WorldWideScience

Sample records for himalayas selection potential

  1. Identification and bioactive potential of endophytic fungi isolated from selected plants of the Western Himalayas

    OpenAIRE

    Qadri, Masroor; Johri, Sarojini; Shah, Bhahwal A; Khajuria, Anamika; Sidiq, Tabasum; Lattoo, Surrinder K; Abdin, Malik Z.; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to characterize and explore the endophytic fungi of selected plants from the Western Himalayas for their bioactive potential. A total of 72 strains of endophytic fungi were isolated and characterized morphologically as well as on the basis of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 ribosomal gene sequence acquisition and analyses. The fungi represented 27 genera of which two belonged to Basidiomycota, each representing a single isolate, while the rest of the isolates comprised of Ascomycetous...

  2. Identification and bioactive potential of endophytic fungi isolated from selected plants of the Western Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadri, Masroor; Johri, Sarojini; Shah, Bhahwal A; Khajuria, Anamika; Sidiq, Tabasum; Lattoo, Surrinder K; Abdin, Malik Z; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted to characterize and explore the endophytic fungi of selected plants from the Western Himalayas for their bioactive potential. A total of 72 strains of endophytic fungi were isolated and characterized morphologically as well as on the basis of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 ribosomal gene sequence acquisition and analyses. The fungi represented 27 genera of which two belonged to Basidiomycota, each representing a single isolate, while the rest of the isolates comprised of Ascomycetous fungi. Among the isolated strains, ten isolates could not be assigned to a genus as they displayed a maximum sequence similarity of 95% or less with taxonomically characterized organisms. Among the host plants, the conifers, Cedrus deodara, Pinus roxburgii and Abies pindrow harbored the most diverse fungi, belonging to 13 different genera, which represented almost half of the total genera isolated. Several extracts prepared from the fermented broth of these fungi demonstrated strong bioactivity against E. coli and S. aureus with the lowest IC(50) of 18??g/ml obtained with the extract of Trichophaea abundans inhabiting Pinus sp. In comparison, extracts from only three endophytes were significantly inhibitory to Candida albicans, an important fungal pathogen. Further, 24 endophytes inhibited three or more phytopathogens by at least 50% in co-culture, among a panel of seven test organisms. Extracts from 17 fungi possessed immuno-modulatory activities with five of them showing significant immune suppression as demonstrated by the in vitro lymphocyte proliferation assay. This study is an important step towards tapping the endophytic fungal diversity from the Western Himalayas and assessing their bioactive potential. Further studies on the selected endophytes may lead to the isolation of novel natural products for use in medicine, industry and agriculture. PMID:23420270

  3. Permafrost in the Himalayas: specific characteristics, evolution vs. climate change and impacts on potential natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Monique

    2015-04-01

    Mountain environments are very sensitive to climate change, yet assessing the potential impacts of these changes is not easy because of the complexity and diversity of mountain systems. The Himalayan permafrost belt presents three main specificities: (1) it develops in a geodynamically active mountain, which means that the controlling factors are not only temperature but also seismo-tectonic activity; (2) due to the steepness of the southern flank of the Greater Himalaya and potential large scale rock failures, permafrost evidence manifests itself best in the inner valleys and on the northern, arid side of the Himalayas (elevations >4000m); (3) the east-west strike of the mountain range creates large spatial discontinuity in the "cold" belt, mostly related to precipitation nature and availability. Only limited studies have been carried to date, and there is no permanent "field laboratory", nor continuous records but a few local studies. Based on preliminary observations in the Nepal Himalayas (mostly in Mustang and Dolpo districts), and Indian Ladakh, we present the main features indicating the existence of permafrost (either continuous or discontinuous). Rock-glaciers are quite well represented, though their presence may be interpreted as a combined result from both ground ice and large rock collapse. The precise altitudinal zonation of permafrost belt (specifying potential permafrost, probable permafrost, observed permafrost belts) still requires careful investigations in selected areas. Several questions arise when considering the evolution of permafrost in a context of climate change, with its impacts on the development of potential natural hazards that may affect the mountain population. Firstly, permafrost degradation (ground ice melting) is a cause of mountain slope destabilization. When the steep catchments are developed in frost/water sensitive bedrock (shales and marls) and extend to high elevations (as observed in Mustang or Dolpo), it would supply more mass-wasting and debris-flow events and may directly threat the infrastructures recently built to unlock these remote areas. Secondly, acceleration of permafrost degradation might also affect the steepest rock walls (as in Khumbu, Manang and Mustang Himals) and cause rock avalanches that could impact nearby settlements, as suggested by relicts of past events. Lastly, ground ice is a hidden source of water in areas without permanent glacial ice. In a context of global warming this non-renewable resource would be depleted and no longer available for the population living in these areas, all the more as growing tourism activities are increasing the demand for water consumption that may conflicts with irrigated agricultural uses down valley. More in-situ observations and long-term monitoring studies should certainly be useful to understand climate trends hence permafrost evolution and their consequences in order to help mountain populations of the cold, arid Himalayas to adjust to progressive changes in their environmental conditions and resources.

  4. Hot springs and the geothermal energy potential of Jammu & Kashmir State, N.W. Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, J.; Absar, A.; Bhat, G.; Cadel, G.; Hafiz, M.; Hakhoo, N.; Kashkari, R.; Moore, J.; Ricchiuto, T. E.; Thurow, J.; Thusu, B.

    2013-11-01

    India has an estimated geothermal power potential of 10,600 MWe, but this potential is entirely undeveloped at present. The 'Geothermal Atlas of India' prepared by the Geological Survey of India (GSI) in 1991 describes some 340 hot spring sites and identifies more than 300 sites with geothermal potential in at least seven key geothermal provinces throughout India. There are more than 20 hot spring sites in Jammu & Kashmir State, mainly in the Chenab Valley in the Lesser/Central Himalaya, the Kashmir Valley and in the High Himalaya region of Ladakh. At least three localities in the Ladakh region - Chamuthang and Puga in the Indus valley and Panamik in the Nubra Valley - are considered to have geothermal power generation potential of between 3 and > 20 MWe.

  5. Carbon Stock Potential of Oak and Pine Forests in Garhwal Region in Indian Central Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanda Nautiyal

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Oak (Quercus leucotichophora and pine (Pinus roxburghii are the two most dominant forest types occurring in Indian Central Himalayas. CO2 mitigation potential of these two forest types was observed in the present study. Carbon stock densities for AGTB, BB, LHG, DWS, AGSB and SOC were estimated and higher values were recorded in oak forest stands. Total carbon density estimated was 2420.54 Mg/ha for oak forest of Gopeshwar and 986.93 Mg/ha for pine forest of Nandprayag. CO2 mitigation potential of oak forest of Gopeshwar was recorded to be 8,713.94 CO2e and of pine forests 3552.95 CO2e.

  6. In vitro antibacterial activity of selected medicinal plants from lower Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulqarnain; Rahim, Abdur; Ahmad, Khalid; Ullah, Faizan; Ullah, Hamid; Nishan, Umar

    2015-03-01

    The present studies cover antibacterial activity of the crude methanolic extracts of 11 medicinal plants viz. Adhatoda vasica, Bauhenia variegate, Bombax ceiba, Carrisa opaca, Caryopteris grata, Debregeasia salicifolia, Lantana camara, Melia azedarach, Phyllanthus emblica, Pinus roxburghii and Olea ferruginea collected from lower Himalayas against two Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus) and two Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aureginosa) bacterial strains. The extracts were applied at four different concentrations (120 mg/mL, 90mg/mL, 60mg/mL and 30mg/mL) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) by using agar well diffusion method. Antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus were observed formethanolic extracts of all the above mentioned plants. Greater antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa was only exhibited by Phyllanthus emblica, Pinus roxburghii, Debregeasia salicifolia and Lantana camara. Escherichia coli was highly resistant to all the plant extracts at all concentrations. It is inferred that methanolic crude extracts of the above mentioned plantsexhibitantibacterial activities against pathogenic bacteria, which proved the ethnobotanical importance of the selected plants that indigenous people use for cure against various diseases. PMID:25730791

  7. Phytoremediation potential of Phragmites australis in Hokersar wetland - a Ramsar site of Kashmir Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Syed Shakeel; Reshi, Zafar A; Shah, Manzoor A; Rashid, Irfan; Ara, Roshan; Andrabi, Syed M A

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals are an important class of pollutants with both lethal and sublethal effects on organisms. Wetlands are cheap natural alternatives for removal of heavy metals from soils; however, wetland plants vary greatly in their degree of metal uptake. Hokersar wetland, a Ramsar site of Kashmir Himalaya, India is a game reserve of international importance that provides suitable habitat for resident birds and an excellent stopover point for migratory birds visiting from Palaearctic breeding grounds in Central Asia, China, N-Europe and Siberia. The toxicity of chronic dietary metal exposure in birds may have adverse reproductive effects which include decreased egg production, decreased hatchability, and increased hatchling mortality. Thus, the present study aimed to assess the heavy metal sequestration capability of one of the most common wetland plant species Phragmites australis in Hokersar wetland. The accumulation of the different elements was in order of Al > Mn > Ba > Zn > Cu > Pb > Mo > Co > Cr > Cd > Ni. Translocation factor, i.e. ratio of shoot to root metal concentration revealed that metals were largely retained in the roots of P. australis, thus reducing the supply of metals to avifauna and preventing their bio-accumulation. PMID:24933910

  8. Impact of Climate Change on Potential Distribution of Chinese Caterpillar Fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) in Nepal Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Uttam Babu; Bawa, Kamaljit S.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has already impacted ecosystems and species and substantial impacts of climate change in the future are expected. Species distribution modeling is widely used to map the current potential distribution of species as well as to model the impact of future climate change on distribution of species. Mapping current distribution is useful for conservation planning and understanding the change in distribution impacted by climate change is important for mitigation of future biodiversit...

  9. The potential drivers in forming avian biodiversity hotspots in the East Himalaya Mountains of Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Fumin; Qu, Yanhua; Song, Gang; Alström, Per; Fjeldså, Jon

    2015-03-01

    Little has been published to describe or interpret Asian biodiversity hotspots, including those in the East Himalayan Mountains of Southwest China (HMSC), thus making necessary a review of the current knowledge. The Pliocene and Pleistocene geological and glacial histories of the Asian continent differ from those of Europe and North America, suggesting different mechanisms of speciation and extinction, and, thus, different responses to climate changes during the Quaternary glaciations. This short review summarizes potential drivers in shaping and maintaining high species richness and endemism of birds in the HMSC. The geographical location at the junction of different biogeographical realms, the wide range of habitats and climates along the extensive elevational range, the complex topography and the distinct geological history of this region have probably contributed to the evolution of an exceptionally species-rich and endemic-rich, specialized montane avian fauna. The Mountain systems in the HMSC may have provided refugia where species survived during the glacial periods and barriers for preventing species dispersal after the glacial periods. More studies are required to further test this refugia hypothesis by comparing more cold-tolerent and warm-tolerent species. PMID:25316284

  10. Exotic Lolium perenne Varieties: Their Forage Value and Soil Cover Potential in Himalayas Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Ahmad

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Rawalakot lies under humid temperate region at the height of 5500 ft from the sea level. The area is hilly and soils are prone to heavy erosion due to the loss of vegetative cover. Winter frost and snow often kills the local forages and thus depriving the livestock from green herbage altogether. Seven varieties of Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass from European and American germplasm were evaluated for their forage value and soil cover potential under Rawalakot conditions. All varieties compared were diploid (2n = 14. The comparison was based on plant height, fresh and dry matter yield, number of cuttings/ year and tillers plant-1. The variety VA88002 was found to be the best one in plant height and dry and fresh herbage yield followed by SERVO and APUS. When tiller number was compared, the variety APUS was found to be at the top followed by VA88001 and others. All varieties were of spreading nature with increasing persistence in following years and found to be suitable for cutting, grazing and soil conservation

  11. Detection of snow melt and freezing in Himalaya using OSCAT data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajashree V Bothale; P V N Rao; C B S Dutt; V K Dadhwal

    2015-02-01

    A study of the snow cover melt and freeze using Ku band Oceansat scatterometer (OSCAT) HH polarised backscatter coefficient (0HH) for 2011 and 2012 is reported for the Himalayas, which contain the world’s largest reserve of ice and snow outside polar regions. The analysis shows spatial and temporal inter-annual variations in the onset of melt/freeze across four regions (Upper Himalaya, Western Himalaya, Central Himalaya, and Eastern Himalaya), nine elevation bands and four aspect zones. A threshold based on temperature–0HH relation and average 0HH for the months January–March was used for melt/freeze detection. When the three consecutive images (6 days) satisfied the threshold, the day of first image was selected as melt onset/freeze day. The average melt onset dates were found to be March 11 ± 11 days for Eastern Himalaya, April 3 ± 18 days for Central Himalaya, April 16 ± 27 days for Western Himalaya, and May 12 ± 18 days for Upper Himalaya. Similarly average freeze onset dates were found to be August 23 ± 27 days for Eastern Himalaya, September 08 ± 24 days for Central Himalaya, August 27 ± 11 days for Western Himalaya, and September 13 ± 11 days for Upper Himalaya. All the zones experienced the melt onset earlier by around 20 days in 2011 at elevation above 5000 m. All the zones experienced freeze earlier in 2012, with onset being 18, 19, 11, and 21 days earlier in Eastern, Central, Western, and Upper Himalaya, respectively.

  12. Ethnobotany in the Nepal Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    Bussmann Rainer W; Kunwar Ripu M

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Indigenous knowledge has become recognized worldwide not only because of its intrinsic value but also because it has a potential instrumental value to science and conservation. In Nepal, the indigenous knowledge of useful and medicinal plants has roots in the remote past. Methods The present study reviews the indigenous knowledge and use of plant resources of the Nepal Himalayas along the altitudinal and longitudinal gradient. A total of 264 studies focusing on ethnobotany...

  13. Evolution of supra-glacial ponds on a debris-covered Chamlang South Glacier, Nepal Himalaya to a potentially dangerous glacial lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsal, D.; Sawagaki, T.; Watanabe, T.; Sakai, A.

    2013-12-01

    A number of moraine dammed glacial lakes have been developed in the Himalayan region since 1950s as a result of melting and retreat of debris-covered glaciers. Such glacial lakes sometimes produce devastating glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs) which are often several times bigger than normal climatic floods. In Nepal Himalaya, about a score glacial lakes have been identified as ';potentially dangerous' largely relying on remote sensing image analyses. Chamlang South Glacier Lake in the Eastern Nepal Himalaya, which evolved from few tiny supra-glacial ponds in 1960s on debris-covered Chamlang South Glacier into a large glacial lake is one among them. Moreover, the lake has been repeatedly cited as a potentially dangerous lake for a glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) and also regarded as one of the most highly prioritized critical lakes in Nepal Himalaya. However, detailed investigation of the lake either by field survey or remote sensing has not been carried out on Chamlang South Glacier/Glacier Lake hitherto. We carried out surface area and bathymetric mappings of the lake, detailed topographic mappings of moraine dam complex and surrounding of the glacial lake, and field assessment to examine the development of Chamlang South Glacier Lake, and to assess its prospect of GLOF and potential volume of water to be released from the lake in the event of dam breach. High-resolution Corona KH-4A and Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) PRISM stereo-data taken in 1964 and 2006 respectively were processed to generate digital terrain models (DTMs). Surface area of supra-glacial ponds in 1964 was 0.040 km2 which grew to 0.636 km2 by 1992 and reached 0.864 km2 by 2000 and virtually stopped expanding thereafter. Produced bathymetric map revealed the lake to be 87 m deep (maximum) and volume of water contained in the lake was calculated to be ~35.6 × 106 m3. Extensive surface lowering as high as 156.9 m, and average surface lowering by 2.2 m/year is found. All topographic and geomorphic conditions (e.g., position and condition of hanging glacier, precarious mountain slope surrounding the lake conducive to ice/glacier and rock falls, steep, high and fragile terminal moraine topography, high relative height between the lake bottom and stable ground at the foothill of terminal moraines, low-raised dam in dead-ice area adjacent to lake), and existence of seepage in end moraine complex favor the lake to be potentially dangerous. However, the lake has a wide dead-ice area between the lake and end moraine dam that most likely neutralize displacement waves produced in the event of snow/ice avalanche or rock fall into the lake. Nevertheless, there is likely to drain almost all water contained in the lake (~35.6 × 106 m3) if dam breach of Chamlang South Glacier Lake occurs. In a nutshell, prospect of GLOF from the lake is moderate; however, if moraine dam breaks, potential volume of water to be drained would apparently be high.

  14. Potential theory—selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Aikawwa, Hiroaki

    1996-01-01

    The first part of these lecture notes is an introduction to potential theory to prepare the reader for later parts, which can be used as the basis for a series of advanced lectures/seminars on potential theory/harmonic analysis. Topics covered in the book include minimal thinness, quasiadditivity of capacity, applications of singular integrals to potential theory, L(p)-capacity theory, fine limits of the Nagel-Stein boundary limit theorem and integrability of superharmonic functions. The notes are written for an audience familiar with the theory of integration, distributions and basic functional analysis.

  15. Export market potential for selected horticultural crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the feasibility of utilising an irradiation plant to disinfest fresh fruit and vegetables destined for export markets. It examines the export market potential of selected crops with the prime view of estimating likely trends in export markets in the future. These trends will have a significant bearing on throughput levels, and hence on the economic viability of an ionising energy plant

  16. Evolution of the Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdiya, K. S.

    1984-06-01

    The compression and attendant deformation of a thick and vast sedimentary prism formed since Early Riphean times on the northern continental margin of the Indian craton gave rise to the Himalaya mountains as a result of convergence and collision of the Indian and Asian plates. The oceanic trench-sediments, tectonically implanted with sea-floor material and intimately associated with calc-al-kaline volcanics in the narrow Sindhu-Tsangpo belt extending from Kohistan through Dras, Leh, Darchen (Mansarovar) to Shigatse and beyond, represent the subduction-island arc complex which developed south of the dynamic southern margin of the Asian continent and was welded to the colliding Indian plate during the late Eocene to Oligocene period. This complex is fringed to the north by a wide zone of Andean-type granitic bodies. The evolution of the Himalayan orogen is closely connected with the development of the present-day Andaman-Nicobar-Indonesia island arc-subduction system in the southeast and the Makran Ranges-Oman Trench in the southwest. The evolution of the Himalaya was accomplished in four major phases of tectonic upheaval during the late Cretaceous to Palaeocene (Karakoram phase), late Eocene to Oligocene (Malla Johar phase), middle Miocene to Pontian (Sirmurian phase), and late Pliocene to middle Pleistocene (Siwalik phase). While the Karakoram phase marks the convergence of continents and the Malla Johar phase represents the collision and subduction, it was during the Sirmurian upheaval that the main tectonic features developed and the Himalaya acquired its distinctive structural complexion

  17. Methanogens at the top of the world: occurrence and potential activity of methanogens in newly deglaciated soils in high-altitude cold deserts in the Western Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RoeyAngel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Methanogens typically occur in reduced anoxic environments. However, in recent studies it has been shown that many aerated upland soils, including desert soils also host active methanogens. Here we show that soil samples from high–altitude cold deserts in the western Himalayas (Ladakh, India produce CH4 after incubation as slurry under anoxic conditions at rates comparable to those of hot desert soils. Samples of matured soil from three different vegetation belts (arid, steppe, and subnival were compared with younger soils originating from frontal and lateral moraines of receding glaciers. While methanogenic rates were higher in the samples from matured soils, CH4 was also produced in the samples from the recently deglaciated moraines. In both young and matured soils, those covered by a biological soil crust (biocrust were more active than their bare counterparts. Isotopic analysis showed that in both cases CH4 was initially produced from H2/CO2 but later mostly from acetate. Analysis of the archaeal community in the in situ soil samples revealed a clear dominance of sequences related to Thaumarchaeota, while the methanogenic community comprised only a minor fraction of the archaeal community. Similar to other aerated soils, the methanogenic community was comprised almost solely of the genera Methanosarcina and Methanocella, and possibly also Methanobacterium in some cases. Nevertheless, approximately 103 gdw-1 soil methanogens were already present in the young moraine soil together with cyanobacteria. Our results demonstrate that Methanosarcina and Methanocella not only tolerate atmospheric oxygen but are also able to survive in these harsh cold environments. Their occurrence in newly deglaciated soils shows that they are early colonisers of desert soils, similar to cyanobacteria, and may play a role in the development of desert biocrusts.

  18. The role of glaciers in stream flow from the Nepal Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    Alford, D; Armstrong, R.

    2010-01-01

    Recent concerns related to the potential impacts of the retreat of Himalayan glaciers on the hydrology of rivers originating in the catchment basins of the Himalaya have been accompanied by few analyses describing the role of glaciers in the hydrologic regime of these mountains. This is, at least in part, a result of the relative inaccessibility of the glaciers of the Himalaya, at altitudes generally between 4000–7000 m, and the extreme logistical difficulties of: 1) reaching the glaciers, an...

  19. Prospects of Sustainable Livestock Farming in the Uttarakhand Himalaya, India

    OpenAIRE

    V. P. Sati; Singh, R.B.

    2010-01-01

    Livestock farming forms an integral part in the economy of the Uttarakhand Himalaya and plays an important role in the mixed crop farming system. In addition, high diversity in livestock composition is the characteristic features of the mainland of Uttarakhand. The state obtains high potential of milk production because of availability of fodder as a form of extensive grasslands, which are locally known as bugyals or kharaks and fodder trees. Livestock, other than milk production, are widely ...

  20. Lg attenuation tomographic models of Himalaya and southern Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Chandrani; Mondal, Pushkar; Singh, Sagar; Mohanty, Debasis D.; Jaiswal, Namrata; Ravi Kumar, M.

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the Lg attenuation structure of the crust beneath the tectonically complex Himalaya and southern Tibet regions adopting a tomographic regionalization method. A total of 1671 earthquake waveforms registered at 38 seismic stations operated in the region are selected for the initial LgQ measurements using the standard two-station method. Q0 (1 Hz LgQ) values of 76 high quality interstation paths are finally considered as input for the tomographic inversion. The estimates of Q0 exhibit distinct variations in the crustal attenuation from north to south across the whole region. The zones of lowest Q0 values (structure reported for the region. We interpret the variations in the attenuation characteristics in terms of both the intrinsic and scattering contributions caused by thermal effects, presence of aqueous fluids as well as heterogeneities present below these seismically active regions. Our results are found to be comparable with the other parts of Himalaya and Tibet.

  1. Lithospheric Structure and Earthquakes beneath Kashmir Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanchoo, S. K.; Powali, D.; Sharma, S.; Mitra, S.; Priestley, K. F.; Gaur, V. K.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last two centuries, convergence between India and Tibet has outpaced the cumulative slip released through Himalayan earthquakes and have resulted in seismic gap across Kashmir Himalaya. Recent GPS geodetic data from Kashmir show that the ongoing convergence is accumulated as elastic strain within a ~200 km wide locked decollement and is sufficiently stressed to drive a magnitude 8 or greater event. Recently published focal mechanism of the mb 5.7 (2013) Kishtwar earthquake and hypocentral distribution of small-to-moderate seismicity for the past 60 years, showed that the down dip end of the locked decollement is currently active and could possibly be the site of initiation of a future great earthquake. In order to assess the seismic hazard in this Kashmir gap, we require a detailed knowledge of the lithospheric structure and use it to reliably locate active faults. A pilot seismological experiment, of nine broadband seismographs, have been deployed across the Kashmir Himalaya to achieve this goal. These stations are sited on the Siwalik Himalaya (AKNR, NGRT, SMVD, SUND and TAPN), the Lesser Himalaya (RAMN and UDHM) and the Higher Himalaya (BADR and PHAG), and straddle major Himalayan thrust zones. Most of these stations have recorded high quality broadband data for a year, which has been used to compute receiver functions and relocate local earthquakes. The Moho Ps is the strongest arrival on all the receiver functions, and highlights the base of the underthrusting Indian crust as a large impedance contrast boundary. Forward modeling of receiver functions show that the crustal thickness increases from ~40 km beneath the Siwalik Himalaya to ~48 km beneath the Lesser Himalaya and to ~52 km beneath the Higher Himalaya. The average crustal Vp/Vs points to a felsic Indian crust underthrusting the Kashmir Himalaya. Relocated local earthquakes cluster around the hypocenter of the Kishtwar earthquake and attests to the active downdip end of the locked decollement.

  2. Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Surface Irradiance in the Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobreva, I. D.; Bishop, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Climate-glacier dynamics in the Himalaya are complex. Research indicates extreme local variability in glacier fluctuations and the presence of regional trends. The glaciers in the Karakoram Himalaya depart from world trends of glacier recession, as many are advancing or surging. Nevertheless, glacier sensitivity to climate change has yet to be quantitatively assessed given numerous controlling factors. We attempt to address part of the problem by evaluating the role of topography in explaining variations in surface irradiance. Specifically, we developed a spectral-based topographic solar radiation model that accounts for multi-scale topographic effects. We evaluate surface irradiance simulations over a multitude of glaciers across the Karakoram and Nepalese Himalaya and examine spatio-temporal patterns to determine which alpine glaciers are more susceptible to radiation forcing. Simulation results reveal that many Nepalese glaciers characterized by rapid downwasting, retreat and expanding proglacial lakes, exhibit relatively high-magnitude daily irradiance patterns spatially focused over the terminus region, while other glacier surface areas received less short-wave irradiance. These results were found to be associated with basin-scale relief conditions and topographic shielding. Altitudinal variation in glacier surface irradiance was found to increase during the later portion of the ablation season, as changes in solar geometry produce more cast shadows that protect glaciers given extreme relief. Topographic effects on surface irradiance vary significantly from glacier to glacier, demonstrating the important role of glacier and mountain geodynamics on glacier sensitivity to climate change. Spatial and altitudinal patterns, coupled with information regarding supraglacial debris distribution, depth and ice-flow velocities, may potentially explain glacier sensitivity to climate change and the local variability of glacier fluctuations in the Himalaya.

  3. Selective suppression of Eigen states with an absorptive delta potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delta function potentials are used to explain short range elastic impurities and nature of the spectrum generated by the delta function potential embedded in a box and to construct model atomic systems interacting with the electromagnetic fields leading to multi photon absorption and ionization process. Similar study can be carried out in a nuclear system to analyze different properties of radioactive ions. The resonances generated when particle traverses across two delta potentials in one-dimension (ID) are studied. In this contribution, a novel feature is demonstrated that an absorptive delta potential suitably placed within a potential pocket can be used to selectively manipulate and suppress the resonances generated by the pocket

  4. Potential selection for female choice in Viola tricolor

    OpenAIRE

    Skogsmyr, Io; Lankinen, Åsa

    2000-01-01

    That sexual selection can be an active force in plant evolution is still under debate. When the number of pollen grains deposited onto a stigma exceeds the number of available ovules, competition among pollen grains for fertilizations will result in selection on traits that increase siring ability (e.g. pollen tube growth rate). The pistil can be regarded as an arena for pollen competition, where pistil size and shape have the potential to intensify competition and thereby increase the possib...

  5. Determination of Half-wave Potentials of Selected Chlorophenols

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.O., Iwunze; B., Abel.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic voltammetry was used in cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) micellar solution to determine the half-wave potentials of selected chlorophenols, CPs. It is observed that all the electrochemical parameters of the studied CPs decrease with an increase in the number of chlorine atom(s) attached [...] to the parent compound. The mathematical relationship between the obtained E1/2 and the number of chlorine atoms in the parent compound is given. The formal potentials, E0', of the CPs are approximated from the obtained half-wave potentials.

  6. Microwave-dressed state-selective potentials for atom interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Guarrera, V; Reichel, J; Rosenbusch, P

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel and robust technique to realize a beam splitter for trapped Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). The scheme relies on the possibility of producing different potentials simultaneously for two internal atomic states. The atoms are coherently transferred, via a Rabi coupling between the two long-lived internal states, from a single well potential to a double-well. We present numerical simulations supporting our proposal and confirming excellent efficiency and fidelity of the transfer process with realistic numbers for a BEC of $^{87}$Rb. We discuss the experimental implementation by suggesting state-selective microwave potentials as an ideal tool to be exploited for magnetically trapped atoms. The working principles of this technique are tested on our atom chip device which features an integrated coplanar micro-wave guide. In particular, the first realization of a double-well potential by using a microwave dressing field is reported. Experimental results are presented together with numerical simu...

  7. The duct selective volumetric receiver: potential for different selectivity strategies and stability issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Casals, X. [Universidad Pontificia Comillas-ICAI, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Fluidos y Calor; Ajona, J.I. [Departamento de Energia Solar, Viessemann, Poligono Industrial San Marcos, Getafe (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    Recently much theoretical and experimental work has been conducted on volumetric receivers. However, not much attention has been paid to the possibilities of using different selectivity mechanisms to minimize radiation thermal losses, which are the main ones at high operating temperature. In this paper we present a duct volumetric receiver model and its results, which allow the evaluation of different selectivity strategies such as: conventional {epsilon}/{alpha}, geometry, frontal absorption and diffuse/specular reflection. We propose a new concept of selective volumetric receivers based on a solar-specular/infrared-diffuse radiative behaviour and evaluate its potential for efficiency improvement. In recent work on volumetric receivers based on simplified models, it has been concluded that the duct volumetric receiver is inherently unstable when working with high solar flux. We didn't find any unstable receiver behaviour even at very high solar fluxes, and conclude that a substantial potential for efficiency improvement exists if selectivity mechanisms are properly combined. (author)

  8. Deprivation selectively modulates brain potentials to food pictures

    OpenAIRE

    Stockburger, Jessica; Weike, Almut I.; Hamm, Alfons O; Schupp, Harald Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were used to examine whether the processing of food pictures is selectively modulated by changes in the motivational state of the observer. Sixteen healthy male volunteers were tested twice 1 week apart, either after 24 hr of food deprivation or after normal food intake. ERPs were measured while participants viewed appetitive food pictures as well as standard emotional and neutral control pictures. Results show that the ERPs to food pictures in a hungry, ...

  9. Measuring Mitochondrial Membrane Potential with a Tetraphenylphosphonium-Selective Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, António J; Santos, Dario L; Magalhães-Novais, Sílvia; Oliveira, Paulo J

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial bioenergetics is based on the generation of the protonmotive force by the electron transport chain. The protonmotive force is used by mitochondria for different critical aspects of its normal function, ranging from calcium accumulation to the synthesis of ATP. The transmembrane electric potential (??) is the major component of the protonmotive force and is also the main responsible for ATP synthesis by mitochondrial ATP synthase. Although several methods can be used to measure the ??, the use of the tetraphenylphosphonium cation (TPP(+) )-selective electrode is still a method of election due to its sensitivity. The method is based on the accumulation of TPP(+) by energized mitochondria, which develop a negative charge in the matrix due to the ejection of protons. This unit describes how to build a custom-made TPP(+) -selective electrode and how to establish the necessary set-up to follow ?? fluctuations in isolated mitochondrial fractions. © 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:26250398

  10. Ectomycorrhizal Diversity Associated with Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India

    OpenAIRE

    Zahoor Ahmad Itoo; ZAFAR A. RESHI

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to document the ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India. The extensive field surveys carried out in the Kashmir Himalaya at five study sites resulted in the collection and identification of 76 potential ectomycorrhizal fungal species associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana. Maximum 32 number of species were found associated with Pinus wallichiana, 19 with Cedrus deodara ...

  11. The role of glaciers in stream flow from the Nepal Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Alford

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent concerns related to the potential impacts of the retreat of Himalayan glaciers on the hydrology of rivers originating in the catchment basins of the Himalaya have been accompanied by few analyses describing the role of glaciers in the hydrologic regime of these mountains. This is, at least in part, a result of the relative inaccessibility of the glaciers of the Himalaya, at altitudes generally between 4000–7000 m, and the extreme logistical difficulties of: 1 reaching the glaciers, and 2 conducting meaningful research once they have been reached. It is apparent that an alternative to traditional "Alpine" glaciology is required in the mountains of the Hindu Kush-Himalaya region. The objectives of the study discussed here have been to develop methodologies that will begin to quantify the role of complete glacier systems in the hydrologic regime of the Nepal Himalaya, and to develop estimates of the potential impact of a continued retreat of these glacier, based on the use of disaggregated low-altitude data bases, topography derived from satellite imagery, and simple process models of water and energy exchange in mountain regions.

    While the extent of mesoscale variability has not been established by studies to date, it is clear that the dominant control on the hydrologic regime of the tributaries to the Ganges Basin from the eastern Himalaya is the interaction between the summer monsoon and the 8000 m of topographic relief represented by the Himalayan wall. All the available evidence indicates that the gradient of specific runoff with altitude resulting from this interaction is moderately to strongly curvilinear, with maximum runoff occurring at mid-altitudes, and minima at the altitudinal extremes. At the upper minimum of this gradient, Himalayan glaciers exist in what has been characterized as an "arctic desert".

    The methodologies developed for this study involve the relationship between area-altitude distributions of catchment basins and glaciers, based on Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM3 data and water and energy exchange gradients. Based on these methodologies, it is estimated that the contribution of glacier annual melt water to annual stream flow into the Ganges Basin from the glacierized catchments of the Nepal Himalaya represents approximately 4% of the total annual stream flow volume of the rivers of Nepal, and thus, is a minor component of the annual flow of the Ganges River. The models developed for this study indicate that neither stream flow timing nor volume of the rivers flowing into the Ganges Basin from Nepal will be affected materially by a continued retreat of the glaciers of the Nepal Himalaya.

  12. Selective oestrogen receptor modulators differentially potentiate brain mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, R W; Yao, J; To, J; Hamilton, R T; Cadenas, E; Brinton, R D

    2012-01-01

    The mitochondrial energy-transducing capacity of the brain is important for long-term neurological health and is influenced by endocrine hormone responsiveness. The present study aimed to determine the role of oestrogen receptor (ER) subtypes in regulating mitochondrial function using selective agonists for ER? (propylpyrazoletriol; PPT) and ER? (diarylpropionitrile; DPN). Ovariectomised female rats were treated with 17?-oestradiol (E(2) ), PPT, DPN or vehicle control. Both ER selective agonists significantly increased the mitochondrial respiratory control ratio and cytochrome oxidase (COX) activity relative to vehicle. Western blots of purified whole brain mitochondria detected ER? and, to a greater extent, ER? localisation. Pre-treatment with DPN, an ER? agonist, significantly increased ER? association with mitochondria. In the hippocampus, DPN activated mitochondrial DNA-encoded COX I expression, whereas PPT was ineffective, indicating that mechanistically ER?, and not ER?, activated mitochondrial transcriptional machinery. Both selective ER agonists increased protein expression of nuclear DNA-encoded COX IV, suggesting that activation of ER? or ER? is sufficient. Selective ER agonists up-regulated a panel of bioenergetic enzymes and antioxidant defence proteins. Up-regulated proteins included pyruvate dehydrogenase, ATP synthase, manganese superoxide dismutase and peroxiredoxin V. In vitro, whole cell metabolism was assessed in live primary cultured hippocampal neurones and mixed glia. The results of analyses conducted in vitro were consistent with data obtained in vivo. Furthermore, lipid peroxides, accumulated as a result of hormone deprivation, were significantly reduced by E(2) , PPT and DPN. These findings suggest that the activation of both ER? and ER? is differentially required to potentiate mitochondrial function in brain. As active components in hormone therapy, synthetically designed oestrogens as well as natural phyto-oestrogen cocktails can be tailored to improve brain mitochondrial endpoints. PMID:22070562

  13. Microwave-dressed state-selective potentials for atom interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarrera, V.; Szmuk, R.; Reichel, J.; Rosenbusch, P.

    2015-08-01

    We propose a novel and robust technique to realize a beam splitter for trapped Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). The scheme relies on the possibility of producing different potentials simultaneously for two internal atomic states. The atoms are coherently transferred, via a Rabi coupling between the two long-lived internal states, from a single well potential to a double-well. We present numerical simulations supporting our proposal and confirming excellent efficiency and fidelity of the transfer process with realistic numbers for a BEC of 87Rb. We discuss the experimental implementation by suggesting state-selective microwave (MW) potentials as an ideal tool to be exploited for magnetically trapped atoms. The working principles of this technique are tested on our atom chip device which features an integrated coplanar MW guide. In particular, the first realization of a double-well potential by using a MW dressing field is reported. Experimental results are presented together with numerical simulations, showing good agreement. Simultaneous and independent control on the external potentials is also demonstrated in the two Rubidium clock states. The transfer between the two states, featuring respectively a single and a double-well, is characterized and it is used to measure the energy spectrum of the atoms in the double-well. Our results show that the spatial overlap between the two states is crucial to ensure the functioning of the beamsplitter. Even though this condition could not be achieved in our current setup, the proposed technique can be realized with current state-of-the-art devices being particularly well suited for atom chip experiments. We anticipate applications in quantum enhanced interferometry.

  14. Energy and sustainable development in the Himalayas; Energie et developpement durable dans l'Himalaya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, V. [Groupe Energies Renouvelables, Environnement et Solidarite, Developpement Durable et Solidarite Internationale (ABAC-GERES), 13 - Aubagne (France)

    2004-07-01

    150 million people live in the Himalayas, in a rigorous climatic and geographical context. The majority of these areas of high altitude are cold and arid deserts. The simplest stakes are the daily concern of the inhabitants of these areas: to preserve an ecosystem and its biodiversity, already weakened, to reduce the burden of the firewood collection, to have access to the public services (care, teaching...), to improve the living conditions (housing comfort, local economy as agriculture, craft industry). The access to energy can help to solve part of these social and economic problems, to satisfy the basic needs (heating, kitchen, hygiene), to reduce the human constraint and to support economic activities. For more than 20 years the GERES has developed passive, simple and reproducible solar technology, perfectly adapted to the local conditions met in these areas. These data sheets will allow the readers: to understand the particular context of these areas, to know the current solutions brought by the populations, to know the solutions being able to improve the situation and technical, economic and social criteria, allowing the populations to carry out suitable choices, to determine the potential, using renewable energies, to have concrete references. (author)

  15. Evolution of earthquake-triggered landslides in the Kashmir Himalaya, northern Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattak, G.A.; Owen, L.A.; Kamp, U.; Harp, E.L.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of the 08 October 2005 Kashmir earthquake and subsequent snow melt and monsoon rainfall on slope stability was evaluated using repeat photography in the Kashmir Himalaya of northern Pakistan. Sixty-eight landslide-affected locations were selected and photographed in November 2005, May/June 2006, June 2007, and August 2007 to evaluate all potential geomorphic changes. Eighty percent of the locations showed no or very little change, 11% of the locations showed a partial vegetation recovery on the slopes, while 9% showed an increase in the landslide area. All those locations that showed an increase in landsliding were located along rivers and/or roads. The small change in landslide extent is remarkable given that the region experienced one of the heaviest monsoon seasons in the last decade and is counter to earlier predictions of accelerated slope erosion by landsliding in the immediate years following the earthquake. Extensive fissures and ground cracks at many localities, however, still present a potential of future landsliding under wetter conditions. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Selection of potential microorganism for sago starch fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUTH MELLIAWATI

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation process of sago starch for the production of bioproduct requires potential microorganism that have ability to hydrolyze sago starch. The purpose of this research was to get the potential of amylolytic microorganisms for their capability of amyloglucosidase activity and to know the sugar strains of the fermentation result. Eleven amylolytic microorganisms (9 strains of mold and 2 strains of yeast were obtained from the collection Research Centre for Biotechnology – Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI, Cibinong-Bogor were used. The selection step was carried out based on their capability of starch hydrolysis to reducing sugar. The best result indicates that the production of reducing sugar reached the highest 18.485 ppm and amyloglucosidase activities was 3.583 units by KTU-1 strain. The highest total acid obtained was 5.85 mg/mL by Rhizopus IFO.R5442. The cell biomass was obtained between 0.5 to 1.74 g dry weight/100 mL and pH of the final fermentation (72 h were 3.57 to 8.38.

  17. Arc parallel extension in Higher and Lesser Himalayas, evidence from western Arunachal Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sharmistha De Sarkar; George Mathew; Kanchan Pande

    2013-06-01

    The existence of E–W extensional features from northeast (NE) Himalaya is poorly documented. Our investigation in the western part of Arunachal Himalaya provides evidences of active Quaternary E–W arc-parallel extensional features in the Higher and Lesser Himalayas. They are represented by arcperpendicular normal faults and arc-parallel sinistral strike-slip faults. We discuss the occurrences of these arc-parallel extensional features in terms of oblique convergence and radial expansion models. The partitioning of stress due to oblique convergence is argued based on evidences of left-lateral slip in NEHimalaya, right-lateral slip in NW-Himalaya and absence of translation in the central part. The amount of arc-parallel extension in the hinterland regions is correlated to the amount of radial shortening in the foreland. The computation of arc-parallel extension in the NE Himalayan arc is carried out by defining a small-circle centered at 88° 39? \\pm 0.7?E longitude and 33° 40? \\pm 0.6?N latitude having a radius of 770.7 ± 15.1 km, for the segment between 92° 01? and 95° 16?E longitudes. The amount of arc-parallel extension estimated is ?110 km for the NE Himalayan segment. Our result agrees closely with the 104 km extension determined based on geodetically computed extension rate and age of initiation of rifting in southern Tibet.

  18. A novel selective metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 agonist reveals new possibilities for developing subtype selective ligands with therapeutic potential.

    OpenAIRE

    Goudet, C; Vilar, B; Courtiol, T; Deltheil, T; Bessiron, T; Brabet, I; Oueslati, N; Rigault, D; Bertrand, HO; McLean, H; Daniel, H.; Amalric, M.; Acher, F.; Pin, JP

    2012-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors are promising targets to treat numerous brain disorders. So far, allosteric modulators are the only subtype selective ligands, but pure agonists still have strong therapeutic potential. Here, we aimed at investigating the possibility of developing subtype-selective agonists by extending the glutamate-like structure to hit a nonconsensus binding area. We report the properties of the first mGlu4-selective orthosteric agonist, derived from a virtual screen...

  19. Tree ring imprints of long-term changes in climate in western Himalaya, Indi

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R R Yadav

    2009-11-01

    Tree-ring analyses from semi-arid to arid regions in western Himalaya show immense potential for developing millennia long climate records. Millennium and longer ring-width chronologies of Himalayan pencil juniper (Juniperus polycarpos), Himalayan pencil cedar (Cedrus deodara) and Chilgoza pine (Pinus gerardiana) have been developed from different sites in western Himalaya. Studies conducted so far on various conifer species indicate strong precipitation signatures in ring-width measurement series. The paucity of weather records from stations close to tree-ring sampling sites poses difficulty in calibrating tree-ring data against climate data especially precipitation for its strong spatial variability in mountain regions. However, for the existence of strong coherence in temperature, even in data from distant stations, more robust temperature reconstructions representing regional and hemispheric signatures have been developed. Tree-ring records from the region indicate multi-century warm and cool anomalies consistent with the Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age anomalies. Significant relationships noted between mean premonsoon temperature over the western Himalaya and ENSO features endorse utility of climate records from western Himalayan region in understanding long-term climate variability and attribution of anthropogenic impact.

  20. Southwest-facing slopes control the formation of debris-covered glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nagai

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To understand the formation conditions of debris-covered glaciers, we examined the dimension and shape of debris-covered areas and potential debris-supply (PDS slopes of 208 glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya. This was undertaken using satellite images with 2.5 m spatial resolution for manual delineation of debris-covered areas and PDS slopes. The most significant correlation exists between surface area of southwest-facing PDS slopes and debris-covered area. This result suggests that the southwest-facing PDS slopes supply the largest quantity of debris mantle. The shape of debris-covered areas is also an important variable quantitatively defined using a geometric index. Elongate or stripe-like debris-covered areas on north-flowing glaciers are common throughout the Bhutan Himalaya, associated with the small quantities of debris from north-facing PDS slopes. In contrast, south-flowing glaciers have large ablation zones, entirely covered by debris. Our findings suggest that this difference is caused by effective diurnal freeze–thaw cycles rather than seasonal freeze–thaw cycles, permafrost degradation, or snow avalanches. In terms of geographic setting, local topography also contributes to glacier debris supply and the proportion of debris cover on the studied glaciers is suppressed by the arid Tibetan climate, whereas the north-to-south asymmetric topography of the Bhutan Himalaya has less influence on the proportion of debris cover.

  1. CODA Q estimates for Kumaun Himalaya

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Paul; S C Gupta; Charu C Pant

    2003-12-01

    Coda $Q(Q_c)$ estimates for the Kumaun Himalaya region have been obtained in high frequency range. Local earthquakes, recorded by a digital seismic network in the region, which fall in the epicentral distances range of 10 to 80km and with a local magnitude range of 1.4 to 2.8, have been used. The coda waves of 30 sec window length, filtered at seven frequency bands centered at 1.5, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 Hz, have been analysed using the single backscattering model. The values of $Q_c$ estimates vary from 65 to 283 at 1.5 Hz to 2119 to 3279 at 24.0 Hz which showed that $Q_c$ is frequency dependent and its value increases as frequency increases. A frequency-dependent $Q_c$ relationship, $Q_c$ = (92 ± 4.73)$f^{(1.07 \\pm .023)}$, is obtained for the region representing the average attenuation characteristics of seismic waves for Kumaun Himalaya region.

  2. Regional Glacier Sensitivity to Climate Change in the Monsoonal Himalaya: Implications for Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupper, S.; Maurer, J. M.; Schaefer, J. M.; Tsering, K.; Rinzin, T.; Dorji, C.; Johnson, E. S.; Cook, E. R.

    2014-12-01

    The rapid retreat of many glaciers in the monsoonal Himalaya is of potential societal concern. However, the retreat pattern in the region has been very heterogeneous, likely due in part to the inherent heterogeneity of climate and glaciers within the region. Assessing the impacts of glacier change on water resources, hydroelectric power, and hazard potential requires a detailed understanding of this potentially complex spatial pattern of glacier sensitivity to climate change. Here we quantify glacier surface-mass balance and meltwater flux across the entire glacierized region of the Bhutanese watershed using a full surface-energy and -mass balance model validated with field data. We then test the sensitivity of the glaciers to climatic change and compare the results to a thirty-year record of glacier volume changes. Bhutan is chosen because it (1) sits in the bulls-eye of the monsoon, (2) has >600 glaciers that exhibit the extreme glacier heterogeneity typical of the Himalayas, and (3) faces many of the economic and hazard challenges associated with glacier changes in the Himalaya. Therefore, the methods and results from this study should be broadly applicable to other regions of the monsoonal Himalaya. Our modeling results show a complex spatial pattern of glacier sensitivity to changes in climate across the Bhutanese Himalaya. However, our results also show that 90% of the total meltwater flux, and that these glaciers are uniformly the glaciers most sensitive to changes in temperature (and less sensitive to other climate variables). We compare these results to a thirty-year record of glacier volume changes over the same region. In particular, we extract DEMs and orthorectified imagery from 1976 historical spy satellite images and 2006 ASTER images. DEM differencing shows that the glaciers that have changed most over the past thirty years also have the highest modeled temperature sensitivity. These results suggest that, despite the complex glacier heterogeneity in the region, the regional meltwater resources are controlled by a very small percentage of the glaciers, and that these glaciers are particularly vulnerable to changes in temperature.

  3. A study of algal biomass potential in selected Canadian regions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard David; Roach, Jesse Dillon; Klise, Geoffrey T.

    2011-11-01

    A dynamic assessment model has been developed for evaluating the potential algal biomass and extracted biocrude productivity and costs, using nutrient and water resources available from waste streams in four regions of Canada (western British Columbia, Alberta oil fields, southern Ontario, and Nova Scotia). The purpose of this model is to help identify optimal locations in Canada for algae cultivation and biofuel production. The model uses spatially referenced data across the four regions for nitrogen and phosphorous loads in municipal wastewaters, and CO{sub 2} in exhaust streams from a variety of large industrial sources. Other data inputs include land cover, and solar insolation. Model users can develop estimates of resource potential by manipulating model assumptions in a graphic user interface, and updated results are viewed in real time. Resource potential by location can be viewed in terms of biomass production potential, potential CO{sub 2} fixed, biocrude production potential, and area required. The cost of producing algal biomass can be estimated using an approximation of the distance to move CO{sub 2} and water to the desired land parcel and an estimation of capital and operating costs for a theoretical open pond facility. Preliminary results suggest that in most cases, the CO{sub 2} resource is plentiful compared to other necessary nutrients (especially nitrogen), and that siting and prospects for successful large-scale algae cultivation efforts in Canada will be driven by availability of those other nutrients and the efficiency with which they can be used and re-used. Cost curves based on optimal possible siting of an open pond system are shown. The cost of energy for maintaining optimal growth temperatures is not considered in this effort, and additional research in this area, which has not been well studied at these latitudes, will be important in refining the costs of algal biomass production. The model will be used by NRC-IMB Canada to identify promising locations for both demonstration and pilot-scale algal cultivation projects, including the production potential of using wastewater, and potential land use considerations.

  4. EVALUATION OF GARHWAL HIMALAYA WILD EDIBLE TUBER DIOSCOREA DELTOIDEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Subhash

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Uttarakhand is highly enriched with edible wild tubers. Such tubers are highly potential with medicinal value and nutritional value due to the presence of bio-actives. These tubers are consumed by local inhabitants to play a significant role as supplementary food. The present study is aimed at evaluating the nutritional value, successive extraction, thin layer chromatography of medicinal plant, Dioscorea deltoidea. It is a popular wild edible tubers bearing plant of Indian Himalaya having good nutritional and medicinal potential. These will be the best source of the nutraceuticals. Since tubers are richer in micronutrients and bioactive secondary metabolites, The medicinal plant tuber contain ash value, (total ash 3.34 ± 0.15%, moisture 58.92±0.10%, crude fat 0.60±0.20% and crude fiber 7.50±0.14%, the successive extractive values were studied fresh part weight. The preliminary phytochemical analysis test showed the presence of carbohydrates and glycosides, alkaloid, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, unsaturated triterpenoids and sterol, resin.

  5. Are northeast and western Himalayas earthquake dynamics better “organized” than Central Himalayas: An artificial neural network approach

    OpenAIRE

    R.K. Tiwari; S.Sri Lakshmi

    2007-01-01

    The Himalaya covering 20-38° N latitude and 70-98° E longitude, is one of the most seismo-tectonically active and vulnerable regions of the world. Visual inspection of the temporal earthquake frequency pattern of the Himalayas indicates the nature of the tectonic activity prevailing in this region. However, the quantification of this dynamical pattern is essential for constraining a model and characterizing the nature of earthquake dynamics in this region. We examine the temporal evolution of...

  6. Prospects of Sustainable Livestock Farming in the Uttarakhand Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Sati

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Livestock farming forms an integral part in the economy of the Uttarakhand Himalaya and plays an important role in the mixed crop farming system. In addition, high diversity in livestock composition is the characteristic features of the mainland of Uttarakhand. The state obtains high potential of milk production because of availability of fodder as a form of extensive grasslands, which are locally known as bugyals or kharaks and fodder trees. Livestock, other than milk production, are widely used for manure, plowing fields and transportation of goods. The availability of extensive grasslands and feasible climatic conditions manifest a way for sustainable livestock farming in Uttarakhand, particularly in the temperate zone between 1400 m and 2200 m, where production of milk is high. Valley regions are generally known for rearing of drought animals with low milk producing capacity. This paper aims to discuss on the prospects of sustainable livestock farming and to trace the temporal changes that took place over the past years in terms of livestock population, composition, and the governmental policies and planning for developing livestock sector. It draws implications on these experiences for livestock planners and policy-makers and raises several research issues related to livestock sector development.

  7. Cytological studies of Brassicaceae burn. (Cruciferae juss.) from Western Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeelani, S M; Rani, S; Kumar, S; Kumari, S; Gupta, R C

    2013-01-01

    Cytological studies have been carried out on 12 species of Brassicaceae Burn. on population basis from different geographical areas of Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh in the Western Himalayas. Variable chromosome reports for Barbaraea intermedia (n = 16), Cardamine loxostemonoides (n = 8), Nasturtium officinale (n = 8), Sisymbrium orientale (n = 14) on world-wide basis have been added to the previous reports of these species. The chromosome numbers in seven species as Barbaraea intermedia (n = 8), B. vulgaris (n = 8), Capsella bursa-pastoris (n = 8), Descuriania sophia (n = 10), Rorippa islandica (n = 8), Sisymbrium strictum (n = 7) and Thlaspi alpestre (n = 7) have been worked out for the first time from India. The meiotic course in the populations of seven species such as Barbaraea intermedia, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Coronopus didymus, Descuriania sophia, Nasturtium officinale, Sisymbrium orientale and S. strictum varies from normal to abnormal while all the populations of two species Barbaraea vulgaris and Sisymbrium irio show abnormal meiotic course. Meiotic abnormalities are in the form of cytomixis, chromosomal stickiness, unoriented bivalents, inter-bivalent connections, formation of laggards and bridges, all resulting into abnormal microsporogenesis. Heterogenous sized fertile pollen grains and reduced reproductive potentialities have invariably been observed in all the meiotically abnormal populations. However, the meiotic course in all the populations of Cardamine loxostemonoides, Rorippa islandica and Thalspi alpestre is found to be normal with high pollen fertility. PMID:23427609

  8. Global warming may lead to catastrophic floods in the Himalayas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Nepal, data from 49 surveillance stations show that there has been a distinct temperature increase since the middle of the 1970s, the greatest changes being on the highest summits. When lakes overfill and beaches threaten to break down, this is a result of the global warming that melts the glaciers. The glaciers in Bhutan are observed to decrease by 30 - 40 metres per year, in some years as much as 100 metres. In the village of Tribeni an advanced warning system has been established to warn the 10 000 inhabitants of a potential flood from Lake Tsho Rolpa 108 km upstream. Research from the Himalayas also point to another serious threat. The melting threatens not only human lives, tourism, foot paths, roads, bridges and power stations. Since the mountains are the water towers of the world, filling rivers and lakes with water upon which all life depends, continued shrinking of the world's glaciers as is now observed will cause many rivers and fresh-water systems to dry out. Researchers from the UN Unep programme and International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development have registered at least 44 glacier lakes that are increasing so fast that they may cause outburst floods within five years. Similar investigations are being planned in India, Pakistan and China

  9. Geographic Information System (GIS) as a Decision Support Tool for Selecting Potential Landfill Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Amakihe, Emeka

    2011-01-01

    One of the growing potential problems of increased consumption is an escalation in the quantities of municipal solid wastes produced. Landfilling is now accepted as the most widely used method for environmentally safe disposal of solid waste. However, appropriate site selection for waste disposal is one of the major problems in waste management. Selection of suitable landfills can be extremely complex mainly due to the fact that the selection process involves many factors, criteria and regula...

  10. Catastrophic landslide deposits in the karakoram himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, K

    1988-10-01

    In July 1986, three catastrophic landslides deposited about 20 x 10(6) cubic meters of debris on Bualtar Glacier in the Karakoram Himalaya. A sudden acceleration and superficial breakup of the glacier provided an opportunity to examine the fresh deposits in depth. Beneath a surface layer of large boulders, finer materials, mainly sand and silt, made up half of the total volume. The fine materials were formed during the rock avalanche from mostly intact, massive rock of the source zone. Velocity estimates suggest that this disaggregation occurred in less than 2 minutes. Coarse materials remained in bands of uniform lithology, but the fine materials had diffused throughout the landslides. A small amount of carbonate appears to have been calcined by frictional heating, presumably at the base of the initial sliding masses. These observations are relevant to understanding the mechanisms of catastrophic landslides. Other nearby rock avalanche deposits indicate that landslides are an important geomorphic process in the area and that they pose a continuing risk to human activity. PMID:17757632

  11. Atmospheric brown clouds reach the Tibetan Plateau by crossing the Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. L. Lüthi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau region (HTP, despite being a remote and sparsely populated area, is regularly exposed to polluted air masses with significant amounts of aerosols including black carbon. These dark, light-absorbing particles are known to exert a great melting potential on mountain cryospheric reservoirs through albedo reduction and radiative forcing. This study combines the available yet sparse ground-based and satellite data to identify a severe aerosol pollution episode observed simultaneously in central Tibet and on the southern side of the Himalayas during 13–19 March 2009. We detail how polluted air masses such as an atmospheric brown cloud (ABC over South Asia reached the Tibetan Plateau during this pre-monsoon case study. In order to address the mechanisms of pollution transport in the complex topography of the HTP, air-mass trajectories are calculated using hourly outputs from the high-resolution numerical weather prediction model COSMO. Cross-mountain pollution transport is found to occur to a large extent at elevated tropospheric levels other than just through major river valleys. Lifting and advection of polluted air masses over the great mountain range is enabled by a combination of synoptic and local meteorological settings. Winds over the Indo Gangetic Plain (IGP are generally weak at lower levels during the event, allowing for accumulation of pollutants. The passing of synoptic-scale troughs leads to south-westerly flow in the middle troposphere over northern and central India. Thus, ABC can build up south of the Himalayas and get carried northwards across the mountain range and onto the Tibetan Plateau as the winds obtain a southerly component. Air masses from the ABC hot-spot of the IGP can reach the high glaciers, which may have serious implications for the cryosphere in the HTP region and for climate on regional to global scales.

  12. Atmospheric brown clouds reach the Tibetan Plateau by crossing the Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. L. Lüthi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau region (HTP, despite being a remote and sparsely populated area, is regularly exposed to polluted air masses with significant amounts of aerosols including black carbon. These dark, light-absorbing particles are known to exert a great melting potential on mountain cryospheric reservoirs through albedo reduction and radiative forcing. This study combines ground-based and satellite remote sensing data to identify a severe aerosol pollution episode observed simultaneously in central Tibet and on the southern side of the Himalayas during 13–19 March 2009 (pre-monsoon. Trajectory calculations based on the high-resolution numerical weather prediction model COSMO are used to locate the source regions and study the mechanisms of pollution transport in the complex topography of the HTP. We detail how polluted air masses from an atmospheric brown cloud (ABC over South Asia reach the Tibetan Plateau within a few days. Lifting and advection of polluted air masses over the great mountain range is enabled by a combination of synoptic-scale and local meteorological processes. During the days prior to the event, winds over the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP are generally weak at lower levels, allowing for accumulation of pollutants and thus the formation of ABCs. The subsequent passing of synoptic-scale troughs leads to southwesterly flow in the middle troposphere over northern and central India, carrying the polluted air masses across the Himalayas. As the IGP is known to be a hotspot of ABCs, the cross-Himalayan transport of polluted air masses may have serious implications for the cryosphere in the HTP and impact climate on regional to global scales. Since the current study focuses on one particularly strong pollution episode, quantifying the frequency and magnitude of similar events in a climatological study is required to assess the total impact.

  13. Atmospheric brown clouds reach the Tibetan Plateau by crossing the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüthi, Z. L.; Škerlak, B.; Kim, S.-W.; Lauer, A.; Mues, A.; Rupakheti, M.; Kang, S.

    2015-06-01

    The Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau region (HTP), despite being a remote and sparsely populated area, is regularly exposed to polluted air masses with significant amounts of aerosols including black carbon. These dark, light-absorbing particles are known to exert a great melting potential on mountain cryospheric reservoirs through albedo reduction and radiative forcing. This study combines ground-based and satellite remote sensing data to identify a severe aerosol pollution episode observed simultaneously in central Tibet and on the southern side of the Himalayas during 13-19 March 2009 (pre-monsoon). Trajectory calculations based on the high-resolution numerical weather prediction model COSMO are used to locate the source regions and study the mechanisms of pollution transport in the complex topography of the HTP. We detail how polluted air masses from an atmospheric brown cloud (ABC) over South Asia reach the Tibetan Plateau within a few days. Lifting and advection of polluted air masses over the great mountain range is enabled by a combination of synoptic-scale and local meteorological processes. During the days prior to the event, winds over the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) are generally weak at lower levels, allowing for accumulation of pollutants and thus the formation of ABCs. The subsequent passing of synoptic-scale troughs leads to southwesterly flow in the middle troposphere over northern and central India, carrying the polluted air masses across the Himalayas. As the IGP is known to be a hotspot of ABCs, the cross-Himalayan transport of polluted air masses may have serious implications for the cryosphere in the HTP and impact climate on regional to global scales. Since the current study focuses on one particularly strong pollution episode, quantifying the frequency and magnitude of similar events in a climatological study is required to assess the total impact.

  14. Atmospheric brown clouds reach the Tibetan Plateau by crossing the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüthi, Z. L.; Škerlak, B.; Kim, S.-W.; Lauer, A.; Mues, A.; Rupakheti, M.; Kang, S.

    2014-11-01

    The Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau region (HTP), despite being a remote and sparsely populated area, is regularly exposed to polluted air masses with significant amounts of aerosols including black carbon. These dark, light-absorbing particles are known to exert a great melting potential on mountain cryospheric reservoirs through albedo reduction and radiative forcing. This study combines the available yet sparse ground-based and satellite data to identify a severe aerosol pollution episode observed simultaneously in central Tibet and on the southern side of the Himalayas during 13-19 March 2009. We detail how polluted air masses such as an atmospheric brown cloud (ABC) over South Asia reached the Tibetan Plateau during this pre-monsoon case study. In order to address the mechanisms of pollution transport in the complex topography of the HTP, air-mass trajectories are calculated using hourly outputs from the high-resolution numerical weather prediction model COSMO. Cross-mountain pollution transport is found to occur to a large extent at elevated tropospheric levels other than just through major river valleys. Lifting and advection of polluted air masses over the great mountain range is enabled by a combination of synoptic and local meteorological settings. Winds over the Indo Gangetic Plain (IGP) are generally weak at lower levels during the event, allowing for accumulation of pollutants. The passing of synoptic-scale troughs leads to south-westerly flow in the middle troposphere over northern and central India. Thus, ABC can build up south of the Himalayas and get carried northwards across the mountain range and onto the Tibetan Plateau as the winds obtain a southerly component. Air masses from the ABC hot-spot of the IGP can reach the high glaciers, which may have serious implications for the cryosphere in the HTP region and for climate on regional to global scales.

  15. A novel selective metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 agonist reveals new possibilities for developing subtype selective ligands with therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudet, Cyril; Vilar, Bruno; Courtiol, Tiphanie; Deltheil, Thierry; Bessiron, Thomas; Brabet, Isabelle; Oueslati, Nadia; Rigault, Delphine; Bertrand, Hugues-Olivier; McLean, Heather; Daniel, Hervé; Amalric, Marianne; Acher, Francine; Pin, Jean-Philippe

    2012-04-01

    Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors are promising targets to treat numerous brain disorders. So far, allosteric modulators are the only subtype selective ligands, but pure agonists still have strong therapeutic potential. Here, we aimed at investigating the possibility of developing subtype-selective agonists by extending the glutamate-like structure to hit a nonconsensus binding area. We report the properties of the first mGlu4-selective orthosteric agonist, derived from a virtual screening hit, LSP4-2022 using cell-based assays with recombinant mGlu receptors [EC(50): 0.11 ± 0.02, 11.6 ± 1.9, 29.2 ± 4.2 ?M (n>19) in calcium assays on mGlu4, mGlu7, and mGlu8 receptors, respectively, with no activity at the group I and -II mGlu receptors at 100 ?M]. LSP4-2022 inhibits neurotransmission in cerebellar slices from wild-type but not mGlu4 receptor-knockout mice. In vivo, it possesses antiparkinsonian properties after central or systemic administration in a haloperidol-induced catalepsy test, revealing its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. Site-directed mutagenesis and molecular modeling was used to identify the LSP4-2022 binding site, revealing interaction with both the glutamate binding site and a variable pocket responsible for selectivity. These data reveal new approaches for developing selective, hydrophilic, and brain-penetrant mGlu receptor agonists, offering new possibilities to design original bioactive compounds with therapeutic potential. PMID:22223752

  16. Taxonomic status of Bupleurum (Apiaceae in outer hills of Kashmir Himalayas, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. L. Bhellum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The genus Bupleurum is perennial rhizomatous herbs, recognized by simple leaves,conspicuous bracts and bractlets, often shows a great deal of variation in morphological characteristics. The genus is well developed in temperate and alpine zones of Kashmir Himalayas and other lesser Himalayan ranges of Jammu and Kashmir State. A key to the species, brief description, flowering and fruiting periods are given. The approximate elevation, distribution of species in the region andillustrations of selected species are provided.Material and Methods: The present communication is based on the surveys conducted between 1990 and 2007. The speciemens were mounted on the herbarium sheets and studied in the laboratory with the help of floristic literature.Results: As many as 10 species of genus Bupleurum have been recognized, from the different climaticzones of outer hills of Kashmir Himalayas of Jammu and Kashmir State.Conclusion: The report is first of its kind being communicated from the State of Jammu and Kashmir. Ten species of Bupleurum are described.

  17. Potential site selection for radioactive waste repository using GIS (Study area: Negeri Sembilan) - Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose in this paper is to create the Geographic Information System (GIS) based analysis on the potential site area for near-surface radioactive waste repository in the state of Negeri Sembilan. There are several parameters should be considered related to the safety assessment in selecting the potential site. These parameters such as land-use, urban area, soil, rainfall, lithology, lineament, geomorphology, landslide potential, slope, elevation, hydrogeology and protected land need to be considered before choosing the site. In this phase, we only consider ten parameters for determining the potential suitable site. (author)

  18. Selected constants oxidation-reduction potentials of inorganic substances in aqueous solution

    CERN Document Server

    Charlot, G; Marchon, M J C

    2013-01-01

    Selected Constants: Oxidation-reduction Potentials of Inorganic Substances in Aqueous Solution presents tables that will aid chemists in finding the best or most probable value of the normal or formal oxidation-reduction potential of oxidation-reduction systems. The book first presents numerical calculations that show the degree of oxidation and real oxidation-reduction systems, including the value of the potential, temperature, nature and composition of the medium, and the method of determination used. The text then takes a look at the choice of data, as well as intensity/potential curves an

  19. Level of soil water potential as a tolerance selection environment for peanut to drought stress

    OpenAIRE

    Riadi, Muhammad; Soetopo, Lita; Nur Basuki; Kasno, Astanto

    2011-01-01

    A research was undertaken to determine level of soil water potential as a tolerance selection environment for peanut to drought stress. Result was that of 33 characters measured, 12 ones were selected to be further analyzed. Those characters were grain weight, pod weight, skin weight-percentage, number of filled-pod, number of unfilled-pod, weight of 100-grain, whole-plant weight, shoot weight, shoot-based harvest index, biomass-based harvest index, relative plant growth rate a...

  20. Energy Planning in Selected European Regions - Methods for Evaluating the Potential of Renewable Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Sliz-Szkliniarz, Beata

    2013-01-01

    Given their potentially positive impact on climate protection and the preservation of fossil resources, alternative energy sources have become increasingly important for the energy supply over the past years. However, the questions arises what economic and ecological impacts and potential conflicts over land use resources are associated with the promotion of renewable energy production. Using the examples of three selected European Regions in Poland, France and German, the dissertation discus...

  1. Acoustic Noise Alters Selective Attention Processes as Indicated by Direct Current (DC) Brain Potential Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Karin Trimmel; Julia Schätzer; Michael Trimmel

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic environmental noise, even of low to moderate intensity, is known to adversely affect information processing in animals and humans via attention mechanisms. In particular, facilitation and inhibition of information processing are basic functions of selective attention. Such mechanisms can be investigated by analyzing brain potentials under conditions of externally directed attention (intake of environmental information) versus internally directed attention (rejection of environmental ...

  2. Are northeast and western Himalayas earthquake dynamics better "organized" than Central Himalayas: An artificial neural network approach

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S., Sri Lakshmi; R. K., Tiwari.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Los Himalayas entre los 20 y 38 grados de latitud N y los 70 a 98 grados de longitud E están entre las regiones más activas y vulnerables a los temblores en el mundo. Se examina la evolución de la sismicidad en el tiempo (M > 4) en los Himalayas centrales, occidentales y del Noreste para el interval [...] o de 1960-2003 utilizando el método de redes neuronales artificiales (ANN). El modelo de capas múltiples sirve para simular la frecuencia de sismos con una resolución mensual. Para el entrenamiento del ANN se utiliza un algoritmo de propagación en reversa con optimización de gradiente, y se generaliza el resultado con validación cruzada. Se concluye que las tres regiones se caracterizan por procesos que evolucionan en un plano multidimensional caótico similar a una dinámica auto-organizada. El sector central posee un coeficiente de correlación más bajo que las otras dos regiones, que parecen estar mejor "organizadas", lo que es consistente con la información geológica y tectónica disponible. Abstract in english The Himalaya covering 20-38° N latitude and 70-98° E longitude, is one of the most seismo-tectonically active and vulnerable regions of the world. Visual inspection of the temporal earthquake frequency pattern of the Himalayas indicates the nature of the tectonic activity prevailing in this region. [...] However, the quantification of this dynamical pattern is essential for constraining a model and characterizing the nature of earthquake dynamics in this region. We examine the temporal evolution of seismicity (M > 4) of the Central Himalaya (CH), Western Himalaya (WH) and Northeast Himalaya (NEH), for the period of 1960-2003 using artificial neural network (ANN) technique. We use a multilayer feedforward artificial neural network (ANN) model to simulate monthly resolution earthquake frequency time series for all three regions. The ANN is trained using a standard back-propagation algorithm with gradient decent optimization technique and then generalized through cross-validation. The results suggest that earthquake processes in all three regions evolved on a high dimensional chaotic plane akin to "self-organized" dynamical pattern. Earthquake processes of NEH and WH show a higher predictive correlation coefficient (50-55%) compared to the CH (30%), implying that the earthquake dynamics in the NEH and WH are better "organized" than in the CH region. The available tectonogeological observations support the model predictions.

  3. Morphometric analysis of Suketi river basin, Himachal Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anil M Pophare; Umesh S Balpande

    2014-10-01

    Suketi river basin is located in the Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh, India. It encompasses a central inter-montane valley and surrounding mountainous terrain in the Lower Himachal Himalaya. Morphometric analysis of the Suketi river basin was carried out to study its drainage characteristics and overall groundwater resource potential. The entire Suketi river basin has been divided into five sub-basins based on the catchment areas of Suketi trunk stream and its major tributaries. Quantitative assessment of each sub-basin was carried out for its linear, areal, and relief aspects. The analysis reveals that the drainage network of the entire Suketi river basin constitutes a 7th order basin. Out of five sub-basins, Kansa khad sub-basin (KKSB), Gangli khad sub-basin (GKSB) and Ratti khad sub-basin (RKSB) are 5th order subbasins. The Dadour khad sub-basin (DKSB) is 6th order sub-basin, while Suketi trunk stream sub-basin (STSSB) is a 7th order sub-basin. The entire drainage basin area reflects late youth to early mature stage of development of the fluvial geomorphic cycle, which is dominated by rain and snow fed lower order streams. It has low stream frequency (Fs) and moderate drainage density (Dd) of 2.69 km/km2. Bifurcation ratios (Rb) of various stream orders indicate that streams up to 3rd order are surging through highly dissected mountainous terrain, which facilitates high overland flow and less recharge into the subsurface resulting in low groundwater potential in the zones of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order streams of the Suketi river basin. The circulatory ratio (Rc) of 0.65 and elongation ratio (Re) of 0.80 show elongated nature of the Suketi river basin, while infiltration number (If) of 10.66 indicates dominance of relief features and low groundwater potential in the high altitude mountainous terrain. The asymmetry factor (Af) of Suketi river basin indicates that the palaeo-tectonic tilting, at drainage basin scale, was towards the downstream right side of the drainage basin. The slope map of Suketi river basin has been classified into three main zones, which delineate the runoff zone in the mountains, recharge zone in the transition zone between mountains and valley plane, and discharge zone in the plane areas of Balh valley.

  4. Integrated Natural Resource Management: Approaches and Lessons from the Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Maikhuri

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Losses of forest cover, biodiversity, agricultural productivity, and ecosystem services in the Himalayan mountain region are interlinked problems and threats to the sustainable livelihoods of 115 x 106 mountain people as well as the inhabitants of the adjoining Indo-gangetic plains. Until the 1970s, environmental conservation, food security, and rural economic development were treated as independent sectors. The poor outcomes of sector-oriented approaches catalyzed efforts to address environmental and socioeconomic problems concurrently. The identification of "key" natural resource management interventions is an important dimension of integrated management. Projects to rehabilitate the degraded lands that cover 40% of the Indian Himalaya could be key interventions provided that they address both socioeconomic and environmental concerns across spatial and temporal scales. However, projects of this type, e.g., investments in conifer plantations on degraded forest lands, have failed because their designs did not take into account the needs of local residents. This study illustrates a case of land rehabilitation in a small isolated village close to the alpine zone. Vital elements of this project strategy included identifying local perceptions and knowledge and involving the local people in the selection and implementation of the interventions needed to restore the land. Communities were found to be more concerned with the immediate economic benefits from bamboo and medicinal species than the long-term benefits of tree planting. The villagers eventually reached a consensus to plant broadleaved multipurpose trees in association with bamboo and medicinal species. Despite assurances that all the economic benefits from rehabilitation would go to the community, the people would not agree to voluntary labor, although they did absorb significant costs by providing social fencing, farmyard manure, and propagules from community forests. Households shared costs and benefits according to traditional norms. The economic benefits to the local people exceeded the rehabilitation cost over the 7-yr life of the project. There were significant on-site environmental benefits in terms of improvements in soil fertility, biodiversity, protective cover, and carbon sequestration, and off-site benefits from more productive use of labor, reduced pressure on protected areas, and the introduction of rare and threatened medicinal species onto private farmland.

  5. Projected hydrologic changes in monsoon-dominated Himalaya Mountain basins with changing climate and deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Ram P.; White, Joseph D.; Alexander, Sara E.

    2015-06-01

    In mountain headwaters, climate and land use changes affect short and long term site water budgets with resultant impacts on landslide risk, hydropower generation, and sustainable agriculture. To project hydrologic change associated with climate and land use changes in the Himalaya Mountains, we used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) calibrated for the Tamor and Seti River basins located at eastern and western margins of Nepal. Future climate change was modeled using averaged temperature and precipitation for 2080 derived from Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) (B1, A1B and A2) of 16 global circulation models (GCMs). Land use change was modeled spatially and included expansion of (1) agricultural land, (2) grassland, and (3) human settlement area that were produced by considering existing land use with projected changes associated with viability of elevation and slope characteristics of the basins capable of supporting different land use type. From these simulations, higher annual stream discharge was found for all GCM-derived scenarios compared to a baseline simulation with maximum increases of 13 and 8% in SRES-A2 and SRES-A1B for the Tamor and Seti basins, respectively. On seasonal basis, we assessed higher precipitation during monsoon season in all scenarios that corresponded with higher stream discharge of 72 and 68% for Tamor and Seti basins, respectively. This effect appears to be geographically important with higher influence in the eastern Tamor basin potentially due to longer and stronger monsoonal period of that region. However, we projected minimal changes in stream discharge for the land use scenarios potentially due to higher water transmission to groundwater reservoirs associated with fractures of the Himalaya Mountains rather than changes in surface runoff. However, when combined the effects of climate and land use changes, discharge was moderately increased indicating counteracting mechanisms of hydrologic yield in these mountains. Better understanding of potential hydrologic response to climate and land use changes in these basins might be crucial for national and transnational water management.

  6. Northward genetic penetration across the Himalayas viewed from Sherpa people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Longli; Wang, Chuan-Chao; Chen, Feng; Yao, Dali; Jin, Li; Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The Himalayas have been suggested as a natural barrier for human migrations, especially the northward dispersals from the Indian Subcontinent to Tibetan Plateau. However, although the majority of Sherpa have a Tibeto-Burman origin, considerable genetic components from Indian Subcontinent have been observed in Sherpa people living in Tibet. The western Y chromosomal haplogroups R1a1a-M17, J-M304, and F*-M89 comprise almost 17% of Sherpa paternal gene pool. In the maternal side, M5c2, M21d, and U from the west also count up to 8% of Sherpa people. Those lineages with South Asian origin indicate that the Himalayas have been permeable to bidirectional gene flow. PMID:24617465

  7. Selection of potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria from fermented olives by in vitro tests

    OpenAIRE

    Argyri, Anthoula; Zoumpopoulou, Georgia; Karatzas, Kimon Andreas; Tsakalidou, Effie; Nychas, George John; Panagou, Efstathios; Tassou, Chrysoula

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from naturally fermented olives and select candidates to be used as probiotic starters for the improvement of the traditional fermentation process and the production of newly added value functional foods. Seventy one (71) lactic acid bacterial strains (17 Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 1 Ln. pseudomesenteroides, 13 Lactobacillus plantarum, 37 Lb. pentosus, 1 Lb. paraplantarum, and 2 Lb. paracasei sub...

  8. Selection of potential autochthonous starter cultures from shalgam, a traditional Turkish lactic acid-fermented beverage

    OpenAIRE

    ERTEN, Hasan TANGÜLER Hüseyin

    2013-01-01

    The present study was done to select the potential autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) for the production of shalgam, which is a traditional Turkish lactic acid-fermented beverage. Eighteen LAB belonging to the genera Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Pediococcus, and Leuconostoc isolated previously from shalgam samples produced in the university laboratory and by small- and large-scale producers in industry were used. Pasteurized black carrot juice was inoculated individually with these selec...

  9. Non-selective cation channels, transient receptor potential channels and ischemic stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Simard, J Marc; Tarasov, Kirill V; Gerzanich, Volodymyr

    2007-01-01

    Several pathways to neural cell death are involved in ischemic stroke, and all require monovalent or divalent cation influx, implicating non-selective cation (NC) channels. NC channels are also likely to be involved in the dysfunction of vascular endothelial cells that leads to formation of edema following cerebral ischemia. Two newly described NC channels have emerged as potential participants in ischemic stroke, the acid sensing ion channel (ASIC), and the sulfonylurea receptor-1 (SUR1)-reg...

  10. Current response of ion-selective solvent polymeric membranes at controlled potential

    OpenAIRE

    Sutter, Jolanda; Morf, Werner E.; de Rooij, Nicolaas F.; Pretsch, Ernö

    2010-01-01

    From electrochemical measurements at the interface of two immiscible electrolytes, the current at controlled potential is usually a linear function of the ion concentration in the aqueous phase. Surprisingly, a linear relationship between the current and the logarithm of the sample ion activity is found for corresponding measurements on ion-selective electrode membranes. Here, a theoretical explanation for the apparent contradiction between the behavior of the two kinds of system is given. Ex...

  11. Evaluation of mitochondrial membrane potential using a computerized device with a tetraphenylphosphonium-selective electrode.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Labajová, A.; Vojtíšková, Alena; K?iváková, P.; Kofránek, J.; Drahota, Zden?k; Houšt?k, Josef

    2006-01-01

    Ro?. 353, ?. 1 (2006), s. 37-42. ISSN 0003-2697 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GD303/03/H065; GA ?R(CZ) GA303/06/1261 Grant ostatní: GA UK(CZ) 126/04/C; IGA MŠk(CZ) RP 394 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : membrane potential * TPP-selective electrode Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.948, year: 2006

  12. Satellite Remote Sensing of Snow/Ice Albedo over the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, N. Christina; Gautam, Ritesh

    2012-01-01

    The Himalayan glaciers and snowpacks play an important role in the hydrological cycle over Asia. The seasonal snow melt from the Himalayan glaciers and snowpacks is one of the key elements to the livelihood of the downstream densely populated regions of South Asia. During the pre-monsoon season (April-May-June), South Asia not only experiences the reversal of the regional meridional tropospheric temperature gradient (i.e., the onset of the summer monsoon), but also is being bombarded by dry westerly airmass that transports mineral dust from various Southwest Asian desert and arid regions into the Indo-Gangetic Plains in northern India. Mixed with heavy anthropogenic pollution, mineral dust constitutes the bulk of regional aerosol loading and forms an extensive and vertically extended brown haze lapping against the southern slopes of the Himalayas. Episodic dust plumes are advected over the Himalayas, and are discernible in satellite imagery, resulting in dust-capped snow surface. Motivated by the potential implications of accelerated snowmelt, we examine the changes in radiative energetics induced by aerosol transport over the Himalayan snow cover by utilizing space borne observations. Our objective lies in the investigation of potential impacts of aerosol solar absorption on the Top-of-Atmosphere (TOA) spectral reflectivity and the broadband albedo, and hence the accelerated snowmelt, particularly in the western Himalayas. Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity (LER) in the visible and near-infrared wavelengths, derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer radiances, is used to generate statistics for determining perturbation caused due to dust layer over snow surface in over ten years of continuous observations. Case studies indicate significant reduction of LER ranging from 5 to 8% in the 412-860nm spectra. Broadband flux observations, from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System, are also used to investigate changes in shortwave TOA flux over dust-laden and dust-free snow covered regions. Additionally, spatio-temporal and intra-seasonal variations of LER, along with snow cover information, are used to characterize the seasonal melt pattern and thus to distinguish the outstanding aerosol-induced snowmelt signal. Results from this observational work are expected to provide better understanding of the radiative impact of aerosols over snow surface, especially its role in the Himalayan hydro-glacialogical variability.

  13. Distribution Characteristics of the Tree Species in Central Himalaya, India

    OpenAIRE

    Geeta Kharkwal; Yaswant Singh Rawat; Yaspal Singh Pangtey

    2007-01-01

    A total of 257 tree species were recorded and studied for their pattern and altitudinal distribution in Central Himalaya. Relatively higher percentage (65%) of deciduous species was recorded. Distribution of tree species in this region is between <200-4200 m asl. However, maximum (60%) species were found either below or at around 1500 m asl altitudes may be due to overlapping of species. Lauraceae and Anacardiaceae are the dominant families in both forms. Species richness declines graduall...

  14. Electrical resistivity imaging of seismically active frontal Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Given the sensitivity of resistivity to rheology, magnetotelluric measurement are undertaken to study deep crustal electrical structures and their possible linkage to the space-depth distribution of seismicity. Magnetotelluric investigations at Thirty three sites along Bijnaur-Mallari profile cutting across major litho tectonic units of Himalaya starting from Indo Ganges plain, Siwalik, Lesser, Higher Himalaya to Tethys Himalaya. Observing the low solar activity during the survey period each site was occupied for five days. Longer occupancy allowed estimation of impedance tensor at periods greater than 500 sec at most of the stations. However at few stations electric field recordings were very noisy perhaps due to unbalanced power network of the region. This is reflected in larger error bars in estimated impedance tensors. Skewness and other dimensionality parameter indicate the validity of 2-D regional model. Robust impedance decomposition for the period band of 10 Hz- 1000 sec of eleven stations reveal that EM strike coincides with the geologic fabric. Considering regional strike EM field were decoupled in TE, TM mode and then inverted for frequency dependent conductivity distribution along the profile. The most conspicuous feature of the inverted resistivity section is the low resistivity zone at a shallow depth of 10 km beneath the Indo-Gangetic Plains that dips down at a low-angle and extends as a continuous plane right up to the northern limit of the profile. The geometry of this layer is correlated with the basement thrust separating the top of the under thrusting Indian Plate from the over-riding sedimentary wedge of lesser Himalaya. The paper will discuss the tectonic and rheological significance of the results of resistivity imaging using magnetotelluric method along the profile from Bijnaur to Mallari.

  15. Tectonic and polymetamorphic history of the Lesser Himalaya in central Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Lalu Prasad; Arita, Kazunori

    2000-04-01

    The Lesser Himalaya in central Nepal consists of Precambrian to early Paleozoic, low- to medium-grade metamorphic rocks of the Nawakot Complex, unconformably overlain by the Upper Carboniferous to Lower Miocene Tansen Group. It is divided tectonically into a Parautochthon, two thrust sheets (Thrust sheets I and II), and a wide shear zone (Main Central Thrust zone) from south to north by the Bari Gad-Kali Gandaki Fault, the Phalebas Thrust and the Lower Main Central Thrust, respectively. The Lesser Himalaya is overthrust by the Higher Himalaya along the Upper Main Central Thrust (UMCT). The Lesser Himalaya forms a foreland-propagating duplex structure, each tectonic unit being a horse bounded by imbricate faults. The UMCT and the Main Boundary Thrust are the roof and floor thrusts, respectively. The duplex is cut-off by an out-of-sequence fault. At least five phases of deformation (D 1-D 5) are recognized in the Lesser Himalaya, two of which (D 1 and D 2) belong to the pre-Himalayan (pre-Tertiary) orogeny. Petrographic, microprobe and illite crystallinity data show polymetamorphic evolution of the Lesser and Higher Himalayas in central Nepal. The Lesser Himalaya suffered a pre-Himalayan (probably early Paleozoic) anchizonal prograde metamorphism (M 0) and a Neohimalayan (syn- to post-UMCT) diagenetic to garnet grade prograde inverted metamorphism (M 2). The Higher Himalaya suffered an Eohimalayan (pre or early-UMCT) kyanite-grade prograde metamorphism (M 1) which was, in turn, overprinted by Neohimalayan (syn-UMCT) retrograde metamorphism (M 2). The isograd inversion from garnet zone in the Lesser Himalaya to kyanite zone in the Higher Himalaya is only apparent due to post-metamorphic thrusting along the UMCT. Both the Lesser and Higher Himalayas have undergone late-stage retrogression (M 3) during exhumation.

  16. FOREST ECOSYSTEM DYNAMICS ASSESSMENT AND PREDICTIVE MODELLING IN EASTERN HIMALAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. S. Kushwaha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the forest ecosystem dynamics assessment and predictive modelling deforestation and forest cover prediction in a part of north-eastern India i.e. forest areas along West Bengal, Bhutan, Arunachal Pradesh and Assam border in Eastern Himalaya using temporal satellite imagery of 1975, 1990 and 2009 and predicted forest cover for the period 2028 using Cellular Automata Markov Modedel (CAMM. The exercise highlighted large-scale deforestation in the study area during 1975–1990 as well as 1990–2009 forest cover vectors. A net loss of 2,334.28 km2 forest cover was noticed between 1975 and 2009, and with current rate of deforestation, a forest area of 4,563.34 km2 will be lost by 2028. The annual rate of deforestation worked out to be 0.35 and 0.78% during 1975–1990 and 1990–2009 respectively. Bamboo forest increased by 24.98% between 1975 and 2009 due to opening up of the forests. Forests in Kokrajhar, Barpeta, Darrang, Sonitpur, and Dhemaji districts in Assam were noticed to be worst-affected while Lower Subansiri, West and East Siang, Dibang Valley, Lohit and Changlang in Arunachal Pradesh were severely affected. Among different forest types, the maximum loss was seen in case of sal forest (37.97% between 1975 and 2009 and is expected to deplete further to 60.39% by 2028. The tropical moist deciduous forest was the next category, which decreased from 5,208.11 km2 to 3,447.28 (33.81% during same period with further chances of depletion to 2,288.81 km2 (56.05% by 2028. It noted progressive loss of forests in the study area between 1975 and 2009 through 1990 and predicted that, unless checked, the area is in for further depletion of the invaluable climax forests in the region, especially sal and moist deciduous forests. The exercise demonstrated high potential of remote sensing and geographic information system for forest ecosystem dynamics assessment and the efficacy of CAMM to predict the forest cover change.

  17. EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF TERRESTRIAL ORCHIDS (COLLECTED FROM NORTHERN HIMALAYAS AGAINST CERTAIN HUMAN PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Bharal*, Manila Kashyap, Vipan Kumar Sohpal and Jaspreet Kaur Sembi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The four main varieties of orchids, collected from northern Himalayas (Tara devi and Chhrabra forests, Shimla, HP were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against human pathogenic bacteria. The ethanol and methanol extracts of Cypripedium cordigerum and Malaxis acuminata were found to be highly active against both P.aeruginosa and S.aureus with minimal microbial static concentration (MIC in the range of 100mg/ml. These plants particularly demonstrated antimicrobial properties against Gram negative bacterial strains, which are responsible for severe opportunistic bacterial infection and are resistant to hospitalized infections. These orchid species may thus, be considered important tools in antibacterial strategies. It can be concluded that orchid family represent an untapped source of potentially useful antibacterial products and are worthy of further study.

  18. Mining for diagnostic information in body surface potential maps: A comparison of feature selection techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCullagh Paul J

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In body surface potential mapping, increased spatial sampling is used to allow more accurate detection of a cardiac abnormality. Although diagnostically superior to more conventional electrocardiographic techniques, the perceived complexity of the Body Surface Potential Map (BSPM acquisition process has prohibited its acceptance in clinical practice. For this reason there is an interest in striking a compromise between the minimum number of electrocardiographic recording sites required to sample the maximum electrocardiographic information. Methods In the current study, several techniques widely used in the domains of data mining and knowledge discovery have been employed to mine for diagnostic information in 192 lead BSPMs. In particular, the Single Variable Classifier (SVC based filter and Sequential Forward Selection (SFS based wrapper approaches to feature selection have been implemented and evaluated. Using a set of recordings from 116 subjects, the diagnostic ability of subsets of 3, 6, 9, 12, 24 and 32 electrocardiographic recording sites have been evaluated based on their ability to correctly asses the presence or absence of Myocardial Infarction (MI. Results It was observed that the wrapper approach, using sequential forward selection and a 5 nearest neighbour classifier, was capable of choosing a set of 24 recording sites that could correctly classify 82.8% of BSPMs. Although the filter method performed slightly less favourably, the performance was comparable with a classification accuracy of 79.3%. In addition, experiments were conducted to show how (a features chosen using the wrapper approach were specific to the classifier used in the selection model, and (b lead subsets chosen were not necessarily unique. Conclusion It was concluded that both the filter and wrapper approaches adopted were suitable for guiding the choice of recording sites useful for determining the presence of MI. It should be noted however that in this study recording sites have been suggested on their ability to detect disease and such sites may not be optimal for estimating body surface potential distributions.

  19. Connecting source and transport: Suspended sediments in the Nepal Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andermann, Christoff; Crave, Alain; Gloaguen, Richard; Davy, Philippe; Bonnet, Stéphane

    2012-10-01

    Understanding the dynamics of sediment fluxes is a key issue to constrain modern erosion rates in mountain belts and determine the still debated level of control exerted by precipitation, topography and tectonics. The well defined monsoon seasonality in the Himalayas, together with active tectonics and strong relief provide an ideal environment to assess these possible interactions. For this purpose, we present a new compilation of daily suspended sediment data for 12 stations of the major rivers of the Nepal Himalayas. We analyze the relationships of sediment transport with daily river discharge and precipitation data as well as with morphometric parameters. We show that suspended sediment concentrations vary systematically through the seasons and asynchronously to river discharge displaying a hysteresis effect. This clockwise hysteresis effect disappears when suspended sediment fluxes are directly compared with direct storm discharge. Therefore we attribute the hysteresis effect to groundwater dilution rather than a sediment supply limitation. We infer a rating model to calculate erosion rates directly from long river discharge chronicles. We show that, when normalized by drainage area and mean sediment flux, all rivers exhibit the same trend. This similarity implies that all river basins have the same erosion behavior, independent of location, size and catchment characteristics. Erosion rates calculated from suspended sediment fluxes range between 0.1 and 2.8 mm/yr. The erosion rates of the three main basins of Nepal are in the range 0.9-1.5 mm/yr, Erosion rates in the Higher Himalayas are relatively low (Kali Gandaki), while in the Lesser Himalayas they range from 0.2 to 2 mm/yr. We propose that material transport in the rivers depends on hillslope sediment supply, which is, in turn, controlled by those rainfalls producing direct runoff. In other words, the rivers in the Nepal Himalayas are supply-limited and the hillsopes as a contributing source are transport-limited. We also show that erosion processes are not as much controlled by infrequently occurring extreme precipitation events, than by moderate ones with a high recurrence interval.

  20. Geomorphological evidences of post-LGM glacial advancements in the Himalaya: A study from Chorabari Glacier, Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manish Mehta; Zahid Majeed; D P Dobhal; Pradeep Srivastava

    2012-02-01

    Field geomorphology and remote sensing data, supported by Optical Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating from the Mandakini river valley of the Garhwal Himalaya enabled identification of four major glacial events; Rambara Glacial Stage (RGS) (13 ± 2 ka), Ghindurpani Glacial Stage (GhGS) (9 ± 1 ka), Garuriya Glacial Stage (GGS) (7 ± 1 ka) and Kedarnath Glacial Stage (KGS) (5 ± 1 ka). RGS was the most extensive glaciation extending for ?6 km down the valley from the present day snout and lowered to an altitude of 2800 m asl at Rambara covering around ?31 km2 area of the Mandakini river valley. Compared to this, the other three glaciations (viz., GhGS, GGS and KGS) were of lower magnitudes terminating around ?3000, ?3300 and ?3500 m asl, respectively. It was also observed that the mean equilibrium line altitude (ELA) during RGS was lowered to 4747 m asl compared to the present level of 5120 m asl. This implies an ELA depression of ?373 m during the RGS which would correspond to a lowering of ?2°C summer temperature during the RGS. The results are comparable to that of the adjacent western and central Himalaya implying a common forcing factor that we attribute to the insolation-driven monsoon precipitation in the western and central Himalaya.

  1. Acoustic noise alters selective attention processes as indicated by direct current (DC) brain potential changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimmel, Karin; Schätzer, Julia; Trimmel, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic environmental noise, even of low to moderate intensity, is known to adversely affect information processing in animals and humans via attention mechanisms. In particular, facilitation and inhibition of information processing are basic functions of selective attention. Such mechanisms can be investigated by analyzing brain potentials under conditions of externally directed attention (intake of environmental information) versus internally directed attention (rejection of environmental stimuli and focusing on memory/planning processes). This study investigated brain direct current (DC) potential shifts-which are discussed to represent different states of cortical activation-of tasks that require intake and rejection of environmental information under noise. It was hypothesized that without background noise rejection tasks would show more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks and that under noise both kinds of tasks would show positive DC shifts as an expression of cortical inhibition caused by noise. DC potential shifts during intake and rejection tasks were analyzed at 16 standard locations in 45 persons during irrelevant speech or white noise vs. control condition. Without noise, rejection tasks were associated with more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks. During background noise, however, this difference disappeared and both kinds of tasks led to positive DC shifts. Results suggest-besides some limitations-that noise modulates selective attention mechanisms by switching to an environmental information processing and noise rejection mode, which could represent a suggested "attention shift". Implications for fMRI studies as well as for public health in learning and performance environments including susceptible persons are discussed. PMID:25264675

  2. Acoustic Noise Alters Selective Attention Processes as Indicated by Direct Current (DC Brain Potential Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Trimmel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic environmental noise, even of low to moderate intensity, is known to adversely affect information processing in animals and humans via attention mechanisms. In particular, facilitation and inhibition of information processing are basic functions of selective attention. Such mechanisms can be investigated by analyzing brain potentials under conditions of externally directed attention (intake of environmental information versus internally directed attention (rejection of environmental stimuli and focusing on memory/planning processes. This study investigated brain direct current (DC potential shifts—which are discussed to represent different states of cortical activation—of tasks that require intake and rejection of environmental information under noise. It was hypothesized that without background noise rejection tasks would show more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks and that under noise both kinds of tasks would show positive DC shifts as an expression of cortical inhibition caused by noise. DC potential shifts during intake and rejection tasks were analyzed at 16 standard locations in 45 persons during irrelevant speech or white noise vs. control condition. Without noise, rejection tasks were associated with more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks. During background noise, however, this difference disappeared and both kinds of tasks led to positive DC shifts. Results suggest—besides some limitations—that noise modulates selective attention mechanisms by switching to an environmental information processing and noise rejection mode, which could represent a suggested “attention shift”. Implications for fMRI studies as well as for public health in learning and performance environments including susceptible persons are discussed.

  3. Polymers of 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone as potential vitreous substitutes: physical selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y; Chirila, T V; Cuypers, M J; Constable, I J

    1996-10-01

    More than 300 polymers of 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone (VP) were synthesized, subjected to hydration, and characterized with the aim to select the most suitable materials as potential artificial substitutes for the vitreous body of the eye. The materials include cross-linked homopolymers, uncross-linked copolymers of VP with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), and cross-linked copolymers VP/HEMA. Five different cross-linking agents, both hydrophobic and hydrophilic, were used in this study. The resulting hydrogels, with equilibrium water contents ranging between 66.5 and 99.1%, were first subjected to a selection based on their physical behavior during manipulation, after which only the transparent, viscoelastic gels were further considered. Subsequent injectability and visual acuity tests, as well as the evaluation of light transmission characteristics, reduced further the number of potential candidates for vitreous substitution to only thirteen hydrogels. An eliminatory strategy based on physical properties of the potential vitreous substitutes is essential in order to avoid unnecessary sacrifice of experimental animals for in vivo assessment. PMID:8913849

  4. Facilitating the selection and creation of accurate interatomic potentials with robust tools and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautt, Zachary T.; Tavazza, Francesca; Becker, Chandler A.

    2015-10-01

    The Materials Genome Initiative seeks to significantly decrease the cost and time of development and integration of new materials. Within the domain of atomistic simulations, several roadblocks stand in the way of reaching this goal. While the NIST Interatomic Potentials Repository hosts numerous interatomic potentials (force fields), researchers cannot immediately determine the best choice(s) for their use case. Researchers developing new potentials, specifically those in restricted environments, lack a comprehensive portfolio of efficient tools capable of calculating and archiving the properties of their potentials. This paper elucidates one solution to these problems, which uses Python-based scripts that are suitable for rapid property evaluation and human knowledge transfer. Calculation results are visible on the repository website, which reduces the time required to select an interatomic potential for a specific use case. Furthermore, property evaluation scripts are being integrated with modern platforms to improve discoverability and access of materials property data. To demonstrate these scripts and features, we will discuss the automation of stacking fault energy calculations and their application to additional elements. While the calculation methodology was developed previously, we are using it here as a case study in simulation automation and property calculations. We demonstrate how the use of Python scripts allows for rapid calculation in a more easily managed way where the calculations can be modified, and the results presented in user-friendly and concise ways. Additionally, the methods can be incorporated into other efforts, such as openKIM.

  5. Dynamics in the quantum/classical limit based on selective use of the quantum potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A classical limit of quantum dynamics can be defined by compensation of the quantum potential in the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The quantum potential is a non-local quantity, defined in the trajectory-based form of the Schrödinger equation, due to Madelung, de Broglie, and Bohm, which formally generates the quantum-mechanical features in dynamics. Selective inclusion of the quantum potential for the degrees of freedom deemed “quantum,” defines a hybrid quantum/classical dynamics, appropriate for molecular systems comprised of light and heavy nuclei. The wavefunction is associated with all of the nuclei, and the Ehrenfest, or mean-field, averaging of the force acting on the classical degrees of freedom, typical of the mixed quantum/classical methods, is avoided. The hybrid approach is used to examine evolution of light/heavy systems in the harmonic and double-well potentials, using conventional grid-based and approximate quantum-trajectory time propagation. The approximate quantum force is defined on spatial domains, which removes unphysical coupling of the wavefunction fragments corresponding to distinct classical channels or configurations. The quantum potential, associated with the quantum particle, generates forces acting on both quantum and classical particles to describe the backreaction

  6. Antimalarial activity of potential inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase enzyme selected by docking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna-Coutinho, Julia; Cortopassi, Wilian Augusto; Oliveira, Aline Alves; França, Tanos Celmar Costa; Krettli, Antoniana Ursine

    2011-01-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase enzyme (PfLDH) has been considered as a potential molecular target for antimalarials due to this parasite's dependence on glycolysis for energy production. Because the LDH enzymes found in P. vivax, P. malariae and P. ovale (pLDH) all exhibit ?90% identity to PfLDH, it would be desirable to have new anti-pLDH drugs, particularly ones that are effective against P. falciparum, the most virulent species of human malaria. Our present work used docking studies to select potential inhibitors of pLDH, which were then tested for antimalarial activity against P. falciparum in vitro and P. berghei malaria in mice. A virtual screening in DrugBank for analogs of NADH (an essential cofactor to pLDH) and computational studies were undertaken, and the potential binding of the selected compounds to the PfLDH active site was analyzed using Molegro Virtual Docker software. Fifty compounds were selected based on their similarity to NADH. The compounds with the best binding energies (itraconazole, atorvastatin and posaconazole) were tested against P. falciparum chloroquine-resistant blood parasites. All three compounds proved to be active in two immunoenzymatic assays performed in parallel using monoclonals specific to PfLDH or a histidine rich protein (HRP2). The IC(50) values for each drug in both tests were similar, were lowest for posaconazole (<5 µM) and were 40- and 100-fold less active than chloroquine. The compounds reduced P. berghei parasitemia in treated mice, in comparison to untreated controls; itraconazole was the least active compound. The results of these activity trials confirmed that molecular docking studies are an important strategy for discovering new antimalarial drugs. This approach is more practical and less expensive than discovering novel compounds that require studies on human toxicology, since these compounds are already commercially available and thus approved for human use. PMID:21779323

  7. Selection of phosphorus solubilizing bacteria with biocontrol potential for growth in phosphorus rich animal bone charcoal

    OpenAIRE

    Postma, J.; Nijhuis, E.H.; Sommeus, E.

    2010-01-01

    Bacteria with the ability to solubilize phosphorus (P) and to improve plant health were selected and tested for growth and survival in P-rich animal bone charcoal (ABC). ABC is suggested to be suitable as a carrier for biocontrol agents, offering them a protected niche as well as delivering phosphate to plants, meanwhile re-using P from waste of the food chain. Ninety-seven bacterial isolates from different soils were tested for their potential to dissolve P from ABC. Of these isolates, 60% s...

  8. Identification of Highly Potent and Selective ?-Glucosidase Inhibitors with Antiglycation Potential, Isolated from Rhododendron arboreum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Raza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored antidiabetic potential of eight known pure compounds, isolated from the bark of Rhododendron arboreum. Invitro studies of these compounds against ? and ?-glucosidases revealed them as very potent and selective inhibitors of ?-glucosidase. Compound 7 (3-O-acetylursolic acid was found to be the most potent inhibitor of ?-glucosidase with 3.3±0.1µM IC 50 value which was many folds higher than standard inhibitor acarbose. Antiglycation studies of compounds showed that all compounds were also very active antiglycation agents. The studied biological properties of these compounds suggest that they are therapeutically interesting and important tools for treatment of diabetes.

  9. Altitudinal variation of soil organic carbon stocks in temperate forests of Kashmir Himalayas, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Dar, Javid; Somaiah, Sundarapandian

    2015-02-01

    Soil organic carbon stocks were measured at three depths (0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm) in seven altitudes dominated by different forest types viz. Populus deltoides, 1550-1800 m; Juglans regia, 1800-2000 m; Cedrus deodara, 2050-2300 m; Pinus wallichiana, 2000-2300 m; mixed type, 2200-2400 m; Abies pindrow, 2300-2800 m; and Betula utilis, 2800-3200 m in temperate mountains of Kashmir Himalayas. The mean range of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks varied from 39.07 to 91.39 Mg C ha(-1) in J. regia and B. utilis forests at 0-30 cm depth, respectively. Among the forest types, the lowest mean range of SOC at three depths (0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm) was observed in J. regia (18.55, 11.31, and 8.91 Mg C ha(-1), respectively) forest type, and the highest was observed in B. utilis (54.10, 21.68, and 15.60 Mg C ha(-1), respectively) forest type. SOC stocks showed significantly (R (2)?=?0.67, P?=?0.001) an increasing trend with increase in altitude. On average, the percentages of SOC at 0-10-, 10-20-, and 20-30-cm depths were 53.2, 26.5, and 20.3 %, respectively. Bulk density increased significantly with increase in soil depth and decreased with increase in altitude. Our results suggest that SOC stocks in temperate forests of Kashmir Himalaya vary greatly with forest type and altitude. The present study reveals that SOC stocks increased with increase in altitude at high mountainous regions. Climate change in these high mountainous regions will alter the carbon sequestration potential, which would affect the global carbon cycle. PMID:25619695

  10. Framing hydropower as green energy: assessing drivers, risks and tensions in the Eastern Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ahlers

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The culturally and ecologically diverse region of the Eastern Himalayas is the target of ambitious hydropower development plans. Policy discourses at national and international levels position this development as synergistically positive: it combines the production of clean energy to fuel economic growth at regional and national levels with initiatives to lift poor mountain communities out of poverty. Different from hydropower development in the 20th century in which development agencies and banks were important players, contemporary initiatives importantly rely on the involvement of private actors, with a prominent role of the private finance sector. This implies that hydropower development is not only financially viable but also understood as highly profitable. This paper examines the new development of hydropower in the Eastern Himalaya of Nepal and India. It questions its framing as green energy, interrogates its links with climate change, and examines its potential for investment and capital accumulation. To do this, we also review the evidence on the extent to which its construction and operation may modify existing hydrogeological processes and ecosystems, as well as its impacts on the livelihoods of diverse groups of people that depend on these. The paper concludes that hydropower development in the region is characterised by inherent contentions and uncertainties, refuting the idea that dams constitute development projects whose impacts can be simply predicted, controlled and mitigated. Indeed, in a highly complex geological, ecological, cultural and political context that is widely regarded to be especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change, hydropower as a development strategy makes for a toxic cocktail.

  11. Framing hydropower as green energy: assessing drivers, risks and tensions in the Eastern Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, R.; Budds, J.; Joshi, D.; Merme, V.; Zwarteveen, M.

    2015-04-01

    The culturally and ecologically diverse region of the Eastern Himalayas is the target of ambitious hydropower development plans. Policy discourses at national and international levels position this development as synergistically positive: it combines the production of clean energy to fuel economic growth at regional and national levels with initiatives to lift poor mountain communities out of poverty. Different from hydropower development in the 20th century in which development agencies and banks were important players, contemporary initiatives importantly rely on the involvement of private actors, with a prominent role of the private finance sector. This implies that hydropower development is not only financially viable but also understood as highly profitable. This paper examines the new development of hydropower in the Eastern Himalayas of Nepal and India. It questions its framing as green energy, interrogates its links with climate change, and examines its potential for investment and capital accumulation. To do this, we also review the evidence on the extent to which its construction and operation may modify existing hydrogeological processes and ecosystems, as well as its impacts on the livelihoods of diverse groups of people that depend on these. The paper concludes that hydropower development in the region is characterized by inherent contentions and uncertainties, refuting the idea that dams constitute development projects whose impacts can be simply predicted, controlled and mitigated. Indeed, in a highly complex geological, ecological, cultural and political context that is widely regarded to be especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change, hydropower as a development strategy makes for a toxic cocktail.

  12. Artificial hyperglycemia as a factor potentiating selectively an anti-tumoral radiation effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important peculiarity of tumoral cells is their ability for intensive glycolysis. Potential biochemical mechanisms of this phenomenon are considered in the review. A tumoral process is closely connected with the changes in glucose metabolism in an organism. Therefore artificial hyperglycemia (AH) can be an instrument for intervention into tumoral cell energetics. Many experimental data show an increase of glucose consumption at AH. Long-term AH causes a reduction of tumor pH. Various view points on AH antitumoral effect mechanism are considered. Data on changes in a sound organism in case of long-term AH are given. It has been found that AH does not cause irreversible changes on the part of organs and systems of the organism. Experimental data on a possibility of using short-term hyperglycemia as a factor selectively potentiating antitumoral radiation effect are considered

  13. Selection of Lactobacillus strains from fermented sausages for their potential use as probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennacchia, C; Ercolini, D; Blaiotta, G; Pepe, O; Mauriello, G; Villani, F

    2004-06-01

    A rapid screening method was used to isolate potentially probiotic Lactobacillus strains from fermented sausages after enrichment in MRS broth at pH 2.5 followed by bile salt stressing (1% bile salts w/v). One hundred and fifty acid- and bile-resistant strains were selected, avoiding preliminary and time-consuming isolation steps. Strains were further characterized for survival at pH 2.5 for 3 h in phosphate-buffered saline and for growth in the presence of 0.3% bile salts with and without pre-exposure at low pH. Twenty-eight strains showed a survival >80% at pH 2.5 for 3 h; moreover, most of the strains were able to grow in the presence of 0.3% bile salts. Low pH and bile resistance was shown to be dependent on both the species, identified by phenotypic and molecular methods, and the strain tested. This is the first report on the direct selection of potentially probiotic lactobacilli from dry fermented sausages. Technologically interesting strains may be used in the future as probiotic starter cultures for novel fermented sausage manufacture. PMID:22061328

  14. Winter wheat hull (husk) is a valuable source for tricin, a potential selective cytotoxic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moheb, Amira; Grondin, Melanie; Ibrahim, Ragai K; Roy, René; Sarhan, Fathey

    2013-06-01

    The flavone, tricin (5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxyflavone) has great potential as an anticancer agent, due to its specific chemopreventive activity. In spite of these characteristics, its use in preclinical studies is still limited, mainly because of its limited availability and high production cost. Tricin is found mainly in cereal grains, such as wheat, rice, barley, oat and maize. However, its concentration in these plants is not sufficient for commercial use. To find a reliable, rich source of tricin, we investigated its distribution in different parts of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and designed an efficient method for its isolation and purification. The highest amount (770 ± 157 mg/kg dry weight) was found in the husks of winter wheat. This concentration is one of the highest in any plant species and is considered as a cheap source of natural tricin. The purified wheat husks tricin was found to be a selective potent inhibitor of two cancer cell lines of liver and pancreas, while having no side effects on normal cells. This selective action suggests that tricin could be considered as a potential candidate for pre-clinical trials as a chemopreventive agent. In addition, fibre-rich crude wheat husk could be used as a natural chemopreventive agent in food supplement. PMID:23411198

  15. ABCG2 is a selectable marker for enhanced multilineage differentiation potential in periodontal ligament stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szepesi, Áron; Matula, Zsolt; Szigeti, Anna; Várady, György; Szabó, Gyula; Uher, Ferenc; Sarkadi, Balázs; Német, Katalin

    2015-01-15

    Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) provide an important source for tissue regeneration and may become especially useful in the formation of osteogenic seeds. PDLSCs can be cultured, expanded, and differentiated in vitro; thus, they may be applied in the long-term treatment of the defects in the dental regions. Here we studied numerous potential markers allowing the selection of human PDLSCs with a maximum differentiation potential. We followed the expression of the ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2) membrane transporter protein and isolated ABCG2-expressing cells by using a monoclonal antibody, recognizing the transporter at the cell surface in intact cells. The expression of the ABCG2 protein, corresponding to the so-called side-population phenotype in various tissue-derived stem cells, was found to be a useful marker for the selection of PDLSCs with enhanced osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic differentiation. These findings may have important applications in achieving efficient dental tissue regeneration by using stem cells from extracted teeth. PMID:25101689

  16. Environmental Asthma Reduction Potential Estimates for Selected Mitigation Actions in Finland Using a Life Table Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumrich, Isabell Katharina; Hänninen, Otto

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To quantify the reduction potential of asthma in Finland achievable by adjusting exposures to selected environmental factors. Methods: A life table model for the Finnish population for 1986–2040 was developed and Years Lived with Disability caused by asthma and attributable to the following selected exposures were estimated: tobacco smoke (smoking and second hand tobacco smoke), ambient fine particles, indoor dampness and mould, and pets. Results: At baseline (2011) about 25% of the total asthma burden was attributable to the selected exposures. Banning tobacco was the most efficient mitigation action, leading to 6% reduction of the asthma burden. A 50% reduction in exposure to dampness and mould as well as a doubling in exposure to pets lead each to a 2% reduction. Ban of urban small scale wood combustion, chosen as a mitigation action to reduce exposure to fine particles, leads to a reduction of less than 1% of the total asthma burden. Combination of the most efficient mitigation actions reduces the total asthma burden by 10%. A more feasible combination of mitigation actions leads to 6% reduction of the asthma burden. Conclusions: The adjustment of environmental exposures can reduce the asthma burden in Finland by up to 10%. PMID:26067987

  17. Precipitation in the Karakoram-Himalaya: a CMIP5 view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzi, Elisa; von Hardenberg, Jost; Terzago, Silvia; Provenzale, Antonello

    2015-07-01

    This work analyzes the properties of precipitation in the Hindu-Kush Karakoram Himalaya region as simulated by thirty-two state-of-the-art global climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). We separately consider the Hindu-Kush Karakoram (HKK) in the west and the Himalaya in the east. These two regions are characterized by different precipitation climatologies, which are associated with different circulation patterns. Historical model simulations are compared with the Climate Research Unit (CRU) and Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) precipitation data in the period 1901-2005. Future precipitation is analyzed for the two representative concentration pathways (RCP) RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. We find that the multi-model ensemble mean and most individual models exhibit a wet bias with respect to CRU and GPCC observations in both regions and for all seasons. The models differ greatly in the seasonal climatology of precipitation which they reproduce in the HKK. The CMIP5 models predict wetter future conditions in the Himalaya in summer, with a gradual precipitation increase throughout the 21st century. Wetter summer future conditions are also predicted by most models in the RCP 8.5 scenario for the HKK, while on average no significant change can be detected in winter precipitation for both regions. In general, no single model (or group of models) emerges as that providing the best results for all the statistics considered, and the large spread in the behavior of individual models suggests to consider multi-model ensemble means with extreme care.

  18. The Limits of Extrusion in the Western Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K.; Webb, A. G.; Donaldson, D.; Johnson, S.; Elorriaga, T.

    2014-12-01

    Himalayan orogenesis is commonly explained by 1) extrusion models, involving expulsion of high-grade rocks southwards from beneath Tibet and up towards the High Himalayan orographic front, and/or 2) duplexing models, involving accretion of thrust horses from the downgoing Indian plate to the over-riding orogenic wedge. Most extrusion models predict exhumation and erosion of upper-amphibolite facies metamorphic rocks between the Main Central thrust (MCT) and a structurally higher normal fault, and therefore can be tested by determining if such high grade rocks occur between the MCT and the Indus-Yalu suture to the north. Prior qualitative studies suggest that such rocks are missing across the east Ladakh / Chamba and Kashmir regions of the western Himalaya. Here we present new quantitative and semi-quantitative results that document low peak metamorphic temperatures along a northeast-trending transect across the east Ladakh / Chamba Himalaya. We performed illite crystallinity (IC) and quartz grain boundary analyses to determine metamorphic and deformation temperatures, respectively. Calibrated IC values of structurally high samples range from 0.25 to 0.54, indicating temperatures of ~100 ?C to ~300 ?C. In structurally lower, muscovite +/- biotite-bearing meta-pelitic and meta-psammitic rocks, quartz grain boundaries show bulging recrystallization fabrics, corresponding to deformation temperatures of <~450 ?C. Local exceptions occur along the southeast margin of the study region near a dome, where quartz sub-grain rotation fabrics indicate deformation temperatures between ~450 ?C and ~550 ?C. Our results, combined with similar IC values to the north from Girard et al. [2001, Clay Minerals v. 36, p. 237-247], demonstrate that a continuous strip of <~450 ?C rocks extends from the MCT to the Indus-Yalu suture here. Therefore the predictions of extrusion models are not met in this portion of the Himalaya; we present alternative duplexing models.

  19. Interannual Variability of Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) over Western Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Sarita; Kar, Sarat C.; Bhatla, R.

    2015-08-01

    Considering the importance of snow and glaciers in the Himalayas for understanding the water cycle and for water resource management of the rivers originating from the Himalayan, interannual variability of snow accumulation process over Himalayas and surrounding region has been studied using snow water equivalent (SWE) data. Remote sensing data from National Snow and Ice Data Centre have been used. These data have been compared against ground (in situ) observations of SWE measured at several gauge stations in the Indian part of the Satluj River basin. Accumulated SWE from remote sensing data and ground observations in the Satluj River basin have good and significant correlation. These data have also been compared against the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis and the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast reanalysis-Interim (ERA-I). Upper air and surface data from the reanalyses have also been used to examine the atmospheric conditions when snowfall occurs and snow accumulates for the season. In this study, it is found that there is large interannual variation in SWE over western Himalayas and Satluj River basin (domain of interest). During excess years of snowfall, strong westerly winds are observed at 500 hPa over India. In wind anomaly, a cyclonic circulation is seen over northern parts of India with a deep trough along Pakistan, Rajasthan and Gujarat region. As a consequence of this trough, a moisture convergence zone is established in the region leading to more amount of snowfall. At the same time, during excess snow accumulation years, the air temperature from the surface to 500 hPa is colder than other years enabling the fallen snow to accumulate through the season.

  20. The crustal structure of the western Himalayas and Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, Amy; Priestley, Keith F.; Roecker, Steven W.; Levin, Vadim; Rai, S. S.

    2015-05-01

    We present new, high-resolution, shear velocity models for the western Himalayas and West Tibet from the joint inversion of P receiver functions recorded using seismic stations from four arrays in this region and fundamental mode Rayleigh wave group velocity maps from 5-70 s covering Central and Southern Asia. The Tibetan Plateau is a key locality in understanding large-scale continental dynamics. A large number of investigations has examined the structure and processes in eastern Tibet; however, western Tibet remains relatively understudied. Previous studies in this region indicate that the western part of the Tibetan Plateau is not a simple extension of the eastern part. The areas covered by these arrays include the Karakoram and Altan-Tagh faults, and major terrane boundaries in West Tibet and the Himalayas. The arrays used include broadband data collected by the West Tibet Array, a U.S.-China deployment on the western side of the Tibetan Plateau between 2007 and 2011. We use the shear wave velocity models to obtain estimates of Moho depth. The Moho is deep (68-84 km) throughout West Tibet. We do not observe significant steps within the Moho beneath West Tibet. A large step in Moho depth is observed at the Altyn-Tagh fault, where Moho depths are 20-30 km shallower to the north of the fault compared to those to the south. Beneath the Lhasa Terrane and Tethyan Himalayas, we observe a low-velocity zone in the midcrust. This feature is not interrupted by the Karakoram Fault, suggesting that the Karakoram Fault does not cut through the entire crust.

  1. Attenuation Characteristics of Body-Waves for the Bilaspur Region of Himachal Lesser Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandana; Kumar, Ashwani; Gupta, S. C.

    2015-06-01

    The attenuation characteristics around Bilaspur region of the Himachal Lesser Himalaya have been estimated adopting extended-coda-normalization method, and using a data set of 41 local events (0.5 < M L ? 2.9) that occurred in the region from May 2013 to March 2014. The frequency-dependent relations governing the quality factors of P-waves (Q ? ) and S-waves (Q ? ) in the frequency range from 1.5 to 24 Hz are: (Q ? ) = (43 ± 4) f 1.30±0.04 and Q ? = (79 ± 6) f 1.25±0.02. The average estimates of (Q ? ) and (Q ? ) are found to vary from 71 and 125 at 1.5 Hz to 2901 and 4243 at 24 Hz, respectively. The (Q ? ) and (Q ? ) estimates are compared to the similar estimates obtained for the other seismically active regions of the Himalaya. It is found that for the various Himalayan regions, the (Q ? ) estimates at 1 Hz vary between 22 (for the Kumaon Himalaya) and 97 (for the northwest Himalaya), whereas (Q ? ) estimates range between 63 (for the Garhwal Himalaya) and 127 (for the northwest Himalaya). For the Bilaspur region, the (Q ? )/(Q ? ) ratio is greater than unity and varies between 1.84 and 1.45 in the frequency range from 1 to 24 Hz. The region-specific attenuation relations can be adopted for estimating earthquake source parameters, simulating strong ground motion and assessing seismic hazard for the Bilaspur region of Himachal Lesser Himalaya.

  2. Correction: Bisphosphonate-functionalized hyaluronic acid showing selective affinity for osteoclasts as a potential treatment for osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kootala, Sujit; Ossipov, Dmitri; van den Beucken, Jeroen J J P; Leeuwenburgh, Sander; Hilborn, Jöns

    2015-10-15

    Correction for 'Bisphosphonate-functionalized hyaluronic acid showing selective affinity for osteoclasts as a potential treatment for osteoporosis' by Sujit Kootala et al., Biomater. Sci., 2015, 3, 1197-1207. PMID:26247158

  3. Phenological attributes of Angelica glauca and A. archangelica expressed at two different climatic zones in Western Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv K. Vashistha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Angelica glauca Edgew. and A. archangelica Linn., are high value medicinal and aromatic plants of the Himalaya. The present study examined phenological attributes of these species under cultivation at two different climatic zones in Western Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India. Plants of both species were cultivated in Tungnath (TN, an alpine zone (3600 m asl and in Pothivasa (PV, a temperate zone (2200 m asl. The results showed that the commencement and completion periods of phenophases, viz., growth initiation, vegetative phase, flowering, fruiting and senescence in both species varied greatly between the climatic zones. However, this variation was negligible between the species. It indicates that there is a need to develop location specific strategy for cultivation and management of the selected species. Further, the information will be highly helpful in determining appropriate time of cultivation practices, viz., seed sowing to harvesting of these species. Based on the corresponding life cycle of these species, it was also concluded that both the species can be cultivated in similar climatic conditions. Overall, the study will help in understanding adaptation features and planning strategies for successful cultivation and effective conservation management of these species.

  4. Function-selective domain architecture plasticity potentials in eukaryotic genome evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkeviciute, Viktorija; Rackham, Owen J L; Gough, Julian; Oates, Matt E; Fang, Hai

    2015-12-01

    To help evaluate how protein function impacts on genome evolution, we introduce a new concept of 'architecture plasticity potential' - the capacity to form distinct domain architectures - both for an individual domain, or more generally for a set of domains grouped by shared function. We devise a scoring metric to measure the plasticity potential for these domain sets, and evaluate how function has changed over time for different species. Applying this metric to a phylogenetic tree of eukaryotic genomes, we find that the involvement of each function is not random but highly selective. For certain lineages there is strong bias for evolution to involve domains related to certain functions. In general eukaryotic genomes, particularly animals, expand complex functional activities such as signalling and regulation, but at the cost of reducing metabolic processes. We also observe differential evolution of transcriptional regulation and a unique evolutionary role of channel regulators; crucially this is only observable in terms of the architecture plasticity potential. Our findings provide a new layer of information to understand the significance of function in eukaryotic genome evolution. A web search tool, available at http://supfam.org/Pevo, offers a wide spectrum of options for exploring functional importance in eukaryotic genome evolution. PMID:25980317

  5. Environmental change and challenge in the Himalaya. A historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ives, Jack D.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This overview, or retrospective, has two objectives. The first is to demonstrate how the principles of ‘mountain geoecology’ were applied in an attempt to counteract the political and socio-economic impacts of a major and misguided environmental orthodoxy-the Theory of Himalayan Environmental Degradation (henceforth to be referred to as the ‘Theory’. The second is to explore the difficulties of transferring the results of on-going scholarly mountain research into the public and political decision-making process. In this sense the paper should be regarded as a case study of the potentially serious effects of exaggerated and emotionally based responses to orthodoxies founded on assumptions and latter-day myths. A third objective, reserved for the companion paper in this issue, outlines the origins of mountain geoecology and explores how academic research influenced the inclusion of high level concern for mountain problems within AGENDA 21, one of the principal results of the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development (popularly known as the Rio Earth Summit and declaration of 2002 as the International Year of Mountains. The original environmental orthodoxy (the Theory has been eclipsed since the turn of the Millennium by a new populist alarm proposing that the current climate warming will cause all the Himalayan glaciers to disappear in the near future. From this it would follow that, as the glacier melt progresses, numerous large glacial lakes, forming as a consequence, would burst and the ensuing floods would annihilate many millions of people. Eventually, as the glaciers disappeared vital rivers, such as the Ganges and Brahmaputra, would wither to seasonal streams heralding further massive loss of life due to desertification and starvation. This current environmental alarm could be regarded as a present day parallel to the original Theory and will be examined in the final section of the paper. Between 1970 and about 1985 it was almost universal wisdom amongst scholars and development specialists, as well as conservationists, that the Himalaya were on the brink of environmental, and hence socio-economic and political collapse. This theme of gloom and doom was taken up avidly by journalists, politicians, and diplomats; it influenced the expenditure of large sums of aid and development money, and augmented periodic international confrontations. In concise terms, in the early 1970s an assumed approaching environmental disaster was perceived to be driven by relentless growth in the population of subsistence hill communities and their dependence on mountain forests for fuel, fodder, building materials, and conversion to agricultural land. The assumption of rapid and catastrophic deforestation of steep hillslopes under a monsoon climate (the World Bank predicted that there would be no accessible forest remaining in Nepal by the year 2000 led inexorably to a series of dependent assumptions: increasing soil erosion and worsening landslide incidence; accelerated flooding and siltation on the plains of Gangetic India and Bangladesh; social and political unrest, if not serious armed conflict – the notion of a world super-crisis, considering that the region in question contained about ten percent of the world’s entire human population and about thirty percent of its poorest. As will be emphasized later, none of this all-embracing construct was based on reliable evidence, but it was accepted world-wide as a given. It represents a prime example of the dangers associated with convenient adoption of environmental myths, or environmental orthodoxies, especially where the myth is a Western ‘scientific’ construct. I characterized it as The Theory of Himalayan Environmental Degradation (Ives, 1985.Esta perspectiva global, o retrospectiva, tiene dos objetivos. El primero es demostrar cómo se aplicaron los principios de la “geoecología de montaña” en un intento por contrarrestar los impactos políticos y socioeconómicos de una errónea ortodoxia ambiental, la Teoría de la Degr

  6. Implications of recent levelling observations for Tehri and other high dams in the Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seismic hazards around the Tehri and other existing and proposed high dams in the Himalaya are a matter of concern to many people. The magnitude and dimensions of the problem appear to increase with every new set of geophysical and geological data gathered from the Himalaya. But the flexibility and readiness of the people involved to improve their designs for the dams transparently in the light of the evolving perceptions about seismic hazards is not evident to us at least. In this article the evidence for an aspect of seismic hazards in the Himalaya is buttressed. (author). 44 refs., 3 figs

  7. Spatiotemporal Perturbations of Pore fluid Pressure in Kumaon Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannu, U.; Nandan, S.

    2012-12-01

    Convergence of Indian and Eurasian Plate induces significant seismic activity in the regions around the plate boundaries and pose a serious seismic risk to population living around Himalayas. As important as this area is; the studies relating to seismic risk evaluation has been limited and severely inadequate. Advent of newer techniques and the seismic deployment done by National Geophysical Research Institute during 2004 and 2008 for collection of high quality data enables us to study the stress and pore fluid pressure state and rate changes in space and time to assess the seismic risk. Many studies have predicated the occurrence of earthquake sequences on overpressurized fluids which lead to the failure of the faults. Knowledge about pore fluid pressure at hypocentral depths can provide critical insights in to risk evaluation as pore fluid pressure and triggering of events are closely related. The methodology of Focal Mechanism Tomography developed by Terakawa Toshiko (2010) enables us to map a three dimensional distribution of pore fluid pressure. The scheme has been shown to exhibit good reliability in previous studies and has been applied to many seismically active regions. We make use of this methodology to study the spatiotemporal changes in pore fluid pressure at hypocentral depths in Kumaon Himalaya region. We analyzed well constrained 785 shallow events (Depthblack stars) which were analyzed to give focal mechanism for further analysis. The blue triangles represent the stations which were deployed during the period 2004-2008 for collection of this data.

  8. Potential of vetiver (vetiveria zizanioides l.) grass in removing selected pahs from diesel contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytoremediation has been renowned as an encouraging technology for the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soils, little is known about how plant species behave during the process of PAH phytoremediation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) plant in PAH phytoremediation and extraction potential of Vetiveria zizanioides for selected PAHs from the diesel contaminated soil. The field soil samples were spiked with varying concentrations (0.5% and 1%) of diesel and used for pot experiment which was conducted in greenhouse. Vetiver grass was used as experimental plant. Physico-chemical analysis of soil was performed before and after the experiment. Concentration of selected PAHs i.e. phenanthrene, pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene in soil was determined using HPLC. Plant parameters such as root/shoot length and dry mass were compared after harvest. Concentrations of PAHs were also determined in plant material and in soils after harvesting. Result showed that initial concentration of phenanthrene was significantly different from final concentration in treatments in which soil was spiked with diesel. Initial and final concentration of pyrene in soil was also significantly different from each other in two treatments in which soil was spiked with 1% diesel. Pyrene concentration was significantly different in roots and shoots of plants while benzo(a)pyrene concentration in treatments in which soil was spiked with diesel was also significantly different from roots and shoots. Phenanthrene was less extracted by the plant in all the treatments and it was present in higher concentration in soil as compared to plant. Our results indicate that vetiver grass has effectively removed PAHs from soil consequently a significantly higher root and shoot uptake of PAHs was observed than control treatments. Study concludes Vetiveria zizanioides as potentially promising plant specie for the removal of PAHs from diesel contaminated soil. (author)

  9. A general definition of the heritable variation that determines the potential of a population to respond to selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijma, Piter

    2011-12-01

    Genetic selection is a major force shaping life on earth. In classical genetic theory, response to selection is the product of the strength of selection and the additive genetic variance in a trait. The additive genetic variance reflects a population's intrinsic potential to respond to selection. The ordinary additive genetic variance, however, ignores the social organization of life. With social interactions among individuals, individual trait values may depend on genes in others, a phenomenon known as indirect genetic effects. Models accounting for indirect genetic effects, however, lack a general definition of heritable variation. Here I propose a general definition of the heritable variation that determines the potential of a population to respond to selection. This generalizes the concept of heritable variance to any inheritance model and level of organization. The result shows that heritable variance determining potential response to selection is the variance among individuals in the heritable quantity that determines the population mean trait value, rather than the usual additive genetic component of phenotypic variance. It follows, therefore, that heritable variance may exceed phenotypic variance among individuals, which is impossible in classical theory. This work also provides a measure of the utilization of heritable variation for response to selection and integrates two well-known models of maternal genetic effects. The result shows that relatedness between the focal individual and the individuals affecting its fitness is a key determinant of the utilization of heritable variance for response to selection. PMID:21926298

  10. A Probabilistic Estimate of the Most Perceptible Earthquake Magnitudes in the NW Himalaya and Adjoining Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, R. B. S.; Koravos, G. Ch.; Tsapanos, T. M.; Vougiouka, G. E.

    2015-02-01

    NW Himalaya and its neighboring region (25°-40°N and 65°-85°E) is one of the most seismically hazardous regions in the Indian subcontinent, a region that has historically experienced large to great damaging earthquakes. In the present study, the most perceptible earthquake magnitudes, M p, are estimated for intensity I = VII, horizontal peak ground acceleration a = 300 cm/s2 and horizontal peak ground velocity v = 10 cm/s in 28 seismogenic zones using the two earthquake recurrence models of Kijko and Sellevoll (Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 82(1):120-134 1992 ) and Gumbel's third asymptotic distribution of extremes (GIII). Both methods deal with maximum magnitudes. The earthquake perceptibility is calculated by combining earthquake recurrence models with ground motion attenuation relations at a particular level of intensity, acceleration and velocity. The estimated results reveal that the values of M p for velocity v = 10 cm/s show higher estimates than corresponding values for intensity I = VII and acceleration a = 300 cm/s2. It is also observed that differences in perceptible magnitudes calculated by the Kijko-Sellevoll method and GIII statistics show significantly high values, up to 0.7, 0.6 and 1.7 for intensity, acceleration and velocity, respectively, revealing the importance of earthquake recurrence model selection. The estimated most perceptible earthquake magnitudes, M p, in the present study vary from M W 5.1 to 7.7 in the entire zone of the study area. Results of perceptible magnitudes are also represented in the form of spatial maps in 28 seismogenic zones for the aforementioned threshold levels of intensity, acceleration and velocity, estimated from two recurrence models. The spatial maps show that the Quetta of Pakistan, the Hindukush-Pamir Himalaya, the Caucasus mountain belt and the Himalayan frontal thrust belt (Kashmir-Kangra-Uttarkashi-Chamoli regions) exhibit higher values of the most perceptible earthquake magnitudes ( M W > 6.0). These spatially-distributed values indicate good agreement with high seismic hazard zones in previously published hazard maps based on seismicity, maximum expected earthquake magnitudes during specific time intervals and maximum expected acceleration. These maps have useful implications in preparing earthquake selection criteria for the anti-seismic design of non-critical structures in the study region.

  11. Unveiling the metabolic potential of two soil-derived microbial consortia selected on wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Diego Javier; Chaves-Moreno, Diego; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Based on the premise that plant biomass can be efficiently degraded by mixed microbial cultures and/or enzymes, we here applied a targeted metagenomics-based approach to explore the metabolic potential of two forest soil-derived lignocellulolytic microbial consortia, denoted RWS and TWS (bred on wheat straw). Using the metagenomes of three selected batches of two experimental systems, about 1.2?Gb of sequence was generated. Comparative analyses revealed an overrepresentation of predicted carbohydrate transporters (ABC, TonB and phosphotransferases), two-component sensing systems and ?-glucosidases/galactosidases in the two consortia as compared to the forest soil inoculum. Additionally, "profiling" of carbohydrate-active enzymes showed significant enrichments of several genes encoding glycosyl hydrolases of families GH2, GH43, GH92 and GH95. Sequence analyses revealed these to be most strongly affiliated to genes present on the genomes of Sphingobacterium, Bacteroides, Flavobacterium and Pedobacter spp. Assembly of the RWS and TWS metagenomes generated 16,536 and 15,902 contigs of ?10?Kb, respectively. Thirteen contigs, containing 39 glycosyl hydrolase genes, constitute novel (hemi)cellulose utilization loci with affiliation to sequences primarily found in the Bacteroidetes. Overall, this study provides deep insight in the plant polysaccharide degrading capabilities of microbial consortia bred from forest soil, highlighting their biotechnological potential. PMID:26343383

  12. Objective selection of EEG late potentials through residual dependence estimation of independent components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a novel method to objectively select electroencephalographic (EEG) cortical sources estimated by independent component analysis (ICA) in event-related potential (ERP) studies. A proximity measure based on mutual information is employed to estimate residual dependences of the components that are then hierarchically clustered based on these residual dependences. Next, the properties of each group of components are evaluated at each level of the hierarchical tree by two indices that aim to assess both cluster tightness and physiological reliability through a template matching process. These two indices are combined in three different approaches to bring to light the hierarchical structure of the cluster organizations. Our method is tested on a set of experiments with the purpose of enhancing late positive ERPs elicited by emotional picture stimuli. Results suggest that the best way to look for physiologically plausible late positive potential (LPP) sources is to explore in depth the tightness of those clusters that, taken together, best resemble the template. According to our results, after brain sources clustering, LPPs are always identified more accurately than from ensemble-averaged raw data. Since the late components of an ERP involve the same associative areas, regardless of the modality of stimulation or specific tasks administered, the proposed method can be simply adapted to other ERP studies, and extended from psychophysiological studies to pathological or sport training evaluation support

  13. In vitro selection of bacteria with potential for use as probiotics in marine shrimp culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe do Nascimento Vieira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to isolate strains of lactic acid bacteria with probiotic potential from the digestive tract of marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei, and to carry out in vitro selection based on multiple characters. The ideotype (ideal proposed strain was defined by the highest averages for the traits maximum growth velocity, final count of viable cells, and inhibition halo against nine freshwater and marine pathogens, and by the lowest averages for the traits duplication time and resistance of strains to NaCl (1.5 and 3%, pH (6, 8, and 9, and biliary salts (5%. Mahalanobis distance (D² was estimated among the evaluated strains, and the best ones were those with the shortest distances to the ideotype. Ten bacterial strains were isolated and biochemically identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (3, L. brevis (3, Weissella confusa (2, Lactococcus lactis (1, and L. delbrueckii (1. Lactobacillus plantarum strains showed a wide spectrum of action and the largest inhibition halos against pathogens, both Gram-positive and negative, high growth rate, and tolerance to all evaluated parameters. In relation to ideotype, L. plantarum showed the lowest Mahalanobis (D² distance, followed by the strains of W. confusa, L. brevis, L. lactis, and L. delbrueckii. Among the analyzed bacterial strains, those of Lactobacillus plantarum have the greatest potential for use as a probiotic for marine shrimp.

  14. Carbon and oxygen isotope changes in Siwalik soils from Nepal Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siwalik sediments of lower Himalayas are derived from the erosion of the rocks from higher reaches and deposited in the foreland basin. These group of sediments are formed over the time span of last ?20 Ma

  15. Screening of CHP Potential at Federal Sites in Select Regions of the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energy Nexus Group, . .

    2002-02-25

    Combined Cooling Heat and Power (CHP) is a master term for onsite power generation technologies that sequentially produce electrical or mechanical energy and useful thermal energy. Some form of CHP has existed for more than 100 years and it is now achieving a greater level of acceptance due to an increasing need for reliable power service and energy cost management. Capturing and using the heat produced as a byproduct of generating electricity from fuel sources increases the usable energy that can be obtained from the original fuel source. CHP technologies have the potential to reduce energy consumption through increased efficiency--decreasing energy bills as well as pollution. The EPA recognizes CHP as a potent climate change mitigation measure. The U.S. Department of Energy (D.O.E.) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is assisting Federal agencies to realize their energy efficiency goals. CHP is an efficiency measure that is receiving growing attention because of its sizable potential to provide efficiency, environmental, and reliability benefits. CHP therefore benefits the host facility, the electric infrastructure, and the U.S. society as a whole. This report and study seeks to make a preliminary inquiry into near term CHP opportunities for federal facilities in selected U.S. regions. It offers to help focus the attention of policy makers and energy facility managers on good candidate facilities for CHP. First, a ranked list of high potential individual sites is identified. Then, several classes of federal facilities are identified for the multiple opportunities they offer as a class. Recommendations are then offered for appropriate next steps for the evaluation and cost effective implementation of CHP. This study was designed to ultimately rank federal facilities in terms of their potential to take advantage of CHP economic and external savings in the near term. In order to best serve the purposes of this study, projections have been expressed in terms of sizing CHP to thermal and electrical estimates. The table below is a summary of findings of CHP potential for those federal facilities that chose to participate in the screening process. The study focused on three U.S. regions: California, Texas, and New York/New England. All federal facilities in these three regions with reported building space greater than 100,000 square feet were initial targets to contact and offer CHP screening services. Ranking criteria were developed to screen sites for near term CHP potential. The potential site list was pared down for a variety of reasons including site- specific and agency wide decisions not to participate, desk audit assessments, and untraceable contact information. The results are based upon the voluntary participation of those sites we were able to contact, so they reflect a fraction of the total potential CHP opportunities at federal government facilities.

  16. Conflicting selection on diaspore traits limits the evolutionary potential of seed dispersal by ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzaneda, Antonio J; Rey, P J; Alcántara, J M

    2009-07-01

    Conflicts of selection on diaspore traits throughout the dispersal cycle can limit the evolutionary consequences of seed dispersal. However, these conflicts have never been investigated in directed dispersal systems. We explored conflicts of selection through life stages of dispersal in the myrmecochorous herb Helleborus foetidus. Seeds are subject to two contrasting partial selective scenarios. Undispersed seeds are subject to positive directional selection on seed size characters, whereas seeds dispersed are subject to stabilizing selection for size. In both scenarios, seedling establishment determined the magnitude and direction of selection. This does not reflect ant preferences for seed size. However, total selection still depends largely on ant activity, as ants control the relative importance of each selective scenario. We advocate the use of analytical approaches combining multiplicative fitness and microenvironment-specific selection to more realistically estimate the realized selection on traits functional during several life stages. This approach may be extended to any organism dispersing offspring to different environments. PMID:19460082

  17. High altitude survival: conflicts between pastoralism and wildlife in the Trans-Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    MISHRA, C

    2001-01-01

    Keywords : Pastoralism, agriculture, wildlife, Himalaya, competition, bharal, yak, livestock, snow leopard, wolf, herbivore, ungulate, resource, rangeland, steppe, mountainHow harmonious is the coexistence between pastoralism and wildlife? This thesis is a response to repeated calls for a better understanding of pastoralism and its impacts on wildlife in India. Based on studies in the high altitude rangelands of the Trans-Himalaya that have a grazing history of over three millennia, I attempt...

  18. Medicinal flora and ethnoecological knowledge in the Naran Valley, Western Himalaya, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Khan Shujaul M; Page Sue; Ahmad Habib; Shaheen Hamayun; Ullah Zahid; Ahmad Mushtaq; Harper David M

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Mountain ecosystems all over the world support a high biological diversity and provide home and services to some 12% of the global human population, who use their traditional ecological knowledge to utilise local natural resources. The Himalayas are the world's youngest, highest and largest mountain range and support a high plant biodiversity. In this remote mountainous region of the Himalaya, people depend upon local plant resources to supply a range of goods and services...

  19. Quantifying sources, transport, deposition, and radiative forcing of black carbon over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Rudong; Wang, Hailong; Qian, Yun; Rasch, Philip J.; Easter, Richard C.; Ma, Po-Lun; Singh, Balwinder; Huang, Jianping; Fu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Black carbon (BC)particles over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau (HTP), both airborne and those deposited on snow, have been shown to affect snowmelt and glacier retreat. Since BC over the HTP may originate from a variety of geographical regions and emission sectors, it is essential to quantify the source-receptor relationships of BC in order to understand the contributions of natural and anthropogenic emissions and provide guidance for potential mitigation actions. In this study, we use the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) with a newly developed source tagging technique, nudged towards the MERRA meteorological reanalysis, to characterize the fate of BC particles emitted from various geographical regions and sectors. Evaluated against observations over the HTP and surrounding regions, the model simulation shows a good agreement in the seasonal variation of the near-surface airborne BC concentrations, providing confidence to use this modeling framework for characterizing BC source- receptor relationships. Our analysis shows that the relative contributions from different geographical regions and source sectors depend on seasons and the locations in the HTP. The largest contribution to annual mean BC burden and surface deposition in the entire HTP region is from biofuel and biomass (BB) emissions in South Asia, followed by fossil fuel (FF) emissions from South Asia, then FF from East Asia. The same roles hold for all the seasonal means except for the summer when East Asia FF becomes more important. For finer receptor regions of interest, South Asia BB and FF have the largest impact on BC in Himalayas and Central Tibetan Plateau, while East Asia FF and BB contribute the most to Northeast Plateau in all seasons and Southeast Plateau in the summer. Central Asia and Middle East FF emissions have relatively more important contributions to BC reaching Northwest Plateau, especially in the summer. Although the HTP local emissions only contribute about 10% of BC in the HTP, this contribution is extremely sensitive to changes in the local emissions. Lastly, we show that the annual mean radiative forcing (0.42 W m-2) due to BC in snow outweighs the BC dimming effect-0.3 W m-2)at the surface over the HTP, although the mean BC-in- snow forcing is likely overestimated. We find strong seasonal and sub -region variation with a peak value of 5W m-2 in the spring over Northwest Plateau. The annual mean dust-in-snow forcing is comparable to that of BC over the entire HTP but significantly larger than BC over the North east Plateau. Such a large forcing of BC in snow is sufficient to cause earlier snow melting and potentially contribute to the acceleration of glacier retreat

  20. Quantifying sources, transport, deposition, and radiative forcing of black carbon over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R.; Wang, H.; Qian, Y.; Rasch, P. J.; Easter, R. C.; Ma, P.-L.; Singh, B.; Huang, J.; Fu, Q.

    2015-06-01

    Black carbon (BC) particles over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau (HTP), both airborne and those deposited on snow, have been shown to affect snowmelt and glacier retreat. Since BC over the HTP may originate from a variety of geographical regions and emission sectors, it is essential to quantify the source-receptor relationships of BC in order to understand the contributions of natural and anthropogenic emissions and provide guidance for potential mitigation actions. In this study, we use the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) with a newly developed source-tagging technique, nudged towards the MERRA meteorological reanalysis, to characterize the fate of BC particles emitted from various geographical regions and sectors. Evaluated against observations over the HTP and surrounding regions, the model simulation shows a good agreement in the seasonal variation in the near-surface airborne BC concentrations, providing confidence to use this modeling framework for characterizing BC source-receptor relationships. Our analysis shows that the relative contributions from different geographical regions and source sectors depend on season and location in the HTP. The largest contribution to annual mean BC burden and surface deposition in the entire HTP region is from biofuel and biomass (BB) emissions in South Asia, followed by fossil fuel (FF) emissions from South Asia, then FF from East Asia. The same roles hold for all the seasonal means except for the summer, when East Asia FF becomes more important. For finer receptor regions of interest, South Asia BB and FF have the largest impact on BC in the Himalayas and central Tibetan Plateau, while East Asia FF and BB contribute the most to the northeast plateau in all seasons and southeast plateau in the summer. Central Asia and Middle East FF emissions have relatively more important contributions to BC reaching the northwest plateau, especially in the summer. Although local emissions only contribute about 10% of BC in the HTP, this contribution is extremely sensitive to local emission changes. Lastly, we show that the annual mean radiative forcing (0.42 W m-2) due to BC in snow outweighs the BC dimming effect (-0.3 W m-2) at the surface over the HTP. We also find strong seasonal and spatial variation with a peak value of 5 W m-2 in the spring over the northwest plateau. Such a large forcing of BC in snow is sufficient to cause earlier snow melting and potentially contribute to the acceleration of glacier retreat.

  1. Cloud-Aerosol Drivers of Reflective Roof and Solar Power Potential Benefits Across Selected Indian Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstein, D.; Fischer, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    Application of reflective roof surfaces is an adaptive strategy for sustainable warm-climate human environments that can improve human comfort for un-conditioned buildings, energy consumption for conditioned buildings, the urban heat island effect, and potentially net radiation absorbed by the earth. Here, we evaluate the (1) potential radiative benefits of installing cool roofs and (2) incoming surface radiation available for solar power generation across selected Indian cities using a combination of satellite data (MODIS and MERRA) and a radiative transfer model (RRTMG). The radiative transfer model was run multiple times at each time step and location in order to separate the effects of clouds and aerosols on top of the atmosphere outgoing shortwave radiation reflected from roofs and on bottom of the atmosphere incoming shortwave radiation available for solar power generation. Modeled downwelling shortwave radiation at the surface was first validated against measurements obtained from urban rooftops during the 9-month (June, 2011-March, 2012) a joint Indian-US Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) campaign. Results show that model bias at two Indian cities, Nainital (-4.2% average midday bias) and Pantnagar (0.5% average midday bias) was small compared to the radiative benefit obtained from a typical increase in surface reflectance (e.g., 0.3-0.6). Although both cities are located in the northern state of Uttarakhand, differences in terrain type, pollution burdens and cloudiness allow for validation of the model across a wide range of conditions. For example, Nainital is located in complex terrain at an altitude of ~2,000 meters near the Himalayan Mountains while Pantnagar is located in a flat plain at an altitude of ~300 meters. Pantnagar had a larger aerosol burden than Nainital as the average aerosol optical depth at Pantnagar (0.47) was larger than Nainital (0.33). Nainital was cloudier, with clouds observed on 62% of the days during the validation period while clouds were observed in Pantnagar on only 47% of the days. We then extend the model analysis to major Indian cities including New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, and Bangalore. Preliminary results indicate that total (anthropogenic and natural) aerosols reduce the additional top of the atmosphere outgoing radiation from the installation of reflective roofs by an average of 45-110 W m-2 at midday, with the high end of the range set at New Dehli and the low end of the range set at Nainital. Similarly, aerosols reduce total incoming surface radiation by 61-150 W m-2, hence reducing potential solar power generation by up to 25% at some locations depending on the utilization of direct vs. diffuse solar energy. Ongoing analysis will evaluate inter-annual trends and variation in cloud and aerosol effects along with spatial variation across each selected city, and 1st order estimates of the potential improvements to radiative benefit and solar power generation from improvements to air quality. The authors note that the methods employed in this work to estimate radiative benefits from air quality changes assume constant cloud fields and do not account for any aerosol-cloud indirect effects or effects from land-use change (i.e. increased surface albedo from wide-scale adoption of reflective roofs).

  2. Characteristics of potential gasifier fuels in selected regions of the Lake Victoria Basin

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Geoffrey O., Mosiori; Charles O., Onindo; Paul, Mugabi; Susan B., Tumwebaze; Samuel, Bagabo; Rukundo B., Johnson.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available All countries in the Lake Victoria Basin depend mostly on hydroelectric power for the provision of energy. Gasification technology has a high potential for reducing biomass energy consumption whilst increasing access to modern energy services. The key aspect for the failure of gasification operation [...] s in the Lake Victoria Basin is inadequate adaptation of gasification equipment to fuel characteristics, lack of fuel specification and inappropriate material choice. We therefore investigated the thermo-chemical characterisation of six biomass fuels, namely Pinus caribaea, Calitris robusta, Cupressus lusitanica, Eucalyptus grandis, Pinus patula and sugarcane bagasse from selected regions of the Lake Victoria Basin. Ultimate analysis was done using a Flash 2000 elemental analyser. Moisture content, ash content and volatile matter were determined in oven and muffle furnaces while heating values were determined using a Gallenkamp calorimeter. The mean percentage levels obtained indicate that all six biomass fuels had a mean range for nitrogen of 0.07±0.2-0.25±0.07%, for carbon of 40.45±0.61-48.88±0.29%, for hydrogen of 4.32±0.13-5.59±0.18% and for oxygen of 43.41±1.58-51.1±0.64%. Moisture content ranged between 25.74±1.54% and 56.69±0.52%, ash content between 0.38±0.02% and 2.94±0.14%, volatile matter between 74.68±0.49% and 82.71±0.19% and fixed carbon between 14.35±0.33% and 24.74±0.27%. Heating values ranged between 16.95±0.10 MJ/kg and 19.48±0.42 MJ/kg. The results suggest that all six biomass fuels are potential biomass gasification materials.

  3. Screening of different Fusarium species to select potential species for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Swapnil C., Gaikwad; Sonal S., Birla; Avinash P., Ingle; Aniket K., Gade; Priscyla D., Marcato; Mahendra, Rai; Nelson, Duran.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Onze diferentes espécies de Fusarium foram isoladas a partir de vários materiais vegetais infectados e selecionados para escolher uma espécie potencialmente importante para a síntese de nanopartículas de prata. Todos os isolados foram identificados com base nas características de cultivo e microscóp [...] icas usando as chaves de identificação de Fusarium. Para a confirmação e identificação preliminar dos isolados de espécies de Fusarium, a análise BLAST on-line foi utilizada. Das espécies isoladas onze mostraram a capacidade para a síntese de nanopartículas de prata. A síntese de nanopartículas de prata foi confirmada por espectroscopia de UV-Vis que monstrou um pico característico em torno de 420 nm. Além disso, a confirmação da síntese de nanopartículas de prata foi realizada utilizando a análise de rastreamento de nanoparticulas (nanoparticle tracking analysis-NTA), medidas de potencial zeta, espectroscopia de correlação de fótons (PCS), difratometria de raios X de pó (XRD), e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (TEM). As menores nanopartículas de prata foram sintetizadas por F. oxysporum (3-25 nm), enquanto as maiores foram obtidas com F. solani (3-50 nm). Abstract in english Eleven different Fusarium species were isolated from various infected plant materials and screened to select a potential species for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. All the isolates were identified on the basis of cultural and microscopic characteristics using Fusarium identification keys. Fo [...] r the confirmation of preliminary identified isolates of Fusarium species, online BLAST analysis was carried out. All the eleven species demonstrated the ability for synthesis of silver nanoparticles. This was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy, which gave characteristic peak around 420 nm. Further confirmation of silver nanoparticles was carried out using nanoparticles tracking analysis (NTA), zeta potential, photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), powder X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The smallest size of silver nanoparticles was synthesized by F. oxysporum (3-25 nm) and largest size silver nanoparticles were synthesized by F. solani (3-50 nm).

  4. Solar Radiation Patterns and Glaciers in the Western Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobreva, I. D.; Bishop, M. P.

    2013-12-01

    Glacier dynamics in the Himalaya are poorly understood, in part due to variations in topography and climate. It is well known that solar radiation is the dominant surface-energy component governing ablation, although the spatio-temporal patterns of surface irradiance have not been thoroughly investigated given modeling limitations and topographic variations including altitude, relief, and topographic shielding. Glaciation and topographic conditions may greatly influence supraglacial characteristics and glacial dynamics. Consequently, our research objectives were to develop a GIS-based solar radiation model that accounts for Earth's orbital, spectral, atmospheric and topographic dependencies, in order to examine the spatio-temporal surface irradiance patterns on glaciers in the western Himalaya. We specifically compared irradiance patterns to supraglacial characteristics and ice-flow velocity fields. Shuttle Radar Mapping Mission (SRTM) 90 m data were used to compute geomorphometric parameters that were input into the solar radiation model. Simulations results for 2013 were produced for the summer ablation season. Direct irradiance, diffuse-skylight, and total irradiance variations were compared and related to glacier altitude profiles of ice velocity and land-surface topographic parameters. Velocity and surface information were derived from analyses of ASTER satellite data. Results indicate that the direct irradiance significantly varies across the surface of glaciers given local topography and meso-scale relief conditions. Furthermore, the magnitude of the diffuse-skylight irradiance varies with altitude and as a result, glaciers in different topographic settings receive different amounts of surface irradiance. Spatio-temporal irradiance patterns appear to be related to glacier surface conditions including supraglacial lakes, and are spatially coincident with ice-flow velocity conditions on some glaciers. Collectively, our results demonstrate that glacier sensitivity to climate change is also locally controlled by numerous multi-scale topographic parameters.

  5. Interactions of biotic and abiotic environmental factors in an ectomycorrhizal symbiosis, and the potential for selection mosaics

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeksema Jason D; Piculell Bridget J; Thompson John N

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Geographic selection mosaics, in which species exert different evolutionary impacts on each other in different environments, may drive diversification in coevolving species. We studied the potential for geographic selection mosaics in plant-mycorrhizal interactions by testing whether the interaction between bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don) and one of its common ectomycorrhizal fungi (Rhizopogon occidentalis Zeller and Dodge) varies in outcome, when different combination...

  6. Selection of a mineral binder with potentialities for the stabilization/solidification of aluminum metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cau Dit Coumes, C., E-mail: celine.cau-dit-coumes@cea.fr [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA/DEN/MAR/DTCD/SPDE, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze cedex (France); Lambertin, D.; Lahalle, H.; Antonucci, P. [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA/DEN/MAR/DTCD/SPDE, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze cedex (France); Cannes, C.; Delpech, S. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud 11, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Binders capable of reducing the pore solution pH compared with Portland cements are reviewed. • The binders are then tested against aluminum corrosion. • Corrosion of aluminum metal is minimal with magnesium phosphate cement. • The H{sub 2} release can be reduced still further by adding LiNO{sub 3} to the mixing solution. • Electrochemical characterizations show that aluminum tends to a passive state. - Abstract: In a strongly alkaline medium, such as that encountered in conventional cementitious materials based on Portland cement, aluminum metal is corroded, with continued production of hydrogen. In order to develop a mineral matrix having enhanced compatibility with aluminum, a literature review was first undertaken to identify binders capable of reducing the pore solution pH compared with Portland cement. An experimental study was then carried out to measure the hydrogen production resulting from corrosion of aluminum metal rods encapsulated in the different selected cement pastes. The best results were achieved with magnesium phosphate cement, which released very little hydrogen over the duration of the study. This production could be reduced still further by adding a corrosion inhibitor (lithium nitrate) to the mixing solution. Open circuit potential measurement and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy of aluminum electrode encapsulated in two pastes based on Portland cement and magnesium phosphate cement showed different redox behaviors. In the Portland cement paste, the electrochemical data confirmed the corrosion of aluminum whereas this latter tended to a passive state in the magnesium phosphate binder.

  7. Emergency water supply: a review of potential technologies and selection criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Siew-Leng; Fane, Anthony G; Krantz, William B; Lim, Teik-Thye

    2012-06-15

    Access to safe drinking water is one of the first priorities following a disaster. However, providing drinking water to the affected population (AP) is challenging due to severe contamination and lack of access to infrastructure. An onsite treatment system for the AP is a more sustainable solution than transporting bottled water. Emergency water technologies (WTs) that are modular, mobile or portable are suitable for emergency relief. This paper reviews WTs including membrane technologies that are suitable for use in emergencies. Physical, chemical, thermal- and light-based treatment methods, and membrane technologies driven by different driving forces such as pressure, temperature and osmotic gradients are reviewed. Each WT is evaluated by ten mutually independent criteria: costs, ease of deployment, ease of use, maintenance, performance, potential acceptance, energy requirements, supply chain requirements, throughput and environmental impact. A scoring system based on these criteria is presented. A methodology for emergency WT selection based on compensatory multi-criteria analysis is developed and discussed. Finally, critical research needs are identified. PMID:22521949

  8. Selection of a mineral binder with potentialities for the stabilization/solidification of aluminum metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Binders capable of reducing the pore solution pH compared with Portland cements are reviewed. • The binders are then tested against aluminum corrosion. • Corrosion of aluminum metal is minimal with magnesium phosphate cement. • The H2 release can be reduced still further by adding LiNO3 to the mixing solution. • Electrochemical characterizations show that aluminum tends to a passive state. - Abstract: In a strongly alkaline medium, such as that encountered in conventional cementitious materials based on Portland cement, aluminum metal is corroded, with continued production of hydrogen. In order to develop a mineral matrix having enhanced compatibility with aluminum, a literature review was first undertaken to identify binders capable of reducing the pore solution pH compared with Portland cement. An experimental study was then carried out to measure the hydrogen production resulting from corrosion of aluminum metal rods encapsulated in the different selected cement pastes. The best results were achieved with magnesium phosphate cement, which released very little hydrogen over the duration of the study. This production could be reduced still further by adding a corrosion inhibitor (lithium nitrate) to the mixing solution. Open circuit potential measurement and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy of aluminum electrode encapsulated in two pastes based on Portland cement and magnesium phosphate cement showed different redox behaviors. In the Portland cement paste, the electrochemical data confirmed the corrosion of aluminum whereas this latter tended to a passive state in the magnesium phosphate binder

  9. Electrophysiological localization of distinct calcium potentials at selective somatodendritic sites in the substantia nigra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, J; Nedergaard, S

    1992-01-01

    The dendrites of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra play a pivotal role in the neurochemical homeostasis of the nucleus. It is conceivable therefore that the cell body and dendrites of these nigral neurons possess distinct and independent electro-responsive features. By means of differential polarization through applied electric fields, the cell body and dendrites have been activated in effective isolation during intracellular recordings from pars compacta neurons in the substantia nigra in vitro. In one class of neurons, which discharge in a "phasic" fashion and are located in the rostral substantia nigra, the dendrites are shown to be the origin of classic low-threshold and high-threshold type calcium potentials: indeed the high-threshold conductance appears to be exclusively dendritic. By contrast, in a second, more caudally located cell type, which discharges rhythmically, a high-threshold calcium spike is located principally in the cell body. The differential localization of these calcium conductances in sub-populations of neurons is likely to determine the functions for the calcium responses in each type of neuron, and moreover highlight the dendrites as dynamic and selective components in the physiology of the substantia nigra. The presence, for example, of the high-threshold calcium conductance in the dendrites of only one class of neuron suggests that this sub-population plays a prominent role in non-classical phenomena of dendritic release of a variety of chemical mediators.

  10. Selective and sensitive platform for function-based screening of potentially harmful furans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Zheng, Liwei; Peng, Ying; Song, Juan-e; Zheng, Jiang

    2014-11-01

    Many furan-containing compounds have been reported to be toxic and/or carcinogenic. Furanoids have been found in a wide range of fruits, herbs, foods, and beverages. The risks for intake of toxic furans have been rising, due to the rapid growth of globe-wide consumption of natural products. The objective of the study was to develop an analytical platform to screen cis-enediones (cis-enedials or ?-ketoenals) resulting from metabolic activation of potentially harmful furans. 2,5-Dimethylfuran (DMF), a model furan compound, was incubated with rat liver microsomes supplemented with glutathione (GSH) and 4-bromobenzylamine (BBA) as trapping agents, to produce a GSH/BBA-derived pyrrole. The incubation mixture was monitored by acquiring neutral loss scan of 129 Da and precursor ion scans of m/z 272, 169, and 171 in polarity switch mode. Four individual chromatograms showed the respective peak with the same retention time. An additional six furan-containing compounds were tested by the same approach, and similar observation was obtained. The system also showed its extremely high sensitivity, and an estimate of the limit of detection for DMF bioactivated in rat liver microsomes was derivatives. Crude extracts obtained from traditional Chinese medicine Dioscorea bulbifera L., known to contain furanoditerpenoids, were analyzed by the approach. In conclusion, the platform has been proven selective, sensitive, effective, and reliable, and ICP MS allows us to estimate the resulting bromine-labeled pyrroles without authentic standards. PMID:25279953

  11. Dopamine D3 receptor antagonists: the quest for a potentially selective PET ligand. Part 3: Radiosynthesis and in vivo studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennacef, Idriss; Salinas, Cristian A; Bonasera, Thomas A; Gunn, Roger N; Audrain, Hélène; Jakobsen, Steen; Nabulsi, Nabeel; Weinzimmer, David; Carson, Richard E; Huang, Yiyun; Holmes, Ian; Micheli, Fabrizio; Heidbreder, Christian; Gentile, Gabriella; Rossi, Tino; Laruelle, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Compound 1 is a potent and selective antagonist of the dopamine D(3) receptor. With the aim of developing a carbon-11 labeled ligand for the dopamine D(3) receptor, 1 was selected as a potential PET probe. [(11)C]1 was obtained by palladium catalyzed cross coupling using [(11)C]cyanide and 4 with a specific activity of 55.5+/-25.9GBq/micromol (1.5+/-0.7Ci/micromol). [(11)C]1 was tested in porcine and non-human primate models to assess its potential as a radioligand for PET imaging of the dopamin...

  12. (110)-exposed gold nanocoral electrode as low onset potential selective glucose sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ta-Ming; Huang, Ting-Kai; Lin, Huang-Kai; Tung, Sze-Ping; Chen, Yu-Liang; Lee, Chi-Young; Chiu, Hsin-Tien

    2010-10-01

    A straightforward electrochemical deposition process was developed to grow gold nanostructures, including nanocoral, nanothorn, branched belt, and nanoparticle, on carbon electrodes by reducing HAuCl4 under constant potentials in mixtures containing CTAC and/or NaNO3. Among the nanostructures, the quasi-one-dimensional nanocoral electrode showed the highest surface area. Because of this, it provided excellent electrochemical performances in cyclic voltammetric (CV) studies for kinetic-controlled enzyme-free glucose oxidation reactions. In amperometric studies carried out at 0.200 V in PBS (pH 7.40, 0.100 M), the nanocoral electrode showed the highest anodic current response. It also offered the greatest sensitivity, 22.6 ?AmM(-1)cm(-2), an extended linear range, 5.00×10(-2) mM to 3.00×10(1) mM, and a low detection limit, 1.00×10(1) ?m among the electrodes investigated in this study. In addition, the glucose oxidation by the nanocoral electrode started at -0.280 V, more negative than the one of using a commercial Au electrode as the working electrode. This is attributed to the presence of exposed Au (110) surfaces on the electrode. The feature was applied to oxidize glucose selectively in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA), common interferences found in physiological analytes. With an applied voltage at -0.100 V, the AA oxidation (started at -0.080 V) can be avoided while the glucose oxidation still provides a significant response. PMID:20822135

  13. Selective isolation and differentiation of a stromal population of human embryonic stem cells with osteogenic potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harkness, Linda M; Mahmood, Amer

    2011-01-01

    The derivation of osteogenic cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) has been hampered by the absence of easy and reproducible protocols. hESC grown in feeder-free conditions, often show a sub population of fibroblast-like, stromal cells growing between the colonies. Thus, we examined the possibility that these cells represent a population of stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells (hESC-stromal). Two in house derived hES cell lines (Odense3 and KMEB3) as well as an externally derived cell line (Hues8) were transitioned to feeder-free conditions. A sub population of fibroblast-like cells established between the hESC colonies were isolated by selective adherence to hyaluronic acid-coated plates (100?g/ml) and were characterized using a combination of FACS analysis and staining. The cells were CD44(+), CD29(+), CD73(+), CD166(+), CD146(+), and CD105(+); and, Oct4(-), CD34(-), CD45(-) and CXCR4(-). When cultured in osteogenic differentiation media, up regulation of osteoblastic lineage markers (DLX5, MSX2, RUNX2, SPARC, ALP, COL1a1, BGLAP, IBSP, DCN, LOX-L4) and production of in vitro mineralized matrix was detected. hESC-stromal cells loaded on a carrier and implanted either subcutaneously or in a critical size calvarial defect in immune deficient mice for 10weeks, resulted in new bone formation and partial repair of the calvarial defect. In conclusion, hESC-stromal can be isolated from hESC cultures and represent a good source for obtaining cells with osteogenic differentiation potential suitable for regenerative medicine protocols.

  14. Environmental impact assessment of mountain tourism in developing regions: A study in Ladakh, Indian Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountain tourism in developing countries is becoming a growing environmental concern due to extreme seasonality, lack of suitable infrastructures and planning, and interference with fragile ecosystems and protected areas. This paper presents a study devoted to assess the adverse environmental impacts of tourism, and in particular of trekking-related activities, in Ladakh, Indian Himalaya. The proposed approach is based on the use of Geographical Information System (GIS) modeling and remote sensing imageries to cope with the lack of data that affect the region. First, stressors associated with trekking, and environmental receptors potentially affected were identified. Subsequently, a baseline study on stressors (trail use, waste dumping, camping, pack animal grazing and off-road driving) and receptors (soil, water, wildlife, vegetation) was conducted through field work, data collection, and data processing supported by GIS. Finally, impacts were modeled by considering the intensity of the stressors, and the vulnerability and the value of the receptors. The results were spatially aggregated into watershed units, and combined to generate composite impact maps. The study concluded that the most affected watersheds are located in the central and southeastern part of Ladakh, along some of the most visited trails and within the Hemis and the Tsokar Tsomoriri National parks. The main objective of the study was to understand patterns of tourism-induced environmental degradation, so as to support mitigation interventions, as well as the development of suitable tourism policies.

  15. Spatial Coupling Among Landslides, Geological Structures, Cataclinal Slopes, and Fluvial Knick Zones in Nepal Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, T. P.; DeCelles, P. G.

    2014-12-01

    This work aims to identify potential landslide hazard zones in the event of heavy precipitation and seismic activity by examining spatial relationships among existing landslides, earthquake epicenters, fault zones, cataclinal (dip) slopes, anaclinal (escarp) slopes, and river steepness index in the Nepal Himalaya. In order to understand this relationship we have mapped existing landslides on Google Earth images and ESRI base maps, assembled high-resolution digital topographic data by digitizing Nepal Government published topographic maps, and gathered geological data from detailed field mapping and compilation of published geological maps. Slope angle and aspect, and dip direction and angle were extracted from GIS-based digital topographical and geological datasets to develop the new slope maps with cataclinal (dip) and anaclinal (escarp) slope distributions. Longitudinal river profiles were also extracted from high resolution DEM's derived from manually digitized contours. The slope maps with cataclinal and anaclinal slope distributions, earthquake epicenters, major geological structures, longitudinal river profiles, and landslide inventories were visualized in ESRI ArcMap 10.2 to examine the spatial correlation among landslides, fault zones, cataclinal slopes and river steepness index. We have found that landslides are spatially correlated with cataclinal slopes and fluvial knick zones with high steepness index in certain thrust boundaries. The main finding of this work is that the topographic slope threshold alone is a crude measure of landslide susceptibility. The analysis of slope using the geometric relationship among topography and geological bedding is crucial for determining landslide susceptibility in the Himalayan region.

  16. Evolution and outburst risk analysis of moraine-dammed lakes in the central Chinese Himalaya

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wang Shijin; Jiao Shitai

    2015-04-01

    The recent evolution and outburst risk of two typical moraine-dammed lakes, Galong and Gangxi, central Chinese Himalaya, are analyzed using topographic maps from 1974 and Landsat satellite imagery acquired in 1988, 2000 and 2014. The datasets show the areas of Galong and Gangxi lakes increasing at rates of 0.45 and 0.34 km2/year during the period 1974–2014, an expansion of 501% and 107%, respectively, in the past 41 years, while the areas of the parent glaciers, Reqiang and Jipucong decreased by 44.22% and 37.76%, respectively. The accelerating retreat of the glaciers not only reflects their generally negative mass balance but is consistent with the rapid expansion of the moraine-dammed lakes. When acted upon by external forces such as earthquakes, heavy rainfall, rapid melting of glaciers and dead ice, and snow/ice/rock avalanches, these lakes can become extremely dangerous, easily forming outburst mudslides, which can potentially spread to the Poiqu river basin and develop into cross-border (China and Nepal) GLOF disasters. Therefore, there is an urgent need to strengthen integrated risk management of glacial lake outburst disasters with multiple objectives and modes.

  17. Evolution and outburst risk analysis of moraine-dammed lakes in the central Chinese Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shijin, Wang; Shitai, Jiao

    2015-04-01

    The recent evolution and outburst risk of two typical moraine-dammed lakes, Galong and Gangxi, central Chinese Himalaya, are analyzed using topographic maps from 1974 and Landsat satellite imagery acquired in 1988, 2000 and 2014. The datasets show the areas of Galong and Gangxi lakes increasing at rates of 0.45 and 0.34 km2/year during the period 1974-2014, an expansion of 501% and 107%, respectively, in the past 41 years, while the areas of the parent glaciers, Reqiang and Jipucong decreased by 44.22% and 37.76%, respectively. The accelerating retreat of the glaciers not only reflects their generally negative mass balance but is consistent with the rapid expansion of the moraine-dammed lakes. When acted upon by external forces such as earthquakes, heavy rainfall, rapid melting of glaciers and dead ice, and snow/ice/rock avalanches, these lakes can become extremely dangerous, easily forming outburst mudslides, which can potentially spread to the Poiqu river basin and develop into cross-border (China and Nepal) GLOF disasters. Therefore, there is an urgent need to strengthen integrated risk management of glacial lake outburst disasters with multiple objectives and modes.

  18. Refrigeration Playbook: Natural Refrigerants; Selecting and Designing Energy-Efficient Commercial Refrigeration Systems That Use Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Caleb [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Reis, Chuck [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Nelson, Eric [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Armer, James [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Arthur, Rob [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Heath, Richard [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Rono, James [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Hirsch, Adam [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doebber, Ian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report provides guidance for selecting and designing energy efficient commercial refrigeration systems using low global warming potential refrigerants. Refrigeration systems are generally the largest energy end use in a supermarket type building, often accounting for more than half of a building's energy consumption.

  19. REDUCING RISK AND PROMOTING SUSTAINABILITY IN THE FOOTHILLS OF THE HIMALAYAS: A Pedagogy for Teaching and Practicing Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Ernst

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the role of a workshop as an educational approach and as a catalyst for positive change in the context of vulnerability and risk in the foothills of the Himalayas in the region of Uttarakhand, northern India. The paper will discuss the evolving pedagogy of Architecture Sans Frontières-UK (ASF-UK, an organisation that uses workshops as a primary tool to explore international development issues and help develop the relevant competencies for built environment professionals working in this sector. The workshop, and its catalytic potential, will be discussed and evaluated in relation to a case study: an international workshop coordinated by ASF-UK and partner, SEEDS India, which took place in Almora, Uttarakhand in 2010. The workshop marked the inception of a three year project which aims to facilitate improved building practices in symbiosis with disaster mitigation and wider development agendas through education, capacity building and prototype development.

  20. Narcissus and Leadership Potential:The measurement and implications of narcissism in leadership selection processes

    OpenAIRE

    Gimsø, Christian Enger

    2014-01-01

    Incorporating theoretical and empirical work from the literature on narcissism, it is postulated that narcissism poses a particular risk in leader selection settings. By appearing confident, charismatic, intelligent, and with a high self-esteem and authority, narcissists will slip through normal selection processes by resembling an implicit image of a prototypical leader for those that select and hire them. In three independent, yet connected studies, the role played by trait narcissism i...

  1. Sediment thickness beneath the Indo-Gangetic Plain and Siwalik Himalaya inferred from receiver function modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Kajaljyoti; Kanna, Nagaraju; Rai, S. S.; Prakasam, K. S.

    2015-03-01

    The Indo-Gangetic Plain and the adjoining Siwalik Himalaya are the seismically most vulnerable regions due to high density of human population and presence of thick sediments that amplify the seismic waves due to an earthquake in the region. We investigate the sedimentary structure and crustal thickness of the region through joint inversion of the receiver function time series at 14 broadband seismograph locations and the available Rayleigh velocity data for the region. Results show significant variability of sedimentary layer thicknesses from 1.0 to 2.0 km beneath the Delhi region to 2.0-5.0 km beneath the Indo-Gangetic Plain and the Siwalik Himalaya. As we progress from the Delhi to the Indo-Gangetic Plain, we observe a decrease in the shear velocity in sedimentary layer from ?2.0 km/s to ?1.3 km/s while the layer thickness increases progressively from ?1.0 km in south to 2.0-5.0 km in the north. Average S-velocity in the sedimentary layer beneath the Siwalik Himalaya is ?2.1 km/s. Crustal thicknesses varies from ?42 in the Delhi region, ?48 km in the Indo-Gangetic Plain, ?50 km in the western part of Siwalik Himalaya to ?60 km in the Kumaon region of Siwalik Himalaya.

  2. Depositional environment and provenance of Middle Siwalik sediments in Tista valley, Darjiling District, Eastern Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abhik Kundu; Abdul Matin; Malay Mukul

    2012-02-01

    The frontal part of the active, wedge-shaped Indo-Eurasian collision boundary is defined by the Himalayan fold-and-thrust belt whose foreland basin accumulated sediments that eventually became part of the thrust belt and is presently exposed as the sedimentary rocks of the Siwalik Group. The rocks of the Siwalik Group have been extensively studied in the western and Nepal Himalaya and have been divided into the Lower, Middle and Upper Subgroups. In the Darjiling–Sikkim Himalaya, the Upper Siwalik sequence is not exposed and the Middle Siwalik Subgroup exposed in the Tista river valley of Darjiling Himalaya preserves a ?325 m thick sequence of sandstone, conglomerate and shale. The Middle Siwalik section has been repeated by a number of north dipping thrusts. The sedimentary facies and facies associations within the lithostratigraphic column of the Middle Siwalik rocks show temporal repetition of sedimentary facies associations suggesting oscillation between proximal-, mid- and distal fan setups within a palaeo-alluvial fan depositional environment similar to the depositional setup of the Siwalik sediments in other parts of the Himalaya. These oscillations are probably due to a combination of foreland-ward movement of Himalayan thrusts, climatic variations and mountain-ward shift of fanapex due to erosion. The Middle Siwalik sediments were derived from Higher- and Lesser Himalayan rocks. Mineral characteristics and modal analysis suggest that sedimentation occurred in humid climatic conditions similar to the moist humid climate of the present day Eastern Himalaya.

  3. Seismotectonics and crustal stress field in the Kumaon-Garhwal Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, P.; Gupta, Sandeep; Saikia, Utpal; Rai, S. S.

    2015-08-01

    We present fault plane solutions of 94 well located small-to-moderate sized (1.5 ? ML ? 5.4) earthquakes, which occurred in the Kumaon-Garhwal Himalaya during 2005-2008, using P-wave polarity and body wave amplitudes. These earthquakes show a mixture of thrust, normal and strike-slip type mechanism, with a majority of thrust type. Most of the thrust earthquakes occur at a depth of 8-22 km in the Main Central Thrust (MCT) zone and the Lower Himalaya. The spatial distribution of these earthquakes suggest that the strain resulting from the ongoing collision of the Indian plate with the Eurasian plate is being consumed by thrust fault movement mainly on the north dipping Munsiari Thrust and south dipping Tons Thrust. The strike-slip earthquakes are mainly observed in the Lower Himalaya as well as around the Munsiari region in the MCT zone. The normal earthquakes are also observed in different parts of the Kumaon-Garhwal Himalaya and the Gangetic plain. Their occurrence is attributed to the local structure(s) as well as the flexure of the Indian plate. Stress tensor inversion of the calculated fault plane solutions indicates that the maximum compressive stress in the Gangetic plain is N-S directed and near vertical; whereas in the Kumaon-Garhwal Himalaya, it is near horizontal and NNE-SSW directed, and correlating with the prevailing stress condition due to northward movement of Indian plate.

  4. Precipitation and snow cover in the Himalaya: from reanalysis to regional climate simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ménégoz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We applied a Regional Climate Model (RCM to simulate precipitation and snow cover over the Himalaya, between March 2000 and December 2002. Due to its higher resolution, our model simulates a more realistic spatial variability of wind and precipitation than those of the reanalysis of the European Centre of Medium range Weather Forecast (ECMWF used as lateral boundaries. In this region, we found very large discrepancies between the estimations of precipitation provided by reanalysis, rain gauges networks, satellite observations, and our RCM simulation. Our model clearly underestimates precipitation at the foothills of the Himalaya and in its eastern part. However, our simulation provides a first estimation of liquid and solid precipitation in high altitude areas, where satellite and rain gauge networks are not very reliable. During the two years of simulation, our model resembles the snow cover extent and duration quite accurately in these areas. Both snow accumulation and snow cover duration differ widely along the Himalaya: snowfall can occur during the whole year in western Himalaya, due to both summer monsoon and mid-latitude low pressure systems bringing moisture into this region. In Central Himalaya and on the Tibetan Plateau, a much more marked dry season occurs from October to March. Snow cover does not have a pronounced seasonal cycle in these regions, since it depends both on the quite variable duration of the monsoon and on the rare but possible occurrence of snowfall during the extra-monsoon period.

  5. Determination of heavy metal pollution in soils from selected potentially contaminated sites in Tema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the study was to assess the concentration and determine the level of pollution by harmful heavy metals in soils from selected potentially contaminated sites in Tema. The metals of interest include; mercury, lead, cadmium, cobalt zinc, arsenic, nickel, copper and chromium. A total of forty seven (47) samples comprising thirty eight sub-samples (38) and nine (9) composite samples were collected from nine (9) different locations. These included playgrounds, steel processing factories, used Lead Acid Battery (ULAB) recycling plant, mechanic workshops and the municipal waste disposal site. The samples were prepared after which the elemental concentrations were determined using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) with a secondary target excitation arrangement (5.9 keV). The analysis of the samples yielded the following mean heavy metal concentrations in mg/kg: 424.38 (Cr); 408.68 (Ni); 14427 (Cu); 4129.87 (Zn); 1580.68 (As); 647.48 (Hg); 73361.51 (Pb) and 1176.16 (Co). The mean concentrations of heavy metals in the soils were in the following order Pb>Zn>As>Co>Cu>Hg>Cr>Ni. Mercury was detected at only two of the sites. The average heavy metals in the soils from the sites were generally high since most of them exceeded the optimum and action values of the New Dutch List. The Enrichment Factor (EF) ratios show that the enrichment of the elements in the soils ranged from deficiently to extremely highly enriched. The contamination factor show that the contamination by the heavy metals were low at some of the sites and very high at others. The geoaccumulation indices indicated that the playground (PG) has not been contaminated by any of the metals, C8 is contaminated strongly by mercury only and the contamination at the remaining sites varied from moderately contaminated to extremely contaminated by the metals. The Igeo also indicated that the elements accounting for extreme contamination are lead, arsenic, copper, zinc mercury and chromium. Lead accounted for the most contamination. The Pollution Load Index (PLI) rated Gravita as the mot contaminated of the sites and the Play ground the least contaminated. The pollution load indices indicated that two (2) out of the nine sites in the study were uncontaminated by the heavy metals (PLISS>WD>AFL>TS>L19>C8>PG. (au)

  6. A comparative study of daytime-based methane emission from two wetlands of Nepal Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dan; Wu, Ning; Bhattarai, Nabin; Oli, Krishna Prasad; Tsering, Kuenzang; Rawat, Gopal Singh; Chen, Huai; Yang, Gang; He, Yinxin; Joshi, Srijana; Rana, Pradyumna; Ismail, Muhammad

    2015-04-01

    Natural wetlands constitute one of the major sources of methane emission to the atmosphere. Data on methane emission from wetlands on southern slopes of the Himalaya (SSH) have not been reported so far. Such data are very valuable for filling the gap and generating the whole emission patterns at regional or even global scale. We selected two wetlands at different altitudinal locations in Nepal, i.e. Beeshazar Lake (286 m a.s.l.) and Dhaap Lake (2089 m a.s.l.), to monitor the daytime methane emissions in monsoon season and dry season separately. Daytime methane emission varied between monsoon and dry seasons and also across different plant communities. The daytime methane emission variations were stronger in dry season than in monsoon season. The source/sink strengths of the two selected plant communities in each wetland were significantly different, presenting the strong spatial variation of methane emission within wetland. The methane emissions recorded in monsoon season were significantly higher (7.74 ± 6.49 mg CH4 m-2 h-1 and 1.00 ± 1.23 mg CH4 m-2 h-1 in low and high altitude wetlands, respectively) than those in dry season (1.84 ± 4.57 mg CH4 m-2 h-1 and 0.27 ± 0.71 mg CH4 m-2 h-1 in low and high altitude wetlands, respectively). Methane emissions from the low altitude wetland were significantly higher than those from the high altitude wetland in both of the seasons. Plant community height, standing water depth and soil temperature correlated to the methane emission from wetlands in this region.

  7. Forest resource use pattern in Kedarnath wildlife sanctuary and its fringe areas (a case study from Western Himalaya, India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rural population of Himalaya has been strongly dependent on the forest resources for their livelihood for generations. The present study, carried out at three different altitudes of Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary (KWLS), explored forest resource-use patterns to understand rural peoples' dependency on the adjacent forests. A total of six forests were selected and the seven dependent villages were surveyed for the study of forest resource use patterns in relation to their socioeconomic status. Average fuelwood and fodder consumption were found to be 2.42 kg/capita/day and 43.96 kg/household/day respectively which was higher than the earlier reported values. Average fuelwood consumption by temporary dhaba (roadside refreshment establishments) owners (52.5 kg/dhaba/day) is much higher than the permanent villagers. Average cultivated land per family was less than 1 ha (0.56 ha). Inaccessibility of the area and deprived socio-economic status of the locals are largely responsible for the total dependency of the local inhabitants on nearby forests for fuelwood, fodder and other life supporting demands. Extensive farming of fuelwood trees on less used, barren land and establishment of fodder banks could be the alternative to bridge the gap between the demand and supply. Active participation of local people is mandatory for the conservation of these forests. - Highlights: • We studied energy consumption at different altitudes in Western Himalaya of India. • On an average, fuelwood and fodder consumption is 2.42 kg/capita/day and 43.96 kg/household/day respectively. • Maximum fuelwood (3.24 kg/capita/day) at higher and fodder consumption (1800 kg/household/day) at middle altitudes was recorded. • Dhabas (roadside refreshment establishments) consume much more fuelwood as compared to the permanent villagers (P<0.000, t-test). • Fuelwood consumption showed significant negative relationship with LPG (?0.87) and kerosene oil (?0.89)

  8. Anthocyanin production as a potential visual selection marker during plant transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Kortstee, A.J.; Khan, S. A.; Helderman, C.M.; Trindade, L.M.; WU, Y.; Visser, R.G.F.; Brendolise, C.; Allan, A C; Schouten, H J; Jacobsen, E.

    2011-01-01

    A mutant allele of the transcription factor gene MYB10 from apple induces anthocyanin production throughout the plant. This gene, including its upstream promoter, gene coding region and terminator sequence, was introduced into apple, strawberry and potato plants to determine whether it could be used as a visible selectable marker for plant transformation as an alternative to chemically selectable markers, such as kanamycin resistance. After transformation, red coloured calli, red shoots and r...

  9. Seismic slip deficit in the Kashmir Himalaya from GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Celia; Bali, Bikram Singh; Szeliga, Walter; Bilham, Roger

    2013-11-01

    measurements in Kashmir Himalaya reveal range-normal convergence of 11 ± 1 mm/yr with dextral shear of 5 ± 1 mm/yr. The transition from a fully locked 170 km wide décollement to the unrestrained descending Indian plate occurs at ~25 km depth over an ~23 km wide transition zone. The convergence rate is consistent with the lower bounds of geological estimates for the Main Frontal Thrust, Riasi, and Balapora fault systems, on which no surface slip has been reported in the past millennium. Of the 14 damaging Kashmir earthquakes since 1123, none may have exceeded Mw = 7.6. Therefore, either a seismic moment deficit equivalent to a Mw ? 8.7 earthquake exists or the historical earthquake magnitudes have been underestimated. Alternatively, these earthquakes have occurred on reverse faults in the Kashmir Valley, and the décollement has been recently inactive. Although this can reconcile the inferred and theoretical moment release, it is quantitatively inconsistent with observed fault slip in Kashmir.

  10. Earthquakes in India and the Himalaya: tectonics, geodesy and history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bilham

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The record of earthquakes in India is patchy prior to 1800 and its improvement is much impeded by its dispersal in a dozen local languages, and several colonial archives. Although geological studies will necessarily complement the historical record, only two earthquakes of the dozens of known historical events have resulted in surface ruptures, and it is likely that geological data in the form of liquefaction features will be needed to extend the historical record beyond the most recent few centuries. Damage from large Himalayan earthquakes recorded in Tibet and in Northern India suggests that earthquakes may attain M = 8.2. Seismic gaps along two-thirds of the Himalaya that have developed in the past five centuries, when combined with geodetic convergence rates of approximately 1.8 m/cy, suggests that one or more M = 8 earthquakes may be overdue. The mechanisms of recent earthquakes in Peninsular India are consistent with stresses induced in the Indian plate flexed by its collision with Tibet. A region of abnormally high seismicity in western India appears to be caused by local convergence across the Rann of Kachchh and possibly other rift zones of India. Since the plate itself deforms little, this deformation may be related to incipient plate fragmentation in Sindh or over a larger region of NW India.

  11. Tectonic evolution of Kashmir basin in northwest Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Akhtar; Ahmad, Shabir; Bhat, M. Sultan; Ahmad, Bashir

    2015-06-01

    Geomorphology has long been recognised as a key to evaluate the interplay between tectonics and landscape geometry in the regions of active deformation. We use geomorphic signatures at varied spatial scales interpreted from SRTM-DEM/Landsat-ETM data, supplemented with field observations to review the tectonic evolution of Kashmir basin in northwest Himalayas. Geomorphic evidence is persuasive of a credible NNW-SSE trending dextral strike-slip structure (central Kashmir Fault - CKF), with the strike length of ~ 165 km, stretched centrally over the NNW-SSE length of the Kashmir basin. As a result of the strike-slip motion and subsequent erosion, significant deformation has taken place along the CKF. In addition, broad geomorphic architecture of the basin reveals typical pull-apart characteristics. Hence, we deduce that the Kashmir basin has evolved as a pull-apart Quaternary sediment depression owing to the deformation along the central Kashmir Fault. The spatial distribution pattern of seismic events (NEIC-catalogue, 1973-2013) and GPS measurements (published), collectively substantiate our geomorphic interpretations.

  12. The mammalian fauna from the Central Himalaya, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hem Bahadur Katuwal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Nepal harbors unique mammalian fauna, but it is poorly studied at higher elevation. Mammalian fauna were recorded in Manaslu Conservation Area, Dudhkunda and Dudhkoshi valley of Solukhumbu district and Kanchenjunga Conservation Area of Nepal during March 2011 to April 2013 along the trail and the study plots from 700m to 4400m a.s.l. Semi-structured interviews were made with local people to understand their behavior and habitats. Altogether, 29 mammalian fauna were recorded. Five species were recorded new for the areas. Overall, Carnivore species (nine were encountered more, followed by species of the order Cetartiodactyla (seven. The highest number of mammalian fauna (18 was identified from Manaslu Conservation Area whereas the least (11 from Dudhkunda and Dudhkoshi valley. Human wildlife conflict was frequent with Himalayan Goral (Naemorhedus goral, Barking Deer (Muntiacus vaginalis, Himalayan Tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus, Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta, Nepal Grey Langur (Semnopithecus schistaceus and Himalayan Black Bear (Ursus thibetanus for crop depredation in these areas. Although mammalian research started a long time ago, scenario of comprehensive research is not satisfactory in the Central Himalaya, Nepal.

  13. Three hitherto unreported macro-fungi from Kashmir Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Himalayan state, Jammu and Kashmir due to its climate ranging from tropical deciduous forests to temperate and coniferous forests provides congenial habitat for the growth of diverse macro fungal species which in turn gives it the status of 'hub' of macro-fungal species. The macro fungal species richness of the state is directly related to its expansive forest communities and diverse weather patterns, but all the regions of the state have not been extensively surveyed till now. In this backdrop, a systematic survey for exploration and inventorization of macro fungal species of Western Kashmir Himalaya was undertaken during the year 2009 and 2010, which in turn resulted identification of the three species viz., Thelephora caryophyllea (Schaeff.) Pers., Coltricia cinnamomea (Pers.) Murr., and Guepinia helvelloides Fr. as new reports from the Kashmir. These species were identified on the basis of macro and microscopic characters and also the aid of taxonomic keys, field manuals, mushroom herbaria and help from expert taxonomists in the related field was taken into account. (author)

  14. Monsoon variability in the Himalayas under the condition of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ice core-drilling program was carried out at the accumulation area of Dasuopu glacier (28deg23'N, 85deg43'E, 7100 m a.s.l.) in the central Himalayas in 1997. The ice core was analyzed continuously for stable isotopes (?18O), and major ions throughout the core. Cycles indicated by ?18O, cations were identified and counted as seasonal fluctuations as annual increment from maximum to maximum values. Reconstructed 300-year annual net accumulation (water equivalent) from the core, with a good correlation to Indian monsoon, reflects a major precipitation trend in the central Himalayas. The accumulation trend, separated from the time series, shows a strong negative correlation to Northern Hemisphere temperature. Generally, as northern hemisphere temperature increases 0.1degC, the accumulation decreases about 80 mm, reflecting monsoon rainfall in the central Himalayas has decreased over the past decades in the condition of global warming. (author)

  15. Dopamine D3 receptor antagonists: the quest for a potentially selective PET ligand. Part 3: Radiosynthesis and in vivo studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennacef, Idriss; Salinas, Cristian A

    2009-01-01

    Compound 1 is a potent and selective antagonist of the dopamine D(3) receptor. With the aim of developing a carbon-11 labeled ligand for the dopamine D(3) receptor, 1 was selected as a potential PET probe. [(11)C]1 was obtained by palladium catalyzed cross coupling using [(11)C]cyanide and 4 with a specific activity of 55.5+/-25.9GBq/micromol (1.5+/-0.7Ci/micromol). [(11)C]1 was tested in porcine and non-human primate models to assess its potential as a radioligand for PET imaging of the dopamine D(3) receptor. We conclude that in both species and despite appropriate in vitro properties, [(11)C]1 does not show any specific signal for the dopamine D(3) receptor.

  16. Therapeutic potential of functional selectivity in the treatment of heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Gitte Lund; Aplin, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Adrenergic and angiotensin receptors are prominent targets in pharmacological alleviation of cardiac remodeling and heart failure, but their use is associated with cardiodepressant side effects. Recent advances in our understanding of seven transmembrane receptor signaling show that it is possible to design ligands with "functional selectivity," acting as agonists on certain signaling pathways while antagonizing others. This represents a major pharmaceutical opportunity to separate desired from adverse effects governed by the same receptor. Accordingly, functionally selective ligands are currently pursued as next-generation drugs for superior treatment of heart failure.

  17. Interactions of biotic and abiotic environmental factors in an ectomycorrhizal symbiosis, and the potential for selection mosaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoeksema Jason D

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geographic selection mosaics, in which species exert different evolutionary impacts on each other in different environments, may drive diversification in coevolving species. We studied the potential for geographic selection mosaics in plant-mycorrhizal interactions by testing whether the interaction between bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don and one of its common ectomycorrhizal fungi (Rhizopogon occidentalis Zeller and Dodge varies in outcome, when different combinations of plant and fungal genotypes are tested under a range of different abiotic and biotic conditions. Results We used a 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment to test the main and interactive effects of plant lineage (two maternal seed families, fungal lineage (two spore collections, soil type (lab mix or field soil, and non-mycorrhizal microbes (with or without on the performance of plants and fungi. Ecological outcomes, as assessed by plant and fungal performance, varied widely across experimental environments, including interactions between plant or fungal lineages and soil environmental factors. Conclusion These results show the potential for selection mosaics in plant-mycorrhizal interactions, and indicate that these interactions are likely to coevolve in different ways in different environments, even when initially the genotypes of the interacting species are the same across all environments. Hence, selection mosaics may be equally as effective as genetic differences among populations in driving divergent coevolution among populations of interacting species.

  18. Predicting paleoelevation of Tibet and the Himalaya from ? 18O vs. altitude gradients in meteoric water across the Nepal Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzione, Carmala N.; Quade, Jay; DeCelles, Peter G.; English, Nathan B.

    2000-11-01

    The ? 18O value of meteoric water varies with elevation, providing a means to reconstruct paleoelevation if the ? 18O values of paleowater are known. In this study, we determined the ? 18O values of water (? 18O mw) from small tributaries along the Seti River and Kali Gandaki in the Nepal Himalaya. We found that ? 18O mw values decrease with increasing altitude for both transects. ? 18O mw vs. altitude along the Kali Gandaki in west-central Nepal fit a second order polynomial curve, consistent with increasing depletion of 18O with increasing elevation, as predicted by a Rayleigh-type fractionation process. This modern ? 18O mw vs. altitude relationship can be used to constrain paleoelevation from the ? 18O values of Miocene-Pliocene carbonate (? 18O c) deposited in the Thakkhola graben in the southern Tibetan Plateau. Paleoelevations of 3800±480 m to 5900±350 are predicted for the older Tetang Formation and 4500±430 m to 6300±330 m for the younger Thakkhola Formation. These paleoelevation estimates suggest that by ˜11 Ma the southern Tibetan Plateau was at a similar elevation to modern.

  19. Evaluation of oenological potential on clonal selections of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceppi de Lecco C.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 13 clonal selections of cv Cabernet Sauvignon, established in Nancagua VI Region, Chile (34.39?°S?71.17?°W. The genetic identity of the vines was confirmed by ampelography and microsatellite markers (SSR. Evaluations in the 2012–2013 season include: performance, analytical and sensorial parameters on the wines made by microvinification. The results were statistically analyzed with the Statgraphics Plus program and multiple comparison test of Tukey at 95% confidence level. Sensorially, the wines were evaluated by a panel of 12 experts. The results were likewise analyzed by testing principal components (PCA with covariance matrix without rotation. In the season studied the selection 108 highlighted with a high yield (kg/plant, in the composition of the wine selections generally highlighted for contents of total polyphenols and anthocyanins over average. The results show typical sensory characteristics of wines from that grape variety, and it was possible to group the selections by their attributes (PCA with cherry red wines at different intensities, but without significant differences, with fruity and vegetal aromas, interesting complex flavors and with structured tannins.

  20. Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) oviposition site selection stimuli on sugarcane, and potential field applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), a key pest of sugarcane and rice in Texas that has recently invaded Louisiana, has not been successfully controlled using chemical insecticides or biological control agents. This greenhouse-based study examined selected sugarcane leaf characteristics,...

  1. Potential influence of selection criteria on the demographic composition of students in an Australian medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puddey Ian B

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior to 1999 students entering our MBBS course were selected on academic performance alone. We have now evaluated the impact on the demographics of subsequent cohorts of our standard entry students (those entering directly from high school of the addition to the selection process of an aptitude test (UMAT, a highly structured interview and a rural incentive program. Methods Students entering from 1985 to 1998, selected on academic performance alone (N = 1402, were compared to those from 1999 to 2011, selected on the basis of a combination of academic performance, interview score, and UMAT score together with the progressive introduction of a rural special entry pathway (N = 1437. Results Males decreased from 57% to 45% of the cohort, students of NE or SE Asian origin decreased from 30% to 13%, students born in Oceania increased from 52% to 69%, students of rural origin from 5% to 21% and those from independent high schools from 56% to 66%. The proportion of students from high schools with relative socio-educational disadvantage remained unchanged at approximately 10%. The changes reflect in part increasing numbers of female and independent high school applicants and the increasing rural quota. However, they were also associated with higher interview scores in females vs males and lower interview scores in those of NE and SE Asian origin compared to those born in Oceania or the UK. Total UMAT scores were unrelated to gender or region of origin. Conclusions The revised selection processes had no impact on student representation from schools with relative socio-educational disadvantage. However, the introduction of special entry quotas for students of rural origin and a structured interview, but not an aptitude test, were associated with a change in gender balance and ethnicity of students in an Australian undergraduate MBBS course.

  2. Disease burden of fuelwood combustion pollutants in rural households of the Himalayas, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Pandey

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: household biomass combustion for cooking purposes produces pollutants. Exposure to these pollutants has various adverse health impacts and is a major contributor to global disease burden. However, a precise estimate of the burden attributable to biomass combustion at the local level is not available in different parts of the world, therefore restricting policymakers’ ability to develop targeted actions against the health hazards. a study was conducted in the rural Himalayas to generate information about disease burden, with the purpose of aiding the development of strategies to improve public health.
    Methods: exposure level, population exposed and other relevant data regarding fuel-wood use, were collected through questionnaire survey from 102 randomly selected households spread in 46 villages in a two phase cluster random sampling design study during 2008 – 09. the burden of disease for acute Lower respiratory Infection (aLrI, chronic obstructive Pulmonary disease (coPd and Lung cancer were estimated as per fuel-based approach of WHo guidelines for rural hilly households, using fuel- wood for cooking.
    Results: households, primarily dependent on fuel-wood for fuel, had disability adjusted life years (daLYs lost and deaths that were much higher than the national status. The incidence of disease burden was 2 909 daLYs lost, with a share of 1 987 for aLrI in children "up to" 5 years age, 730 for coPd and 192 for Lung cancer in adults more than 30 years old, respectively.
    This result has implications for policy makers when deciding on an effective exposure reduction strategy and describes the risks connected between these health hazards and the health outcome of inhabitants exposed to them. The paper also discusses the intervention strategies for “addressing” the issues relevant to fuel-wood generated exposure.

  3. Genetic responses to seasonal variation in altitudinal stress: whole-genome resequencing of great tit in eastern Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yanhua; Tian, Shilin; Han, Naijian; Zhao, Hongwei; Gao, Bin; Fu, Jun; Cheng, Yalin; Song, Gang; Ericson, Per G. P.; Zhang, Yong E.; Wang, Dawei; Quan, Qing; Jiang, Zhi; Li, Ruiqiang; Lei, Fumin

    2015-01-01

    Species that undertake altitudinal migrations are exposed to a considerable seasonal variation in oxygen levels and temperature. How they cope with this was studied in a population of great tit (Parus major) that breeds at high elevations and winters at lower elevations in the eastern Himalayas. Comparison of population genomics of high altitudinal great tits and those living in lowlands revealed an accelerated genetic selection for carbohydrate energy metabolism (amino sugar, nucleotide sugar metabolism and insulin signaling pathways) and hypoxia response (PI3K-akt, mTOR and MAPK signaling pathways) in the high altitudinal population. The PI3K-akt, mTOR and MAPK pathways modulate the hypoxia-inducible factors, HIF-1? and VEGF protein expression thus indirectly regulate hypoxia induced angiogenesis, erythropoiesis and vasodilatation. The strategies observed in high altitudinal great tits differ from those described in a closely related species on the Tibetan Plateau, the sedentary ground tit (Parus humilis). This species has enhanced selection in lipid-specific metabolic pathways and hypoxia-inducible factor pathway (HIF-1). Comparative population genomics also revealed selection for larger body size in high altitudinal great tits. PMID:26404527

  4. Fluoxetine potentiation of methylphenidate-induced neuropeptide expression in the striatum occurs selectively in direct pathway (striatonigral) neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Waes, Vincent; Carr, Betsy; Beverley, Joel A; Steiner, Heinz

    2012-09-01

    Concomitant therapies combining psychostimulants such as methylphenidate and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are used to treat several mental disorders, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder/depression comorbidity. The neurobiological consequences of these drug combinations are poorly understood. Methylphenidate alone induces gene regulation that mimics partly effects of cocaine, consistent with some addiction liability. We previously showed that the SSRI fluoxetine potentiates methylphenidate-induced gene regulation in the striatum. The present study investigated which striatal output pathways are affected by the methylphenidate + fluoxetine combination, by assessing effects on pathway-specific neuropeptide markers. Results demonstrate that fluoxetine (5 mg/kg) potentiates methylphenidate (5 mg/kg)-induced expression of substance P and dynorphin, markers for direct pathway neurons. In contrast, no drug effects on the indirect pathway marker enkephalin were found. Because methylphenidate alone has minimal effects on dynorphin, the potentiation of dynorphin induction represents a more cocaine-like effect for the drug combination. On the other hand, the lack of an effect on enkephalin suggests a greater selectivity for the direct pathway compared with psychostimulants such as cocaine. Overall, the fluoxetine potentiation of gene regulation by methylphenidate occurs preferentially in sensorimotor striatal circuits, similar to other addictive psychostimulants. These results suggest that SSRIs may enhance the addiction liability of methylphenidate. PMID:22738672

  5. Sensitive and selective determination of molybdenum by flow injection chemiluminescence method combined with controlled potential electrolysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensitive and selective flow injection chemiluminescence (CL) method combined with controlled potential electrolysis technique was described for the determination of molybdenum. The method is based on the chemiluminescence reaction of luminol with unstable molybdenum(III) in alkaline solution. The molybdenum(III) was on-line reduced from molybdenum(VI) via controlled potential electrolysis technique using a homemade flow-through carbon electrolytic cell at the potential of -0.6 V (versus Ag/AgCl). The method allows the determination of molybdenum in the 5.0x10-10 to 5.0x10-7 g ml-1 range with a limit of detection (3?) of 5x10-11 g ml-1 molybdenum. The relative standard deviation is 2.6% for the 1.0x10-9 g ml-1 molybdenum solution in 11 repeated measurements. This method was successfully applied to the determination of molybdenum in water samples

  6. Potential evapotranspiration and its impact on autumn phenological phases of selected plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work deals with the assessment of the impact of water balance on the timing of phenological phases at two locations (Hips and Bukovina), on the selected tree species (hazel (Corylus avellana L.), hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.), sessile oak (Quercus petraea, Liebl.)). Phenological observations have been held since 2007, and together with measurements of meteorological parameters allow us to evaluate the microclimate in the stands in detail. (authors)

  7. Therapeutic potential of functional selectivity in the treatment of heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Gitte Lund; Aplin, Mark; Hansen, Jakob Lerche

    2010-01-01

    Adrenergic and angiotensin receptors are prominent targets in pharmacological alleviation of cardiac remodeling and heart failure, but their use is associated with cardiodepressant side effects. Recent advances in our understanding of seven transmembrane receptor signaling show that it is possible to design ligands with "functional selectivity," acting as agonists on certain signaling pathways while antagonizing others. This represents a major pharmaceutical opportunity to separate desired from ...

  8. Visual encoding and fixation target selection in free viewing: presaccadic brain potentials

    OpenAIRE

    AndreyRNikolaev; PeterJurica; GijsPlomp

    2013-01-01

    In scrutinizing a scene, the eyes alternate between fixations and saccades. During a fixation, two component processes can be distinguished: visual encoding and selection of the next fixation target. We aimed to distinguish the neural correlates of these processes in the electrical brain activity prior to a saccade onset. Participants viewed color photographs of natural scenes, in preparation for a change detection task. Then, for each participant and each scene we computed an image heat map,...

  9. Potential of Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators as Treatments and Preventives of Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    PENG, JING; Sengupta, Surojeet; Jordan, V. Craig

    2009-01-01

    Estrogen plays vital roles in human health and diseases. Estrogen mediates its actions almost entirely by binding to estrogen receptors (ER), alpha and beta which further function as transcription factors. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are synthetic molecules which bind to ER and can modulate its transcriptional capabilities in different ways in diverse estrogen target tissues. Tamoxifen, the prototypical SERM, is extensively used for targeted therapy of ER positive breast ca...

  10. Maternal use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and risk of miscarriage - assessing potential biases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Rie Laurine Rosenthal; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Hansen, Anne Vinkel; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during pregnancy has been associated with miscarriage, but the association may be biased by maternal mental illness, lifestyle and exposure misclassification. METHODS: A register study on all pregnancies in Denmark between 1996 and 2009 was conducted using individualised data from the Danish National Patient Register, the Medical Birth Register, the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, the Danish National Prescription databas...

  11. Survey on basic knowledge about exposure and potential environmental and health risks for selected nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Sonja Hagen; Hansen, Erik; Christensen, Trine Boe; Baun, Anders; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Binderup, Mona-Lise

    2011-01-01

    Based on a literature review this report provides a general description as well as an environmental and health profile of 7 nanomaterials. The examined nanomaterials are selected because of expected high use or specific environmental and health properties. Fullerenes, iron, silver, nanoclay and titanium-, cerium-, and silicondioxides were studied in the project. Based on current uses, it is concluded that current applications of nano-iron and nanoclay can not cause unexpected “nano-associated” h...

  12. Potential productivity and yield gap of selected crops in the rainfed regions of India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piara Singh

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available ICRISAT's intervention in the project improving management of natural resources for sustainable rainfed agriculture funded by the Asian Development Bank aims to increase the productivity and sustainability of the medium and high water-holding capacity soils in the intermediate rainfall ecoregion of India, Thailand, and Vietnam. This study examined the potential yield and yield gap of selected crops predominantly grown in the target regions where the project is operational. We used the CROPGRO-soybean model to determine the potential yield and yield gap of soybean crop for several locations in India. For northeastern Thailand and northern Vietnam we compared the experimental yields with the farmers' current yields in the region to estimate the yield gaps. It has been estimated that for several locations in India the soybean yield gap ranged from 19% to 65% of potential yield. For northeastern Thailand the yield gap for paddy rice, upland rice, maize, and soybean ranged from 11% to 67% of their respective potential yields. In northern Vietnam the farmers' maize yields were two-third of the potential yield; however, groundnut and soybean have a yield gap of 40 to 60% of potential yield. Various constraints limiting crop yields in these regions have been highlighted. It is suggested that location-specific integrated approaches would be needed to bridge the yield gap of the predominant crops grown in the target regions.

  13. Distribution of the Late-Quaternary deformation in Northwestern Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassallo, R.; Mugnier, J.-L.; Vignon, V.; Malik, M. A.; Jayangondaperumal, R.; Srivastava, P.; Jouanne, F.; Carcaillet, J.

    2015-02-01

    Three main Cenozoic thrusts at the front of Northwestern Himalaya have accommodated most of the India-Eurasia convergence across the belt over the last million years and produced the present relief. Their recent tectonic activity is poorly known because of the long period of inaccessibility of the Jammu and Kashmir state, and because the latest and only large earthquake recorded in the region occurred in 1555 AD. We show where the deformation is localized during the Late-Quaternary, and determine shortening rates across the structures by analyzing the geometry and chronology of geomorphic markers. The Main Boundary Thrust in this region ceased moving at least ?30 ka ago. On the contrary, the more external Medlicott-Wadia Thrust and Main Frontal Thrust, both merging at depth on the sub-flat detachment of the Main Himalayan Thrust, exhibit hectometric-scale deformations accumulated during the last thousands of years. The total shortening rate absorbed by these faults over the last 14-24 ka is between 13.2 and 27.2 mm/yr (11.2 ± 3.8 and 9.0 ± 3.2 mm /yr, respectively). Part of this deformation may be associated to the geometry of the Chenab reentrant, which could generate an extra oblique component. However, the lower bound of our shortening rates is consistent with previously determined geodetic rates. Active deformation on these structures follows an in-sequence/out-of-sequence pattern, with breaking of both ramps being possible for earthquakes triggered on the main detachment.

  14. Phytochemical diversity of Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. from Western Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ram S; Chauhan, Amit; Padalia, Rajendra C; Jat, Sanjeev K; Thul, Sanjog; Sundaresan, Velusamy

    2013-04-01

    Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. (Rutaceae), commonly known as 'curry leaf tree', is a popular spice and condiment of India. To explore the diversity of the essential-oil yield and aroma profile of curry leaf, growing wild in foot and mid hills of north India, 58 populations were collected during spring season. M. koenigii populations were found to grow up to an altitude of 1487?m in north India. Comparative results showed considerable variations in the essential-oil yield and composition. The essential-oil yield varied from 0.14 to 0.80% in shade-dried leaves of different populations of M. koenigii. Analysis of the essential oils by GC and GC/MS, and the subsequent classification by statistical analysis resulted in four clusters with significant variations in their terpenoid composition. Major components of the essential oils of investigated populations were ?-pinene (2; 4.5-71.5%), sabinene (3; <0.05-66.1%), (E)-caryophyllene (11; 1.6-18.0%), ?-pinene (4; <0.05-13.6%), terpinen-4-ol (9; 0.0-8.4%), ?-terpinene (8; 0.2-7.4%), limonene (7; 1.1-5.5%), ?-terpinene (6; 0.0-4.5%), (E)-nerolidol (14; 0.0-4.1%), ?-humulene (12; 0.6-3.5%), ?-thujene (1; 0.0-2.5%), ?-elemene (10; 0.2-2.4%), ?-selinene (13; 0.2-2.3%), and myrcene (5; 0.5-2.1%). Comparison of the present results with those in earlier reports revealed new chemotypes of M. koenigii in investigated populations from Western Himalaya. The present study documents M. koenigii populations having higher amounts of sabinene (3; up to 66.1%) for the first time. PMID:23576349

  15. Global Warming, Climate Change and Glacier Retreat of Nepal Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, S.; Hisaki, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Global average air temperature near the earth surface rose 0.74¡¾0.18¨¬C during the twentieth century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concludes that observed increased globally averaged temperatures since mid-twentieth century is very likely due to the observed increment in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations, which leads to warming of the surface and lower atmosphere by increasing the greenhouse effect. Climate models referred by IPCC project that global surface temperature are likely to be increase by 1.1 to 6.4¨¬C between 1990 and 2100. An increase in global temperature is expected to cause other changes including glacier retreat, sea level rise, increase intensity of extreme weather events and change in the pattern of precipitation, etc. The Nepal Himalaya revealed 3,252 glaciers and 2,323 lakes, which are 3,500 m above the sea level. They cover an area of 5,323 km2 with an estimated ice reserve of 481 km3. The average temperature in Nepal is rising by 0.5¨¬C per decade, and because of this reason, big glacial lakes in the country are at high risk of flooding from glacial lake bursts, which would have an adverse effect, such as huge loss of life and property. Nepal is facing a disturbance in mountain climate, flash floods, cloudbursts, erratic weather patterns and so on. The death of number of people due to floods and landslides is increasing annually. It is reported that more than 164 people already died because of floods and landslides during the current year, 2007 rainy season. Nepal does emit negligible greenhouse gases compare to developed and industrialized countries, however, country and people are facing the consequences of actions of other developed and industrialized countries. Study shows the¡¡disasters in current years and possible hazards in future due to the probable causes of global warming and recommends some suggestions for controlling of green house gases emission.

  16. An initial model of seismic microzonation of Sikkim Himalaya through thematic mapping and GIS integration of geological and strong motion features^*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Sankar Kumar

    2005-05-01

    Seismic microzonation and hazard mapping was undertaken in the Sikkim Himalaya with local site conditions and strong ground motion attributes incorporated into a geographic information system. A strong motion network in Sikkim consisting of 9 digital accelerographs recorded more than 100 events during 1998-2002, of which 72 events are selected with signal-to-noise ratios ?3 for the estimation of site response (SR), peak ground acceleration (PGA) and resonance frequency (RF) at all stations. With these data and inputs from IRS-1C LISS III digital data, topo-sheets, geographical boundary of the State of Sikkim, surface geological maps, soil taxonomy map at 1:50,000 scale and seismic refraction profiles, the seismological and geological thematic maps, namely, SR, PGA, RF, lithology, soil class, slope, drainage, and landslide layers were generated. The geological and seismological layers are assigned normalized weights and feature ranks following a pair-wise comparison hierarchical approach and later integrated through GIS to create the microzonation map of the region. The overall SR, PGA and resonance frequency show an increasing trend in a NW-SE direction, peaking at Singtam in the lesser Himalaya. Six major hazard zones are demarcated with different percentages of probability index values in the geological, seismological hazard and microzonation maps. The maximum risk is attached to a probability greater than 78% in the Singtam and adjoining area. These maps offer generally better spatial representation of seismic hazards including site-specific analysis as a first level microzonation attempt.

  17. Recruitment of hornbill-dispersed trees in hunted and logged forests of the Indian Eastern Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Pia; Howe, Henry F

    2009-06-01

    Hunting of hornbills by tribal communities is widespread in logged foothill forests of the Indian Eastern Himalaya. We investigated whether the decline of hornbills has affected the dispersal and recruitment of 3 large-seeded tree species. We hypothesized that 2 low-fecundity tree species, Chisocheton paniculatus and Dysoxylum binectariferum (Meliaceae) bearing arillate fruits, are more dispersal limited than a prolifically fruiting drupaceous tree Polyalthia simiarum (Annonaceae), which has potential dispersers other than hornbills. We estimated the abundance of large avian frugivores during the fruiting season along transects in 2 protected and 2 disturbed forests. We compared recruitment of the tree species near (<10 m) and far (10-40 m) from parent trees at protected and disturbed sites. Median abundance of Great (Buceros bicornis), Wreathed (Aceros undulatus), and Oriental Pied Hornbills (Anthracoceros albirostris) were significantly lower in disturbed forests, but sites did not differ in abundances of the Mountain Imperial Pigeon (Ducula badia). Overall, tree species showed more severely depressed recruitment of seedlings (77% fewer) and juveniles (69% fewer) in disturbed than in protected forests. In disturbed forests, 93% fewer seedlings of C. paniculatus were beyond parental crowns, and a high number of all seedlings (42%) accumulated directly under reproductive adults. In contrast, D. binectariferum and P. simiarum were recruitment rather than dispersal limited, with fewer dispersed seedlings surviving in disturbed than in protected forests. Results are consistent with the idea that disturbance disrupts mutualisms between hornbills and some large-seeded food plants, with the caveat that role redundancy within even small and specialized disperser assemblages renders other tree species less vulnerable to loss of regular dispersal agents. PMID:19220369

  18. Sporadic, rainfall triggered landslides and debris flows in the monsoon, Nepal Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Monique; Etienne, Cossart; Alexis, Conte; Natacha, Gribenski; Gilles, Arnaud-Fassetta

    2010-05-01

    Small river catchments play a major role in the overall denudation of the Himalayas, because they may generate extreme, geomorphic events. We characterize their potential impacts on the morphology and functioning of trunk rivers, and indirectly on infrastructure and settlements located along the valley floor. Our study case, the Ghatte Khola, is an intermittent tributary of the Kali Gandaki (Western Nepal) affected by occasional debris flow events. The cause of the debris flows is a persistent planar slide zone (dip slope) that is reactivated by pre- or monsoon heavy rainfall on the upper, forested catchment. As a result, the narrow valley of the upstream part of the tributary is temporary clogged by slide masses, until sudden, landslide outburst floods occur. Downstream, where the channel is entrenched across a 5-8 m thick debris fan, the functioning of successive debris flows cause bank erosion and stream channel widening. At the junction with the Kali Gandaki, the flows may aggrade debris volumes large enough to dam the Kali Gandaki for a few hours and cause the level of this major river to rise more than 5 m upstream. During the last 40 years, pulsed aggradations transferred erosion point to the opposite (left bank) side of the Kali Gandaki. This ephemeral, yet threatening behaviour of the stream, occurs every two or three years, according to field investigations (geomorphic mapping, sediment analysis) and interviews of villagers. We present various scenarios simulated using the SAGA-GIS cellular automata combined with a Digital Elevation Model. We discuss the available rainfall intensity-duration thresholds susceptible to trigger Himalayan landslides. Our study suggests that such high-magnitude/low-frequency events are very efficient to foster sediment fluxes and create temporary sediment storages in Himalayan valleys, a fact that is to be considered prior to any new settlement and road design in a country where infrastructures are rapidly developing.

  19. Topographic position of large slope failures revealed by excess topography in the Himalaya-Karakoram Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blöthe, Jan; Korup, Oliver; Schwanghart, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Large slope failures (defined here as affecting >0.1 km² in planform area) substantially contribute to denuding hillslopes, thereby limiting the growth of topographic relief in active mountain belts produced by tectonic uplift and fluvial or glacial incision. The region around Nanga Parbat, situated in the Himalaya-Karakoram ranges (HKR), has been shown to exhibit one of the largest clusters of large scale slope failure known. However, a thorough analysis of the pattern of landslides in the wider region, let alone an inventory of large slope failure is lacking. We take this as a motivation to create a landslide inventory covering the upper Indus catchment located in the HKR of NW India and N Pakistan. Our data set contains 492 large landslides that we compiled from published studies and mapping from remote sensing imagery. Using an empirical volume-area scaling approach we estimate the total landslide volume at >250 km³. This is more than thousand times the contemporary annual sediment load in the Indus River. We analyse the distribution of these landslides with respect to the regional hypsometry, contemporary glacier cover, and the distribution of rock glaciers. We further introduce excess topography ZE, which quantifies the vertical column of rock material above a hypothetical failure plane, as a first-order metric of potentially unstable rock slopes. We find that large bedrock landslides in the HKR preferentially detach near or from below the study area's median elevation, while glaciers and rock glaciers occupy higher elevations almost exclusively. This picture is supported by the distribution of excess topography ZE that peaks along major fluvial and glacial inner gorges, which is where the majority of large rock-slope failures occur. Our analysis suggests a hitherto unrecognised vertical layering of denudation processes, with landslides chiefly operating below the median elevation, whereas mass transport in higher elevations seems to be dominated by glaciers and rock glaciers, or high-frequency low-magnitude failure (rock-slope failures is protracted and far from exhausted.

  20. Antioxidant potential of selected supplements in vitro and the problem of its extrapolation for in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julija Ogrin Papi?

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: antioxidants, free radicals and oxidative stress have been studied extensively for quite some time but their role in diseases and their prevention has not been clearly determined. Because commercialantioxidants do not need to pass clinical tests in order to be sold over the counter we have decided to test the antioxidant potential of different commercial preparations with the antioxidative properties.Methods: pH, rH and oxidant-reduction potential of different preparations in aqueous solution was measured. Afterwards antioxidant potential using FormPlus® after adding the preparation to human blood as a morecomplex environment with different homeostasis mechanisms was determined.Results: all the results showed expected change compared to the control but the results in aqueous solution did not match the results obtained from the human blood, as was expected.Conclusion: from the experiments it can be concluded that while the preparations did show antioxidant activity, it is very difficult and even wrong to predict the antioxidant potential of an antioxidant preparationadded to human blood, let alone in a living organism, based just on the results obtained in aqueous solution. Further possibilities for research include more extensive studies of antioxidant preparations in more complex environment and last but not least in test organisms or in human trials.

  1. Patterns of paternity skew among polyandrous social insects : what can they tell us about the potential for sexual selection?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaffé, Rodolfo; Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Monogamy results in high genetic relatedness among offspring and thus it is generally assumed to be favored by kin selection. Female multiple mating (polyandry) has nevertheless evolved several times in the social Hymenoptera (ants, bees, and wasps), and a substantial amount of work has been conducted to understand its costs and benefits. Relatedness and inclusive fitness benefits are, however, not only influenced by queen mating frequency but also by paternity skew, which is a quantitative measure of paternity biases among the offspring of polyandrous females. We performed a large-scale phylogenetic analysis of paternity skew across polyandrous social Hymenoptera. We found a general and significant negative association between paternity frequency and paternity skew. High paternity skew, which increases relatedness among colony members and thus maximizes inclusive fitness gains, characterized species with low paternity frequency. However, species with highly polyandrous queens had low paternity skew, with paternity equalized among potential sires. Equal paternity shares among fathers are expected to maximize fitness benefits derived from genetic diversity among offspring. We discuss the potential for postcopulatory sexual selection to influence patterns of paternity in social insects, and suggest that sexual selection may have played a key, yet overlooked role in social evolution.

  2. Genetic diversity of selected genes that are potentially economically important in feral sheep of New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Sedcole J Richard; Forrest Rachel H; Merrick Norma; Fang Qian; Zhou Huitong; Abbott Johanna; McKenzie Grant W; Hickford Jonathan G

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Feral sheep are considered to be a source of genetic variation that has been lost from their domestic counterparts through selection. Methods This study investigates variation in the genes KRTAP1-1, KRT33, ADRB3 and DQA2 in Merino-like feral sheep populations from New Zealand and its offshore islands. These genes have previously been shown to influence wool, lamb survival and animal health. Results All the genes were polymorphic, but no new allele was identified in the fer...

  3. Petrography, geochemistry and regional significance of crystalline klippen in the Garhwal Lesser Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Islam; S K Ghosh; S Vyshnavi; Y P Sundriya

    2011-06-01

    Uphalda gneisses (UG) is a crystalline klippe located near Srinagar in Garhwal Himalaya. These gneisses are compared with Debguru porphyroids (DP) (? Ramgarh group) of Garhwal–Kumaun Himalaya and Baragaon mylonitic gneisses (BMG) of Himachal Himalaya. Petrographic study reveals that the deformation of UG was initiated at higher temperature (above 350°C) and continued till lowering of temperature and deformation led to the mylonitization. Geochemically, these granitic gneisses (UG, DP and BMG) exhibit similar composition. Features such as high molecular A/CNK value (< 1), presence of normative corundum and absence of normative diopside, enhanced Rb/Sr, Rb/Zr ratios, enrichment of Th and containing rounded zircons support their crustally-derived S-type granitic nature. The linear plot in major oxides is interpreted in terms of fractional crystallization processes. Mantle normalized multi-element spider diagram of UG illustrates depletion of Ba, Nb, Sr, P and Ti and enrichment of Th and show similarities with DP and BMG. Similarities were observed in lithology, petrographic characters and chemical composition of UG, DP, BMG and Ulleri augen gneisses (Nepal). Comparison with the rocks of Higher Himalayan crystallines (? Vaikrita), suggests that these rocks (UG) are not transported from Higher Himalaya as understood earlier. This study however proposes that, these gneissic bodies represent an older basement occurring as a tectonic sliver which emplaced within the cover sequence as wedges at different structural levels. This is a regional phenomena observed throughout the Lesser Himalayan region.

  4. Do Himalayan glaciers defy global warming? Case studies from NW Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjoo, R. K.

    2009-12-01

    The Himalaya is influenced by two major climatic systems that are mid-latitude Westerlies and South Asia Indian Monsoon. The east and south slopes of Himalaya are greatly influenced by the monsoon, whereas the north and west ranges, e.g. Karakorum, have a supply of moisture by mid-latitude Westerlies. The greatest concentration of glaciers occurs in Karakorum Mountains and the western Himalaya which have the longest glaciers outside the polar regions. There is important contrast in the seasonal relationship between precipitation and ablation along the Himalaya. Ladakh and Zanskar hold special geographical significance for the study of climate change, if any. Both the areas lie far away from the effect of South West Indian Monsoon (SWIM) that has largely been identified as the moisture carrier for rest of Himalaya. The moisture laden SWIM bring down the precipitation in the form of snow in most of Himalaya that nourishes the glaciers. On the contrary, the Himalaya in Leh and Zanskar region receive a major contribution of snow through Westerlies during the winter season. Hence, the depletion or growth of glaciers of Leh and Zanskar is related to the weakening or strengthening of Westerlies. The field and satellite imageries study of secular movement of terminus of Durung Drung glacier, Kangriz glacier and Siachen glacier does not reveal any significant retreat. The degeneration of snout could be due to several reasons, such as basin geomorphology, location of glacier on active fault, asynchronous behavior of feeders of the glacier, etc. However, the climate analysis of the area does not point any major change that has affected the health of the glacier in last decade or so.Precipitation in Upper Indus Basin (UIB)is concentrated in winter and spring months that provides principal source for accumulation of UIB glaciers. The climatic data for past four decades of UIB suggest that mean and minimum summer temperatures show cooling and large increase in diurnal temperature range.Reduction in the summer temperatures and positive trend in winter precipitation has resulted in reduced ablation and increased accumulation of Karakorum glaciers. The processes has translated in the expansion and thickening of glaciers that is much contrary to the accepted model of global warming and high glacier melting.

  5. Potential biochemical markers for selection of disease resistance in Vigna radiata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek (Green gram), a major pulse crop is prone to damaging diseases caused by Erysiphe polygoni, Cercospora canescens and Rhizoctonia sp. Therefore, the development of multiple resistance is a major breeding objective in green gram. Resistance to powdery mildew has already been developed, however, there are no reports on the development of resistance to Cercospora in green gram. Owing to limitation of conventional screening methods, the improvement for multiple disease resistance is inadequate, in this crop. It needs an efficient and quick selection method, for screening the plant population at an early stage. It is well established that the resistant interaction, in plants, involves accumulation of antibiotic compound phytoalexin (Genestein in Vigna radiata) and induction of enzymes such as ?-1,3 gulcanase and Chitinases. These compounds are not only induced by pathogens but also pathogen-derived elicitors. These biochemical compounds can be used as resistance indicative biochemical markers for screening the natural or mutagen induced genetic diversity in populations of Vigna radiata in non-destructive manner. It, however, needs a systematic study of plant defense response. This paper deals with the response of resistant and susceptible cultivars of vigna radiata to Cercospora elicitor and development of non-destructive selection method for disease resistance. (author)

  6. Genetic diversity of selected genes that are potentially economically important in feral sheep of New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedcole J Richard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feral sheep are considered to be a source of genetic variation that has been lost from their domestic counterparts through selection. Methods This study investigates variation in the genes KRTAP1-1, KRT33, ADRB3 and DQA2 in Merino-like feral sheep populations from New Zealand and its offshore islands. These genes have previously been shown to influence wool, lamb survival and animal health. Results All the genes were polymorphic, but no new allele was identified in the feral populations. In some of these populations, allele frequencies differed from those observed in commercial Merino sheep and other breeds found in New Zealand. Heterozygosity levels were comparable to those observed in other studies on feral sheep. Our results suggest that some of the feral populations may have been either inbred or outbred over the duration of their apparent isolation. Conclusion The variation described here allows us to draw some conclusions about the likely genetic origin of the populations and selective pressures that may have acted upon them, but they do not appear to be a source of new genetic material, at least for these four genes.

  7. Potential of Mean Force Calculations for Ion Selectivity in a Cyclic Peptide Nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion selectivity in a simple cyclic peptide nanotube, composed of four cyclo[-(D-Ala-Glu-D-Ala-Gln)2-] units, is investigated by calculating the PMF profiles of Na+, K+, and Cl. ions permeating through the peptide nanotube in water. The final PMF profiles of the ions obtained from the umbrella sampling (US) method show an excellent agreement with those from the thermodynamic integration (TI) method. The PMF profiles of Na+ and K+ display free energy wells while the PMF curve of Cl- features free energy barriers, indicating the selectivity of the cyclic peptide nanotube to cations. Decomposition of the total mean force into the contribution from each component in the system is also accomplished by using the TI method. The mean force decomposition profiles of Na+ and K+ demonstrate that the dehydration free energy barriers by water molecules near the channel entrance and inside the channel are completely compensated for by attractive electrostatic interactions between the cations and carbonyl oxygens in the nanotube. In the case of Cl-, the dehydration free energy barriers are not eliminated by an interaction between the anion and the peptide nanotube, leading to the high free energy barriers in the PMF profile. Calculations of the coordination numbers of the ions with oxygen atoms pertaining to either water molecules or carbonyl groups in the peptide nanotube reveal that the stabilization of the cations in the midplane regions of the nanotube arises from the favorable interaction of the cations with the negatively charged carbonyl oxygens

  8. FAMACHA(©): A potential tool for targeted selective treatment of chronic fasciolosis in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, Sophie; van Wyk, Jan A; Wall, Richard; Morgan, Eric R

    2015-09-15

    The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica causes considerable damage to the health, welfare and productivity of ruminants in temperate areas, and its control is challenged by anthelmintic resistance. Targeted selective treatment (TST) is an increasingly established strategy for preserving anthelmintic efficacy in grazing livestock, yet no practical indicators are available to target individuals for treatment against fluke infection. This paper evaluates the FAMACHA(©) system, a colour chart for the non-invasive detection of anaemia in small ruminants, for this purpose. FAMACHA(©) scores were collected from 288 sheep prior to slaughter during the winter period, when fluke infections were largely mature, and condemned livers were recovered and adult flukes extracted. Average FAMACHA(©) score was significantly higher (=paler conjunctivae) in animals whose livers were condemned (3.6, n=62) than in those whose livers were not condemned (2.1). The number of adult flukes recovered ranged from 2 to 485, and was positively correlated with FAMACHA(©) score (r(2)=0.54, prefugia on the basis of FEC, depending on group and the threshold used for treatment. FAMACHA(©) holds promise as a tool for selective treatment of sheep against adult F. hepatica, in support of refugia-based control of fluke and nematode infections, and further field evaluation is warranted. PMID:26223154

  9. Active prey selection in two pelagic copepods feeding on potentially toxic and non-toxic dinoflagellates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Mette; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Grazing on two red tide dinoflagellates, the potentially toxic Karenia mikimotoi and the non-toxic Gyrodinium instriatum, was examined in two species of marine copepods, Pseudocalanus elongatus and Temora longicornis. Both copepods cleared K. mikimotoi at rates that were a little lower but comparable to those at which they cleared the slightly larger G. instriatum when the two dinoflagellates were offered separately. However, when feeding on mixtures of the two prey species, the clearance rates ...

  10. Psychopathy-Related Differences in Selective Attention Are Captured by an Early Event-Related Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Baskin–Sommers, Arielle; Curtin, John J.; Li, Wen; Newman, Joseph P.

    2011-01-01

    According to the response modulation model, the poorly regulated behavior of psychopathic individuals reflects a problem reallocating attention to process peripheral information while engaged in goal-directed behavior (Patterson & Newman, 1993). We evaluated this tenet using male prisoners and an early event-related potential component (P140) to index attentional processing. In all task conditions, participants viewed and categorized letter stimuli that could also be used to predict electric ...

  11. Selection of potential probiotic Enterococcus faecium isolated from Portuguese fermented food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Joana; Borges, Sandra; Teixeira, Paula

    2014-11-17

    Four Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from fermented products were evaluated for potential use as probiotic strains. In addition to efaAfm gene, commonly found in E. faecium food isolates, none of the isolates possessed virulence genes and none had positive reactions for the production of tyramine, histamine, putrescine and cadaverine in the screening medium used. All of these four isolates proved to be resistant to 65 °C. E. faecium 119 did not show antimicrobial activity against any of the target bacteria investigated. E. faecium 85 and 101 inhibited Listeria innocua and E. faecium DSMZ 13590. The strain E. faecium 120 inhibited seven target bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes 7946, L. monocytogenes 7947, L. innocua 2030c, L. innocua NCTC 11286, E. faecium DSMZ 13590, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213) and was chosen as the representative to assess the ability to survive gastrointestinal tract passage simulation, as well as the protective role of two food matrices (skim milk and Alheira) during its passage. For both matrices used, no significant differences (pdetection limit of the enumeration technique by the end of the two digestions, in contrast to the Alheira matrix, for which isolate 120 showed a reduction of only ca. 1 log CFU/ml. The E. faecium strain 120 was shown to be a potential candidate for further investigations as a potential probiotic culture. PMID:25268323

  12. The method of assessment of solar potential for selected area with use Geographical Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netzel P.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method for analyse the spatial distribution of solar energy potential based on calculated solar irradiation with use of GIS (Geographical Information System. Program GIS GRASS gives opportunity to create spatial distribution of solar radiation which is taking into account such important elements like: terrain, atmosphere, pollutants, water and aerosol in atmosphere, clouds. The use of GIS GRASS module – named r.sun gives opportunity to generate spatial distribution of solar radiation on Lower Silesia (south – west part of Poland. In this work the analyse of solar potential to obtain hot water in the individual household were done. This analyse was based on the amount of total solar radiation monthly sums generated by r.sun module. Spatial distribution of solar potential was used to classify the Lower Silesia region in terms of work efficiency solar installations. It is very usefully because it gives people information about the date of the return of the funds invested in the purchase of the solar collectors.

  13. Quantitative genetics of sugarcane : III. Potential for sucrose selection in Saccharum spontaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A H; Daniels, J; Latter, B D; Krishnamurthi, M

    1969-01-01

    1. A project has been initiated to explore the possibilities of selection for higher levels of sucrose storage in the wild species S. spontaneum, using a representative sample of parental clones under conditions of natural crossing. 2. The aim of the programme is the development of superior clones to represent the wild species in conventional breeding programmes, which involve repeated backcrossing to S. officinarum. 3. An analysis of the first generation following the intercrossing of 21 parental types without emasculation, has demonstrated extensive genetic variability within and between progeny groups for fibre, sucrose, reducing sugars and yield grade. 4. Fibre and sucrose percent fresh weight are characters of high repeatability (0.4-0.6), and show little evidence of non-additive genetic effects. Individual plant performance for these characters can therefore be taken as a satisfactory basis for selection in this material. 5. The average degree of self-fertilization occurring under conditions of natural crossing has been estimated to be 0.69±.13, based on analyses of the quantitative genetic data for fibre and sucrose percent fresh weight. 6. The within-family genetic variance observed is of the order of five times that expected if the parental clones were homozygous. Much of the genetic variability induced within-families is therefore due to self-fertilization of heterozygous parental material, though the exact proportion cannot be deduced from the present data. 7. The initial response to selection for increased sucrose percent fresh weight is predicted to be of the order of 50% of the population mean. Comparable responses in subsequent cycles of the programme appear to be possible, provided an adequate degree of outcrossing can be achieved by controlled pollination techniques. 8. The genetic correlations between sucrose and other characters of importance are favourable to the objectives of the breeder, or else of a low order. There is no general relationship between the somatic chromosome number of the parental clones and the mean sucrose level of their progeny. PMID:24435287

  14. Mountain range specific analog weather forecast model for northwest Himalaya in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Singh; A Ganju

    2008-10-01

    Mountain range speci?c analog weather forecast model is developed utilizing surface weather observations of reference stations in each mountain range in northwest Himalaya (NW-Himalaya).The model searches past similar cases from historical dataset of reference observatory in each mountain range based on current situation.The searched past similar cases of each mountain range are used to draw weather forecast for that mountain range in operational weather forecasting mode, three days in advance.The developed analog weather forecast model is tested with the independent dataset of more than 717 days (542 days for Pir Panjal range in HP)of the past 4 winters (2003 –2004 to 2006 –2007).Independent test results are reasonably good and suggest that there is some possibility of forecasting weather in operational weather forecasting mode employing analog method over different mountain ranges in NW-Himalaya.Signi?cant difference in overall accuracy of the model is found for prediction of snow day and no-snow day over different mountain ranges, when weather is predicted under snow day and no-snow day weather forecast categories respectively.In the same mountain range,signi ?cant difference is also found in overall accuracy of the model for prediction of snow day and no-snow day for different areas.This can be attributed to their geographical position and topographical differences.The analog weather forecast model performs better than persistence and climatological forecast for day-1 predictions for all the mountain ranges except Karakoram range in NW-Himalaya.The developed analog weather forecast model may help as a guidance tool for forecasting weather in operational weather forecasting mode in different mountain ranges in NW-Himalaya.

  15. Phylogeography of microbial phototrophs in the dry valleys of the high Himalayas and Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, S K; Lynch, R C; King, A J; Karki, D; Robeson, M S; Nagy, L; Williams, M W; Mitter, M S; Freeman, K R

    2011-03-01

    High-elevation valleys in dry areas of the Himalayas are among the most extreme, yet least explored environments on Earth. These barren, rocky valleys are subjected to year-round temperature fluctuations across the freezing point and very low availability of water and nutrients, causing previous workers to hypothesize that no photoautotrophic life (primary producers) exists in these locations. However, there has been no work using modern biogeochemical or culture-independent molecular methods to test the hypothesis that photoautotrophs are absent from high Himalayan soil systems. Here, we show that although microbial biomass levels are as low as those of the Dry Valleys of Antarctica, there are abundant microbial photoautotrophs, displaying unexpected phylogenetic diversity, in barren soils from just below the permanent ice line of the central Himalayas. Furthermore, we discovered that one of the dominant algal clades from the high Himalayas also contains the dominant algae in culture-independent surveys of both soil and ice samples from the Dry Valleys of Antarctica, revealing an unexpected link between these environmentally similar but geographically very distant systems. Phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses demonstrated that although this algal clade is globally distributed to other high-altitude and high-latitude soils, it shows significant genetic isolation by geographical distance patterns, indicating local adaptation and perhaps speciation in each region. Our results are the first to demonstrate the remarkable similarities of microbial life of arid soils of Antarctica and the high Himalayas. Our findings are a starting point for future comparative studies of the dry valleys of the Himalayas and Antarctica that will yield new insights into the cold and dry limits to life on Earth. PMID:20826485

  16. Simple, Single Step Potential Measurement for the Determination of the Ultimate Detection Limit of Ion Selective Electrodes.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bereczki, R.; Takács, B.; Gyurcsányi, R. E.; Tóth, K.; Nagy, G.; Langmaier, Jan; Lindner, E.

    2006-01-01

    Ro?. 18, 13-14 (2006), s. 1245-1253. ISSN 1040-0397 Grant ostatní: National Science Foundation Grants(XE) 0202207; National Science Foundation Grants(XE) 0335228; Hungarian Scientific Foundation(HU) F037977; Hungarian Scientific Foundation(HU) M041969; Hungarian Scientific Foundation(HU) T46403; Hungarian Scientific Foundation(HU) OM/PAL-112/2003; Hungarian Scientific Foundation(HU) OTKA-NSF 46146 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : carrier based ion-selective electrodes * potential difference measurement * response range * detection limit Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.444, year: 2006

  17. A fuzzy AHP based approach for selecting potential recovery facilities in a closed-loop supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nukala, Satish; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, we employ fuzzy AHP methodology for selecting potential recovery facilities in a closed-loop supply chain. This methodology utilizes triangular fuzzy numbers for pair-wise comparisons and the extent analysis method for the synthetic extent value of the fuzzy pair-wise comparisons and principle of comparison of fuzzy numbers to derive the weight vectors to address the criticism traditional AHP often faces due to its unbalanced scale of judgments and inability to handle inherent uncertainty in carrying out pair-wise comparisons. A numerical example is considered to illustrate the methodology.

  18. Selection and Improvement of Lignin-Degrading Microorganisms: Potential Strategy Based on Lignin Model-Amino Acid Adducts

    OpenAIRE

    Tien, Ming; Kersten, Philip J.; Kirk, T. Kent

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to test a potential strategy for the ligninase-dependent selection of lignin-degrading microorganisms. The strategy involves covalently bonding amino acids to lignin model compounds in such a way that ligninase-catalyzed cleavage of the models releases the amino acids for growth nitrogen. Here we describe the synthesis of glycine-N-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethane-2-ol (I) and demonstrate that growth (as measured by mycelial nitrogen content) of the known li...

  19. Unbiased descriptor and parameter selection confirms the potential of proteochemometric modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wikberg Jarl ES

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteochemometrics is a new methodology that allows prediction of protein function directly from real interaction measurement data without the need of 3D structure information. Several reported proteochemometric models of ligand-receptor interactions have already yielded significant insights into various forms of bio-molecular interactions. The proteochemometric models are multivariate regression models that predict binding affinity for a particular combination of features of the ligand and protein. Although proteochemometric models have already offered interesting results in various studies, no detailed statistical evaluation of their average predictive power has been performed. In particular, variable subset selection performed to date has always relied on using all available examples, a situation also encountered in microarray gene expression data analysis. Results A methodology for an unbiased evaluation of the predictive power of proteochemometric models was implemented and results from applying it to two of the largest proteochemometric data sets yet reported are presented. A double cross-validation loop procedure is used to estimate the expected performance of a given design method. The unbiased performance estimates (P2 obtained for the data sets that we consider confirm that properly designed single proteochemometric models have useful predictive power, but that a standard design based on cross validation may yield models with quite limited performance. The results also show that different commercial software packages employed for the design of proteochemometric models may yield very different and therefore misleading performance estimates. In addition, the differences in the models obtained in the double CV loop indicate that detailed chemical interpretation of a single proteochemometric model is uncertain when data sets are small. Conclusion The double CV loop employed offer unbiased performance estimates about a given proteochemometric modelling procedure, making it possible to identify cases where the proteochemometric design does not result in useful predictive models. Chemical interpretations of single proteochemometric models are uncertain and should instead be based on all the models selected in the double CV loop employed here.

  20. Visual encoding and fixation target selection in free viewing: presaccadic brain potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey R Nikolaev

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In scrutinizing a scene, the eyes alternate between fixations and saccades. During a fixation, two component processes can be distinguished: visual encoding and selection of the next fixation target. We aimed to distinguish the neural correlates of these processes in the electrical brain activity prior to a saccade onset. Participants viewed color photographs of natural scenes, in preparation for a change detection task. Then, for each participant and each scene we computed an image heat map, with temperature representing the duration and density of fixations. The temperature difference between the start and end points of saccades was taken as a measure of the expected task-relevance of the information concentrated in specific regions of a scene. Visual encoding was evaluated according to whether subsequent change was correctly detected. Saccades with larger temperature difference were more likely to be followed by correct detection than ones with smaller temperature differences. The amplitude of presaccadic activity over anterior brain areas was larger for correct detection than for detection failure. This difference was observed for short “scrutinizing” but not for long “explorative” saccades, suggesting that presaccadic activity reflects top-down saccade guidance. Thus, successful encoding requires local scanning of scene regions which are expected to be task-relevant. Next, we evaluated fixation target selection. Saccades “moving up” in temperature were preceded by presaccadic activity of higher amplitude than those “moving down”. This finding suggests that presaccadic activity reflects attention deployed to the following fixation location. Our findings illustrate how presaccadic activity can elucidate concurrent brain processes related to the immediate goal of planning the next saccade and the larger-scale goal of constructing a robust representation of the visual scene.

  1. Visual encoding and fixation target selection in free viewing: presaccadic brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, Andrey R; Jurica, Peter; Nakatani, Chie; Plomp, Gijs; van Leeuwen, Cees

    2013-01-01

    In scrutinizing a scene, the eyes alternate between fixations and saccades. During a fixation, two component processes can be distinguished: visual encoding and selection of the next fixation target. We aimed to distinguish the neural correlates of these processes in the electrical brain activity prior to a saccade onset. Participants viewed color photographs of natural scenes, in preparation for a change detection task. Then, for each participant and each scene we computed an image heat map, with temperature representing the duration and density of fixations. The temperature difference between the start and end points of saccades was taken as a measure of the expected task-relevance of the information concentrated in specific regions of a scene. Visual encoding was evaluated according to whether subsequent change was correctly detected. Saccades with larger temperature difference were more likely to be followed by correct detection than ones with smaller temperature differences. The amplitude of presaccadic activity over anterior brain areas was larger for correct detection than for detection failure. This difference was observed for short "scrutinizing" but not for long "explorative" saccades, suggesting that presaccadic activity reflects top-down saccade guidance. Thus, successful encoding requires local scanning of scene regions which are expected to be task-relevant. Next, we evaluated fixation target selection. Saccades "moving up" in temperature were preceded by presaccadic activity of higher amplitude than those "moving down". This finding suggests that presaccadic activity reflects attention deployed to the following fixation location. Our findings illustrate how presaccadic activity can elucidate concurrent brain processes related to the immediate goal of planning the next saccade and the larger-scale goal of constructing a robust representation of the visual scene. PMID:23818877

  2. Effect of midazolam on the auditory event-related potential: measures of selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinsel, R A; Veselis, R A; Heino, R; Miodownik, S; Alagesan, R; Bedford, R F

    1991-11-01

    To elucidate the delayed effects of midazolam, we assessed electrophysiologic and motor responses by measuring auditory event-related potentials and a button-press reaction time response in 10 normal volunteers (aged 25-36 yr). Fifty minutes after intravenous infusion of 0.07 mg/kg of midazolam, subjects were mildly sedated, oriented, and readily responsive to verbal commands. To obtain ERPs, frequent tones (85%: 1000 Hz) and rare tones (15%: 2500 Hz) were presented at intervals of 1.5 s. Electroencephalographic signals were collected from FZ, CZ, and PZ for 1000 ms after stimulus presentation until 40 artifact-free rare-tone responses were obtained (average time, 6 min). Peak-to-peak amplitudes and latencies for N2, P3, and the subsequent negative slow wave (N3) were averaged within condition and were analyzed by repeated measures analysis of variance. After midazolam infusion, there was a 50% decrease in amplitude of P3 in response to target tones (P less than 0.006), whereas N3 latency increased by 40 ms (P less than 0.05). Event-related potential amplitudes were still significantly larger to rare (target) stimuli (P less than 0.003) after midazolam infusion. Although reaction time increased by 70 ms (P = 0.031), performance accuracy remained unchanged. Self-ratings of sleepiness and concentration show that a significant sedation effect was still present 50 min after infusion. Although routine clinical examination may be normal, full recovery from the effects of a typical intravenous dose of midazolam requires more than 50 min. The potential for adverse drug interaction, particularly with narcotics, is still present at this time. PMID:1952143

  3. Antimalarial Activity of Potential Inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum Lactate Dehydrogenase Enzyme Selected by Docking Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Penna-Coutinho, Julia; Cortopassi, Wilian Augusto; Oliveira, Aline Alves; França, Tanos Celmar Costa; Krettli, Antoniana Ursine

    2011-01-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase enzyme (PfLDH) has been considered as a potential molecular target for antimalarials due to this parasite's dependence on glycolysis for energy production. Because the LDH enzymes found in P. vivax, P. malariae and P. ovale (pLDH) all exhibit ?90% identity to PfLDH, it would be desirable to have new anti-pLDH drugs, particularly ones that are effective against P. falciparum, the most virulent species of human malaria. Our present work used docki...

  4. Potentials of selected metal alloys in sea water at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixteen metal alloys were studied in aerated sea water at temperatures up to 2000C, and five of these were further studied in deaerated sea water in the same temperature range. Galvanic series are reported for temperatures of 30, 100, 160, and 2000C in an autoclave, and for a trough at ambient conditions. The general effect of increased temperature in both aerated and deaerated sea water was to increase the electronegativity of most metals, and to reduce the spread between the median potential values. At 2000C, the metals merged into two groupings: aluminum and zinc being the most active, other metals were appreciably less negative. In contrast to other metals, zinc and carbon steel showed a tendency toward nobility at higher temperatures. Very small differences were found between the galvanic potentials of most metals in deaerated sea water as compared with these metals in aerated sea water. Titanium appeared to be the exception, being more active in deaerated sea water above 1200C

  5. SOIL CARBON DYNAMICS AND GLOBAL WARMING POTENTIAL OF SELECTED SOIL SERIES AND LANDUSE CATEGORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feba Merin Chacko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Land use conversion is usually accompanied by a decline in soil organic carbon. This work is aimed to determine the soil organic carbon affected by the multiple land use in a particular soil series. The study was conducted in Ustic Haplohumults soil series of Kottayam district of Kerala including land uses like Cropland, Wetland, Agricultural land, Homestead and Mixed vegetation land. Change in land use induced significant losses of soil and particulate organic carbon. The maximum SOC content (7.39% was observed in abandoned paddy field which is nearly 89% more than the lowest values of 0.76% recorded from the Homestead soil. Soil carbon sequestration potential of different land uses varies on spatial and temporal basis along with the interplay of environmental externalities. Potential for CO2 production and global warming of various soils was in accordance with C mineralization and this explains the role and capacity of various land use under consideration to store and release carbon. In the present study it was found that the soils of coconut plantation serve as a better system in terms of maximum SOC storage and minimum carbon emission. The present study reveals the significance and importance of specific land use category which is optimal for particular soil series towards soil carbon storage.

  6. Potential and limitations of multidecadal satellite soil moisture observations for selected climate model evaluation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Loew

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture is an essential climate variable (ECV of major importance for land–atmosphere interactions and global hydrology. An appropriate representation of soil moisture dynamics in global climate models is therefore important. Recently, a first multidecadal, observation-based soil moisture dataset has become available that provides information on soil moisture dynamics from satellite observations (ECVSM, essential climate variable soil moisture. The present study investigates the potential and limitations of this new dataset for several applications in climate model evaluation. We compare soil moisture data from satellite observations, reanalysis and simulations from a state-of-the-art land surface model and analyze relationships between soil moisture and precipitation anomalies in the different dataset. Other potential applications like model parameter optimization or model initialization are not investigated in the present study. In a detailed regional study, we show that ECVSM is capable to capture well the interannual and intraannual soil moisture and precipitation dynamics in the Sahelian region. Current deficits of the new dataset are critically discussed and summarized at the end of the paper to provide guidance for an appropriate usage of the ECVSM dataset for climate studies.

  7. Energy performance contracting - energy saving potential of selected energy conservation measures (ECM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, M. (Dansk Energi Analyse A/S, Frederiksberg (Denmark)); Langkilde, G.; Olesen, Bjarne W. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, ICIEE, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Moerck, O. (Cenergia Energy Consultants, Herlev (Denmark)); Sundman, O. (DONG Energy, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Engelund Thomsen, K. (Aalborg Univ., SBi, Hoersholm (Denmark))

    2008-09-15

    This report has been developed under the research project 'Etablering af grundlag for energitjenester i Danmark' (project number: ENS-33031-0185) under the Danish research programme - EFP. The objective of this project has been to contribute to the utilisation of the large potential for energy conservations in the building sector within the public, industry and service sectors through the development of a better basis for decision making for both the Energy Service Companies (ESCOes) and the building owners. The EU directive on Energy Service Contracting points at the buildings as the area where the biggest potential market for energy services and energy efficiency improvements are. The EFP-project has two parts: (1) A Danish part and (2) participation in the international cooperation project 'Holistic Assesment Tool-Kit on Energy Efficient Retrofit Measures for Government Buildings (EnERGo)', Annex 46 under the IEA R and D program 'Energy Conservation In Buildings And Community Systems' (ECBCS). This report describes the Danish contributions to the IEA projects subtask B, which has a primary objective to develop a database of energy conservation measures (ECM) with descriptions and performance characteristics of these. (au)

  8. Characterization of silver nanoparticles in selected consumer products and its relevance for predicting children’s potential exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulve, Nicolle S.; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B.; Vance, Marina E.; Rogers, Kim; Mwilu, Samuel; LeBouf, Ryan F.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Willis, Robert; Thomas, Treye A.; Marr, Linsey C.

    2015-01-01

    Due to their antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, and antimicrobial properties, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are used in consumer products intended for use by children or in the home. Children may be especially affected by the normal use of consumer products because of their physiological functions, developmental stage, and activities and behaviors. Despite much research to date, children’s potential exposures to AgNPs are not well characterized. Our objectives were to characterize selected consumer products containing AgNPs and to use the data to estimate a child’s potential non-dietary ingestion exposure. We identified and cataloged 165 consumer products claiming to contain AgNPs that may be used by or near children or found in the home. Nineteen products (textile, liquid, plastic) were selected for further analysis. We developed a tiered analytical approach to determine silver content, form (particulate or ionic), size, morphology, agglomeration state, and composition. Silver was detected in all products except one sippy cup body. Among products in a given category, silver mass contributions were highly variable and not always uniformly distributed within products, highlighting the need to sample multiple areas of a product. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of AgNPs. Using this data, a child’s potential non-dietary ingestion exposure to AgNPs when drinking milk formula from a sippy cup is 1.53 ?g Ag/kg. Additional research is needed to understand the number and types of consumer products containing silver and the concentrations of silver in these products in order to more accurately predict children’s potential aggregate and cumulative exposures to AgNPs. PMID:25747543

  9. The Paro Formation Provenance and its Tectonometamorphic History, Bhutan Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobgay, T.; McQuarrie, N.; Hollister, L.; Long, S.; Gehrels, G.

    2008-12-01

    In western Bhutan, a unique package of rocks that comprises garnetiferous mica schist, quartzites, marbles, calc-silicates, and slivers of ortho-gneiss locally known as Paro Formation has posed an intriguing question on its lithostratigraphic correlation. The lithostratigraphic correlation of Paro Formation either to Greater Himalaya Sequence, Lesser Himalayan Sequence, or Tethyan sediments is important to define its contact with the surrounding rocks. Recent mapping in conjunction with U-Pb ages of detrital zircons, whole rock Nd isotopes, and petrologic study re-defines its stratigraphy and allows for provenance interpretation, lithostratigraphic correlation, and metamorphic history. U-Pb ages of detrital zircons show a strong peak at ~1.8 Ga while whole rock ?Nd isotopes are less negative and range from -9 to -12.5. The presence of much older (>1.6 Ga) detrital zircons in PF strongly suggests that the PF is LHS. However, an average ?Nd value of -10.8 requires the PF to contain young detritus. A 440 Ma crystallization age of ortho-gneiss within the PF requires PF to be older than Silurian. The mineral assemblages show that PF has attained upper green-schist to amphibolite facies metamorphism. The occurrence of sillimanite as kyanite pseudomorph suggests that rocks of PF have undergone metamorphism at temperature/pressure conditions in the sillimanite field but below the second sillimanite isograd. The metamorphic grade and thickness of the PF is significantly greater than what is documented immediately below the Main Central Thrust (MCT) in eastern Bhutan (~500 m of upper green-schist facies rocks). Metamorphism in the PF is as high as that identified in portions of the MCT Zone in Nepal and India but is significantly thicker. The combined provenance and metamorphic data may suggest that PF has a LH provenance and has been subjected to pressures and temperatures typical of GH rocks. Also, a preliminary balanced cross-section and the sequential restoration puts Paro Formation in between the lower LHS and the GHS but at the same stratigraphic level. This balanced cross-section estimates minimum shortening at ca. 497 km. This is similar to shortening in eastern Bhutan (ca. 420 km).

  10. Treeline dynamics with climate change at Central Nepal Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Gaire

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change has multidimensional impacts with several biological fingerprints, and treeline shifting in tandem with climate change is a widely observed phenomenon in various parts of the world. In Nepal several impacts of climate change on physical environments have been observed. However, studies on the biological impacts are lacking. This dendrochronological study was carried out at the treeline ecotone (3750–4003 m a.s.l. in the Kalchuman Lake (Kal Tal area of the Manaslu Conservation Area in central Nepal Himalaya with the aim to study the dynamic impact of climate change at the treeline. The study provides an insight into regeneration and treeline dynamics over the past 200 yr. Two belt transect plots (size: 20 m wide, >250 m long were laid covering forest line, treeline as well as tree species Abies spectabilis and Betula utilis was done and their tree-cores were collected. Stand character and age distribution revealed an occurrence of more matured B. utilis (max. age 198 yr old compared to A. spectabilis (max. age 160 yr. A. spectabilis contained an overwhelmingly high population (89% of younger plants (A. spectabilis at the rate of 2.61 m yr?1 since 1850 AD. The upper distribution limit of B. utilis was found stagnant in the past few decades. An increment in plant density as well as upward shifting in the studied treeline ecotones was observed. Thus, two species presented species-specific responses to climate change and much wider differences anticipated in their population status as climate continues to cha spectabilis correlated negatively with the mean monthly temperature of May–August of the current year and with September of the previous year. The regeneration of A. spectabilis, on the other hand, was positively related with May–August precipitation and January–April temperature of the current year. The reconstructed average summer temperature (May–August using tree ring data revealed alternate period of cool and warm period with warming in the 2nd half of the 20th century. Further palynological and geochronological studies of sediments of the Kalchuman Lake would advance our understanding of past climatic trends and dynamics of the associated treeline and vegetation in the area.

  11. [Selection and purification potential evaluation of woody plant in vertical flow constructed wetlands in the subtropical area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong-Hua; Wu, Xiao-Fu; Hao, Jun; Chen, Ming-Li; Zhu, Guang-Yu

    2014-02-01

    In order to solve the problem that wetland herbaceous plants tend to die during winter in subtropics areas, selection and purification potential evaluation experiments were carried out by introducing into the constructed wetlands 16 species of woody wetland plants. Cluster analysis was performed by including the morphological characteristics, physiological characteristics, as well as nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation of the woody wetland plants. The results indicated that there were significant differences among the tested woody plants in their survival rate, height increase, root length increase and vigor, Chlorophyll content, Superoxide dismutase, Malonaldehyde, Proline, Peroxidase, biomass, average concentration and accumulation of nitrogen and phosphorus. Based on the established evaluation system, the tested plants were clustered into 3 groups. The plants in the 1st group possessing high purification potentials are Nerium oleander and Hibiscus syriacus. Those in the 2nd group possessing moderate purification potentials are Trachycarpus fortune, Llex latifolia Thunb., Gardenia jasminoides, Serissa foetida and Ilex crenatacv Convexa. And those in the 3rd group with low purification potentials are Jasminum udiflorum, Hedera helix, Ligustrum vicaryi, Ligustrum lucidum, Buxus sempervives, Murraya paniculata, Osmanthus fragrans, Mahoniafortune and Photinia serrulata. PMID:24812951

  12. A method for selecting potential geosites. The case of glacial geosites in the Chablais area (French and Swiss Prealps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perret, Amandine; Reynard, Emmanuel

    2014-05-01

    Since 2009, an Interreg IVA project (123 Chablais), dealing with the promotion of natural and cultural heritage in the Chablais area, has been developed. It is linked to the creation of the Chablais Geopark. In a context of development of smart forms of tourism, the objective was to develop a strategy promoting the glacial heritage to a wide public in an area where the glaciers have almost disappeared. The recognition of specific places as geoheritage is the result of a double process: a scientific one, based on more or less sophisticated methods, and a social one, that is the acknowledgment by the society. One of the first scientific tasks is to produce a list of "potential geosites" that will be assessed in more details. However, this selection is often a weak point of inventories. It often seems like a "black box" without any transparency. In this project (123 Chablais) we carried out an inventory of glacial geosites, using the method developed by Reynard et al. (2007, 2012). However, a method has been created to enlighten the selection process, and to enhance choices in geoheritage management. As it was not possible to consider all sites in the Chablais area, a mixed selection approach was developed, halfway between completeness and specificity (Martin, 2012). The first step was the creation of a list of "points of interest", established using different sources: literature review, fieldwork and use of GIS to cross information. A selection was then performed according to two criteria: correspondence with a glacial stage (time axis) and belonging to a type of forms (spatial axis). Finally, selected sites aimed at providing a representative overview of the regional glacial witnesses. Therefore, representative sites of the regional geology were selected as well as sites presenting regional peculiarities Temporal and spatial attributes were given to the 101 points of interest identified. From a temporal point of view, this inventory aimed at presenting the main stages of the glacial retreat since the Last Glacial Maximum. From a spatial point of view, the objective was to show the different types of glacial remnants, but also some landforms related to deglaciation processes. Finally, 32 glacial and associated geosites were selected. Each geosite was submitted to a full evaluation process, including basis information, description, explanation of morphogenesis and an evaluation of values assigned to geosites. This assessment, first qualitative, provided valuable information concerning their intrinsic interest and their management. A numerical evaluation was also assessed to classify geosites and define an order of priority for their touristic promotion. It is worth to be noted that each selected points of interest can in fact be qualified as a geosite, using a clear method of selection. In this study, the numerical evaluation is not a mean to select geosites but a way to rank one geosite to another. Some geosites can be abandoned if intrinsic values are too low. Despite a well-defined protocol, the subjectivity and authors' choices are part of the selection process and inventory. This fact is certainly not a weakness. It must be considered whenever such inventory is made. Reference Martin, S. (2012). Valoriser le géopatrimoine par la médiation indirecte et la visualisation des objets géomorphologiques (Thèse de doctorat). Université de Lausanne, Lausanne. Reynard E., Fontana G., Kozlik L., Scapozza C. (2007). A method for assessing the scientific and additional values of geomorphosites, Geographica Helvetica, 62(3), 148-158. Reynard, E., Perret, A., Grangier, L., & Kozlik, L. (2012). Methodological approach for the assessment, protection, promotion and management of geoheritage. EGU General Assembly, Vienna.

  13. Potential of Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators as Treatments and Preventives of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jing; Sengupta, Surojeet; Jordan, V Craig

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen plays vital roles in human health and diseases. Estrogen mediates its actions almost entirely by binding to estrogen receptors (ER), alpha and beta which further function as transcription factors. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are synthetic molecules which bind to ER and can modulate its transcriptional capabilities in different ways in diverse estrogen target tissues. Tamoxifen, the prototypical SERM, is extensively used for targeted therapy of ER positive breast cancers and is also approved as the first chemo-preventive agent for lowering breast cancer incidence in high risk women. The therapeutic and preventive efficacy of tamoxifen was initially proven by series of experiments in the laboratory which laid the foundation of its clinical use. Unfortunately, use of tamoxifen is associated with de-novo and acquired resistance and some undesirable side effects. The molecular study of the resistance provides an opportunity to precisely understand the mechanism of SERM action which may further help in designing new and improved SERMs. Recent clinical studies reveal that another SERM, raloxifene, which is primarily used to treat post-menopausal osteoporosis, is as efficient as tamoxifen in preventing breast cancers with fewer side effects. Overall, these findings open a new horizon for SERMs as a class of drug which not only can be used for therapeutic and preventive purposes of breast cancers but also for various other diseases and disorders. Major efforts are therefore directed to make new SERMs with a better therapeutic profile and fewer side effects. PMID:19519291

  14. Investigation of therapeutic potentials of some selected medicinal plants using neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abubakar, Sani; Isa, Nasiru Fage [Bayero University, Kano Nigeria (Nigeria); Usman, Ahmed Rufa’i [University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Umaru Musa Yar’adua University, Katsina Nigeria (Nigeria); Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin [University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Abubakar, Nuraddeen [Center for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria Nigeria (Nigeria)

    2015-04-24

    Series of attempts were made to investigate concentrations of trace elements and their therapeutic properties in various medicinal plants. In this study, samples of some commonly used plants were collected from Bauchi State, Nigeria. They includes leaves of azadirachta indica (neem), Moringa Oleifera (moringa), jatropha curcas (purgin Nut), guiera senegalensis (custard apple) and anogeissus leiocarpus (African birch). These samples were analyzed for their trace elements contents with both short and long irradiation protocols of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) at Nigerian Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1) of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. The level of trace elements found varies from one sample to another, with some reported at hundreds of mg/Kg dry weight. The results have been compared with the available literature data. The presence of these trace elements indicates promising potentials of these plants for relief of certain ailments.

  15. Investigation of therapeutic potentials of some selected medicinal plants using neutron activation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, Sani; Usman, Ahmed Rufa'i.; Isa, Nasiru Fage; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Abubakar, Nuraddeen

    2015-04-01

    Series of attempts were made to investigate concentrations of trace elements and their therapeutic properties in various medicinal plants. In this study, samples of some commonly used plants were collected from Bauchi State, Nigeria. They includes leaves of azadirachta indica (neem), Moringa Oleifera (moringa), jatropha curcas (purgin Nut), guiera senegalensis (custard apple) and anogeissus leiocarpus (African birch). These samples were analyzed for their trace elements contents with both short and long irradiation protocols of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) at Nigerian Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1) of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. The level of trace elements found varies from one sample to another, with some reported at hundreds of mg/Kg dry weight. The results have been compared with the available literature data. The presence of these trace elements indicates promising potentials of these plants for relief of certain ailments.

  16. Investigation of therapeutic potentials of some selected medicinal plants using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Series of attempts were made to investigate concentrations of trace elements and their therapeutic properties in various medicinal plants. In this study, samples of some commonly used plants were collected from Bauchi State, Nigeria. They includes leaves of azadirachta indica (neem), Moringa Oleifera (moringa), jatropha curcas (purgin Nut), guiera senegalensis (custard apple) and anogeissus leiocarpus (African birch). These samples were analyzed for their trace elements contents with both short and long irradiation protocols of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) at Nigerian Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1) of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. The level of trace elements found varies from one sample to another, with some reported at hundreds of mg/Kg dry weight. The results have been compared with the available literature data. The presence of these trace elements indicates promising potentials of these plants for relief of certain ailments

  17. Latency change estimation for evoked potentials via frequency selective adaptive phase spectrum analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, X; Qiu, T

    1999-08-01

    This paper addresses the problem of detecting and estimating latency changes in evoked potentials (EP's). EP's have been widely used to quantify neurological system properties. Transient and time-varying changes in latency may indicate impending neurological injury. Traditional time averaging and correlation methods for EP latency estimation are inefficient under low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and/or strong periodic interference conditions. This paper proposes an adaptive phase spectral time delay estimation method to detect and estimate the time-varying latency changes when both the SNR and the signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) are low. A theoretical analysis and computer simulation demonstrate that the proposed method can track the time-varying latency changes effectively and accurately when both the SNR and the SIR are as low as -5 dB. The method is also suitable for real time detection and estimation of the latency changes. PMID:10431466

  18. Potential Response to Selection of HSP70 as a Component of Innate Immunity in the Abalone Haliotis rufescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokordt, Katherina B.; González, Roxana C.; Farías, William J.; Winkler, Federico M.

    2015-01-01

    Assessing components of the immune system may reflect disease resistance. In some invertebrates, heat shock proteins (HSPs) are immune effectors and have been described as potent activators of the innate immune response. Several diseases have become a threat to abalone farming worldwide; therefore, increasing disease resistance is considered to be a long-term goal for breeding programs. A trait will respond to selection only if it is determined partially by additive genetic variation. The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability (h2) and the additive genetic coefficient of variation (CVA) of HSP70 as a component of innate immunity of the abalone Haliotis rufescens, in order to assess its potential response to selection. These genetic components were estimated for the variations in the intracellular (in haemocytes) and extracellular (serum) protein levels of HSP70 in response to an immunostimulant agent in 60 full-sib families of H. rufescens. Levels of HSP70 were measured twice in the same individuals, first when they were young and again when they were pre-harvest adults, to estimate the repeatability (R), the h2 and the potential response to selection of these traits at these life stages. High HSP70 levels were observed in abalones subjected to immunostimulation in both the intracellular and extracellular haemolymph fractions. This is the first time that changes in serum levels of HSP70 have been reported in response to an immune challenge in molluscs. HSP70 levels in both fractions and at both ages showed low h2 and R, with values that were not significantly different from zero. However, HSP70 induced levels had a CVA of 13.3–16.2% in young adults and of 2.7–8.1% in pre-harvest adults. Thus, despite its low h2, HSP70 synthesis in response to an immune challenge in red abalone has the potential to evolve through selection because of its large phenotypic variation and the presence of additive genetic variance, especially in young animals. PMID:26529324

  19. Comparing the genetic architecture and potential response to selection of invasive and native populations of reed canary grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calsbeek, Brittny; Lavergne, Sebastien; Patel, Manisha; Molofsky, Jane

    2011-11-01

    Evolutionary processes such as migration, genetic drift, and natural selection are thought to play a prominent role in species invasions into novel environments. However, few empirical studies have explored the mechanistic basis of invasion in an evolutionary framework. One promising tool for inferring evolutionarily important changes in introduced populations is the genetic variance-covariance matrix (G matrix). G matrix comparisons allow for the inference of changes in the genetic architecture of introduced populations relative to their native counterparts that may facilitate invasion. Here, we compare the G matrices of reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) populations across native and invasive ranges, and between populations along a latitudinal gradient within each range. We find that the major differences in genetic architecture occur between populations at the Northern and Southern margins within each range, not between native and invasive populations. Previous studies have found that multiple introductions in introduced populations caused an increase in genetic variance on which selection could act. In addition, we find that differences in the evolutionary potential of Phalaris populations are driven by differences in latitude, suggesting that selection also shapes the evolutionary trajectory of invasive populations. PMID:25568018

  20. Utilization of the Potentials of Selected Microorganisms as Biocontrol and Biofertilizer for Enhanced Crop Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O. Oyekanmi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Some selected microorganisms isolated from rhizosphere of crops, were screened for their abilities to enhance crop growth and suppress plant parasitic nematodes; in screenhouse experiments. Two promising hybrids of soybean genotypes: TGx 1448-2E (medium duration and TGx 1485-1D (early maturing and a high yielding hybrid of maize genotype Oba Super 1 were used. Microorganisms assessed included the fungi: Trichoderma pseudokoningii, Trichoderma viride, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Aspergillus niger, Glomus mosseae and the rhizobacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida. One thousand juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita were applied to soybean, while five thousand Pratylenchus zeae (juveniles and adults were applied to maize. Fungal spores and rhizobacteria cells approximately 2.5x106 mL-1 concentration were applied per plant, for maize experiment. For soybean experiment, Bradyrhizobium japonicum (106 cells, Trichoderma pseudokoningii (6.8x106 spores and G. mosseae (200 spores were inoculated per plant. The effect of microorganism`s application was compared with a nematicide (carbofuran treatment, untreated control and a nematode only control. The parameters measured were nematode density, root damage due to plant parasitic nematode infection, relative leaf chlorophyll content and plant growth parameters. The inoculated beneficial microorganisms in most cases significantly (p?0.05 reduced the nematode density across the treatments in test crops by up to 79.6% and improved plant growth by up to 46.0%, when treatments performances were compared across treatments. Most of the beneficial microorganisms assessed have prospects of enhancing nematode management through nematode density reduction and improving crop production.

  1. Evaluation of antifungal potential of selected medicinal plants against human pathogenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayat Sakander

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Evaluation of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine lead to novel bioactive compounds with antifungal activity that could be exploited as therapeutic agents. Aims: The aim was to screen selected medicinal plants for antifungal activity against three important human pathogenic fungi and to identify the broad group of phytochemicals responsible for the activity. Materials and Methods: A total of 8 medicinal plants were screened for antifungal activity against three human pathogenic fungi. Aqueous and the solvent extracts of the plant materials were prepared by polarity based solvent extraction. Antifungal activity was tested by well and disc diffusion methods. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the active extract was determined by micro-broth dilution technique. Phytochemical analysis of the active extract was done. Statistical Analysis Used: The results were statistically analysed by One-Way analysis of variance with Post-hoc Tukey?s B test at P < 0.05 using the? Software SPSS version 20 (IBM Corp. Armonk, NY Released 2011. Results: Significant antifungal activity was observed in the aqueous extracts of the fruits of Terminalia chebula (47.75 mm against Microsporum gypseum and the mesocarp of Persea americana (40.5 mm against Microsporum canis. Candida albicans was inhibited by the ethyl acetate (20 mm and aqueous extracts (16 mm of T. chebula fruits and aqueous extract of the seeds of Syzygium jambos (16 mm. The aqueous extract of mesocarp of P. americana showed lowest MIC value (312.5 ?g/ml against M. canis and M. gypseum. Phytochemical analysis of the active extracts revealed the presence of phenols, tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids. Conclusions: The study validates the use of the plants in the treatment of fungal infections and has provided important leads for the discovery of new plant-based antifungal agents.

  2. Maternal use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and risk of miscarriage - assessing potential biases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Rie Laurine Rosenthal; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during pregnancy has been associated with miscarriage, but the association may be biased by maternal mental illness, lifestyle and exposure misclassification. METHODS: A register study on all pregnancies in Denmark between 1996 and 2009 was conducted using individualised data from the Danish National Patient Register, the Medical Birth Register, the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, the Danish National Prescription database and the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). RESULTS: A total of 1?191164 pregnancies were included in the study, of which 98275 also participated in the DNBC. Pregnancies exposed to SSRIs during or before pregnancy were more likely than unexposed pregnancies to result in first trimester miscarriage, hazard rate (HR)=1.08 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04, 1.13] and HR=1.26 [95% CI 1.16, 1.37], respectively. No difference was observed for second trimester miscarriage. SSRI-exposed pregnancies without a maternal depression/anxiety diagnosis from a psychiatric department were less likely to result in first trimester miscarriage than unexposed pregnancies with a diagnosis, HR=0.85 [95% CI 0.76, 0.95]. SSRI-exposed pregnancies were characterised by an unhealthier maternal lifestyle and mental health profile than unexposed pregnancies, whereas no convincing differences were observed between pregnancies exposed to SSRIs during versus before pregnancy. Substantial disagreement was found between prescriptions and self-reported use of SSRIs, but it did not affect the estimated hazard ratios. CONCLUSION: Confounding by indication and lifestyle in pregnancy may explain the association between SSRI use and miscarriage.

  3. Climate Past and Present: A Study on Glaciology of Himalayas in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmuganandan, S.

    2003-04-01

    Glaciers are moving bodies of ice and snow, which are normally present above the snow line. Glaciers and ice sheets are hundreds to more than one thousand meters thick and change significantly only over decades. On these longer time scales they can influence atmospheric circulation and global sea levels. Glaciers play an important role in maintaining ecosystem stability as they act as buffers and regulate the runoff water supply from high mountains to the plains during both dry and wet spells. The present study is an attempt to analyze the Climate of the Past and Present of the Himalayas with reference to study the glaciology. The study also attempted to use the remote sensed data to explore the past and present situation of glaciology of the Himalayas. Since mountain glaciology of Himalayas played a vital role and stand as an example to explore the possibility of the climate change that occurred from the past to the present and also to determine the status in the future. The Study was based on the secondary and primary data collected from available sources and also collected from various published records to document the evidences for the same. It was observed that the Himalayan glaciers account for about 70% of the world’s non-polar glaciers and affect the lives of millions of people in several countries: China, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nepal and Bangladesh. Their runoff feeds two of the oldest rivers in the world, the Indus and the Ganges, whose tributaries carry precious water for 500 million people on the northern Indian plains. Most of the glaciers in the Himalayas are of a summer-accumulation type, that is major accumulation and ablation take place simultaneously during summer (Fujita et. al, 1997). The glaciers of the Himalayas include some of the longest outside the Polar Regions and reached their largest extent during the end of the last ice age (more than 20,000 years ago). The evidence of these large ice masses can be seen in 'U' shaped valleys, which characterize much of the higher Himalayas. On the basis of their mode of occurrence and dimensions, glaciers have broadly been classified into three categories: valley glaciers, piedmont glaciers and continental glaciers. Himalayan glaciers fall in the category of valley glaciers. It has been estimated that an area of about 32,000 sq. km is under permanent cover of ice and snow in the Himalayas (Negi, 1991). This amounts to about 17% of the total geographical area of the Himalayas. Higher concentration of glaciers in the Himalayas lie in the regions with the highest mountain peaks, that is, Nanga Parbat, Nun Kun, Kinner Kailash, Nanda Devi, Nanda Kot, Annapurna, Mt. Everest, Makalu and Kanchanjunga. There are a number of small, medium and large size glaciers in the Himalayan ranges with typical landform features. Some of the famous and important ones include Baltoro glacier, Gangotari glacier, Gasherbrum glacier, Siachen glacier, Kanchanjunga glacier and Hispar glacier. Of these, the Siachen glacier is the most well known, on account of its strategic significance in the South Asian region. Glaciers are dynamic in nature; they grow and shrink in response to changing climate. During the Pleistocene era (2 million years ago) glaciers occupied about 30% of the total area of the earth as against 10% at present.

  4. Photogrammetry and Its Potential Application in Medical Science on the Basis of Selected Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ey-Chmielewska, Halina; Chru?ciel-Nogalska, Ma?gorzata; Fr?czak, Bogumi?a

    2015-01-01

    Photogrammetry is a science and technology which allows quantitative traits to be determined, i.e. the reproduction of object shapes, sizes and positions on the basis of their photographs. Images can be recorded in a wide range of wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation. The most common is the visible range, but near- and medium-infrared, thermal infrared, microwaves and X-rays are also used. The importance of photogrammetry has increased with the development of computer software. Digital image processing and real-time measurement have allowed the automation of many complex manufacturing processes. Photogrammetry has been widely used in many areas, especially in geodesy and cartography. In medicine, this method is used for measuring the widely understood human body for the planning and monitoring of therapeutic treatment and its results. Digital images obtained from optical-electronic sensors combined with computer technology have the potential of objective measurement thanks to the remote nature of the data acquisition, with no contact with the measured object and with high accuracy. Photogrammetry also allows the adoption of common standards for archiving and processing patient data. PMID:26469121

  5. Energy regulation in China: Objective selection, potential assessment and responsibility sharing by partial frontier analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To cope with the excessive growth of energy consumption, the Chinese government has been trying to strengthen the energy regulation system by introducing new initiatives that aim at controlling the total amount of energy consumption. A partial frontier analysis is performed in this paper to make a comparative assessment of the combinations of possible energy conservation objectives, new constraints and regulation strategies. According to the characteristics of the coordination of existing regulation structure and the optimality of regulation strategy, four scenarios are constructed and regional responsibilities are reasonably divided by fully considering the production technology in the economy. The relative importance of output objectives and the total amount controlling is compared and the impacts on the regional economy caused by the changes of regulation strategy are also evaluated for updating regulation policy. - Highlights: • New initiatives to control the total amount of energy consumption are evaluated. • Twenty-four regulation strategies and four scenarios are designed and compared. • Crucial regions for each sector and regional potential are identified. • The national goals of energy abatement are decomposed into regional responsibilities. • The changes of regulation strategy are evaluated for updating regulation policy

  6. Phytotoxicity of biosolids and screening of selected plant species with potential for mercury phytoextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomonte, Cristina; Doronila, Augustine I; Gregory, David; Baker, Alan J M; Kolev, Spas D

    2010-01-15

    Mercury contaminated stockpiles of biosolids (3.5-8.4 mg kg(-1) Hg) from Melbourne Water's Western Treatment Plant (MW-WTP) were investigated to evaluate the possibility for their phytoremediation. Nine plant species (Atriplex codonocarpa, Atriplex semibaccata, Austrodanthonia caespitosa, Brassica juncea, Brassica napus, Gypsophila paniculata, Sorghum bicolor, Themeda triandra and Trifolium subterraneum) were screened for phytoextraction potential in Hg-contaminated biosolids from MW-WTP. In addition, the same plant species were germinated and grown in two other substrates (i.e. potting mix and potting mix spiked with mercury(II)). Growth measurements and the mercury uptake for all three substrates were compared. Some plant species grown in potting mix spiked with mercury(II) grew more vigorously than in the other two substrates and showed higher levels of sulphur in their tissues. These results suggested that the mercury stress activated defence mechanisms and it was hypothesised that this was the likely reason for the enhanced production of sulphur compounds in the plant species studied which stimulated their growth. Some species did not grow in biosolids because of the combined effect of high mercury toxicity and high salt content. Atriplex conodocarpa and Australodanthonia caespitose proved to be the most suitable candidates for mercury phytoextraction because of their ability to translocate mercury from roots to the above-ground tissues. PMID:19775810

  7. The Developmental Potential of iPSCs Is Greatly Influenced by Reprogramming Factor Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buganim, Yosef; Markoulaki, Styliani; van Wietmarschen, Niek; Hoke, Heather; Wu, Tao; Ganz, Kibibi; Akhtar-Zaidi, Batool; He, Yupeng; Abraham, Brian J.; Porubsky, David; Kulenkampff, Elisabeth; Faddah, Dina A.; Shi, Linyu; Gao, Qing; Sarkar, Sovan; Cohen, Malkiel; Goldmann, Johanna; Nery, Joseph R.; Schultz, Matthew D.; Ecker, Joseph R.; Xiao, Andrew; Young, Richard A.; Lansdorp, Peter M.; Jaenisch, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Summary Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are commonly generated by transduction of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and Myc (OSKM) into cells. Although iPSCs are pluripotent, they frequently exhibit high variation in terms of quality, as measured in mice by chimera contribution and tetraploid complementation. Reliably high-quality iPSCs will be needed for future therapeutic applications. Here, we show that one major determinant of iPSC quality is the combination of reprogramming factors used. Based on tetraploid complementation, we found that ectopic expression of Sall4, Nanog, Esrrb, and Lin28 (SNEL) in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) generated high-quality iPSCs more efficiently than other combinations of factors including OSKM. Although differentially methylated regions, transcript number of master regulators, establishment of specific superenhancers, and global aneuploidy were comparable between high- and low-quality lines, aberrant gene expression, trisomy of chromosome 8, and abnormal H2A.X deposition were distinguishing features that could potentially also be applicable to human. PMID:25192464

  8. Potential Sources for Lipid Soluble Food Colorants from Selected Malaysian Traditional Vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colour is one important characteristic to food products as it dictates consumers first perception on the foods flavour and quality. In the current food industry, most of the colorants used were derived from synthetic sources. However, due to negative health impacts of the synthetic colorants, the urgency to find natural colorants and impose it to food products is of great importance. In this study, a group of plant pigments which are potentially introduced as natural food colorants were quantified from 24 species of local traditional vegetables (ulam), characterized as neoxanthin, violaxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, ?-cryptoxanthine, ?-carotene and ?-carotene by using HPLC. It was shown that Sauropus androgynous contained the highest amount of neoxanthin, violaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthine at 142.40±3.57, 28.06±0.65 and 0.07±0.00 mg/ g dry weight (DW), respectively. In contrast, highest content of lutein and ?-carotene were observed in Centella asiatica at 16.53±0.97 and 2.14±0.12 mg/ g DW, accordingly. Meanwhile, Piper sarmentosum contained the highest zeaxanthin level (123.45±12.3 mg/ g DW) and Oenanthe javanica has the largest amount of ?-carotene (3.09±0.06 mg/ g DW). The extracted yellow-to-red lipid soluble pigments can be further developed into commercial food colorant to replace the synthetic colorants in the market thus improving social awareness towards natural products as well as strengthening the national economy. (author)

  9. Probiotic potential of selected lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from Brazilian kefir grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, A M O; Miguel, M A L; Peixoto, R S; Ruas-Madiedo, P; Paschoalin, V M F; Mayo, B; Delgado, S

    2015-06-01

    A total of 34 lactic acid bacteria isolates from 4 different Brazilian kefir grains were identified and characterized among a group of 150 isolates, using the ability to tolerate acidic pH and resistance to bile salts as restrictive criteria for probiotic potential. All isolates were identified by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and 16S rDNA sequencing of representative amplicons. Eighteen isolates belonged to the species Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 11 to Lactococcus lactis (of which 8 belonged to subspecies cremoris and 3 to subspecies lactis), and 5 to Lactobacillus paracasei. To exclude replicates, a molecular typing analysis was performed by combining repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR and random amplification of polymorphic DNA techniques. Considering a threshold of 90% similarity, 32 different strains were considered. All strains showed some antagonistic activity against 4 model food pathogens. In addition, 3 Lc. lactis strains and 1 Lb. paracasei produced bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances against at least 2 indicator organisms. Moreover, 1 Lc. lactis and 2 Lb. paracasei presented good total antioxidative activity. None of these strains showed undesirable enzymatic or hemolytic activities, while proving susceptible or intrinsically resistant to a series of clinically relevant antibiotics. The Lb. paracasei strain MRS59 showed a level of adhesion to human Caco-2 epithelial cells comparable with that observed for Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Taken together, these properties allow the MRS59 strain to be considered a promising probiotic candidate. PMID:25841972

  10. Selection of potential cold water marine species for testing of oil dispersants, and chemically dispersed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study regarding marine species for toxicity testing for Alaska conditions was presented and the potential adverse impacts of a large marine oil spill in cold water were discussed with the objective to determine if the spill should be treated by the use of oil dispersants. Without dispersion, the oil can pollute marine epifauna and can deposit on beaches. The decision to apply dispersants to a marine oil spill requires knowledge of the toxicity of the undispersed oil to pelagic marine life occurring via natural dispersion as opposed to the toxicity of the oil-dispersant mixture. Most standard toxicity tests apply to warm water species. This paper discussed the need to have a standard test species relevant to Alaska waters for toxicity testing. In this study, toxicity testing was done according to the methods of the Chemical Response to Oil Spills : Ecological Effects Research Forum (CROSERF). The testing included capturing adult species in the winter and holding them until larval hatching. Toxicity testing was completed in a narrow time frame before hatching ceased. Many chemical samples were tested. Topsmelt, urchins, shellfish, mysids, copepods, pink salmon fry, and tidepool sculpin were considered by the author to be the most useful for certain types of toxicity testing. 29 refs

  11. The potential use of an alternative fluid for SFR intermediate loops: selection and first design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the Generation IV systems, Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR) are promising and benefit of considerable technological experience, but improvements are researched on safety approach and capital cost reduction. One of the main problems to be solved by the standard SFR design is the proper management of the risk of leakage between the intermediate circuit filled with sodium and the energy conversion system using a water Rankine cycle. This risk requires notably an early detection of water leakage to prevent a water-sodium reaction. One innovative solution to this problem is the replacement of the sodium in the secondary loops by an alternative liquid fluid, less reactive with water. This alternative fluid might also allow innovative designs, e.g. intermediate heat exchanger and steam generator grouped in the same component. CEA, Areva NP and EdF have formed a working group in order to evaluate different 'alternative fluids' that might replace sodium. A first selection retained seven fluids on the bases of 'required properties' as: large operating range (low melting point, high boiling point ...), fluid cost and availability, acceptable corrosion at SFR working temperature. These are three bismuth alloys, two nitrate salts, one hydroxide melt and sodium with nanoparticles. Then, it was decided to evaluate these fluids through a multi- criteria analysis in order to point advantages and drawbacks of each fluid and to compare them with sodium. Lack of knowledge, impact on materials, design, working conditions and reactor availability should be emphasized by this analysis, in order to provide sound arguments for a research program on one or two most promising fluids. A global note is given to each fluid by evaluating them with respect to 'grand criteria', weighted differently according to their importance. The grand criteria were: thermal properties, reactivity with structures, reactivity with other fluids (air, water, sodium), chemistry control (including tritium management), safety and waste management, inspection maintenance and repair (ISI and R), impact on components and circuits, availability and cost, level of use. The impact on reactor availability and manageability and the level of knowledge on each fluid were estimated through the former criteria and introduced in the final evaluation as main criteria. The aim of this paper is to present the method of evaluation, the results obtained and the choice that have been made. The impact on design and operation are enhanced for the most promising fluids. It was found that sodium remains the most interesting intermediate fluid. However, Lead Bismuth Eutectic and sodium with nanoparticles also presents some interests and should be further evaluated. (author)

  12. The Potential Use of an Alternative Fluid for SFR Intermediate Loops: Selection and First Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the Generation IV systems, Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR) are promising and benefit of considerable technological experience, but improvements are researched on safety approach and capital cost reduction. One of the main problems to be solved by the standard SFR design is the proper management of the risk of leakage between the intermediate circuit filled with sodium and the energy conversion system using a water Rankine cycle. This risk requires notably an early detection of water leakage to prevent a water-sodium reaction, and adequate draining and pressure resistant components to mitigate the reaction consequences. One can think also to suppress this risk by replacing the sodium in the secondary loops by an alternative fluid, less reactive with water. This alternative fluid might also allow innovative designs, e.g. Intermediate Heat eXchanger (IHX) and Steam Generator Unit (SGU) grouped in the same component. CEA, AREVA and EDF have formed a working group in order to evaluate different 'alternative fluids' that might replace sodium. A first selection retained seven fluids on the bases of 'required properties' as: large operating range (low melting point, high boiling point ...), fluid cost and availability, acceptable corrosion at SFR working temperature. These are three bismuth alloys, two nitrate salts, one molten hydroxide and sodium with nanoparticles. Then, it was decided to evaluate these fluids through a multi-criteria analysis in order to point out advantages and drawbacks of each fluid and to compare them with sodium. Lack of knowledge, impact on materials, design, working conditions and reactor availability should be emphasized by this analysis, in order to provide sound arguments for a research program on one or two most promising fluids. A global note is given to each fluid by evaluating them with respect to 'major criteria', weighted differently according to their importance. The major criteria were: thermal properties, reactivity with structures, reactivity with other fluids (air, water, sodium), chemistry control (including tritium management), safety and waste management, In Service Inspection and Repair (ISI and R), impact on components and circuits, availability and cost, level of use. The impact on reactor availability and manageability and the level of knowledge on each fluid were estimated through the former criteria and introduced in the final evaluation as main criteria. The aim of this paper is to present the method of evaluation, the results obtained and the choice that have been made. The impact on design and operation are enhanced for the most promising fluids. It was found that sodium remains the most interesting intermediate fluid regarding all the criteria, and despite its reaction with water. Lead Bismuth Eutectic presents some interests and should be further evaluated. It is however clear that this fluid raises a number of issues, such as corrosion of steel, which would request to lower operating temperature, or to find new materials and then lengthy R and D. (author)

  13. Characterizing the impacts of water resources infrastructure, humans, and hydrologic nonstationarity on changes in flood risk across the Himalaya region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullos, D. D.

    2014-12-01

    As flood control infrastructure reaches its design life, and climate change, population growth, and urban migration increase flood risk, the historical paradigm of store-then-release floodwaters behind rigid infrastructure is of decreasing physical and socioeconomic value. Instead, a new paradigm of sustainable flood management is emerging, which can be framed in the context of three elements that can contribute to and/or mitigate flood risk: 1) water resources infrastructure, 2) policies and socioeconomics, and 3) changing climates and land use. In this presentation, I present the results of analysis on the role of these three elements in contributing to flood risk of the Sutlej River (India) and the Koshi River (Nepal) basins for six historical flood events. The Himalaya region was selected based on the a) increasing intensity of monsoonal rains, b) increasing prevalence of glacial lake outburst floods, c) water resources management that achieves short-term development goals but lacks long-term sustainability, and d) other socio-economic, environmental, and geopolitical factors. I develop and apply a flood risk management framework that is based on metrics for characterizing the losses associated with the three elements contributing to major floods in the Himalaya region. Derived from a variety of data sources, results highlight how, across different hydrogeologic settings and various flood magnitudes, the largest influences on high flood losses are associated with inflexible water resources infrastructure and inappropriate development and flood management policies. Particularly for the most destructive events, which are generally associated with landslides and other natural hazards in this region, the effectiveness of some types of traditional and inflexible flood management infrastructure, including large dams and levees, is limited. As opposed to the probability of a particular flood event, findings illustrate the importance of the damages side of the flood risk equation, which is often the most controllable but disregarded element of flood risk management. In addition, results lead to a hypothesized matrix of appropriate flood management strategies for the types of flood events that occur in the hydrogeology and cultural settings of high mountain areas and the lowlands to which they drain.

  14. Development and reproductive potential of diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) on selected wild crucifer species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yan-Qin; Sun, Yuan-Xing; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2014-02-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is an oligophagous insect that primarily feeds on members of the family Cruciferae. The development, survival, and reproductive potential of P. xylostella were studied on eight wild cruciferous species: Rorippa indica (L.) Hiern, Cardamine hirsuta L., Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl, Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic, Cardamine leucantha (Tausch) O. E. Schulz, Orychophragmus violaceus (L.) O. E. Schulz, Thlaspi arvense L., and Cardamine macrophylla Willd. Developmental durations of immatures from egg to adult emergence differed significantly among the plant species, with the longest period recorded on C. macrophylla (20.8 d) and the shortest on R. indica (15.8 d). The female pupae of P. xylostella reared on C. leucantha and T. arvense were lighter (4.2 and 4.3 mg/pupa) than those reared on other hosts (5.2-6.5 mg/pupa), and the male pupae from T. arvense were the lightest (3.1 mg/pupa) among all colonies. Survival from egg to adult emergence ranged from 95.7% on R. indica to 48.8% on T. arvense. The longevity (10.1 d) of P. xylostella female and the oviposition period (7.7 d) were the longest when larvae fed R. indica than those that fed on other wild hosts. Female adults of P. xylostella from O. violaceus, C. macrophylla, and Ca. bursa-pastoris had higher fecundity (305-351 eggs/female) than from other wild host plants, whereas that from R. indica had the lowest fecundity (134 eggs/female). C. hirsuta was the best wild host plant for P. xylostella because of the highest intrinsic rates of increase (rm = 0.2402), whereas T. arvense was the least favorable hosts with the lowest intrinsic rates of increase (rm = 0.1577). The results from this study will be useful for interpretation of the performance and population dynamics of P. xylostella on wild hosts and cultivated cruciferous vegetables. PMID:24367918

  15. Geomorphic impacts, age and significance of two giant landslide dams in the Nepal Himalayas: Ringmo-Phoksundo (Dolpo District) and Dhampu-Chhoya (Mustang District).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Monique; Braucher, Regis; Bourlès, Didier; Guillou, Valery; Nath Rimal, Lila; Gribenski, Natacha; Cossart, Etienne

    2014-05-01

    Large catastrophic slope failures have recently retained much attention in the northern dry Himalayas (1). They play a prominent role in the denudation history of active orogens at a wide range of spatial and time scales (2), and they impact durably landforms and process evolution in upstream catchments. Their occurrence mostly results from three different potential triggers: earthquakes, post-glacial debuttressing, and permafrost melting. We focus on two examples of giant rock slope failures that occurred across and north of the Higher Himalaya of Nepal and assess their respective influence on the regional, geomorphic evolution. The Ringmo rockslide (4.5 km3) results from the collapse of a mountain wall (5148 m) cut into palaeozoic dolomites of the Tethysian Himalayas. It caused the damming of the Suli Gad River at the origin of the Phoksumdo Lake (3600 m asl). The presence of glacial till at the very base of the sequence suggests the rockslide event is post-glacial, a field assumption confirmed by cosmogenic dating. Two consistent 36Cl ages of 20,885 ±1675 argue for a single, massive event of paraglacial origin that fits well with the last chronologies available on the Last Glacial Maximum in the Nepal Himalaya. The persistence of the Phoksumdo Lake is due to its dam stability (i.e. high lime content of landslide components) and to low sediment flux from the arid, upper Suli Gad catchment. The Dhampu-Chhoya rock avalanche (about 1 km3, area extent 10 km2) was derived from the northward failure of the Kaiku ridge, uphold by north-dipping, upper crystallines of the Higher Himalaya. It dammed the Kali Gandaki River, with complex interactions with the Late Pleistocene ice tongues derived from the Dhaulagiri (8167 m) and Nilgiris (7061 m) peaks. Both the rock avalanche and glaciers controlled the existence and level of the "Marpha Lake" (lacustrine deposits up to Kagbeni). Again, consistent 10Be ages of 29,680 ± 1015 ka obtained from two large blocks (>1000 m3) suggest a single event, in full agreement with other 10Be dates obtained by a different team from the same site (3). This latter event occurred during glaciation, and was likely triggered in connection with the North Himalayan Fault and/or Thakkhola fault activity. Post-landslide dam evolution includes rapid dissection of lacustrine deposits (4), yet the braided pattern of the Kali Gandaki evidence the delay in headward erosion caused by landslide dam persistence. References: (1) Hewitt K., 2009. Catastrophic rock slope failures and late Quaternary developments in the Nanga Parbat-Haramosh Massif, Upper Indus basin, northern Pakistan. Quaternary Science Reviews, 28, 1055-1069; (2) Korup, O., Clague, J.J., 2009. Natural hazards, extreme events, and mountain topography. Quaternary Science Reviews 28, 977-990; (3) Zech R., Zech M, Kubik P.W., Kharki K., Zech W. (2009). Deglaciation and landscape history around Annapurna, Nepal, based on 10Be surface exposure dating, Quaternary Science Reviews, v. 28(11-12), pp.1106-1118; (4) Fort M., Cossart E. (2013) Erosion assessment in the middle Kali Gandaki (Nepal): A sediment budget approach. Journal of Nepal Geological Society, Vol. 46, pp. 25-40.

  16. Monitoring of High Mountain Glaciers in the Vicinity of Everest (Himalaya) using Remote Sensing Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakuri, S.; Salerno, F.; Bolch, T.; Smiraglia, C.; Tartari, G.

    2014-12-01

    Himalayan glaciers are of crucial interest due to their role in the cryospheric system and hydrology. This contribution examines glacier changes between 1960s and 2013 using satellite data. The study is focused in 3 basins in Nepal: Upper Sun Koshi (USKB; 2850 km2), Dudh Koshi (DKB; 3720 km2), and Tamor (TB; 5875 km2). We observed an overall glacier surface loss of 0.19 ± 0.26 % a-1 (146.1 to 136.9 km2) in SKB for 1975-2013 period; 0.27 ± 0.06 % a-1 (404.6 to 351.8 km2) in the DKB for 1962-2011, and 8.4% (0.25 ± 0.29 % a-1; 610.9 to 559.3 km2) in the TB for 1975-2009 period. In the DKB, we observed an upward shift of snow-line altitude (?SLA) by more than 180 m, a terminus retreat of on average ~ 400 m, and an increase of 17.6 ± 3.1% in debris coverage between 1962 and 2011. Moreover, we observed that (i) glaciers with increased debris cover have experienced a reduced termini retreat; (ii) negative mass balances (i.e., ?SLA) induce increases of debris coverage; (iii) slight, but statistically insignificant acceleration of the surface area loss since early 1990s; but a significant loss for the largest glaciers (>10 km2) that have accumulation zones at higher elevations and along the preferable south-north direction of the monsoon; (iv) a significant ?SLA; moreover, the largest glaciers present median ?SLA that are nearly double than that of the smallest; this finding leads to a hypothesis that these glaciers are shrinking, not only due to warming temperatures, but also as a result of decreasing precipitation due to a weakening Asian monsoons registered over the last few decades. Furthermore, we present first results on the geodetic glacier mass and velocity changes of selected glaciers, and climatic trends. In fact, less accumulation due to the observed decrease of precipitation should cause lower glacier flow velocity until to the ice stagnation of tongues as observed by other previous studies in the region. Finally, we compared our findings with other studies in the high mountain Asia and conclude that the shrinkage of these glaciers are less than that of western and eastern Himalaya, and southern and eastern Tibetan Plateau. The location in higher elevations have likely reduced the impact of warming on these glaciers, but have not been excluded from a relentlessly continuous and slow recession process over the past 50 yrs.

  17. The role of spatial selective attention in working memory for locations: evidence from event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awh, E; Anllo-Vento, L; Hillyard, S A

    2000-09-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that the covert focusing of spatial attention mediates the on-line maintenance of location information in spatial working memory. During the delay period of a spatial working-memory task, behaviorally irrelevant probe stimuli were flashed at both memorized and nonmemorized locations. Multichannel recordings of event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to assess visual processing of the probes at the different locations. Consistent with the hypothesis of attention-based rehearsal, early ERP components were enlarged in response to probes that appeared at memorized locations. These visual modulations were similar in latency and topography to those observed after explicit manipulations of spatial selective attention in a parallel experimental condition that employed an identical stimulus display. PMID:11054925

  18. Assessment of the anti-invasion potential and mechanism of select cinnamic acid derivatives on human lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chiung-Man; Yen, Gow-Chin; Sun, Fang-Ming; Yang, Shun-Fa; Weng, Chia-Jui

    2013-05-01

    Patients with lung adenocarcinoma are often diagnosed with metastasizing symptoms and die of early and distal metastasis. Metastasis is made up of a cascade of interrelated and sequential steps, including cell adhesion, extracellular matrix degradation, cell movement, and invasion. Hence, substances carrying the ability to stop one of the metastasis-associated steps could be a potential candidate for preventing tumor cells from metastasizing and prolonging the life of cancer patients. Cinnamic acid (CA) was demonstrated to be such a candidate for human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of CA derivatives on invasion of lung cancer cells is still unclear. The aims of this study were to explore the mechanisms underlying several select CA derivatives against invasion of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. The results revealed that caffeic acid (CAA), chlorogenic acid (CHA), and ferulic acid (FA) can inhibit phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-stimulated invasion of A549 cells at a concentration of ?100 ?M. The MMP-9 activity was suppressed by these compounds through regulating urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, and PAI-2; the cell-matrix adhesion was decreased by CAA only. The proposed molecular mechanism involved not only decreasing the signaling of MAPK and PI3K/Akt but also inactivating NF-?B, AP-1, and STAT3. In the present study, we selected CAA, CHA, and FA as potential inhibitors for invasive behaviors of human lung adenocarcinoma cells and disclosed the possible mechanisms. The association between structural features and anti-invasive activity of these compounds cannot be determined here and needs to be further verified. PMID:23560439

  19. Genetic basis of interindividual susceptibility to cancer cachexia: selection of potential candidate gene polymorphisms for association studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N. Johns; B. H. Tan; M. Macmillan; T. S. Solheim; J. A. Ross; V. E. Baracos; S. Damaraju; K. C. H. Fearon

    2014-12-01

    Cancer cachexia is a complex and multifactorial disease. Evolving definitions highlight the fact that a diverse range of biological processes contribute to cancer cachexia. Part of the variation in who will and who will not develop cancer cachexia may be genetically determined. As new definitions, classifications and biological targets continue to evolve, there is a need for reappraisal of the literature for future candidate association studies. This review summarizes genes identified or implicated as well as putative candidate genes contributing to cachexia, identified through diverse technology platforms and model systems to further guide association studies. A systematic search covering 1986–2012 was performed for potential candidate genes / genetic polymorphisms relating to cancer cachexia. All candidate genes were reviewed for functional polymorphisms or clinically significant polymorphisms associated with cachexia using the OMIM and GeneRIF databases. Pathway analysis software was used to reveal possible network associations between genes. Functionality of SNPs/genes was explored based on published literature, algorithms for detecting putative deleterious SNPs and interrogating the database for expression of quantitative trait loci (eQTLs). A total of 154 genes associated with cancer cachexia were identified and explored for functional polymorphisms. Of these 154 genes, 119 had a combined total of 281 polymorphisms with functional and/or clinical significance in terms of cachexia associated with them. Of these, 80 polymorphisms (in 51 genes) were replicated in more than one study with 24 polymorphisms found to influence two or more hallmarks of cachexia (i.e., inflammation, loss of fat mass and/or lean mass and reduced survival). Selection of candidate genes and polymorphisms is a key element of multigene study design. The present study provides a contemporary basis to select genes and/or polymorphisms for further association studies in cancer cachexia, and to develop their potential as susceptibility biomarkers of cachexia.

  20. Distribution and Potential Mobility of Selected Heavy Metals in a Fluvial Environment Under the Influence of Tanneries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues M. L. K.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluated the occurrence of heavy metals in a fluvial environment under the influence of tanneries – the Cadeia and Feitoria rivers basin (RS, south Brazil, highlighting the distribution and potential mobility of the selected elements. Every three months, over one year-period, selected heavy metals and ancillary parameters were analyzed in water and sediment samples taken at ten sites along the rivers. Water analyses followed APHA recommendations, and sediment analyses were based on methods from USEPA (SW846 and European Community (BCR sequential extraction. The determinations were performed by ICP/OES, except for Hg (CV/ETA. Statistical factor analysis was applied to water and sediment data sets, in order to obtain a synthesis of the environmental diagnosis. The results revealed that water quality decreased along the rivers, and mainly on the dry period (January, showing the influence of tannery plants vicinity and flow variations. Except for Fe, Al, and eventually Mn, heavy metal contents in water were in agreement with Brazilian standards. Concerning sediments, Al, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn, Ti, and Zn concentrations appeared to reflect the base levels, while Cr and Hg were enriched in the deposits from the lower part of the basin. The partition of heavy metals among the sediment geochemical phases showed higher mobility of Mn along the sampling sites, followed by Cr in the lower reach of the basin, most affected by tanneries. Since Cr was predominantly associated to the oxidizable fraction, its potential mobilization from contaminated sediments would be associated to redox conditions. The detection of Hg in the tissue of a bottom-fish species indicated that the environmental conditions are apparently favoring the remobilization of this metal from contaminated sediments.

  1. Comaparison of late pleistocene glacier extensions along a meridian Himalaya transect by geomorphological and pedological methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, M.

    2009-04-01

    There is still a controverse discussion on Late Pleistocene glacier extensions for many parts of the Himalaya. Besides differing geomorphological results, more recent pedological relative datings of moraines delivered further inconsistent findings. For a meridian Himalaya transect along the Kali Gandaki a detailed field review of these different glaciogeomorphological reconstructions has been carried out, supplemented by new equilibrium line altitude (ELA) calculations. In a second step these findings have been used as benchmark to explore the options and limits of pedological relative dating of glacigene accumulations in the Higher Himalaya. A review of the already existing glaciogeomorphological results clearly appoved the more extended glaciation and the detailed relative chronology found in Kuhle (1982), while the more restricted glaciation view advanded by Fort (2000) is the result of foulty and missing geomorphological interpretations. To reconstruct former ELA depressions within the very steep and highly dynamic landforms of the Himalaya, „Toe-To-Summit-Altitude-Methods" (TSAM) are most adequate. Only the upper and lower glacier margin need to be known, which can be identified quite certain even for pre-existing glacier extensions. The method Kuhle is proved to provide the most suitable results, because the strong influence of the valley topography and the degree of debris cover on the position of the ELA within the vertical extension of the glacier can be simulated by the „factor of snowline deviation" (FSD). Maximum ELA depressions of 1300 to 1500 m can be observed for the south-face of the Higher Himalaya as well as for the arid north-face and the Inner Himalaya. The extreme topographical changeover arising from the inflow of the former glaciers from the tributary valleys into the wide and flat valley bottoms lead to little uncertainness, but the relative chronology of the glacier stages can certainly be derived. Most of the granulometric weathering indices are inapplicable as relative dating methods because of the typically high textural variability within till deposits. On the other hand around the central mountain range crossing section of the Kali Gandaki most of the pedochemical weathering indices mirror the relative chronology of deglaciation correctly, since comparable soil development conditions can be found. Thereby not only a differentiation between the High-, Late-, and Neoglacial is possible, but also within the Late Glacial. North of the Himalaya main range, only a few very certain pedochemical relative dating methods are applicable as a consequence of the drier climatic conditions. South of the Higher Himalaya variations of the parent material and the for the southern slope typical characteristics, e.g., a high degree of relief energy, precipitation, and anthropogenic use, preclude a reliable deduction of the relative age of the glacigenic accumulations from the soil age, since a required undisturbed soil development and primary form conservation of the accumulations, is nearly impossible.

  2. Photographic Key for the Microhistological Identification of Some Plants of Indian Trans-Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanveer AHMED

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Microhistology techniques have been used in many studies regarding food habits of herbivores. The absence of detailed reference materials and time consumed in creating reference plant materials for a particular study species and area hampers an understanding and extensive use of the technique. On the other hand, the use of direct sighting procedure of animals to study the dietary spectrum of herbivores is interrupted by tough terrain and harsh climatic condition in the Trans-Himalaya. The current study provides a photographic key for identification of 38 plants species belonging to 35 genera and 21 families. Structures such as types of stomata, trichomes and epidermal cells are discussed for different species of plants collected from Kargil, Ladakh. The given information is expected to help researchers working on feeding ecology of mammals in the Indian Trans-Himalaya.

  3. Role of vegetation in modulating denudation and topography across the Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olen, Stephanie; Bookhagen, Bodo; Strecker, Manfred

    2015-04-01

    Studies of Himalayan denudation, to date, have primarily focused on the effects of lithology, tectonic activity, and climate in shaping landscape and controlling denudation rates. Climate can impact denudation not only through increased precipitation, runoff, or glaciation, but also via its role in controlling vegetation cover. Since the classical study of Langbein and Schumm [1958] emphasizing the role of vegetation cover in determining erosional efficiency, theoretical and plot-scale studies have highlighted the role of vegetation on surface processes [Collins et al., 2004; Istanbulluoglu and Bras, 2005; Collins and Bras, 2010; Carretier et al., 2013; Jeffery et al., 2014]. Vegetation cover and density vary considerably in the Himalaya, both across and along strike. Across strike, vegetation transitions from dense forest and agriculturally-used plots in the Lesser Himalaya to sparse alpine and arid, virtually non-vegetated regions at high elevation and in the rain shadow north of the Higher Himalaya peaks. Along-strike vegetation densities also differ significantly and show a pronounced E-W gradient. To quantify the along-strike vegetation gradient, we use 14 years of MODIS 13C1 enhanced vegetation index (EVI) data to calculate mean annual, summer (MJJASO), and winter (NDJFMA) for the entire Himalaya. Additionally, we calculate a differential EVI that compares summer versus winter vegetation density (MJJASO/NDJFMA). A decrease in vegetation density is observed from east to west, with the greatest difference in winter vegetation cover (225% higher in the eastern than western Himalaya). In contrast, differential EVI is higher in the western Himalaya, increasing 170% from east to west. To evaluate the effect of vegetation on denudation and landscape evolution, we combine the 14-year EVI data, topographic analysis, and a compilation of >100 published and unpublished 10-Be terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) catchment-mean denudation rates from across the Himalaya [Godard et al., 2014; Portenga et al., 2014; Scherler et al., 2014; Olen et al., submitted]. We calculate the relationship between various topographic metrics (e.g. mean basin slope, normalized channel steepness [ksn]) and the TCN catchment-mean denudation of non-glaciated fluvial watersheds from previously published and submitted studies. The variation in vegetation density between study sites correlates with the relationship between topography and denudation in each region. In sparsely vegetated areas, denudation increases in a rapid, non-linear fashion as topographic metrics such as the normalized channel steepness (ksn) or mean basin hillslope increase. Where vegetation cover is denser, the relationship between denudation and topography becomes increasingly linear, such that lower denudation rates are maintained as hillslopes and channels steepen. Additionally, more sparsely vegetated regions appear to reach a maximum steepness lower than that observed in densely vegetated regions. We therefore observe a negative correlation between increasing annual, summer, and winter EVI and the power-law exponent p of the relationship denudation ? (topographic metric)p; and a positive correlation between p and differential EVI. In contrast to recent studies arguing that Himalayan denudation is primarily forced by tectonics, our study emphasizes how vegetation density, as a climatic agent, modulates erosional style and landscape development along strike across the Himalaya. Carretier, S., et al. (2013), Slope and climate variability control of erosion in the Andes of central Chile, Geology, 41(2), 195-198. Collins, D. B. G., and R. L. Bras (2010), Climatic and ecological controls of equilibrium drainage density, relief, and channel concavity in dry lands, Water Resources Research, 46(4), W04508. Collins, D. B. G., R. L. Bras, and G. E. Tucker (2004), Modeling the effects of vegetation-erosion coupling on landscape evolution, Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface, 109(F3), F03004. Godard, V., D. L. Bourlés, F. Spinabella, D. W. Burbank, B. Bookhagen, G. B. F

  4. Exploring the patterns of alpine vegetation of Eastern Bhutan: a case study from the Merak Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamtsho, Karma; Sridith, Kitichate

    2015-01-01

    A survey was conducted from March to September 2012 along the altitudinal gradient of the Jomokungkhar trail in the Merak Himalaya of Sakteng Wildlife Sanctuary to study the floristic compositions and the patterns of alpine vegetation of Eastern Bhutan. The vegetation of the sampled plots is classified into five types of communities based on the hierarchical cluster analysis at similarity index 63% viz., (1) Riverine Community; (2) Abies-Rhododendron Woodland Community; (3) Juniperus Scrub Community; (4) Rhododendron Krummholz and (5) Alpine Meadow, based on the floristic compositions. In addition, it was noticed that the fragile alpine environment of the Merak Himalaya has high plant diversity and important plants that are susceptible to the anthropogenic pressures. PMID:26155443

  5. Potential social, institutional, and environmental impacts of selected energy-conservation measures in two Washington communities. [Seattle and Yakima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelson, E.; Olsen, M.

    1980-03-01

    The likely environmental, social, and institutional impacts of selected energy-conservation measures in two communities in Washington state are reported. The five conservation measures investigated in this study were: (1) retrofitting existing buildings; (2) district heating and Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES); (3) small automobiles and vehicle redesign; (4) land-use and housing modifications; and (5) electric-utility rate reform. Twenty potential impact areas were selected for analysis. These areas were divided into five categories of environmental impacts, economic impacts, community impacts, personal impacts, and overall quality of life in the community. The research was conducted in Seattle and Yakima, Washington. In each location, about two dozen public officials and business, labor, and community leaders were interviewed. Their diverse views are summarized. The Seattle respondents saw energy conservation as a highly desirable policy with a number of temporary, transitional problems arising as energy-conservation measures were implemented. Yakima respondents, in contrast, did not expect to encounter many serious energy problems in the foreseeable future and consequently viewed energy conservation as a relatively minor community concern. Moreover, they anticipated that many conservation measures, if implemented by the government, would encounter either apathy or resistance in their community. Two broad generalizations can bedrawn from these interviews: (1) energy conservation will basically be beneficial for the natural environment and our society; and (2) if energy conservation does become a dominant thrust in our society, it could stimulate and reinforce a much broader process of fundamental social change. (LCL)

  6. Hydrological response to climate change in a glacierized catchment in the Himalayas

    OpenAIRE

    Immerzeel, Walter W.; Beek, L.P.H., van; Konz, M.; Shrestha, A. B.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of climate change impact on the hydrology of high altitude glacierized catchments in the Himalayas is complex due to the high variability in climate, lack of data, large uncertainties in climate change projection and uncertainty about the response of glaciers. Therefore a high resolution combined cryospheric hydrological model was developed and calibrated that explicitly simulates glacier evolution and all major hydrological processes. The model was used to assess the future deve...

  7. Pictorial keys for predominant Bactrocera and Dacus fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) of north western Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    C. S. Prabhakar; Pankaj Sood; Mehta, P. K.

    2012-01-01

    A pictorial key for 13 species of fruit flies under 2 genera namely Bactrocera and Dacus of subfamily Dacinae (Diptera: Tephritidae) is presented in this paper based on actual photographs of fruit flies collected from north western Himalaya of India during 2009-2010. Among these, Bactrocera diversa (Coquillett), Bactrocera scutellaris (Bezzi), Bactrocera tau (Walker), Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi), Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), B...

  8. Structure and Function of Shisham Forests in Central Himalaya, India: Dry Matter Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    LODHIYAL, NEELU; LODHIYAL, L. S.; Pangtey, Y. P. S.

    2002-01-01

    The biomass and net primary productivity (NPP) of 5? to 15?year?old Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.) forests growing in central Himalaya were estimated. Allometric equations were developed for all above? and below?ground components of trees and shrubs for each stand. Understorey forest floor biomass and litter fall were also estimated in forest stands. The biomass (dry matter), forest floor biomass (standing crop litter), tree litter fall and NPP of trees and shrubs increased with increasi...

  9. Mechanisms and timescales of felsic magma segregation, ascent and emplacement in the Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    B. Scaillet; Searle, MP

    2006-01-01

    We combine field, petrological, geochemical and experimental observations to evaluate the timescales of compaction-driven and shear-assisted melt extraction and ascent in the Himalaya. The results show that melt migration via compaction and channelling is inescapable and operates on timescales of less than 1 million years and possibly as short as 0.1 million years. Field and petrological data show that such a fast and efficient melt transfer results from a combination of favourable factors, i...

  10. Seasonal precipitation, river discharge, and sediment flux in the western Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    Wulf, Hendrik

    2011-01-01

    Rainfall, snow-, and glacial melt throughout the Himalaya control river discharge, which is vital for maintaining agriculture, drinking water and hydropower generation. However, the spatiotemporal contribution of these discharge components to Himalayan rivers is not well understood, mainly because of the scarcity of ground-based observations. Consequently, there is also little known about the triggers and sources of peak sediment flux events, which account for extensive hydropower reservoir f...

  11. Assessment, prevention and mitigation of landslide hazard in the Lesser Himalaya of Himachal Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patra Punyatoya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Landslides are destructive geological processes that have globally caused deaths and destruction to property worth billion dollars. Landslide occurrences are widespread and prolific in India covering more than 15 per cent of the total area. These are mostly concentrated in the Himalayan belt, parts of Meghalaya Plateau, Nilgiri Hills, Western and Eastern Ghats. The slope failure in the hilly terrain is due to geological processes and events. The frequency and magnitude of slope failure also increased due to anthropogenic activities such as road construction, deforestation and urban expansion. Keeping all these problems in mind research focuses on the Lesser Himalaya of Himachal Himalaya as it falls under very high risk zone in case of landslides and comprise of three objectives. They are: a to analyse the spatial pattern of landslides in the Lesser Himalaya, b to assess the causes of landslides vulnerability in the study region and c to suggests some preventive measures to mitigate landslides. In this work an attempt has been made to collect data on landslides incidences and damage from the secondary sources like Geological Survey of India, Building Material and Technology Promotion council from Ministry of Urban Affairs. The methodologies adopted for data analysis are simple tabulations, bar diagrams, statistical and mapping techniques to represent the Landslide vulnerability of the Lesser Himalaya. The analysis of the study reveals that there is increase in the number of landslides. The spatial pattern of landslide shows linear patterns, viz. along roads, rivers or lineaments/ faults. Besides, heavy rainfall, floods and earthquakes enhance the vulnerability condition. The landslides may be part and parcel of the Himalayan landscape, but they can be mitigated by some suitable measures. Few methods of landslide prevention in the study region have been suggested.

  12. Black Carbon Flux Across the Himalaya through the Kali Gandaki Valley in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungel, S.; Panday, A. K.; Mahata, K. S.

    2013-12-01

    Significant increases in black carbon concentration have been observed in the recent years over the Indo-Gangetic plain, the foothills of the Himalaya, as well as the high Himalaya and the Tibetan Plateau. The concentration of increased black carbon can be significantly correlated to the albedo effect and the warming of atmosphere at high altitudes due to the deposition of black carbon in the snow clad mountains. It is hypothesized that this deposition contributes to increased melting of Himalayan glaciers and snowfields. Satellite images show increasing amounts of aerosol haze over the Indo-Gangetic plains which penetrate into the Himalayan valleys. But how does it reach the high altitude of the Himalayan cryosphere? To date, mechanisms of transport upwind of the valley from the Indo-Gangetic plains up to the Himalaya have not been thoroughly investigated. We hypothesize that wind systems in the deep river valleys that cut across the Himalaya, such as the Arun valley and Kali Gandaki valley, serve as important pathways for pollutant transport. In 2010 the University of Virginia, in collaboration with ICIMOD and Nepal Wireless, established an atmospheric research station in Jomsom, Nepal (28.78N, 83.42E, 2900 m.a.s.l.). The station is equipped to measure black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone concentrations. It also has an automated weather station, a filter sampler, and a NASA Aeronet Sunphotometer. Here we use our observations in Jomsom to present an estimate of the annual flux of black carbon from the Indo-Gangetic plains to the Tibetan Plateau through the Kali Gandaki valley. In this way, we gain insight into the significance of deep valleys and their role as pathways for pollutant transport.

  13. Biodiversity Conservation through Traditional Beliefs System: A Case Study from Kumaon Himalayas, India

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Harsh; Tariq HUSAIN; Priyanka AGNIHOTRI; Puran Chandra PANDE; Iqbal, Mudassar

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out in Malay Nath sacred grove of Kumaon Himalaya, India, in appreciation of its role in biodiversity conservation. The whole grove is dedicated to the local deity “Malay Nath”, and showing semi-temperate type vegetation of the region. Rituals and cultural beliefs of the local peoples of Kumaon are plays significant role in conserving biodiversity. The study aimed at the documentation and inventory of the sacred grove, its phytodiversity, threats and conservatio...

  14. Precipitation and snow cover in the Himalaya: from reanalysis to regional climate simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Ménégoz, M.; Gallée, H.; Jacobi, H. W.

    2013-01-01

    We applied a Regional Climate Model (RCM) to simulate precipitation and snow cover over the Himalaya, between March 2000 to December 2002. Due to its higher resolution, our model simulates a more realistic spatial variability of wind and precipitation than those of the reanalysis used as boundary conditions. In this region, we found very large discrepancies between the estimations of precipitation provided by reanalysis, rain gauges networks, satellite observations, and our RCM simulat...

  15. Probing orographic controls in the Himalayas during the monsoon using satellite imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, A. P.; Kim, G; Williams, E; Nesbitt, S W

    2004-01-01

    The linkages between the space-time variability of observed clouds, rainfall, large-circulation patterns and topography in northern India and the Himalayas were investigated using remote sensing data. The research purpose was to test the hypothesis that cloudiness patterns are dynamic tracers of rainstorms, and therefore their temporal and spatial evolution can be used as a proxy of the spatial and temporal organization of precipitation and precipitation processes in the Himalayan range duri...

  16. Similarities and differences of aerosol optical properties between southern and northern slopes of the Himalayas

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, C; Ma, Y. M.; Yang, K; Zhu, Z. K.; Wang, J. M.; P. M. Amatya; Zhao, L.

    2013-01-01

    The Himalayas is located at the southern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, and it acts as a natural barrier for the transport of atmospheric aerosols, e.g. from the polluted regions of South Asia to the main body of the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we investigate the seasonal and diurnal variations of aerosol optical properties measured at the three Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites over the southern (Pokhara station and EVK2-CNR station in Nepal) and northern (Qomolangma (Mt. Everes...

  17. Floral Biology of Aconitum heterophyllum Wall.: A Critically Endangered Alpine Medicinal Plant of Himalaya, India

    OpenAIRE

    Nautiyal, Bhagwati P.; NAUTIYAL, Mohan C.

    2009-01-01

    Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. is a critically endangered wild medicinal herb of alpine Himalaya and cultivation is recommended owing to its large demand in the herbal market and to ensure the conservation of wild habitats. Therefore, observations on floral biology, pollen germination, pollination, and fruit and seed setting after implying different breeding systems were carried out for its successful domestication and improvement in cultivation practices. The study reveals that the plants grow...

  18. Biomass and diversity of dry alpine plant communities along altitudinal gradients in the Himalayas

    OpenAIRE

    Namgail, T.; Rawat, G.S.; MISHRA, C; Wieren, S.E., van; Prins, H.H.T

    2011-01-01

    A non-linear relationship between phytodiversity and altitude has widely been reported, but the relationship between phytomass and altitude remains little understood. We examined the phytomass and diversity of vascular plants along altitudinal gradients on the dry alpine rangelands of Ladakh, western Himalaya. We used generalized linear and generalized additive models to assess the relationship between these vegetation parameters and altitude. We found a hump-shaped relationship between above...

  19. Taxonomic status of Bupleurum (Apiaceae) in outer hills of Kashmir Himalayas, India

    OpenAIRE

    B. L. Bhellum

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The genus Bupleurum is perennial rhizomatous herbs, recognized by simple leaves,conspicuous bracts and bractlets, often shows a great deal of variation in morphological characteristics. The genus is well developed in temperate and alpine zones of Kashmir Himalayas and other lesser Himalayan ranges of Jammu and Kashmir State. A key to the species, brief description, flowering and fruiting periods are given. The approximate elevation, distribution of species in the region andillus...

  20. EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF TERRESTRIAL ORCHIDS (COLLECTED FROM NORTHERN HIMALAYAS) AGAINST CERTAIN HUMAN PATHOGENS

    OpenAIRE

    Amit Bharal*, Manila Kashyap, Vipan Kumar Sohpal and Jaspreet Kaur Sembi

    2014-01-01

    The four main varieties of orchids, collected from northern Himalayas (Tara devi and Chhrabra forests, Shimla, HP) were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against human pathogenic bacteria. The ethanol and methanol extracts of Cypripedium cordigerum and Malaxis acuminata were found to be highly active against both P.aeruginosa and S.aureus with minimal microbial static concentration (MIC) in the range of 100mg/ml. These plants particularly demonstrated antimicrobial properties against...

  1. ECOLOGICAL STATUS AND IMPACT OF DISTURBANCE IN AN ALPINE PASTURE OF GARHWAL HIMALAYA, INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    MANOJ DHAULAKHANDI; GOVIND S. RAJWAR; MUNESH KUMAR

    2010-01-01

    The alpine area in Garhwal Himalaya is highly fragile and is known for its beautiful flora and fauna. The study area was located just below the Gangotri glacier which is the origin of Bhagirathi, a holy river of India. Pilgrimage, tourism, adventure activities and mules are the factors responsible for causing disturbance in this area. There is a remarkable variation in the values of diversity, species richness, dominance, density IVI and biomass production at Bhojbasa Protected (BP) and Bhojb...

  2. Origin and radiative forcing of black carbon transported to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kopacz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The remote and high elevation regions of central Asia are influenced by black carbon (BC emissions from a variety of locations. BC deposition contributes to melting of glaciers and questions exist, of both scientific and policy interest, as to the origin of the BC reaching the glaciers. We use the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem model to identify the location from which BC arriving at a variety of locations in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau originates. We then calculate its direct and snow-albedo radiative forcing. We analyze the seasonal variation in the origin of BC using an adjoint sensitivity analysis, which provides a detailed map of the location of emissions that directly contribute to black carbon concentrations at receptor locations. We find that emissions from northern India and central China contribute the majority of BC to the Himalayas, although the precise location varies with season. The Tibetan Plateau receives most BC from western and central China, as well as from India, Nepal, the Middle East, Pakistan and other countries. The magnitude of contribution from each region varies with season and receptor location. We find that sources as varied as African biomass burning and Middle Eastern fossil fuel combustion can significantly contribute to the BC reaching the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. We compute radiative forcing in the snow-covered regions and find the forcing due to the BC induced snow-albedo effect to vary from 5–15 W m?2 within the region, an order of magnitude larger than radiative forcing due to the direct effect, and with significant seasonal variation in the northern Tibetan Plateau. Radiative forcing from reduced snow albedo likely accelerates glacier melting. Our analysis may help inform mitigation efforts to slow the rate of glacial melt by identifying regions that make the largest contributions to BC deposition in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau.

  3. Sustainability Perspectives of Development in Leh District (Ladakh, Indian Trans-Himalaya): an Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    PELLICIARDI, VLADIMIRO

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with a human inhabited territory in the Indian Trans-Himalaya: the Leh District, in Ladakh, at a “crossroad of high Asia”, geographically classified “cold desert”. For many centuries the local population has led a self-reliant existence mainly based upon subsistence agriculture, pastoralism and caravan trade. Modernization, due to governmental programs, and the progressive opening to external influence and resources – i.e. globalization – characterize the current development...

  4. Phylogeography of microbial phototrophs in the dry valleys of the high Himalayas and Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, S K; Lynch, R. C.; King, A. J.; Karki, D.; Robeson, M. S.; L. NAGY; Williams, M. W.; Mitter, M. S.; Freeman, K. R.

    2010-01-01

    High-elevation valleys in dry areas of the Himalayas are among the most extreme, yet least explored environments on Earth. These barren, rocky valleys are subjected to year-round temperature fluctuations across the freezing point and very low availability of water and nutrients, causing previous workers to hypothesize that no photoautotrophic life (primary producers) exists in these locations. However, there has been no work using modern biogeochemical or culture-independent molecular methods...

  5. Tree ring inferred summer temperature variations over the last millennium in western Himalaya, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Ram Ratan [Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow (India); Braeuning, Achim [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Institute of Geography, Erlangen (Germany); Singh, Jayendra [University Greifswald, Ecosystem Dynamics, Institute of Botany and Landscape Ecology, Greifswald (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    We report the first millennium-long reconstruction of mean summer (May-June-July-August) temperature extending back to AD 940 derived from tree-ring width data of Himalayan pencil juniper (Juniperus polycarpos C. Koch) from the monsoon-shadow zone in the western Himalaya, India. Centennial-scale variations in the reconstruction reveal periods of protracted warmth encompassing the 11-15th centuries. A decreasing trend in mean summer temperature occurred since the 15th century with the 18-19th centuries being the coldest interval of the last millennium, coinciding with the expansion of glaciers in the western Himalaya. Since the late 19th century summer temperatures increased again. However, current warming may be underestimated due to a weakening in tree growth-temperature relationship noticeable in the latter part of the 20th century. Mean summer temperature over the western Himalaya shows a positive correlation with summer monsoon intensity over north central India. Low-frequency variations in mean summer temperature anomalies over northwestern India are consistent with tree-ring inferred aridity in western North America. These far-distance linkages reported here for the first time underscore the utility of long-term temperature records from the western Himalayan region in understanding global-scale climatic patterns. (orig.)

  6. Water level changes of high altitude lakes in Himalaya–Karakoram from ICESat altimetry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Priyeshu Srivastava; Rakesh Bhambri; Prashant Kawishwar; D P Dobhal

    2013-12-01

    Himalaya–Karakoram (H–K) region hosts large number of high altitude lakes but are poorly gauged by in-situ water level monitoring method due to tough terrain conditions and poor accessibility. After the campaigns of ICESat during 2003–2009, now it is possible to achieve lake levels at decimetre accuracy. Therefore, in present study, high altitude lake levels were observed using ICESat/GLAS altimetry in H–K between 2003 and 2009 to generate baseline information. The study reveals that out of 13 lakes, 10 lakes show increasing trend of water levels at different rate (mean rate 0.173 m/y) whereas three lakes unveiled decreasing trend (mean rate ?0.056 m/y). Out of five freshwater lakes, four lakes show an increasing trend of their level (mean rate 0.084 m/y) whereas comparatively six salt lakes (out of seven salt lakes) exhibited ?3 times higher mean rate of lake level increase (0.233 m/y). These observed lake level rise can be attributed to the increased melt runoffs (i.e., seasonal snow and glacier melts) owing to the enhanced mean annual and seasonal air temperature during past decade in north-western (NW) Himalaya. Further, varied behaviours of lake level rises in inter- and intra-basins suggest that the local climatic fluctuations play prominent role along with regional and global climate in complex geographical system of NW Himalaya.

  7. Variation in net primary productivity and biomass of forests in the high mountains of Central Himalaya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garkoti, S.C.; Singh, S.P. [Dept. of Botany, Kumaun Univ., Naini Tal (India)

    1995-05-01

    This study describes the biomass and net primary productivity of the forests of Central Himalaya occurring in areas where vegetation ranges from close-canopy broad-leaved forest to stunted open-canopy timberline vegetation. The forests studied were Acer cappadocicum forest at 2750 m, Betula utilis forest at 3150 m, and Rhododendron campanulatum forest at 3300 m altitude in Central Himalaya. With the rise in altitude the forest biomass decreased from 308.3 ton/ha in Acer forest to 40.5 ton/ha in Rhododendron forest. The decrease in net primary productivity was less steep, from 19.6 ton/ha/yr in Acer forest to 10.0 ton/ha/yr in Rhododendron forest. The production efficiency of leaves (net production per unit leaf weight) in these forests is higher than in low altitude broad-leaved forests of Central Himalaya, i.e. from 2.89 in Acer forest to 3.41 g net production/g leaf biomass/yr, against 0.81-1.55 at lower altitudes. 31 refs, 6 tabs

  8. Relative importance of fluvial and glacial erosion in shaping the Chandra Valley, western Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugster, Patricia; Thiede, Rasmus C.; Scherler, Dirk; Codilean, Alexandru T.; Strecker, Manfred

    2013-04-01

    Although glaciers are often believed to be the principal erosional agents and the cause for increasing the relief of mountain belts, quantifying their contribution to long-term erosion and exhumation is challenging. This is particularly true for the Himalaya, where present-day ice coverage is relatively high, but evidence for extensive glaciations in the past more limited, presumably due to high erosion rates that quickly remove the depositional and geomorphic evidence of glacial impacts. Previous work indicates that the Chandra Valley, in the headwaters of the Chenab River, was strongly glaciated during the Quaternary. In addition, existing thermochronological data suggest a large change in exhumation rates along the valley. This change spatially corresponds to a major fluvial knickpoint, the joining of several large glaciers, a lithological break, and a steep precipitation gradient. In this study we determine spatial and temporal variations in valley incision through fluvial and glacial erosion on different timescales by using cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN) dating of glacially-carved and striated surfaces, various low-temperature thermochronometers, and morphometric analysis. Knickzones are found at elevations of ~3900 m asl along several tributaries of the Chandra/Chenab valleys and other valleys throughout Lahul, potentially indicating a causal relationship with glacial processes. Our field observations and preliminary CRN data suggest major glacial occupation of the Chandra Valley, particularly by the Bara Shigri Glacier, prior to 14 ka. Our data also confirm former CRN measurements in that area. We hypothesize that these observations coincide with the glacially carved surface of the valley, which indicates a minimum altitude of ~4100 m asl for glaciation in the lower Chandra Valley. Here, glacial carving has been the first-order erosional agent during the Quaternary. Furthermore, published AFT cooling ages are young below an elevation of 4100 m asl and increase strongly in the upper part of the valley above this elevation and the observed knickpoints, suggesting slower erosional exhumation in the more arid upper Chandra Valley. The ultimate goal of this study is to better understand the regional erosion pattern within the Chandra Valley, and to possibly determine whether glaciers influenced by local conditions (tectonics, climate), impede or accelerate erosion.

  9. Geochemical characterization of supraglacial debris via in situ and optical remote sensing methods: a case study in Khumbu Himalaya, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Casey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface glacier debris samples and field spectra were collected from the ablation zones of Nepal Himalaya Ngozumpa and Khumbu glaciers in November and December 2009. Geochemical and mineral compositions of supraglacial debris were determined by X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. This composition data was used as ground truth in evaluating field spectra and satellite supraglacial debris composition and mapping methods. Satellite remote sensing methods for characterizing glacial surface debris include visible to thermal infrared hyper- and multispectral reflectance and emission signature identification, semi-quantitative mineral abundance indicies and spectral image composites. Satellite derived supraglacial debris mineral maps displayed the predominance of layered silicates, hydroxyl-bearing and calcite minerals on Khumbu Himalayan glaciers. Supraglacial mineral maps compared with satellite thermal data revealed correlations between glacier surface composition and glacier surface temperature. Glacier velocity displacement fields and shortwave, thermal infrared false color composites indicated the magnitude of mass flux at glacier confluences. The supraglacial debris mapping methods presented in this study can be used on a broader scale to improve, supplement and potentially reduce errors associated with glacier debris radiative property, composition, areal extent and mass flux quantifications.

  10. Contemporary deformation in the Kashmir-Himachal, Garhwal and Kumaon Himalaya: significant insights from 1995-2008 GPS time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jade, Sridevi; Mukul, Malay; Gaur, V. K.; Kumar, Kireet; Shrungeshwar, T. S.; Satyal, G. S.; Dumka, Rakesh Kumar; Jagannathan, Saigeetha; Ananda, M. B.; Kumar, P. Dileep; Banerjee, Souvik

    2014-06-01

    We present new insights on the time-averaged surface velocities, convergence and extension rates along arc-normal transects in Kumaon, Garhwal and Kashmir-Himachal regions in the Indian Himalaya from 13 years of high-precision Global Positioning System (GPS) time series (1995-2008) derived from GPS data at 14 GPS permanent and 42 campaign stations between and . The GPS surface horizontal velocities vary significantly from the Higher to Lesser Himalaya and are of the order of 30 to 48 mm/year NE in ITRF 2005 reference frame, and 17 to 2 mm/year SW in an India fixed reference frame indicating that this region is accommodating less than 2 cm/year of the India-Eurasia plate motion (). The total arc-normal shortening varies between along the different transects of the northwest Himalayan wedge, between the Indo-Tsangpo suture to the north and the Indo-Gangetic foreland to the south indicating high strain accumulation in the Himalayan wedge. This convergence is being accommodated differentially along the arc-normal transects; in Lesser Himalaya and 3-4 mm/year in Higher Himalaya south of South Tibetan Detachment. Most of the convergence in the Lesser Himalaya of Garhwal and Kumaon is being accommodated just south of the Main Central Thrust fault trace, indicating high strain accumulation in this region which is also consistent with the high seismic activity in this region. In addition, for the first time an arc-normal extension of has also been observed in the Tethyan Himalaya of Kumaon. Inverse modeling of GPS-derived surface deformation rates in Garhwal and Kumaon Himalaya using a single dislocation indicate that the Main Himalayan Thrust is locked from the surface to a depth of over a width of 110 km with associated slip rate of . These results indicate that the arc-normal rates in the Northwest Himalaya have a complex deformation pattern involving both convergence and extension, and rigorous seismo-tectonic models in the Himalaya are necessary to account for this pattern. In addition, the results also gave an estimate of co-seismic and post-seismic motion associated with the 1999 Chamoli earthquake, which is modeled to derive the slip and geometry of the rupture plane.

  11. Lower Paleozoic Continuity of the East Gondwanan Margin and Implications for Interpretation of Tectonostratigraphic Zones of the Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrow, P.; Hughes, N.; Fanning, C. M.; Banerjee, D.; Dipietro, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    Qualitative and quantitative study of the tectonic and erosional history of the Himalayan orogen requires knowledge of the geology prior to major unroofing. Our studies of sedimentary successions in the Lesser (LH) and Tethyan Himalaya (TH)support depositional and stratigraphic continuity of the lower Paleozoic Indian Gondwanan margin across the various lithotectonic zones of the Himalaya, and along strike, from beyond the western Himalayan syntaxis in Pakistan, to Arunachal Pradesh, adjacent to the eastern syntaxis. Across-strike continuity is supported by (1) the presence of a distinctive Cambrian-Permian unconformity in the Salt Range (south of the Main Boundary Thrust), LH of India, and northern Tethyan part of Pakistan, and (2) correlative Neoproterozoic diamictite units in both the TH and LH. In addition, lithofacies changes support northward deepening across the northern Indian margin from the LH to the TH. Cambrian rocks extended south of the MBT in the Salt Range of Pakistan and are also exposed on cratonic India, south of the Himalayan Frontal Thrust in the Marwar basin of Rajasthan. Correlations indicate that the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian blanket extended far onto the Indian craton, just as on other paleocontinents at this time. Along-strike stratigraphic relationships also support the existence this extensive blanket, from which the outer Lesser Himalaya is a remnant. Similarities in stratigraphic successions, depositional ages, and geochemical deposits (e.g., phosphate) of the LH and TH between the central Himalaya and Pakistan, as well as correlative Neoproterozoic carbonate in Arunachal Pradesh (Buxa Formation), indicate that this blanket extended from west of the western syntax of the Himalaya across to the eastern syntaxis. Detrital zircon age spectra from Cambrian and Ordovician samples across the ancient northern Indian Himalayan margin show uniform signatures that include age ranges from Archean to Ordovician, with dominant of 1.3-0.9 Ga, ~0.7-0.54 Ga, and ~ 0.5 Ga peaks. New detrital zircon age data are presented for three Cambrian deposits: (1) the Tethyan Cambrian Tanawal Formation from the Peshwar Basin, Pakistan, north of the P-K Fault (=MCT), (2) cratonic Indian strata of the Tunklian Sandstone of Rajasthan, and (3) the Quartzite Formation of the Pele La Group of the Black Mountains of Bhutan. The detrital age spectra of these samples match those from Cambrian deposits across the central Himalaya. Thus, these new detrital spectra, in combination with stratigraphic data, demonstrate the continuity of lowermost Paleozoic strata along and across the Himalaya. Such continuity requires similar stratigraphic architecture in the LH, TH, and Greater Himalaya prior to Cenezoic deformation, and requires considerable removal of Neoproterozoic through Cambrian strata from the Lesser Himalaya during Himalayan uplift.

  12. Selection bias in a population survey with registry linkage: potential effect on socioeconomic gradient in cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandhagen, Elisabeth; Berg, Christina; Lissner, Lauren; Nunez, Leyla; Rosengren, Annika; Torén, Kjell; Thelle, Dag S

    2010-03-01

    Non-participation in population studies is likely to be a source of bias in many types of epidemiologic studies, including those describing social disparities in health. The objective of this paper is to present a non-attendance analysis evaluating the possible impact of selection bias, when investigating the association between education level and cardiovascular risk factors. Data from the INTERGENE research programme including 3,610 randomly selected individuals aged 25-74 (1,908 women and 1,702 men), in West Sweden were used. Only 42% of the invited population participated. Non-attendance analyses were done by comparing data from official registries (Statistics Sweden) covering the entire invited study population. This analysis revealed that participants were more likely to be women, have university education, high income, be married and of Nordic origin compared to non-participants. Among participants, all health behaviours studied were significantly related to education. Physical activity, alcohol use and breakfast consumption were higher in the more educated group, while there were more smokers in the less educated group. Central obesity, obesity and hypertension were also significantly associated with lower education level. Weaker associations were observed for blood lipids, diabetes, high plasma glucose level and perceived stress. The socio-demographic differences between participants and non-participants indicated by the register analysis imply potential biases in epidemiological research. For instance, the positive association between education level and frequent alcohol consumption, may, in part be explained by participation bias. For other risk factors studied, an underestimation of the importance of low socioeconomic status may be more likely. PMID:20127393

  13. Informing Selection of Nanomaterial Concentrations for ToxCast in Vitro Testing Based on Occupational Exposure Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Gangwal, Sumit; Brown, James S.; Wang, Amy; Houck, Keith A.; Dix, David J.; Kavlock, Robert J.; Hubal, Elaine A. Cohen

    2011-01-01

    Background: Little justification is generally provided for selection of in vitro assay testing concentrations for engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Selection of concentration levels for hazard evaluation based on real-world exposure scenarios is desirable.

  14. Informing Selection of Nanomaterial Concentrations for ToxCast In Vitro Testing based on Occupational Exposure Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little justification is generally provided for selection of in vitro assay testing concentrations for engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Selection of concentration levels for hazard evaluation based on real-world exposure scenarios is desirable. We reviewed published ENM concentr...

  15. Potential Roles of the Interaction Between Model V1 Neurons with Orientation-Selective and Non-selective Surround Inhibition in Contour Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Fu Yang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Both the neurons with orientation-selective and with non-selective surround inhibition have been observed in the primary visual cortex (V1 of primates and cats. Though the inhibition coming from the surround region (named as non-classical receptive field, nCRF has been considered playing critical role in visual perception, the specific role of orientation-selective and non-selective inhibition in the task of contour detection is less known. To clarify above question, we first carried out computational analysis of the contour detection performance of V1 neurons with different types of surround inhibition, on the basis of which we then proposed two integrated models to evaluate their role in this specific perceptual task by combining the two types of surround inhibition with two different ways. The two models were evaluated with synthetic images and a set of challenging natural images, and the results show that both of the integrated models outperform the typical models with orientation-selective or non-selective inhibition alone. The findings of this study suggest that V1 neurons with different types of center-surround interaction work in cooperative and adaptive ways at least when extracting organized structures from cluttered natural scenes. This work is expected to inspire efficient phenomenological models for engineering applications in field of computational machine-vision.

  16. Darkening of the mid-Himalaya glaciers since 2000 and the potential causes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himalayan glaciers are a vital water source for people in the high regions of Asia. Their complete melting would be a crisis for approximately 1 billion people. Albedo is one of the key parameters that affect the energy balance of the snow and ice surfaces. Since 2000, albedos have been retrieved from satellite data for eleven representative Himalayan glaciers. It was found that most of the glaciers showed declining trends in the albedo of their upper areas, indicating that they have generally become darker in the past decade. A simulation case study in conjunction with in situ measurements showed that light-absorbing constituents (e.g., black carbon and dust) could be partly responsible for this phenomenon during late springtime; the background regional warming could also be responsible. The current surface radiation absorption in Himalayan glaciers could lead to significant melting, causing most of them to be in danger of rapid mass loss. (letter)

  17. Characterization and Metal Detoxification Potential of Moderately Thermophilic Bacillus cereus from Geothermal Springs of Himalaya

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aslam Khan, Ghalib; Muhammad, Yasin; Muhammad, Faisal.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Two thermophilic Bacillus cereus strains (B. cereus-TA2 and B. cereus-TA4) used in the present study were isolated from the geothermal spring of Hunza valley, Gilgit, Pakistan. They showed the ability to withstand and grow at high temperature (85°C). Both these strains could resist multiple metals ( [...] copper, cadmium, mercury, manganese, zinc, arsenic, chromium and selenium). Strain B. cereus-TA4 reduced Cr (VI) at pH 5.0 to 9.0 but maximum reduction (83%) was observed at pH 7.0 after 48 h when initially supplied with 200 µg mL-1 of K2CrO4. Lower initial concentrations such as 100 µg mL-1 supported higher reduction (90 to 95%) than that of high concentration such as 500 µg mL-1 (20 to 30%). Both the strains reduced nearly 70% of Se (IV) after 48 h of growth at pH 7.0 when initially supplied with 200 µg mL-1 of Na2SeO3. The optimum temperature for maximum Se (IV) reduction was 45°C for both the strains.

  18. DNA barcoding of Rhododendron (Ericaceae), the largest Chinese plant genus in biodiversity hotspots of the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li-Jun; Liu, Jie; Möller, Michael; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Li, De-Zhu; Gao, Lian-Ming

    2015-07-01

    The Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains encompass two global biodiversity hotspots with high levels of biodiversity and endemism. This area is one of the diversification centres of the genus Rhododendron, which is recognized as one of the most taxonomically challenging plant taxa due to recent adaptive radiations and rampant hybridization. In this study, four DNA barcodes were evaluated on 531 samples representing 173 species of seven sections of four subgenera in Rhododendron, with a high sampling density from the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains employing three analytical methods. The varied approaches (nj, pwg and blast) had different species identification powers with blast performing best. With the pwg analysis, the discrimination rates for single barcodes varied from 12.21% to 25.19% with ITS biodiversity for the large genus Rhododendron in the biodiversity hotspots of the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains. PMID:25469426

  19. Contrasting response of glacierized catchments in the Central Himalaya and the Central Andes to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragettli, Silvan; Pellicciotti, Francesca; Immerzeel, Walter

    2015-04-01

    The Andes of South America and the Himalaya in high-mountain Asia are two regions where advanced simulation models are of vital importance to anticipate the impacts of climate change on water resources. The two mountain systems hold the largest ice masses outside the polar regions. Major rivers originate here and downstream regions are densely populated. In the long run, glacier recession generates concerns about the sustainability of summer runoff. This study benefits from recent efforts of carefully planned short-term field experiments in two headwater catchments in the Central Andes of Chile and in the Central Himalaya in Nepal. The two study catchments contrast in terms of their climate and in the characteristics of their glaciers. A systematic approach is developed, built upon the available local data, to reduce the predictive uncertainty of a state-of-the-art glacio-hydrological model used for the projection of 21st century glacier changes and catchment runoff. The in-situ data are used for model development and step-wise, multivariate parameter calibration. Catchment runoff and remotely sensed MODIS and Landsat snow cover are used for model validation. The glacio-hydrological model simulates the water cycle with a high temporal (hourly time steps) and spatial (100 m grid cells) resolution and accounts for processes typical of both regions like glacier melt under debris cover or mass redistribution through avalanching. Future projections are based on the outputs of twelve stochastically downscaled global climate models for two emission scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5). This is one of the first truly intercomparative modeling studies at the catchment scale across mountain regions of the world to assess and compare future changes in glaciers and snow cover and associated impacts on streamflow production. Both catchments will experience significant glacier mass loss throughout the twenty-first century. However, the trajectories of simulated future runoff and total melt from glaciers differ fundamentally. In the Langtang region in the Central Himalaya, the model results indicate increasing catchment runoff until mid-century and then either slowly declining or constant runoff depending on the climate scenario. In the Juncal region in the Central Andes catchment runoff starts to decline sharply after 2031-2040, so that annual river runoff may decrease by up to 60% until the end of the century. While in the Juncal region the seasonality of runoff may change dramatically, due to less snow- and glacier melt during the summer, the seasonality of runoff in the Central Himalaya will be essentially unaffected by climate change. Differences in catchment response are explained by differences in climate change projections (as precipitation is projected to increase in the Central Himalaya but to decrease in the Central Andes), but also by the differences in glacier characteristics and glacier evolution. Meltwater production of glaciers in Juncal is already on a decline under the present climate. In Langtang, in contrast, the rate of glacier area decrease at lower elevations is exceeded by the rate of additional glacier area at high elevations contributing to melt in a warming climate. As a consequence of this, annual icemelt in the Central Himalaya will reach its peak not before mid-century.

  20. Studies of the in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials of selected Yemeni medicinal plants from the island Soqotra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bednarski Patrick J

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent years have witnessed that there is a revival of interest in drug discovery from medicinal plants for the maintenance of health in all parts of the world. The aim of this work was to investigate 26 plants belonging to 17 families collected from a unique place in Yemen (Soqotra Island for their in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Methods The 26 plants were extracted with methanol and hot water to yield 52 extracts. Evaluation for in vitro anticancer activity was done against three human cancer cell lines (A-427, 5637 and MCF-7 by using an established microtiter plate assay based on cellular staining with crystal violet. Antimicrobial activity was tested against three Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria, one yeast species and three multiresistant Staphylococcus strains by using an agar diffusion method and the determination of MIC against three Gram-positive bacteria with the broth micro-dilution assay. Antioxidant activity was investigated by measuring the scavenging activity of the DPPH radical. Moreover, a phytochemical screening of the methanolic extracts was done. Results Notable cancer cell growth inhibition was observed for extracts from Ballochia atro-virgata, Eureiandra balfourii and Hypoestes pubescens, with IC50 values ranging between 0.8 and 8.2 ?g/ml. The methanol extracts of Acanthospermum hispidum, Boswellia dioscorides, Boswellia socotrana, Commiphora ornifolia and Euphorbia socotrana also showed noticeable antiproliferative potency with IC50 values Acacia pennivenia, Boswellia dioscorides, Boswellia socotrana, Commiphora ornifolia, Euclea divinorum, Euphorbia socotrana, Leucas samhaensis, Leucas virgata, Rhus thyrsiflora, and Teucrium sokotranum with inhibition zones > 15 mm and MIC values ? 250 ?g/ml. In addition, the methanolic extracts of Acacia pennivenia, Boswellia dioscorides, Boswellia socotrana and Commiphora ornifolia showed good antioxidant potential at low concentrations (more than 80% at 50 ?g/ml. Conclusion Our results show once again that medicinal plants can be promising sources of natural products with potential anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidative activity. The results will guide the selection of some plant species for further pharmacological and phytochemical investigations.

  1. Selection of lactic acid bacteria from Brazilian kefir grains for potential use as starter or probiotic cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanirati, Débora Ferreira; Abatemarco, Mário; Sandes, Sávio Henrique de Cicco; Nicoli, Jacques Robert; Nunes, Álvaro Cantini; Neumann, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    Brazilian kefir is a homemade fermented beverage that is obtained by incubating milk or a brown sugar solution with kefir grains that contribute their different microbiological compositions. It is highly important to isolate and characterize microorganisms from Brazilian kefir grains to obtain starter cultures for the industrial production of a standardized commercial kefir. Thus, the present study aimed to isolate lactic acid bacteria from eight kefir grains that were propagated in milk or sugar solutions from five different locations in Brazil and to select Lactobacillus isolates based on desirable in vitro probiotic properties. One hundred eight isolates from both substrates were identified by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and/or 16S rRNA gene sequencing and were determined to belong to the following 11 species from the genera: Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus (L.), and Oenococcus. Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus kefiri, and Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens were isolated only from milk grains, whereas Lactobacillus perolens, Lactobacillus parafarraginis, Lactobacillus diolivorans, and Oenococcus oeni were isolated exclusively from sugar water grains. When the microbial compositions of four kefir grains were evaluated with culture-independent analyses, L. kefiranofaciens was observed to predominant in milk grains, whereas Lactobacillus hilgardii was most abundant in sugar water kefir. Unfortunately, L. hilgardii was not isolated from any grain, although this bacteria was detected with a culture-independent methodology. Fifty-two isolated Lactobacilli were tested for gastric juice and bile salt tolerance, antagonism against pathogens, antimicrobial resistance, and surface hydrophobicity. Three Lactobacillus strains (L. kefiranofaciens 8U, L. diolivorans 1Z, and Lactobacillus casei 17U) could be classified as potential probiotics. In conclusion, several lactic acid bacteria that could be used in combination with yeasts as starter cultures for both milk kefir and sugar water kefir were characterized, and the functional properties of several of the lactobacilli isolated from the kefir grains were suggestive of their possible use as probiotics in both kefir and other dairy products. PMID:25542841

  2. Constraints on the tectonic and landscape evolution of the Bhutan Himalaya from thermochronometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, B. A.; Hodges, K. V.; Whipple, K. X.; Ehlers, T. A.; Soest, M. C.; Wartho, J.

    2015-06-01

    The observed geomorphology and calculated thermal histories of the Bhutan Himalaya provide an excellent platform to test ideas regarding the influence of tectonics and climate on the evolution of a convergent mountain range. However, little consensus has been reached regarding the late Cenozoic history of the Bhutan Himalaya. Some researchers have argued that observed geologic relationships show slowing deformation rates, such that the range is decaying from a geomorphic perspective, while others see the range as growing and steepening. We suggest that a better understanding is possible through the integrated interpretation of geomorphic and thermochronometric data from the comparison of predictions from models of landscape evolution and thermal-kinematic models of orogenic systems. New thermochronometric data throughout Bhutan are most consistent with a significant decrease in erosion rates, from 2 to 3 km/Ma down to 0.1-0.3 km/Ma, around 6-4 Ma. We interpret this pattern as a decrease in rock uplift rates due to the activation of contractional structures of the Shillong Plateau, an uplifted region approximately 100 km south of Bhutan. However, low-relief, fluvial landscapes throughout the Bhutanese hinterland record a late pulse of surface uplift likely due to a recent increase in rock uplift rates. Constraints from our youngest thermochronometers suggest that this increase in rock uplift and surface uplift occurred within the last 1.75 Ma. These results imply that the dynamics of the Bhutan Himalaya and Shillong Plateau have been linked during the late Cenozoic, with structural elements of both regions active in variable ways and times over that interval.

  3. Recent temperature trends at mountain stations on the southern slope of the central Himalayas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dambaru Ballab Kattel; Tandong Yao

    2013-02-01

    Insufficient long-term in situ observations and complex topographic conditions pose major problems in quantifying the magnitude of climatic trends in mountainous regions such as Nepal. Presented here is three decades (1980–2009) of data on annual maximum, minimum and average temperature trends from 13 mountain stations on the southern slope of the central Himalayas. The stations are located at elevations between 1304 and 2566 m above sea level and with varied topography. Spatial analyses of the average temperature trend show warming in most of the stations. The magnitude of warming is higher for maximum temperatures, while minimum temperatures exhibit larger variability such as positive, negative or no change. These results are consistent with patterns reported in some parts of the Indian subcontinent and Upper Indus Basin, but different from conditions on the Tibetan Plateau (China), where the warming of minimum temperatures is more prominent than that of the maximum temperatures. From the temporal variations, a dramatic increase in temperature is observed in the latest decade, particularly in the average and maximum temperatures. The results from the cumulative sum chart analyses suggest that the thermal regime shifted in 1997. The dramatic enhancement of average temperature in the last decade is strongly consistent with the result of contemporary studies of the surrounding regions, where warming is attributed to an increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gases. However, as in the western Himalayas and the Upper Indus Basin, the mountain stations on the southern slope of the central Himalayas show variability in temperature trends, particularly for the minimum temperature. This inhomogeneous trend is likely ascribed to the differences in topography and microclimatic regime of the observed stations.

  4. Improvement of Sexual Destination in Atropa acuminata Royle (Solanaceae-A Critically Endangered Medicinal Plant of Northwestern Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaiz A. Wani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Good seed set is no guarantee of absolute sexual destination in plants. Seed viability and seed vigour are crucial phases in the life cycle of every sexually reproducing plant. The present study was an attempt to improve the sexual destination-the germination and seedling survival of Atropa acuminata Royle (Solanaceae, an endemic and extremely restricted sub-alpine medicinal plant of North West Himalayas under ex situ conditions at (1580 m with an aim to develop a successful germination protocol and agrotechnique in order to revegetate disturbed areas. Among various treatments given to the seeds, GA3, Scarification, warm water treatment and chilling at 4°C for 90 days were found to be most effective with percentage germination of 73.3±18.80, 79.95±9.40, 66.6±6.6, 45±7.07 (X±SE, respectively. The results reveal that the seeds do not germinate unless specific environmental signals or events occur which trigger the genetic and hormonal response of the seeds thereby facilitating their germination. The diversity and the extent of the dormancy mechanisms encountered here suggest that under harsh conditions, natural selection may favour seeds with a genetic system for dormancy and delayed germination. A relation was observed between seed size/weight,%age germination and subsequent seedling survival. Seedling survival is also effected by specific habitat requirement and stiff intra and inter-specific competition particularly the whimsical behaviour of Sambucus wigthiana (an alien species which grows in the vicinity of Atropa is beyond the ken of Atropa, adding fuel to the already burning candle apart from habitat fragmentation and herbivory.

  5. Impact of Different Land Use Management on Soil Enzyme Activities and Bacterial Genetic Fingerprints of North-Western Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Deo Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Land uses has significant impact on soil biological properties that incessantly intimates the soil quality change and are assessed by soil microbial and biochemical indicators, as they are highly sensitive to change in environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of land use on soil enzyme activities and gene diversity in selected location of Northwestern Himalayas, India. Nine different land use system of similar soil type at depth 0-15 cm were analyzed for soil enzymes (Dehydrogenase, Acid Phosphatase, Alkaline Phosphatase, Nitrate Reductase, Arylsulphatase, and Phytase and genetic fingerprints (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA analysis. The land use systems investigated are Oak (Quercus incana, Deodar (Cedrus deodara, Pine (Pinus roxburghii trees, Apple orchids and crop based systems in uplands and valleys. All the soil enzymes were significantly higher in forest ecosystem followed by organic farm and conventional maize-wheat farm soil. The principal component analysis (PCA of nine different land use systems based on soil enzymes shows significant variation in data and all the long-term agricultural lands were segregated together. However maize-wheat and organic farm are group together in the PCA plot. Hierarchical clustering by wards method of soil enzymes clusters the deodar forest soil, oak forest soil and organic farming in one cluster and segregates remaining land use system in another. RAPD analysis showed high polymorphism between samples and similarity indexing using unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages resulted in four clusters. Land use showed significantly negative impact on soil enzymes and genetic fingerprints in long-term agricultural lands as compared to natural forest ecosystem and organic farming as reveal by RAPD assisted marker.

  6. Hinterland tectonics and drainage evolution recorded by foreland basin archives: the Neogene Siwaliks of the Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyghe, Pascale; van der Beek, Peter; Matthias, Bernet; Catherine, Chauvel; Jean-Louis, Mugnier; Laurent, Husson; François, Chirouze

    2014-05-01

    Provenance analysis and detrital thermochronology of detrital synorogenic sediments, derived from erosion of mountain belts and deposited in surrounding sedimentary basins, are well-established methods to examine the exhumation history of convergent zones, tectonic activity and the associated evolution of the drainage network. We have conducted multidisciplinary studies on magnetostratigraphically dated sections throughout the Neogene Siwalik foreland basin of the Himalayan belt since more than 10 years. Sr, Nd and Hf isotopes are used as provenance indicators, providing information on the nature and size of catchment basins and their evolution through time in response to tectonics. Detrital zircon and apatite thermochronology provides constraints on exhumation rates in the hinterland of the Himalaya and the deformation of the Sub-Himalayan foreland basin. Throughout the Himalaya, detrital zircons from the Siwaliks generally show three age peaks: two static peaks (i.e., displaying constant peak ages through time), and a moving peak. The latter shows a constant lag time of ~4 m.y. corresponding to source-area exhumation rates on the order of 1.8 km/my, while the two static peaks respectively reveal a major 15-20 Ma exhumation event in the belt, the significance of which is still debated, and inheritance of pre-Himalayan ages that indicate recycling of Tethyan sediments. Therefore, our ZFT results suggest that the exhumation dynamics are broadly similar throughout the Himalaya since at least 13 m.y, as also shown by the Bengal Fan detrital sediment record. We relate this switch in tectonic regime to the destabilization of the Himalayan wedge that is rendered overcritical as a response to the transience of dynamic topography caused by the deforming underlying Indian slab. Nonetheless, in detail, the timing of thrusting in the Siwalik domain is delayed by about 1 my eastward as demonstrated by both structural and apatite fission-track data, suggesting overall eastward propagation of the main faults. The evolution of the sedimentary provenance can be explained by overall forward propagation of deformation in the Himalayan fold-thrust belt. In both the eastern and western syntaxes, it also shows stability of the major drainage systems of the Yarlung-Brahmaputra and Indus, respectively, suggesting that hinterland river incision kept pace with uplift of the syntaxes during the Neogene. Drainage reorganization may take place in the foreland basin because of thin-skinned tectonics but did not significantly affect sediment routing and the contribution of different sources of the upper catchment to the overall sediment budget. In contrast, major rivers in the Central Himalaya (such as the Kali Gandaki or the Karnali) could have been affected by changes in their upper catchment.

  7. Chemical characteristics of pond waters within the debris area of Lirung Glacier in Nepal Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    Nozomu TAKEUCHI; Mineko YAMAMOTO; Masuzawa, Toshiyuki; Maya P. Bhatt

    2007-01-01

    Water samples were analyzed from ponds developed within the debris-covered area of Lirung Glacier (28º 12.9’N, 86º 39.9’E; 4000 m a.s.l.) in the Himalayas of Nepal during the pre-monsoon to post-monsoon period of 1996. Major chemical species were classified into three groups based on their relationships relative to the sum of cations: conservative (SiO2, Ca2+, K+, and Alkalinity), semiconservative (Na+, Mg2+, and SO4 2-) and non-conservative (NH4 +, NO3 - and Cl-). The dominant processes dete...

  8. Spatial Radon and Helium Anomalies along Major Thrust/Faults of Himachal Himalayas, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, S.; Bajwa, B. S.; Kumar, A.; Walia, V.; Singh, S.; Yang, T. F.

    2009-05-01

    The Himalayan mountains are highly unstable and seismically very active. The seismicity in the Himalayan belt is closely associated with the active faults and folds trending normal or oblique to the main Himalayan trend, which leads to under thrusting of the blocks. The state of Himachal Pradesh is considered to be seismically very active because as per the Seismic Zonation Map of India, most of its area falls in two seismic zones, i.e. Very High Damage Risk Zone, zone V, and High Damage Risk Zone, zone IV. The Himachal Himalayas are broadly divided into two major tectonic zones viz. the Lesser Himalayan tectogen in the south and Tethyan Himalayan tectogen in the north. The lesser Himalayan tectogen lies mainly on the southern part of Himachal Pradesh state and is bounded between Main Central Thrust (MCT) and Main Boundary Thrust (MBT). The MCT and MBT are associated with evolution of Himalayan orogeny. Besides the longitudinal lineaments several transverse lineaments occur as faults and fractures trending normally or obliquely to Himalayan trend. In an effort to signify the role of radon and helium as a productive tool to delineate some active faults and lineaments, measurements were made in the soil-gas along some of the major thrust (MBT, MCT) areas of Himachal Himalayas. Remote sensing data provides the synoptic coverage of any desired area and has been successfully used to recognize structures having tectonic significance. As a step in identification of active faulting and structural investigation, we will discuss the specific geochemical studies applied with aim of further identifying active faults and also complementing and specifying remotely sensed structures and zones. This method to investigate active tectonic structures, using soil gas composition at faults, provides relevant information about regional stress conditions, which can be obtained rapidly and at relatively low cost. Elevated emanation of radon and helium gases were detected over some of the thrust/faults/lineaments, thus indicating anomalous permeability of these zones in comparison with the adjacent areas. The collected soil gas samples were analyzed for radon and helium using RTM-2100 (SARAD) and Helium leak detector (ALCATEL) respectively. It can be concluded from present study that soil gas radon and helium patterns, combined with morphological and geological observations, can supply useful constraints for deformation tectonic environments. These findings may have important connotations for the long-term seismic hazard assessment of the tectonically active regions of the NW Himalaya. This methodology is an inexpensive method of locating unknown faults. Consequently, our work is a preliminary study in this region and the obtained results will considerably help in constructing the radon and helium map of the faults system in the NW Himalayas, India.

  9. Joint spatial variability of aerosol, clouds and rainfall in the Himalayas from satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Shrestha

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Satellite-based precipitation, Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD, Cloud Optical Depth (COD, and Aerosol Index (AI data were used to characterize the linkages among landform and the intra-annual variability of aerosols, cloudiness and rainfall in the Himalayas using empirical orthogonal function (EOF analysis. The first modes of AOD and AI show the presence of two branches of dust aerosol: over the Indus river basin and the Thar desert with a sharp west-east gradient parallel to the southern slopes of the Himalayas – the Southern Branch; and the second against the slopes of the Tian Shan and over the Takla Makan desert in the Tibetan Plateau-the Northern branch. The third EOF mode of AOD accounts for about 7% of overall variance of AOD. It is attached to the foothills of the Himalayas east of the Aravalli range peaking in April-May-June followed by a sharp decrease in July during the first active phase of the monsoon. The first and second EOF modes of COD and precipitation show consistent patterns against the central and eastern Himalayas and along the ocean-land boundaries in western India and the Bay of Bengal. The break in cloudiness and rainfall between the winter and the monsoon seasons is captured well by the second EOF mode of COD and rainfall concurrent with the aerosol build up mode (April–May over the region depicted by the third mode of AOD. The results show that the Aravalli range separates the two different modes of aerosol variability over northern India with dust aerosols to the west and polluted mixed aerosols to the east consistent with its role in regional circulation and precipitations patterns as per Barros et al. (2004 and Chiao and Barros (2007. SVD analysis between rainfall, COD and AOD showed a pattern of aerosol loading (resembling EOF3 of MODIS AOD extending from 80° E~90° E that peaks during the winter and pre-monsoon seasons and decays abruptly during the monsoon: the regions of aerosol buildup during the pre-monsoon season and the areas of high rainfall/cloudiness during the monsoon are collocated and have opposite signs suggesting aerosol-cloud-rainfall interaction. It is proposed that the third EOF of AOD maps the area where aerosol-cloud-rainfall interactions play an important role in the regional hydro-climatology.

  10. Crustal melt granites and migmatites along the Himalaya: melt source, segregation, transport and granite emplacement mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Searle, MP; Cottle, JM; Streule, MJ; Waters, DJ

    2010-01-01

    India-Asia collision resulted in crustal thickening and shortening, metamorphism and partial melting along the 2200 km-long Himalayan range. In the core of the Greater Himalaya, widespread in situ partial melting in sillimanite+K-feldspar gneisses resulted in formation of migmatites and Ms+Bt+Grt+Tur±Crd±Sil leucogranites, mainly by muscovite dehydration melting. Melting occurred at shallow depths (4-6 kbar; 15-20 km depth) in the middle crust, but not in the lower crust. 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios of...

  11. Medicinal flora and ethnoecological knowledge in the Naran Valley, Western Himalaya, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Shujaul M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mountain ecosystems all over the world support a high biological diversity and provide home and services to some 12% of the global human population, who use their traditional ecological knowledge to utilise local natural resources. The Himalayas are the world's youngest, highest and largest mountain range and support a high plant biodiversity. In this remote mountainous region of the Himalaya, people depend upon local plant resources to supply a range of goods and services, including grazing for livestock and medicinal supplies for themselves. Due to their remote location, harsh climate, rough terrain and topography, many areas within this region still remain poorly known for its floristic diversity, plant species distribution and vegetation ecosystem service. Methods The Naran valley in the north-western Pakistan is among such valleys and occupies a distinctive geographical location on the edge of the Western Himalaya range, close to the Hindu Kush range to the west and the Karakorum Mountains to the north. It is also located on climatic and geological divides, which further add to its botanical interest. In the present project 120 informants were interviewed at 12 main localities along the 60 km long valley. This paper focuses on assessment of medicinal plant species valued by local communities using their traditional knowledge. Results Results revealed that 101 species belonging to 52 families (51.5% of the total plants were used for 97 prominent therapeutic purposes. The largest number of ailments cured with medicinal plants were associated with the digestive system (32.76% responses followed by those associated with the respiratory and urinary systems (13.72% and 9.13% respectively. The ailments associated with the blood circulatory and reproductive systems and the skin were 7.37%, 7.04% and 7.03%, respectively. The results also indicate that whole plants were used in 54% of recipes followed by rhizomes (21%, fruits (9.5% and roots (5.5%. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate the range of ecosystem services that are provided by the vegetation and assess how utilisation of plants will impact on future resource sustainability. The study not only contributes to an improved understanding of traditional ethno-ecological knowledge amongst the peoples of the Western Himalaya but also identifies priorities at species and habitat level for local and regional plant conservation strategies.

  12. FAIR FESTIVAL AND THERE RELIGIOUS BELIEF IN HIMACHAL HIMALAYA - A STUDY OF BUDI DIWALI OF NIRMAND

    OpenAIRE

    Hiramani Kashyap

    2014-01-01

    Himachal Pradesh is also known as the land of god and goddess. It is situated in lap of western Himalaya and full of natural and cultural beauty. Budi Diwali fair is held on Maghar Amawasya for three days in Village Nirmand of Kullu district. It is associated with the battle of Mahabharta which is said to have started on that day. It is also associated to commemorate the killing of two demons Dano and Asur, who resided at Nirmand in the form of snake. It starts with a brief re...

  13. Phenology of plants in relation to ambient environment in a subalpine forest of Uttarakhand, western Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Vinod K; Kuniyal, Chandra P; Bhandari, Arvind K; Nautiyal, Bhagwati P; Prasad, P

    2014-07-01

    Observations on phenology of some representative trees, shrubs, under-shrubs and herbs in a subalpine forest of Uttarakhand, western Himalaya were recorded. With the commencement of favorable growth season in April, occurrence of leaf fall was indicatory growth phenomenon in Quercus semecarpifolia, Q. floribunda and Abies spectabilis. However, active vegetative growth in herbaceous species starts onward April and fruit maturation and seed dehiscence are completed from mid of September to October. In general, vegetative growth and reproductive stages in majority of the studied species seems to be dependent on adequate moisture content and also flowering and fruiting in subalpine plants correlate ambient temperature. PMID:25049468

  14. Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) in Second Language Research: A Brief Introduction to the Technique, a Selected Review, and an Invitation to Reconsider Critical Periods in L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauer, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a selective overview of recent event-related brain potential (ERP) studies in L2 morpho-syntax, demonstrating that the ERP evidence supporting the critical period hypothesis (CPH) may be less compelling than previously thought. The article starts with a general introduction to ERP methodology and language-related ERP profiles…

  15. Potential Signals of Natural Selection in the Top Risk Loci for Coronary Artery Disease: 9p21 and 10q11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Daniela; Carreras-Torres, Robert; Esteban, Esther

    2015-01-01

    Background Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a complex disease and the leading cause of death in the world. Populations of different ancestry do not always share the same risk markers. Natural selective processes may be the cause of some of the population differences detected for specific risk mutations. Objective In this study, 384 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in four genomic regions associated with CAD (1p13, 1q41, 9p21 and 10q11) are analysed in a set of 19 populations from Europe, Middle East and North Africa and also in Asian and African samples from the 1000 Genomes Project. The aim of this survey is to explore for the first time whether the genetic variability in these genomic regions is better explained by demography or by natural selection. Results The results indicate significant differences in the structure of genetic variation and in the LD patterns among populations that probably explain the population disparities found in markers of susceptibility to CAD. Conclusions The results are consistent with potential signature of positive selection in the 9p21 region and of balancing selection in the 9p21 and 10q11. Specifically, in Europe three CAD risk markers in the 9p21 region (rs9632884, rs1537371 and rs1333042) show consistent signals of positive selection. The results of this study are consistent with a potential selective role of CAD in the configuration of genetic diversity in current human populations. PMID:26252781

  16. Identification and conservation of important plant areas (IPAS) for the distribution of medicinal, aromatic and economic plants in the Hindukush-Himalaya mountain range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study on the identification of Important Plant Areas (IPAs) was conducted in seven valleys of Hindukush-Himalayas mountainous ranges of Pakistan during 2005 and 2006. The principal aim of the study is to search new avenues for the conservation and sustainable utilization of threatened medicinal and economic plants and their habitats in IPAs. IPAs are sites of tremendous ecological and economic values that still exist in the world and are being managed on specific sites to study wild plant diversity. Several of such plants are used in the traditional medicines that are being used since the dawn of history to provide basic healthcare to people the world over. According to WHO, 80% of the human population of Africa still use medicinal plants in their primary healthcare. The popularity of herbal drugs is on the constant rise in many developed countries of the world, while in developing countries like Pakistan; medicinal plants contribute significantly to the income sources of people living in remote areas. Keeping such importance in view, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched a global vision in the form of 'Global Strategy for Plant Conservation' having various targets and mile stones. Target 5 of the strategy required for the global integration of the herbal medicine in health care system with proper identification of medicinal plants and the conservation of sites where such plants are found naturally, as its basic elements. In order to contribute to the specified target, WHO advised the relevant institutions to develop research plans and conservation programmes that are focused on the Global strategy in general and target 5 in specific. While complementing the appeal and contributing to its vision, a study was conducted in various eco-systems of the Pakistan's Hindukush-Himalayas region, identifying Important Plant Areas (IPAs) for their subsequent conservation and uses for scientific purposes. Site selection for the study was based on: 1). Exceptional vegetation richness for the representative bio-geographic zone; 2). Presence of naturally occurring medicinal herbs with species of global or regional concern, and (3). Threatened habitats that are supporting plant species of medicinal and economic values. Apart from various values of the selected sites such as their scientific and economic importance, the selected sites had a treasure of indigenous knowledge related to the wise uses and conservation of medicinal plants. The study also focused on exploring the complex natural interactions between plants and other organisms; their dependence under various environmental parameters; traditional knowledge of the local inhabitants; and the significance of the landscape to Conserve such plants on long-term basis. (author)

  17. Stress tolerance and genetic variability of phosphate-solubilizing fluorescent Pseudomonas from the cold deserts of the trans-Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Pratibha; Rahi, Praveen; Gulati, Arvind

    2009-08-01

    Nineteen efficient phosphate-solubilizing fluorescent Pseudomonas from the cold deserts of the trans-Himalayas were screened for stress tolerance against temperature, alkalinity, salinity, calcium salts, and desiccation. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing placed these bacteria under three groups with fourteen strains in Group I including Pseudomonas trivialis and P. poae, two strains in Group II together with Pseudomonas kilonensis and P. corrugata, and three strains in Group III along with Pseudomonas jessenii and P. moraviensis. Genetic diversity assessed by ERIC and BOX-PCR revealed variability among strains belonging to the same phylogenetic groups. Cluster analysis based on the growth characteristics under regimes of different stress levels placed the strains into three distinct clusters displaying no correlation to their phylogenetic groups. Stress-tolerant strains differed in the level of decline in phosphate solubilization under increasing intensity of various stress parameters. The highest decrease occurred with 5% CaCO(3,) followed by 2.5% CaCO(3), pH 11, 5% NaCl, temperature of 37 degrees C, 40% PEG, 5% CaSO(4), 2.5% NaCl, 2.5% CaSO(4), pH 9 and temperature of 15 degrees C. Two strains belonging to Phylogenetic Group I exhibited higher phosphate solubilization at lower temperature. The results revealed that stress-tolerance ability was not limited to any particular phylogenetic group. Knowledge about the genetic variants of phosphate-solubilizing fluorescent Pseudomonas with potential for tolerance to desiccation, alkalinity, temperature, and salinity could be useful in understanding their ecological role under stressful environments of low phosphate availability. PMID:19319589

  18. Surface characteristics of debris-covered glacier tongues in the Khumbu Himalaya derived from remote sensing texture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racoviteanu, Adina; Arnaud, Yves; Nicholson, Lindsay

    2013-04-01

    The delineation of debris-covered glaciers remains a challenge in optical remote sensing, due to the similarity of the spectral signature of debris-covered ice to surrounding lateral moraines, making it difficult to apply standard semi-automated algorithms commonly used for clean ice delineation. Furthermore, supraglacial debris exhibits considerable spatial variability in its characteristics such as debris cover thickness, particle size, thermal resistance and thermal conductivity. These properties are needed in order to map the extent of debris cover and to estimate ice melt under the debris cover or at the surface. In this study we evaluate the potential of texture analysis for detecting surface characteristics of debris-cover glacier tongues in the Khumbu Himalaya, using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and high-resolution Ikonos data. We focus on mapping supra-glacier lakes and exposed ice walls using texture analysis algorithms such as grey-level co-occurrence measures (GLCM), filtering, image segmentation, and particle boundaries. We compare the performance of various existing commercial software suitable for texture analysis such as ERDAS Objective, Aphelion, as well as public domain image display and analysis software used originally for medical analysis, notably Image SXM and ImageJ. Preliminary results based on geostatistics and GLCM measures show differences in surface roughness of debris cover when compared to surrounding ice-free moraines. We expand on these results and aim at developing a quasi-automated algorithm for extracting surface features, which will be used as input in an energy balance model for estimating melting under debris cover as well as surface ice melt.

  19. Determination of Q ?( f) in Different Parts of Kumaon Himalaya from the Inversion of Spectral Acceleration Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, A.; Kumar, P.; Mohanty, M.; Bansal, A. R.; Dimri, V. P.; Chadha, R. K.

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents the results of a modified two-step inversion algorithm approach to find S wave quality factor Q ?( f) given by J oshi (Bull Seis Soc Am 96:2165-2180, 2006). Seismic moment is calculated from the source displacement spectra of the S wave using both horizontal components. Average value of seismic moment computed from two horizontal components recorded at several stations is used as an input to the first part of inversion together with the spectra of S phase in the acceleration record. Several values of the corner frequency have been selected iteratively and are used as inputs to the inversion algorithm. Solution corresponding to minimum root mean square error (RMSE) is used for obtaining the final estimate of Q ?( f) relation. The estimates of seismic moment, corner frequency and Q ?( f) from the first part of inversion are further used for obtaining the residual of theoretical and observed source spectra which are treated as site amplification terms. The acceleration record corrected for the site amplification term is used for determination of seismic moment from source spectra by using Q ?( f) obtained from first part of inversion. Corrected acceleration record and new estimate of seismic moment are used as inputs to the second part of the inversion scheme which is similar to the first part except for use of input data. The final outcome from this part of inversion is a new Q ?( f) relation together with known values of seismic moment and corner frequency of each input. The process of two-step inversion is repeated for this new estimate of seismic moment and goes on until minimum RMSE is obtained which gives final estimate of Q ?( f) at each station and corner frequency of input events. The Pithoragarh district in the state of Uttarakhand in India lies in the border region of India and Nepal and is part of the seismically active Kumaon Himalaya zone. A network of eight strong motion recorders has been installed in this region since March, 2006. In this study we have analyzed data from 18 local events recorded between March, 2006 and October, 2010 at various stations. These events have been located using HYPO71 and data has been used to obtain frequency-dependent shear-wave attenuation. The Q ?( f) at each station is calculated by using both the north-south (NS) and east-west (EW) components of acceleration records as inputs to the developed inversion algorithm. The average Q ?( f) values obtained from Q ?( f) values at different stations from both NS and EW components have been used to compute a regional average relationship for the Pithoragarh region of Kumaon Himalaya of form Q ?( f) = (29 ± 1.2) f (1.1 ± 0.06).

  20. Chemical composition and biological effects of Artemisia maritima and Artemisia nilagirica essential oils from wild plant of Western Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemisia species possess pharmacological properties that are used for medical purposes worldwide. In this paper, the essential oils from the aerial parts of A. nilagirica and A. maritima from the western Indian Himalaya region are described. The main compounds analyzed by simultaneous GC/MS and GC/...

  1. Reorientation of lineation in the Central Crystalline Zone, Munsiari–Milam area of the Kumaun Greater Himalaya

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Verma; A R Bhattacharya

    2015-03-01

    During large scale ductile shear deformation, linear features of the rocks tend to be reoriented towards the direction of bulk shear. This is demonstrated in a crustal scale shear zone of the Himalaya, the Main Central Thrust (MCT), typically exposed in the Munsiari–Milam area of eastern Kumaun Greater Himalaya. Along the MCT, the crystalline rocks of the Greater Himalaya are thrust over the younger sedimentary belt of the Lesser Himalaya. In the study area, the scatter of lineation orientation in the vicinity of the MCT has been observed to drastically reduce within 27° in a zone of about 18 km (about 13 km in the crystalline rocks and about 5 km in the sedimentary rocks). Beyond this zone, the scatter is very high, up to 70° or more. The low scatter of lineation orientation around the MCT could be related to the strong ductile shear deformation associated with the movement along this thrust due to which the linear features got reoriented towards the direction of bulk shear. Away from this zone, ductile shearing had negligible or no effect on the rocks and, therefore, the scatter of lineation remains very high.

  2. Monazite geochronology unravels the timing of crustal thickening in NW Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stübner, Konstanze; Grujic, Djordje; Parrish, Randall R.; Roberts, Nick M. W.; Kronz, Andreas; Wooden, Joe; Ahmad, Talat

    2014-12-01

    Greenschist to amphibolite grade Haimanta metasediments of the NW Himalaya preserve much of the prograde metamorphic history of Eohimalayan crustal thickening, which has been erased by Oligo-/Miocene migmatization elsewhere in the Himalaya. Our zircon and monazite U/Th-Pb data unravel a multi-stage prograde metamorphic evolution. The earliest evidence of prograde Barrovian metamorphic monazite growth is ~ 41 Ma. Peak metamorphic conditions (~ 8-8.5 kbar, ~ 600-700 °C) were attained at 37-36 Ma and followed by a prolonged evolution at high temperatures with at least three distinct episodes of monazite growth, which may be related to the formation of the northern Himalayan nappes (e.g., Shikar Beh nappe, Nyimaling nappe). Rapid exhumation of the crystalline started at ~ 26 Ma and resulted in cooling through the muscovite 40Ar/39Ar closure temperature by 21.8 Ma. Although a local continuation of the South Tibetan detachment is not unambiguously identified in central Himachal Pradesh extrusion was likely facilitated by a system of several minor late Oligocene/early Miocene top-to-the-N to NE shear zones. In contrast to the crystalline of Zanskar and eastern Himachal Pradesh, extrusion was not accompanied by widespread decompression melting.

  3. Diet of Threatened Pheasant Species in Himalayas, India – A Faecal Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shah Hussain

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine diet composition of threatened pheasant species i.e. Satyr Tragopan Tragopan satyra, Himalayan Monal Lophophorus impejanus, Kaleej Lophura leucomelana and Koklass Pucrasia macrolopha in their native forest which was never studied earlier. A study was conducted in the Kumaon region of western Himalaya for two years by collecting dropping material. Faeces were identified through direct sighting of defecating species. The diet items of each pheasant species mainly comprised plant materials followed by invertebrates and grit. A significant difference was observed in consuming food items by all pheasant species. Monal emerged as a specialist feeder on plants which were not eaten by other species. The Satyr and Koklass were more similar in terms of diet composition in both seasons while Kaleej and Monal were least similar, only invertebrates and grit were common in the diet of these species. No significant difference was observed in diet composition in different seasons of all pheasant species. The results expected to provide valuable information for the management of these pheasants in Himalayas.

  4. Glacier surface velocity estimation using SAR interferometry technique applying ascending and descending passes in Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V.; Venkataramana, G.; Høgda, K. A.

    2011-08-01

    In this study ascending and descending passes interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) techniques are used for glacier surface velocity estimation in the Himalaya. Single-track interferometric measurements are sensitive to only a single component of the three dimensional (3-D) velocity vectors. European Remote Sensing satellites (ERS-1/2) tandem mission data in ascending and descending tracks provide an opportunity to resolve the three velocity components under the assumption that glacier flow is parallel to its surface. Using the surface slope as an essential input in this technique the velocity pattern of Siachen glacier in Himalaya has been modelled. Glaciers in the Himalayan region maintain excellent coherence of SAR return signals in one-day temporal difference. As a result we could obtain spatially continuous surface velocity field with a precision of fraction of radar wavelength. The results covering the main course of glacier are analysed in terms of spatial and temporal variations. A maximum velocity of 43 cm/day has been observed in the upper middle portion of the glacier. This technique has been found accurate for monitoring the flow rates in this region, suggesting that routine monitoring of diurnal movement Himalayan glaciers would be immensely useful in the present day context of climate change.

  5. Elemental and individual particle analysis of atmospheric aerosols from high Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Zhiyuan; Kang, Shichang; Dong, Shuping; Liu, Xiande; Qin, Dahe

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols were collected during the scientific expedition to Mt. Qomolangma (Everest) in May-June, 2005. The elemental concentrations of the aerosols were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. This yielded data for the concentration of 14 elements: Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb. The mean elemental concentrations were generally comparable with those from central Asia and the Arctic, while much higher than those from Antarctic. Size, morphology, and chemical composition of 900 individual aerosol particles were determined by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Based on morphology and elemental composition, the particles were clustered into eight groups: soot (8%), tar ball (3%), alumosilicates/silica (55%), calcium sulfate (16%), Ca/Mg carbonate (2%), Fe/Ti-rich particles (3%), Pb-rich particles (1%), and biological particles (12%). The sampling site, located at 6,520 m in the Himalayas, is particularly remote and located at high altitude. Nonetheless, high aerosol enrichment factors for copper, chromium, lead, nickel, vanadium, and zinc all suggest the influence of long-range transported pollution, while enrichment in calcium and the presence of alumino-silicates in individual particle analyses indicates a distinct mineral dust influence. The backward air mass trajectories showed that the northwestern part of India may contribute to the atmospheric aerosol in the central high Himalayas. PMID:19083111

  6. Recent atmospheric dust deposition in an ombrotrophic peat bog from the Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ombrotrophic peat bogs, are important natural archives for records of atmospheric pollution by heavy metals. As continental geochemical archives in exclusively recording past atmospheric deposition, they have the unique advantage of a wide global distribution relative to ice cores. Mean annual depositional fluxes of these elements across the peat bog surface are mainly controlled by the atmospheric concentration and total rainfall. To characterize historical trends in the extent and sources of environmental pollution, a peat core from the Pinder Valley (30.05°N, 79.93°E) in the Himalaya was collected. 210Pb and 137Cs radionuclides, with well-define fallout records are used for dating the past 150 years of peat accumulation. Beyond this, 14C AMS dating was used for dating the core. The activities of radionuclides were measured using High Purity Germanium Gamma detector and the concentrations of refractory lithogenic (AI, Ca, Fe, Mn, V and Ti) and trace elements (Pb, Cu, Zn, Co, Ni, Mo, Cr, Sr and Ba) using ICP-MS. In this study, the historical records obtained from the peat bog from the Himalaya extending up to 5000 years show evidence for rising anthropogenic inputs of trace metals to the remote high altitude atmosphere since 1970s, resulting largely from fossil fuel consumption, non-ferrous metal production, coal-powered electricity generation and fertilizer use. Geochemistry of peat and the analysis of past environmental changes will be presented. (author)

  7. Seismic properties of naturally deformed quartzites of the Alaknanda valley, Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ruchika Sharma Tandon; Vikram Gupta; Koushik Sen

    2015-08-01

    The present contribution summarizes the results of a study focusing on the influence of quartz microstructures on the seismic wave velocities in the quartzites of the Garhwal Himalaya. Quartzites being monomineralic were chosen for the present study so as to nullify the effect of other mineral constituents on the seismic velocity. Samples were collected from different tectonic settings of the Higher and Lesser Himalayas which are separated from one another by the major tectonic zone ‘Main Central Thrust’ (MCT). These are mainly Pandukeshwar quartzite, Tapovan quartzite and Berinag quartzite. The samples of Berinag quartzite were collected from near the klippen and the thrust, termed as Alaknanda Thrust. The vast differences in microstructures and associated seismic wave velocities have been noted in different quartzites. It has also been observed that quartzites of the MCT zone and Alaknanda Thrust have higher seismic velocities. This is because of their coarse-grained nature of the rocks as evidenced by the strong positive relation between seismic velocities and grain area. The coarsening is either due to the operation of grain boundary migration and grain area reduction process or high aspect ratio/shape preferred orientation. The quartzites located around Nandprayag Klippen have undergone static recrystallization and exhibit the lowest seismic wave velocities.

  8. Use of objective analysis to estimate winter temperature and precipitation at different stations over western Himalaya

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jagdish Chandra Joshi; Ashwagosha Ganju

    2010-10-01

    Temperature and fresh snow are essential inputs in an avalanche forecasting model.Without these parameters,prediction of avalanche occurrence for a region would be very difficult.In the complex terrain of Himalaya,nonavailability of snow and meteorological data of the remote locations during snow storms in the winter is a common occurrence.In view of this persistent problem present study estimates maximum temperature,minimum temperature,ambient temperature and precipitation intensity on different regions of Indian western Himalaya by using similar parameters of the neighbouring regions.The location at which parameters are required and its neighbouring locations should all fall in the same snow climatic zone.Initial step to estimate the parameters at a location,is to shift the parameters of neighbouring regions at a reference height corresponding to the altitude of the location at which parameters are to be estimated.The parameters at this reference height are then spatially interpolated by using Barnes objective analysis.The parameters estimated on different locations are compared with the observed one and the Root Mean Square Errors (RMSE)of the observed and estimated values of the parameters are discussed for the winters of 2007 –2008.

  9. Wintertime land surface characteristics in climatic simulations over the western Himalayas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A P Dimri

    2012-04-01

    Wintertime regional climate studies over the western Himalayas with ICTP-RegCM3 simulations through 22 years has shown systematic biases in precipitation and temperature fields. The model simulated precipitation shows systematically wet bias. In surface temperature simulations, positive and negative biases of 2°–4°C occurred. Experiment without (CONT) and with subBATS (SUB) shows that later scheme performs better, especially for precipitation. Apart from the role of topography and model internal variability, land surface characteristics also have profound impact on these climatic variables. Therefore, in the present study, impacts of land surface characteristics are investigated through cool/wet and warm/dry winter climate by CONT and SUB simulations to assess systematic biases. Since SUB experiment uses detailed land-use classification, systematic positive biases in temperature over higher elevation peaks are markedly reduced. The change has shown reduced excessive precipitation as well. Most of the surface characteristics show that major interplay between topography and western disturbances (WDs) takes place along the foothills rather than over the higher peaks of the western Himalayas.

  10. Kashmir Basin Fault and its tectonic significance in NW Himalaya, Jammu and Kashmir, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    The Kashmir Basin Fault is located in the Jammu and Kashmir region of Kashmir Basin in NW Himalaya, India. It is a classic example of an out-of-sequence thrust faulting and is tectonically active as observed from multiple geological evidences. Its geomorphology, structure and lateral extent indicate significant accommodation of stress since long, which is further supported by the absence of a large earthquake in this region. It seems this fault is actively accommodating some portion of the total India-Eurasia convergence, apart from two well-recognised active structures the Medlicott-Wadia Thrust and the Main Frontal Thrust, which are referred in Vassallo et al. (Earth Planet Sci Lett 411:241-252, 2015). This requires its quantification and inclusion into slip distribution scheme of NW Himalaya. Therefore, it should be explored extensively because this internal out-of-sequence thrust could serve major seismic hazard in KB, repeating a situation similar to Muzaffarabad earthquake of Northern Pakistan in 2005.

  11. Longest time series of glacier mass changes in the Himalaya based on stereo imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bolch

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mass loss of Himalayan glaciers has wide-ranging consequences such as declining water resources, sea level rise and an increasing risk of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs. The assessment of the regional and global impact of glacier changes in the Himalaya is, however, hampered by a lack of mass balance data for most of the range. Multi-temporal digital terrain models (DTMs allow glacier mass balance to be calculated since the availability of stereo imagery. Here we present the longest time series of mass changes in the Himalaya and show the high value of early stereo spy imagery such as Corona (years 1962 and 1970 aerial images and recent high resolution satellite data (Cartosat-1 to calculate a time series of glacier changes south of Mt. Everest, Nepal. We reveal that the glaciers are significantly losing mass with an increasing rate since at least ~1970, despite thick debris cover. The specific mass loss is 0.32 ± 0.08 m w.e. a?1, however, not higher than the global average. The spatial patterns of surface lowering can be explained by variations in debris-cover thickness, glacier velocity, and ice melt due to exposed ice cliffs and ponds.

  12. The Role of the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau Within the Asian Monsoon System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollasina, Massimo; Benedict, Sam

    2004-07-01

    The World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) and Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) workshop on the role of the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau within the Asian Monsoon System took place on 7 8 April 2003 at the Epson Meteo Centre, Milan, Italy, hosted by the Epson Meteo Centre and the Ev-K2-CNR Committee. The meeting was motivated by the objectives of the CEOP Inter-Monsoons Model Study (CIMS), a pilot international scientific research effort to assess, validate, and improve the capabilities of climate models in simulating physical processes in monsoon regions around the world. Within the Asian monsoon system, it is well recognized that the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau exert a profound thermal and dynamical influence on the atmospheric circulation, involving a strong interaction between the land and the atmosphere. This report summarizes the aims of the meeting, the topics discussed, and the issues/recommendations to be implemented in future work.

  13. Observed linear trend in few surface weather elements over the Northwest Himalayas (NWH) during winter season

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dan Singh; Vikas Sharma; Vikas Juyal

    2015-04-01

    Linear trends in few surface weather variables such as air temperatures (maximum temperature, minimum temperature), snow and rainy days, snowfall and rainfall amounts, rainfall contribution to seasonal total precipitation amount, seasonal snow cover depth and snow cover days (duration) are examined from winter-time observations at 11 stations located over the Northwest Himalayas (NWH). This study indicates that snowfall tends to show a decline in this region, while the rainfall tends to increase during the winter months. Seasonal snow cover depth and seasonal snow cover days also tend to show a decline over the NWH. Decrease in seasonal snow cover depth and duration have reduced the winter period in terms of availability of seasonal snow cover over the NWH during the last 2–3 decades. Other surface weather variables also exhibited significant temporal changes in recent decades. Observed trends in temperature and precipitation over the NWH in recent decades are also supported by long data series of temperature over the western Himalayas (WH), north mountain India (NMI) rainfall data and reanalysis products.

  14. A CERN flag is set to wave up in the Himalayas

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberto Cantoni

    2010-01-01

    On 18 October, Hubert Reymond, from the Industrial Controls and Engineering group of the EN Department, will be leaving to Nepal with a CERN flag in his backpack. He will place it at the highest point of his trek across the Annapurna mountains in the Himalayas, Thorong La pass, at 5,416 m above sea level.   A view of the Annapurna mountains (source: www.flickr.com/minutesalone) “Is there any official CERN flag I can carry with me during my trek through Nepal?” Some days ago, the Press Office was confronted with this unusual (but see box) question from Hubert Reymond. From 18 October to 10 November, Reymond, who works as an industrial computing engineer in the EN Department, will be trekking across the 55 km-long Annapurna massif in the Himalayas, whose highest point lies at 8,091 m (making it the 10th-highest summit in the world). The area is well-known to trekkers from around the world, as it includes several world-class circuits, including the Annapurna circuit which Reym...

  15. Selection of candidate container materials for the conceptual waste package design for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary selection criteria have been developed, peer-reviewed, and applied to a field of 41 candidate materials to choose three alloys for further consideration during the advanced conceptual design phase of waste package development for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These three alloys are titanium grade 12, Alloy C-4, and Alloy 825. These selections are specific to the particular conceptual design outlined in the Site Characterization Plan. Other design concepts that may be considered in the advanced conceptual design phase may favor other materials choices

  16. Lack of Abuse Potential in a Highly Selective Dopamine D3 Agonist, PF-592,379, in Drug Self-Administration and Drug Discrimination in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Gregory T; Butler, Paul; Wayman, Chris; Ratcliffe, Sian; Gupta, Paul; Oberhofer, Geoffrey; Caine, S. Barak

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine D3-preferring agonists are commonly used to treat Parkinson’s disease and restless leg syndrome; however, laboratory animal studies suggest that they may possess a moderate abuse potential. These studies aimed to compare the highly-selective, full D3 agonist PF-592,379 to that of the less selective D3 agonist 7-OH-DPAT, and the indirect dopamine agonist cocaine in drug self-administration and discrimination assays. Although rats readily acquired high rates of fixed ratio (FR)1 respon...

  17. Selection of candidate container materials for the conceptual waste package design for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Halsey, W.G.; McCright, R.D.; Clarke, W.L. Jr. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Gdowski, G.E. [KMI, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-02-01

    Preliminary selection criteria have been developed, peer-reviewed, and applied to a field of 41 candidate materials to choose three alloys for further consideration during the advanced conceptual design phase of waste package development for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These three alloys are titanium grade 12, Alloy C-4, and Alloy 825. These selections are specific to the particular conceptual design outlined in the Site Characterization Plan. Other design concepts that may be considered in the advanced conceptual design phase may favor other materials choices.

  18. Selection bias in a population survey with registry linkage: potential effect on socioeconomic gradient in cardiovascular risk

    OpenAIRE

    Strandhagen, Elisabeth; Berg, Christina; Lissner, Lauren; Nunez, Leyla; Rosengren, Annika; Torén, Kjell; Dag S. Thelle

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Non-participation in population studies is likely to be a source of bias in many types of epidemiologic studies, including those describing social disparities in health. The objective of this paper is to present a non-attendance analysis evaluating the possible impact of selection bias, when investigating the association between education level and cardiovascular risk factors. Data from the INTERGENE research programme including 3,610 randomly selected individuals aged 25–...

  19. The b-spacing values of white micas and their metamorphic implications in the Lesser Himalaya, central Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Lalu Prasad; Arita, Kazunori

    2006-06-01

    The Lesser Himalaya in central Nepal exposes a very wide section (>80 km) of very low- to low-grade metamorphic rocks. Metamorphic data from these rocks are relatively rare because of fine-grained nature of the rocks and lack of suitable assemblage for themobarometric calculations. In the present study, b-spacing measurements and compositional analyses were carried out on white micas in very low- to low-grade metapelites collected along the Kali Gandaki river valley and Tansen-Pokhara road sections to determine evidence of polymetamorphism and P-T conditions of metamorphism. The study showed that the Lesser Himalaya experienced at least two metamorphic events, one prior to the Upper Main Central Thrust (Upper MCT) activity (pre-Himalayan? or M 0) and the other during the Upper MCT activity (Neohimalayan or M 2). The M 0 produced celadonite-rich white micas defining the S 1(=S 0) foliation which pre-dates the Upper MCT event. The M 0 white micas were partially or completely re-equilibrated during M 2. The white micas recrystallized during M 2 are relatively celadonite-poor and define S 2 foliation. The M 2 was of an intermediate-P type (Barrovian-type) in the south of the Phalebas Thrust while it was of relatively high-T type in the north near the Upper MCT. The geothermal gradient varied from 22 °C km -1 in the south to 26 °C km -1 in the north. The northward increase in geothermal gradient is thought to be due to the heat transfer from hot Higher Himalaya or shear heating along the Upper MCT as suggested by Le Fort [Le Fort, P., 1975. Himalaya, the collided range: present knowledge of the continental arc. American Journal of Science 275A, 1-44. Arita, K., 1983. Origin of the inverted metamorphism of the Lower Himalayas, central Nepal. Tectonophysics 95, 43-60].

  20. Transport of sediments in Himalaya-Karakorum and its influence on hydropower plants; Sedimenttransportprozesse im Himalaya-Karakorum und ihre Bedeutung fuer Wasserkraftanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palt, S.M.

    2001-07-01

    In the present study the sediment transport processes in alpine mountain areas and their impact on hydropower development projects are investigated. The aim of the present work is to contribute to the understanding of the transport process system, which is characterized by high magnitude-low frequency - events, to ensure an appropriate layout of high head hydropower projects in mountain regions. The sediment transport in large areas in the macro scale is triggered by natural hazards, such as earthquakes, rock slides, earth movements, debris flows, glacial lake outbursts and floods. The basic principle of complex transport processes in this scale is described and explained on the example of the Himalaya-Karakorum-region. The sediment transport process in the smaller scale, so called meso scale, is investigated by means of extensive field measurements at river reaches of 16 different mountain rivers of a 80000 km{sup 2} large project area. The measurements include topographic survey works and measurements of discharge, bed load and suspended load. Since the conditions of mountain rivers in terms of size of bed material as well as available flow velocities can be considered as extreme, an appropriate bed load sampler named B-69 was developed, constructed and used in the field. Moreover the hydraulic as well as the sedimentological efficiency of the sampler was tested in the laboratory tests. Due to the nice performance of the bed load sampler B-69 at high flow velocities it might be useful for flood conditions in gravel-bed rivers in other parts of the world as well. Based on the results of the study the parameter of the river slope can be considered as the most important one for the characteristics of the morphology, the flow conditions, the bed stability as well as the bed load transport in steep mountain rivers. With increasing slope morphological structures in the longitudinal direction will develop from flat bed conditions. The so called step-pool-systems consist of a cascade of staircase local falls. Their distance in-between the falls as well as their height difference at the steps is strongly depending on the river slope. (orig.) [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit beschaeftigt sich mit den Sedimenttransportprozessen in alpinen Gebirgsregionen und deren Auswirkungen auf Wasserkraftanlagen. Ziel der Arbeit ist es, zum Verstaendnis des natuerlichen Sedimenttransportes mit der fuer Gebirgsregionen typischen Charakteristik von 'High Magnitude-Low Frequency - Prozessen' beizutragen, um eine den Transportverhaeltnissen geeignete Auslegung von geplanten Wasserkraftanlagen zu finden. Am Beispiel der Gebirgsregion des Himalaya-Karakorums werden die komplexen Transportvorgaenge im grossraeumigen Raum des Makromassstabes erlaeutert. Dabei wird auf die Massentransporte eingegangen, die durch Naturgefahren wie Erdbeben, Felsgleitungen, Erdrutsche, Muren, Gletscherbrueche und Hochwaesser ausgeloest werden. Der Schwerpunkt der Arbeit liegt in der Durchfuehrung von umfangreichen Naturmessungen im untergeordneten Raum des Mesomassstabes im Bereich von einzelnen Flussabschnitten. Die Naturmessungen umfassen morphologische und topographische Aufnahmen, Abfliessmessungen, Geschiebe- sowie Schwebstoffmessungen an 16 Gebirgsfluessen eines insgesamt 80000 km{sup 2} grossen Projektgebietes im Himalaya-Karakorum. Aufgrund der extremen Verhaeltnisse der Gebirgsfluesse der Region hinsichtlich vorhandener Korngroesse des Bettmaterials sowie die Groessenordnung der Fliessgeschwindigkeiten wurde fuer die Untersuchungen eigens der mobile Geschiebesammler B-69 entwickelt, gebaut und auf seine hydraulische und sedimentologische Effizienz hin geprueft. Der Einsatz des B-69 hat sich im Feld bewaehrt und ist fuer weitere Anwendungen bei Hochwasserereignissen in kiesfuehrenden Fluessen geeignet. Als massgebender Parameter zur Beschreibung der Morphologie, der Stroemung, der Sohlenstabilitaet und des Geschiebetransportes von Gebirgsfluessen im Mesomassstab konnte das Gefaelle I festgestellt werden. Das Gefaelle ist bestimmend fuer die Ausbildung d

  1. Plants of the Cerrado naturally selected by grazing sheep may have potential for inhibiting development of Haemonchus contortus larva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais-Costa, Franciellen; Soares, Ana Cláudia Maia; Bastos, Gabriela Almeida; Nunes, Yule Roberta Ferreira; Geraseev, Luciana Castro; Braga, Fernão Castro; Dos Santos Lima, Walter; Duarte, Eduardo Robson

    2015-10-01

    Plant species naturally selected by sheep grazing in the Cerrado region of Brazil were assessed in vitro for activity against Haemonchus contortus. One year of observations showed the plant families in the region exhibiting greatest richness to be Fabaceae, Rubiaceae, Malpighiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Myrtaceae, and Annonaceae. Nine species commonly selected by grazing sheep showed variation in the selectivity index with respect to the dry and rainy seasons. Coproculture was conducted in five replicates of 11 treatments: ivermectin, distilled water, or dehydrated leaves of nine selected plant species administered at 333.3 mg g(-1) fecal culture. The dried powder of Piptadenia viridiflora and Ximenia americana leaves significantly reduced the number of infective larvae compared to the distilled water control. These species showed efficacy of over 85 % despite low concentrations of proanthocyanidin. High-performance liquid chromatography analyses of extracts of these plants showed major peaks of UV spectra characteristic of flavonoids. Those naturally selected plant species with high antihelminthic efficacy show promise for use in diet as an alternative control of H. contortus in sheep. PMID:26085457

  2. Proposed nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy concerning foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel: Appendix D, selection and evaluation of potential ports of entry. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is an appendix to a draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on a proposed nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy concerning foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel. This appendix describes the process used by the Department of Energy in selecting the potential ports of entry analyzed in this EIS. In addition the appendix provides the basic information required to evaluate ports and port activities, and the potential environmental impacts (incident-free and accidents) associated with the receipt and handling of foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel from vessels to intermodal transport in ports

  3. Modelling glacier change in the Everest region, Nepal Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Shea

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we apply a glacier mass balance and ice redistribution model to simulate historical and future glacier change in the Everest region of Nepal. High-resolution temperature and precipitation fields derived from gridded APHRODITE data, and validated against independent station observations from the EVK2CNR network, are used to drive the historical model from 1961 to 2007. The model is calibrated against geodetically derived estimates of net glacier mass change from 1992 to 2008, termini position of four large glaciers at the end of the calibration period, average velocities observed on selected debris-covered glaciers, and total glacierized area. We integrate field-based observations of glacier mass balance and ice thickness with remotely-sensed observations of decadal glacier change to validate the model. Between 1961 and 2007, the mean modelled volume change over the Dudh Kosi basin is ?6.4 ± 1.5 km3, a decrease of 15.6% from the original estimated ice volume in 1961. Modelled glacier area change between 1961 and 2007 is ?101.0 ± 11.4 km2, a decrease of approximately 20% from the initial extent. Scenarios of future climate change, based on CMIP5 RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 end members, suggest that glaciers in the Everest region will continue to lose mass through the 21st century. Glaciers in the basin are concentrated between 5000 and 6000 m of elevation, and are thus expected to be sensitive to changes in temperature and equilibrium line altitude (ELA. Glacier volume reductions between ?35 to ?62% are possible by 2050, and sustained temperature increases to 2100 may result in total glacier volume losses of between ?73 and ?96%.

  4. Evaluation of potential mineral resources in the vicinity of seven selected domes in Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report attempts to evaluate, as quantitatively as reasonable, the possible potential resources around seven salt domes in East Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. Any estimation of possible potential resources is difficult under the most favorable circumstances, so in the absence of precise geophysical data supplemented by drilling, any such estimates must be considered best-guess estimates. It is possible, however, to achieve a range of possible amounts of potential resources, the maximal ranges being impractical but, providing a framework within which future data will categorize and evaluate the resources more precisely. These volumetric ranges of potential resources for each dome have been estimated and each dome then ranked on a scale of 1 to 10 for (a) prospectivity of the enclosing stratigraphic sequences, (b) structural prospectivity, (c) prospectivity relative to different possible potential resources, and (d) a collective prospectivity

  5. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 1. Data, maps, models and methods used for selection of potential areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-07-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings plus different types of material from the research periods) and radioactive waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The Minister for Health and Prevention presented the background and decision plan for the Danish Parliament in January 2009. All political parties agreed on the plan. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. In the present study, the salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included. The present report briefly describes the existing data collections (including databases, maps and models), that are used during the work of selection of ca. 20 potentially suitable areas. Most of the information is stored in GEUS databases: Location of boreholes, borehole data, rock sediment and ground water compounds, maps, geophysical data and much more, but information is also collected from other institutions. The methods are described in more details (chapter 6) and this description is the direct background for the selection process, the characterisation of the 20 areas and for the final selection of the 2 or 3 most potential sites. (LN)

  6. The relevance of corporate social responsibility for a sustainable human resource management: An analysis of organizational attractiveness as a determinant in employees' selection of a (potential) employer

    OpenAIRE

    Lis, Bettina

    2012-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has become a central issue of business management in recent years. This study aims to add to the literature by pointing out the relevance of CSR for a Sustainable Human Resource Management (HRM). In particular this research investigates job seekers' perceptions of CSR. The paper focuses on the importance of CSR with in the process of selecting potential employers by analyzing the impact of four different CSR-dimensions upon organizational attractiveness. ...

  7. Phenological attributes of Angelica glauca and A. archangelica expressed at two different climatic zones in Western Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiv K. Vashistha; Jitendra S. Butola; B.P. Nautiyal; M.C. Nautiyal

    2010-01-01

    Angelica glauca Edgew. and A. archangelica Linn., are high value medicinal and aromatic plants of the Himalaya. The present study examined phenological attributes of these species under cultivation at two different climatic zones in Western Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India. Plants of both species were cultivated in Tungnath (TN), an alpine zone (3600 m asl) and in Pothivasa (PV), a temperate zone (2200 m asl). The results showed that the commencement and completion periods of phenophases, viz., g...

  8. High resolution maping of the crustal architecture by ambient noise tomography in the North Western Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N.; Aoudia, A.; Hazarika, D.; Yadav, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    A sizeable mid-crustal low velocity layer is mapped beneath the North-Western (NW) Himalaya and clear evidence for a decollement plane is reported. We performed ambient noise tomography for the NW Himalaya region using data of 31 broadband seismic stations. The ray paths sample the Himalayan region, the south Tibetan detachment zone and the Indo-Tsangpo suture zone, therefore covering the boundary regions of Indian and Eurasian plates to the South of the Karakoram fault. This part of the Himalayan region has witnessed devastating earthquakes such as Kashmir earthquake of 2005 and Kangra earthquake of 1905 along with many strong events. Rayleigh and Love waves data is utilized to extract dispersion curves for more than 500 paths for each wave. The spatial regional difference for group velocities are mapped for the periods in the range 4-40 sec, however most of the data are for period lower than 30 sec. The 2D tomography maps of fundamental mode highlight high lateral variations that may account for sub-surface tectonic deformation and variable crustal thicknesses. Larger variations are depicted for high period Rayleigh waves rather than Love waves and this mainly for the paths passing close to India-Tibet tectonic boundary. This study based on latest data gives new detail of sub-surface structural setup of the western part of Himalaya highlighting a low velocity mid-crustal layer characterized by an absence of lower crustal seismicity below decollment plane . A clear discontinuity within the physical properties mimics a possible decollement plane that could transfer sizeable earthquakes. Specifically a minimum value of Rayleigh wave velocity close to the decollement zone is reported and may likely correspond to mineral anisotropy while its existence to the lower part can be due to partial melting as per previous finding. The influence of Moho on the dispersion data suggests that this discontinuity is dipping towards north. However in the northern part close to India-Tibet plate tectonic boundary the Moho should be deeper than the efficiency of available data.

  9. Polyphase (Miocene-Pleistocene?) slip on the South Tibetan Fault system in the Dhaulagiri Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, J. A.; Hodges, K.; van Soest, M. C.

    2009-12-01

    The major detachments of the South Tibetan fault system (STFS) define a physiographic transition that can be traced along most of the length of the Himalayan orogen. The STFS has been assigned an Early-Middle Miocene initiation age, but recent geomorphic, structural and thermochronologic studies suggest that extensional deformation may have continued into the Pliocene and even Pleistocene epochs along some strands. Our recent work in the Kali Gandaki and Myagdi valleys of central Nepal (28°30'N-28°40'N; 83°20'E-83°45'E) adds to the mounting evidence for young STFS displacement. . The previously unmapped “Larjung detachment” is a low-angle (~15-20°), north-dipping structure that crops out within Cambrian(?) greenschist-facies calc-silicate rocks of Tibetan Sedimentary Sequence in the Dhaulagiri Himalaya. This detachment is roughly 2 kilometers structurally above and less steeply dipping than the previously mapped basal structure of the STFS in the region, the Annapurna detachment (AD). Our observations in the Kali Gandaki and Myagdi valleys reveal that the Larjung detachment expresses as a 1- to 10-m thick, brittle-ductile, shear zone. In the Myagdi valley, ductile fabrics indicate oblique slip on this structure in the direction N62°E, with normal and dextral components. On the basis of structural similarities, we link the Larjung detachment to the Machhapuchhare detachment in the Modi Khola drainage and the Phu detachment in the Marsyandi drainage farther east in the Annapurna Himalaya. We have collected a suite of samples in both the Kali Gandaki and Myagdi valleys for low-temperature thermochronometry aimed at constraining the ages of various strands of the STFS in the Dhaulagiri Himalaya. Preliminary (U-Th)/He dating of single crystals of zircon and apatite below the Larjung detachment exhibit consistently young cooling ages (<3.4 Ma). We found no statistically significant evidence of a distinctive age discontinuity across the AD, implying that the amount of Quaternary slip on that structure documented by Hurtado et al. (2001) was too small to be expressed as a thermochronologic discontinuity. On the other hand, one apatite (U-Th)/He date obtained thus far from the hanging wall of the Larjung detachment (12.26±0.49 Ma (2SE)) is significantly older than all sample dates from its footwall. Hurtado et al. (2001) GSA Bulletin, v. 113, p. 222

  10. Glacier dynamics of the Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya region over the last 40 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourmelen, N.; Dehecq, A.; Trouvé, E.

    2014-12-01

    Climate warming over the 20th century has caused drastic changes in mountain glaciers globally, and of the Himalayan glaciers in particular. The stakes are high; glaciers and ice caps are the largest contributor to the increase in the mass of the world's oceans, and the Himalayas play a key role in the hydrology of the region, impacting on the economy, food safety and flood risk. Partial monitoring of the Himalayan glaciers has revealed a mixed picture; while many of the Himalayan glaciers are retreating, in some cases locally stable or advancing glaciers in this region have also been observed. But recent controversies have highlighted the need to understand the glaciers dynamic and its relationship with climate change in the region. Earth Observation provides a mean for global and long-term monitoring of mountain glaciers' dynamics. In the frame of the Dragon program, a partnership between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Chinese Center for Earth Observation (NRSCC), we begun a monitoring program aimed at quantifying multidecadal changes in glaciers' flow at the scale of the entire Himalayas and Karakoram from a 40 years' archive of Earth Observation. Ultimately, the provision of a global and time-sensitive glaciers velocity product will help to understand the evolution of the Himalayan glaciers in lights of glaciological (e.g. presence of debris-cover, surges, proglacial lakes) and climatic conditions. Here we present a region-wide analysis of annual and seasonnal glacier flow velocity covering the Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya region obtained from the analysis of the entire archive of Landsat data. Over 90% of the ice-covered regions, as defined by the Randolph Glacier Inventory, are measured, with precision on the retrieved velocity of the order of 2 m/yr. We show that the first order temporal evolution of glacier flow mirrors the pattern of glacier mass balance. We observe a general decrease of ice velocity in regions of known ice mass loss, and a more complex patterns consisting of mixed acceleration and decrease of ice velocity in regions that are known to be affected by stable mass balance and surge-like behavior.

  11. Fluoxetine potentiation of methylphenidate-induced neuropeptide expression in the striatum occurs selectively in direct pathway (striatonigral) neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent VAN WAES; Carr, Betsy; Beverley, Joel A.; Steiner, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Concomitant therapies combining psychostimulants such as methylphenidate and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are used to treat several mental disorders, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder/depression comorbidity. The neurobiological consequences of these drug combinations are poorly understood. Methylphenidate alone induces gene regulation that mimics partly effects of cocaine, consistent with some addiction liability. We previously showed that the SSRI fluoxeti...

  12. Ethnomedicinal and ecological status of plants in Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Mehraj A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The northern part of India harbours a great diversity of medicinal plants due to its distinct geography and ecological marginal conditions. The traditional medical systems of northern India are part of a time tested culture and honored still by people today. These traditional systems have been curing complex disease for more than 3,000 years. With rapidly growing demand for these medicinal plants, most of the plant populations have been depleted, indicating a lack of ecological knowledge among communities using the plants. Thus, an attempt was made in this study to focus on the ecological status of ethnomedicinal plants, to determine their availability in the growing sites, and to inform the communities about the sustainable exploitation of medicinal plants in the wild. Methods The ecological information regarding ethnomedicinal plants was collected in three different climatic regions (tropical, sub-tropical and temperate for species composition in different forest layers. The ecological information was assessed using the quadrate sampling method. A total of 25 quadrats, 10 × 10 m were laid out at random in order to sample trees and shrubs, and 40 quadrats of 1 × 1 m for herbaceous plants. In each climatic region, three vegetation sites were selected for ecological information; the mean values of density, basal cover, and the importance value index from all sites of each region were used to interpret the final data. Ethnomedicinal uses were collected from informants of adjacent villages. About 10% of inhabitants (older, experienced men and women were interviewed about their use of medicinal plants. A consensus analysis of medicinal plant use between the different populations was conducted. Results Across the different climatic regions a total of 57 species of plants were reported: 14 tree species, 10 shrub species, and 33 herb species. In the tropical and sub-tropical regions, Acacia catechu was the dominant tree while Ougeinia oojeinensis in the tropical region and Terminalia belerica in the sub-tropical region were least dominant reported. In the temperate region, Quercus leucotrichophora was the dominant tree and Pyrus pashia the least dominant tree. A total of 10 shrubs were recorded in all three regions: Adhatoda vasica was common species in the tropical and sub-tropical regions however, Rhus parviflora was common species in the sub-tropical and temperate regions. Among the 33 herbs, Sida cordifolia was dominant in the tropical and sub-tropical regions, while Barleria prionitis the least dominant in tropical and Phyllanthus amarus in the sub-tropical region. In temperate region, Vernonia anthelmintica was dominant and Imperata cylindrica least dominant. The consensus survey indicated that the inhabitants have a high level of agreement regarding the usages of single plant. The index value was high (1.0 for warts, vomiting, carminative, pain, boils and antiseptic uses, and lowest index value (0.33 was found for bronchitis. Conclusion The medicinal plants treated various ailments. These included diarrhea, dysentery, bronchitis, menstrual disorders, gonorrhea, pulmonary affections, migraines, leprosy. The ecological studies showed that the tree density and total basal cover increased from the tropical region to sub-tropical and temperate regions. The species composition changed with climatic conditions. Among the localities used for data collection in each climatic region, many had very poor vegetation cover. The herbaceous layer decreased with increasing altitude, which might be an indication that communities at higher elevations were harvesting more herbaceous medicinal plants, due to the lack of basic health care facilities. Therefore, special attention needs to be given to the conservation of medicinal plants in order to ensure their long-term availability to the local inhabitants. Data on the use of individual species of medicinal plants is needed to provide an in-depth assessment of the plants availability in order to design conservation strategies to protect individual sp

  13. Effect of process parameters upon the dopamine and lipid peroxidation activity of selected MIG welding fumes as a marker of potential neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, N J; Evans, A T; Yeung, C K; Hewitt, P J

    2001-04-01

    There is growing concern over the neurotoxic effects of chronic occupational exposure to metal fume produced by welding. Elevated iron and manganese levels in the brain have been linked to an increase in lipid peroxidation, dopamine depletion and predisposition to the development of a Parkinson's type condition in advanced cases. Chemical and toxicological analysis of selected welding fumes, generated by model processes, were used in order to evaluate their potential to release solutes that promote oxidation of dopamine and peroxidation of brain lipids in cell free assays. This study compared the effect of shield gas, electrode type and voltage/currect upon the dopamine and brain lipid peroxidation potential of selected welding fume, obtained from metal inert gas (MIG) welding systems. Overall, fume extracts were found to enhance dopamine oxidation and inhibit lipid peroxidation. Significant differences were also found in the oxidising potential of fume generated under differing process conditions; it may therefore be possible to determine the potential neurotoxicity of fumes using this system. PMID:11295141

  14. Identification of potential nuclear reprogramming and differentiation factors by a novel selection method for cloning chromatin-binding proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear reprogramming is critical for animal cloning and stem cell creation through nuclear transfer, which requires extensive remodeling of chromosomal architecture involving dramatic changes in chromatin-binding proteins. To understand the mechanism of nuclear reprogramming, it is critical to identify chromatin-binding factors specify the reprogramming process. In this report, we have developed a high-throughput selection method, based on T7 phage display and chromatin immunoprecipitation, to isolate chromatin-binding factors expressed in mouse embryonic stem cells using primary mouse embryonic fibroblast chromatin. Seven chromatin-binding proteins have been isolated by this method. We have also isolated several chromatin-binding proteins involved in hepatocyte differentiation. Our method provides a powerful tool to rapidly and selectively identify chromatin-binding proteins. The method can be used to study epigenetic modification of chromatin during nuclear reprogramming, cell differentiation, and transdifferentiation

  15. Selectivity in the potentiation of antibacterial activity of ?-peptide/?-peptoid peptidomimetics and antimicrobial peptides by human blood plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hein-Kristensen, Line; Knapp, Kolja M.

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising leads for novel antibiotics; however, their activity is often compromised under physiological conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the activity of alpha-peptide/beta-peptoid peptidomimetics and AMPs against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in the presence of human blood-derived matrices and immune effectors. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of two peptidomimetics against E. coli decreased by up to one order of magnitude when determined in 50% blood plasma as compared to MHB media. The MIC of a membrane-active AMP, LL-I/3, also decreased, whereas two intracellularly acting AMPs were not potentiated by plasma. Blood serum had no effect on activity against E. coli and neither matrix had an effect on activity against S. aureus. Unexpectedly, physiological concentrations of human serum albumin did not influence activity. Plasma potentiation was not mediated by an LL-37 analogue, lysozyme or hydrogen peroxide; however, plasma potentiation of activity was abolished when the complement system was heat-inactivated. Time-course experiments indicated that potentiation was due to plasma-mediated effects on bacterial cells prior to activities of peptidomimetics. The unexpected enhancement of antibacterial activity of peptidomimetics and AMPs under physiological conditions significantly increases the therapeutic potential of these compounds. (C) 2013 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Late Cenozoic exhumation and timing of the deformation front of the Kashmir Himalayas from U-Th/(He) thermochronometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavillot, Y. G.; Meigs, A.; Stockli, D. F.; Malik, M. M.

    2013-12-01

    Apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He cooling ages are used to quantify the recent exhumation pattern associated with fault activity across the Kashmir Himalayas. Here we present data from thirty samples, totaling of 74 individual single-grain apatite and zircon dated aliquots. Cooling age data were collected from (1) molasse sediments of the Murree and Siwalik Formations from structures in the Sub-Himalayan belt (deformed foreland) and from (2) metasediments and plutonic rocks exhumed in the 'hinterland'. Structures of the Sub-Himalayan belt include the Suruin-Mastgarh anticline (SMA) at the deformation front, equivalent to the Himalayan Frontal thrust (HFT), and emergent local faults to the north (e.g. the Riasi thrust (RT)). In the hinterland, the Main Boundary (MBT) and Main Central (MCT) thrust sheets bound the Sub-Himalayan belt to the north. Apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) cooling ages for the molasses sediments are consistently younger than the sediment age indicating that Sub-Himalayan belt samples are reset. Mean cooling age data based on the single grain populations from each sample ranges from ~1-10 Ma. Single grain and mean age probability density plots reveal a period of rapid cooling and exhumation between 1.8-2.75 Ma throughout the Sub-Himalaya. Distributed deformation associated with northward underthrusting along the MHT, and the onset of folding related to the SMA explains the regional exhumation of the Sub-Himalaya after ~2.75 Ma. Four samples from the hinterland MBT and MCT thrust sheets yield AHe cooling ages between ~5-21 Ma. Three of the samples have cooling ages between 4.7-7.2 Ma, likely coeval with activity of the MBT. Zircon (U-Th)/He (ZHe) samples from the hinterland are younger than the ages of the metasedimentary or plutonic source rocks. Most sample ages from the Sub-Himalaya are older or the same to the depositional age and are therefore detrital. Probability density plots of hinterland ZHe data show a pronounced spike in cooling between 16-21 Ma, with the same age cluster from the Sub-Himalayan samples, a period where MCT motion is well documented throughout the Himalaya. Cooling patterns across the Kashmir Himalayas thus suggest that distributed rather than localized break-forward deformation characterizes fault related exhumation for the Himalayan orogenic wedge development after ~20 Ma.

  17. Earthquake Risk Analysis and Science for Peace in Western/ Kashmir Himalayas - A Road Map for Transnational Subsurface Earth Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, K.

    2006-12-01

    In light of immense human tragedy caused by the Kashmir earthquake of October 8, 2005, there is a need for transnational science for the assessment of future earthquake risks and understanding continental dynamics within the Western and Kashmir Himalayas. One can approach such a test to our society through understanding what causes these earthquakes in Kashmir in the first place in a rigorous manner and also try to determine how often do they happen in Western/ Kashmir Himalayas. Geophysical measurements (passive source, active source seismology, magnetotelluric measurements, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)) are imaging techniques for earth's deeper as well as shallow structure. When such imaging techniques are used on scales of earth's crust and beyond (~30 km to 100 km) and also on near the surface (~10 to100 meters) of the earth, it helps us understand both the processes for the origin and frequency of the earthquakes. Here, I will only concentrate on a road map for planning regional reflection seismology (active source seismology) surveys within the context of National Science Foundation (NSF) led Science for Peace Initiative primarily involving USA, India, and Pakistan. The proposal here is to initiate shallow and deep active source surveys in mega-population cities in Punjab and adjoining areas in Western Himalayas on either side of the political boundaries of India and Pakistan as separate ventures for first few years but a start for future collaboration. Once the core scientific teams are formed involving Indian, Pakistani, American, and scientists from other nations too, then the Indus Kohistan Seismic Zone in the Kashmir Himalayas should be the target for detailed geophysical and geological investigations. The idea presented here was first formed for the NSF sponsored International Karakoram-Kashmir Workshop that was supposed to be held in Islamabad (Pakistan), May 2006 with around 100 invitees from 10 nations for forming joint scientific initiatives. However, due to security concerns by the Government of Pakistan, the meeting was postponed at the 11th hour. Such political constraints invariably become the most dominant factor whether such bold endeavors can even be initiated, and the first order business is to convince the policy makers and scientists from India, Pakistan, USA, and other countries at all possible forums including AGU, the need and urgency for such transnational initiatives. The broader impacts are science and earthquake risk analysis in Western/ Kashmir Himalayas, lay framework for long-term policy decisions for earthquake hazards in Himalayas, and instrument for peace initiative.

  18. Pictorial keys for predominant Bactrocera and Dacus fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae of north western Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Prabhakar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A pictorial key for 13 species of fruit flies under 2 genera namely Bactrocera and Dacus of subfamily Dacinae (Diptera: Tephritidae is presented in this paper based on actual photographs of fruit flies collected from north western Himalaya of India during 2009-2010. Among these, Bactrocera diversa (Coquillett, Bactrocera scutellaris (Bezzi, Bactrocera tau (Walker, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders, Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel, Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel and Dacus ciliatus Loew are the pests of agricultural and horticultural ecosystems. Bactrocera latifrons, Bactrocera nigrofemoralis White and Tsuruta, Dacus longicornis Wiedemann and Dacus sphaeroidalis (Bezzi are the new records from the region of which host range has yet to be investigated. The pictorial keysdeveloped for these species will help the researchers for their easy and accurate identification.

  19. Population genetic study of Fagopyrum tataricum from Western Himalaya using ISSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Garima; Pandey, Anjana; Dobhal, Rajendra; Gupta, Sanjay

    2013-10-01

    Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were used to analyze genetic diversity and relatedness of 15 germplasms of Fagopyrum tataricum. Samples representing 75 individuals were collected from a range of altitudes in the Western Himalaya. The 13 ISSR primers revealed 98.1% polymorphism among populations, whereas average polymorphism was extremely low (2.18%) within populations. The coefficient of population differentiation was 0.9750, with limited gene flow (N m) of 0.0128. The average PIC value of the ISSR markers was high (0.812), with a marker ratio of 0.65 and marker index of 6.66. The genetic diversity of F. tataricum significantly correlated with altitude and gene diversity, Shannon's index, and the percentage of polymorphic bands. The genetic diversity among populations showed broad genetic base and provided a developmental strategy for crop improvement. PMID:23743875

  20. Direct evidence for a steep geotherm under conditions of rapid denudation, Western Himalaya, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, David M.; Zeitler, Peter K.; Page Chamberlain, C.; Hollister, Lincoln S.

    1994-12-01

    Recent fluid-inclusion and 40Ar/39Ar cooling-age data show that currently exposed basement rocks in the Raikhot glacier valley of the Nanga Parbat-Haramosh massif, Pakistan Himalaya, were at temperatures of 350 ± 50 °C at depths of 6 ± 2 km (hydrostatic pressure correction). These data imply the presence of a steep thermal gradient in the upper crust at 1 Ma (29-100 °C/km) and denudation rates over the past 1.0 m.y. of 3-6 mm/yr, providing independent corroboration of previous estimates of rapid denudation at Nanga Parbat (4.5 mm/yr over 3.3 m.y.). Our data provide direct documentation of near-surface compaction of isotherms under conditions of rapid denudation, a result that has long been supported by thermal modeling.

  1. Seasonal Variation in Essential oil Composition of Artemisianilagirica var. septentrionalis from Foot Hills of Western Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Chandra Padalia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils composition of the aerial parts of Artemisia nilagirica (Clarke Pamp. var. septentrionalis Pamp. in different seasons viz. spring, summer, rainy, autumn and winter seasons under foot hills agroclimatic conditions of western Himalaya were analyzed and compared by GC–FID and GC–MS. Essential oils were mainly composed of monoterpenoids (59.0%-77.3% and sesquiterpenoids (15.7%-31.6%. The major constituents identified were artemisia ketone (38.3%-61.2%, chrysanthenone (1.5%-7.7%, germacrene D (3.1%-6.8%, ?-caryophyllene (1.9%-6.8%, germacra-4,5,10-trien-1-?-ol (1.9%-4.9% and artemisia alcohol (1.4%-3.6%. Compositional analysis showed significant variations in the terpenoid compositions due to seasonal variations. Further, this is for the first time the seasonal variations in essential oil compositions of artemisia ketone rich chemotype of A. nilagirica var. septentrionalis is being reported from India.

  2. Similarities and differences of aerosol optical properties between southern and northern slopes of the Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Xu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Himalayas is located at the southern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, and it acts as a natural barrier for the transport of atmospheric aerosols, e.g. from the polluted regions of South Asia to the main body of the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we investigate the seasonal and diurnal variations of aerosol optical properties measured at the three Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET sites over the southern (Pokhara station and EVK2-CNR station in Nepal and northern (Qomolangma (Mt. Everest station for Atmospheric and Environmental Observation and Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (QOMS_CAS in Tibet, China slopes of the Himalayas. While observations at QOMS_CAS and EVK2-CNR can generally be representative of a remote background atmosphere, Pokhara is an urban site with much higher aerosol load due to the influence of local anthropogenic activities. The annual mean of aerosol optical depth (AOD during the investigated period was 0.06 at QOMS_CAS, 0.04 at EVK2-CNR and 0.51 at Pokhara, respectively. Seasonal variations of aerosols are profoundly affected by large scale atmospheric circulation. Vegetation fires, peaking during April in the Himalayan region and northern India, contribute to a growing fine mode AOD at 500 nm at the three stations. Dust transported to these sites results in an increase of coarse mode AOD during the monsoon season at the three sites. Meanwhile, coarse mode AOD at EVK2-CNR is higher than QOMS_CAS from July to September, indicating the Himalayas blocks the coarse particles carried by the southwest winds. The precipitation scavenging effect is obvious at Pokhara, which can significantly reduce the aerosol load during the monsoon season. Unlike the seasonal variations, diurnal variations are mainly influenced by meso-scale systems and local topography. In general, precipitation can lead to a decrease of the aerosol load and the average particle size at each station. AOD changes in a short time with the emission rate near the emission source at Pokhara, while does not at the other two stations in remote regions. AOD increases during daytime due to the valley winds at EVK2-CNR, while this diurnal variation of AOD is absent at the other two stations. The surface heating influences the local convection, which further controls the vertical aerosol exchange and the diffusion rate of pollutions to the surrounding areas. The Himalayas blocks most of the coarse particles across the mountains. Fine and coarse mode particles are mixed to make atmospheric composition more complex on the southern slope in spring, which leads to the greater inter-annual difference in diurnal cycles of Ångström exponent (AE at EVK2-CNR than that at QOMS_CAS.

  3. Constituents of Artemisia gmelinii Weber ex Stechm. from Uttarakhand Himalaya: A source of artemisia ketone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Z Haider

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils isolated from the aerial parts of two different populations of Artemisia gmelinii growing in Uttarakhand Himalaya region were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS in order to determine the variation of concentration in their constituents. Artemisia ketone was detected as a major constituent in both the populations i.e., Niti valley and Jhelum samples. Niti oil was found to have considerably greater amounts of artemesia ketone (53.34% followed by ?-thujone (9.91% and 1,8-cineole (6.57%, Similarly, the first major compound in Jhelum oil was artemesia ketone (40.87%, whereas ar-curcumene (8.54% was identified as a second major compound followed by ?-thujone (4.04%. Artemisia ketone can be useful for perfumery and fragrance to introduce new and interesting herbaceous notes.

  4. FAIR FESTIVAL AND THERE RELIGIOUS BELIEF IN HIMACHAL HIMALAYA - A STUDY OF BUDI DIWALI OF NIRMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiramani Kashyap

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Himachal Pradesh is also known as the land of god and goddess. It is situated in lap of western Himalaya and full of natural and cultural beauty. Budi Diwali fair is held on Maghar Amawasya for three days in Village Nirmand of Kullu district. It is associated with the battle of Mahabharta which is said to have started on that day. It is also associated to commemorate the killing of two demons Dano and Asur, who resided at Nirmand in the form of snake. It starts with a brief recital of Mahabharta and story of Raja Bali through folk songs. Present study is based on that how this Budi Diwali fair is celebrated, what are the religious beliefs behind it and why this is important to celebrate in Nirmand area.

  5. Tibetan garnet records early Eocene initiation of thickening in the Himalaya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Matthijs Arjen; Hacker, Bradley

    2014-01-01

    Tectonic reconstructions of the Himalayan orogeny depend on the age at which crustal thickening commenced. To investigate this age, we analyzed garnet from middle crustal rocks exposed in the north Himalayan Mabja and Kangmar gneiss domes of Tibet using Lu-Hf geochronology. Garnet yielded Lu-Hf ages of 54–52 Ma in Mabja and 51–49 Ma in Kangmar samples. On the basis of microstructural and major element and rare earth element zoning observations, the Lu-Hf ages are interpreted as recording garnet growth during contractional deformation in the middle crust at 54.3 ± 0.6 Ma, followed by variable recrystallization during subsequent high-temperature ductile extension. The new Lu-Hf ages are the first to confirm that crustal thickening and contraction in the Tibetan Himalaya was broadly synchronous with the early Eocene collision between Greater India and the Eurasian plate

  6. Seasonal Variation of Benthic Macro Invertebrates from Tons River of Garhwal Himalaya Uttarakhand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheetal Mamgain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Present investigation was carried out to assess the seasonal variation of benthic macro-invertebrates from the Tons river, a tributary of Yamuna River in Garhwal Himalaya, Uttrakhand during December, 2007 to November, 2009. The seasonal benthic diversity was correlated with various physic-chemical parameters which documented that the macrobenthic diversity is mostly regulated by the dissolved oxygen in the water while temperature and free CO2 were found to be inversely correlated with the benthic fauna. Maximum diversity of benthos was reported at the upstream site (‘H’ 0.204 during the winter season while it was recorded minimum during the rainy season at all the sites. Maximum diversity is reported during the winter season at all the sites. The benthic fauna is represented by three phylum, 4 classes and 10 orders with Insecta emerging as the most dominant class. Maximum genera were reported from midstream site as it acts as ecotone between upstream and downstream.

  7. Variations of the crustal thickness in Nepal Himalayas based on tomographic inversion of regional earthquake data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Koulakov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We estimate variations of the crustal thickness beneath the Nepal Himalayas based on tomographic inversion of regional earthquake data. We have obtained a low-velocity anomaly in the upper part of the model down to depths of 40 to 80 km and proposed that the lower limit of this anomaly represents variations of the Moho depth. This statement was supported by results of synthetic modeling. The obtained variations of crustal thickness match fairly well with the free-air gravity anomalies: thinner crust patterns correspond to lower gravity values and vice versa. There is also some correlation with magnetic field: higher magnetic values correspond to the major areas of thicker crust. We propose that elevated magnetic values can be associated with more rigid segments of the incoming Indian crust which cause more compression in the thrust zone and leads to stronger crustal thickening.

  8. Variations of the crustal thickness in Nepal Himalayas based on tomographic inversion of regional earthquake data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulakov, I.; Maksotova, G.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Raoof, J.; Kayal, J. R.; Jakovlev, A.; Vasilevsky, A.

    2015-02-01

    We estimate variations of the crustal thickness beneath the Nepal Himalayas based on tomographic inversion of regional earthquake data. We have obtained a low-velocity anomaly in the upper part of the model down to depths of 40 to 80 km and proposed that the lower limit of this anomaly represents variations of the Moho depth. This statement was supported by results of synthetic modeling. The obtained variations of crustal thickness match fairly well with the free-air gravity anomalies: thinner crust patterns correspond to lower gravity values and vice versa. There is also some correlation with magnetic field: higher magnetic values correspond to the major areas of thicker crust. We propose that elevated magnetic values can be associated with more rigid segments of the incoming Indian crust which cause more compression in the thrust zone and lead to stronger crustal thickening.

  9. Rb-Sr geochronology of the rocks of the Himalayas, Eastern Nepal, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rb-Sr isotopic measurements are made on the Makalu granite, which is one of leucocratic granite occurring sporadically in the high range of the Himalayas. The granite is intruded between the Himalayan gneiss and the Tethyan sediments. In this study, Rb-Sr analyses have been made on both whole rock and small sliced rock. The Rb-Sr isotopic analytical results on whole rock of the Makalu granite define the age of 92.7 +- 9.4 m.y. The analytical results on small slabs suggest that Sr isotopic redistribution occurred after the intrusion of the granite. The initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio of the Makalu granite is 0.7433 +- 0.0019 and is remarkably high. Such high ratio indicates that the granite originated from the remelting or partial remelting of old crustal materials such as Himalayan gneiss. (author)

  10. Rb-Sr ages of the biotite and muscovite of the Himalayas, eastern Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rb-Sr ages of biotite from the southern flank of Mt. Everest, eastern Nepal, range from 14.1 to 1.3 m.y., the youngest biotite coexists with muscovite of 7.3 m.y. These different ages for different samples reflect the difference in cooling history related to the uplift of the Himalayas. The biotite ages decrease with increasing distance from the high mountain range, suggesting that the high range, i.e., the northern area, was uplifted earlier than the southern area. The relationship between the ages and altitutes of sampling sites indicates that the uplift rate of the northern area was 0.60 mm/yr. (author)

  11. Early Auditory Evoked Potential Is Modulated by Selective Attention and Related to Individual Differences in Visual Working Memory Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Giuliano, Ryan J.; Karns, Christina M.; Neville, Helen J.; Hillyard, Steven A

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests that the predictive power of working memory (WM) capacity for measures of intellectual aptitude is due to the ability to control attention and select relevant information. Crucially, attentional mechanisms implicated in controlling access to WM are assumed to be domain-general, yet reports of enhanced attentional abilities in individuals with larger WM capacities are primarily within the visual domain. Here, we directly test the link between WM capacity and...

  12. Comparing the genetic architecture and potential response to selection of invasive and native populations of reed canary grass

    OpenAIRE

    Calsbeek, Brittny; Lavergne, Sebastien; PATEL, MANISHA; Molofsky, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary processes such as migration, genetic drift, and natural selection are thought to play a prominent role in species invasions into novel environments. However, few empirical studies have explored the mechanistic basis of invasion in an evolutionary framework. One promising tool for inferring evolutionarily important changes in introduced populations is the genetic variance–covariance matrix (G matrix). G matrix comparisons allow for the inference of changes in the genetic architect...

  13. Early auditory evoked potential is modulated by selective attention and related to individual differences in visual working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Ryan J; Karns, Christina M; Neville, Helen J; Hillyard, Steven A

    2014-12-01

    A growing body of research suggests that the predictive power of working memory (WM) capacity for measures of intellectual aptitude is due to the ability to control attention and select relevant information. Crucially, attentional mechanisms implicated in controlling access to WM are assumed to be domain-general, yet reports of enhanced attentional abilities in individuals with larger WM capacities are primarily within the visual domain. Here, we directly test the link between WM capacity and early attentional gating across sensory domains, hypothesizing that measures of visual WM capacity should predict an individual's capacity to allocate auditory selective attention. To address this question, auditory ERPs were recorded in a linguistic dichotic listening task, and individual differences in ERP modulations by attention were correlated with estimates of WM capacity obtained in a separate visual change detection task. Auditory selective attention enhanced ERP amplitudes at an early latency (ca. 70-90 msec), with larger P1 components elicited by linguistic probes embedded in an attended narrative. Moreover, this effect was associated with greater individual estimates of visual WM capacity. These findings support the view that domain-general attentional control mechanisms underlie the wide variation of WM capacity across individuals. PMID:25000526

  14. Bio-active glass air-abrasion has the potential to remove resin composite restorative material selectively

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milly, Hussam [Biomaterials, Biomimetics and Biophotonics Research Group, Kings College London Dental Institute at Guy' s Hospital, King' s Health Partners, London (United Kingdom); Andiappan, Manoharan [Unit of Dental Public Health, Kings College London Dental Institute at Guy' s Hospital, King' s Health Partners, London (United Kingdom); Thompson, Ian [Biomaterials, Biomimetics and Biophotonics Research Group, Kings College London Dental Institute at Guy' s Hospital, King' s Health Partners, London (United Kingdom); Banerjee, Avijit, E-mail: avijit.banerjee@kcl.ac.uk [Biomaterials, Biomimetics and Biophotonics Research Group, Kings College London Dental Institute at Guy' s Hospital, King' s Health Partners, London (United Kingdom); Unit of Conservative Dentistry, King' s College London Dental Institute at Guy' s Hospital, King' s Health Partners, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-01

    The aims of this study were to assess: (a) the chemistry, morphology and bioactivity of bio-active glass (BAG) air-abrasive powder, (b) the effect of three air-abrasion operating parameters: air pressure, powder flow rate (PFR) and the abrasive powder itself, on the selective removal of resin composite and (c) the required “time taken”. BAG abrasive particles were characterised using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Standardised resin composite restorations created within an enamel analogue block (Macor™) in vitro, were removed using air-abrasion undersimulated clinical conditions. 90 standardised cavities were scanned before and after resin composite removal using laser profilometry and the volume of the resulting 3D images calculated. Multilevel linear model was used to identify the significant factors affecting Macor™ removal. BAG powder removed resin composite more selectively than conventional air-abrasion alumina powder using the same operating parameters (p < 0.001) and the effect of altering the unit's operating parameters was significant (p < 0.001). In conclusion, BAG powder is more efficient than alumina in the selective removal of resin composite particularly under specific operating parameters, and therefore may be recommended clinically as a method of preserving sound enamel structure when repairing and removing defective resin composite restorations.

  15. Geomorphological features of active tectonics and ongoing seismicity of northeastern Kumaun Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Vivekanand; Pant, Charu C.; Darmwal, Gopal Singh

    2015-08-01

    The northeastern part of Kumaun Lesser Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India, lying between the rupture zones of 1905, Kangra and 1934, Bihar-Nepal earthquakes and known as `central seismic gap' is a segment of an active fault known to produce significant earthquakes and has not slipped in an unusually long time when compared to other segments. The studied section forms a part of this seismic gap and is seismically an active segment of the Himalayan arc, as compared to the remaining part of the Kumaun Lesser Himalaya and it is evident by active geomorphological features and seismicity data. The geomorphological features of various river valley transects suggest that the region had a history of tectonic rejuvenation which is testified by the deposition of various levels of terraces and their relative uplift, shifting and ponding of river channels, uplifted potholes, triangular facets on fault planes, fault scarps, etc. Further, the seismic data of five-station digital telemetered seismic network along with two stand alone systems show the distribution of earthquakes in or along the analyzed fault transects. It is observed that the microseismic earthquakes (magnitude 1.0-3.0) frequently occur in the region and hypocenters of these earthquakes are confined to shallow depths (10-20 km), with low stress drop values (1.0-10 bar) and higher peak ground velocity (PGV). The cluster of events is observed in the region, sandwiched between the Berinag Thrust (BT) in south and Main Central Thrust (MCT) in north. The occurrences of shallow focus earthquakes and the surface deformational features in the different river valley transect indicates that the region is undergoing neotectonic rejuvenation. In absence of chronology of the deposits it is difficult to relate it with extant seismicity, but from the geomorphic and seismic observations it may be concluded that the region is still tectonically active. The information would be very important in identifying the areas of hazard prone and also planning and designing of the socio-economic projects.

  16. Chemical characteristics of pond waters within the debris area of Lirung Glacier in Nepal Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozomu TAKEUCHI

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Water samples were analyzed from ponds developed within the debris-covered area of Lirung Glacier (28º 12.9’N, 86º 39.9’E; 4000 m a.s.l. in the Himalayas of Nepal during the pre-monsoon to post-monsoon period of 1996. Major chemical species were classified into three groups based on their relationships relative to the sum of cations: conservative (SiO2, Ca2+, K+, and Alkalinity, semiconservative (Na+, Mg2+, and SO4 2- and non-conservative (NH4 +, NO3 - and Cl-. The dominant processes determining the chemical composition of glacier pond water were sulfide oxidation coupled with carbonate dissolution and chemical weathering of aluminosilicate as indicated by the conservative and semi-conservative species. Calcium and alkalinity appeared as the dominant cation and anion, respectively, among all samples within the basin. Compared to the discharge waters at the outlet of the glacier, most of these pond waters have lower major solutes as well as alkalinity. The availability of fresh reactive minerals at the base of the glacier, coupled with higher temperature in discharge waters than in the ponds, may be the prime factors resulting in higher concentrations of most solutes in the discharge waters than in the ponds. In the ponds, higher concentrations of major solutes as well as alkalinity were observed in the monsoon than the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons, suggesting the role of hydrolysis condition in chemical weathering rates. Ponds within the debris area of Lirung glacier in central Nepal Himalaya are likely to increase in importance if global warming accelerates the rate of glacial melting.

  17. Active thrusting within the Himalayan orogenic wedge in the Kashmir Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavillot, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Numerous lines of evidence indicate that significant distributed deformation occurs within the Himalayan fold-thrust belt. Active thrust faults lie as much as 100 km north of the active thrust front. Whereas geochemical and topographical data provide circumstantial evidence for internal deformation in Nepal, new mapping demonstrates that an active emergent thrust fault system extends stepwise from the Balakot-Bagh fault (source of the Mw 7.6 2005 Kashmir earthquake in Pakistan) more than 200 km to the southeast on the Riasi fault (RT). The RT with a fault length of ~70 km, is a ~50° northeast-dipping reverse fault system, which sits ~40 km north of the deformation front in the Kashmiri Himalaya of northwest India. Our mapping demonstrates that the Riasi thrust consists of two strands. The northern strand, Main Riasi thrust (MRT) strand, places Precambrian Sirban Limestone on folded unconsolidated (Pleistocene?) conglomerates. Undeformed younger alluvial deposits (Holocene?) overlyie the MRT, which implies no Holocene (?) surface rupture on this strand. To the south, the surface expression of the Riasi frontal thrust (RFT) includes a fault scarp and offset ~10 ka terrace deposits dated with 36CL depth profiles. OSL and 10Be depth profile dating indicate an age range between ~80 ka to ~30 ka for the Bidda terrace in the upper plate of the MRT, yielding estimates of long-term uplift rate of 5.0 ± 2.2 mm/yr, slip rate of 6.4 ± 2.9 mm/yr, and shortening rate of 4.1 ± 1.9mm/yr. Given a ~34 mm/yr India-Asia convergence rate in the NW Himalaya, our results indicate that internal deformation within the orogenic belt accounts for at least ~10% of the total India-Eurasia plate convergence, with remaining shortening absorbed mainly at the deformation front.

  18. Geomorphological features of active tectonics and ongoing seismicity of northeastern Kumaun Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vivekanand Pathak; Charu C Pant; Gopal Singh Darmwal

    2015-08-01

    The northeastern part of Kumaun Lesser Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India, lying between the rupture zones of 1905, Kangra and 1934, Bihar–Nepal earthquakes and known as ‘central seismic gap’ is a segment of an active fault known to produce significant earthquakes and has not slipped in an unusually long time when compared to other segments. The studied section forms a part of this seismic gap and is seismically an active segment of the Himalayan arc, as compared to the remaining part of the Kumaun Lesser Himalaya and it is evident by active geomorphological features and seismicity data. The geomorphological features of various river valley transects suggest that the region had a history of tectonic rejuvenation which is testified by the deposition of various levels of terraces and their relative uplift, shifting and ponding of river channels, uplifted potholes, triangular facets on fault planes, fault scarps, etc. Further, the seismic data of five-station digital telemetered seismic network along with two stand alone systems show the distribution of earthquakes in or along the analyzed fault transects. It is observed that the microseismic earthquakes (magnitude 1.0–3.0) frequently occur in the region and hypocenters of these earthquakes are confined to shallow depths (10–20 km), with low stress drop values (1.0–10 bar) and higher peak ground velocity (PGV). The cluster of events is observed in the region, sandwiched between the Berinag Thrust (BT) in south and Main Central Thrust (MCT) in north. The occurrences of shallow focus earthquakes and the surface deformational features in the different river valley transect indicates that the region is undergoing neotectonic rejuvenation. In absence of chronology of the deposits it is difficult to relate it with extant seismicity, but from the geomorphic and seismic observations it may be concluded that the region is still tectonically active. The information would be very important in identifying the areas of hazard prone and also planning and designing of the socio-economic projects.

  19. Climatic control on extreme sediment transfer from Dokriani Glacier during monsoon, Garhwal Himalaya (India)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amit Kumar; Akshaya Verma; Dwarika Prasad Dobhal; Manish Mehta; Kapil Kesarwani

    2014-02-01

    In the Himalayas, most of the glaciers are covered by thick debris, especially in the ablation zone. Supraglacial debris cover might play an important role for sediment budget of the glaciated area or for the ablation of ice masses mantled in debris. During summer season, proglacial meltwater carries considerable amount of suspended sediment. The deglaciated area provides a ready source of sediment during Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM). The heavy sediment load from the glaciers affects the hydropower generation, irrigation and drinking water supply. Therefore, to understand the sediment delivery from glaciated basins, characteristics and variation of the suspended sediment concentrations in the proglacial meltwater stream, Dokriani Glacier, have been monitored during the ablation season (May– September). Suspended sediment samples were collected near the snout of Dokriani Glacier, Garhwal Himalaya, in 2010 and 2011. Results show that mean monthly suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) were 1499, 2303, 3845 and 1649 mg/l for the months June, July, August, and September, respectively, indicating highest concentration in August followed by July. Over the period of recording, daily mean suspended concentration in the melt stream varied from 13–9798.2 mg/l, which is very high, caused due to a flash flood event during the monitoring period. The mean daily suspended sediment concentration was computed to be 2196 mg/l. The suspended sediment concentration begins to increase with discharge from May and reduces in September. Present study provides TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) derived and field based hydro-meteorological insight about severe rainstorms during the years 2010 and 2011 in the study area, which transported large amounts of sediment.

  20. Fluid–rock interaction across the South Tibetan Detachment, Garhwal Himalaya (India): Mineralogical and geochemical evidences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anubhooti Saxena; Himanshu K Sachan; Pulok K Mukherjee; Dilip K Mukhopadhya

    2012-02-01

    The Malari Leucogranite in the Garhwal Himalaya is cut across by a continental-scale normal fault system called the South Tibetan Detachment (STD). A mineralogical, geochemical and fluid inclusion study of samples from the fault zone of the Malari Granite was performed to reveal the imprints of fluid–rock interaction. Fluid inclusion assemblages observed in the alteration zone indicate the presence of NaCl-dominated aqueous fluids with varied salinity of 6 –16 wt.% of NaCl equivalent. Mineralogical changes include the alteration of feldspar to muscovite and muscovite to chlorite. This alteration took place at temperatures of 275°$–$335°C and pressures between 1.9 and 4.2 kbars as revealed by the application of chlorite thermometry, fluid isochores, and presence of K-feldspar+muscovite+chlorite+quartz mineral assemblage. Geochemical mass-balance estimates predict 32% volume loss during alteration. An estimated fluid/rock ratio of 82 is based on loss of silica during alteration, and reveals presence of a moderately low amount of fluid at the time of faulting. Results of fluid inclusion and alteration mineralogy indicate that the Malari Leucogranites were exhumed due to normal faulting along the STD and erosion from mid-crustal levels. Most of the leucogranites in the Himalayas occur along the STD and possibly a regional-scale fluid flow all along the STD might have caused similar alteration of leucogranites along this tectonic break. Regional fluid flow was probably concentrated along the STD and channelized through mesoscopic fractures, microcracks and grain boundaries.

  1. Changing in glacier and snow cover of Karakorum and Western Himalaya and impacts on hydrologic regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinsheng

    2015-04-01

    Glacierized river basins with insufficient summer precipitation (rain) but abundant in snow- and glacier-melt water, are highly suspected by reduction and seasonal alteration in the annual stream-flows owing to climate change. However, the glacio-hydrological observations and investigations to address the linkage between stream-flow fluctuations and glacier storage changes are still very weak, which also a consequent of controversies like 'Karakorum Anomaly' among the scientists concerning the behavior of glaciers in the changing climate. Therefore an investigation to determine the implications of climatic variability over the hydrological regimes of Karakorum and Western Himalayan basins is carried out by employing long term in-situ hydro-meteorological and as well as Remote sensing data. The study reveals that both the basins receives significant winter precipitation therefore the snow cover area reaches to 85% and 58% in Astore and Hunza basins respectively. The predominant contribution from snow and glacier melt to runoff was also estimated as 73% and 83% in Astore and Hunza basin respectively. Similarly, the observed persistent summer cooling and increased precipitation resulted in slightly positive glacier mass storage change of ~8.4-9.5mmyr-1 during the period of 1966-2010 in Hunza basin (Karakoram), whereas stability was observed in Astore basin's (Western Himalaya) glacier storage area at least since 1995. Although previous projections on the feedback of global climate change over glacierized basins suggested short-term increases followed by a sharp decrease in the stream-flows due to the persistent shrinkage of glacier cover area, however, our overall analysis revealed that phenomenon is yet to occurred in both the studied catchments from Karakoram and Western Himalaya, and the current behavior of climatic indicators seems to prolonged its occurrence at least for upcoming few decades particularly in these hydrological regimes.

  2. Long-term hydroclimatic variability in monsoon shadow zone of western Himalaya, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Ram R. [Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow (India)

    2011-04-15

    Tree-ring-width data of Himalayan cedar [Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) G. Don] from 11 homogeneous moisture stressed sites in the monsoon shadow zone of the western Himalaya were used to develop a mean chronology extending back to ad 1353. The chronology developed using Regional Curve Standardization method is the first from the Himalayan region of India showing centennial-scale variations. The calibration of ring-width chronology with instrumental precipitation data available from stations close to the tree ring sampling sites showed strong, direct relationship with March-April-May-June (MAMJ) precipitation. This strong relationship was used to supplement the instrumental precipitation data back to ad 1410. The precipitation reconstruction showed extended period of drought in fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Increasingly pluvial conditions were recorded since eighteenth century, with the highest precipitation in the early part of the nineteenth century. The decreasing trend in reconstructed precipitation in the last decade of the twentieth century, consistent with the instrumental records, is associated with the decreasing trend in frequency of western disturbances. MAMJ precipitation over the monsoon shadow zone in the western Himalaya is directly associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and NINO3-SST index of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the leading modes of climate variability influencing climate over large parts of the Northern Hemisphere. However, the relationship between ENSO and MAMJ precipitation collapsed completely during 1930-1960. The breakdown in this relationship is associated with the warm phase of Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). A spectral analysis of reconstructed MAMJ precipitation indicates frequencies in the range of the variability associated with modes of NAO, ENSO and AMO. (orig.)

  3. Increased late Pleistocene erosion rates during fluvial aggradation in the Garhwal Himalaya, northern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherler, Dirk; Bookhagen, Bodo; Wulf, Hendrik; Preusser, Frank; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2015-10-01

    The response of surface processes to climatic forcing is fundamental for understanding the impacts of climate change on landscape evolution. In the Himalaya, most large rivers feature prominent fill terraces that record an imbalance between sediment supply and transport capacity, presumably due to past fluctuations in monsoon precipitation and/or effects of glaciation at high elevation. Here, we present volume estimates, chronological constraints, and 10Be-derived paleo-erosion rates from a prominent valley fill in the Yamuna catchment, Garhwal Himalaya, to elucidate the coupled response of rivers and hillslopes to Pleistocene climate change. Although precise age control is complicated due to methodological problems, the new data support formation of the valley fill during the late Pleistocene and its incision during the Holocene. We interpret this timing to indicate that changes in discharge and river-transport capacity were major controls. Compared to the present day, late Pleistocene hillslope erosion rates were higher by a factor of ?2-4, but appear to have decreased during valley aggradation. The higher late Pleistocene erosion rates are largely unrelated to glacial erosion and could be explained by enhanced sediment production on steep hillslopes due to increased periglacial activity that declined as temperatures increased. Alternatively, erosion rates that decrease during valley aggradation are also consistent with reduced landsliding from threshold hillslopes as a result of rising base levels. In that case, the similarity of paleo-erosion rates near the end of the aggradation period with modern erosion rates might imply that channels and hillslopes are not yet fully coupled everywhere and that present-day hillslope erosion rates may underrepresent long-term incision rates.

  4. Impact of anthropogenic activities on water quality of Lidder River in Kashmir Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Irfan; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad

    2013-06-01

    The pristine waters of Kashmir Himalaya are showing signs of deterioration due to multiple reasons. This study researches the causes of deteriorating water quality in the Lidder River, one of the main tributaries of Jhelum River in Kashmir Himalaya. The land use and land cover of the Lidder catchment were generated using multi-spectral, bi-seasonal IRS LISS III (October 2005 and May 2006) satellite data to identify the extent of agriculture and horticulture lands that are the main non-point sources of pollution at the catchment scale. A total of 12 water quality parameters were analyzed over a period of 1 year. Water sampling was done at eight different sampling sites, each with a varied topography and distinct land use/land cover, along the length of Lidder River. It was observed that water quality deteriorated during the months of June-August that coincides with the peak tourist flow and maximal agricultural/horticultural activity. Total phosphorus, orthophosphate phosphorus, nitrate nitrogen, and ammoniacal nitrogen showed higher concentration in the months of July and August, while the concentration of dissolved oxygen decreased in the same period, resulting in deterioration in water quality. Moreover, tourism influx in the Lidder Valley shows a drastic increase through the years, and particularly, the number of tourists visiting the valley has increased in the summer months from June to September, which is also responsible for deteriorating the water quality of Lidder River. In addition to this, the extensive use of fertilizers and pesticides in the agriculture and horticulture lands during the growing season (June-August) is also responsible for the deteriorating water quality of Lidder River. PMID:23001554

  5. Anti-trypanosomal Activity of Potential Inhibitors of Trypanosoma brucei Glycolytic Pathway Enzymes Selected by Docking Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisse Musanabaganwa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, a potentially fatal protozoan infection caused by tsetse-fl mediated transmission of Trypanosoma brucei (T. Brucei, is largely recognized as a neglected disease. The repertoire of drugs that is effective against the infection is limited and all drugs have several drawbacks including high level of toxicity, diffiult administration regimens, and the resurgence of resistance. At present the biology of the parasite is well studied and a number of technologies are now available which can aid in the identifiation of potential drug targets. This review identifies putative inhibitors of trypanosomal glycolytic enzymes.

  6. Mutual recognition of parental and F1 lymphocytes. Selective abrogation of cytotoxic potential of F1 lymphocytes by parental lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    Four different combinations of F1 hybrid mice [(C57BL/10 X B10.A)F1, (C57BL/10 X B10.BR)F1, B6D2F1, and AKD2F1] were injected intravenously with spleen cells from parental strains. The T-cell-mediated cytotoxic potential of spleen cells from the injected F1 mice was assessed from 4 to 21 d later by in vitro sensitization with trinitrophenyl-modified parental or syngeneic F1 spleen cells (TNP-self) or with allogeneic spleen cells. The cytotoxic potential of the F1 mice to TNP-self as well as t...

  7. Spectroelectrochemical sensing based on multimode selectivity simultaneously achievable in a single device. 5. Simulation of sensor response for different excitation potential waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaterbeck, A F; Stegemiller, M L; Seliskar, C J; Ridgway, T H; Heineman, W R

    2000-11-15

    The simulation of the optical response in spectroelectrochemical sensing has been investigated. The sensor consists of a sensing film coated on an optically transparent electrode (OTE). The mode of detection is attenuated total reflection. Only species that partition into the sensing film, undergo electrochemistry at the potentials applied to the OTE, and have changes in their absorbance at the wavelength of light propagated within the glass substrate of the OTE can be sensed. A fundamental question arises regarding the excitation potential waveforms employed to initiate the electrochemical changes observed. Historically, selection has been based solely upon the effectiveness of the waveform to quickly electrolyze any analyte observable by the optical detection method employed. In this report, additional requirements by which the waveform should be selected for use in a remote sensing configuration are discussed. The effectiveness of explicit finite difference simulation as a tool for investigating the applicability of three different excitation potential waveforms (square, triangle, sinusoid) is demonstrated. The simulated response is compared to experimental results obtained from a prototype sensing platform consisting of an indium tin oxide OTE coated with a cation-selective, sol-gel-derived Nafion composite film designed for the detection of a model analyte, tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) chloride. Using a diffusion coefficient determined from experimental data (5.8 x 10(-11) cm2 s for 5 x 10(-6) M Ru(bipy)3(2+)), the simulator program was able to accurately predict the magnitude of the absorbance change for each potential waveform (0.497 for square, 0.403 for triangular, and 0.421 for sinusoid), but underestimated the number of cycles required to approach steady state. The simulator program predicted 2 (square), 3 (triangle), and 5 cycles (sinusoid), while 5 (square), 15 (triangle), and 10 (sinusoid) cycles were observed experimentally. PMID:11101233

  8. Re-description of Daphnia (Ctenodaphnia from lakes in the Khumbu Region, Nepalese Himalayas, with the erection of a new species, Daphnia himalaya, and a note on an intersex individual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinora Carolina PEÑALVA-ARANA

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available We present here a detailed description of Ctenodaphnia-type Daphnia specimens collected from lakes in the Nepalese Himalayas between 1994 and 2004, including mature females and adult males. The specimens examined share certain diagnostic traits with Daphnia tibetana (Sars 1903, and others with Daphnia fusca (Gurney 1906. A re-appraisal of their previous synonymy with D. fusca and a comparison with all published descriptions of similar species from the region indicate that they represent a new species named here as Daphnia himalaya. The chance discovery of a sex intergrade of the same species allowed a description of the secondary sexual characteristics in this interesting and rare intermediate state to be reported, and its possible ecological implications to be discussed, as well.

  9. Selectable markers with potential activity against insects, plus other insect-oriented strategies for mycotoxin reduction in Midwest corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reduction of insect damage has the potential to greatly reduce the levels of mycotoxins in corn, as studies with Bt corn have shown. However, the large number of insect species involved necessitates the development of comprehensive insect control to most effectively utilize this strategy. One stra...

  10. Fixed-node diffusion Monte Carlo potential energy curve of the fluorine molecule F2 using selected configuration interaction trial wavefunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential energy curve of the F2 molecule is calculated with Fixed-Node Diffusion Monte Carlo (FN-DMC) using Configuration Interaction (CI)-type trial wavefunctions. To keep the number of determinants reasonable and thus make FN-DMC calculations feasible in practice, the CI expansion is restricted to those determinants that contribute the most to the total energy. The selection of the determinants is made using the CIPSI approach (Configuration Interaction using a Perturbative Selection made Iteratively). The trial wavefunction used in FN-DMC is directly issued from the deterministic CI program; no Jastrow factor is used and no preliminary multi-parameter stochastic optimization of the trial wavefunction is performed. The nodes of CIPSI wavefunctions are found to reduce significantly the fixed-node error and to be systematically improved upon increasing the number of selected determinants. To reduce the non-parallelism error of the potential energy curve, a scheme based on the use of a R-dependent number of determinants is introduced. Using Dunning’s cc-pVDZ basis set, the FN-DMC energy curve of F2 is found to be of a quality similar to that obtained with full configuration interaction/cc-pVQZ

  11. Surrogate species selection for assessing potential adverse environmental impacts of genetically engineered insect-resistant plants on non-target organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstens, Keri; Cayabyab, Bonifacio; De Schrijver, Adinda; Gadaleta, Patricia G; Hellmich, Richard L; Romeis, Jörg; Storer, Nicholas; Valicente, Fernando H; Wach, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Most regulatory authorities require that developers of genetically engineered insect-resistant (GEIR) crops evaluate the potential for these crops to have adverse impacts on valued non-target organisms (NTOs), i.e., organisms not intended to be controlled by the trait. In many cases, impacts to NTOs are assessed using surrogate species, and it is critical that the data derived from surrogates accurately predict any adverse impacts likely to be observed from the use of the crop in the agricultural context. The key is to select surrogate species that best represent the valued NTOs in the location where the crop is going to be introduced, but this selection process poses numerous challenges for the developers of GE crops who will perform the tests, as well as for the ecologists and regulators who will interpret the test results. These issues were the subject of a conference "Surrogate Species Selection for Assessing Potential Adverse Environmental Impacts of Genetically Engineered Plants on Non-Target Organisms" convened by the Center for Environmental Risk Assessment, ILSI Research Foundation. This report summarizes the proceedings of the conference, including the presentations, discussions and the points of consensus agreed to by the participants. PMID:24637519

  12. Fixed-Node Diffusion Monte Carlo potential energy curve of the fluorine molecule F2 using selected configuration interaction trial wavefunctions

    CERN Document Server

    Giner, Emmanuel; Caffarel, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The potential energy curve of the F$_2$ molecule is calculated with Fixed-Node Diffusion Monte Carlo (FN-DMC) using Configuration Interaction (CI)-type trial wavefunctions. To keep the number of determinants reasonable (the first and second derivatives of the trial wavefunction need to be calculated at each step of FN-DMC), the CI expansion is restricted to those determinants that contribute the most to the total energy. The selection of the determinants is made using the so-called CIPSI approach (Configuration Interaction using a Perturbative Selection made Iteratively). Quite remarkably, the nodes of CIPSI wavefunctions are found to be systematically improved when increasing the number of selected determinants. To reduce the non-parallelism error of the potential energy curve a scheme based on the use of a $R$-dependent number of determinants is introduced. Numerical results show that improved FN-DMC energy curves for the F$_2$ molecule are obtained when employing CIPSI trial wavefunctions. Using the Dunnin...

  13. Fixed-node diffusion Monte Carlo potential energy curve of the fluorine molecule F2 using selected configuration interaction trial wavefunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner, Emmanuel; Scemama, Anthony; Caffarel, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The potential energy curve of the F2 molecule is calculated with Fixed-Node Diffusion Monte Carlo (FN-DMC) using Configuration Interaction (CI)-type trial wavefunctions. To keep the number of determinants reasonable and thus make FN-DMC calculations feasible in practice, the CI expansion is restricted to those determinants that contribute the most to the total energy. The selection of the determinants is made using the CIPSI approach (Configuration Interaction using a Perturbative Selection made Iteratively). The trial wavefunction used in FN-DMC is directly issued from the deterministic CI program; no Jastrow factor is used and no preliminary multi-parameter stochastic optimization of the trial wavefunction is performed. The nodes of CIPSI wavefunctions are found to reduce significantly the fixed-node error and to be systematically improved upon increasing the number of selected determinants. To reduce the non-parallelism error of the potential energy curve, a scheme based on the use of a R-dependent number of determinants is introduced. Using Dunning's cc-pVDZ basis set, the FN-DMC energy curve of F2 is found to be of a quality similar to that obtained with full configuration interaction/cc-pVQZ.

  14. Selection of a biocontrol agent based on a potential mechanism of action: degradation of nicotinic acid, a growth factor essential for Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paternoster, Thomas; Défago, Geneviève; Duffy, Brion; Gessler, Cesare; Pertot, Ilaria

    2010-12-01

    This work describes a medium-based screening method for selecting microbial biocontrol agents against Erwinia amylovora based on the degradation of a specific growth factor. Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of the devastating fire blight disease, requires nicotinic acid or nicotinamide as an essential growth factor. Potential biocontrol agents are either selected for antimicrobial production in plate or directly on immature pears or apple blossoms. In this work, we have attempted to streamline the selection of a new potential biocontrol agent with a lower risk of non-target effects by isolation based on the ability to degrade nicotinic acid in vitro, using therefore few plant materials. A total of 735 bacteria and 1237 yeast were isolated from apple blossoms and pre-screened for nicotinic acid-degradation. Pseudomonas rhizosphaerae strain JAN was able to degrade both nicotinic acid and nicotinamide. Mutants deficient in this ability were constructed. JAN, but not the mutants, controlled E. amylovora on pear slices. On detached apple blossoms, JAN colonized apple hypanthia and strongly suppressed E. amylovora growth. Under greenhouse conditions, JAN was more effective in controlling blossom blight than P. fluorescens A506, a commercial biocontrol agent of fire blight unable to degrade nicotinic acid and nicotinamide. PMID:21404214

  15. Folate Conjugated Cellulose Nanocrystals Potentiate Irreversible Electroporation-induced Cytotoxicity for the Selective Treatment of Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colacino, Katelyn R; Arena, Christopher B; Dong, Shuping; Roman, Maren; Davalos, Rafael V; Lee, Yong W

    2015-12-01

    Cellulose nanocrystals are rod-shaped, crystalline nanoparticles that have shown prom-ise in a number of industrial applications for their unique chemical and physical properties. However, investigations of their abilities in the biomedical field are limited. The goal of this study is to show the potential use of folic acid-conjugated cellulose nanocrystals in the potentiation of irreversible electroporation-induced cell death in folate receptor (FR)-positive cancers. We optimized key pulse parameters including pulse duration, intensity, and incubation time with nanoparticles prior to electroporation. FR-positive cancer cells, KB and MDA-MB-468, were preincubated with cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) conjugated with the targeting molecule folic acid (FA), 10 and 20 min respectively, prior to application of the optimized pulse electric field (PEF), 600 and 500 V/cm respectively. We have shown cellulose nanocrystals' ability to potentiate a new technique for tumor ablation, irreversible electroporation. Pre-incubation with FA-conjugated CNCs (CNC-FA) has shown a significant increase in cytotoxicity induced by irreversible electroporation in FR-positive cancer cells, KB and MDA-MB-468. Non-targeted CNCs (CNC-COOH) did not potentiate IRE when preincubated at the same parameters as previously stated in these cell types. In addition, CNC-FA did not potentiate irreversible electroporation-induced cytotoxicity in a FR-negative cancer cell type, A549. Without changing irreversible electroporation parameters it is possible to increase the cytotoxic effect on FR-positive cancer cells by exploiting the specific binding of FA to the FR, while not causing further damage to FR-negative tissue. PMID:24750004

  16. Re-description of Daphnia (Ctenodaphnia) from lakes in the Khumbu Region, Nepalese Himalayas, with the erection of a new species, Daphnia himalaya, and a note on an intersex individual

    OpenAIRE

    Dinora Carolina PEÑALVA-ARANA; John A.H. BENZIE; Martin, Patrick; Manca, Marina

    2006-01-01

    We present here a detailed description of Ctenodaphnia-type Daphnia specimens collected from lakes in the Nepalese Himalayas between 1994 and 2004, including mature females and adult males. The specimens examined share certain diagnostic traits with Daphnia tibetana (Sars 1903), and others with Daphnia fusca (Gurney 1906). A re-appraisal of their previous synonymy with D. fusca and a comparison with all published descriptions of similar species from the region indicate that they represent a n...

  17. Historical Perspective on How and Why Switchgrass was Selected as a "Model" High-Potential Energy Crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Lynn L [ORNL

    2007-11-01

    A review of several publications of the Biofuels Feedstock Development Program, and final reports from the herbaceous crop screening trials suggests that there were several technical and non-technical factors that influenced the decision to focus on one herbaceous "model" crop species. The screening trials funded by the U.S. Department of Energy in the late 1980's to early 1990's assessed a wide range of about 34 species with trials being conducted on a wide range of soil types in 31 different sites spread over seven states in crop producing regions of the U.S. While several species, including sorghums, reed canarygrass and other crops, were identified as having merit for further development, the majority of institutions involved in the herbaceous species screening studies identified switchgrass as having high priority for further development. Six of the seven institutions included switchgrass among the species recommended for further development in their region and all institutions recommended that perennial grasses be given high research priority. Reasons for the selection of switchgrass included the demonstration of relatively high, reliable productivity across a wide geographical range, suitability for marginal quality land, low water and nutrient requirements, and positive environmental attributes. Economic and environmental assessments by Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Biofuels Feedstock Development Program staff together with the screening project results, and funding limitations lead to making the decision to further develop only switchgrass as a "model" or "prototype" species in about 1990. This paper describes the conditions under which the herbaceous species were screened, summarizes results from those trials, discusses the various factors which influenced the selection of switchgrass, and provides a brief evaluation of switchgrass with respect to criteria that should be considered when selecting and developing a crop for biofuels and bioproducts.

  18. Potential Impact of Preoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Breast on Patient Selection for Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehr, Marietta, E-mail: marietta.kuehr@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Center of Integrated Oncology, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Wolfgarten, Matthias; Stoelzle, Marco [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Center of Integrated Oncology, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Leutner, Claudia [Department of Radiology, Center of Integrated Oncology, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Hoeller, Tobias [Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Schrading, Simone; Kuhl, Christiane; Schild, Hans [Department of Radiology, Center of Integrated Oncology, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Kuhn, Walther; Braun, Michael [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Center of Integrated Oncology, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) after breast-conserving therapy is currently under investigation in prospective randomized studies. Multifocality and multicentricity are exclusion criteria for APBI. Preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can detect ipsilateral and contralateral invasive tumor foci or ductal carcinoma in situ in addition to conventional diagnostic methods (clinical examination, mammography, and ultrasonography). The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the impact of preoperative MRI on patient selection for APBI. Methods and Materials: From 2002 to 2007, a total of 579 consecutive, nonselected patients with newly diagnosed early-stage breast cancer received preoperative breast MRI in addition to conventional imaging studies at the Bonn University Breast Cancer Center. In retrospect, 113 patients would have met the criteria for APBI using conventional imaging workup (clinical tumor size {<=}3 cm; negative axillary lymph node status; unifocal disease; no evidence of distant metastases; no invasive lobular carcinoma, ductal and lobular carcinoma in situ, or Paget's disease). We analyzed the amount of additional ipsilateral and contralateral tumor foci detected by MRI. Results: MRI detected additional tumor foci in 8.8% of patients eligible for APBI (11 tumor foci in 10 of 113 patients), either ipsilateral (n = 7, 6.2%) or contralateral (n = 4, 3.5%). In 1 patient, MRI helped detect additional tumor focus both ipsilaterally and contralaterally. Conclusions: Preoperative breast MRI is able to identify additional tumor foci in a clinically relevant number of cases in this highly selected group of patients with low-risk disease and may be useful in selecting patients for APBI.

  19. Discovery of A-971432, An Orally Bioavailable Selective Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptor 5 (S1P5) Agonist for the Potential Treatment of Neurodegenerative Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Adrian D; Harris, Christopher M; van der Kam, Elizabeth L; Turner, Sean C; Abibi, Ayome; Aguirre, Ana L; Bousquet, Peter; Kebede, Tegest; Konopacki, Donald B; Gintant, Gary; Kim, Youngjae; Larson, Kelly; Maull, John W; Moore, Nigel S; Shi, Dan; Shrestha, Anurupa; Tang, Xiubo; Zhang, Peng; Sarris, Kathy K

    2015-12-10

    S1P5 is one of 5 receptors for sphingosine-1-phosphate and is highly expressed on endothelial cells within the blood-brain barrier, where it maintains barrier integrity in in vitro models ( J. Neuroinflamm. 2012 , 9 , 133 ). Little more is known about the effects of S1P5 modulation due to the absence of tool molecules with suitable selectivity and drug-like properties. We recently reported that molecule A-971432 ( Harris , 2010 ) (29 in this paper) is highly efficacious in reversing lipid accumulation and age-related cognitive decline in rats ( Van der Kam , , AAIC 2014 ). Herein we describe the development of a series of selective S1P5 agonists that led to the identification of compound 29, which is highly selective for S1P5 and has excellent plasma and CNS exposure after oral dosing in preclinical species. To further support its suitability for in vivo studies of S1P5 biology, we extensively characterized 29, including confirmation of its selectivity in pharmacodynamic assays of S1P1 and S1P3 function in rats. In addition, we found that 29 improves blood-brain barrier integrity in an in vitro model and reverses age-related cognitive decline in mice. These results suggest that S1P5 agonism is an innovative approach with potential benefit in neurodegenerative disorders involving lipid imbalance and/or compromised blood-brain barrier such as Alzheimer's disease or multiple sclerosis. PMID:26509640

  20. Tropospheric ozone variations at the Nepal climate observatory – pyramid (Himalayas, 5079 m a.s.l. and influence of stratospheric intrusion events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vuillermoz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the first 2-years of continuous surface ozone (O3 observations and systematic assessment of the influence of stratospheric intrusions (SI at the Nepal Climate Observatory at Pyramid (NCO-P; 27°57' N, 86°48' E, located in the Southern Himalayas at 5079 m a.s.l. Continuous O3 monitoring has been carried out at this GAW-WMO station in the framework of the Ev-K2-CNR SHARE and UNEP ABC projects since March 2006. Over the period March 2006–February 2008, an average O3 value of 49±12 ppbv (±1? was recorded, with a large annual cycle characterized by a maximum during the pre-monsoon (61±9 ppbv and a minimum during the monsoon (39±10 ppbv. In general, the average O3 diurnal cycles had different shapes in the different seasons, suggesting an important interaction between the synoptic-scale circulation and the local mountain wind regime. Short-term O3 behaviour in the middle/lower troposphere (e.g. at the altitude level of NCO-P can be significantly affected by deep SI which, representing the most important natural input for tropospheric O3, can also influence the regional atmosphere radiative forcing. To identify days possibly influenced by SI at the NCO-P, analyses were performed on in-situ observations (O3 and meteorological parameters, total column O3 data from OMI satellite and air-mass potential vorticity provided by the LAGRANTO back-trajectory model. In particular, a specially designed statistical methodology was applied to the time series of the observed and modelled stratospheric tracers. On this basis, during the 2-year investigation, 14.1% of analysed days were found to be affected by SI. The SI frequency showed a clear seasonal cycle, with minimum during the summer monsoon (1.2% and higher values during the rest of the year (21.5%. As suggested by the LAGRANTO analysis, the position of the subtropical jet stream could play an important role in determining the occurrence of deep SI transport on the Southern Himalayas. In order to estimate the fraction of O3 due to air-mass transport from the stratosphere at the NCO-P, the 30 min O3 concentrations recorded during the detected SI days were analysed. In particular, in-situ relative humidity and black carbon observations were used to exclude influence from wet and polluted air-masses transported by up-valley breezes. This analysis led to the conclusion that during SI O3 significantly increased by 27.1% (+13 ppbv with respect to periods not affected by such events. Moreover, the integral contribution of SI (O3S to O3 at the NCO-P was also calculated, showing that 13.7% of O3 recorded at the measurement site could be attributed to SI. On a seasonal basis, the lowest SI contributions were found during the summer monsoon (less than 0.1%, while the highest were found during the winter period (24.2%. These results indicated that, during non-monsoon periods, high O3 levels could affect NCO-P during SI, thus influencing the variability of tropospheric O3 over the Southern Himalayas. Being a powerful regional greenhouse gas, these results indicate that the evaluation of the current and future regional climate cannot be assessed without properly taking into account the influence of SI to tropospheric O3 in this important area.

  1. Identification of a potent and selective ?? receptor agonist potentiating NGF-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Daniela; Pedrali, Alice; Urbano, Mariangela; Gaggeri, Raffaella; Serra, Massimo; Fernández, Leyden; Fernández, Michael; Caballero, Julio; Ronsisvalle, Simone; Prezzavento, Orazio; Schepmann, Dirk; Wuensch, Bernhard; Peviani, Marco; Curti, Daniela; Azzolina, Ornella; Collina, Simona

    2011-11-01

    Herein we report the synthesis, drug-likeness evaluation, and in vitro studies of new sigma (?) ligands based on arylalkenylaminic scaffold. For the most active olefin the corresponding arylalkylamine was studied. Novel arylalkenylamines generally possess high ?(1) receptor affinity (K(i) values 100). Particularly, the piperidine derivative (E)-17 and its arylalkylamine analog (R,S)-33 were observed to be excellent ?(1) receptor ligands (K(i)=0.70 and 0.86 nM, respectively) and to display significantly high selectivity over ?(2), ?-, and ?-opioid receptors and phencyclidine (PCP) binding site of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Moreover in PC12 cells (R,S)-33 promoted the nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neurite outgrowth and elongation. Co-administration of the selective ?(1) receptor antagonist BD-1063 totally counteracted this effect, confirming that ?(1) receptors are involved in the (R,S)-33 modulation of the NGF effect in PC12 cells and suggesting a ?(1) agonist profile. As a part of our work, a threedimensional ?(1) pharmacophore model was also developed employing GALAHAD methodology. Only active compounds were used for deriving this model. The model included two hydrophobes and a positive nitrogen as relevant features and it was able to discriminate between molecules with and without affinity toward ?(1) receptor subtype. PMID:21967807

  2. Potential transducers based man-tailored biomimetic sensors for selective recognition of dextromethorphan as an antitussive drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naby, Eman H; Kamel, Ayman H

    2015-09-01

    A biomimetic potentiometric sensor for specific recognition of dextromethorphan (DXM), a drug classified according to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) as a "drug of concern", is designed and characterized. A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP), with special molecular recognition properties of DXM, was prepared by thermal polymerization in which DXM acted as template molecule, methacrylic acid (MAA) and acrylonitrile (AN) acted as functional monomers in the presence of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as crosslinker. The sensors showed a high selectivity and a sensitive response to the template in aqueous system. Electrochemical evaluation of these sensors revealed near-Nernstian response with slopes of 49.6±0.5 and 53.4±0.5 mV decade(-1) with a detection limit of 1.9×10(-6), and 1.0×10(-6) mol L(-1) DXM with MIP/MAA and MIP/AN membrane based sensors, respectively. Significantly improved accuracy, precision, response time, stability, selectivity and sensitivity were offered by these simple and cost-effective potentiometric sensors compared with other standard techniques. The method has the requisite accuracy, sensitivity and precision to assay DXM in pharmaceutical products. PMID:26046285

  3. Extended reviewing or the role of potential siting cantons in the ongoing Swiss site selection procedure ('Sectoral Plan')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disposition of nuclear waste in Switzerland has a long-standing and sinuous history reflecting its complex socio-technical nature (Flueeler, 2006). Upon the twofold failure to site a repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste at Wellenberg during the 1990's and 2000's, it was recognised that the respective site selections had not been fully transparent. The Swiss government, the Federal Council, accepted the lesson and, after an extensive nationwide consultation at that, established a new site selection process 'from scratch': a systematic, stepwise, traceable, fair and binding procedure with a safety-first approach, yet extensively participatory. The so-called Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Repositories guarantees the inclusion of the affected and concerned cantons and communities, as well as the relevant authorities in neighbouring countries from an early stage (Swiss Nuclear Energy Act, 2003; BFE, 2008). This contribution shares experience and insights in the ongoing procedure from a cantonal point of view that is an intermediate position between national needs and regional concerns, and with technical regulatory expertise between highly specialised experts and involved publics. (authors)

  4. Assessment of the in Vitro Antiprotozoal and Cytotoxic Potential of 20 Selected Medicinal Plants from the Island of Soqotra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Maes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Malaria, leishmaniasis and human African trypanosomiasis continue to be major public health problems in need of new and more effective drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro antiprotozoal activity of twenty endemic medicinal plants collected from the island of Soqotra in the Indian Ocean. The plant materials were extracted with methanol and tested for antiplasmodial activity against erythrocytic schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum, for antileishmanial activity against intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and for antitrypanosomal activity against intracellular amastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi and free trypomastigotes of T. brucei. To assess selectivity, cytotoxicity was determined against MRC-5 fibroblasts. Selective activity was obtained for Punica protopunica against Plasmodium (IC50 2.2 µg/mL while Eureiandra balfourii and Hypoestes pubescens displayed activity against the three kinetoplastid parasites (IC50 < 10 µg/mL. Acridocarpus socotranus showed activity against T. brucei and T. cruzi (IC50 3.5 and 8.4 µg/mL. Ballochia atrovirgata, Dendrosicycos socotrana, Dracaena cinnabari and Euphorbia socotrana displayed non-specific inhibition of the parasites related to high cytotoxicity.

  5. On the potential and economic feasibility of solar industrial process-heat applications in selected Turkish industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the potential and economic feasibility of solar, industrial process-heat applications in the Turkish food, textile and chemical industries. The study covers 18 sites and end-use temperatures up to 120 and 150oC. A solar system composed of parabolic troughs without thermal storage is chosen. The system size investigated is 500 to 20,000m2. (author)

  6. Availability of lignocellulosic feedstocks for lactic acid production - Feedstock availability, lactic acid production potential and selection criteria

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, R.R.C.

    2013-01-01

    The overall objective of this study is to assess the worldwide availability and suitability of agricultural residues for lactic acid production, based on fermentation of carbohydrates. The study focuses on lignocellulosic biomass that is produced as a by-product of agricultural production. The results of the study can be used to rank different biomass types on their lactic acid or fermentable sugar production potential. For each residue, both total production (ton of fermentable sugars per ye...

  7. Sol-gel derived ionic copper-doped microstructured optical fiber: a potential selective ultraviolet radiation dosimeter

    OpenAIRE

    El Hamzaoui, Hicham; Ouerdane, Youcef; Bigot, Laurent; Bouwmans, Géraud; Capoen, Bruno; Boukenter, Aziz; Girard, Sylvain; Bouazaoui, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    We report the fabrication and characterization of a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) having a sol-gel core doped with ionic copper. Optical measurements demonstrate that the ionic copper is preserved in the silica glass all along the preparation steps up to fiber drawing. The photoluminescence results clearly show that such an ionic copper-doped fiber constitutes a potential candidate for UV-C (200-280 nm) radiation dosimetry. Indeed, the Cu+-related visible photoluminescence of the fiber shows a...

  8. Feature Selectivity of the Gamma-Band of the Local Field Potential in Primate Primary Visual Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    AlexanderSEcker; NikosKLogothetis; AndreasSTolias

    2008-01-01

    Extra-cellular voltage fluctuations (local field potentials; LFPs) reflecting neural mass action are ubiquitous across species and brain regions. Numerous studies have characterized the properties of LFP signals in the cortex to study sensory and motor computations as well as cognitive processes like attention, perception and memory. In addition, its extracranial counterpart – the electroencelphalogram (EEG) – is widely used in clinical applications. However, the link between LFP ...

  9. Selecting bioactive phenolic compounds as potential agents to inhibit proliferation and VEGF expression in human ovarian cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    He, Zhiping; Li, Bo; Gary O. Rankin; ROJANASAKUL, YON; Chen, Yi Charlie

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a disease that continues to cause mortality in female individuals worldwide. Ovarian cancer is challenging to treat due to emerging resistance to chemotherapy, therefore, the identification of effective novel chemotherapeutic agents is important. Polyphenols have demonstrated potential in reducing the risk of developing numerous types of cancer, as well reducing the risk of cancer progression, due to their ability to reduce cell viability and vascular endothelial growth fact...

  10. Structural and relaxometric characterization of peptide aggregates containing gadolinium complexes as potential selective contrast agents in MRI

    OpenAIRE

    GIANOLIO, Eliana

    2007-01-01

    The structural and relaxometric characterization of a novel class of supramolecular aggregates, as potential tumor-specific contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is reported. The aggregates are based on a new monomer with an upsilon shape (MonY) that contains, in the some molecule, all three fundamental tasks that are required: 1) a hydrophobic moiety that allows the formation of supramoleculor aggregates; 2) the bioactive CCK8 peptide for target recognition; and 3) a chelating...

  11. Feature selectivity of the gamma-band of the local field potential in primate primary visual cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S Ecker

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Extra-cellular voltage fluctuations (local field potentials; LFPs reflecting neural mass action are ubiquitous across species and brain regions. Numerous studies have characterized the properties of LFP signals in the cortex to study sensory and motor computations as well as cognitive processes like attention, perception and memory. In addition, its extracranial counterpart – the electroencelphalogram (EEG – is widely used in clinical applications. However, the link between LFP signals and the underlying activity of local populations of neurons remains largely elusive. Here, we review recent work elucidating the relationship between spiking activity of local neural populations and LFP signals. We focus on oscillations in the gamma-band (30-90Hz of the local field potential in the primary visual cortex (V1 of the macaque that dominate during visual stimulation. Given that in area V1 much is known about the properties of single neurons and the cortical architecture, it provides an excellent opportunity to study the mechanisms underlying the generation of the local field potential.

  12. Reconstruction of Last Glacial to early Holocene monsoon variability from relict lake sediments of the Higher Central Himalaya, Uttrakhand, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juyal, N.; Pant, R.K.; Basavaiah, N.; Jain, Mayank; Saini, N.K.; Yadava, M.G.; Singhvi, A.K.

    2009-01-01

    Proglacial lake sediments at Goting in the Higher Central Himalaya were analyzed to reconstruct the summer monsoon variability during the Last Glacial to early Holocene. Sedimentary structures, high resolution mineral magnetic and geochemical data suggest that the lacustrine environment experienced fluctuating monsoonal conditions. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating indicates that the lake sedimentation occurred before 25 ka and continued after 13 ka. During this period, Goting basin...

  13. Effects of Absorbing Aerosols on Accelerated Melting of Snowpack in the Hindu-Kush-Himalayas-Tibetan Plateau Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K.; Kyu-Myong, Kim; Yasunari, Teppei; Gautam, Ritesh; Hsu, Christina

    2011-01-01

    The impacts of absorbing aerosol on melting of snowpack in the Hindu-Kush-Himalayas-Tibetan Plateau (HKHT) region are studied using in-situ, satellite observations, and GEOS-5 GCM. Based on atmospheric black carbon measurements from the Pyramid observation ( 5 km elevation) in Mt. Everest, we estimate that deposition of black carbon on snow surface will give rise to a reduction in snow surface albedo of 2- 5 %, and an increased annual runoff of 12-34% for a typical Tibetan glacier. Examination of satellite reflectivity and re-analysis data reveals signals of possible impacts of dust and black carbon in darkening the snow surface, and accelerating spring melting of snowpack in the HKHT, following a build-up of absorbing aerosols in the Indo-Gangetic Plain. Results from GCM experiments show that 8-10% increase in the rate of melting of snowpack over the western Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau can be attributed to the elevated-heat-pump (EHP) feedback effect, initiated from the absorption of solar radiation by dust and black carbon accumulated to great height ( 5 km) over the Indo-Gangetic Plain and Himalayas foothills in the pre-monsoon season (April-May). The accelerated melting of the snowpack is enabled by an EHP-induced atmosphere-land-snowpack positive feedback involving a) orographic forcing of the monsoon flow by the complex terrain, and thermal forcing of the HKHT region, leading to increased moisture, cloudiness and rainfall over the Himalayas foothills and northern India, b) warming of the upper troposphere over the Tibetan Plateau, and c) an snow albedo-temperature feedback initiated by a transfer of latent and sensible heat from a warmer atmosphere over the HKHT to the underlying snow surface. Results from ongoing modeling work to assess the relative roles of EHP vs. snow-darkening effects on accelerated melting of snowpack in HKHT region will also be discussed.

  14. Mammals of the high altitudes of western Arunachal Pradesh, eastern Himalaya: an assessment of threats and conservation needs

    OpenAIRE

    MISHRA, C; Madhusudan, M. D.; Datta, A

    2006-01-01

    he high altitudes of Arunachal Pradesh, India, located in the Eastern Himalaya biodiversity hotspot, remain zoologically unexplored and unprotected. We report results of recent mammal surveys in the high altitude habitats of western Arunachal Pradesh. A total of 35 mammal species (including 12 carnivores, 10 ungulates and 5 primates) were recorded, of which 13 are categorized as Endangered or Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. One species of primate, the Arunachal macaque Macaca munzala, is new...

  15. A new orthoclad species of Rheocricotopus Thienemann & Harnisch (Diptera, Chironomidae from the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalayas in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazra, N.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The adults and pupa of a new species, Rheocricotopus rarispina are described from the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalayas in India. The species is distinguished by the few spines on the thoracic horn, anal lobe without fringe and bristle-like L setae and presence of ovoid humeral pit, nine squamal setae, structure of anal point and triangular and subterminal crista dorsalis in the adult male. With this new species, the number of Indian species of the genus rises to six.

  16. Spatial patterns in glacier area and elevation changes from 1962 to 2006 in the monsoon-influenced eastern Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    Racoviteanu, A.; Y. Arnaud; Williams, M.; Manley, W. F.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents spatial patterns in glacier area and elevation changes in the monsoon-influenced part of the Himalaya (eastern Nepal and Sikkim) at multiple spatial scales. We combined Corona KH4 and topographic data with more recent remote-sensing data from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Radiometer (ASTER), QuickBird (QB) and WorldView-2 (WV2) sensors. We present: (1) spatial patterns of glacier parameters based ...

  17. Tectonic evolution of the Tethyan Himalaya in SE Tibet deduced from magnetic fabric, structural, metamorphic and paleomagnetic data

    OpenAIRE

    Antolín Tomas, Borja

    2010-01-01

    A multidisciplinary approach was carried out to elucidate the kinematic and metamorphic evolution of the Tethyan Himalayan sequence in SE-Tibet in order to contribute to the understanding of continental collision orogens as the Himalaya. Phyllosilicates preferred orientation interpreted from magnetic fabric studies, structural-field data, illite crystallinity, vitrinite reflectance and K/Ar dating were analyzed to characterize the deformation and metamorphic phases of the Triassic flysch sequ...

  18. Structure, Composition and Dominance ? Diversity Relations in Three Forest Types of a Part of Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary, Central Himalaya, India

    OpenAIRE

    Dinesh Prasad SEMWAL; Prem Lal UNIYAL; Ajay Ballabh BHATT

    2010-01-01

    Plant diversity assessment was carried out on the basis of species richness, tree crown cover and dominance-diversity pattern in different forests of Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary (KWLS), Central Himalaya, India during 2006-2009. The maximum tree species richness (10 spp.) was observed in Rhododendron arboreum Sm. dominated mixed forest and minimum in Quercus leucotrichophora A. Camus. forest (8 spp.). Maximum tree density (170 trees/ha) and high importance value index (89.68) was found in Q. ...

  19. Marker-assisted selection in maize: current status, potential, limitations and perspectives from the private and public sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than twenty-five years after the advent of DNA markers, marker-assisted selection (MAS) has become a routine component of some private maize breeding programmes. Line conversion has been one of the most productive applications of MAS in maize breeding, reducing time to market and resulting in countless numbers of commercial products. Recently, applications of MAS for forward breeding have been shown to increase significantly the rate of genetic gain when compared with conventional breeding. Costs associated with MAS are still very high. Further improvements in marker technologies, data handling and analysis, phenotyping and nursery operations are needed to realize the full benefits of MAS for private maize breeding programmes and to allow the transfer of proven approaches and protocols to public breeding programmes in developing countries. (author)

  20. GIS-based identification of areas with mineral resource potential for six selected deposit groups, Bureau of Land Management Central Yukon Planning Area, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James V., III; Karl, Susan M.; Labay, Keith A.; Shew, Nora B.; Granitto, Matthew; Hayes, Timothy S.; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Todd, Erin; Wang, Bronwen; Werdon, Melanie B.; Yager, Douglas B.

    2015-01-01

    This study, covering the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Central Yukon Planning Area (CYPA), Alaska, was prepared to aid BLM mineral resource management planning. Estimated mineral resource potential and certainty are mapped for six selected mineral deposit groups: (1) rare earth element (REE) deposits associated with peralkaline to carbonatitic intrusive igneous rocks, (2) placer and paleoplacer gold, (3) platinum group element (PGE) deposits associated with mafic and ultramafic intrusive igneous rocks, (4) carbonate-hosted copper deposits, (5) sandstone uranium deposits, and (6) tin-tungsten-molybdenum-fluorspar deposits associated with specialized granites. These six deposit groups include most of the strategic and critical elements of greatest interest in current exploration.

  1. Elucidation of Abnormal Potential Responses of Cation-Selective Electrodes with Solid-State Membranes to Aqueous Solutions of CuCl2 and CdI2

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshihiro Kudo; Daisuke Todoroki; Nobukazu Suzuki; Naoki Horiuchi; Shoichi Katsuta; Yasuyuki Takeda

    2011-01-01

    An empirical solution to abnormal potential responses, showing peaks of emf, of commercial Cu2+- and Cd2+-selective electrodes with solid-state membranes was proposed for aqueous solutions of CuCl2 and CdI2. The two-step processes of Mn+ + Yn? (s: solid phase) MY(s) and MY(s) + 2X? X2MY2?(s) (n = 1, 2) at a test solution/electrode-interface were considered as a model. Here, Mn+, Yn?, and X? refer to a divalent or univalent cation, functional groups of electrode materials, and a halide ion (X?...

  2. A potential new selection criterion for breeding winter barley optimal protein and amino acid profiles for liquid pig feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Bjerg; Blaabjerg, Karoline

    The hypothesis is that cereal proteases in liquid feed degrade and convert water insoluble storage protein into water soluble protein, which may improve the digestibility of protein in pigs compared with dry feeding. Protein utilization is increased by matching the amino acid (AAs) content of the diet as close as possible to the pigs’ requirement. By improving the availability of isoleucine, leucine, histidine and phenylalanine, which are limiting and commercial unavailable, the amount of crude protein in the pig feed can be reduced, resulting in a decreased excretion of nitrogen. The aim was to evaluate the effect of soaking on the amount of water soluble protein and AAs from different winter barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivars. In this experiment, grains from 9 different barley cultivars were soaked and samples were collected at 15 minutes, 2, 4, 6, 8, 24, 48 and 72 hours. The protein concentration was analysed in the supernatant after centrifugation. After 15 min., app. 16% of the total protein was soluble and until 8 hours an increase of 5% units was observed. However, from 8 to 48 hours it increased with 10% units for some cultivars. Based on these analyses, cultivars were selected for amino acid analysis of water soluble protein at 4, 6 and 48 hours. The amount of glutamic acid after 48 hours indicated that the solubilised protein originated from the prolamin fraction in the grain. Comparison of the amount of isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine and histidine in relation to the amount of glutamic acid revealed differences between the cultivars and the solubilised protein at all three times. These preliminary results may indicate that improvements of the nitrogen utilization in pigs fed soaked winter barley depends on the choice of cultivar and soaking time, and may serve as a new selection criterion for barley to be used in feeding.

  3. Penetration of biomass-burning emissions from South Asia through the Himalayas: new insights from atmospheric organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Zhiyuan; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Kang, Shichang; Fu, Pingqing

    2015-01-01

    High levels of carbonaceous aerosol exist over South Asia, the area adjacent to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. Little is known about if they can be transported across the Himalayas, and as far inland as the Tibetan Plateau. As important constituents of aerosols, organic acids have been recognized as unique fingerprints to identify the atmospheric process. Here we measured dicarboxylic acids and related compounds in aerosols on the northern slope of Mt. Everest (Qomolangma, 4276?m a.s.l.). Strong positive correlations were observed for dicarboxylic acids with biomass burning tracers, levoglucosan and K(+), demonstrating that this area was evidently affected by biomass burning. The seasonal variation pattern of dicarboxylic acids is consistent with OC and EC, being characterized by a pronounced maximum in the pre-monsoon season. Molecular distributions of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds (malonic acid/succinic acid, maleic acid/fumaric acid) further support this finding. We suggest that the local meteorological conditions and regional atmospheric flow process could facilitate the penetration of the carbonaceous aerosols from South Asia throughout the Himalayas. With the consideration of the darkening force of carbonaceous aerosols, our finding has important implication for this climate-sensitive area, where the glacier melting supplies water for billions of people downstream. PMID:25854556

  4. S-P wave travel time residuals and lateral inhomogeneity in the mantle beneath Tibet and the Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, P.; Chen, W.-P.

    1984-01-01

    S-P wave travel time residuals were measured in earthquakes in Tibet and the Himalaya in order to study lateral inhomogeneities in the earth's mantle. Average S-P residuals, measured with respect to Jeffrey-Bullen (J-B) tables for 11 earthquakes in the Himalaya are less than +1 second. Average J-B S-P from 10 of 11 earthquakes in Tibet, however, are greater than +1 second even when corrected for local crustal thickness. The largest values, ranging between 2.5 and 4.9 seconds are for five events in central and northern Tibet, and they imply that the average velocities in the crust and upper mantle in this part of Tibet are 4 to 10 percent lower than those beneath the Himalaya. On the basis of the data, it is concluded that it is unlikely that a shield structure lies beneath north central Tibet unless the S-P residuals are due to structural variations occurring deeper than 250 km.

  5. Earthquake hazard in northeast India – A seismic microzonation approach with typical case studies from Sikkim Himalaya and Guwahati city

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sankar Kumar Nath; Kiran Kumar Singh Thingbaijam; Abhishek Raj

    2008-11-01

    A comprehensive analytical as well as numerical treatment of seismological, geological, geomorphological and geotechnical concepts has been implemented through microzonation projects in the northeast Indian provinces of Sikkim Himalaya and Guwahati city, representing cases of contrasting geological backgrounds – a hilly terrain and a predominantly alluvial basin respectively. The estimated maximum earthquakes in the underlying seismic source zones, demarcated in the broad northeast Indian region, implicates scenario earthquakes of $M_W$ 8.3 and 8.7 to the respective study regions for deterministic seismic hazard assessments. The microzonation approach as undertaken in the present analyses involves multi-criteria seismic hazard evaluation through thematic integration of contributing factors. The geomorphological themes for Sikkim Himalaya include surface geology, soil cover, slope, rock outcrop and landslide integrated to achieve geological hazard distribution. Seismological themes, namely surface consistent peak ground acceleration and predominant frequency were, thereafter, overlaid on and added with the geological hazard distribution to obtain the seismic hazard microzonation map of the Sikkim Himalaya. On the other hand, the microzonation study of Guwahati city accounts for eight themes – geological and geomorphological, basement or bedrock, landuse, landslide, factor of safety for soil stability, shear wave velocity, predominant frequency, and surface consistent peak ground acceleration. The five broad qualitative hazard classifications – ‘low’, ‘moderate’, ‘high’, ‘moderate high’ and ‘very high’ could be applied in both the cases, albeit with different implications to peak ground acceleration variations. These developed hazard maps offer better representation of the local specific seismic hazard variation in the terrain.

  6. The rise of the Himalaya enforced the diversification of SE Asian ferns by altering the monsoon regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Li

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rise of high mountain chains is widely seen as one of the factors driving rapid diversification of land plants and the formation of biodiversity hotspots. Supporting evidence was reported for the impact of the rapid rise of the Andean mountains but this hypothesis has so far been less explored for the impact of the “roof of the world”. The formation of the Himalaya, and especially the rise of the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau in the recent 20 million years, altered the monsoon regimes that dominate the current climates of South East Asia. Here, we infer the hypothesis that the rise of Himalaya had a strong impact on the plant diversity in the biodiversity hotspot of the Southwest Chinese Mountains. Results Our analyses of the diversification pattern of the derived fern genus Lepisorus recovered evidence for changes in plant diversity that correlated with the strengthening of South East Asian monsoon. Southwest China or Southwest China and Japan was recovered as the putative area of origin of Lepisorus and enhancing monsoon regime were found to shape the early diversification of the genus as well as subsequent radiations during the late Miocene and Pliocene. Conclusions We report new evidence for a coincidence of plant diversification and changes of the climate caused by the uplift of the Himalaya. These results are discussed in the context of the impact of incomplete taxon sampling, uncertainty of divergence time estimates, and limitations of current methods used to assess diversification rates.

  7. Thermal controls on early-Tertiary, short-lived, rapid regional metamorphism in the NW Himalaya, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treloar, Peter J.

    1997-05-01

    During Tertiary collision in the NW Himalaya, the leading edge of the Indian Plate was subducted beneath the Kohistan island arc along the Main Mantle Thrust (MMT). Metamorphism within Indian Plate cover sediments was synchronous with ductile shearing, and took place along a path of increasing pressure during subduction beneath the island arc. Initial collision cannot have pre-dated 65 Ma and probably shortly pre-dated 50 Ma. Radiometric data constrain the metamorphic peak as shortly post-dating 50 Ma. As, firstly, initially subducted units are now probably located beneath Tibet, secondly, the subduction thrust separating the Kohistan arc terrane from the Indian Plate was probably cooled by continued underthrusting and, thirdly, the heat-producing Indian Plate cover sediments were delaminated from the basement during collision, metamorphism was more rapid than can be predicted by purely conductive models of thermal relaxation. Although dissipative shear heating along the MMT doubtless contributed to early stages of heating of the footwall rocks, the temperatures attained in the footwall are too high to support the shear stresses required to generate them solely through shear heating. A model is derived to account for both the rapid regional metamorphism and the equally rapid post-metamorphic cooling. Dissipative shear heating along the MMT generated an early inverted thermal profile in the upper units of the Indian Plate. As the hanging wall mafic rocks have a low thermal conductivity, they would have acted as a thermal reflector and the heat would have been conducted away only slowly. As footwall temperatures increased through the brittle-ductile transition, the role of dissipative shear heating decreased and continued heating became a function of internal heat generation within the footwall rocks, together with hanging wall thermal reflectivity. The metamorphic inversion was reinforced by imbrication of the metamorphic stack as it accreted onto the MMT footwall during early stages of uplift and exhumation. Dissipative shear heating within thrust systems provides a potentially important mechanism by which areas of large regional extent can undergo regional metamorphism over short timescales, in the absence of magmatic heating.

  8. Production of cellulase systems by selected mutants of Trichoderma reesei in soild-state fermentation and their hydrolytic potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awafo, V.A. [Universite du Quebec, Laval (Canada)]|[McGill Univ., Quebec (Canada)]|[Ministry of Natural Resources, Quebec (Canada); Chahal, D.S.; Simpson, B.K. [McGill Univ., Quebec (Canada)]|[Ministry of Natural Resources, Quebec (Canada); Le, G.B.B. [Ministry of Natural Resources, Quebec (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    Three mutants of Trichoderma reesei were grown in solid-state fermentation (SSF) in flasks and in a pan bioreactor. Mutant strain MCG 80 proved to be the best at producing an optimal cellulose system using lignocellulosic material (wheat straw [WS]) as substrate. This preparation exhibited a {beta}-glucosidase activity (PGA) to FPA (FPA) ratio of about 1.0, which is indicative of a high potential for hydrolysis of cellulose. The yields of cellulose systems and the ratio of PGA to FPA produced in flasks were comparable to that of the pan bioreactor. The cellulose system of T. reesei MCG 80 having a ratio of {beta}GA to FPA close to 1.0 gave the most complete (88-95%) hydrolysis of 5% delignified wheat straw (DWS). On the other hand, the cellulose system of cocultures of T. reesei QMY-1 and Aspergillus phoenicis failed to produce high hydrolytic yields in spite of having a very high ratio of PGA to FPA (3.04). This failure was owing to the fact that coculture contained the relatively poor-quality cellulase system of the dominant organism, A. phoenicis. The resulting fermented WS can be used, as a source of enzyme (unextracted), for hydrolysis of wheat straw, and it gives increased yields of reducing sugars compared to analogous extracted enzyme preparations. The hydrolytic potential of two commercial enzymes tested were considerably lower than those of the cellulose systems produced on WS. It is evident that a complete cellulose system having a {beta}GA-to-FPA ratio close to 1.0 and high hydrolytic potential can be produced on lignocellulosic feedstocks in SSF. 21 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Thermal adaptation in Drosophila serrata under conditions linked to its southern border: unexpected patterns from laboratory selection suggest limited evolutionary potential

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Andréa Magiafoglou; Ary Hoffmann

    2003-12-01

    To investigate the ability of Drosophila serrata to adapt to thermal conditions over winter at the species southern border, replicate lines from three source locations were held as discrete generations over three years at either 19°C (40 generations) or temperatures fluctuating between 7°C and 18°C (20 generations). Populations in the fluctuating environment were maintained either with an adult 0°C cold shock or without a shock. These conditions were expected to result in temperature-specific directional selection for increased viability and productivity under both temperature regimes, and reduced development time under the fluctuating-temperature regime. Selection responses of all lines were tested under both temperature regimes after controlling for carry-over effects by rearing lines in these environments for two generations. When tested in the 19°C environment, lines evolving at 19°C showed a faster development time and a lower productivity relative to the other lines, while cold shock reduced development time and productivity of all lines. When tested in the fluctuating environment, productivity of the 7–18°C lines selected with a cold shock was relatively lower than that of lines selected without a shock, but this pattern was not observed in the other populations. Viability and body size as measured by wing length were not altered by selection or cold shock, although there were consistent effects of source population on wing length. These results provide little evidence for temperature-specific adaptation in D. serrata—although the lines had diverged for some traits, these changes were not consistent with a priori predictions. In particular, there was no evidence for life-history changes reflecting adaptation to winter conditions at the southern border. The potential for D. serrata to adapt to winter conditions may therefore be limited.

  10. Enabling area-selective potential-energy engineering in InGaN/GaN quantum wells by post-growth intermixing

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao

    2015-03-19

    We report on a unique area-selective, post-growth approach in engineering the quantum-confined potential-energy profile of InGaN/GaN quantum wells (QWs) utilizing metal/dielectric-coating induced intermixing process. This led to simultaneous realization of adjacent regions with peak emission of 2.74 eV and 2.82 eV with a high spatial resolution (~1 ?m) at the coating boundary. The potential profile softening in the intermixed QW light-emitting diode (LED) was experimentally and numerically correlated, shedding light on the origin of alleviated efficiency droop from 30.5% to 16.6% (at 150 A/cm2). The technique is advantageous for fabricating high efficiency light-emitters, and is amenable to monolithic integration of nitride-based photonic devices.

  11. Gender and climate change in the Indian Himalayas: global threats, local vulnerabilities, and livelihood diversification at the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogra, M. V.; Badola, R.

    2015-08-01

    Global climate change has numerous implications for members of mountain communities who feel the impacts in both physical and social dimensions. In the western Himalayas of India, a majority of residents maintain a livelihood strategy that includes a combination of subsistence or small-scale agriculture, livestock rearing, seasonal or long-term migration, and localized natural resource extraction. While warming temperatures, irregular patterns of precipitation and snowmelt, and changing biological systems present challenges to the viability of these traditional livelihood portfolios in general, we find that climate change is also undermining local communities' livelihood assets in gender-specific ways. In this paper, we present a case study from the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (Uttarakhand, India) that both outlines the implications of climate change for women farmers in the area and highlights the potential for ecotourism (as a form of livelihood diversification) to strengthen both key livelihood assets of women and local communities' adaptive capacity more broadly. The paper intentionally employs a categorical focus on women but also addresses issues of inter-group and gender diversity. With this special issue in mind, suggestions for related research are proposed for consideration by climate scientists and social systems and/or policy modelers seeking to support gender justice through socially transformative perspectives and frameworks.

  12. Characterization of glacier debris cover via in situ and optical remote sensing methods: a case study in the Khumbu Himalaya, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Casey

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Field spectrometry and physical samples of debris, snow and ice were collected from the ablation zones of Ngozumpa and Khumbu glaciers of the Khumbu Himalaya, Nepal in November and December 2009. Field acquired spectral reflectances and mineral and chemical composition of samples were used as ground truth for comparison with satellite optical remote sensing data. Supraglacial debris was characterized by several optical remote sensing methods, including hyperspectral reflectance analysis, multispectral band composites and indices, spectral angle relationships, thermal band temperature and emissivity analysis, as well as repeat image derived glacier velocity and theoretical supraglacial particle transport. Supraglacial mineral components were identified and mineral abundances were estimated on Khumbu Himalayan glaciers. Mass flux was estimated by false color composites and glacier velocity displacement fields. Supraglacial temperatures were compared with mineral abundances, implying potential parameters to estimate differential melt. Overall, glaciologic implications of debris cover characterizations are applicable to (1 glacier energy balance, (2 glacial kinematics and (3 mapping glacial extent. The methods presented can be used in synergy to improve supraglacial debris quantification and reduce errors associated with debris covered ice extent mapping, surface radiative properties, as well as debris covered ice mass flux and loss estimations.

  13. Rapid milk progesterone assay as a tool for the selection of potential donor cows prior to superovulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrler, A; Elsaesser, F; Niemann, H

    1990-02-01

    This study investigated the accuracy of a commercially available rapid milk progesterone (P(4)) assay (RMPA) and its usefulness for the screening of potential donor cows prior to superovulatory treatment. Superovulation was induced in 90 lactating Holstein-Friesian crossbred dairy cows with twice daily injections over a 4-day period for a total of 40 mg follicle stimulating hormone (FSH-P), starting 9 to 13 d post estrus. Prior to induction of superovulation, a milk sample was collected and assayed for a P(4) level using the RMPA. The test determines P(4) by a simple visual color inspection of the respective sample, which is compared to a standard containing 10.5 ng/ml of P(4). All animals were divided into six groups according to the color intensity of their sample; three groups had a lower level, one group had an equal level and two groups had a higher P(4) level than the standard. Results of the semiquantitative RMPA were verified by a quantitative enzymeimmunoassay (EIA). Samples evaluated as equivalent to the standard had a mean P(4) level of 10.7 +/- 1.3 ng/ml (x +/- SEM). In total, P(4) levels differed (PRMPA-groups and EIA P(4) levels was 0.69 (PRMPA determines milk P(4) levels with sufficient accuracy and is a simple and useful tool for the screening of potential donor cows. PMID:16726738

  14. Assessment of the potential suitability of selected commercially available enzymes for cleaning-in-place (CIP) in the dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Angela; Piterina, Anna V; Walsh, Gary

    2010-10-01

    The potential suitability of 10 commercial protease and lipase products for cleaning-in-place (CIP) application in the dairy industry was investigated on a laboratory scale. Assessment was based primarily on the ability of the enzymes to remove an experimentally generated milk fouling deposit from stainless steel (SS) panels. Three protease products were identified as being most suitable for this application on the basis of their cleaning performance at 40 °C, which was comparable to that of the commonly used cleaning agent, 1% NaOH at 60 °C. This was judged by quantification of residual organic matter and protein on the SS surface after cleaning and analysis by laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). Enzyme activity was removed/inactivated under conditions simulating those normally undertaken after cleaning (rinsing with water, acid circulation, sanitation). Preliminary process-scale studies strongly suggest that enzyme-based CIP achieves satisfactory cleaning at an industrial scale. Cost analysis indicates that replacing caustic-based cleaning procedures with biodegradable enzymes operating at lower temperatures would be economically viable. Additional potential benefits include decreased energy and water consumption, improved safety, reduced waste generation, greater compatibility with wastewater treatment processes and a reduction in the environmental impact of the cleaning process. PMID:20931416

  15. Identifying and Evaluating Possible Trigger Mechanisms for Glacial Lake Outburst Floods in the Hindu Kush Himalayas Using Remote Sensing Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, T. G.; Haritashya, U. K.

    2014-12-01

    Glacierized basins in high-altitude and mountainous areas, such as the Himalayas, have seen an increase in the number of glacial lakes over the years as a result of a changing climate. As the meltwater becomes more prevalent, the runoff can accumulate in a depression left behind by the receding glacier and can be bound by the walls of frontal and lateral moraines. These moraines, however, often are comprised of loose, unconsolidated sediment and can prove to be unstable dam structures for proglacial lakes. The factor of instability associated with the moraines poses a serious threat for failure and severe flooding. If the moraines were to be breached by the lake water, a phenomenon known as a glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) can occur, potentially putting lives and infrastructure in harm's way. Consequently, this study examines the likelihood of a GLOF occurrence by analyzing potential trigger mechanisms associated with three proglacial lakes in the Hindu Kush Himalayan region. Using ASTER satellite imagery, one lake from Nepal, India, and Bhutan have each been assessed for possible trigger mechanisms. Our results suggest that steep-sided moraines, rugged topography, unstable masses on the upper reaches of steep slopes, and smaller lakes perched high above can all be classified as possible trigger mechanisms for the areas of study. It is imperative to be able to successfully identify potential trigger mechanisms using satellite data so that further ground observations can be made and mitigation efforts can be incorporated where needed. As lakes continue to grow, so does the cause for concern for possible GLOFs. Glacial lake outburst floods are being studied more extensively now due to the greater number of glacial lakes in high-mountainous areas. It is vitally important to understand the dynamics of a GLOF, especially the potential trigger mechanisms associated with it.

  16. Toward independent home use of brain-computer interfaces: a decision algorithm for selection of potential end-users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kübler, Andrea; Holz, Elisa Mira; Sellers, Eric W; Vaughan, Theresa M

    2015-03-01

    Noninvasive brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) use scalp-recorded electrical activity from the brain to control an application. Over the past 20 years, research demonstrating that BCIs can provide communication and control to individuals with severe motor impairment has increased almost exponentially. Although considerable effort has been dedicated to offline analysis for improving signal detection and translation, far less effort has been made to conduct online studies with target populations. Thus, there remains a great need for both long-term and translational BCI studies that include individuals with disabilities in their own homes. Completing these studies is the only sure means to answer questions about BCI utility and reliability. Here we suggest an algorithm for candidate selection for electroencephalographic (EEG)-based BCI home studies. This algorithm takes into account BCI end-users and their environment and should assist in study design and substantially improve subject retention rates, thereby improving the overall efficacy of BCI home studies. It is the result of a workshop at the Fifth International BCI Meeting that allowed us to leverage the expertise of multiple research laboratories and people from multiple backgrounds in BCI research. PMID:25721544

  17. Sulfur and ash reduction potential and selected chemical and physical properties of United States coals. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallaro, J.A.; Deurbrouck, A.W.; Killmeyer, R.P.; Fuchs, W. (USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (USA). Coal Preparation Div.); Jacobsen, P.S. (Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

    1991-02-01

    This report presents the washability and comprehensive characterization results of 184 raw coal channel samples, including anthracite, bituminous and lignite coals, collected from the Central Region of the United States. This is the second of a three volume report on the coals of the United States. All the data are presented in six appendices. Statistical techniques and definitions are presented in Appendix A, and a glossary of terms is presented in Appendix B. The complete washability data and an in-depth characterization of each sample are presented alphabetically by state in Appendix C. In Appendix D, a statistical evaluation is given for the composited washability data, selected chemical and physical properties and washability data interpolated at various levels of Btu recovery. This presentation is shown by state, section, and region where four or more samples were collected. Appendix E presents coalbed codes and names for the Central Region coals. Graphical summations are presented by state, section and region showing the effects of crushing on impurity reductions, and the distribution of raw and clean coal samples meeting various levels of SO{sub 2} emissions. 35 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Preferences and concerns of potential users in the selection of solar thermal systems for industrial and small utility applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gresham, J.B.; Kriz, T.A.

    1981-03-01

    To achieve widespready application in the industrial and utility sectors, solar systems must be economically competitive. Economic viability is, in turn, determined by a number of supporting criteria, ranging from system reliability to dispatch characteristics to how the system supports the main product line. In addition, solar systems possess some inherent attributes that may render some of the traditional supporting criteria inappropriate or require their redefinition. Those criteria and their relation to the solar investments are discussed in three steps. First, the main concerns and preferences of the potential users, as identified in recent SERI studies, are identified. Second, the equitability of the resulting decision criteria for solar investments are examined. Finally, the implications of these criteria for solar energy's penetration into these markets are discussed.

  19. Mode selection of China's urban heating and its potential for reducing energy consumption and CO2 emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China's carbon dioxide (CO2) emission ranks the highest in the world. CO2 emission from urban central heating, which has an average annual growth rate of 10.3%, is responsible for 4.4% of China's total CO2 emission. The current policy for improving urban central heating focuses on replacing coal with natural gas. This paper analyzes the existing situation and problems pertaining to urban heating, and evaluates the potential for reducing energy consumption and CO2 emission by heat pump heating. The results show that the current policy of replacing coal with natural gas for urban central heating decreases energy consumption and CO2 emission by 16.6% and 63.5%, respectively. On the other hand, replacing coal-based urban central heating with heat pump heating is capable of decreasing energy consumption and CO2 emission by 57.6% and 81.4%, respectively. Replacing both urban central and decentralized heating with heat pump heating can lead to 67.7% and 85.8% reduction in energy consumption and CO2 emission, respectively. The decreases in CO2 emission will account for 24.5% of China's target to reduce total CO2 emission by 2020. - Highlights: • Existing situation and problems of urban heating in China. • Feasibility of heat pump heating in China. • Potential of energy saving and emission reduction for heat pump heating. • China should adjust urban heating strategy. • Replacing urban central heating and decentralized heating with heat pump heating

  20. Risk assessment of potentially toxic elements in agricultural soils and maize tissues from selected districts in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field survey was conducted to investigate the contamination of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) arsenic (As), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), and nickel (Ni) in Tanzanian agricultural soils and to evaluate their uptake and translocation in maize as proxy to the safety of maize used for human and animal consumption. Soils and maize tissues were sampled from 40 farms in Tanzania and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry in the United Kingdom. The results showed high levels of PTEs in both soils and maize tissues above the recommended limits. Nickel levels of up to 34.4 and 56.9 mg kg?1 respectively were found in some maize shoots and grains from several districts. Also, high Pb levels >0.2 mg kg?1 were found in some grains. The grains and shoots with high levels of Ni and Pb are unfit for human and animal consumption. Concentrations of individual elements in maize tissues and soils did not correlate and showed differences in uptake and translocation. However, Ni showed a more efficient transfer from soils to shoots than As, Pb and Cr. Transfer of Cr and Ni from shoots to grains was higher than other elements, implying that whatever amount is assimilated in maize shoots is efficiently mobilized and transferred to grains. Thus, the study recommended to the public to stop consuming and feeding their animals maize with high levels of PTEs for their safety. - Highlights: ? High Ni and Pb levels above the allowable limits were found in maize grains. ? Also maize shoots unfit for animal use were found with high Ni concentrations. ? Mining activities were among the sources of soil contamination. ? The public advised to stop consuming maize with potentially toxic elements.

  1. Potential Signal Transduction Regulation by HDL of the ?2-Adrenergic Receptor Pathway. Implications in Selected Pathological Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesor, Eric J; Benghozi, Renée

    2015-07-01

    The main atheroprotective mechanism of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) has been regarded as reverse cholesterol transport, whereby cholesterol from peripheral tissues is removed and transported to the liver for elimination. Although numerous additional atheroprotective mechanisms have been suggested, the role of HDL in modulating signal transduction of cell membrane-bound receptors has received little attention to date. This potential was recently highlighted following the identification of a polymorphism in the adenylyl cyclase 9 gene (ADCY9) that was shown to be a determining factor in the risk of cardiovascular (CV) events in patients treated with the HDL-raising compound dalcetrapib. Indeed, ADCY9 is part of the signaling pathway of the ?2-adrenergic receptor (?2-AR) and both are membrane-bound proteins affected by changes in membrane-rich cholesterol plasma membrane domains (caveolae). Numerous G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and ion channels are affected by caveolae, with caveolae composition acting as a 'signalosome'. Polymorphisms in the genes encoding ADCY9 and ?2-AR are associated with response to ?2-agonist drugs in patients with asthma, malaria and with sickle cell disease. Crystallization of the ?2-AR has found cholesterol tightly bound to transmembrane structures of the receptor. Cholesterol has also been shown to modulate the activity of this receptor. Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), the major protein component of HDL, destabilizes and removes cholesterol from caveolae with high affinity through interaction with ATP-binding cassette transporter. Furthermore, ?2-AR activity may be affected by ApoA1/HDL-targeted therapies. Taken together, these observations suggest a common pathway that potentially links a primary HDL function to the regulation of signal transduction. PMID:26009249

  2. Risk assessment of potentially toxic elements in agricultural soils and maize tissues from selected districts in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marwa, Ernest M.M., E-mail: emagesa@yahoo.com [Department of Plant and Soil Science, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, AB 24 3UU (United Kingdom); Department of Geology and Petroleum Geology, University of Aberdeen, Meston Building, AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); Meharg, Andrew A. [Department of Plant and Soil Science, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, AB 24 3UU (United Kingdom); Rice, Clive M. [Department of Geology and Petroleum Geology, University of Aberdeen, Meston Building, AB24 3UE (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-01

    A field survey was conducted to investigate the contamination of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) arsenic (As), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), and nickel (Ni) in Tanzanian agricultural soils and to evaluate their uptake and translocation in maize as proxy to the safety of maize used for human and animal consumption. Soils and maize tissues were sampled from 40 farms in Tanzania and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry in the United Kingdom. The results showed high levels of PTEs in both soils and maize tissues above the recommended limits. Nickel levels of up to 34.4 and 56.9 mg kg{sup -1} respectively were found in some maize shoots and grains from several districts. Also, high Pb levels >0.2 mg kg{sup -1} were found in some grains. The grains and shoots with high levels of Ni and Pb are unfit for human and animal consumption. Concentrations of individual elements in maize tissues and soils did not correlate and showed differences in uptake and translocation. However, Ni showed a more efficient transfer from soils to shoots than As, Pb and Cr. Transfer of Cr and Ni from shoots to grains was higher than other elements, implying that whatever amount is assimilated in maize shoots is efficiently mobilized and transferred to grains. Thus, the study recommended to the public to stop consuming and feeding their animals maize with high levels of PTEs for their safety. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High Ni and Pb levels above the allowable limits were found in maize grains. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Also maize shoots unfit for animal use were found with high Ni concentrations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mining activities were among the sources of soil contamination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The public advised to stop consuming maize with potentially toxic elements.

  3. Spray pyrolysed In2S3 thin films: A potential electron selective layer for large area inverted bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we report the results of investigations on the potential of spray pyrolysis technique in depositing electron selective layer over larger area for the fabrication of inverted bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells. The electron selective layer (In2S3) was deposited using spray pyrolysis technique and the linear heterojunction device thus fabricated exhibited good uniformity in photovoltaic properties throughout the area of the device. An MEH-PPV:PCBM inverted bulk-heterojunction device with In2S3 electron selective layer (active area of 3.25 x 3.25 cm2) was also fabricated and tested under indoor and outdoor conditions. From the indoor measurements employing a tungsten halogen lamp (50 mW/cm2 illumination), an open-circuit voltage of 0.41 V and a short-circuit current of 5.6 mA were obtained. On the other hand, the outdoor measurements under direct sunlight (74 mW/cm2) yielded an open-circuit voltage of 0.46 V and a short-circuit current of 9.37 mA. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Potentials of Selected Malaysian Biomasses as Co-Gasification Fuels with Oil Palm Fronds in a Fixed-Bed Downdraft Gasifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moni Mohamad Nazmi Zaidi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm frond (OPF has been successfully gasified to produce syngas and has since deemed as a potential source of biomass fuel in Malaysia. However, if OPF is to be utilized as a main fuel for industrial-scale firing/gasification plant, interruption in fuel supply may occur due to numerous reasons, for instance inefficient fuel processing and ineffective transportation. A secondary supporting solid fuel is therefore necessary as a partial component to the main fuel in such cases, where the secondary fuel is combusted with the main fuel to adhere to main fuel shortage. Gasification of two fuels together, known as co-gasification, is practiced worldwide, some in industrial scale. However, current practice utilizes biomass fuel as the secondary fuel to coal in co-gasification. This investigation explores into the feasibility of co-gasifying two biomass fuels together to produce syngas. OPF was chosen as the primary fuel and a selection of Malaysian biomasses were studied to discover their compatibility with OPF in co-gasification. Biomass selection was made using score-and-rank method and their selection criteria are concisely discussed.

  5. Calculation of former ELA depressions in the Himalaya - a comparative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, M.

    2009-04-01

    For the reconstruction of former Equilibrium Line Altitudes (ELA) and ELA depressions in the Himalaya, the group of the Toe-to-Summit-Altitude-Methods (TSAM) is most suited. In this investigation the Kuhle (1986) method that is particularly tailored to the extreme high mountain relief, as well as the widely used Höfer (1879) method and Louis (1954/55) method, have been applied. Applying the relief specific correction factor FSD (Factor for snowline deviation) in the Kuhle method, it is thereby possible to simulate the shifting position of the ELA within the vertical extension of the glacier in dependence on the relief characteristics and glacial type. The results of this work, carried out along the Kali Gandaki in central Nepal, illustrate that as a rule, the Louis method results in the highest ELAs and the lowest ELA depressions, while the Höfer method yields the lowest ELAs and the highest ELA depressions. In affirmation of the literature, the Louis method tends to overestimate the ELA, since using the maximum peak height, especially for large glaciers in mountain ranges with high relief energy, leads to an overly high position of the glacier upper limit. With respect to the Höfer method, the suspicion already voiced by Höfer (1879) himself, that with the use of his method, the for the Himalaya typically high elevated, and with marginal gradient toward the valley moving ridge progressions, would lead to a too low ELA, can be affirmed. Clearly to be disputed, however, is the statement of Gross et al. (1976) that the Höfer method leads to an overestimation of the ELA. The reason for this can be found in a wrong computation of the mean ridge height above the ELA and consequently of the ELA itself within the Höfer method, based on the erroneous assumption that otherwise the ELA could not be calculated due to a circular conclusion (Gross et al. 1976). As is evidenced by this study, the Kuhle method mediates between the empiric overly high values of the Louis method and the overly low values of the Höfer method, because of a mediating definition of the accumulation zone upper limit. Additionally, over the FSD, Kuhle allows for a high degree of adaptation to the extreme Himalaya relief, and within limitations from the change of the relief constellation, which stems from transverse valley's characteristics of the Kali Gandaki. Therefore, the results of the Kuhle method must be affirmed as reflecting the greatest conformity with the actual values of the ELA and the ELA depression. References: Gross, G., H. Kerschner, G. Patzelt (1976): Methodische Untersuchungen über die Schneegrenze in alpinen Gletschergebieten. Zeitschrift für Gletscherkunde und Glazialgeologie 12 (2): 223-251. Höfer von Heimhalt, H. (1879): Gletscher- und Eiszeitstudien. Sitzungsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, Abteilung I, Biologie, Mineralogie, Erdkunde 79: 331-367. Kuhle, M. (1986): Schneegrenzberechnung und typologische Klassifikation von Gletschern anhand spezifischer Reliefparameter. Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen 130: 41-51. Louis, H. (1954/55): Schneegrenze und Schneegrenzbestimmung. Geographisches Taschenbuch 1954/55: 414-418.

  6. Using potential distributions to explore environmental correlates of bat species richness in southern Africa: Effects of model selection and taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Corrie SCHOEMAN, F. P. D. (Woody COTTERILL, Peter J. TAYLOR, Ara MONADJEM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We tested the prediction that at coarse spatial scales, variables associated with climate, energy, and productivity hypotheses should be better predictor(s of bat species richness than those associated with environmental heterogeneity. Distribution ranges of 64 bat species were estimated with niche-based models informed by 3629 verified museum specimens. The influence of environmental correlates on bat richness was assessed using ordinary least squares regression (OLS, simultaneous autoregressive models (SAR, conditional autoregressive models (CAR, spatial eigenvector-based filtering models (SEVM, and Classification and Regression Trees (CART. To test the assumption of stationarity, Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR was used. Bat species richness was highest in the eastern parts of southern Africa, particularly in central Zimbabwe and along the western border of Mozambique. We found support for the predictions of both the habitat heterogeneity and climate/productivity/ energy hypotheses, and as we expected, support varied among bat families and model selection. Richness patterns and predictors of Miniopteridae and Pteropodidae clearly differed from those of other bat families. Altitude range was the only independent variable that was sig­nificant in all models and it was most often the best predictor of bat richness. Standard coefficients of SAR and CAR models were similar to those of OLS models, while those of SEVM models differed. Although GWR indicated that the assumption of stationa­rity was violated, the CART analysis corroborated the findings of the curve-fitting models. Our results identify where additional data on current species ranges, and future conservation action and ecological work are needed [Current Zoology 59 (3: 279–293, 2013].

  7. Evaluation of uranium potential in selected Pennsylvanian and Permian units and igneous rocks in southwestern and southern Oklahoma. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precambrian and Cambrian igneous rocks and Pennsylvanian-Permian sedimentary rocks in southwestern and southern Oklahoma are related genetically in that the former, by means of tectonism, was the dominant source material for sediments composing a substantial part of the latter. Petrological and geochemical evidence indicate that granite and rhyolite are potential sources of uranium in southwestern Oklahoma. Riebeckite-aegirine pegmatite dikes contain 38 to 108 ppM uranium. Most of the uranium anomalies in sedimentary rocks are present in association with structural features. Local reducing conditions favoring precipitation from ground water were due to seepage of hydrocarbons along faults, concentration of carbonaceous material (in one case), and deposition of cornstone (caliche). In the Vanoss Formation, the anomalous uranium content in ground water is associated with coarse-grained, arkosic facies. The structural configuration appears to have been relatively unimportant in localization of the anomalies. Some of the disseminated uranium in framework grains and clay in arkoses and subarkoses in southwestern Oklahoma was leached by ground water and transported both parallel to and across bedding (by means of fractures and capillary pressure) to local areas favorable for precipitation

  8. Genotoxic and immunotoxic potential effects of selected psychotropic drugs and antibiotics on blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) hemocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacaze, Emilie; Pédelucq, Julie; Fortier, Marlène; Brousseau, Pauline; Auffret, Michel; Budzinski, Hélène; Fournier, Michel

    2015-07-01

    The potential toxicity of pharmaceuticals towards aquatic invertebrates is still poorly understood and sometimes controversial. This study aims to document the in vitro genotoxicity and immunotoxicity of psychotropic drugs and antibiotics on Mytilus edulis. Mussel hemocytes were exposed to fluoxetine, paroxetine, venlafaxine, carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and erythromycin, at concentrations ranging from ?g/L to mg/L. Paroxetine at 1.5 ?g/L led to DNA damage while the same concentration of venlafaxine caused immunomodulation. Fluoxetine exposure resulted in genotoxicity, immunotoxicity and cytotoxicity. In the case of antibiotics, trimethoprim was genotoxic at 200 ?g/L and immunotoxic at 20 mg/L whereas erythromycin elicited same detrimental effects at higher concentrations. DNA metabolism seems to be a highly sensitive target for psychotropic drugs and antibiotics. Furthermore, these compounds affect the immune system of bivalves, with varying intensity. This attests the relevance of these endpoints to assess the toxic mode of action of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. PMID:25829077

  9. The potential for reducing the radiological consequences of reactor decommissioning through selection of construction materials for activated components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report considers whether it may be possible to reduce the radiological consequences of reactor decommissioning by careful attention to the specification of the elemental concentration of materials used in the reactor's construction. In particular, consideration is given to the potential for reduction of the concentration of elements known to activate to long lived daughter isotopes. Two particular areas are addressed, both applied to Sizewell 'B' PWR. The first is the choice of raw materials for the construction of the concrete bioshield to minimise future waste arisings. The second is the specification of some trace element concentrations in the steel pressure vessel and reactor internal structures to minimise personnel exposure at decommissioning time. The report presents extensive analyses of many of the candidate raw materials for Sizewell 'B' concrete, including PFA, and derives the radiological consequences for the eventual disposal of these materials to a hypothetical municipal land fill waste site. Data are also presented on the concentrations of important elements activating to gamma emitting daughters in type 304 stainless steels, leading to an assessment of likely dose equivalent rates at decommissioning time from the pressure vessel and from the internal components. (author)

  10. The potential of selected South African plants with anti-Klebsiella activity for the treatment and prevention of ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cock, I E; van Vuuren, S F

    2015-02-01

    A wide variety of herbal remedies are used in traditional African medicine to treat inflammatory disorders, including some autoimmune diseases. Thirty-four extracts from 13 South African plant species traditionally used for the treatment of inflammation were investigated for their ability to control a microbial trigger for ankylosing spondylitis (Klebsiella pneumoniae). Twenty-six of the extracts (76.5%) inhibited the growth of K. pneumoniae. Methanol and water extracts of Ballota africana, Carpobrotus edulis leaves, Kigellia africana, Lippia javanica, Pelargonium fasiculata, Syzygium cordatum (including bark), Terminalia pruinoides and Terminalia sericea were effective K. pneumoniae inhibitors, with MIC values <1000 µg/ml. The roots of Tulbaghia violaceae and bark from Warburgia salutaris also demonstrated efficacy. The most potent extracts were examined by RP-HPLC and UV-Vis spectroscopy for the presence of resveratrol. Methanolic extracts of B. africana, C. edulis leaves, L. javanica, T. pruinoides and T. sericea, as well as aqueous B. africana, T. pruinoides and T. sericea extracts, displayed peaks with retention times and UV-Vis spectra consistent with the presence of resveratrol. Resveratrol was generally a minor component, indicating that resveratrol was not solely responsible for the anti-Klebsiella growth inhibitory properties. Plant extracts with K. pneumoniae inhibitory activity were either non-toxic, or of low toxicity in the Artemia (brine shrimp) nauplii bioassay. Their low toxicity and antibiotic bioactivity against K. pneumoniae indicate their potential for both preventing the onset of ankylosing spondylitis and minimising its symptoms once the disease is established. PMID:25412961

  11. Selection and evaluation of Debaryomyces hansenii isolates as potential bioprotective agents against toxigenic penicillia in dry-fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Félix; Lara, María S; Peromingo, Belén; Delgado, Josué; Sánchez-Montero, Lourdes; Andrade, María J

    2015-04-01

    Biocontrol using autochthonous Debaryomyces hansenii isolates is a potentially suitable strategy for inhibiting toxigenic moulds in dry-cured meat products. The antifungal activity of 280 D. hansenii isolated from dry-cured meat products as well as the mode of action of the most active isolates against toxigenic penicillia were evaluated in this work. A 13.9% of the D. hansenii isolates showed inhibitory activity in a radial inhibition assay. The effects on penicillia growth of both the cell-free culture filtrate and volatile compounds from active yeast isolates were analysed. Penicillia growth inhibition by D. hansenii was probably based on additive or synergistic effects of several inhibiting factors such as competition for nutrient and space, and production of soluble or volatile compounds. When four D. hansenii isolates were tested on dry-fermented sausage, two of them produced a significantly growth reduction of the ochratoxigenic Penicillium verrucosum, keeping its counts under the level considered as hazardous for the mycotoxin presence. Therefore, the use of these two D. hansenii isolates during the processing of dry-fermented meat product could be a promising tool to control toxigenic moulds in the meat industry. PMID:25475274

  12. Selection of potential Enterococcus faecium isolated from Thai native chicken for probiotic use according to the in vitro properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napaporn Lertworapreecha

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sixty strains of E. faecium were isolated from 30 samples of native chickens’ gastrointestinal tracts. All strains weretested on acid and bile tolerance. Fifteen strains passed the acid tolerance test. The best five strains were EFMC 17, 21 and24; EFMD 25; EFMI 47 and 49. Only four strains, EFMC 21; EFMD 30; EFMI 47, and 49, survived 4 hours of bile exposure.Fifteen strains that passed the acid tolerance test were tested for their ability of intestinal mucus attachment. The resultsindicated that all strains were able to attach to intestinal mucus. For the ability of pathogenic bacteria inhibition test, theresult found seven strains (EFMC 17, 21 and 24; EFMD 29 and 30; EFMI 46 and 49 showed better performance than strainEFC. All seven strains were acid producer, but only four strains (EFMC 21; EFMD 25; EFMI 47 and 49 were able to releasebacteriocin. Based on proper probiotic properties two strains (EFMI 47 and 49 of E. faecium isolated from Thai native chicksin this study have a potential use as probiotics. Antimicrobial susceptibility test of these two strains have been also performed;they were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic, ciprofloxacin, gentamycin, trimethoprime/sulphamethoxazole, vancomycin,and trimethoprim. On the other hand, they were resistant to cefotaxime, erythromycin, and tetracycline. The DNA-DNAhybridization percentage of DNA-DNA homology to E. faecium NRIC 1145 of EFMI 47 and EFMI 49 were 82.36 and 78.63%,respectively.

  13. Atmospheric Modelling of Aerosols Long-Range Transport over the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surapipith, V.; Adhikary, B.; Bhave, P.; Panday, A. K.; Mukherji, A.

    2014-12-01

    An Atmospheric Modelling System has been set up at International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) Headquarters in Kathmandu, Nepal, for the assessment of air quality in the Hindukush Himalaya region. The Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model version 3.6 is being implemented over a regional domain stretching across 4995 x 4455 km centred at Kathmandu, where an intensive field campaign, Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley (SusKat) took place from December 2012 to February 2013. Seven stations around the valley collected data on meteorology and chemical parameters. WRF-Chem simulation are carried out for the winter time period at high horizontal resolution (1 km × 1 km), which is achieved by nesting the domain of interest, e.g. Kathmandu Valley, inside three coarser domains. Model validation is performed against the field data as well as satellite data, focusing on aerosols. The challenge of capturing the necessary atmospheric processes is discussed. The effort aims for a better understanding of atmospheric processes and aerosol impacts, as well as the impact of long-range transport, particularly of black carbon aerosol upon the radiative budget over the Himalayan glaciers. The rapid melting of Himalayan glaciers and snowfields, and the shrinkage of permafrost as noticed by glaciologists is a concern. Based on physically adjusted schemes, the WRF meteorological model performs well with Pearson correlation coefficients higher than 0.8 for temperature and solar radiation, although it has a tendency to overestimate wind speed. The WRF with chemistry is then used with local and regional emission databases, in combination and after comparison with the global inventory, as input for describing the long-range transport of aerosols. Improved aerosol prediction will allow us to provide crucial information needed for mitigation and adaptation strategies that save people's lives across the Himalaya. The regional modelling tool is also being set up with an aim to capture aerosol interactions during fog formation, and to generate forecast during a field campaign of the increasing persistent winter fog that ICIMOD plans to coordinate across the Indo-Gangetic Plains during winters 2014-15 and 2015-16.

  14. INDEGENOUS KNOWLEDGE ON HEALTH CARE IN HIGH ALTITUDE INDIAN CENTRAL HIMALAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Sahani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Constrain by a rigours environment which has fostered physical and social isolation for ages, the Indigenous communities have developed their traditional mode of living. The genre de vie of the isolated communities haves been marginally modified by exogenous force and have a systematic relationship with ecological condition and the resource base of the enclaves of their concentration. Encounter to disease troughs traditional practices are found throughout the world in different societies and culture since time immemorial. “Traditional medicine refers to health practices, approaches, knowledge and beliefs incorporating plant, animal and mineral based medicines, spiritual therapies, manual techniques and exercises, applied singularly or in combination to treat, diagnose and prevent illnesses or maintain well-being” (WHO, 2003. Indigenous plant-based medicines are often favored as they are inexpensive, culturally familiar and readily available. Traditional healer seems to be more accessible than conventional health care services in many rural areas. Number of traditional health practitioners regards the Himalaya as store house of various medicinal herbs.  The rich and diversified flora of India provides a most valuable storehouse of medicinal plants. In Uttarakhand majority of traditional health care practitioners are herbal healers (vaidyas; they are easily accessible in the rural area and are useful to the community in absence of modern health services. In the Pauri District of Uttarakhand 60 traditional herbal healers (vaidya were practicing in the rural area (Kala, 2004. These vaidyas used about 156 medicinal plant species for preparing 243 formulations to treat 73 ailments. He also found that this traditional practice, mainly acquired from generations is declining and lesser number of young people are choosing this profession. “The social aspects of traditional health practices in Central Himalaya found that females were the real custodians of the indigenous knowledge system as 52% of them have the knowledge on thirty practices against that of 26% for males. This indigenous knowledge system of medicine existing as a super structure, effectively serves the people of the region. Further, the indigenous practices being easily administrable and cheaper relieve the practitioners from time and financial hardship” (Samal et al., 2004. Recognizing the present escalating demand for herbal medicines, and also in order to reduce the possibility of bio-piracy and to protect the rights of traditional herbal healers, there is an urgent need to document the various uses of plant species(Udgaonkar, 2002.

  15. Annual and seasonal mass balances of Chhota Shigri Glacier (benchmark glacier, Western Himalaya), India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Arindan; Ramanathan, Alagappan; Farooq Azam, Mohd; Wagnon, Patrick; Vincent, Christian; Linda, Anurag; Sharma, Parmanand; Angchuk, Thupstan; Bahadur Singh, Virendra; Pottakkal, Jose George; Kumar, Naveen; Soheb, Mohd

    2015-04-01

    Several studies on Himalayan glaciers have been recently initiated as they are of particular interest in terms of future water supply, regional climate change and sea-level rise. In 2002, a long-term monitoring program was initiated on Chhota Shigri Glacier (15.7 square km, 9 km long, 6263-4050 m a.s.l.) located in Lahaul and Spiti Valley, Himachal Pradesh, India. This glacier lies in the monsoon-arid transition zone (western Himalaya) and is a representative glacier in Lahaul and Spiti Valley. While annual mass balances have been measured continuously since 2002 using the glaciological method, seasonal scale observations began in 2009. The annual and seasonal mass balances were then analyzed along with meteorological conditions in order to understand the role of winter and summer balances on annual glacier-wide mass balance of Chhota Shigri glacier. During the period 2002-2013, the glacier experienced a negative glacier-wide mass balance of -0.59±0.40 m w.e. a-1 with a cumulative glaciological mass balance of -6.45 m w.e. Annual glacier-wide mass balances were negative except for four years (2004/05, 2008/09, 2009/10 and 2010/11) where it was generally close to balanced conditions. Equilibrium line altitude (ELA) for steady state condition is calculated as 4950 m a.s.l. corresponding to an accumulation area ratio (AAR) of 62% using annual glacier-wide mass balance, ELA and AAR data between 2002 and 2013. The winter glacier-wide mass balance between 2009 and 2013 ranges from a maximum value of 1.38 m w.e. in 2009/10 to a minimum value of 0.89 in 2012/13 year whereas the summer glacier-wide mass balance varies from the highest value of -0.95 m w.e. in 2010/11 to the lowest value of -1.72 m w.e. in 2011/12 year. The mean vertical mass balance gradient between 2002 and 2013 was 0.66 m w.e. (100 m)-1 quite similar to Alps, Nepalese Himalayas etc. Over debris covered area, the gradients are highly variable with a negative mean value of -2.15 m w.e. (100 m)-1 over 2002-2013 observation period. The negative gradients can be explained by the thickness of debris cover that increases with decrease in altitude, thus protecting the glacier more efficiently at lower altitudes. Mass balance is strongly dependent on debris cover, exposure (solar radiation) and the shading effect of surrounding steep slopes.

  16. Statistical Assessment of Precipitation Products: Case studies over Africa, Australia, and the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forootan, Ehsan; Khandu, Khandu; Awange, Joseph; Fereria, Vagner; Anyah, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Accurate and reliable spatial and temporal representation of precipitation variability is essential for water resource management as well as for understanding of various global (and regional) hydrological responses. The growing number of high-resolution precipitation products in the past decade requires a more rigorous evaluation process to understand their skills and limitations over different parts of the world. Using advanced statistical techniques of (complex) empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) and three-cornered-hat (TCH) methods, various monthly precipitation products derived from satellite-based measurements and global reanalyses over different climatic and topographic regimes such as Africa (2003-2010), Australia (1981-2014), the Himalayan region of Bhutan (1998-2012) were evaluated. The products were also assessed for their possible biases in terms of probability distribution and also in the spectral domain. The results indicated that while the precipitation products generally agreed reasonably well with gauge-based rainfall observations, their accuracies were widely different over the three regions. All the satellite-based products (CMORPH, CHIRP, TRMM) underestimated monsoon rain over the Himalayas, while some of them (CMORPH, GSMaP_MVK) systematically overestimated convective rainfall over central regions of the African rain-belt. Satellite-based CHIRP and the MERRA reanalysis product provided consistent long-term rainfall variability and change over Australia for the period 1981-2014 while the gauge-adjusted TRMM product (3B43 v7) was found to be more consistent with gauge observations over the Himalayas (e.g., Bhutan). Over the African continent, both conventional statistical measures (biases and root-mean-square-errors) and TCH method revealed PERSIANN to be more accurate than TRMM and other regional precipitation products such as ARC (version 2) and TAMSAT. Seasonal biases were still apparent in satellite-based/reanalysis precipitation estimates over Australia even after applying a gamma-distribution bias correction. The biases were pronounced during major ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillation) and IOD (Indian Ocean Dipole) events. Therefore, a frequency-based bias correction was applied to account for the major periodic precipitation biases over Australia.

  17. Late Pleistocene-Holocene vegetation and Indian summer monsoon record from the Lahaul, Northwest Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Suman; Gupta, Anil K.; Sangode, S. J.; Srivastava, Priyeshu; Nainwal, H. C.

    2015-04-01

    The high resolution Holocene paleomonsoon records from Northwest (NW) Himalaya are limited. The carbon isotope (?13C), Total organic carbon (TOC) and pollen analysis were therefore carried out from a peat-lake sediment sequence developed in alpine meadows of the Chandra valley, Lahaul, NW Himalaya, in order to reconstruct centennial to millennial scale vegetational changes and Indian summer monsoon (ISM) variability during the Holocene. The chronology of peat-lake sediments is constrained with 9 AMS 14C dates. The recovered non-arboreal pollen (NAP) suggested that during Holocene alpine desert-steppe, meadows and shrubs growing along the stream had developed in the Lahaul valley whereas arboreal pollens (AP) e.g. Pinus, Quercus, Cedrus and Ulmus presently growing in the southern hill slopes of Pir Panjal range indicated moisture carrying monsoonal air flow from the South. The increased ?13C and low TOC values between ?12,880 and 11,640 calibrated years before present (cal yr BP) suggested weakening of ISM and low organic carbon production corresponding to the Younger Dryas (YD) cold event. The gradual depletion in carbon isotope ratio from ?11,640 to 8810 cal yr BP indicated enhanced precipitation in the Chandra valley in response of increased ISM strength in early Holocene. The short spell of cold and dry climate with gradual decrease in ISM intensity between ca 10,398 and 9778 cal yr BP is closely linked with Bond event-7. The other prominent cold-dry events recorded in present study are (i) ?8810 to 8117 cal yr BP roughly corresponding to global 8.2 ka cold event, (ii) ?4808 to 4327 cal yr BP closely preceding the global 4.2 ka cold-arid period, and (iii) ?1303 to 1609 cal AD corresponding to Little Ice Age (LIA) event. The expansion of thermophillous broad leaved taxa viz. Betula utilis, Alnus nepalensis, Quercus semicarpifolia and Juglans regia and effective growth of meadow vegetation such as grasses, Caryophyllaceae and Artemisia along with marshy elements i.e. Polygonum and Liliaceae between ?6732 and 3337 cal yr BP marked warm and wet Holocene climate optimum (HCO) period. The warm and moist climate from ?1158-647 cal yr BP corresponded with global Medieval Warm Period (MWP).

  18. Seasonal and annual mass balances of Mera and Pokalde glaciers (Nepal Himalaya since 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Wagnon

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Everest region, Nepal, ground-based monitoring programs were started on the debris-free Mera Glacier (27.7° N, 86.9° E; 5.1 km2, 6420 to 4940 m a.s.l. in 2007 and on the small Pokalde Glacier (27.9° N, 86.8° E; 0.1 km2, 5690 to 5430 m a.s.l., ? 25 km North of Mera Glacier in 2009. These glaciers lie on the southern flank of the central Himalaya under the direct influence of the Indian monsoon and receive more than 80% of their annual precipitation in summer (June to September. Despite a large inter-annual variability with glacier-wide mass balances ranging from ?0.77± 0.40 m w.e. in 2011–2012 (Equilibrium-line altitude (ELA at ? 6055 m a.s.l. to + 0.46 ± 0.40 m w.e. in 2010–2011 (ELA at ? 5340 m a.s.l., Mera Glacier has been shrinking at a moderate mass balance rate of ?0.10± 0.40 m w.e. yr?1 since 2007. Ice fluxes measured at two distinct transverse cross sections at ? 5350 m a.s.l. and ? 5520 m a.s.l. confirm that the mean state of this glacier over the last one or two decades corresponds to a limited mass loss, in agreement with remotely-sensed region-wide mass balances of the Everest area. Seasonal mass balance measurements show that ablation and accumulation are concomitant in summer which in turn is the key season controlling the annual glacier-wide mass balance. Unexpectedly, ablation occurs at all elevations in winter due to wind erosion and sublimation, with remobilized snow likely being sublimated in the atmosphere. Between 2009 and 2012, the small Pokalde Glacier lost mass more rapidly than Mera Glacier with respective mean glacier-wide mass balances of ?0.72 and ?0.26 ± 0.40 m w.e. yr?1. Low-elevation glaciers, such as Pokalde Glacier, have been usually preferred for in-situ observations in Nepal and more generally in the Himalayas, which may explain why compilations of ground-based mass balances are biased toward negative values compared with the regional mean under the present-day climate.

  19. Impact of selective inhibition of CDKs on the integration of nuclear events in cancer cells with varying proliferation potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer is a disease with increasing incidence. One of the greatest challenges of the treatment is the fact that malignant diseases are very heterogenic, moreover, heterogeneity of cancer cells can be found in one cancer patient. Therefore it is important to find a therapeutic strategy which is able to bear this challenge. Cyclin- dependent kinases (CDKs) have an important role in cell proliferation and apoptoisis. The targeted inhibition would provide an efficient manner to combat different malignancies. Inhibitors of CDKs are a very promising group of therapeutics with a pleiotropic mode of action due to interfering with different mechanisms regulated by CDKs. The advantages of the CDK inhibitors are lack of genotoxicity and minor affection of healthy cells. There are two types of CDKs: cell cycle regulatory CDKs and transcriptional CDKs. Inhibition of cell cycle regu-latory CDKs leads not only to cell cycle arrest, but also induces apoptosis, for instance by destabilization of inhibitor of apoptosis survivin. Inhibition of transcription leads to the decrease of anti-apoptotic factors like Mcl-1 or BCL-2, inducing apoptosis in cells with an impaired apoptotic pathway. Three CDK inhibitors were chosen for evaluating their effects on distinct cancer cells: roscovitine, olomoucine II and CAN508. Roscovitine is a substance already in clinical trials, whereas other two inhibitors are new. Roscovitine inhibits the cell cycle regulatory complexes CDK2/cyclin E, CDK1/cyclin B, and tran- scriptional complexes CDK7/cyclin H and CDK9/cyclin T1. Olomoucine II inhibits the latter two transcriptional complexes as well as the cell cycle regulatory complex CDK2/cyclin E, however the most potent inhibition is, like in case of CAN508, that of CDK9/cyclin T1. Here, reduction of the number of proliferating cells and induction of apoptosis were detected in different kinds of cultured human cells following treatment with CDK inhibitors. This pleotropic mode of action affected not only rapidly dividing cells, but also of slowly dividing cells with an impaired apoptotic pathway, like CLL cells. In addition, this enabled the driving into apoptosis of cells lacking caspase-3 or those with silenced or mutated p53 protein. CDK inhibitors also overcome P-gp associated drug resistance. Moreover, CDK inhibitors impaired the distribution and functional status of nucleophosmin, a nucleolar protein involved in a number of cellular processes. Additionally, CDK inhibitors could be included with other medication in therapeutic schemes. Differences in the mode of action of roscovitine and olomoucine II were found. Olomoucine II demonstrated stronger selectivity than roscovitine. Roscovitine was able to interfere with many cellular processes due to its pleiotropic effects. The results are dis-cussed in terms of treatment efficacies of various CDK inhibitors. (author)

  20. Evaluation of the use of automatic exposure control and automatic tube potential selection in low-dose cerebrospinal fluid shunt head CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, Adam N.; Bagade, Swapnil; Chatterjee, Arindam; Hicks, Brandon; McKinstry, Robert C. [Barnes Jewish Hospital, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Vyhmeister, Ross [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Ramirez-Giraldo, Juan Carlos [Siemens Healthcare, Malvern, PA (United States)

    2015-03-17

    Cerebrospinal fluid shunts are primarily used for the treatment of hydrocephalus. Shunt complications may necessitate multiple non-contrast head CT scans resulting in potentially high levels of radiation dose starting at an early age. A new head CT protocol using automatic exposure control and automated tube potential selection has been implemented at our institution to reduce radiation exposure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reduction in radiation dose achieved by this protocol compared with a protocol with fixed parameters. A retrospective sample of 60 non-contrast head CT scans assessing for cerebrospinal fluid shunt malfunction was identified, 30 of which were performed with each protocol. The radiation doses of the two protocols were compared using the volume CT dose index and dose length product. The diagnostic acceptability and quality of each scan were evaluated by three independent readers. The new protocol lowered the average volume CT dose index from 15.2 to 9.2 mGy representing a 39 % reduction (P < 0.01; 95 % CI 35-44 %) and lowered the dose length product from 259.5 to 151.2 mGy/cm representing a 42 % reduction (P < 0.01; 95 % CI 34-50 %). The new protocol produced diagnostically acceptable scans with comparable image quality to the fixed parameter protocol. A pediatric shunt non-contrast head CT protocol using automatic exposure control and automated tube potential selection reduced patient radiation dose compared with a fixed parameter protocol while producing diagnostic images of comparable quality. (orig.)

  1. Evaluation of the use of automatic exposure control and automatic tube potential selection in low-dose cerebrospinal fluid shunt head CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebrospinal fluid shunts are primarily used for the treatment of hydrocephalus. Shunt complications may necessitate multiple non-contrast head CT scans resulting in potentially high levels of radiation dose starting at an early age. A new head CT protocol using automatic exposure control and automated tube potential selection has been implemented at our institution to reduce radiation exposure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reduction in radiation dose achieved by this protocol compared with a protocol with fixed parameters. A retrospective sample of 60 non-contrast head CT scans assessing for cerebrospinal fluid shunt malfunction was identified, 30 of which were performed with each protocol. The radiation doses of the two protocols were compared using the volume CT dose index and dose length product. The diagnostic acceptability and quality of each scan were evaluated by three independent readers. The new protocol lowered the average volume CT dose index from 15.2 to 9.2 mGy representing a 39 % reduction (P < 0.01; 95 % CI 35-44 %) and lowered the dose length product from 259.5 to 151.2 mGy/cm representing a 42 % reduction (P < 0.01; 95 % CI 34-50 %). The new protocol produced diagnostically acceptable scans with comparable image quality to the fixed parameter protocol. A pediatric shunt non-contrast head CT protocol using automatic exposure control and automated tube potential selection reduced patient radiation dose compared with a fixed parameter protocol while producing diagnostic images of comparable quality. (orig.)

  2. Accumulation of metals in selected macrophytes grown in mixture of drain water and tannery effluent and their phytoremediation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Narendra; Bauddh, Kuldeep; Dwivedi, Neetu; Barman, S C; Singh, D P

    2012-09-01

    Phytoremediation is an emerging, ecofriendly and economically feasible technique for the restoration of heavy metals contaminated environment. In the present investigation, five native macrophytes growing naturally in a drain receiving tannery effluent viz Bacopa monnieri, Eichhornia crassipes, Hydrilla verticillata, Ipomoea aquatica and Marsilea minuta were evaluated for their heavy metal (Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb) accumulation potential in field conditions at Unnao, U.P., India. The results showed that metal accumulation by these macrophytes differed among species and tissue parts. The concentration of Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb in the root tissues were estimated in the range 3.38-45.59,1.01-16.85,1.81-4.43 and 1.02-4.24 microg g(-1) d.wt., whereas the corresponding shoot values were 8.79-48.81, 1.01-8.67, 0.84-2.89 and 1.02-2.84 for Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb respectively. Among the studied plants the translocation factor (TF) ranged between 1.07-2.60, 0.75-3.83, 1.44-2.57 and 0.49-3.76 for Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb, respectively. The highest metal TF was found in M. minuta (2.60, 3.83 and 2.57) for Cr, Cu and Ni respectively, whereas Pb was best translocated (3.76) by B. monnieri. Roots and shoots of the studied macrophytes showed a value of greater than 1 for metal enrichment coefficient. Findings suggest that E. crassipes can be used for phytoremediation of Cu and Ni whereas M. minuta and H. verticillata can be applied for the removal of Cr and Pb respectively from the contaminated water bodies. PMID:23734460

  3. Influence of phenolic compounds of Kangra tea [Camellia sinensis (L) O Kuntze] on bacterial pathogens and indigenous bacterial probiotics of Western Himalayas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aditi, Sourabh; S.S., Kanwar; R.G., Sud; Arti, Ghabru; O.P., Sharma.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds of nutraceutical importance viz., catechins (C), (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG) were estimated in fresh green tea shoots of Camellia sinensis (L) O Kuntze cultivar. The total polyphenols a [...] nd total catechins were in the range of 219.90 to 317.81 and 140.83 to 271.39 g/kg, respectively in monthly samples of tea. The values of C, EC, EGC, EGCG and ECG in tea powders as analyzed through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were in the range of 1.560 to 3.661, 13.338 to 27.766, 26.515 to 39.597, 62.903 to 102.168 and 18.969 to 39.469 mg/g, respectively. Effect of tea extracts and standard flavanols against five pathogenic bacteria viz., Listeria monocytogenes (MTCC-839), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC-741), Bacillus cereus (MTCC-1272), Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC-96) and Escherichia coli (MTCC-443), and eleven indigenous potential bacterial probiotics belonging to genera Enterococcus, Bacillus and Lactobacillus spp. obtained from fermented foods of Western Himalayas, was investigated. EGCG, ECG and EGC exhibited antibacterial activity but, C and EC did not show this activity. Tea extracts having high concentrations of EGCG and ECG were more potent in antibacterial action against bacterial pathogens. Tea extracts and standard flavan-3-ols augmented viability of potential probiotics in an order of EGCG > EGC > ECG > EC > C. Tea extracts and standard flavanols had no antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (MTCC-443) but, in combination with probiotic culture supernatants, this activity was seen. The Kangra tea thus, exerts antibacterial effect on bacterial pathogens through EGCG, ECG and EGC constituents while stimulatory effect on growth of indigenous potential probiotics.

  4. Nicotinic ?7 receptor activation selectively potentiates the function of NMDA receptors in glutamatergic terminals of the nucleus accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Zappettini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We here provide functional and immunocytochemical evidence supporting the co-localization and functional interaction between nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptors (NMDARs in glutamatergic terminals of the nucleus accumbens (NAc. Immunocytochemical studies showed that a significant percentage of NAc terminals were glutamatergic and possessed GluN1 and ?7-containing nAChR. A short-term pre-exposure of synaptosomes to nicotine (30 µM or choline (1 mM caused a significant potentiation of the 100 µM NMDA-evoked [3H]D-aspartate ([3H]D-Asp outflow, which was prevented by ?-bungarotoxin (100 nM. The pre-exposure to nicotine (100 µM or choline (1 mM also enhanced the NMDA-induced cytosolic free calcium levels, as measured by FURA-2 fluorescence imaging in individual NAc terminals, an effect also prevented by ?-bungarotoxin. Pre-exposure to the ?4-nAChR agonists 5IA85380 (10 nM or RJR2429 (1 µM did not modify NMDA-evoked ([3H]D-Asp outflow and calcium transients. The NMDA-evoked ([3H]D-Asp overflow was partially antagonized by the NMDAR antagonists MK801, D-AP5, 5,7-DCKA and R(-CPP and unaffected by the GluN2B-NMDAR antagonists Ro256981 and ifenprodil. Notably, pre-treatment with choline increased GluN2A biotin-tagged proteins. In conclusion, our results show that the GluN2A-NMDA receptor function can be positively regulated in NAc terminals in response to a brief incubation with ?7 but not ?4 nAChRs agonists. This might be a general feature in different brain areas since a similar nAChR-mediated bolstering of NMDA-induced ([3H]D-Aspoverflow was also observed in hippocampal synaptosomes.

  5. Seasonal and daily variation of radon at 10 m depth in borehole, Garhwal Lesser Himalaya, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choubey, V.M., E-mail: vchoubey@wihg.res.i [Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, 33, General Mahadeo Singh Road, Dehradun-248001 (India); Arora, B.R. [Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, 33, General Mahadeo Singh Road, Dehradun-248001 (India); Barbosa, S.M. [University of Lisbon, IDL, Campo Grande, Edificio C8, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Kumar, Naresh; Kamra, Leena [Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, 33, General Mahadeo Singh Road, Dehradun-248001 (India)

    2011-07-15

    Mostly accepted and widely reported radon (Rn{sup 222}) measurements, a tool for earthquake precursor research, is a part of multi-parametric geophysical observation in the Garhwal Lesser Himalaya for earthquake related studies. Radon is being recorded continuously at an interval of 15 min at 10 m depth in a 68 m deep borehole. Three years high resolution 15 min data at 10 m depth shows a complex trend and has a strong seasonal effect along with some diurnal, semi-diurnal and multi-day recurring trends. A well-defined seasonal pattern is prominent with a high emanation in summer and low values in winter accounting for about a 30% decrease in count values in winter when the atmospheric temperature is very low at this station located 1.90 km above mean sea level. Diurnal, semi-diurnal and multi-day trends in this time-series are mainly observed during April-May and October-November. This is the period of spring and autumn when there is a high contrast in day-night atmospheric temperature. Hence the high fluctuation in Rn concentration is mainly caused by the temperature contrast between the air-column inside the borehole and the atmosphere above the earth's surface.

  6. Optical Remote Sensing of Glacier Characteristics: A Review with Focus on the Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racoviteanu, Adina E.; Williams, Mark W.; Barry, Roger G.

    2008-01-01

    The increased availability of remote sensing platforms with appropriate spatial and temporal resolution, global coverage and low financial costs allows for fast, semi-automated, and cost-effective estimates of changes in glacier parameters over large areas. Remote sensing approaches allow for regular monitoring of the properties of alpine glaciers such as ice extent, terminus position, volume and surface elevation, from which glacier mass balance can be inferred. Such methods are particularly useful in remote areas with limited field-based glaciological measurements. This paper reviews advances in the use of visible and infrared remote sensing combined with field methods for estimating glacier parameters, with emphasis on volume/area changes and glacier mass balance. The focus is on the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor and its applicability for monitoring Himalayan glaciers. The methods reviewed are: volumetric changes inferred from digital elevation models (DEMs), glacier delineation algorithms from multi-spectral analysis, changes in glacier area at decadal time scales, and AAR/ELA methods used to calculate yearly mass balances. The current limitations and on-going challenges in using remote sensing for mapping characteristics of mountain glaciers also discussed, specifically in the context of the Himalaya.

  7. High Altitude Landscape Evolution in the Himalaya - Creating the 9000ers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocklehurst, S. H.; Davies, T. R.

    2014-12-01

    Landscapes of the High Himalaya are broadly characterised by glacial valleys and steep, tall bedrock hillslopes, with the highest peaks represented by glacial horns surrounded by cirques. Himalayan glaciers are noteworthy for the high contribution of avalanching snow to their mass balance, and the thickness of surface debris derived from periglacial hillslopes. However, many glaciers here also do not conform to the typical case of ice accumulating in a cirque and spilling out to form a valley glacier. These exceptions include "beheaded" glaciers lacking cirques at their heads (e.g., the Barun Glacier), and "reconstituted" glaciers whose upper and lower portions are separated by bare rock slopes (e.g., the Langshisha and Yebokangal glaciers). In extreme cases these features can combine to form isolated, low-relief, ice-covered surfaces far above the rest of the glacial valley network (e.g., the Sakyetang Glacier, >6,600m, above the Kazhen Glacier, 6,000m will be frozen to the bed and move very slowly. Thus subglacial erosion rates will also be very low, and outpaced by both rock uplift and rockwall retreat. Given ongoing tectonic uplift, these low-relief surfaces will continue to rise to higher elevations, raising the possibility that remnants of low-relief surfaces may end up as high as, or even higher than, current glacial horns.

  8. Estimation of forest biomass flow in the Montane mainland of the Uttarakhand Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwambhar Prasad Sati

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Forests are the major source of timber, fuelwood, fodder, and food for the native people of the Himalayan region. Here, dependency of human population on the forest biomass for running their livelihood is tremendously high and it is a century old practice. Raising animals in the vast grasslands – temperate and alpine as well as collecting fodder through lopping fodder trees from the temperate forest, occupies the foremost place in the occupation and economy of the region. Forest biomass consumption varies from 13 kg/day/households (fuelwood and 12 kg/day/household (fodder in the lower elevation (1150 m to 28 kg/day/household (Fuelwood and 34 kg/day/household (fodder in the higher elevation (1900 m. This paper examines the forest biomass-flow estimation in the montane mainland of the Uttarakhand Himalaya. Case study of eight villages of Kewer Gadhera Sub Watershed was carried out. Data were gathered through household level survey and participatory observation method and forest biomass estimation and withdrawal were calculated by conventional method. The study reveals that fodder and fuelwood withdrawal is a very common phenomenon in the study area and is a main livelihood option. Its consumption varies in different locations and seasons. It is also influenced by the aspect of slope. North-south facing slopes consumes more fuelwood than North-east facing slopes because due to variations in temperature.

  9. Integrated Approach for Prioritizing Watersheds for Management: A Study of Lidder Catchment of Kashmir Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Mohammad Imran; Bhat, M. Sultan

    2014-12-01

    The Himalayan watersheds are susceptible to various forms of degradation due to their sensitive and fragile ecological disposition coupled with increasing anthropogenic disturbances. Owing to the paucity of appropriate technology and financial resources, the prioritization of watersheds has become an inevitable process for effective planning and management of natural resources. Lidder catchment constitutes a segment of the western Himalayas with an area of 1,159.38 km2. The study is based on integrated analysis of remote sensing, geographic information system, field study, and socioeconomic data. Multicriteria evaluation of geophysical, land-use and land-cover (LULC) change, and socioeconomic indicators is carried out to prioritize watersheds for natural resource conservation and management. Knowledge-based weights and ranks are normalized, and weighted linear combination technique is adopted to determine final priority value. The watersheds are classified into four priority zones (very high priority, high priority, medium priority, and low priority) on the basis of quartiles of the priority value, thus indicating their ecological status in terms of degradation caused by anthropogenic disturbances. The correlation between priority ranks of individual indicators and integrated indicators is drawn. The results reveal that socioeconomic indicators are the most important drivers of LULC change and environmental degradation in the catchment. Moreover, the magnitude and intensity of anthropogenic impact is not uniform in different watersheds of Lidder catchment. Therefore, any conservation and management strategy must be formulated on the basis of watershed prioritization.

  10. Surface soil phytoliths as vegetation and altitude indicators: a study from the southern Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xiaohong; Lu, Houyuan; Chu, Guoqiang

    2015-01-01

    Phytoliths represent one of the few available altitudinal vegetation proxies for mountain ecosystems. This study analyzed 41 topsoil phytolith samples collected from five altitudinal zones in the southern Himalaya as far as, and beyond, the timberline, from tropical forest (up to 1,000?m a.s.l.) to subtropical forest (1,000–2,000?m a.s.l.), to temperate forest (2,000–3,000?m a.s.l.), to subalpine forest (3,000–4,100?m a.s.l.) and finally to alpine scrub (4,100–5,200?m a.s.l.). The statistical results show a good correlation between phytolith assemblages and these five altitudinal vegetation zones: the five phytolith assemblages identified effectively differentiated these five altitudinal vegetation zones. In particular, coniferous phytoliths accurately indicated the timberline. Additionally, we tested the phytolith index Ic (a proxy for estimating the percentage of Pooideae vis-à-vis the total grass content) as a quantifier of phytolith variety versus altitude. Ic increased along altitude, as expected. An investigation of phytoliths provided an initial basis for the analysis of the composition of gramineous vegetation. Furthermore, redundancy analysis and discriminant analysis also suggested a significant correlation between phytolith assemblages and altitude. Our research therefore provides an up-to-date analogue for the reconstruction of changes to palaeovegetation and palaeoaltitude in mountainous areas. PMID:26500137

  11. Gender and climate change in the Indian Hindu-Kush Himalayas: global threats, local vulnerabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Ogra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change has numerous implications for members of mountain communities who feel the impacts in both physical and social dimensions. In the Western Himalayas of India, a majority of residents maintain a livelihood strategy that includes a combination of subsistence or small-scale agriculture, seasonal pastoral migration, male out-migration, and localized natural resource extraction. Particularly under conditions of heavy male outmigration, but throughout the region, mountain women play a key role in providing labor and knowledge related to the management of local natural resources, yet often lack authority in related political and economic decision-making processes. This gap has important implications for addressing the impacts of climate change: while warming temperatures, irregular patterns of precipitation and snowmelt, and changing biological systems present challenges to the viability of these traditional livelihood portfolios throughout the region, mountain women increasingly face new challenges in their roles as household managers that have not adequately been emphasized in larger scale planning for climate change adaptation and mitigation. These challenges are complex in nature, and are shaped not only by gender issues but also interacting factors such as class, caste, ethnicity, and age (among others. In this paper, we review the main arguments behind the discursive gender/climate change nexus, discuss the implications for gendered vulnerabilities and transformation of adaptive capacities in the region, and suggest ways that researchers and policymakers seeking to promote "climate justice" can benefit from the incorporation of gender-based perspectives and frameworks.

  12. Prospecting cold deserts of north western Himalayas for microbial diversity and plant growth promoting attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ajar Nath; Sachan, Shashwati Ghosh; Verma, Priyanka; Saxena, Anil Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Microbial communities in different samples collected from cold deserts of north western Himalayas, India, were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) analysis. A total of 232 bacterial isolates were characterized employing 16S rDNA-Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis with the three restriction endonucleases Alu I, Msp I and Hae III, which led to formation of 29-54 groups for the different sites, adding up to169 groups. 16S rRNA gene based phylogenetic analysis, revealed that 82 distinct species of 31 different genera, belonged to four phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. PLFA profiling was performed for concerned samples which gave an estimate of microbial communities without cultivating the microorganisms. PLFA analysis led to characterization of diverse group of microbes in different samples such as gram-negative, gram-positive bacteria, actinomycetes, cyanobacteria, anaerobic bacteria, sulphate reducing bacteria and fungi. The representative strains were screened for their plant growth promoting attributes, which included production of ammonia, HCN, gibberellic acid, IAA and siderophore; solubilization of phosphorus and activity of ACC deaminase. In vitro antifungal activity assay was performed against Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina. Cold adapted microorganisms may serve as inoculants for crops growing under cold climatic conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first report for the presence of Arthrobacter nicotianae, Brevundimonas terrae, Paenibacillus tylopili and Pseudomonas cedrina in cold deserts and exhibit multifunctional PGP attributes at low temperatures. PMID:25575970

  13. Crustal rheology of the Himalaya and Southern Tibet inferred from magnetotelluric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, M.J.; Jones, A.G.; Wei, W.; Marquis, G.; Gokarn, S.G.; Spratt, J.E.; Bedrosian, P.; Booker, J.; Leshou, C.; Clarke, G.; Shenghui, L.; Chanhong, L.; Ming, D.; Sheng, J.; Solon, K.; Handong, T.; Ledo, J.; Roberts, B.

    2005-01-01

    The Cenozoic collision between the Indian and Asian continents formed the Tibetan plateau, beginning about 70 million years ago. Since this time, at least 1,400 km of convergence has been accommodated by a combination of underthrusting of Indian and Asian lithosphere, crustal shortening, horizontal extrusion and lithospheric delamination. Rocks exposed in the Himalaya show evidence of crustal melting and are thought to have been exhumed by rapid erosion and climatically forced crustal flow. Magnetotelluric data can be used to image subsurface electrical resistivity, a parameter sensitive to the presence of interconnected fluids in the host rock matrix, even at low volume fractions. Here we present magnetotelluric data from the Tibetan-Himalayan orogen from 77??E to 92??E, which show that low resistivity, interpreted as a partially molten layer, is present along at least 1,000 km of the southern margin of the Tibetan plateau. The inferred low viscosity of this layer is consistent with the development of climatically forced crustal flow in Southern Tibet. ?? 2005 Nature Publishing Group.

  14. Decentralisation and Water Resources Management in the Indian Himalayas: The Contribution of New Institutional Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan V

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The current debate on decentralisation offers a polarised view on the dynamic power relations involved in water resources management. Drawing New Institutionalism as applied in the social and ecological sciences, the paper argues that decentralisation represents a complex adaptive process that involves a combination of natural and a political endeavour by actors and agents to draw on existing structures to negotiate and renegotiate the existing unequal power relations to (mismanage water. Examining a Village in the Indian Himalayas as a case study, the paper demonstrates the significance of New Institutionalism for a comprehensive understanding of the decentralisation as a process, with an intention to identify the opportunities and barriers presented by institutional factors on water resources management. The paper reveals the contemporary top-down decentralised reforms though has helped actors to voice their concern and empowered the agents to remain adaptive, these have not ensured resource use efficiency, addressed poverty and promoted greater participation of the actors. Facilitating these will require a strengthening the role of statutory public organisations to regulate water distribution, build capacity of actors and offer diverse forums to facilitate informed water-related decisions for a sustainable future.

  15. The role of energy in creating opportunities for income generation in the Indian Himalayas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although it is clear that there are links between access to modern energy carriers and economic development, the necessary understanding of these links is lacking. Research in literature shows mixed results. This paper studies the mechanisms that link energy supply and impacts on income generation. Empirical data from 264 small scale enterprises in 16 clusters of villages in the Indian Himalayas is analysed. The steps between energy supply and impacts on enterprise are stratified, studying actual energy use of energy services. The analysis shows that for the majority of typical enterprises in rural areas, which are informal enterprises with less than 6 workers, the impacts on incomes are low even though the uptake of electricity in enterprises is high. The key factor influencing impacts on incomes is limitations in access to markets for enterprise products, especially social access. For most small scale rural entrepreneurs the main impacts of energy access are on wellbeing. The findings are discussed to come to policy recommendations in the field of energy supply and complementary fields to achieving positive impacts on rural development. - Highlights: ? Impacts of energy on income are researched in 264 small enterprises in rural India. ? Stratifying steps between supply and impacts allows analysis of actual use of energy. ? Even though uptake of electricity is high, impacts on income are low. ? Lacking networks to markets cause low impacts on incomes for small scale enterprises. ? Energy does impact incomes in the few rural enterprises with distant markets.

  16. Estimation of snow cover distribution in Beas basin, Indian Himalaya using satellite data and ground measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H S Negi; A V Kulkarni; B S Semwal

    2009-10-01

    In the present paper,a methodology has been developed for the mapping of snow cover in Beas basin,Indian Himalaya using AWiFS (IRS-P6)satellite data.The complexities in the mapping of snow cover in the study area are snow under vegetation,contaminated snow and patchy snow. To overcome these problems,?eld measurements using spectroradiometer were carried out and re?ectance/snow indices trend were studied.By evaluation and validation of different topographic correction models,it was observed that,the normalized difference snow index (NDSI)values remain constant with the variations in slope and aspect and thus NDSI can take care of topography effects.Different snow cover mapping methods using snow indices are compared to ?nd the suitable mapping technique.The proposed methodology for snow cover mapping uses the NDSI (estimated using planetary re ?ectance),NIR band re?ectance and forest/vegetation cover information.The satellite estimated snow or non-snow pixel information using proposed methodology was validated with the snow cover information collected at three observatory locations and it was found that the algorithm classify all the sample points correctly,once that pixel is cloud free.The snow cover distribution was estimated using one year (2004 –05)cloud free satellite data and good correlation was observed between increase/decrease areal extent of seasonal snow cover and ground observed fresh snowfall and standing snow data.

  17. Late miocene/pliocene origin of the inverted metamorphism of the Central Himalaya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, T.M.; Ryerson, F.J.; LeFort, P.; Yin, A. Lovera, O.M.

    1997-01-01

    The spatial association of intracontinental thrusting and inverted metamorphism, recognized in the Himalaya more than a century ago, has inspired continuing efforts to identify their causal relationship. Perhaps the best known sequence of inverted metamorphism is that found immediately beneath the Himalayan Main Central Thrust (MCT), generally thought to have been active during the Early Miocene. It has been widely assumed that the pattern of inverted metamorphism also developed at that time. Using a new approach, in situ Th-Pb dating of monazite included in garnet, we have discovered that the peak metamorphic recrystallization recorded in the footwall of the MCT fault occurred at ca. 5 Ma. The apparent inverted metamorphism resulted from activation of a broad shear zone beneath the MCT zone which juxtaposed two right-way-up metamorphic sequences. Recognition of this remarkably youthful phase of metamorphism resolves outstanding problems in Himalayan tectonics, such as why the MCT (and not the more recently initiated thrusts) marks the break in slope of the present day mountain range, and transcends others, such as the need for exceptional conditions to explain Himalayan anatexis.

  18. Biodiversity Conservation through Traditional Beliefs System: A Case Study from Kumaon Himalayas, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh SINGH

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in Malay Nath sacred grove of Kumaon Himalaya, India, in appreciation of its role in biodiversity conservation. The whole grove is dedicated to the local deity “Malay Nath”, and showing semi-temperate type vegetation of the region. Rituals and cultural beliefs of the local peoples of Kumaon are plays significant role in conserving biodiversity. The study aimed at the documentation and inventory of the sacred grove, its phytodiversity, threats and conservation in the Indian Himalayan of Kumaon region, and to this, systematic field surveys were conducted during 2007-2010 covering all four seasons viz., summer, rainy, winter and spring. A total of 64 species in 58 genera under 47 families were identified, of which 35 species are flowering plants and 29 species are non-flowering plants. The dominant family was Parmeliaceae of lichen which recorded the maximum 6 species. 35 plant species under 32 genera and 23 families are used as an ethno-medicinal and the information about the ethno-medicinal plants was gathered from knowledgeable elderly local peoples of the area. Hedychium spicatum, Bergenia ciliata, Origanum vulgare, Berberis asiatica, etc. are highly exploited species and need to be conserved.

  19. Primary Production Dynamics of Two Dominant Macrophytes in Wular Lake, a Ramsar Site in Kashmir Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseer Ahmad Dar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Growing season changes in the organic matter, organic carbon and chlorophyll content of the two dominant macrophytes, Nymphoides peltatum and Ceratophyllum demersum of Wular Lake, a Ramsar Site in Kashmir Himalaya were analysed during March- November 2011. The content of organic matter and organic carbon for Nymphoides peltatum were 114.1 g m-2 and 53.1 g C m-2 and Ceratophyllum demersum were 57.0 g m-2 and 26.4 g C m-2. Chlorophyll A (Chl a and chlorophyll A+B (Chl a+b pigments ranged from 1.75 mg g-1 (Chl a and 2.1mg g-1 (Chl a+b in Nymphoides peltatum to 4.41 mg g-1 (Chl a and 5.69 mg g-1 (Chl a+b in Ceratophyllum demersum. In full leaf out, the latter aquatic plants exceeded 15-20% coverage of the open water surface.Ceratophyllum demersum and Nymphoides peltatum achieved maximum growth in June and August respectively, but significant differences in their growth dynamics was observed. At the end of the vegetation period, these plants sink to the bottom and decompose.

  20. An assessment of the FlowCapt acoustic sensor for measuring snowdrift in the Indian Himalayas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R K Das; P Datt; A Acharya

    2012-12-01

    Wind caused snow drifting plays a dominant role in the redistribution of snow mass that restructures a snowpack. Strong wind activity at the mountain tops results in uneven distribution of snow with erosion on windward side and deposition on leeward areas. Such snowdrift events are responsible for the formation of cornices, increase in the loading of avalanche release zones on the leeward side and consequent increase in the level of avalanche hazard. In this paper, we present the results of snowdrift measurement using an acoustic snow-drift meter, the FlowCapt, built by IAV Engineering, which was used during winter seasons of 2007–2010 at a field research station of Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment (SASE) in the western Himalayas. The aim of the study was to evaluate the suitability of the instrument in measuring snowdrift in the Himalayan weather conditions. Results proved the utility of the instrument as a useful tool to study drifting snow in remote areas. However, in the absence of conventional snow gauges for validation, the quality of the absolute snow flux data could not be ascertained.

  1. How robust and (un)certain are regional climate models over the Himalayas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimri, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    Regional Climate Model(s) (RCMs) are sensitive towards presentation of regional climate of Indian winter monsoon (IWM) over the western Himalayas (WH). They illustrate robust nature in representing regional climate at mountain scale and even at event scale. While downscaling outputs, from these models, at basin level for hydrological and glaciological studies, it is found that RCMs fail to provide realistic figures. And hence, in the present paper, using the Siachen glacier basin as a reference, debate and deliberation on RCMs' uncertainly and high order of deviation from real observations is presented. Results from RCMs thus need "further tuning" if they are used for hydrological and glacier studies. Reasons for such uncertainties could be due to the improper representation of topography, missing subgrid scale processes, surface flux characteristics, various physical processes etc. at such finer model resolution and scale. At present, this paper only deliberates and brings out issues pertaining to such complexities to provide an insight for future course of studies, if understood correctly.

  2. Surface soil phytoliths as vegetation and altitude indicators: a study from the southern Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xiaohong; Lu, Houyuan; Chu, Guoqiang

    2015-01-01

    Phytoliths represent one of the few available altitudinal vegetation proxies for mountain ecosystems. This study analyzed 41 topsoil phytolith samples collected from five altitudinal zones in the southern Himalaya as far as, and beyond, the timberline, from tropical forest (up to 1,000?m a.s.l.) to subtropical forest (1,000-2,000?m a.s.l.), to temperate forest (2,000-3,000?m a.s.l.), to subalpine forest (3,000-4,100?m a.s.l.) and finally to alpine scrub (4,100-5,200?m a.s.l.). The statistical results show a good correlation between phytolith assemblages and these five altitudinal vegetation zones: the five phytolith assemblages identified effectively differentiated these five altitudinal vegetation zones. In particular, coniferous phytoliths accurately indicated the timberline. Additionally, we tested the phytolith index Ic (a proxy for estimating the percentage of Pooideae vis-à-vis the total grass content) as a quantifier of phytolith variety versus altitude. Ic increased along altitude, as expected. An investigation of phytoliths provided an initial basis for the analysis of the composition of gramineous vegetation. Furthermore, redundancy analysis and discriminant analysis also suggested a significant correlation between phytolith assemblages and altitude. Our research therefore provides an up-to-date analogue for the reconstruction of changes to palaeovegetation and palaeoaltitude in mountainous areas. PMID:26500137

  3. Multifractal analysis of earthquakes in Kumaun Himalaya and its surrounding region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P N S Roy; S K Mondal

    2012-08-01

    Himalayan seismicity is related to continuing northward convergence of Indian plate against Eurasian plate. Earthquakes in this region are mainly caused due to release of elastic strain energy. The Himalayan region can be attributed to highly complex geodynamic process and therefore is best suited for multifractal seismicity analysis. Fractal analysis of earthquakes (mb ? 3.5) occurred during 1973–2008 led to the detection of a clustering pattern in the narrow time span. This clustering was identified in three windows of 50 events each having low spatial correlation fractal dimension ($D_C$) value 0.836, 0.946 and 0.285 which were mainly during the span of 1998 to 2005. This clustering may be considered as an indication of a highly stressed region. The Guttenberg Richter -value was determined for the same subsets considered for the $D_C$ estimation. Based on the fractal clustering pattern of events, we conclude that the clustered events are indicative of a highly stressed region of weak zone from where the rupture propagation eventually may nucleate as a strong earthquake. Multifractal analysis gave some understanding of the heterogeneity of fractal structure of the seismicity and existence of complex interconnected structure of the Himalayan thrust systems. The present analysis indicates an impending strong earthquake, which might help in better hazard mitigation for the Kumaun Himalaya and its surrounding region.

  4. Isotopic Characterization of Snow, Ice and Glacial Melt in the Western Himalayas, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precipitation and glacial melt samples were collected at the snout of the Gangotri Glacier, popularly known as Gaumukh, located in the western Himalayas, India. Snow and ice samples were collected from different sites of the Gangotri Glacier. The local meteoric water line (LMWL) developed for the ablation period (May to October) is ?2H = 8.2 ?18O + 17.1 (r2 = 0.99), which shows a slightly higher slope and intercept than GMWL. This may be due to local summer connective precipitation occurring under dry climatic conditions and mountainous region moisture recycling with the south-west monsoon. The meltwater line, ?2H =9.4 ?18O + 37.5 (r2= 0.96), having a significantly higher slope and intercept than the GMWL and LMWL. The main reasons for the higher slope and intercept of meltwater line may be due to the recycling of local vapour with moisture derived from the Western disturbance moisture whose source is the Mediterranean sea. The high d-exess values of snow, ice and meltwater indicate that the source of moisture is the Western disturbances. (author)

  5. Atmospheric water budget over the western Himalayas in a regional climate model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A P Dimri

    2012-08-01

    During winter months (December, January, February – DJF), the western Himalayas (WH) receive precipitation from eastward moving extratropical cyclones, called western disturbances (WDs) in Indian parlance. Winter precipitation–moisture convergence–evaporation (P–C–E) cycle is analyzed for a period of 22 years (1981–2002: 1980(D)–1981(J, F) to 2001(D)–2002(J, F)) with observed and modelled (RegCM3) climatological estimates over WH. Remarkable model skills have been observed in depicting the hydrological cycle over WH. Although precipitation biases exist, similar spatial precipitation with well marked two maxima is simulated by the model. As season advances, temporal distribution shows higher precipitation in simulation than the observed. However, P–C–E cycle shows similar peaks of moisture convergence and evaporation in daily climatologies though with varying maxima/minima. In the first half of winter, evaporation over WH is mainly driven by ground surface and 2 m air temperature. Lowest temperatures during mid-winter correspond to lowest evaporation to precipitation ratio as well.

  6. Biomass and diversity of dry alpine plant communities along altitudinal gradients in the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namgail, T.; Rawat, G.S.; Mishra, C.; van Wieren, S.E.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2012-01-01

    A non-linear relationship between phytodiversity and altitude has widely been reported, but the relationship between phytomass and altitude remains little understood. We examined the phytomass and diversity of vascular plants along altitudinal gradients on the dry alpine rangelands of Ladakh, western Himalaya. We used generalized linear and generalized additive models to assess the relationship between these vegetation parameters and altitude. We found a hump-shaped relationship between aboveground phytomass and altitude. We suspect that this is engendered by low rainfall and trampling/excessive grazing at lower slopes by domestic livestock, and low temperature and low nutrient levels at higher slopes. We also found a unimodal relationship between plant species-richness and altitude at a single mountain as well as at the scale of entire Ladakh. The species-richness at the single mountain peaked between 5,000 and 5,200 m, while it peaked between 3,500 and 4,000 m at entire Ladakh level. Perhaps biotic factors such as grazing and precipitation are, respectively, important in generating this pattern at the single mountain and entire Ladakh. ?? 2011 The Author(s).

  7. Multiple sources of magmatism. granitoids from southeast Kohistan, NW Himalayas, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kohistan island arc terrane in the northwestern Himalayas of N. Pakistan is sandwiched between the Indian and Karakoram plated. The base of the arc is occupied by a major stratiform ultramafic-gabbroic complex (the Sapat-Babusar complex), which overrides the crust of the Indian plate along the Indus suture (i.e., the Main Mantle Thrust; MMT). It was intruded into the base of a thick pile of metavolcanics (the Kamila belt), which comprise a tectonic collage of MORB-type tholeiitic basalts, island-arc tholeiites and calc-alkaline andesites. The Chilas complex, comprising ultramafic and gabbronorite rocks, is also intrusive into the Kamila belt, it is emplaced onto the top rather than the base of the Kamila belt. A sizeable proportion of granitoid rocks are present in the south-eastern part of Kohistan, which intruded the Kamila amphibolites. These are predominantly dioritic in composition, but include gabbros, granodiorites, granites and trondhjemites. The granitoids occur in two types. (1) large sheet-like lenticular masses, and (2) minor intrusives in the form of veints, sills or dykes. Three large sheets like bodies are mapped. All these bodies are composite, comprising gabbros, diorite/tonalite, granodiorite and granite. The minor intrusion of granitic and trondhjemitic composition are abundantly present in the form of veins, sills and dykes; and are characterized by variation in distribution. Strong shearing transformed the rocks into blastomylonite gneisses. The mineral assemblage consists of quartz, plagioclase, emphibole, epidote, chlorite, biotite, muscovite, sphene, magnetite and apatite. (author)

  8. Multiple sources of magmatism: granitoids from southeast kohistan, nw himalayas Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kohistan island arc terrane in the northwestern Himalayas of N. Pakistan is sandwiched between the Indian and Karakoram plates. The base of the arc is occupied by a major stratiform ultramafic-gabbroic complex (the Sapat-Babusar complex). which overrides the crust of the Indian plate along the Indus suture (i. e., the Main Mantle Thrust; MMT). It was intruded into the base of a thick pile of metavolcanics (the Kamila belt), which comprise a tectonic collage of MORB-type tholeiitic basalts, island-arc tholeiites and calc-alkaline andesites. The Chilas complex, comprising ultramafic and gabbronorite rocks, is also intrusive into the Kamila belt. It is emplaced onto the top rather than the base of the Kamila belt. A sizeable proportion of granitoid rocks are present in the south-eastern part of Kohistan. Which intruded the Kamila amphibolites. These are predominantly dioritic in composition but include gabbros, granodiorites, granites and trondhjemites. The granitoids occur in two types: (I) large sheet-like lenticular masses, and (2) minor intrusives in the form of veins sills or dykes. Three large sheets like bodies are mapped. All these bodies are composite, comprising gabbros, diorite/tonalite. granodiorite and granite. The minor intrusions of granitic and trondhjemitic composition are abundantly present in the form of veins, sills and dykes and are characterized by variation in distribution. Strong shearing transformed the rocks into blastomylonite gneisses. The mineral assemblage consists of quartz, plagioclase, Amphibole, epidote, chlorite, biotite, muscovite, sphene, magnetite and apatite. (author)

  9. Deformation mechanisms in the frontal Lesser Himalayan Duplex in Sikkim Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abdul Matin; Sweety Mazumdar

    2009-08-01

    Understanding deformation mechanisms in Himalayan rocks is a challenging proposition due to the complex nature of the deformed rocks and their genesis. Crustal deformation in the Himalayan thrust belt typically occurs in elastico-frictional (EF) or quasi-plastic (QP) regimes at depths controlled mainly by regional strain-rate and geothermal gradient. However, material property, grain-size and their progressive changes during deformation are also important controlling factors. We present evidence of EF deformation from Gondwana rocks developed during the emplacement of one of the frontal horses (Jorthang horse) in the Lesser Himalayan Duplex (LHD) structure associated with Lesser Himalayan rocks in the footwall of the Ramgarh thrust in the Rangit window near Jorthang in the Sikkim Himalaya. The rocks in the horse exhibit systematic changes in microand meso-structures from an undeformed protolith to cataclasite suggesting that it was emplaced under elastico-frictional conditions. Meso- to micro-scale shear fractures are seen developed in Gondwana sandstone and slate while intercalated fine-grained shale-coal-carbonates are deformed by cataclastic flow suggesting that material property and grain-size have played an important role in the deformation of the Jorthang horse. In contrast, the hanging wall schists and quartzites of the Ramgarh thrust exhibit quasi-plastic deformation structures. This suggests that the Jorthang horse was emplaced under shallower crustal conditions than the antiformally folded Ramgarh thrust sheet even though the Ramgarh sheet presently overlies the Jorthang horse.

  10. Variability of radon and thoron equilibrium factors in indoor environment of Garhwal Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Mukesh; Rawat, Mukesh; Dangwal, Anoop; Kandari, Tushar; Gusain, G S; Mishra, Rosaline; Ramola, R C

    2016-01-01

    The measurements of radon, thoron and their progeny concentrations have been carried out in the dwellings of Uttarkashi and Tehri districts of Garhwal Himalaya, India using LR-115 detector based pin-hole dosimeter and DRPS/DTPS techniques. The equilibrium factors for radon, thoron and their progeny were calculated by using the values measured with these techniques. The average values of equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny have been found to be 0.44, 0.39, 0.39 and 0.28 for rainy, autumn, winter and summer seasons, respectively. For thoron and its progeny, the average values of equilibrium factor have been found to be 0.04, 0.04, 0.04 and 0.03 for rainy, autumn, winter and summer seasons, respectively. The equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny has been found to be dependent on the seasonal changes. However, the equilibrium factor for thoron and progeny has been found to be same for rainy, autumn and winter seasons but slightly different for summer season. The annual average equilibrium factors for radon and thoron have been found to vary from 0.23 to 0.80 with an average of 0.42 and from 0.01 to 0.29 with an average of 0.07, respectively. The detailed discussion of the measurement techniques and the explanation for the results obtained is given in the paper. PMID:26520684

  11. ECOLOGICAL STATUS AND IMPACT OF DISTURBANCE IN AN ALPINE PASTURE OF GARHWAL HIMALAYA, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANOJ DHAULAKHANDI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The alpine area in Garhwal Himalaya is highly fragile and is known for its beautiful flora a