertically extended brown haze lapping against the southern slopes of the Himalayas. Episodic dust plumes are advected over the Himalayas, and are discernible in satellite imagery, resulting in dust-capped snow surface. Motivated by the potential implications of accelerated snowmelt, we examine the changes in radiative energetics induced by aerosol transport over the Himalayan snow cover by utilizing space borne observations. Our objective lies in the investigation of potential impacts of aerosol solar absorption on the Top-of-Atmosphere (TOA) spectral reflectivity and the broadband albedo, and hence the accelerated snowmelt, particularly in the western Himalayas. Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity (LER) in the visible and near-infrared wavelengths, derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer radiances, is used to generate statistics for determining perturbation caused due to dust layer over snow surface in over ten years of continuous observations. Case studies indicate significant reduction of LER ranging from 5 to 8% in the 412-860nm spectra. Broadband flux observations, from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System, are also used to investigate changes in shortwave TOA flux over

  20. Inoculum selection influences the biochemical methane potential of agro-industrial substrates.

    De Vrieze, Jo; Raport, Linde; Willems, Bernard; Verbrugge, Silke; Volcke, Eveline; Meers, Erik; Angenent, Largus T; Boon, Nico

    2015-09-01

    Obtaining a reliable estimation of the methane potential of organic waste streams in anaerobic digestion, for which a biochemical methane potential (BMP) test is often used, is of high importance. Standardization of this BMP test is required to ensure inter-laboratory repeatability and accuracy of the BMP results. Therefore, guidelines were set out; yet, these do not provide sufficient information concerning origin of and the microbial community in the test inoculum. Here, the specific contribution of the methanogenic community on the BMP test results was evaluated. The biomethane potential of four different substrates (molasses, bio-refinery waste, liquid manure and high-rate activated sludge) was determined by means of four different inocula from full-scale anaerobic digestion plants. A significant effect of the selected inoculum on the BMP result was observed for two out of four substrates. This inoculum effect could be attributed to the abundance of methanogens and a potential inhibiting effect in the inoculum itself, demonstrating the importance of inoculum selection for BMP testing. We recommend the application of granular sludge as an inoculum, because of its higher methanogenic abundance and activity, and protection from bulk solutions, compared with other inocula. PMID:25756301

  1. FOREST ECOSYSTEM DYNAMICS ASSESSMENT AND PREDICTIVE MODELLING IN EASTERN HIMALAYA

    S. P. S. Kushwaha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the forest ecosystem dynamics assessment and predictive modelling deforestation and forest cover prediction in a part of north-eastern India i.e. forest areas along West Bengal, Bhutan, Arunachal Pradesh and Assam border in Eastern Himalaya using temporal satellite imagery of 1975, 1990 and 2009 and predicted forest cover for the period 2028 using Cellular Automata Markov Modedel (CAMM. The exercise highlighted large-scale deforestation in the study area during 1975–1990 as well as 1990–2009 forest cover vectors. A net loss of 2,334.28 km2 forest cover was noticed between 1975 and 2009, and with current rate of deforestation, a forest area of 4,563.34 km2 will be lost by 2028. The annual rate of deforestation worked out to be 0.35 and 0.78% during 1975–1990 and 1990–2009 respectively. Bamboo forest increased by 24.98% between 1975 and 2009 due to opening up of the forests. Forests in Kokrajhar, Barpeta, Darrang, Sonitpur, and Dhemaji districts in Assam were noticed to be worst-affected while Lower Subansiri, West and East Siang, Dibang Valley, Lohit and Changlang in Arunachal Pradesh were severely affected. Among different forest types, the maximum loss was seen in case of sal forest (37.97% between 1975 and 2009 and is expected to deplete further to 60.39% by 2028. The tropical moist deciduous forest was the next category, which decreased from 5,208.11 km2 to 3,447.28 (33.81% during same period with further chances of depletion to 2,288.81 km2 (56.05% by 2028. It noted progressive loss of forests in the study area between 1975 and 2009 through 1990 and predicted that, unless checked, the area is in for further depletion of the invaluable climax forests in the region, especially sal and moist deciduous forests. The exercise demonstrated high potential of remote sensing and geographic information system for forest ecosystem dynamics assessment and the efficacy of CAMM to predict the forest cover change.

  2. Geomorphological evidences of post-LGM glacial advancements in the Himalaya: A study from Chorabari Glacier, Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Manish Mehta; Zahid Majeed; D P Dobhal; Pradeep Srivastava

    2012-02-01

    Field geomorphology and remote sensing data, supported by Optical Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating from the Mandakini river valley of the Garhwal Himalaya enabled identification of four major glacial events; Rambara Glacial Stage (RGS) (13 ± 2 ka), Ghindurpani Glacial Stage (GhGS) (9 ± 1 ka), Garuriya Glacial Stage (GGS) (7 ± 1 ka) and Kedarnath Glacial Stage (KGS) (5 ± 1 ka). RGS was the most extensive glaciation extending for ∼6 km down the valley from the present day snout and lowered to an altitude of 2800 m asl at Rambara covering around ∼31 km2 area of the Mandakini river valley. Compared to this, the other three glaciations (viz., GhGS, GGS and KGS) were of lower magnitudes terminating around ∼3000, ∼3300 and ∼3500 m asl, respectively. It was also observed that the mean equilibrium line altitude (ELA) during RGS was lowered to 4747 m asl compared to the present level of 5120 m asl. This implies an ELA depression of ∼373 m during the RGS which would correspond to a lowering of ∼2°C summer temperature during the RGS. The results are comparable to that of the adjacent western and central Himalaya implying a common forcing factor that we attribute to the insolation-driven monsoon precipitation in the western and central Himalaya.

  3. Acoustic Noise Alters Selective Attention Processes as Indicated by Direct Current (DC Brain Potential Changes

    Karin Trimmel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic environmental noise, even of low to moderate intensity, is known to adversely affect information processing in animals and humans via attention mechanisms. In particular, facilitation and inhibition of information processing are basic functions of selective attention. Such mechanisms can be investigated by analyzing brain potentials under conditions of externally directed attention (intake of environmental information versus internally directed attention (rejection of environmental stimuli and focusing on memory/planning processes. This study investigated brain direct current (DC potential shifts—which are discussed to represent different states of cortical activation—of tasks that require intake and rejection of environmental information under noise. It was hypothesized that without background noise rejection tasks would show more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks and that under noise both kinds of tasks would show positive DC shifts as an expression of cortical inhibition caused by noise. DC potential shifts during intake and rejection tasks were analyzed at 16 standard locations in 45 persons during irrelevant speech or white noise vs. control condition. Without noise, rejection tasks were associated with more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks. During background noise, however, this difference disappeared and both kinds of tasks led to positive DC shifts. Results suggest—besides some limitations—that noise modulates selective attention mechanisms by switching to an environmental information processing and noise rejection mode, which could represent a suggested “attention shift”. Implications for fMRI studies as well as for public health in learning and performance environments including susceptible persons are discussed.

  4. Dynamics in the quantum/classical limit based on selective use of the quantum potential

    A classical limit of quantum dynamics can be defined by compensation of the quantum potential in the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The quantum potential is a non-local quantity, defined in the trajectory-based form of the Schrödinger equation, due to Madelung, de Broglie, and Bohm, which formally generates the quantum-mechanical features in dynamics. Selective inclusion of the quantum potential for the degrees of freedom deemed “quantum,” defines a hybrid quantum/classical dynamics, appropriate for molecular systems comprised of light and heavy nuclei. The wavefunction is associated with all of the nuclei, and the Ehrenfest, or mean-field, averaging of the force acting on the classical degrees of freedom, typical of the mixed quantum/classical methods, is avoided. The hybrid approach is used to examine evolution of light/heavy systems in the harmonic and double-well potentials, using conventional grid-based and approximate quantum-trajectory time propagation. The approximate quantum force is defined on spatial domains, which removes unphysical coupling of the wavefunction fragments corresponding to distinct classical channels or configurations. The quantum potential, associated with the quantum particle, generates forces acting on both quantum and classical particles to describe the backreaction

  5. Second generation bioethanol potential from selected Malaysia's biodiversity biomasses: A review.

    Aditiya, H B; Chong, W T; Mahlia, T M I; Sebayang, A H; Berawi, M A; Nur, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Rising global temperature, worsening air quality and drastic declining of fossil fuel reserve are the inevitable phenomena from the disorganized energy management. Bioethanol is believed to clear out the effects as being an energy-derivable product sourced from renewable organic sources. Second generation bioethanol interests many researches from its unique source of inedible biomass, and this paper presents the potential of several selected biomasses from Malaysia case. As one of countries with rich biodiversity, Malaysia holds enormous potential in second generation bioethanol production from its various agricultural and forestry biomasses, which are the source of lignocellulosic and starch compounds. This paper reviews potentials of biomasses and potential ethanol yield from oil palm, paddy (rice), pineapple, banana and durian, as the common agricultural waste in the country but uncommon to be served as bioethanol feedstock, by calculating the theoretical conversion of cellulose, hemicellulose and starch components of the biomasses into bioethanol. Moreover, the potential of the biomasses as feedstock are discussed based on several reported works. PMID:26253329

  6. Facilitating the selection and creation of accurate interatomic potentials with robust tools and characterization

    Trautt, Zachary T.; Tavazza, Francesca; Becker, Chandler A.

    2015-10-01

    The Materials Genome Initiative seeks to significantly decrease the cost and time of development and integration of new materials. Within the domain of atomistic simulations, several roadblocks stand in the way of reaching this goal. While the NIST Interatomic Potentials Repository hosts numerous interatomic potentials (force fields), researchers cannot immediately determine the best choice(s) for their use case. Researchers developing new potentials, specifically those in restricted environments, lack a comprehensive portfolio of efficient tools capable of calculating and archiving the properties of their potentials. This paper elucidates one solution to these problems, which uses Python-based scripts that are suitable for rapid property evaluation and human knowledge transfer. Calculation results are visible on the repository website, which reduces the time required to select an interatomic potential for a specific use case. Furthermore, property evaluation scripts are being integrated with modern platforms to improve discoverability and access of materials property data. To demonstrate these scripts and features, we will discuss the automation of stacking fault energy calculations and their application to additional elements. While the calculation methodology was developed previously, we are using it here as a case study in simulation automation and property calculations. We demonstrate how the use of Python scripts allows for rapid calculation in a more easily managed way where the calculations can be modified, and the results presented in user-friendly and concise ways. Additionally, the methods can be incorporated into other efforts, such as openKIM.

  7. Glacier Sensitivity to Climate Change in the Monsoonal Himalaya: Past, Present, and Future

    Rupper, S.; Maurer, J.; Schaefer, J. M.; Cook, E. R.; Putnam, A. E.; Krusic, P.; Smith, R. G.

    2013-12-01

    Glaciers are particularly sensitive to climate change, making them vulnerable elements of the environment. Of potential concern for societies is the rapid glacier retreat of Himalayan glaciers. However, the temporally short and spatially sparse instrumental records of climate, and arguably shorter and sparser glacier records, make it extremely difficult to quantify glacier sensitivity to climatic change or to place recent glacier changes into a longer, historical context. Here we address many of these issues by quantifying the glacier-climate sensitivity in the Bhutanese Himalaya over the past 800 years using a combination of remote sensing data, paleoclimate data, glacier modeling, and glacial geochronology. Bhutan is chosen for two key reasons. First, Bhutan exemplifies an area where little data on glacier changes are available and where it is logistically difficult to obtain field-based studies, a common problem for many regions of the Himalayas. Thus the methods developed here will be directly applicable to other regions. Second, glaciers in Bhutan, just as neighboring glaciers in India, Nepal, and Southwest China, sit in the bulls-eye of high snow accumulation glaciers. Sensitivity tests using a surface energy- and mass-balance model show that high accumulation regions are extremely temperature-sensitive. Therefore, Bhutan's glaciers form a highly suitable natural laboratory to investigate glacier sensitivity and response to temperature change in the monsoonal Himalaya. In this study, we map Bhutan glacierized area and volume changes over the past forty years, and show significant changes and rapid retreat of these glaciers over this period of time. In addition, we map the former glacier extents for key glacierized regions of Bhutan, and produce a 10Be chronology for glacier fluctuations for one region. Finally, we model the glacierized changes over the past 800 years using Bhutan tree-ring temperature reconstructions as climate input. Our results show that

  8. The Local Atmosphere and the Turbulent Heat Transfer in the Eastern Himalayas

    ZOU Han; LI Peng; MA Shupo; ZHOU Libo; ZHU Jinhuan

    2012-01-01

    To understand the local atmosphere and heat transfer and to facilitate the boundary-layer parameterization of numerical simulation and prediction,an observational campaign was conducted in the Eastern Himalayas in June 2010.The local atmospheric properties and near-surface turbulent heat transfers were analyzed.The local atmosphere in this region is warmer,more humid and less windy,with weaker solar radiation and surface radiate heating than in the Middle Himalayas.The near-surface turbulent heat transfer in the Eastern Himalayas is weaker than that in the Middle Himalayas.The total heat transfer is mainly contributed by the latent heat transfer with a Bowen ratio of 0.36,which is essentially different from that in the Middle Himalayas and the other Tibetan regions.

  9. Evaluation of mitochondrial membrane potential using a computerized device with a tetraphenylphosphonium-selective electrode

    Labajová, A.; Vojtíšková, Alena; Křiváková, P.; Kofránek, J.; Drahota, Zdeněk; Houštěk, Josef

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 353, č. 1 (2006), s. 37-42. ISSN 0003-2697 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD303/03/H065; GA ČR(CZ) GA303/06/1261 Grant ostatní: GA UK(CZ) 126/04/C; IGA MŠk(CZ) RP 394 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : membrane potential * TPP -selective electrode Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.948, year: 2006

  10. A General Definition of the Heritable Variation That Determines the Potential of a Population to Respond to Selection

    2011-01-01

    Genetic selection is a major force shaping life on earth. In classical genetic theory, response to selection is the product of the strength of selection and the additive genetic variance in a trait. The additive genetic variance reflects a population’s intrinsic potential to respond to selection. The ordinary additive genetic variance, however, ignores the social organization of life. With social interactions among individuals, individual trait values may depend on genes in others, a phenomen...

  11. Framing hydropower as green energy: assessing drivers, risks and tensions in the Eastern Himalayas

    R. Ahlers

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The culturally and ecologically diverse region of the Eastern Himalayas is the target of ambitious hydropower development plans. Policy discourses at national and international levels position this development as synergistically positive: it combines the production of clean energy to fuel economic growth at regional and national levels with initiatives to lift poor mountain communities out of poverty. Different from hydropower development in the 20th century in which development agencies and banks were important players, contemporary initiatives importantly rely on the involvement of private actors, with a prominent role of the private finance sector. This implies that hydropower development is not only financially viable but also understood as highly profitable. This paper examines the new development of hydropower in the Eastern Himalaya of Nepal and India. It questions its framing as green energy, interrogates its links with climate change, and examines its potential for investment and capital accumulation. To do this, we also review the evidence on the extent to which its construction and operation may modify existing hydrogeological processes and ecosystems, as well as its impacts on the livelihoods of diverse groups of people that depend on these. The paper concludes that hydropower development in the region is characterised by inherent contentions and uncertainties, refuting the idea that dams constitute development projects whose impacts can be simply predicted, controlled and mitigated. Indeed, in a highly complex geological, ecological, cultural and political context that is widely regarded to be especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change, hydropower as a development strategy makes for a toxic cocktail.

  12. Framing hydropower as green energy: assessing drivers, risks and tensions in the Eastern Himalayas

    Ahlers, R.; Budds, J.; Joshi, D.; Merme, V.; Zwarteveen, M.

    2015-04-01

    The culturally and ecologically diverse region of the Eastern Himalayas is the target of ambitious hydropower development plans. Policy discourses at national and international levels position this development as synergistically positive: it combines the production of clean energy to fuel economic growth at regional and national levels with initiatives to lift poor mountain communities out of poverty. Different from hydropower development in the 20th century in which development agencies and banks were important players, contemporary initiatives importantly rely on the involvement of private actors, with a prominent role of the private finance sector. This implies that hydropower development is not only financially viable but also understood as highly profitable. This paper examines the new development of hydropower in the Eastern Himalayas of Nepal and India. It questions its framing as green energy, interrogates its links with climate change, and examines its potential for investment and capital accumulation. To do this, we also review the evidence on the extent to which its construction and operation may modify existing hydrogeological processes and ecosystems, as well as its impacts on the livelihoods of diverse groups of people that depend on these. The paper concludes that hydropower development in the region is characterized by inherent contentions and uncertainties, refuting the idea that dams constitute development projects whose impacts can be simply predicted, controlled and mitigated. Indeed, in a highly complex geological, ecological, cultural and political context that is widely regarded to be especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change, hydropower as a development strategy makes for a toxic cocktail.

  13. Phenotypic variation and water selection potential in the stem structure of invasive alligator weed

    Du, Leshan; Yang, Beifen; Guan, Wenbin; Li, Junmin

    2016-02-01

    The morphological and anatomical characteristics of stems have been found to be related to drought resistance in plants. Testing the phenotypic selection of water availability on stem anatomical traits would be useful for exploring the evolutionary potential of the stem in response to water availability. To test the phenotypic variation of the stem anatomical traits of an invasive plant in response to water availability, we collected a total of 320 individuals of Alternanthera philoxeroides from 16 populations from terrestrial and aquatic habitats in 8 plots in China and then analyzed the variation, differentiation, plasticity and selection potential of water availability on the stem anatomical traits. We found that except for the thickness of the cortex, all of the examined phenotypic parameters of the A. philoxeroides stem were significantly and positively correlated with soil water availability. The phenotypic differentiation coefficient for all of the anatomical structural parameters indicated that most of the variation existed between habitats within the same plot, whereas there was little variation among plots or among individuals within the same habitat except for variation in the thickness of the cortex. A significant phenotypic plasticity response to water availability was found for all of the anatomical traits of A. philoxeroides stem except for the thickness of the cortex. The associations between fitness and some of the anatomical traits, such as the stem diameter, the cortex area-to-stem area ratio, the pith cavity area-to-stem area ratio and the density of vascular bundles, differed with heterogeneous water availability. In both the aquatic and terrestrial habitats, no significant directional selection gradient was found for the stem diameter, the cortex area-to-stem area ratio or the density of vascular bundles. These results indicated that the anatomical structure of the A. philoxeroides stem may play an important role in the adaptation to changes

  14. Examination of snowmelt over Western Himalayas using remote sensing data

    Tiwari, Sarita; Kar, Sarat C.; Bhatla, R.

    2016-07-01

    Snowmelt variability in the Western Himalayas has been examined using remotely sensed snow water equivalent (SWE) and snow-covered area (SCA) datasets. It is seen that climatological snowfall and snowmelt amount varies in the Himalayan region from west to east and from month to month. Maximum snowmelt occurs at the elevation zone between 4500 and 5000 m. As the spring and summer approach and snowmelt begins, a large amount of snow melts in May. Strength and weaknesses of temperature-based snowmelt models have been analyzed for this region by computing the snowmelt factor or the degree-day factor (DDF). It is seen that average DDF in the Himalayas is more in April and less in July. During spring and summer months, melting rate is higher in the areas that have height above 2500 m. The region that lies between 4500 and 5000 m elevation zones contributes toward more snowmelt with higher melting rate. Snowmelt models have been developed to estimate interannual variations of monthly snowmelt amount using the DDF, observed SWE, and surface air temperature from reanalysis datasets. In order to further improve the estimate snowmelt, regression between observed and modeled snowmelt has been carried out and revised DDF values have been computed. It is found that both the models do not capture the interannual variability of snowmelt in April. The skill of the model is moderate in May and June, but the skill is relatively better in July. In order to explain this skill, interannual variability (IAV) of surface air temperature has been examined. Compared to July, in April, the IAV of temperature is large indicating that a climatological value of DDF is not sufficient to explain the snowmelt rate in April. Snow area and snow amount depletion curves over Himalayas indicate that in a small area at high altitude, snow is still observed with large SWE whereas over most of the region, all the snow has melted.

  15. Is rate of glacial retreat accelerated in Indian Himalaya? (Invited)

    Kulkarni, A. V.

    2013-12-01

    The Himalaya has one of the largest concentration of glaciers and rivers like Indus, Ganga and Bramhputra originate from this region. The snow and glacier melt is an important source of water for these rivers. However, this source of water may get affected in the near future due to changes in the cryosphere. Therefore, retreat of Himalayan glaciers are discussed extensively in scientific and public forums in India. Conventionally health of glaciers is assessed using changes in glacial length, as it is widely measured. However changes in glacial length and loss in areal extent near terminus needs to be interpreted carefully, as these changes can be influenced by numerous terrain and climatically sensitive parameters. The terrain parameters which can influence glacial retreat are slope, area altitude distribution, debris cover and orientation. In addition, climatically sensitive parameters like mass balance, glacial lakes and black carbon can also influence glacier retreat. These multiple influences can produce a complex pattern of glacial retreat. In this paper long-term glacier retreat in three river basins in the Indian Himalaya as Tista, Baspa and Parbati will be discussed. These basins are located in different climatically sensitive regions and each basin has unique dominant process of mass wasting. In addition to terrain parameters, influence of process like formation and expansion of moraine dammed lakes in Tista basin, deposition of black carbon on accumulation area in Baspa basin and debris cover in Parbati basin will also be discussed. This will provide understanding on varying influence of different mass wasting processes on glacial retreat during last five decades in the Indian Himalaya.

  16. Interannual Variability of Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) over Western Himalayas

    Tiwari, Sarita; Kar, Sarat C.; Bhatla, R.

    2016-04-01

    Considering the importance of snow and glaciers in the Himalayas for understanding the water cycle and for water resource management of the rivers originating from the Himalayan, interannual variability of snow accumulation process over Himalayas and surrounding region has been studied using snow water equivalent (SWE) data. Remote sensing data from National Snow and Ice Data Centre have been used. These data have been compared against ground (in situ) observations of SWE measured at several gauge stations in the Indian part of the Satluj River basin. Accumulated SWE from remote sensing data and ground observations in the Satluj River basin have good and significant correlation. These data have also been compared against the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis and the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast reanalysis-Interim (ERA-I). Upper air and surface data from the reanalyses have also been used to examine the atmospheric conditions when snowfall occurs and snow accumulates for the season. In this study, it is found that there is large interannual variation in SWE over western Himalayas and Satluj River basin (domain of interest). During excess years of snowfall, strong westerly winds are observed at 500 hPa over India. In wind anomaly, a cyclonic circulation is seen over northern parts of India with a deep trough along Pakistan, Rajasthan and Gujarat region. As a consequence of this trough, a moisture convergence zone is established in the region leading to more amount of snowfall. At the same time, during excess snow accumulation years, the air temperature from the surface to 500 hPa is colder than other years enabling the fallen snow to accumulate through the season.

  17. Genetic parameters for predicted methane production and potential for reducing enteric emissions through genomic selection.

    Haas, Y de; Windig, J J; Calus, M P L; Dijkstra, J; Haan, M de; Bannink, A; Veerkamp, R F

    2011-12-01

    Mitigation of enteric methane (CH₄) emission in ruminants has become an important area of research because accumulation of CH₄ is linked to global warming. Nutritional and microbial opportunities to reduce CH₄ emissions have been extensively researched, but little is known about using natural variation to breed animals with lower CH₄ yield. Measuring CH₄ emission rates directly from animals is difficult and hinders direct selection on reduced CH₄ emission. However, improvements can be made through selection on associated traits (e.g., residual feed intake, RFI) or through selection on CH₄ predicted from feed intake and diet composition. The objective was to establish phenotypic and genetic variation in predicted CH₄ output, and to determine the potential of genetics to reduce methane emissions in dairy cattle. Experimental data were used and records on daily feed intake, weekly body weights, and weekly milk production were available from 548 heifers. Residual feed intake (MJ/d) is the difference between net energy intake and calculated net energy requirements for maintenance as a function of body weight and for fat- and protein-corrected milk production. Predicted methane emission (PME; g/d) is 6% of gross energy intake (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change methodology) corrected for energy content of methane (55.65 kJ/g). The estimated heritabilities for PME and RFI were 0.35 and 0.40, respectively. The positive genetic correlation between RFI and PME indicated that cows with lower RFI have lower PME (estimates ranging from 0.18 to 0.84). Hence, it is possible to decrease the methane production of a cow by selecting more-efficient cows, and the genetic variation suggests that reductions in the order of 11 to 26% in 10 yr are theoretically possible, and could be even higher in a genomic selection program. However, several uncertainties are discussed; for example, the lack of true methane measurements (and the key assumption that methane

  18. The Large-Bodied hominoids of the Himalayas

    Michael Trachtengerts

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The review of available data concerning to large-bodied hominoids detected in the Himalayas is presented. They are mainly footprints (photographs by E.Shipton and M.Ward, P.Bordet, F.Smythe, and A.Woodridge and also narration of one remote observation. It is shown that on the whole these data reveal basic features of the undefined creature, most probably humanlike primate, and allow describing it as a separate species. One of its features is unusual four-toed foot with two strong toes and two small toes. A taxonomic name for this hominoid is proposed ¾ Homo pardigitatus sp. nov. ("That has paired toes".

  19. Effect of selective attention on somatosensory evoked potentials in healthy people.

    Kozieł, H

    1985-01-01

    The effect of selective attention on various waves of the somatosensory evoked potentials was studied in healthy people in the area of specific projection (sensorimotor) and the area of non-specific projection (occipital). Significant changes of the amplitude of waves with latency exceeding 55 msec were observed when attention was concentrated on the received stimulus (I and II group of subjects). In group I the process of attention concentration was associated with a phenomenon connected with the new yet unknown experimental situation (prevalence of amplitude increase), while in group II habituation was observed (prevailing amplitude fall). Waves M125 and N200 in the sensorimotor area and N200 and N235-255 in the occipital area seemed to be associated in a peculiar way with the process of attention concentration. PMID:3837590

  20. Potential of Radiotelescopes for Atmospheric Line Observations: I. Observation Principles and Transmission Curves for Selected Sites

    Schneider, Nicola; Baron, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Existing and planned radiotelescopes working in the millimetre (mm) and sub-millimetre wavelengths range provide the possibility to be used for atmospheric line observations. To scrutinize this potential, we outline the differences and similarities in technical equipment and observing techniques between ground-based aeronomy mm-wave radiometers and radiotelescopes. Comprehensive tables summarizing the technical characteristics of existing and future (sub)-mm radiotelescopes are given. The advantages and disadvantages using radiotelescopes for atmospheric line observations are discussed. In view of the importance of exploring the sub-mm and far-infrared wavelengths range for astronomical observations and atmospheric sciences, we present model calculations of the atmospheric transmission for selected telescope sites (DOME-C/Antarctica, ALMA/Chajnantor, JCMT and CSO on Mauna Kea/Hawaii, KOSMA/Swiss Alpes) for frequencies between 0 and 2000 GHz (0 to 150 micron) and typical atmospheric conditions using the forwar...

  1. ORIGINAL ARTICLE: In-vitro Antioxidant Potential of a Herbal Preparation Containing Four Selected Medicinal Plants

    Preeti Padmanabhan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The therapeutic effects of several plants used in traditional medicine, are usually attributed to their antioxidant properties. Aim and objective: To evaluate the in-vitro antioxidant potential of herbal preparation a combination of four selected medicinal plants (HP-4 using different experimental models.Material and Methods: Polyphenols, flavonoids and flavonols concentrations and antioxidant activity of herbal preparation (HP-4as compared to butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT and á- tocopherol in various experimental models were evaluated. Results: The antioxidantactivities of HP-4 were concentration dependent in different experimental models and were comparable to activities of BHT anda- tocopherol. Conclusion: Polyherbal formulation of HP-4 is better than individual plant extracts.

  2. Selective uptake of porphyrins within experimental atheromatous plaques: Potential for laser photodynamic therapy

    The authors investigated the selective uptake of various porphyrins atheromatous plaques. Grass and microscopic examination of atherosclorotic rabbit aortas under ultraviolet light 48 hours after porphyrin administration disclosed porphyrin fluorescence exclusively on the plaques. As judged from the fluorescence emission, the order of affinity of the porphyrins for plaque is as follows: photofrin II (PF II) > hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) > tetrasulfonatophenyl porphyrin (TPPS) ≥ hydroxyethylvinyldeuteroporphyrin (HVD), hematoporphyrin (HP). The potential application of intravascular irradiation of plaques labeled with porphyrins in the treatment of atheroma can be investigated using the animal model. Matching the irradiation light wave length to the porphyrin absorption peak allows specific effects to be directed to the plaque without damaging the normal vessel wall

  3. Potential of vetiver (vetiveria zizanioides l.) grass in removing selected pahs from diesel contaminated soil

    Phytoremediation has been renowned as an encouraging technology for the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soils, little is known about how plant species behave during the process of PAH phytoremediation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) plant in PAH phytoremediation and extraction potential of Vetiveria zizanioides for selected PAHs from the diesel contaminated soil. The field soil samples were spiked with varying concentrations (0.5% and 1%) of diesel and used for pot experiment which was conducted in greenhouse. Vetiver grass was used as experimental plant. Physico-chemical analysis of soil was performed before and after the experiment. Concentration of selected PAHs i.e. phenanthrene, pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene in soil was determined using HPLC. Plant parameters such as root/shoot length and dry mass were compared after harvest. Concentrations of PAHs were also determined in plant material and in soils after harvesting. Result showed that initial concentration of phenanthrene was significantly different from final concentration in treatments in which soil was spiked with diesel. Initial and final concentration of pyrene in soil was also significantly different from each other in two treatments in which soil was spiked with 1% diesel. Pyrene concentration was significantly different in roots and shoots of plants while benzo(a)pyrene concentration in treatments in which soil was spiked with diesel was also significantly different from roots and shoots. Phenanthrene was less extracted by the plant in all the treatments and it was present in higher concentration in soil as compared to plant. Our results indicate that vetiver grass has effectively removed PAHs from soil consequently a significantly higher root and shoot uptake of PAHs was observed than control treatments. Study concludes Vetiveria zizanioides as potentially promising plant specie for the removal

  4. Diffusion in a logarithmic potential: scaling and selection in the approach to equilibrium

    The equation which describes a particle diffusing in a logarithmic potential arises in diverse physical problems such as momentum diffusion of atoms in optical traps, condensation processes, and denaturation of DNA molecules. A detailed study of the approach of such systems to equilibrium via a scaling analysis is carried out, revealing three surprising features: (i) the solution is given by two distinct scaling forms, corresponding to a diffusive (x∼√t) and a subdiffusive (x<<√t) length scale, respectively; (ii) the scaling exponents and scaling functions corresponding to both regimes are selected by the initial condition; and (iii) this dependence on the initial condition manifests a 'phase transition' from a regime in which the scaling solution depends on the initial condition to a regime in which it is independent of it. The selection mechanism which is found has many similarities to the marginal stability mechanism, which has been widely studied in the context of fronts propagating into unstable states. The general scaling forms are presented and their practical and theoretical applications are discussed

  5. Reassessing Catastrophic Infill of the Pokhara Valley, Nepal Himalaya

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Bernhardt, Anne; Stolle, Amelie; Adhikari, Basantha; Korup, Oliver

    2014-05-01

    The Pokhara valley, home to Nepal's second largest city and a major tourist attraction (28°15'N, 83°58'E), is covered by 4-5 km3 and 50-100 m thick intramontane fan deposits that resulted from massive aggradation of the Seti Khola, a river draining the Annapurna Massif of the Greater Himalaya. Poorly sorted, gravelly fluvial facies intercalated with debris-flow and mud-flow facies known as the Pokhara Gravels attest to highly energetic transport conditions during one or several catastrophic flow events. In May 2012, a devastative flash flood/debris flow in the Seti Khola rekindled interest in the formation processes and timing of the Pokhara Gravels as they may provide constraints on the magnitudes and frequencies of similar past events. Interpretations of previous sedimentological work and radiocarbon dating (Yamanaka, 1982; Fort, 1987) culminated in the belief that the Pokhara Gravels were catastrophically emplaced only 500 to 1000 years ago, although the exact nature, timing, and triggers of the purported event(s) remain obscure. Specifically, it remains debated whether the Pokhara Gravels were deposited instantaneously, possibly within less than a year, or whether sedimentation was more protracted over perhaps decades to millennia. We present new geomorphological, sedimentological, geochemical, and radiocarbon data and re-assess a potential catastrophic infill of the Pokhara Valley during one or several high-magnitude events. Support for this scenario is given by laterally continuous long-runout (~40 km) debris-flow deposits topped by large (i.e. up to >11-m) boulders, a distinctly calcareous lithology diagnostic of a small Greater Himalayan source area tens of kilometres upstream, and by historical anecdotes of a large flood that destroyed an earlier settlement in the area. However, we show that dated outcrops of fine-grained sediments in tributaries blocked by the Pokhara Gravels yield asynchronous ages. Although our radiocarbon dates are consistent with

  6. A Selective Dopamine Reuptake Inhibitor Improves Prefrontal Cortex-Dependent Cognitive Function: Potential Relevance to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Schmeichel, Brooke E.; Zemlan, Frank P.; Berridge, Craig W

    2012-01-01

    Drugs used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) improve prefrontal cortex (PFC)-dependent cognitive function. The majority of ADHD-related treatments act either as dual norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) reuptake inhibitors (psychostimulants) or selective NE reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). Certain benztropine analogs act as highly selective DA reuptake inhibitors while lacking the reinforcing actions, and thus abuse potential, of psychostimulants. To assess the potential u...

  7. Effects of 20 Selected Fruits on Ethanol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts.

    Zhang, Yu-Jie; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Sha; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-04-01

    The consumption of alcohol is often accompanied by other foods, such as fruits and vegetables. This study is aimed to investigate the effects of 20 selected fruits on ethanol metabolism to find out their potential health benefits and harmful impacts. The effects of the fruits on ethanol metabolism were characterized by the concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood, as well as activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase in liver of mice. Furthermore, potential health benefits and harmful impacts of the fruits were evaluated by biochemical parameters including aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase. Generally, effects of these fruits on ethanol metabolism were very different. Some fruits (such as Citrus limon (yellow), Averrhoa carambola, Pyrus spp., and Syzygium samarangense) could decrease the concentration of ethanol in blood. In addition, several fruits (such as Cucumis melo) showed hepatoprotective effects by significantly decreasing AST or ALT level in blood, while some fruits (such as Averrhoa carambola) showed adverse effects. The results suggested that the consumption of alcohol should not be accompanied by some fruits, and several fruits could be developed as functional foods for the prevention and treatment of hangover and alcohol use disorder. PMID:27043608

  8. In vitro selection of bacteria with potential for use as probiotics in marine shrimp culture

    Felipe do Nascimento Vieira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to isolate strains of lactic acid bacteria with probiotic potential from the digestive tract of marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei, and to carry out in vitro selection based on multiple characters. The ideotype (ideal proposed strain was defined by the highest averages for the traits maximum growth velocity, final count of viable cells, and inhibition halo against nine freshwater and marine pathogens, and by the lowest averages for the traits duplication time and resistance of strains to NaCl (1.5 and 3%, pH (6, 8, and 9, and biliary salts (5%. Mahalanobis distance (D² was estimated among the evaluated strains, and the best ones were those with the shortest distances to the ideotype. Ten bacterial strains were isolated and biochemically identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (3, L. brevis (3, Weissella confusa (2, Lactococcus lactis (1, and L. delbrueckii (1. Lactobacillus plantarum strains showed a wide spectrum of action and the largest inhibition halos against pathogens, both Gram-positive and negative, high growth rate, and tolerance to all evaluated parameters. In relation to ideotype, L. plantarum showed the lowest Mahalanobis (D² distance, followed by the strains of W. confusa, L. brevis, L. lactis, and L. delbrueckii. Among the analyzed bacterial strains, those of Lactobacillus plantarum have the greatest potential for use as a probiotic for marine shrimp.

  9. Explore the Most Potential Supplier’s Selection Determinants in Modern Supply Chain Management

    Ming-Yuan Hsieh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To increment the research reliability, validity, and representativeness, this study creatively cross-employed the factor analysis (FA and the grey relational analysis (GRA methods. The results of the 144 fully completed questionnaires are analyzed by FA and then these results were utilized in second questionnaires design of 15 experts. Furthermore, the results of these second questionnaires were further analyzed by GRA in order to explore the most potential supplier’s selection determinants in the modern supply chain management (MSCM. Beyond a series of measurements, the measured results have induced three contributive findings: (1 the empirical interviewed industrialists reported concern that suppliers have to provide a higher material yield rate and material delivery on time rate for the qualitative increment as well as a higher supplier’s gross margin ROI for the financial stabilization in MSCM; (2 the 15 experts concluded that material insurance rate is an important attribute to estimate risky assessments and the supplier’s gross margin ROI and warehouse operations cost as a percentage of sales are critical elements in the financial evaluations of potential suppliers; and (3 Supplier’s gross margin ROI, outbound freight cost as a percentage of sales, and material insurance rate are the three most decisive determinants in MSCM.

  10. Isoeugenol is a selective potentiator of camptothecin cytotoxicity in vertebrate cells lacking TDP1.

    Elsayed, Waheba; El-Shafie, Lamia; Hassan, Mohamed K; Farag, Mohamed A; El-Khamisy, Sherif F

    2016-01-01

    Camptothecin (CPT), a topoisomerase I (TOP1) inhibitor, exhibits anti-tumor activity against a wide range of tumors. Redundancy of TOP1-mediated repair mechanisms is a major challenge facing the efficiency of TOP1-targetting therapies. This study aims to uncover new TOP1 targeting approaches utilising a selection of natural compounds in the presence or absence of tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase I (TDP1); a key TOP1-mediated protein-linked DNA break (PDB) repair enzyme. We identify, isoeugenol, a phenolic ether found in plant essential oils, as a potentiator of CPT cytotoxicity in Tdp1 deficient but not proficient cells. Consistent with our cellular data, isoeugenol did not inhibit Tdp1 enzymatic activity in vitro nor it sensitized cells to the PARP1 inhibitor olaparib. However, biochemical analyses suggest that isoeugenol inhibits TDP2 catalytic activity; a pathway that can compensate for the absence of TDP1. Consistent with this, isoeugenol exacerbated etoposide-induced cytotoxicity, which generates TOP2-mediated PDBs for which TDP2 is required for processing. Together, these findings identify isoeugenol as a potential lead compound for developing TDP2 inhibitors and encourage structure-activity relationship studies to shed more light on its utility in drug discovery programs. PMID:27220325

  11. Isoeugenol is a selective potentiator of camptothecin cytotoxicity in vertebrate cells lacking TDP1

    Elsayed, Waheba; El-Shafie, Lamia; Hassan, Mohamed K.; Farag, Mohamed A.; El-Khamisy, Sherif F.

    2016-01-01

    Camptothecin (CPT), a topoisomerase I (TOP1) inhibitor, exhibits anti-tumor activity against a wide range of tumors. Redundancy of TOP1-mediated repair mechanisms is a major challenge facing the efficiency of TOP1-targetting therapies. This study aims to uncover new TOP1 targeting approaches utilising a selection of natural compounds in the presence or absence of tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase I (TDP1); a key TOP1-mediated protein-linked DNA break (PDB) repair enzyme. We identify, isoeugenol, a phenolic ether found in plant essential oils, as a potentiator of CPT cytotoxicity in Tdp1 deficient but not proficient cells. Consistent with our cellular data, isoeugenol did not inhibit Tdp1 enzymatic activity in vitro nor it sensitized cells to the PARP1 inhibitor olaparib. However, biochemical analyses suggest that isoeugenol inhibits TDP2 catalytic activity; a pathway that can compensate for the absence of TDP1. Consistent with this, isoeugenol exacerbated etoposide-induced cytotoxicity, which generates TOP2-mediated PDBs for which TDP2 is required for processing. Together, these findings identify isoeugenol as a potential lead compound for developing TDP2 inhibitors and encourage structure-activity relationship studies to shed more light on its utility in drug discovery programs. PMID:27220325

  12. Objective selection of EEG late potentials through residual dependence estimation of independent components

    This paper presents a novel method to objectively select electroencephalographic (EEG) cortical sources estimated by independent component analysis (ICA) in event-related potential (ERP) studies. A proximity measure based on mutual information is employed to estimate residual dependences of the components that are then hierarchically clustered based on these residual dependences. Next, the properties of each group of components are evaluated at each level of the hierarchical tree by two indices that aim to assess both cluster tightness and physiological reliability through a template matching process. These two indices are combined in three different approaches to bring to light the hierarchical structure of the cluster organizations. Our method is tested on a set of experiments with the purpose of enhancing late positive ERPs elicited by emotional picture stimuli. Results suggest that the best way to look for physiologically plausible late positive potential (LPP) sources is to explore in depth the tightness of those clusters that, taken together, best resemble the template. According to our results, after brain sources clustering, LPPs are always identified more accurately than from ensemble-averaged raw data. Since the late components of an ERP involve the same associative areas, regardless of the modality of stimulation or specific tasks administered, the proposed method can be simply adapted to other ERP studies, and extended from psychophysiological studies to pathological or sport training evaluation support

  13. Selection of potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria from fermented olives by in vitro tests.

    Argyri, Anthoula A; Zoumpopoulou, Georgia; Karatzas, Kimon-Andreas G; Tsakalidou, Effie; Nychas, George-John E; Panagou, Efstathios Z; Tassou, Chrysoula C

    2013-04-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from naturally fermented olives and select candidates to be used as probiotic starters for the improvement of the traditional fermentation process and the production of newly added value functional foods. Seventy one (71) lactic acid bacterial strains (17 Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 1 Ln. pseudomesenteroides, 13 Lactobacillus plantarum, 37 Lb. pentosus, 1 Lb. paraplantarum, and 2 Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei) isolated from table olives were screened for their probiotic potential. Lb. rhamnosus GG and Lb. casei Shirota were used as reference strains. The in vitro tests included survival in simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions, antimicrobial activity (against Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli O157:H7), Caco-2 surface adhesion, resistance to 9 antibiotics and haemolytic activity. Three (3) Lb. pentosus, 4 Lb. plantarum and 2 Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei strains demonstrated the highest final population (>8 log cfu/ml) after 3 h of exposure at low pH. The majority of the tested strains were resistant to bile salts even after 4 h of exposure, while 5 Lb. plantarum and 7 Lb. pentosus strains exhibited partial bile salt hydrolase activity. None of the strains inhibited the growth of the pathogens tested. Variable efficiency to adhere to Caco-2 cells was observed. This was the same regarding strains' susceptibility towards different antibiotics. None of the strains exhibited β-haemolytic activity. As a whole, 4 strains of Lb. pentosus, 3 strains of Lb. plantarum and 2 strains of Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei were found to possess desirable in vitro probiotic properties similar to or even better than the reference probiotic strains Lb. casei Shirota and Lb. rhamnosus GG. These strains are good candidates for further investigation both with in vivo studies to elucidate their potential health benefits and in olive fermentation processes

  14. Screening of CHP Potential at Federal Sites in Select Regions of the U.S.

    Energy Nexus Group, . .

    2002-02-25

    Combined Cooling Heat and Power (CHP) is a master term for onsite power generation technologies that sequentially produce electrical or mechanical energy and useful thermal energy. Some form of CHP has existed for more than 100 years and it is now achieving a greater level of acceptance due to an increasing need for reliable power service and energy cost management. Capturing and using the heat produced as a byproduct of generating electricity from fuel sources increases the usable energy that can be obtained from the original fuel source. CHP technologies have the potential to reduce energy consumption through increased efficiency--decreasing energy bills as well as pollution. The EPA recognizes CHP as a potent climate change mitigation measure. The U.S. Department of Energy (D.O.E.) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is assisting Federal agencies to realize their energy efficiency goals. CHP is an efficiency measure that is receiving growing attention because of its sizable potential to provide efficiency, environmental, and reliability benefits. CHP therefore benefits the host facility, the electric infrastructure, and the U.S. society as a whole. This report and study seeks to make a preliminary inquiry into near term CHP opportunities for federal facilities in selected U.S. regions. It offers to help focus the attention of policy makers and energy facility managers on good candidate facilities for CHP. First, a ranked list of high potential individual sites is identified. Then, several classes of federal facilities are identified for the multiple opportunities they offer as a class. Recommendations are then offered for appropriate next steps for the evaluation and cost effective implementation of CHP. This study was designed to ultimately rank federal facilities in terms of their potential to take advantage of CHP economic and external savings in the near term. In order to best serve the purposes of this study, projections have been expressed in terms of

  15. Rapid Response to Selection, Competitive Release and Increased Transmission Potential of Artesunate-Selected Plasmodium chabaudi Malaria Parasites

    Pollitt, Laura C.; Silvie Huijben; Sim, Derek G.; Salathé, Rahel M.; Jones, Matthew J.; Andrew F Read

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of drug resistance, a key challenge for our ability to treat and control infections, depends on two processes: de-novo resistance mutations, and the selection for and spread of resistant mutants within a population. Understanding the factors influencing the rates of these two processes is essential for maximizing the useful lifespan of drugs and, therefore, effective disease control. For malaria parasites, artemisinin-based drugs are the frontline weapons in the fight against di...

  16. An evaluation of the cytochrome P450 inhibition potential of selected pesticides in human hepatic microsomes.

    Abass, Khaled; Turpeinen, Miia; Pelkonen, Olavi

    2009-08-01

    The goal of this work was to study the ability of 18 pesticides to inhibit selective model activities for all major xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, namely CYP1A1/2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1 and 3A4. Generally organophosphorus insecticides were the most potent and extensive inhibitors, especially towards CYP1A1/2 (IC(50) values of chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion and profenofos approximately 3 micro M), CYP2B6 (IC(50) values of chlorpyrifos and fenitrothion 2.5 micro M), CYP2C8 (fenitrothion 4.3 micro M), CYP2C9 (fenitrothion and malathion 4.8 and 2.5 micro M, respectively), CYP2D6 (chlorpyrifos and phenthoate approximately 3 micro M) and CYP3A4 (chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion and phenthoate 3-4 micro M). Otherwise there were quite considerable differences in potency and extent of inhibition between different organophosphates. Pyrethroids were in general very weak or inactive. Deltamethrin and fenvalerate were potent inhibitors of CYP2D6 (IC(50) values of approximately 3 micro M) while lambda-cyhalothrin potently inhibited both CYP2D6 and CYP3A4-mediated activities (IC(50)'s about 3-4 micro M). Some pesticides caused relatively potent inhibitions sporadically (carbendazim, CYP2D6, IC(50) = 12 micro M; atrazine, CYP3A4, IC(50) = 2.8 micro M; glyphosate, CYP2C9, IC(50) = 3.7 micro M; hexaflumuron, IC(50) = 6.0 micro M). With the exceptions of alpha-cypermethrin, cypermethrin, isoproturon, carbaryl and abamectin, most pesticides inhibited relatively potently at least one CYP-selective activity, which may have relevance for potential interactions in occupational exposures and for further studies on the CYP-associated metabolism of respective pesticides. PMID:20183062

  17. Phenolic Profile and Antioxidant Potential of Leaves from Selected Cotoneaster Medik. Species.

    Kicel, Agnieszka; Michel, Piotr; Owczarek, Aleksandra; Marchelak, Anna; Żyżelewicz, Dorota; Budryn, Grażyna; Oracz, Joanna; Olszewska, Monika Anna

    2016-01-01

    The antioxidant efficiency of 70% aqueous methanolic extracts from the leaves of twelve selected Cotoneaster Medik. species was evaluated using four complementary in vitro tests based on SET- (single electron transfer) and HAT-type (hydrogen atom transfer) mechanisms (DPPH, FRAP, O₂(•-) and H₂O₂ scavenging assays). The samples exhibited the dose-dependent responses in all assays with activity parameters of EC50 = 18.5-34.5 µg/mL for DPPH; 0.9-3.8 mmol Fe(2+)/g for FRAP; SC50 = 27.7-74.8 µg/mL for O₂(•-); and SC50 = 29.0-91.3 µg/mL for H₂O₂. Significant linear correlations (|r| = 0.76-0.97, p < 0.01) between activity parameters and total contents of phenolics (5.2%-15.4% GAE) and proanthocyanidins (2.1%-15.0% CYE), with weak or no effects for chlorogenic acid isomers (0.69%-2.93%) and total flavonoids (0.28%-1.40%) suggested that among the listed polyphenols, proanthocyanidins are the most important determinants of the tested activity. UHPLC-PDA-ESI-QTOF-MS analyses led to detection of 34 polyphenols, of which 10 B-type procyanidins, 5 caffeoylquinic acids and 14 flavonoids were identified. After cluster analysis of the data matrix, the leaves of Cotoneaster zabelii, C. splendens, C. bullatus, C. divaricatus, C. hjelmqvistii and C. lucidus were selected as the most promising sources of natural antioxidants, exhibiting the highest phenolic levels and antioxidant capacities, and therefore the greatest potential for pharmaceutical applications. PMID:27240329

  18. Selective oxidation of methionine residues in apolipoprotein A-I and its potential biological consequences

    suggest that selective oxidation of Met residues of apo A-I may enhance rather than diminish known antiatherogenic activities of the apolipoprotein. Thus, our results are consistent with the overall hypothesis that detoxification of lipid hydroperoxides by Met residues of apo A-I is potentially antiatherogenic

  19. Carbon and oxygen isotope changes in Siwalik soils from Nepal Himalaya

    Siwalik sediments of lower Himalayas are derived from the erosion of the rocks from higher reaches and deposited in the foreland basin. These group of sediments are formed over the time span of last ∼20 Ma

  20. Dispersal events of Triassic-Jurassic boundary faunas, and paleoenvironment of Tibetan Himalaya

    FüRSICH; Franz; Theodor

    2009-01-01

    End-Triassic ammonoid and bivalve faunas of the Germig area, Tibetan Himalaya, lived in a tropical, shallow-water environment during the Triassic-Jurassic boundary interval. High stratigraphic resolution based on ammonite-biochrons allows to tracing the place of origin of several faunal elements. The bivalves Aguilerella and Ctenostreon occurred first in the Tibetan Himalaya and migrated from there to the eastern South Pacific, exhibiting a pantropic dispersal pattern. This dispersal route is supported by the distribution pattern of the ammonites Choristoceras, Discamphiceras, Pleuroacanthites, and Psiloceras calliphyllum. A few taxa, which went extinct everywhere else by the end of the Triassic, survived in the Tibetan Himalaya into early Early Jurassic times. They include the ammonites Choristoceras and Eopsiloceras, and the bivalves Newaagia, Terquemia, Persia, Ryderia guangdongensis, and Cultriopsis angusta. This suggests that the Tibetan Himalaya may have played a refugia role in the course of the end-Triassic mass extinction.

  1. Automated tube potential selection for standard chest and abdominal CT in follow-up patients with testicular cancer: comparison with fixed tube potential

    Gnannt, Ralph; Winklehner, Anna; Frauenfelder, Thomas; Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Eberli, Daniel [University Hospital Zurich, Clinic for Urology, Zurich (Switzerland); Knuth, Alexander [University Hospital Zurich, Clinic for Oncology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2012-09-15

    To evaluate prospectively, in patients with testicular cancer, the radiation dose-saving potential and image quality of contrast-enhanced chest and abdominal CT with automated tube potential selection. Forty consecutive patients with testicular cancer underwent contrast-enhanced arterio-venous chest and portal-venous abdominal CT with automated tube potential selection (protocol B; tube potential 80-140 kVp), which is based on the attenuation of the CT topogram. All had a first CT at 120 kVp (protocol A) using the same 64-section CT machine and similar settings. Image quality was assessed; dose information (CTDI{sub vol}) was noted. Image noise and attenuation in the liver and spleen were significantly higher for protocol B (P < 0.05 each), whereas attenuation in the deltoid and erector spinae muscles was similar. In protocol B, tube potential was reduced to 100 kVp in 18 chest and 33 abdominal examinations, and to 80 kVp in 5 abdominal CT examinations; it increased to 140 kVp in one patient. Image quality of examinations using both CT protocols was rated as diagnostic. CTDI{sub vol} was significantly lower for protocol B compared to protocol A (reduction by 12%, P < 0.01). In patients with testicular cancer, radiation dose of chest and abdominal CT can be reduced with automated tube potential selection, while image quality is preserved. (orig.)

  2. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV as a potential target for selective prodrug activation and chemotherapeutic action in cancers.

    Dahan, Arik; Wolk, Omri; Yang, Peihua; Mittal, Sachin; Wu, Zhiqian; Landowski, Christopher P; Amidon, Gordon L

    2014-12-01

    The efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs is often offset by severe side effects attributable to poor selectivity and toxicity to normal cells. Recently, the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) was considered as a potential target for the delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of targeting chemotherapeutic drugs to DPPIV as a strategy to enhance their specificity. The expression profile of DPPIV was obtained for seven cancer cell lines using DNA microarray data from the DTP database, and was validated by RT-PCR. A prodrug was then synthesized by linking the cytotoxic drug melphalan to a proline-glycine dipeptide moiety, followed by hydrolysis studies in the seven cell lines with a standard substrate, as well as the glycyl-prolyl-melphalan (GP-Mel). Lastly, cell proliferation studies were carried out to demonstrate enzyme-dependent activation of the candidate prodrug. The relative RT-PCR expression levels of DPPIV in the cancer cell lines exhibited linear correlation with U95Av2 Affymetrix data (r(2) = 0.94), and with specific activity of a standard substrate, glycine-proline-p-nitroanilide (r(2) = 0.96). The significantly higher antiproliferative activity of GP-Mel in Caco-2 cells (GI₅₀ = 261 μM) compared to that in SK-MEL-5 cells (GI₅₀ = 807 μM) was consistent with the 9-fold higher specific activity of the prodrug in Caco-2 cells (5.14 pmol/min/μg protein) compared to SK-MEL-5 cells (0.68 pmol/min/μg protein) and with DPPIV expression levels in these cells. Our results demonstrate the great potential to exploit DPPIV as a prodrug activating enzyme for efficient chemotherapeutic drug targeting. PMID:25365774

  3. Aerosol Characteristics at a High Altitude Location in Central Himalayas: Optical Properties and Radiative Forcing

    Pant, P.; Hegde, P; Dumka, U. C.; Sagar, Ram; S. K. Satheesh; Moorthy, K. Krishna

    2006-01-01

    Collocated measurements of the mass concentrations of aerosol black carbon (BC) and composite aerosols near the surface were carried out along with spectral aerosol optical depths (AODs) from a high altitude station, Manora Peak in Central Himalayas, during a comprehensive aerosol field campaign in December 2004. Despite being a pristine location in the Shivalik Ranges of Central Himalayas, and having a monthly mean AOD (at 500 nm) of 0.059 $\\pm$ 0.033 (typical to this site), total suspended ...

  4. Potential of radiotelescopes for atmospheric line observations: I. Observation principles and transmission curves for selected sites

    Schneider, Nicola; Urban, Joachim; Baron, Philippe

    2009-10-01

    Existing and planned radiotelescopes working in the millimetre (mm) and sub-millimetre wavelengths range provide the possibility to be used for atmospheric line observations. To scrutinize this potential, we outline the differences and similarities in technical equipment and observing techniques between ground-based aeronomy mm-wave radiometers and radiotelescopes. Comprehensive tables summarizing the technical characteristics of existing and future (sub)-mm radiotelescopes are given. The advantages and disadvantages using radiotelescopes for atmospheric line observations are discussed. In view of the importance of exploring the sub-mm and far-infrared wavelengths range for astronomical observations and atmospheric sciences, we present model calculations of the atmospheric transmission for selected telescope sites (DOME-C/Antarctica, ALMA/Chajnantor, JCMT and CSO on Mauna Kea/Hawaii, KOSMA/Swiss Alpes) for frequencies between 0 and 2000 GHz ( 150μm) and typical atmospheric conditions using the forward model MOLIERE (version 5). For the DOME-C site, the transmission over a larger range of up to 10 THz ( 30μm) is calculated in order to demonstrate the quality of an Earth-bound site for mid-IR observations. All results are available on a dedicated webpage.

  5. Selection of a mineral binder with potentialities for the stabilization/solidification of aluminum metal

    Highlights: • Binders capable of reducing the pore solution pH compared with Portland cements are reviewed. • The binders are then tested against aluminum corrosion. • Corrosion of aluminum metal is minimal with magnesium phosphate cement. • The H2 release can be reduced still further by adding LiNO3 to the mixing solution. • Electrochemical characterizations show that aluminum tends to a passive state. - Abstract: In a strongly alkaline medium, such as that encountered in conventional cementitious materials based on Portland cement, aluminum metal is corroded, with continued production of hydrogen. In order to develop a mineral matrix having enhanced compatibility with aluminum, a literature review was first undertaken to identify binders capable of reducing the pore solution pH compared with Portland cement. An experimental study was then carried out to measure the hydrogen production resulting from corrosion of aluminum metal rods encapsulated in the different selected cement pastes. The best results were achieved with magnesium phosphate cement, which released very little hydrogen over the duration of the study. This production could be reduced still further by adding a corrosion inhibitor (lithium nitrate) to the mixing solution. Open circuit potential measurement and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy of aluminum electrode encapsulated in two pastes based on Portland cement and magnesium phosphate cement showed different redox behaviors. In the Portland cement paste, the electrochemical data confirmed the corrosion of aluminum whereas this latter tended to a passive state in the magnesium phosphate binder

  6. Newly-formed emotional memories guide selective attention processes: Evidence from event-related potentials.

    Schupp, Harald T; Kirmse, Ursula; Schmälzle, Ralf; Flaisch, Tobias; Renner, Britta

    2016-01-01

    Emotional cues can guide selective attention processes. However, emotional stimuli can both activate long-term memory representations reflecting general world knowledge and engage newly formed memory representations representing specific knowledge from the immediate past. Here, the self-completion feature of associative memory was utilized to assess the regulation of attention processes by newly-formed emotional memory. First, new memory representations were formed by presenting pictures depicting a person either in an erotic pose or as a portrait. Afterwards, to activate newly-built memory traces, edited pictures were presented showing only the head region of the person. ERP recordings revealed the emotional regulation of attention by newly-formed memories. Specifically, edited pictures from the erotic compared to the portrait category elicited an early posterior negativity and late positive potential, similar to the findings observed for the original pictures. A control condition showed that the effect was dependent on newly-formed memory traces. Given the large number of new memories formed each day, they presumably make an important contribution to the regulation of attention in everyday life. PMID:27321471

  7. Transport and selective chaining of bidisperse particles in a travelling wave potential.

    Tierno, Pietro; Straube, Arthur V

    2016-05-01

    We combine experiments, theory and numerical simulation to investigate the dynamics of a binary suspension of paramagnetic colloidal particles dispersed in water and transported above a stripe-patterned magnetic garnet film. The substrate generates a one-dimensional periodic energy landscape above its surface. The application of an elliptically polarized rotating magnetic field causes the landscape to translate, inducing direct transport of paramagnetic particles placed above the film. The ellipticity of the applied field can be used to control and tune the interparticle interactions, from net repulsive to net attractive. When considering particles of two distinct sizes, we find that, depending on their elevation above the surface of the magnetic substrate, the particles feel effectively different potentials, resulting in different mobilities. We exploit this feature to induce selective chaining for certain values of the applied field parameters. In particular, when driving two types of particles, we force only one type to condense into travelling parallel chains. These chains confine the movement of the other non-chaining particles within narrow colloidal channels. This phenomenon is explained by considering the balance of pairwise magnetic forces between the particles and their individual coupling with the travelling landscape. PMID:27194527

  8. Improvement of selected strains through gamma irradiation for enhanced lipolytic potential

    The purpose of the present investigation was to enhance the production of industrially important enzyme lipase by subjecting the wild lipase producing fungal strains i.e. Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus microsporus and Penicillium atrovenetum to various doses of gamma irradiation (20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140 and 160 Gy). The isolation and lipolytic activity of selected mutant derived strains is described in this paper. Among all the mutants tested, MBL-5 obtained at 140Gy of Aspergillus niger strain showed highest extracellular lipase activity (13.75 +- 0.15 U mL/sup -1/) while MBL-1 Rhizopus microsporus at the rate 20Gy showed the lowest activity i.e., 1.06 +- 0.11 U mL/sup -1/. A range of pH 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 was used to check the lipolytic potential of various mutants along with their wild type. It was observed that MBL-5 (Aspergillus niger) and MBL-2 (Rhizopus microsporus) showed enhanced extracellular lipase activity at pH 11 while MBL-3 (Penicillium atrovenetum) showed the highest extracellular lipase activity 22.53 +- 0.21 U mL/sup -1/ at pH 9. It indicates a possible role for the MBL-2, MBL-3 and MBL-5 mutant strains in the detergent industry for the development of eco-friendly technologies. (author)

  9. Selection of a mineral binder with potentialities for the stabilization/solidification of aluminum metal

    Cau Dit Coumes, C., E-mail: celine.cau-dit-coumes@cea.fr [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA/DEN/MAR/DTCD/SPDE, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze cedex (France); Lambertin, D.; Lahalle, H.; Antonucci, P. [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA/DEN/MAR/DTCD/SPDE, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze cedex (France); Cannes, C.; Delpech, S. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud 11, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Binders capable of reducing the pore solution pH compared with Portland cements are reviewed. • The binders are then tested against aluminum corrosion. • Corrosion of aluminum metal is minimal with magnesium phosphate cement. • The H{sub 2} release can be reduced still further by adding LiNO{sub 3} to the mixing solution. • Electrochemical characterizations show that aluminum tends to a passive state. - Abstract: In a strongly alkaline medium, such as that encountered in conventional cementitious materials based on Portland cement, aluminum metal is corroded, with continued production of hydrogen. In order to develop a mineral matrix having enhanced compatibility with aluminum, a literature review was first undertaken to identify binders capable of reducing the pore solution pH compared with Portland cement. An experimental study was then carried out to measure the hydrogen production resulting from corrosion of aluminum metal rods encapsulated in the different selected cement pastes. The best results were achieved with magnesium phosphate cement, which released very little hydrogen over the duration of the study. This production could be reduced still further by adding a corrosion inhibitor (lithium nitrate) to the mixing solution. Open circuit potential measurement and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy of aluminum electrode encapsulated in two pastes based on Portland cement and magnesium phosphate cement showed different redox behaviors. In the Portland cement paste, the electrochemical data confirmed the corrosion of aluminum whereas this latter tended to a passive state in the magnesium phosphate binder.

  10. Intrinsic Immunomodulatory Effects of Low-Digestible Carbohydrates Selectively Extend Their Anti-Inflammatory Prebiotic Potentials

    Jérôme Breton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial effects of carbohydrate-derived fibers are mainly attributed to modulation of the microbiota, increased colonic fermentation, and the production of short-chain fatty acids. We studied the direct immune responses to alimentary fibers in in vitro and in vivo models. Firstly, we evaluated the immunomodulation induced by nine different types of low-digestible fibers on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. None of the fibers tested induced cytokine production in baseline conditions. However, only one from all fibers almost completely inhibited the production of anti- and proinflammatory cytokines induced by bacteria. Secondly, the impact of short- (five days and long-term (three weeks oral treatments with selected fibers was assessed in the trinitrobenzene-sulfonic acid colitis model in mice. The immunosuppressive fiber significantly reduced levels of inflammatory markers over both treatment periods, whereas a nonimmunomodulatory fiber had no effect. The two fibers did not differ in terms of the observed fermentation products and colonic microbiota after three weeks of treatment, suggesting that the anti-inflammatory action was not related to prebiotic properties. Hence, we observed a direct effect of a specific fiber on the murine immune system. This intrinsic, fiber-dependent immunomodulatory potential may extend prebiotic-mediated protection in inflammatory bowel disease.

  11. Newly-formed emotional memories guide selective attention processes: Evidence from event-related potentials

    Schupp, Harald T.; Kirmse, Ursula; Schmälzle, Ralf; Flaisch, Tobias; Renner, Britta

    2016-01-01

    Emotional cues can guide selective attention processes. However, emotional stimuli can both activate long-term memory representations reflecting general world knowledge and engage newly formed memory representations representing specific knowledge from the immediate past. Here, the self-completion feature of associative memory was utilized to assess the regulation of attention processes by newly-formed emotional memory. First, new memory representations were formed by presenting pictures depicting a person either in an erotic pose or as a portrait. Afterwards, to activate newly-built memory traces, edited pictures were presented showing only the head region of the person. ERP recordings revealed the emotional regulation of attention by newly-formed memories. Specifically, edited pictures from the erotic compared to the portrait category elicited an early posterior negativity and late positive potential, similar to the findings observed for the original pictures. A control condition showed that the effect was dependent on newly-formed memory traces. Given the large number of new memories formed each day, they presumably make an important contribution to the regulation of attention in everyday life. PMID:27321471

  12. PRODUCTION POTENTIALS AND THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SELECTED DUCK STRAINS: A MINI REVIEW

    FREDERICK ADZITEY

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical composition of meat is an important factor in human nutrition and contributes to the choice of food by mankind. In recent times humans are much conscious of the health benefits of what they consume. Emphasize on the consumption of balance diets have been given much attention. The consumption of organic foods, vegetables, fruits, foods high in fibre, foods of animal origin with less fat and cholesterol are among the food stuffs being upheld. Poultry meat, eggs and products are widely consumed worldwide without much religious restrictions. The high consumption of poultry meat is partly due to it ease for preparing different dishes and the development of a wide range of processed ready-to-eat meals incorporated with chicken as a major protein source. Poultry meat (white meat is known to be healthier than red meat probably due to its low calorie and lipid contents. Duck meat is comparable to that of chicken despite being red meat and it is a close alternative source of protein and other nutrients for humans. Duck meat is high in protein, iron, selenium and niacin; and lower in calories compared to many cuts of beef. This mini-review reports on the production potentials of ducks and the physicochemical composition of selected duck strains. It also reports on world duck population.

  13. Pre-selecting potential sites for a low and intermediate level waste repository in Mexico

    The storage in surface or shallow depths is viable for radioactive waste of low and intermediate level which contains short half life radionuclide that will decay to insignificant radioactive levels in some decades and some long half life radionuclide but at very low concentrations. The site selection process for construction of radioactive waste storage facilities, that presents and adequate stability in long term, and predictable performance in future and the capacity to meet all the operational requirements, is one of the main tasks that challenge the agencies for waste disposition. Different regions of Mexican Republic have been investigated in order to satisfy basic criteria related with some subjects physiographic, geologic, geohydrologic s, tectonics and seismic, as well as other factors as population density. An analysis of the existing information provides reason to expect that the Central region could host a repository for low and intermediate level waste. One of the most promising sites for a surface-type repository is situated in this region. The analysis of the preliminary results from the investigations performed at this site, described in this paper, confirmed its potential suitability: the site has geological and geotechnical features suitable for a repository. (Author)

  14. Microscopic origin of stereochemically active lone pair formation from orbital selective external potential calculations

    The nature of the stereochemically active lone pair has long been a matter for debate. Here, by application of our recently developed orbital selective external potential (OSEP) method, we have studied the microscopic mechanism of stereochemically active lone pairs in various compounds. The OSEP method allows us to shift the energy level of a specific atomic orbital, therefore is helpful to identify unambiguously the role of this orbital in the chemical and physical properties of the system we are interested in. Our numerical results, with compelling proofs, demonstrate that the on-site mixing of the cation valence s orbital with the nominally empty p orbitals of the same subshell is crucial to the formation of a lone pair, whereas the anion p orbital has only a small effect. Our detailed investigation of Sn and Pb monochalcogenides shows that structures of these systems have significant effects on lone pairs. In return, the formation of lone pairs, which can be controlled by our OSEP method, could result in structural instabilities of Sn and Pb monochalcogenides. (paper)

  15. Wind potential assessment to estimate performance of selected wind turbines in Pandansimo Beach-Yogyakarta

    Tjahjana, D. D. D. P.; Al-Masuun, I. K.; Gustiantono, A.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the characteristics of wind speed and wind energy potential in the Pandansimo Beach-Yogyakarta based on Weibull distribution analysis. Ten-min average time series wind-speed data for a period of 2 year, measured at a height 50 m, are used in this study. The continuously recorded wind speed data were averaged over 10 minutes and stored in data logger. The results showed that the annual mean wind speed at location is 6.249 m/s, while the annual mean power densities is 264 W/m². It was further shown that the mean annual value of the most probable wind speed is 5.5 m/s and the mean annual value of the wind speed carrying maximum energy is 9.608 m/s. The performance of selected commercial wind turbine models designed for electricity generation in the site was examined. The wind turbine with the highest value of capacity factor is VESTAS V-110 with 33.97% and can produce 5951.04 M Wh/year.

  16. Potential applications of reproductive and molecular genetic technologies in the selective breeding of aquaculture species

    Nguyen, N.H.; Ponniah, A.G.; Ponzoni, R.W.

    2006-01-01

    The use of reproductive and genetic technologies can increase the efficiency of selective breeding programs for aquaculture species. Four technologies are considered, namely: marker-assisted selection, DNA fingerprinting, in-vitro fertilization, and cryopreservation. Marker-assisted selection can result in greater genetic gain, particularly for traits difficult or expensive to measure, than conventional selection methods, but its application is currently limited by lack of high density linkag...

  17. Selection of Origanum vulgare plants for essential oil, carvacrol, total phenols and antioxidant potential

    Mheen, van der H.J.C.J.; Havkin-Frenkel, D.; Berg, van den W.

    2010-01-01

    In the summer of 2005, individual plant selection was performed on different oregano populations started at Applied Plant Research (PPO-WUR) in Lelystad, The Netherlands. Selection was focused on erect growing, healthy, leafy but flowering, productive plants. Samples of these visually selected plant

  18. Selected extracellular microRNA as potential biomarkers of multiple sclerosis activity--preliminary study.

    Kacperska, Magdalena Justyna; Jastrzebski, Karol; Tomasik, Bartlomiej; Walenczak, Jakub; Konarska-Krol, Maria; Glabinski, Andrzej

    2015-05-01

    Systematic Reviews (CDSR), miRWalk, and miRBase. The isolation of extracellular microRNA from plasma was carried out using miRNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen) reagents. The reverse transcription was carried out with TaqMan® MicroRNA Reverse Transcription Kit (Applied Biosystems), as per manufacturers' instructions. Standard microRNA TaqMan® tests (Applied Biosystems) were used for miRNA quantification. The qPCR were performed on a 7900 HT Fast Real-Time PCR System (Applied Biosystems) and analyzed using Sequence Detection System 2.3 software. In addition, all patients at the Department of Neurology and Stroke undergo a routine complete blood count with differential. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the expression of selected microRNA (has-miR-let-7a, miR-92a, and miR-648a) in the plasma of patients with MS during a relapse as well as in remission and attempt to correlate the acquired data with clinically relevant parameters of the disease. Finding such correlations may potentially lead to the use of miRNA as a biomarker of MS, which could help diagnose the disease and assess its severity and the efficacy of treatment. The difference in the expression of has-miR-let-7a in the remission group and the control group was statistically significant (p = 0.002). Similarly, the expression of miRNA-648a in patients in remission was significantly different from the expression in the control group (p = 0.02). Analysis of the correlation between the expression of miRNA-92a and the severity of the disease as measured by the EDSS scale in patients undergoing relapse showed significant negative linear correlation (r = -0.54, p = 0.01). Higher miR-648a expression correlated with more frequent flare-ups in the joint group of patients in remission and relapse (p = 0.03). This study is one of the few that demonstrate significantly changed expression of selected extracellular miRNA in plasma of MS patients and correlate those findings with clinical parameters. These

  19. Quantifying sources, transport, deposition, and radiative forcing of black carbon over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau

    Zhang, Rudong; Wang, Hailong; Qian, Yun; Rasch, Philip J.; Easter, Richard C.; Ma, Po-Lun; Singh, Balwinder; Huang, Jianping; Fu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Black carbon (BC)particles over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau (HTP), both airborne and those deposited on snow, have been shown to affect snowmelt and glacier retreat. Since BC over the HTP may originate from a variety of geographical regions and emission sectors, it is essential to quantify the source-receptor relationships of BC in order to understand the contributions of natural and anthropogenic emissions and provide guidance for potential mitigation actions. In this study, we use the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) with a newly developed source tagging technique, nudged towards the MERRA meteorological reanalysis, to characterize the fate of BC particles emitted from various geographical regions and sectors. Evaluated against observations over the HTP and surrounding regions, the model simulation shows a good agreement in the seasonal variation of the near-surface airborne BC concentrations, providing confidence to use this modeling framework for characterizing BC source- receptor relationships. Our analysis shows that the relative contributions from different geographical regions and source sectors depend on seasons and the locations in the HTP. The largest contribution to annual mean BC burden and surface deposition in the entire HTP region is from biofuel and biomass (BB) emissions in South Asia, followed by fossil fuel (FF) emissions from South Asia, then FF from East Asia. The same roles hold for all the seasonal means except for the summer when East Asia FF becomes more important. For finer receptor regions of interest, South Asia BB and FF have the largest impact on BC in Himalayas and Central Tibetan Plateau, while East Asia FF and BB contribute the most to Northeast Plateau in all seasons and Southeast Plateau in the summer. Central Asia and Middle East FF emissions have relatively more important contributions to BC reaching Northwest Plateau, especially in the summer. Although the HTP local emissions only contribute about 10% of BC in

  20. Interactions of biotic and abiotic environmental factors in an ectomycorrhizal symbiosis, and the potential for selection mosaics

    Hoeksema Jason D; Piculell Bridget J; Thompson John N

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Geographic selection mosaics, in which species exert different evolutionary impacts on each other in different environments, may drive diversification in coevolving species. We studied the potential for geographic selection mosaics in plant-mycorrhizal interactions by testing whether the interaction between bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don) and one of its common ectomycorrhizal fungi (Rhizopogon occidentalis Zeller and Dodge) varies in outcome, when different combination...

  1. Substrate Selection for Fundamental Studies of Electrocatalysts and Photoelectrodes: Inert Potential Windows in Acidic, Neutral, and Basic Electrolyte

    Benck, Jesse D.; Blaise A Pinaud; Yelena Gorlin; Jaramillo, Thomas F.

    2014-01-01

    The selection of an appropriate substrate is an important initial step for many studies of electrochemically active materials. In order to help researchers with the substrate selection process, we employ a consistent experimental methodology to evaluate the electrochemical reactivity and stability of seven potential substrate materials for electrocatalyst and photoelectrode evaluation. Using cyclic voltammetry with a progressively increased scan range, we characterize three transparent conduc...

  2. Back-thrusting in Lesser Himalaya: Evidences from magnetic fabric studies in parts of Almora crystalline zone, Kumaun Lesser Himalaya

    Amar Agarwal; K K K K Agarwal; R Bali; Chandra Prakash; Gaurav Joshi

    2016-06-01

    The present study aims to understand evolution of the Lesser Himalaya, which consists of (meta) sedimentaryand crystalline rocks. Field studies, microscopic and rock magnetic investigations have beencarried out on the rocks near the South Almora Thrust (SAT) and the North Almora Thrust (NAT),which separates the Almora Crystalline Zone (ACZ) from the Lesser Himalayan sequences (LHS). Theresults show that along the South Almora Thrust, the deformation is persistent; however, near theNAT deformation pattern is complex and implies overprinting of original shear sense by a youngerdeformational event. We attribute this overprinting to late stage back-thrusting along NAT, active afterthe emplacement of ACZ. During this late stage back-thrusting, rocks of the ACZ and LHS were coupled.Back-thrusts originated below the Lesser Himalayan rocks, probably from the Main Boundary Thrust,and propagated across the sedimentary and crystalline rocks. This study provides new results frommultiple investigations, and enhances our understanding of the evolution of the ACZ.

  3. Tourists’ Satisfaction at Trijuginarayan: An Emerging Spiritual and Adventure Tourist Destination in Garhwal Himalaya India

    S.C. Bagri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tourists’ satisfaction has been acknowledged as one of the most important elements of competitive advantage and formulating effective destination management strategies because it is a reliable standard to evaluate performance of tangible and intangible elements of tourism products and services. The purpose of this study is to investigate tourists’ satisfaction by examining the relationship between destination attribute importance and performance in a tourist destination. Trijuginarayan, an emerging spiritual and adventure tourist destination located in Garhwal Himalaya in Uttarakhand state of India was selected as the study area for this research. Importance-Performance Analysis was employed to examine the relationship between importance and performance of various destination attributes. Results revealed that attributes related to tourism product of spiritual and cultural nature, atmosphere and climate, a variety of tourist activities, hospitality and safety are significant factors in determining tourist satisfaction, whereas basic facilities such as accommodation, transportation, tourism infrastructure and hygiene and sanitation at destination are of significant importance in satisfaction evaluation. Findings also reveal that tourists were satisfied with the core products, but were dissatisfied with basic tourist facilities offered at the destination. The findings alert concerned tourism stakeholders for outlining effective strategies for holistic development and improving performance of attributes in a given destination.

  4. ASTER based velocity profile of glaciers in the Nanga Parbat region, western Himalaya

    Parkes, A. T.; Haritashya, U. K.

    2011-12-01

    Glaciers, in general, are highly sensitive to climate fluctuations making them important indicators of climate change. Overall, lack of data on this region is troubling for the amount of hydrological importance and climatic forecasts these glaciers hold. Therefore, this study aims to measure glacier velocity on selected glaciers using cross-correlation techniques. One of the main problems with determining the amount of loss or perhaps gain in glacier mass is determining their velocity. The Himalayan glaciers are inaccessible in most areas and field measurements can be impossible, which creates a problem when determining the velocity of glaciers. Consequently, we generated velocity profiles of glaciers in the Nanga Parbat region of the western Himalaya using 2009 and 2010 ASTER satellite data. Our glacier fluctuation study have shown oscillating behavior of these glaciers; however, our preliminary velocity result indicates high velocity on most of these glaciers. These results are the first ever velocity profile generated for this region and would be able to help understand glacier dynamics in a much more comprehensive manner.

  5. Brief Communication: Contending estimates of early 21st century glacier mass balance over the Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya

    A. Kääb

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We present glacier thickness changes over the entire Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya arc based on ICESat satellite altimetry data for 2003–2008. The strongest thinning (−1 is observed for the East Nyainqêntanglha Shan. Conversely, glaciers of the West Kunlun Shan are slightly gaining volume, and Pamir and Karakoram seem to be on the western edge of an anomaly rather than its centre. For the Ganges, Indus and Brahmaputra basins, the glacier mass change reaches −22 ± 3 Gt yr−1, about 10% of the current glacier contribution to sea-level rise. For selected catchments over the study area we estimate glacier imbalance contributions to river runoff from a few percent to far over 10%. We highlight the importance of C-band penetration for studies based on the SRTM elevation model. To the very east and west of our study area, this penetration seems to be of larger magnitude and variability than previously assumed.

  6. Canola Cake as a Potential Substrate for Proteolytic Enzymes Production by a Selected Strain of Aspergillus oryzae: Selection of Process Conditions and Product Characterization

    Adriana C. Freitas; Castro, Ruann J. S.; Fontenele, Maria A.; Egito, Antonio S.; Farinas, Cristiane S.; Pinto, Gustavo A. S.

    2013-01-01

    Oil cakes have excellent nutritional value and offer considerable potential for use in biotechnological processes that employ solid-state fermentation (SSF) for the production of high value products. This work evaluates the feasibility of using canola cake as a substrate for protease production by a selected strain of Aspergillus oryzae cultivated under SSF. The influences of the following process parameters were considered: initial substrate moisture content, incubation temperature, inoculum...

  7. Large landslides lie low: Vertical domains of denudation processes in the arid Himalaya-Karakoram orogen

    Blöthe, Jan Henrik

    2014-05-01

    Large bedrock landslides (defined here as affecting >0.1 km2 in planform area) are thought to substantially contribute to denuding active mountain belts, and limiting the growth of topographic relief produced by concurrent tectonic uplift and fluvial or glacial incision. While most research on large landslides has focused on tectonically active, humid mountain belts with varying degrees of rainstorm and earthquake activity, lesser attention has been devoted to arid mountain belts. Especially in the Himalaya, where high denudation rates are commonly associated with high landslide activity, previous work has largely ignored landslide processes in the arid compartments of the orogen. This was motivation for us to compile a landslide inventory covering the arid Himalaya-Karakoram of NW India and N Pakistan within the Indus catchment. Our data set contains 493 rock-slope failures that we compiled from published studies and mapping from remote sensing imagery. Using an empirical volume-area scaling approach we estimate the total landslide volume at >250 km3. This is more than thousand times the contemporary annual sediment load in the Indus River. We analyse the distribution of these volumetrically significant landslides with respect to the regional hypsometry, contemporary glacier cover, and the distribution of rock glaciers. We find that large bedrock landslides in the arid Himalaya-Karakoram region preferentially detach near or from below the study area's median elevation, while glaciers and rock glaciers occupy higher elevations almost exclusively. This trend holds true for both the study area and parts thereof. The largest and highest-lying landslides occur in the Karakoram mountains, where local relief exceeds 6 km, and >90% of the landslide areas lie below the region's median elevation. Our analysis reveals a hitherto unrecognized vertical layering of denudation processes, with landslides chiefly operating below the median elevation, whereas mass transport by

  8. Preliminary assessment of active rock slope instabilities in the high Himalaya of Bhutan

    Dini, Benedetta; Manconi, Andrea; Leith, Kerry; Loew, Simon

    2016-04-01

    The small kingdom of Bhutan, nested between India and Tibet (between 88° and 92° east and 26° and 28° north), is characterised by markedly different landscapes and climatic zones. V-shaped, forest-covered valleys in the south, affected by the monsoonal rains, give gradually way to steep, barren slopes of U-shaped valleys in the drier north, host of the highest peaks, a large number of glaciers and glacial lakes. A transition zone of vegetated, elevated plateaus collects the towns in which most of the population lives. Landslides in the high Himalaya of Bhutan have not been extensively studied despite the primary and secondary hazards related to them. The regulations and restrictions to travel to and within Bhutan imposed by the government, as well as the extremely rugged terrain hinder the accessibility to remote slopes and valleys, both of which have resulted in lack of data and investigations. In this work, we aim at producing an inventory of large rock slope instabilities (> 1 million m3) across the high Himalaya of Bhutan, identifying types of failure, assessing the activity and analysing the distribution of landslides in combination with predisposing and preparatory factors, such as lithology, tectonic structures, hypsometry, deglaciation, fluvial erosive power and climate. At this stage, we rely on the information retrieved through satellite remote sensing data, i.e. medium and high resolution DEMs, optical images and space borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. An initial inventory was compiled based on the identification of geomorphological features associated with slope instabilities using the available Google Earth images. Moreover, we assessed the SAR data coverage and the expected geometrical distortions by assuming different sensors (ERS, Envisat, and ALOS Palsar-1). As we are mainly interested in detecting the surface deformation related to large unstable slopes by applying Differential SAR, we also computed the percentage of potentially

  9. Tectonic control on 10Be-derived erosion rates in the Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Scherler, Dirk; Bookhagen, Bodo; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2014-02-01

    Erosion in the Himalaya is responsible for one of the greatest mass redistributions on Earth and has fueled models of feedback loops between climate and tectonics. Although the general trends of erosion across the Himalaya are reasonably well known, the relative importance of factors controlling erosion is less well constrained. Here we present 25 10Be-derived catchment-averaged erosion rates from the Yamuna catchment in the Garhwal Himalaya, northern India. Tributary erosion rates range between ~0.1 and 0.5 mm yr-1 in the Lesser Himalaya and ~1 and 2 mm yr-1 in the High Himalaya, despite uniform hillslope angles. The erosion-rate data correlate with catchment-averaged values of 5 km radius relief, channel steepness indices, and specific stream power but to varying degrees of nonlinearity. Similar nonlinear relationships and coefficients of determination suggest that topographic steepness is the major control on the spatial variability of erosion and that twofold to threefold differences in annual runoff are of minor importance in this area. Instead, the spatial distribution of erosion in the study area is consistent with a tectonic model in which the rock uplift pattern is largely controlled by the shortening rate and the geometry of the Main Himalayan Thrust fault (MHT). Our data support a shallow dip of the MHT underneath the Lesser Himalaya, followed by a midcrustal ramp underneath the High Himalaya, as indicated by geophysical data. Finally, analysis of sample results from larger main stem rivers indicates significant variability of 10Be-derived erosion rates, possibly related to nonproportional sediment supply from different tributaries and incomplete mixing in main stem channels.

  10. Canopy Temperature Depression as a Potential Selection Criterion for Drought Resistance in Wheat

    2005-01-01

    (R2=0.46-0.58) conditions. These results clearly indicated grain yield and water stress can be predicted by taking CTD values in field, which can be used by breeding programs as a potential selection criterion for grain yield and drought resistance in wheat, but a second study year is needed to confirm further.

  11. Determination of heavy metal pollution in soils from selected potentially contaminated sites in Tema

    The objective of the study was to assess the concentration and determine the level of pollution by harmful heavy metals in soils from selected potentially contaminated sites in Tema. The metals of interest include; mercury, lead, cadmium, cobalt zinc, arsenic, nickel, copper and chromium. A total of forty seven (47) samples comprising thirty eight sub-samples (38) and nine (9) composite samples were collected from nine (9) different locations. These included playgrounds, steel processing factories, used Lead Acid Battery (ULAB) recycling plant, mechanic workshops and the municipal waste disposal site. The samples were prepared after which the elemental concentrations were determined using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) with a secondary target excitation arrangement (5.9 keV). The analysis of the samples yielded the following mean heavy metal concentrations in mg/kg: 424.38 (Cr); 408.68 (Ni); 14427 (Cu); 4129.87 (Zn); 1580.68 (As); 647.48 (Hg); 73361.51 (Pb) and 1176.16 (Co). The mean concentrations of heavy metals in the soils were in the following order Pb>Zn>As>Co>Cu>Hg>Cr>Ni. Mercury was detected at only two of the sites. The average heavy metals in the soils from the sites were generally high since most of them exceeded the optimum and action values of the New Dutch List. The Enrichment Factor (EF) ratios show that the enrichment of the elements in the soils ranged from deficiently to extremely highly enriched. The contamination factor show that the contamination by the heavy metals were low at some of the sites and very high at others. The geoaccumulation indices indicated that the playground (PG) has not been contaminated by any of the metals, C8 is contaminated strongly by mercury only and the contamination at the remaining sites varied from moderately contaminated to extremely contaminated by the metals. The Igeo also indicated that the elements accounting for extreme contamination are lead, arsenic, copper, zinc mercury and chromium. Lead

  12. Effect of dissolved CO2 on the potential stability of all-solid-state ion-selective electrodes.

    Han, J H; Cui, G; Kim, S J; Han, S H; Cha, G S; Nam, H

    2001-11-01

    The influence of dissolved CO2 on the potentiometric responses of all-solid-state ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) was systematically examined with four different types of electrodes fabricated by pairing pH-sensitive and pH-insensitive metal electrodes (Pt and Ag/AgCl, respectively) with pH-sensitive and pH-insensitive ion-selective membranes (H+-selective membrane based on tridodecylamine and Na+-selective membrane based on tetraethyl calix[4]arenetetraacetate, respectively). The experimental results clearly showed that the carbonic acid formed by the diffused CO2 and water vapor at the membrane/metal electrode interface varies the phase boundary potentials both at the inner side of the H+-selective membrane (deltaE(in)mem) and at the metal electrode surface (deltaEelec). The potential changes, deltaE(in)mem and deltaEelec, occurring at the facing boundaries, are opposite in their sign and result in a canceling effect if both the membrane and metal surface are pH-sensitive. Consequently, the H+-selective membrane coated on a pH-sensitive electrode (Pt) tends to exhibit a smaller CO2 interference than that on a pH-insensitive electrode (Ag/AgCl). When the all-solid-state Na+ and K+ ISEs were fabricated with both pH-insensitive metal electrode and ion-selective membrane, they did not suffer from CO2 interference. It was also confirmed that plasticization of the PVC leads to increased CO2 permeation. Various types of intermediate layers were examined to reduce the CO2 interference problem in the fabrication of H+-selective all-solid-state ISEs. The results indicated that the H+-selective electrode needs an intermediate layer that maintains a constant pH unless the carbonic acid formation at the interfacial area is effectively quenched. PMID:11763089

  13. Selection of potential pollinizers for ‘Hass’ avocado based on flowering time and male-female overlapping

    Alcaraz Arco, María Librada; Hormaza Urroz, José Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    Avocado production is dependent on the singular synchronous protogynous dichogamy of the species that promotes outcrossing. With the objective of selecting potential pollinizer avocado genotypes for ‘Hass’, the most important avocado cultivar worldwide, we have monitored during two consecutive years the flowering phenology of 27 avocado genotypes in Southeastern Spain.

  14. Refrigeration Playbook: Natural Refrigerants; Selecting and Designing Energy-Efficient Commercial Refrigeration Systems That Use Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants

    Nelson, Caleb [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Reis, Chuck [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Nelson, Eric [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Armer, James [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Arthur, Rob [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Heath, Richard [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Rono, James [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Hirsch, Adam [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doebber, Ian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report provides guidance for selecting and designing energy efficient commercial refrigeration systems using low global warming potential refrigerants. Refrigeration systems are generally the largest energy end use in a supermarket type building, often accounting for more than half of a building's energy consumption.

  15. Immunological traits have the potential to improve selection of pigs for resistance to clinical and subclinical disease

    Henryon, M.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Nielsen, Jens; Berg, P.; Juul-Madsen, H.R.

    2006-01-01

    serum concentrations of IgG and haptoglobin were lowly heritable (h(2) = 0.14 to 0.16). The additive genetic variation shown for the immunological traits is encouraging for pig breeders. It indicates that these traits are potentially useful as criteria to improve selection of pigs for resistance to...

  16. Mountain Commons: Changing Space and Status at Community Levels in the Himalayas

    Narpat S. JODHA

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the imperatives of nature-society interaction in the Himalayas as seen through CPR (Common Property Resources). It specifically looks at the process and factors that characterize the dynamics of the above interactions,with particular reference to the changing status and governance of CPRs at community levels. The paper puts together the synthesis of observations and inferences of different studies by ICIMOD and others in mountain regions, particularly in different parts of Nepal, India, Bhutan, Bangladesh, China and Pakistan. Rural CPRs (providing sustenance supplies and services)as an important component of a community's natural resource base, manifest the institutional arrangements evolved by the communities to facilitate their adaptations to nature.The above process can be more clearly illustrated with reference to specific characteristics of mountain areas,called mountain specificities.However, over time, the situation of CPRs in terms of their extent and status, governance and management as well as contributions to community sustenance, has changed. The paper attempts to indicate potential lead lines for searching options for rehabilitation of CPRs, based on a closer understanding of the factors contributing to their decline.

  17. Natural Resource Conditions and Economic Development in the Uttaranchal Himalaya, India

    Vishwambhar Prasad Sati

    2005-01-01

    Uttaranchal is bestowed with numerous rivers, huge forest resources ranging from tropical to temperate, tourists' places, pilgrimages and feasible climatic conditions for growing fruits, vegetables,food grains, livestock rearing, tea garden practices, etc.The economic development, on the other hand, could not take place partly due to lack of modern technology with innovation in agricultural system and also unwillingness of the people towards using it.Furthermore, due to its harsh climatic conditions,rigorous terrain and distinct identity, as a part of Uttar Pradesh state, the development could not take place and today the state is believed to be one of the poorer states. Infrastructurally, this region is lagged behind due to its inaccessibility. The ideal geographical and agrarian conditions might be used evenly for the developmental processes. Ecologically,the whole region is fragile. The diverse socio-economic activities, harsh traditional beliefs and hard working potentials further change the entire scenario of the state. Only the need of the hours is to frame and implementation of the rational policies and planning for sustainable development of the state.What had appeared during the past, pertaining to the economic development, needs radical changes in policies, planning and beliefs. This paper aims to evaluate the present conditions of resources as a form of natural vegetation, agricultural crops, horticultural farming, herbs, tea garden practices, livestock rearing,hydropower projects and economic development of the Uttaranchal Himalaya.

  18. Environmental impact assessment of mountain tourism in developing regions: A study in Ladakh, Indian Himalaya

    Mountain tourism in developing countries is becoming a growing environmental concern due to extreme seasonality, lack of suitable infrastructures and planning, and interference with fragile ecosystems and protected areas. This paper presents a study devoted to assess the adverse environmental impacts of tourism, and in particular of trekking-related activities, in Ladakh, Indian Himalaya. The proposed approach is based on the use of Geographical Information System (GIS) modeling and remote sensing imageries to cope with the lack of data that affect the region. First, stressors associated with trekking, and environmental receptors potentially affected were identified. Subsequently, a baseline study on stressors (trail use, waste dumping, camping, pack animal grazing and off-road driving) and receptors (soil, water, wildlife, vegetation) was conducted through field work, data collection, and data processing supported by GIS. Finally, impacts were modeled by considering the intensity of the stressors, and the vulnerability and the value of the receptors. The results were spatially aggregated into watershed units, and combined to generate composite impact maps. The study concluded that the most affected watersheds are located in the central and southeastern part of Ladakh, along some of the most visited trails and within the Hemis and the Tsokar Tsomoriri National parks. The main objective of the study was to understand patterns of tourism-induced environmental degradation, so as to support mitigation interventions, as well as the development of suitable tourism policies.

  19. Spatial Coupling Among Landslides, Geological Structures, Cataclinal Slopes, and Fluvial Knick Zones in Nepal Himalayas

    Ojha, T. P.; DeCelles, P. G.

    2014-12-01

    This work aims to identify potential landslide hazard zones in the event of heavy precipitation and seismic activity by examining spatial relationships among existing landslides, earthquake epicenters, fault zones, cataclinal (dip) slopes, anaclinal (escarp) slopes, and river steepness index in the Nepal Himalaya. In order to understand this relationship we have mapped existing landslides on Google Earth images and ESRI base maps, assembled high-resolution digital topographic data by digitizing Nepal Government published topographic maps, and gathered geological data from detailed field mapping and compilation of published geological maps. Slope angle and aspect, and dip direction and angle were extracted from GIS-based digital topographical and geological datasets to develop the new slope maps with cataclinal (dip) and anaclinal (escarp) slope distributions. Longitudinal river profiles were also extracted from high resolution DEM's derived from manually digitized contours. The slope maps with cataclinal and anaclinal slope distributions, earthquake epicenters, major geological structures, longitudinal river profiles, and landslide inventories were visualized in ESRI ArcMap 10.2 to examine the spatial correlation among landslides, fault zones, cataclinal slopes and river steepness index. We have found that landslides are spatially correlated with cataclinal slopes and fluvial knick zones with high steepness index in certain thrust boundaries. The main finding of this work is that the topographic slope threshold alone is a crude measure of landslide susceptibility. The analysis of slope using the geometric relationship among topography and geological bedding is crucial for determining landslide susceptibility in the Himalayan region.

  20. Sackung and Rockslide Denudation In Baltoro, Braldu, and Shigar Areas, Karakoram Himalaya

    Shroder, J. J.; Bishop, M. P.

    2005-12-01

    In the K2 Project to investigate landform evolution in the Karakoram Himalaya, four major mass-movement complexes (Ghoro Choh rock avalanche complex, Busper sackung, Gomboro slope failure complex, Urdokas rockslide complex) were mapped and analyzed in summer 2005. The 3-4 km of local relief, coupled with steep slopes and high to intermediate magnitude and frequency, snow and rain storms, and freeze-thaw events there provide considerable potential-, gravitational-, thermal-, and kinetic-energy sources that drive the varied mass-movement processes. The products of these mass movements and other types are ubiquitous, including failure of entire massive slopes of crystalline rock (gneisses, metasediments, granites) to depths of hundreds of m, piling up considerable colluvial sediment depths on valley floors and sidewalls, causing river-damming inundations and catastrophic breakout floods, or forming the extensive supraglacial debris covers so characteristic of the glaciers of the region. The role of lithology, foliation, faulting, and jointing is important in controlling style and magnitude of failure, as well as glacial-erosion shear-strength reduction and downwasting-ice, valley-wall debuttressing, water and ice loading, and freeze and thaw.

  1. Evolution and outburst risk analysis of moraine-dammed lakes in the central Chinese Himalaya

    Wang Shijin; Jiao Shitai

    2015-04-01

    The recent evolution and outburst risk of two typical moraine-dammed lakes, Galong and Gangxi, central Chinese Himalaya, are analyzed using topographic maps from 1974 and Landsat satellite imagery acquired in 1988, 2000 and 2014. The datasets show the areas of Galong and Gangxi lakes increasing at rates of 0.45 and 0.34 km2/year during the period 1974–2014, an expansion of 501% and 107%, respectively, in the past 41 years, while the areas of the parent glaciers, Reqiang and Jipucong decreased by 44.22% and 37.76%, respectively. The accelerating retreat of the glaciers not only reflects their generally negative mass balance but is consistent with the rapid expansion of the moraine-dammed lakes. When acted upon by external forces such as earthquakes, heavy rainfall, rapid melting of glaciers and dead ice, and snow/ice/rock avalanches, these lakes can become extremely dangerous, easily forming outburst mudslides, which can potentially spread to the Poiqu river basin and develop into cross-border (China and Nepal) GLOF disasters. Therefore, there is an urgent need to strengthen integrated risk management of glacial lake outburst disasters with multiple objectives and modes.

  2. Plant operator selection system for evaluating employment candidates' potential for success in electric power plant operations positions

    The Plant Operator Selection System is a battery of tests and questionnaires that can be administered to job candidates in less than three hours. Various components of the battery measure what a job candidate has accomplished in previous educational and work situations, how well a candidate compares with others on a number of important aptitudes or abilities, and whether or not a candidate possesses the kind of personal stability required in power plant operations positions. A job candidate's answers to the tests and questionnaires of the Plant Operator Selection System are scored and converted to an OVERALL POTENTIAL INDEX. Values of the OVERALL POTENTIAL INDEX [OPI] range between 0 and 15. Candidates with high OPI values are much more likely to become effective and successful plant operators than candidates with low OPI values. It is possible to estimate the financial advantages to a company of using the Plant Operator Selection System in evaluating candidates for plant operations jobs

  3. Spatial prediction of landslide susceptibility in parts of Garhwal Himalaya, India, using the weight of evidence modelling.

    Guri, Pardeep Kumar; Ray, P K Champati; Patel, Ramesh Chandra

    2015-06-01

    can be carried out in vast stretches of Himalaya in short time in order to assess the impact of development as well as climate change/variability. The resultant map can play a critical role in selecting areas for remedial measures for slope stabilisation as well planning for future development of the region. PMID:25944750

  4. Historical telecommunication in the Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalayas: An ancient early warning system for glacier lake outbursts

    Iturrizaga, Lasafam

    2016-04-01

    operated in the entire Hindukush-Karakoram Region including Ladakh. The locations of selected signal fire signal chains have been reconstructed for the Valleys of Shimshal, Karambar and Rupal. Natural hazard management is increasingly dominated by external technological and cost-intensive approaches in the Himalayas. Local traditional knowledge and practical expertise may be given up without an alternative plan for hazard management. Thus, the intervention from external side in traditional mountain societies and the implementation of distinct security expectations has to be well considered at the long-term.

  5. Anthocyanin production as a potential visual selection marker during plant transformation

    Kortstee, A J; S.A. Khan; Helderman, C.M.; Trindade, L.M.; Wu, Y.; Visser, R. G. F.; Brendolise, C.; Allan, A.C.; Schouten, H J; Jacobsen, E.

    2011-01-01

    A mutant allele of the transcription factor gene MYB10 from apple induces anthocyanin production throughout the plant. This gene, including its upstream promoter, gene coding region and terminator sequence, was introduced into apple, strawberry and potato plants to determine whether it could be used as a visible selectable marker for plant transformation as an alternative to chemically selectable markers, such as kanamycin resistance. After transformation, red coloured calli, red shoots and r...

  6. Glacial Lake Outburst Flood Risk in the Poiqu/Bhote Koshi/Sun Koshi River Basin in the Central Himalayas

    Narendra Raj Khanal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Himalayas have experienced several glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs, and the risk of GLOFs is now increasing in the context of global warming. Poiqu watershed in the Tibet Autonomous Region, China, also known as the Bhote Koshi and Sun Koshi downstream in Nepal, has been identified as highly prone to GLOFs. This study explored the distribution of and changes in glacial lakes, past GLOFs and the resulting losses, risk from potential future GLOFs, and risk reduction initiatives within the watershed. A relationship was established between lake area and volume of lake water based on data from 33 lakes surveyed within the Hindu Kush Himalayan region, and the maximum possible discharge was estimated using this and other previously developed empirical equations. We recommend different strategies to reduce GLOF risk and highlight the need for a glacial lake monitoring and early-warning system. We also recommend strong regional cooperation, especially on issues related to transboundary rivers.

  7. Ground state potential energy surfaces around selected atoms from resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    Simon Schreck; Annette Pietzsch; Brian Kennedy; Conny Såthe; Miedema, Piter S.; Simone Techert; Strocov, Vladimir N.; Thorsten Schmitt; Franz Hennies; Jan-Erik Rubensson; Alexander Föhlisch

    2016-01-01

    Thermally driven chemistry as well as materials’ functionality are determined by the potential energy surface of a systems electronic ground state. This makes the potential energy surface a central and powerful concept in physics, chemistry and materials science. However, direct experimental access to the potential energy surface locally around atomic centers and to its long-range structure are lacking. Here we demonstrate how sub-natural linewidth resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering at ...

  8. Carbon allocation, sequestration and carbon dioxide mitigation under plantation forests of north western Himalaya, India

    Bandana Devi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The organic carbon and soils of the world comprise bulk of the terrestrial carbon and serve as a major sink and source of atmospheric carbon. Increasing atmospheric concentrations of green house gases may be mitigated by increasing carbon sequestration in vegetation and soil. The study attempted to estimate biomass production and carbon sequestration potential of different plantation ecosystems in north western Himalaya, India. Biomass, carbon density of biomass, soil, detritus, carbon sequestration and CO2 mitigation potential were studied under different plantation forest ecosystems comprising of eight different tree species: Quercus leucotrichophora, Pinus roxburghii, Acacia catechu, Acacia mollissima, Albizia procera, Alnusnitida, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Ulmus villosa. Above (185.57±48.99tha-1 and below ground (42.47±10.38 tha-1 biomass was maximum in Ulmus villosa. The vegetation carbon density was maxium in Albizia procera(118.37±1.49 tha-1 and minimum (36.50±9.87 tha-1 in Acacia catechu. Soil carbon density was maximum (219.86±10.34 tha-1 in Alnus nitida, and minimum (170.83±20.60 tha-1 in Pinus roxburghii. Detritus was higher in Pinus roxburghii (6.79±2.0 tha-1. Carbon sequestration (7.91±3.4 tha-1 and CO2 mitigation potential (29.09±12.78 tha-1 was maximum in Ulmus villosa. Pearson correlation matrix revealed significant positive relationship of ecosystem carbon with plantation biomass, soil carbon and CO2 mitigation potential. With the emerging threat of climate change, such assessment of forest and soil carbon inventory would allow to devise best land management and policy decisions for sustainable management of fragile hilly ecosystem.

  9. Carbon allocation, sequestration and carbon dioxide mitigation under plantation forests of north western Himalaya, India

    Bandana Devi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The organic carbon and soils of the world comprise bulk of the terrestrial carbon and serve as amajorsink and source of atmospheric carbon. Increasing atmospheric concentrations of green house gases may be mitigated by increasing carbon sequestration in vegetation and soil. The study attempted to estimate biomass production and carbon sequestration potential of different plantation ecosystems in north western Himalaya, India. Biomass, carbon density of biomass, soil, detritus, carbon sequestration and CO2 mitigation potential were studied underdifferent plantation forest ecosystems comprising of eight different tree species viz. Quercus leucotrichophora, Pinus roxburghii, Acacia catechu, Acacia mollissima, Albizia procera, Alnus nitida, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Ulmus villosa. Above (185.57 ą 48.99 tha-1 and below ground (42.47 ą 10.38 tha-1 biomass was maximum in Ulmus villosa. The vegetation carbon density was maxium in Albizia procera (118.37 ą 1.49 tha-1 and minimum (36.50 ą 9.87 tha-1 in Acacia catechu. Soil carbon density was maximum (219.86ą 10.34 tha-1 in Alnus nitida, and minimum (170.83ą 20.60 tha-1in Pinus roxburghii. Detritus was higher in Pinus roxburghii (6.79 ą 2.0 tha-1. Carbon sequestration (7.91ą 3.4 tha-1 and CO2 mitigation potential (29.09 ą 12.78 tha-1 was maximum in Ulmus villosa. Pearson correlation matrix revealed significant positive relationship of ecosystem carbon with plantation biomass, soil carbon and CO2 mitigation potential. With the emerging threat of climate change, such assessment of forest and soil carbon inventory would allow to devise best land management and policy decisions forsustainable management of fragile hilly ecosystem. 

  10. Depositional environment and provenance of Middle Siwalik sediments in Tista valley, Darjiling District, Eastern Himalaya, India

    Abhik Kundu; Abdul Matin; Malay Mukul

    2012-02-01

    The frontal part of the active, wedge-shaped Indo-Eurasian collision boundary is defined by the Himalayan fold-and-thrust belt whose foreland basin accumulated sediments that eventually became part of the thrust belt and is presently exposed as the sedimentary rocks of the Siwalik Group. The rocks of the Siwalik Group have been extensively studied in the western and Nepal Himalaya and have been divided into the Lower, Middle and Upper Subgroups. In the Darjiling–Sikkim Himalaya, the Upper Siwalik sequence is not exposed and the Middle Siwalik Subgroup exposed in the Tista river valley of Darjiling Himalaya preserves a ∼325 m thick sequence of sandstone, conglomerate and shale. The Middle Siwalik section has been repeated by a number of north dipping thrusts. The sedimentary facies and facies associations within the lithostratigraphic column of the Middle Siwalik rocks show temporal repetition of sedimentary facies associations suggesting oscillation between proximal-, mid- and distal fan setups within a palaeo-alluvial fan depositional environment similar to the depositional setup of the Siwalik sediments in other parts of the Himalaya. These oscillations are probably due to a combination of foreland-ward movement of Himalayan thrusts, climatic variations and mountain-ward shift of fanapex due to erosion. The Middle Siwalik sediments were derived from Higher- and Lesser Himalayan rocks. Mineral characteristics and modal analysis suggest that sedimentation occurred in humid climatic conditions similar to the moist humid climate of the present day Eastern Himalaya.

  11. Precipitation and snow cover in the Himalaya: from reanalysis to regional climate simulations

    M. Ménégoz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We applied a Regional Climate Model (RCM to simulate precipitation and snow cover over the Himalaya, between March 2000 and December 2002. Due to its higher resolution, our model simulates a more realistic spatial variability of wind and precipitation than those of the reanalysis of the European Centre of Medium range Weather Forecast (ECMWF used as lateral boundaries. In this region, we found very large discrepancies between the estimations of precipitation provided by reanalysis, rain gauges networks, satellite observations, and our RCM simulation. Our model clearly underestimates precipitation at the foothills of the Himalaya and in its eastern part. However, our simulation provides a first estimation of liquid and solid precipitation in high altitude areas, where satellite and rain gauge networks are not very reliable. During the two years of simulation, our model resembles the snow cover extent and duration quite accurately in these areas. Both snow accumulation and snow cover duration differ widely along the Himalaya: snowfall can occur during the whole year in western Himalaya, due to both summer monsoon and mid-latitude low pressure systems bringing moisture into this region. In Central Himalaya and on the Tibetan Plateau, a much more marked dry season occurs from October to March. Snow cover does not have a pronounced seasonal cycle in these regions, since it depends both on the quite variable duration of the monsoon and on the rare but possible occurrence of snowfall during the extra-monsoon period.

  12. Ground state potential energy surfaces around selected atoms from resonant inelastic x-ray scattering.

    Schreck, Simon; Pietzsch, Annette; Kennedy, Brian; Såthe, Conny; Miedema, Piter S; Techert, Simone; Strocov, Vladimir N; Schmitt, Thorsten; Hennies, Franz; Rubensson, Jan-Erik; Föhlisch, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Thermally driven chemistry as well as materials' functionality are determined by the potential energy surface of a systems electronic ground state. This makes the potential energy surface a central and powerful concept in physics, chemistry and materials science. However, direct experimental access to the potential energy surface locally around atomic centers and to its long-range structure are lacking. Here we demonstrate how sub-natural linewidth resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering at vibrational resolution is utilized to determine ground state potential energy surfaces locally and detect long-range changes of the potentials that are driven by local modifications. We show how the general concept is applicable not only to small isolated molecules such as O2 but also to strongly interacting systems such as the hydrogen bond network in liquid water. The weak perturbation to the potential energy surface through hydrogen bonding is observed as a trend towards softening of the ground state potential around the coordinating atom. The instrumental developments in high resolution resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering are currently accelerating and will enable broad application of the presented approach. With this multidimensional potential energy surfaces that characterize collective phenomena such as (bio)molecular function or high-temperature superconductivity will become accessible in near future. PMID:26821751

  13. Ground state potential energy surfaces around selected atoms from resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    Schreck, Simon; Pietzsch, Annette; Kennedy, Brian; Såthe, Conny; Miedema, Piter S.; Techert, Simone; Strocov, Vladimir N.; Schmitt, Thorsten; Hennies, Franz; Rubensson, Jan-Erik; Föhlisch, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Thermally driven chemistry as well as materials’ functionality are determined by the potential energy surface of a systems electronic ground state. This makes the potential energy surface a central and powerful concept in physics, chemistry and materials science. However, direct experimental access to the potential energy surface locally around atomic centers and to its long-range structure are lacking. Here we demonstrate how sub-natural linewidth resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering at vibrational resolution is utilized to determine ground state potential energy surfaces locally and detect long-range changes of the potentials that are driven by local modifications. We show how the general concept is applicable not only to small isolated molecules such as O2 but also to strongly interacting systems such as the hydrogen bond network in liquid water. The weak perturbation to the potential energy surface through hydrogen bonding is observed as a trend towards softening of the ground state potential around the coordinating atom. The instrumental developments in high resolution resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering are currently accelerating and will enable broad application of the presented approach. With this multidimensional potential energy surfaces that characterize collective phenomena such as (bio)molecular function or high-temperature superconductivity will become accessible in near future.

  14. Forest resource use pattern in Kedarnath wildlife sanctuary and its fringe areas (a case study from Western Himalaya, India)

    The rural population of Himalaya has been strongly dependent on the forest resources for their livelihood for generations. The present study, carried out at three different altitudes of Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary (KWLS), explored forest resource-use patterns to understand rural peoples' dependency on the adjacent forests. A total of six forests were selected and the seven dependent villages were surveyed for the study of forest resource use patterns in relation to their socioeconomic status. Average fuelwood and fodder consumption were found to be 2.42 kg/capita/day and 43.96 kg/household/day respectively which was higher than the earlier reported values. Average fuelwood consumption by temporary dhaba (roadside refreshment establishments) owners (52.5 kg/dhaba/day) is much higher than the permanent villagers. Average cultivated land per family was less than 1 ha (0.56 ha). Inaccessibility of the area and deprived socio-economic status of the locals are largely responsible for the total dependency of the local inhabitants on nearby forests for fuelwood, fodder and other life supporting demands. Extensive farming of fuelwood trees on less used, barren land and establishment of fodder banks could be the alternative to bridge the gap between the demand and supply. Active participation of local people is mandatory for the conservation of these forests. - Highlights: • We studied energy consumption at different altitudes in Western Himalaya of India. • On an average, fuelwood and fodder consumption is 2.42 kg/capita/day and 43.96 kg/household/day respectively. • Maximum fuelwood (3.24 kg/capita/day) at higher and fodder consumption (1800 kg/household/day) at middle altitudes was recorded. • Dhabas (roadside refreshment establishments) consume much more fuelwood as compared to the permanent villagers (P<0.000, t-test). • Fuelwood consumption showed significant negative relationship with LPG (−0.87) and kerosene oil (−0.89)

  15. Survey on basic knowledge about exposure and potential environmental and health risks for selected nanomaterials

    Mikkelsen, Sonja Hagen; Hansen, Erik; Christensen, Trine Boe;

    Based on a literature review this report provides a general description as well as an environmental and health profile of 7 nanomaterials. The examined nanomaterials are selected because of expected high use or specific environmental and health properties. Fullerenes, iron, silver, nanoclay...

  16. Chalcone-based Selective Inhibitors of a C4 Plant Key Enzyme as Novel Potential Herbicides

    Nguyen, G. T. T.; Erlenkamp, G.; Jäck, O.; Küberl, A.; Bott, M.; Fiorani, F.; Gohlke, H.; Groth, G.

    2016-06-01

    Weeds are a challenge for global food production due to their rapidly evolving resistance against herbicides. We have identified chalcones as selective inhibitors of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), a key enzyme for carbon fixation and biomass increase in the C4 photosynthetic pathway of many of the world’s most damaging weeds. In contrast, many of the most important crop plants use C3 photosynthesis. Here, we show that 2‧,3‧,4‧,3,4-Pentahydroxychalcone (IC50 = 600 nM) and 2‧,3‧,4‧-Trihydroxychalcone (IC50 = 4.2 μM) are potent inhibitors of C4 PEPC but do not affect C3 PEPC at a same concentration range (selectivity factor: 15–45). Binding and modeling studies indicate that the active compounds bind at the same site as malate/aspartate, the natural feedback inhibitors of the C4 pathway. At the whole plant level, both substances showed pronounced growth-inhibitory effects on the C4 weed Amaranthus retroflexus, while there were no measurable effects on oilseed rape, a C3 plant. Growth of selected soil bacteria was not affected by these substances. Our chalcone compounds are the most potent and selective C4 PEPC inhibitors known to date. They offer a novel approach to combat C4 weeds based on a hitherto unexplored mode of allosteric inhibition of a C4 plant key enzyme.

  17. Selective isolation and differentiation of a stromal population of human embryonic stem cells with osteogenic potential

    Harkness, Linda M; Mahmood, Amer; Ditzel, Nicholas;

    2011-01-01

    between the hESC colonies were isolated by selective adherence to hyaluronic acid-coated plates (100μg/ml) and were characterized using a combination of FACS analysis and staining. The cells were CD44(+), CD29(+), CD73(+), CD166(+), CD146(+), and CD105(+); and, Oct4(-), CD34(-), CD45(-) and CXCR4(-). When...

  18. Potential for selection of beneficial traits in swine with site-specific sucleases

    Selective breeding in agricultural species has enabled the derivation of stronger and fitter animals with improved production traits. However, along with beneficial traits there is often the co-segregation of less desirable traits. With the plethora of genome data and annotation, and greater under...

  19. Evaluation of oenological potential on clonal selections of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon from Chile

    Ceppi de Lecco C.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 13 clonal selections of cv Cabernet Sauvignon, established in Nancagua VI Region, Chile (34.39 °S 71.17 °W. The genetic identity of the vines was confirmed by ampelography and microsatellite markers (SSR. Evaluations in the 2012–2013 season include: performance, analytical and sensorial parameters on the wines made by microvinification. The results were statistically analyzed with the Statgraphics Plus program and multiple comparison test of Tukey at 95% confidence level. Sensorially, the wines were evaluated by a panel of 12 experts. The results were likewise analyzed by testing principal components (PCA with covariance matrix without rotation. In the season studied the selection 108 highlighted with a high yield (kg/plant, in the composition of the wine selections generally highlighted for contents of total polyphenols and anthocyanins over average. The results show typical sensory characteristics of wines from that grape variety, and it was possible to group the selections by their attributes (PCA with cherry red wines at different intensities, but without significant differences, with fruity and vegetal aromas, interesting complex flavors and with structured tannins.

  20. Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) oviposition site selection stimuli on sugarcane, and potential field applications

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), a key pest of sugarcane and rice in Texas that has recently invaded Louisiana, has not been successfully controlled using chemical insecticides or biological control agents. This greenhouse-based study examined selected sugarcane leaf characteristics,...

  1. Treeline dynamics with climate change at the central Nepal Himalaya

    Gaire, N. P.; Koirala, M.; Bhuju, D. R.; Borgaonkar, H. P.

    2014-07-01

    Treeline shifting in tandem with climate change has widely been reported from various parts of the world. In Nepal, several impacts of climate change on the physical environment have been observed, but study on the biological impacts is lacking. This dendrochronological study was carried out at the treeline in the high mountain slope of Kalchuman Lake (3750-4003 m a.s.l.) area of Manaslu Conservation Area in the central Nepal Himalaya to explore the impact of climate change on the treeline dynamic. Two belt transect plots (size: 20 m wide, > 250 m long) were laid which included treeline as well as tree species limit. Ecological mapping of all individuals of dominant trees Abies spectabilis and Betula utilis was done and their tree cores were collected. Stand character and age distribution revealed an occurrence of more matured B. utilis (max. age 198 years) compared to A. spectabilis (max. age 160 years). A. spectabilis contained an overwhelmingly high population (89%) of younger plants (climate change with differential pattern in regeneration condition, much wider differences are anticipated in their population status as climate continues to change throughout the century.

  2. Mapping Deforestation and Forest Degradation Patterns in Western Himalaya, Pakistan

    Faisal Mueen Qamer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Himalayan mountain forest ecosystem has been degrading since the British ruled the area in the 1850s. Local understanding of the patterns and processes of degradation is desperately required to devise management strategies to halt this degradation and provide long-term sustainability. This work comprises a satellite image based study in combination with national expert validation to generate sub-district level statistics for forest cover over the Western Himalaya, Pakistan, which accounts for approximately 67% of the total forest cover of the country. The time series of forest cover maps (1990, 2000, 2010 reveal extensive deforestation in the area. Indeed, approximately 170,684 ha of forest has been lost, which amounts to 0.38% per year clear cut or severely degraded during the last 20 years. A significant increase in the rate of deforestation is observed in the second half of the study period, where much of the loss occurs at the western borders along with Afghanistan. The current study is the first systematic and comprehensive effort to map changes to forest cover in Northern Pakistan. Deforestation hotspots identified at the sub-district level provide important insight into deforestation patterns, which may facilitate the development of appropriate forest conservation and management strategies in the country.

  3. Tectonic evolution of Kashmir basin in northwest Himalayas

    Alam, Akhtar; Ahmad, Shabir; Bhat, M. Sultan; Ahmad, Bashir

    2015-06-01

    Geomorphology has long been recognised as a key to evaluate the interplay between tectonics and landscape geometry in the regions of active deformation. We use geomorphic signatures at varied spatial scales interpreted from SRTM-DEM/Landsat-ETM data, supplemented with field observations to review the tectonic evolution of Kashmir basin in northwest Himalayas. Geomorphic evidence is persuasive of a credible NNW-SSE trending dextral strike-slip structure (central Kashmir Fault - CKF), with the strike length of ~ 165 km, stretched centrally over the NNW-SSE length of the Kashmir basin. As a result of the strike-slip motion and subsequent erosion, significant deformation has taken place along the CKF. In addition, broad geomorphic architecture of the basin reveals typical pull-apart characteristics. Hence, we deduce that the Kashmir basin has evolved as a pull-apart Quaternary sediment depression owing to the deformation along the central Kashmir Fault. The spatial distribution pattern of seismic events (NEIC-catalogue, 1973-2013) and GPS measurements (published), collectively substantiate our geomorphic interpretations.

  4. Deep structure over the eastern syntaxis of the Himalaya

    Complete text of publication follows. Magnetotelluric surveys were conducted over two profiles for mapping the major tectonic features over the eastern syntaxial bend. These studies over the main frontal thrust and Main boundary thrust of the Himalaya and the Mishmi thrust in the Indo Burman range have shown that the signatures of these thrusts at deeper level are not coincident with their corresponding surface expressions. Thus main frontal and the main boundary thrusts are traced about 20 km south of the surface manifestations where as the Mishmi thrust at deeper levels is about 25 km west of the location observed on the surface. The global positioning studies (Gan, W, et al. (2007) J. Geophys. Res. Article No: B08416) are indicative of eastward (transverse to the strike) movements of the sedimentary overburden north of the main frontal thrust, in this region. Another conspicuous feature is the south dipping thrust / reverse fault delineated to the north of the Main frontal thrust earlier observed in the Tawang-Bomdilla region (Gokarn et al, 2008, 19th EM induction workshop, Beijing China). Its signatures at shallow depth in this region are however obscured by the presence of then supracrustal deposits of the Abhor volcanics and Yinkiang formations occurring in small discrete patches in the close vicinity of this feature.

  5. Ethnobotanical uses of biofencing plants in Himachal Pradesh, Northwest Himalaya.

    Sharma, Pankaj; Devi, Usha

    2013-12-15

    The aim of this study is to document the traditional knowledge on the utilization of Biofencing plants of Himachal Pradesh, Northwest Himalaya. The study was imperative because of dearth in the data pertaining to Biofencing plants in the study areas. The whole study area was stratified into three zones and a widespread field survey and random sampling method was adopted to assess the live fencing diversity of the region. The region occupies total 61 species. 10 (trees), 45 (shrubs), 4 (herbs) and 2 were climbers. These belong to the 25 families. Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Berberidaceae, Elaeagnaceae and Euphorbiaceae are dominant families. Among genera, Berberis and Rosa are dominant. Of the total, 55 species are medicinally important and among these 20% are used for stomach disorders; 17% (skin complaints), 14% (asthma), 11% (fever and joint pains), 3% (aphrodisiac and snake bite), 1% (anticancerous and nerve disorders). Ethnobotanical assessment showed that 33 of the recorded species are used as fuel, 20 (edible), 8 (fodder) and 4 (fiber and ornamental). This traditional knowledge of Biofencing plants contributes to the conservation of biodiversity and provides resource of economic and ecological interest and also decreasing the pressure on forests. So there is need to encourage the practice of using plant species for fencing in this region. PMID:24517012

  6. Earthquakes in India and the Himalaya: tectonics, geodesy and history

    R. Bilham

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The record of earthquakes in India is patchy prior to 1800 and its improvement is much impeded by its dispersal in a dozen local languages, and several colonial archives. Although geological studies will necessarily complement the historical record, only two earthquakes of the dozens of known historical events have resulted in surface ruptures, and it is likely that geological data in the form of liquefaction features will be needed to extend the historical record beyond the most recent few centuries. Damage from large Himalayan earthquakes recorded in Tibet and in Northern India suggests that earthquakes may attain M = 8.2. Seismic gaps along two-thirds of the Himalaya that have developed in the past five centuries, when combined with geodetic convergence rates of approximately 1.8 m/cy, suggests that one or more M = 8 earthquakes may be overdue. The mechanisms of recent earthquakes in Peninsular India are consistent with stresses induced in the Indian plate flexed by its collision with Tibet. A region of abnormally high seismicity in western India appears to be caused by local convergence across the Rann of Kachchh and possibly other rift zones of India. Since the plate itself deforms little, this deformation may be related to incipient plate fragmentation in Sindh or over a larger region of NW India.

  7. Geodetic and Seismic Investigation of Crustal Deformation in Northwest Himalaya

    Pasari, S.; Dikshit, O., Sr.; Kato, T.

    2014-12-01

    Underthrusting of Indian plate beneath the Eurasian plate results into a persistent compression and strain accumulation along a north-dipping detachment zone in the Himalayan orogen, producing a number of moderate and great interplate earthquakes. In this study, we present the ongoing crustal deformation from our GPS network comprising eight continuously operating permanent stations and three profiles of campaign stations which are lined up perpendicular to the Himalayan mega thrust faults. The campaign stations clearly reveal the ongoing deformation near the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT) and the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) zones. We further combine our geodetic results with the probalistic earthquake hazards of the northwestern Himalaya (280-320N, 740-800E) to provide a comprehensive report on the seismic hazard scenario of the thickly populated Himalayan cities. For this, the earthquake interevent times and conditional probabilities for events exceeding magnitude 6.0 are estimated from thirteen different probability models, namely exponential, gamma, lognormal, Weibull, Levy, Maxwell, Pareto, Rayleigh, inverse Gaussian (Brownian passage time), inverse Weibull (Frechet), exponentiated exponential, exponentiated Rayleigh (Burr type X), and exponentiated Weibull distributions.

  8. The mammalian fauna from the Central Himalaya, Nepal

    Hem Bahadur Katuwal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Nepal harbors unique mammalian fauna, but it is poorly studied at higher elevation. Mammalian fauna were recorded in Manaslu Conservation Area, Dudhkunda and Dudhkoshi valley of Solukhumbu district and Kanchenjunga Conservation Area of Nepal during March 2011 to April 2013 along the trail and the study plots from 700m to 4400m a.s.l. Semi-structured interviews were made with local people to understand their behavior and habitats. Altogether, 29 mammalian fauna were recorded. Five species were recorded new for the areas. Overall, Carnivore species (nine were encountered more, followed by species of the order Cetartiodactyla (seven. The highest number of mammalian fauna (18 was identified from Manaslu Conservation Area whereas the least (11 from Dudhkunda and Dudhkoshi valley. Human wildlife conflict was frequent with Himalayan Goral (Naemorhedus goral, Barking Deer (Muntiacus vaginalis, Himalayan Tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus, Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta, Nepal Grey Langur (Semnopithecus schistaceus and Himalayan Black Bear (Ursus thibetanus for crop depredation in these areas. Although mammalian research started a long time ago, scenario of comprehensive research is not satisfactory in the Central Himalaya, Nepal.

  9. Three hitherto unreported macro-fungi from Kashmir Himalaya

    The Himalayan state, Jammu and Kashmir due to its climate ranging from tropical deciduous forests to temperate and coniferous forests provides congenial habitat for the growth of diverse macro fungal species which in turn gives it the status of 'hub' of macro-fungal species. The macro fungal species richness of the state is directly related to its expansive forest communities and diverse weather patterns, but all the regions of the state have not been extensively surveyed till now. In this backdrop, a systematic survey for exploration and inventorization of macro fungal species of Western Kashmir Himalaya was undertaken during the year 2009 and 2010, which in turn resulted identification of the three species viz., Thelephora caryophyllea (Schaeff.) Pers., Coltricia cinnamomea (Pers.) Murr., and Guepinia helvelloides Fr. as new reports from the Kashmir. These species were identified on the basis of macro and microscopic characters and also the aid of taxonomic keys, field manuals, mushroom herbaria and help from expert taxonomists in the related field was taken into account. (author)

  10. Potential influence of selection criteria on the demographic composition of students in an Australian medical school

    Puddey Ian B

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior to 1999 students entering our MBBS course were selected on academic performance alone. We have now evaluated the impact on the demographics of subsequent cohorts of our standard entry students (those entering directly from high school of the addition to the selection process of an aptitude test (UMAT, a highly structured interview and a rural incentive program. Methods Students entering from 1985 to 1998, selected on academic performance alone (N = 1402, were compared to those from 1999 to 2011, selected on the basis of a combination of academic performance, interview score, and UMAT score together with the progressive introduction of a rural special entry pathway (N = 1437. Results Males decreased from 57% to 45% of the cohort, students of NE or SE Asian origin decreased from 30% to 13%, students born in Oceania increased from 52% to 69%, students of rural origin from 5% to 21% and those from independent high schools from 56% to 66%. The proportion of students from high schools with relative socio-educational disadvantage remained unchanged at approximately 10%. The changes reflect in part increasing numbers of female and independent high school applicants and the increasing rural quota. However, they were also associated with higher interview scores in females vs males and lower interview scores in those of NE and SE Asian origin compared to those born in Oceania or the UK. Total UMAT scores were unrelated to gender or region of origin. Conclusions The revised selection processes had no impact on student representation from schools with relative socio-educational disadvantage. However, the introduction of special entry quotas for students of rural origin and a structured interview, but not an aptitude test, were associated with a change in gender balance and ethnicity of students in an Australian undergraduate MBBS course.

  11. Glycosaminoglycan-Mediated Selective Changes in the Aggregation States, Zeta Potentials, and Intrinsic Stability of Liposomes

    Nyren-Erickson, Erin K; Haldar, Manas K.; Totzauer, Jessica R.; Ceglowski, Riley; Patel, Dilipkumar S.; Daniel L. Friesner; Srivastava, D. K.; Mallik, Sanku

    2012-01-01

    Though the aggregation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the presence of liposomes and divalent cations has been previously reported, the effect of different GAG species, as well as minor changes in GAG composition on the aggregates formed is yet unknown. If minor changes in GAG composition produce observable changes in liposome aggregate diameter or zeta potential, such a phenomenon may be used to detect potentially dangerous over-sulfated contaminants in heparin. We studied the mechanism of t...

  12. On the Origin of Event-Related Potentials Indexing Covert Attentional Selection During Visual Search

    Cohen, Jeremiah Y; Heitz, Richard P.; Schall, Jeffrey D.; Woodman, Geoffrey F.

    2009-01-01

    Despite nearly a century of electrophysiological studies recording extracranially from humans and intracranially from monkeys, the neural generators of nearly all human event-related potentials (ERPs) have not been definitively localized. We recorded an attention-related ERP component, known as the N2pc, simultaneously with intracranial spikes and local field potentials (LFPs) in macaques to test the hypothesis that an attentional-control structure, the frontal eye field (FEF), contributed to...

  13. Monsoon variability in the Himalayas under the condition of global warming

    An ice core-drilling program was carried out at the accumulation area of Dasuopu glacier (28deg23'N, 85deg43'E, 7100 m a.s.l.) in the central Himalayas in 1997. The ice core was analyzed continuously for stable isotopes (δ18O), and major ions throughout the core. Cycles indicated by δ18O, cations were identified and counted as seasonal fluctuations as annual increment from maximum to maximum values. Reconstructed 300-year annual net accumulation (water equivalent) from the core, with a good correlation to Indian monsoon, reflects a major precipitation trend in the central Himalayas. The accumulation trend, separated from the time series, shows a strong negative correlation to Northern Hemisphere temperature. Generally, as northern hemisphere temperature increases 0.1degC, the accumulation decreases about 80 mm, reflecting monsoon rainfall in the central Himalayas has decreased over the past decades in the condition of global warming. (author)

  14. Millenary Mw > 9.0 earthquakes required by geodetic strain in the Himalaya

    Stevens, V. L.; Avouac, J.-P.

    2016-02-01

    The Himalayan arc produced the largest known continental earthquake, the Mw ≈ 8.7 Assam earthquake of 1950, but how frequently and where else in the Himalaya such large-magnitude earthquakes occur is not known. Paleoseismic evidence for coseismic ruptures at the front of the Himalaya with 15 to 30 m of slip suggests even larger events in medieval times, but this inference is debated. Here we estimate the frequency and magnitude of the largest earthquake in the Himalaya needed so that the moment released by seismicity balances the deficit of moment derived from measurements of geodetic strain. Assuming one third of the moment buildup is released aseismically and the earthquakes roughly follow a Gutenberg-Richter distribution, we find that Mw > 9.0 events are needed with a confidence level of at least 60% and must return approximately once per 800 years on average.

  15. Biocathodes reducing oxygen at high potential select biofilms dominated by Ectothiorhodospiraceae populations harboring a specific association of genes.

    Desmond-Le Quéméner, Elie; Rimboud, Mickaël; Bridier, Arnaud; Madigou, Céline; Erable, Benjamin; Bergel, Alain; Bouchez, Théodore

    2016-08-01

    Biocathodes polarized at high potential are promising for enhancing Microbial Fuel Cell performances but the microbes and genes involved remain poorly documented. Here, two sets of five oxygen-reducing biocathodes were formed at two potentials (-0.4V and +0.1V vs. saturated calomel electrode) and analyzed combining electrochemical and metagenomic approaches. Slower start-up but higher current densities were observed at high potential and a distinctive peak increasing over time was recorded on cyclic voltamogramms, suggesting the growth of oxygen reducing microbes. 16S pyrotag sequencing showed the enrichment of two operational taxonomic units (OTUs) affiliated to Ectothiorodospiraceae on high potential electrodes with the best performances. Shotgun metagenome sequencing and a newly developed method for the identification of Taxon Specific Gene Annotations (TSGA) revealed Ectothiorhodospiraceae specific genes possibly involved in electron transfer and in autotrophic growth. These results give interesting insights into the genetic features underlying the selection of efficient oxygen reducing microbes on biocathodes. PMID:27126080

  16. Widespread climate change in the Himalayas and associated changes in local ecosystems.

    Uttam Babu Shrestha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Climate change in the Himalayas, a biodiversity hotspot, home of many sacred landscapes, and the source of eight largest rivers of Asia, is likely to impact the well-being of ~20% of humanity. However, despite the extraordinary environmental, cultural, and socio-economic importance of the Himalayas, and despite their rapidly increasing ecological degradation, not much is known about actual changes in the two most critical climatic variables: temperature and rainfall. Nor do we know how changes in these parameters might impact the ecosystems including vegetation phenology. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By analyzing temperature and rainfall data, and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index values from remotely sensed imagery, we report significant changes in temperature, rainfall, and vegetation phenology across the Himalayas between 1982 and 2006. The average annual mean temperature during the 25 year period has increased by 1.5 °C with an average increase of 0.06 °C yr(-1. The average annual precipitation has increased by 163 mm or 6.52 mmyr(-1. Since changes in temperature and precipitation are immediately manifested as changes in phenology of local ecosystems, we examined phenological changes in all major ecoregions. The average start of the growing season (SOS seems to have advanced by 4.7 days or 0.19 days yr(-1 and the length of growing season (LOS appears to have advanced by 4.7 days or 0.19 days yr(-1, but there has been no change in the end of the growing season (EOS. There is considerable spatial and seasonal variation in changes in climate and phenological parameters. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first time that large scale climatic and phenological changes at the landscape level have been documented for the Himalayas. The rate of warming in the Himalayas is greater than the global average, confirming that the Himalayas are among the regions most vulnerable to climate change.

  17. Evaluation of antifungal potential of selected medicinal plants against human pathogenic fungi

    Hayat Sakander; Bhat Akhilesh; A Raveesha Koteshwara

    2015-01-01

    Context: Evaluation of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine lead to novel bioactive compounds with antifungal activity that could be exploited as therapeutic agents. Aims: The aim was to screen selected medicinal plants for antifungal activity against three important human pathogenic fungi and to identify the broad group of phytochemicals responsible for the activity. Materials and Methods: A total of 8 medicinal plants were screened for antifungal activity against three human pathog...

  18. Potential evapotranspiration and its impact on autumn phenological phases of selected plants

    The work deals with the assessment of the impact of water balance on the timing of phenological phases at two locations (Hips and Bukovina), on the selected tree species (hazel (Corylus avellana L.), hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.), sessile oak (Quercus petraea, Liebl.)). Phenological observations have been held since 2007, and together with measurements of meteorological parameters allow us to evaluate the microclimate in the stands in detail. (authors)

  19. Substrate selection for fundamental studies of electrocatalysts and photoelectrodes: inert potential windows in acidic, neutral, and basic electrolyte.

    Jesse D Benck

    Full Text Available The selection of an appropriate substrate is an important initial step for many studies of electrochemically active materials. In order to help researchers with the substrate selection process, we employ a consistent experimental methodology to evaluate the electrochemical reactivity and stability of seven potential substrate materials for electrocatalyst and photoelectrode evaluation. Using cyclic voltammetry with a progressively increased scan range, we characterize three transparent conducting oxides (indium tin oxide, fluorine-doped tin oxide, and aluminum-doped zinc oxide and four opaque conductors (gold, stainless steel 304, glassy carbon, and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite in three different electrolytes (sulfuric acid, sodium acetate, and sodium hydroxide. We determine the inert potential window for each substrate/electrolyte combination and make recommendations about which materials may be most suitable for application under different experimental conditions. Furthermore, the testing methodology provides a framework for other researchers to evaluate and report the baseline activity of other substrates of interest to the broader community.

  20. Quantifying BTEX in aqueous solutions with potentially interfering hydrocarbons using a partially selective sensor array.

    Cooper, J S; Kiiveri, H; Hubble, L J; Chow, E; Webster, M S; Müller, K-H; Sosa-Pintos, A; Bendavid, A; Raguse, B; Wieczorek, L

    2015-05-01

    Partially selective gold nanoparticle sensors have the sensitivity and selectivity to discriminate and quantify benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p-xylene and naphthalene (BTEXN) at concentrations relevant to the US Environmental Protection Agency. In this paper we demonstrate that gold nanoparticle chemiresistors can do so in the presence of 16 other hydrocarbons and that they did not reduce the discriminating power of the array. A two-level full factorial designed experiment was performed on unary, binary, ternary, quaternary, quinary combinations of BTEXN analytes with and without the possibly interfering hydrocarbons. The nominal component concentration of the mixtures was 100 μg L(-1), equivalent to approximately 100 parts per billion (ppb). Concentrations predicted with the random forests method had an average root mean square error of 10-20% of the component concentrations. This level of accuracy was achieved regardless of whether or not the 16 possibly interfering hydrocarbons were present. This work shows that the sensitivity and selectivity of gold nanoparticles chemiresistor sensors towards BTEXN analytes are not unduly affected by the other hydrocarbons that are expected to be present at a petroleum remediation site. PMID:25768651

  1. The assessment of genetic potential in performance tested gilts by means of selection indexes method

    Popovac Mladen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research paper was to make an assessment of breeding value of performance tested gilts of Swedish Landrace and F1 crossbreds of Swedish Landrace and Great Yorkshire by the method of selection index. The traits on whose basis the breeding value was estimated were: daily liveweight gain, average backfat thickness measured at two sites and carcass meat percentage. These traits were corrected for body mass of 100kg by the method of base indexes and the following average values were determined: corrected daily liveweight gain (KZDP 408.93g/day, corrected average backfat thickness measured at two sites (KSL 9.77mm and corrected carcass meat percentage (KPM 61.08%. Studying the effect of genotype, year and birth season of gilts a statistically significant variation (P>0.05 of these traits provoked by the mentioned factors was not determined while the gilts` sire statistically highly significantly (P<0.001 influenced all studied traits. Heritability coefficients were: h2= 0.255 for KZDP, h2= 0.356 for KSL and h2 = 0.349 for KPM. The four selection index equations were constructed among which as the most optimal was chosen the one which includes all three traits (KZDP, KSL and KPM and whose coefficient of the correlation of selection index and aggregate genotype was rIAG = 0.594. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31081

  2. Potential Selective Responding in a Parent Questionnaire Study of Post-Institutionalized Children.

    Hawk, Brandi N; Wright, Amanda; Julian, Megan M; Rosas, Johana M; Merz, Emily C; McCall, Robert B

    2013-01-01

    Selective responding bias, though under-researched, is of particular concern in the study of post-institutionalized children because many studies rely on mailed questionnaires and response rates are often low. The current study addresses the impact of selective responding in a single wave of data collection and in a multi-wave study. Participants were 121 parents from a larger four-wave study of post-institutionalized children, identified as Never Responders, Previous Responders (but not to the current wave), or Wave 4 Responders. Parents were telephoned and asked about their adopted child's family, school, peer, and behavioral adjustment. The children (47% male) ranged in age from 2 to 20 years (M = 10.79, SD = 4.59) and had been adopted between 5 and 54 months of age (M = 15.49, SD = 9.94). There were no differences in parent ratings of adjustment for a single wave of data collection; however, participants who never responded reported poorer family and peer adjustment than those who had responded to at least one wave of data collection. Within a single wave of data collection, there was no evidence that selective responding contributes much bias. Over a multi-wave study, however, results may under-represent adjustment difficulties, especially with family and friends. PMID:23710124

  3. Evaluation of Phenolic Content Variability along with Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Cytotoxic Potential of Selected Traditional Medicinal Plants from India

    Singh, Garima; Passsari, Ajit K.; Leo, Vincent V.; Mishra, Vineet K.; Subbarayan, Sarathbabu; Singh, Bhim P.; Kumar, Brijesh; Kumar, Sunil; Gupta, Vijai K.; Lalhlenmawia, Hauzel; Nachimuthu, Senthil K.

    2016-01-01

    Plants have been used since ancient times as an important source of biologically active substances. The aim of the present study was to investigate the phytochemical constituents (flavonoids and phenolics), antioxidant potential, cytotoxicity against HepG2 (human hepato carcinoma) cancer cell lines, and the antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract of selected traditional medicinal plants collected from Mizoram, India. A number of phenolic compounds were detected using HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF-M...

  4. Sensitivity of spirochetes from \\kur{Borrelia burgdorferi} sensu lato complex to human complement: infection potential of selected species

    Tichá, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    Sensitivity of spirochetes from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex to serum complement of humans of different age and sex was analyzed. Complement-mediated Borrelia killing was observed in different combination of serum and selected Borrelia genospecies. The obtained results confirmed that age itself does not influence the sensitivity of human to Borrelia infection. However, the females seem to be more vulnerable to it. Each of ten tested Borrelia species was proved to be potentially inf...

  5. Analysis of selected medicinal plants as antioxidants with therapeutic potential for treating diseases related to free radical damage

    Pendry, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative damage is implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases. Scientific research shows positive links between accumulated free radical damage and age-related diseases such as atherosclerosis and osteoarthritis. There is great interest in the possibility that the antioxidant potential of plant-derived compounds such as flavonoids may reduce the risk of developing these conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of selected non-food plants, traditi...

  6. Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors potentiate gene blunting induced by repeated methylphenidate treatment: Zif268 vs. Homer1a

    Van Waes, Vincent; Vandrevala, Malcolm; Beverley, Joel; Steiner, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing use of psychostimulants such as methylphenidate (Ritalin; dopamine reuptake inhibitor) for medical treatments and as cognitive enhancers in the healthy. Methylphenidate is known to produce some addiction-related gene regulation. Recent findings in animal models show that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) including fluoxetine can potentiate acute induction of gene expression by methylphenidate, thus indicating an acute facilitatory role for serotonin in dopamin...

  7. Bone-sparing and anti-inflammatory potential of the novel selective glucocorticoid receptor modulator, compound A

    Thiele, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common chronic inflammatory disease that affects about 1% of the Western population. Glucocorticoids (GC) are widely used for the treatment of RA and other immune-mediated diseases, such as asthma, but their use is associated with adverse effects on bone metabolism. Because of that, new selective GC receptor (GR) agonists (SEGRAs) with the potential for an improved risk/benefit profile have been developed. Compound A (CpdA) is a novel SEGRA, which showed an impr...

  8. Free ion selective radionuclide extraction (FISRE) and the targeting potential of theranostic radio-complexes

    The present paper briefly discusses molecular targeting, receptors, and distribution, all set in the context of the use of radiolabelled and chelated peptides in peptide receptor scintigraphy (PRS) and peptide radionuclide therapy (PRRT). The discussion further addresses the potential of compartmental modelling as a tool in optimization approaches for targeting complexes. The latter point is illustrated by the use of FISRE-methods and clinical data on 177Lu-DOTA-Tyr3-octreotate in a preliminary modelling trial, to show the principal relevance of various complex properties for targeting characteristics in optimization exercises. The results indicate that improving the complex dynamic stability may mimic improved complex targeting potential. (author)

  9. MODULATION OF EVENT-RELATED POTENTIALS BY WORD REPETITION - THE ROLE OF VISUAL SELECTIVE ATTENTION

    OTTEN, LJ; RUGG, MD; DOYLE, MC

    1993-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while subjects viewed visually presented words, some of which occurred twice. Each trial consisted of two colored letter strings, the requirement being to attend to and make a word/nonword discrimination for one of the strings. Attention was manipulated

  10. Electrophysiological localization of distinct calcium potentials at selective somatodendritic sites in the substantia nigra

    Hounsgaard, J; Nedergaard, S; Greenfield, S A

    1992-01-01

    in the rostral substantia nigra, the dendrites are shown to be the origin of classic low-threshold and high-threshold type calcium potentials: indeed the high-threshold conductance appears to be exclusively dendritic. By contrast, in a second, more caudally located cell type, which discharges rhythmically...