WorldWideScience
1

Hot springs and the geothermal energy potential of Jammu & Kashmir State, N.W. Himalaya, India  

Science.gov (United States)

India has an estimated geothermal power potential of 10,600 MWe, but this potential is entirely undeveloped at present. The 'Geothermal Atlas of India' prepared by the Geological Survey of India (GSI) in 1991 describes some 340 hot spring sites and identifies more than 300 sites with geothermal potential in at least seven key geothermal provinces throughout India. There are more than 20 hot spring sites in Jammu & Kashmir State, mainly in the Chenab Valley in the Lesser/Central Himalaya, the Kashmir Valley and in the High Himalaya region of Ladakh. At least three localities in the Ladakh region - Chamuthang and Puga in the Indus valley and Panamik in the Nubra Valley - are considered to have geothermal power generation potential of between 3 and > 20 MWe.

Craig, J.; Absar, A.; Bhat, G.; Cadel, G.; Hafiz, M.; Hakhoo, N.; Kashkari, R.; Moore, J.; Ricchiuto, T. E.; Thurow, J.; Thusu, B.

2013-11-01

2

Carbon Stock Potential of Oak and Pine Forests in Garhwal Region in Indian Central Himalayas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oak (Quercus leucotichophora and pine (Pinus roxburghii are the two most dominant forest types occurring in Indian Central Himalayas. CO2 mitigation potential of these two forest types was observed in the present study. Carbon stock densities for AGTB, BB, LHG, DWS, AGSB and SOC were estimated and higher values were recorded in oak forest stands. Total carbon density estimated was 2420.54 Mg/ha for oak forest of Gopeshwar and 986.93 Mg/ha for pine forest of Nandprayag. CO2 mitigation potential of oak forest of Gopeshwar was recorded to be 8,713.94 CO2e and of pine forests 3552.95 CO2e.

Nanda Nautiyal

2013-05-01

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Altitude and Tissue Type Influence Antioxidant Potential of Pellia endiviifolia from Darjeeling Himalaya  

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Full Text Available Herbal remedy is considered as one of the popular forms of alternative and complementary medicines. Plants are considered to possess a number of chemical constituents with diverse pharmacological efficacies. Bryophytes, a small group of plants, are known to contain unique secondary metabolites having pharmacological and potential therapeutic value. The primary focus of the study is to depict the role of altitude and tissue types on antioxidant capacity of the liverwort Pellia endiviifolia (Dicks. Dumort. (Pelliaceae. In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to explore the antioxidative potential of vegetative and reproductive tissues of P. endiviifolia collected from five different altitudes of Darjeeling Himalaya, West Bengal, India. Total phenolics and flavonoids contents of the liverwort samples were also determined. Methanol extract of the thalloid liverwort was investigated for antioxidant activity by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, total phenolic and flavonoid estimation. Maximum radical scavenging activity was found to be 89.336%±4.3. Maximum total phenolics content in 1 mg of the extract was 58±0.175 ?g of Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE per mg dry weight. Maximum flavonoids content in 1mg of the extract was 80.3±331 ?g of Quercetin Equivalent (QE per mg dry weight. The results indicate, for the first time, the antioxidative potential and possible use of the liverwort as a natural antioxidant. It also shows a variation of antioxidant capacity of the liverwort depending on their tissue type and their altitude of occurrence.

Abhijit Dey

2013-01-01

4

Seedling growth and survival of selected wild edible fruit species of the Sikkim Himalaya, India  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Sikkim Himalaya, an enormous variety of wild growing plants are exploited at large scale for collection of their edible parts, of which six most prominently utilized fruit species (viz., Baccaurea sapida, Diploknema butyracea, Elaeagnus latifolia, Eriolobus indica, Machilus edulis and Spondias axillaris) were investigated. The growth of nursery raised seedlings was measured at 3 month intervals until two years old in terms of absolute growth rate (AGR), relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), leaf area ratio (LAR), leaf weight ratio (LWR), stem weight ratio (SWR), root weight ratio (RWR) and root-shoot ratio (RSR). Spondias axillaris and Machilus edulis had the maximum AGR, RGR, LAR and SWR among all species. LWR was highest for B. sapida. RGR, LAR and LWR declined with the age of seedlings. RGR was negatively correlated with NAR, SWR, RWR and RSR, though it showed a positive relationship with LAR. For all species, seedlings attained significant sizes after one year of age, and showed reasonable survival after transplantation into the farmers' fields. It is expected that information on the growth behaviour of these species would be useful while they are adopted into agroforestry systems. It is suggested that these species should be multiplied at large scale and distributed to the local inhabitants to reduce pressure on them in natural stands as well as provide economic benefit to the subsistence farmers.

Sundriyal, Manju; Sundriyal, R. C.

2005-07-01

5

Hydrology of Himalayas Mountains through gauging of flood and Glaciers Melt historic data hydrographs over selected watersheds under changing climate, Pakistan  

Science.gov (United States)

Mountainous areas of higher altitudes in the northern Pakistan have numerous rivers of great surface runoff during the rainy months and glaciers melt seasons that play a significant role in water resources and hydro-power production. Many of these rivers are unexploited for their water resource potential. If the potential of these rivers are explored, hydro-power production and water supplies in these areas may be improved. The Indus is the mighty river in the Asian countries originating from mountainous area of the Himalayas of Baltistan, Pakistan in which most of the smaller streams and four main rivers drain. Under the larger interest of the economic development of the country, hydrology of these mountainous in northern Pakistan is studied in the perspective of climate change, which includes eight watersheds namely Gilgit, Hunza, Shigar, Shyok, Astore, Jhelum, Swat and Chitral. Available historic data from1960-2005 have been precisely utilized to study the hydrological changes with respect to variability in precipitation, temperature and mean monthly flows, trend of snow melt runoff, daily hydrographs of selected periods (1990 to 1999), water yield and runoff relationship, and flow duration curves. Precipitation from ten meteorological stations in mountainous area of northern Pakistan has not shown uniform distribution of rains but variability in the winter and summer rains is noticed. Review of mean monthly temperature of ten stations suggested that the Upper Indus Basin can be categorized into three hydrological regimes i.e., high altitude catchments with large glacierized parts, middle altitude catchments south of Karakoram, and foothill catchments. A 3-D finite element model (Feflow) has also been used for regional groundwater flow modeling of the Upper Chaj Doab in Indus Basin, Pakistan.

Ahmad, Z.

2013-12-01

6

Forage selection by Royle's pika (Ochotona roylei) in the western Himalaya, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Forage selection decisions of herbivores are often complex and dynamic; they are modulated by multiple cues, such as quality, accessibility and abundance of forage plants. To advance the understanding of plant-herbivore interactions, we explored foraging behavior of the alpine lagomorph Royle's pika (Ochotona roylei) in Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary, India. Pika bite counts on food plants were recorded through focal sampling in three permanently marked plots. Food plant abundance was recorded by traditional quadrat procedures; forage selection was estimated with Jacob's selection index. Multiple food-choice experiments were conducted to determine whether forage selection criteria would change with variation in food plant composition. We also analyzed leaf morphology and nutrient content in both major food plants and abundantly available non-food plants. Linear regression models were used to test competing hypotheses in order to identify factors governing forage selection. Royle's pika fed primarily on 17 plant species and each forage selection decision was positively modulated by leaf area and negatively modulated by contents of avoided substances (neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, acid detergent lignin and tannin) in food plants. Furthermore, significance of the interaction term "leaf size × avoided substance" indicates that plants with large leaves were selected only when they had low avoided substance content. The forage selection criteria did not differ between field and laboratory experiments. The parameter estimates of best fit models indicate that the influence of leaf size or amount of avoided substance on pika forage selection was modulated by the magnitude of predation risk. PMID:23932023

Bhattacharyya, Sabuj; Adhikari, Bhupendra S; Rawat, Gopal S

2013-10-01

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Impact of Climate Change on Potential Distribution of Chinese Caterpillar Fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) in Nepal Himalaya  

OpenAIRE

Climate change has already impacted ecosystems and species and substantial impacts of climate change in the future are expected. Species distribution modeling is widely used to map the current potential distribution of species as well as to model the impact of future climate change on distribution of species. Mapping current distribution is useful for conservation planning and understanding the change in distribution impacted by climate change is important for mitigation of future biodiversit...

Shrestha, Uttam Babu; Bawa, Kamaljit S.

2014-01-01

8

Exotic Lolium perenne Varieties: Their Forage Value and Soil Cover Potential in Himalayas Region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rawalakot lies under humid temperate region at the height of 5500 ft from the sea level. The area is hilly and soils are prone to heavy erosion due to the loss of vegetative cover. Winter frost and snow often kills the local forages and thus depriving the livestock from green herbage altogether. Seven varieties of Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass from European and American germplasm were evaluated for their forage value and soil cover potential under Rawalakot conditions. All varieties compared were diploid (2n = 14. The comparison was based on plant height, fresh and dry matter yield, number of cuttings/ year and tillers plant-1. The variety VA88002 was found to be the best one in plant height and dry and fresh herbage yield followed by SERVO and APUS. When tiller number was compared, the variety APUS was found to be at the top followed by VA88001 and others. All varieties were of spreading nature with increasing persistence in following years and found to be suitable for cutting, grazing and soil conservation

S. D. Ahmad

2001-01-01

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The potential drivers in forming avian biodiversity hotspots in the East Himalaya Mountains of Southwest China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little has been published to describe or interpret Asian biodiversity hotspots, including those in the East Himalayan Mountains of Southwest China (HMSC), thus making necessary a review of the current knowledge. The Pliocene and Pleistocene geological and glacial histories of the Asian continent differ from those of Europe and North America, suggesting different mechanisms of speciation and extinction, and, thus, different responses to climate changes during the Quaternary glaciations. This short review summarizes potential drivers in shaping and maintaining high species richness and endemism of birds in the HMSC. The geographical location at the junction of different biogeographical realms, the wide range of habitats and climates along the extensive elevational range, the complex topography and the distinct geological history of this region have probably contributed to the evolution of an exceptionally species-rich and endemic-rich, specialized montane avian fauna. The Mountain systems in the HMSC may have provided refugia where species survived during the glacial periods and barriers for preventing species dispersal after the glacial periods. More studies are required to further test this refugia hypothesis by comparing more cold-tolerent and warm-tolerent species. PMID:25316284

Lei, Fumin; Qu, Yanhua; Song, Gang; Alström, Per; Fjeldså, Jon

2015-03-01

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Detection of snow melt and freezing in Himalaya using OSCAT data  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of the snow cover melt and freeze using Ku band Oceansat scatterometer (OSCAT) HH polarised backscatter coefficient () for 2011 and 2012 is reported for the Himalayas, which contain the world's largest reserve of ice and snow outside polar regions. The analysis shows spatial and temporal inter-annual variations in the onset of melt/freeze across four regions (Upper Himalaya, Western Himalaya, Central Himalaya, and Eastern Himalaya), nine elevation bands and four aspect zones. A threshold based on temperature- relation and average for the months January-March was used for melt/freeze detection. When the three consecutive images (6 days) satisfied the threshold, the day of first image was selected as melt onset/freeze day. The average melt onset dates were found to be March 11 ± 11 days for Eastern Himalaya, April 3 ± 18 days for Central Himalaya, April 16 ± 27 days for Western Himalaya, and May 12 ± 18 days for Upper Himalaya. Similarly average freeze onset dates were found to be August 23 ± 27 days for Eastern Himalaya, September 08 ± 24 days for Central Himalaya, August 27 ± 11 days for Western Himalaya, and September 13 ± 11 days for Upper Himalaya. All the zones experienced the melt onset earlier by around 20 days in 2011 at elevation above 5000 m. All the zones experienced freeze earlier in 2012, with onset being 18, 19, 11, and 21 days earlier in Eastern, Central, Western, and Upper Himalaya, respectively.

Bothale, Rajashree V.; Rao, P. V. N.; Dutt, C. B. S.; Dadhwal, V. K.

2015-02-01

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Sesquiterpene lactones from Inula falconeri, a plant endemic to the Himalayas, as potential anti-inflammatory agents.  

Science.gov (United States)

A phytochemical investigation of Inula falconeri, a plant endemic to the Himalayas, afforded 10 new sesquiterpenoids and 26 known sesquiterpene lactones, including those bearing guaiane, pseudoguaiane, xanthane, eudesmane, germacrane, rare secocaryophyllane, chromolaevane, and carabrane frameworks. The structures were elucidated via spectroscopic analysis and compared with data from literature. All the isolates were assessed for their inhibitory effects against LPS-induced nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 macrophages. Compounds 4, 11, 24, and 31 showed stronger inhibitory activities than the positive control with IC(50) values of 0.13, 0.07, 0.11, and 0.11 ?M, respectively. These studies also led to a better understanding of the structure-activity relationships for the sesquiterpene lactone family of compounds. PMID:21924800

Cheng, Xiangrong; Zeng, Qi; Ren, Jie; Qin, Jiangjiang; Zhang, Shoude; Shen, Yunheng; Zhu, Jiaxian; Zhang, Fei; Chang, Ruijie; Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Weidong; Jin, Huizi

2011-11-01

12

Birth of the Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

This is an on line article about the formation of the Himalayan Mountains. The article provides a summary of plate tectonics, a description of continental plates and mountain building processes, and a discussion of the future of the Himalaya. The article is illustrated and contains links to a map of the Indian subcontinent and an animation of the formation of the Himalaya.

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Potential theory—selected topics  

CERN Document Server

The first part of these lecture notes is an introduction to potential theory to prepare the reader for later parts, which can be used as the basis for a series of advanced lectures/seminars on potential theory/harmonic analysis. Topics covered in the book include minimal thinness, quasiadditivity of capacity, applications of singular integrals to potential theory, L(p)-capacity theory, fine limits of the Nagel-Stein boundary limit theorem and integrability of superharmonic functions. The notes are written for an audience familiar with the theory of integration, distributions and basic functional analysis.

Aikawwa, Hiroaki

1996-01-01

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Relationship between Selected Physiographic Features and Landslide Occurrence around Four Hydropower Projects in Bhagirathi Valley of Uttarakhand, Western Himalaya, India  

OpenAIRE

The Himalayan mountain range is an internationally recognised landscape but one under increasing developmental threat. The lower Himalayan region possesses immense potential for hydropower generation but is also highly susceptible to tectonic deformation and mass wasting, especially landslides. Susceptibility to landslides increases markedly with human activity, especially large scale developmental projects. The impacts of massive hydropower plant construction in the Bhagira...

Hari Ballabh; Srinivasan Pillay; Girish Chandra Singh Negi; Kamleshan Pillay

2014-01-01

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AMS exposure dating : a case study from Himalaya and Tibet and its application potentials in earth science studies in India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has made possible low level (10-6 atoms/gm) measurements of 10Be, 14C, 26Al, 36Cl, 129I isotopes in geological materials. Early studies investigated 10Be atoms of cosmogenic nuclides produced mainly in the atmosphere (called garden variety), which subsequently admixed with the geological material from land surfaces get transported into the ocean waters and fixed in the ocean sediments. Subsequently, focus shifted to in-situ produced long-lived isotopes in quartz and their measurement in the terrestrial samples. This opened a new field of exposure dating and its potential applications in earth sciences and their role to study the time controlled processes resulting in diverse geomorphic landforms

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Electrode potential and selective ionic adsorption  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simple description of the electrode potential based on the selective ionic adsorption is proposed. It is shown that if the adsorption-desorption coefficients entering in the Langmuir kinetic equation for the adsorption at the limiting surfaces are not identical, a difference of potential between the electrode and the bulk of the solution exists. In the case where the thickness of the sample is large with respect to the length of Debye, this difference of potential depends only on the adsorption-desorption coefficients and on the length of Debye of the ionic solution.

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Limit of strain partitioning in the Himalaya marked by large earthquakes in western Nepal  

Science.gov (United States)

Great earthquakes and high seismic risk in the Himalaya are thought to be focussed near the range front, where the Indian Plate slides beneath the mountain range. However, the Himalaya is curved and plate convergence becomes increasingly oblique westwards. Strain in the western Himalaya is hypothesized to be partitioned, such that western parts move northwestwards with respect to the central Himalaya. Here we use field data to identify a 63-km-long earthquake rupture on a previously unrecognized fault in the western Himalaya, far from the range front. We use radiocarbon dating to show that one or more earthquakes created 10m of surface displacement on the fault between AD 1165 and 1400. During this time interval, large range-front earthquakes also occurred. We suggest that the active fault we identified is part of a larger fault system, the Western Nepal Fault System, which cuts obliquely across the Himalaya. We combine our observations with a geodynamical model to show that the Western Nepal Fault System marks the termination of the strain-partitioned region of the western Himalaya and comprises a first-order structure in the three-dimensional displacement field of the mountain range. Our findings also identify a potential seismic hazard within the interior of the Himalaya that may necessitate significant changes to seismic hazard assessments.

Murphy, M. A.; Taylor, M. H.; Gosse, J.; Silver, C. R. P.; Whipp, D. M.; Beaumont, C.

2014-01-01

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Glacier Ecosystems of Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

Biological activity on glaciers has been believed to be extremely limited. However, we found various biotic communities specialized to the glacier environment in various part of the world, such as Himalaya, Patagonia and Alaska. Some of these glacier hosted biotic communities including various cold-tolerant insects, annelids and copepods that were living in the glacier by feeding on algae and bacteria growing in the snow and ice. Thus, the glaciers are simple and relatively closed ecosystems sustained by the primary production in the snow and ice. In this presentation, we will briefly introduce glacier ecosystems in Himalaya; ecology and behavior of glacier animals, altitudinal zonation of snow algal communities, and the structure of their habitats in the glacier. Since the microorganisms growing on the glacier surface are stored in the glacial strata every year, ice-core samples contain many layers with these microorganisms. We showed that the snow algae in the ice-core are useful for ice core dating and could be new environmental signals for the studies on past environment using ice cores. These microorganisms in the ice core will be important especially in the studies of ice core from the glaciers of warmer regions, in which chemical and isotopic contents are often heavily disturbed by melt water percolation. Blooms of algae and bacteria on the glacier can reduce the surface albedo and significantly affect the glacier melting. For example, the surface albedo of some Himalayan glaciers was significantly reduced by a large amount of dark-colored biogenic material (cryoconite) derived from snow algae and bacteria. It increased the melting rates of the surfaces by as much as three-fold. Thus, it was suggested that the microbial activity on the glacier could affect the mass balance and fluctuation of the glaciers.

Kohshima, S.; Yoshimura, Y.; Takeuchi, N.; Segawa, T.; Uetake, J.

2012-12-01

19

Methanogens at the top of the world: occurrence and potential activity of methanogens in newly deglaciated soils in high-altitude cold deserts in the Western Himalayas  

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Full Text Available Methanogens typically occur in reduced anoxic environments. However, in recent studies it has been shown that many aerated upland soils, including desert soils also host active methanogens. Here we show that soil samples from high–altitude cold deserts in the western Himalayas (Ladakh, India produce CH4 after incubation as slurry under anoxic conditions at rates comparable to those of hot desert soils. Samples of matured soil from three different vegetation belts (arid, steppe, and subnival were compared with younger soils originating from frontal and lateral moraines of receding glaciers. While methanogenic rates were higher in the samples from matured soils, CH4 was also produced in the samples from the recently deglaciated moraines. In both young and matured soils, those covered by a biological soil crust (biocrust were more active than their bare counterparts. Isotopic analysis showed that in both cases CH4 was initially produced from H2/CO2 but later mostly from acetate. Analysis of the archaeal community in the in situ soil samples revealed a clear dominance of sequences related to Thaumarchaeota, while the methanogenic community comprised only a minor fraction of the archaeal community. Similar to other aerated soils, the methanogenic community was comprised almost solely of the genera Methanosarcina and Methanocella, and possibly also Methanobacterium in some cases. Nevertheless, approximately 103 gdw-1 soil methanogens were already present in the young moraine soil together with cyanobacteria. Our results demonstrate that Methanosarcina and Methanocella not only tolerate atmospheric oxygen but are also able to survive in these harsh cold environments. Their occurrence in newly deglaciated soils shows that they are early colonisers of desert soils, similar to cyanobacteria, and may play a role in the development of desert biocrusts.

RoeyAngel

2013-12-01

20

Ethnobotany in the Nepal Himalaya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous knowledge has become recognized worldwide not only because of its intrinsic value but also because it has a potential instrumental value to science and conservation. In Nepal, the indigenous knowledge of useful and medicinal plants has roots in the remote past. Methods The present study reviews the indigenous knowledge and use of plant resources of the Nepal Himalayas along the altitudinal and longitudinal gradient. A total of 264 studies focusing on ethnobotany, ethnomedicine and diversity of medicinal and aromatic plants, carried out between 1979 and 2006 were consulted for the present analysis. In order to cross check and verify the data, seven districts of west Nepal were visited in four field campaigns. Results In contrast to an average of 21–28% ethnobotanically/ethnomedicinally important plants reported for Nepal, the present study found that up to about 55% of the flora of the study region had medicinal value. This indicates a vast amount of undocumented knowledge about important plant species that needs to be explored and documented. The richness of medicinal plants decreased with increasing altitude but the percentage of plants used as medicine steadily increased with increasing altitude. This was due to preferences given to herbal remedies in high altitude areas and a combination of having no alternative choices, poverty and trust in the effectiveness of folklore herbal remedies. Conclusion Indigenous knowledge systems are culturally valued and scientifically important. Strengthening the wise use and conservation of indigenous knowledge of useful plants may benefit and improve the living standard of poor people.

Bussmann Rainer W

2008-12-01

21

The role of glaciers in stream flow from the Nepal Himalaya  

OpenAIRE

Recent concerns related to the potential impacts of the retreat of Himalayan glaciers on the hydrology of rivers originating in the catchment basins of the Himalaya have been accompanied by few analyses describing the role of glaciers in the hydrologic regime of these mountains. This is, at least in part, a result of the relative inaccessibility of the glaciers of the Himalaya, at altitudes generally between 4000–7000 m, and the extreme logistical difficulties of: 1) reaching the glaciers, ...

Alford, D.; Armstrong, R.

2010-01-01

22

Radiometric geochronology of the Himalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiometric age data obtained by different dating methods have been interpreted in terms of possible orogenic activities prevailing in the Himalaya. In general, the age data confirm four main events, the Precambrian, the Late Precambrian-Cambrian Assyntian (Caledonian), the Late Palaeozoic-Hercynian and the Late Cretaceous-Tertiary Himalayan orogeny. The mineral dates are particularly significant in delineating different phases of the last i.e. the Himalayan orogeny which indicates main activity of the young Himalayan metamorphism around 70 to 50 Ma and followed by a momentous phase of major uplift during 25 to 10 Ma, which was responsible for the rise of the deeper part of the Himalaya into great folds and thrust slices and the formation of nappe structures. (author)

23

High frequency new particle formation in the Himalayas  

OpenAIRE

Rising air pollution levels in South Asia will have worldwide environmental consequences. Transport of pollutants from the densely populated regions of India, Pakistan, China, and Nepal to the Himalayas may lead to substantial radiative forcing in South Asia with potential effects on the monsoon circulation and, hence, on regional climate and hydrological cycles, as well as to dramatic impacts on glacier retreat. An improved description of particulate sources is needed to constrain the simula...

Venzac, Herve?; Sellegri, Karine; Laj, Paolo; Villani, Paolo; Bonasoni, Paolo; Marinoni, Angela; Cristofanelli, Paolo; Calzolari, Francescopiero; Fuzzi, Sandro; Decesari, Stefano; Facchini, Maria-cristina; Vuillermoz, Elisa; Verza, Gian Pietro

2008-01-01

24

Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration: Selection of potential demonstration locations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first step towards identifying primary Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration locations is the selection of potential demonstration sites within the Subsurface Disposal Area. The sites selected are Pits 4, 5, 6, and 9, containing transuranic waste of Rocky Flats origin, the Acid Pit, and Pad A. The criteria and methodology for selection of these sites, as well as a description of the wastes present in each area, are included in this report. At a later date, technology-specific demonstration locations will be selected from these six potential sites. The selected locations will be used as necessary to demonstrate technologies whose potential abilities may be optimal on waste forms present at these identified locations

25

Potential Selectable Marker for Genetic Transformation in Banana  

OpenAIRE

Successful genetic transformation of banana requires effective selection systems. The effectiveness of kanamycin, neomycin, genetic in G-418, paromomycin, basta and hygromycin as selection agents to inhibit the growth of single meristematic buds of Pisang Rastali (AAB) were evaluated. Due to the potential generation of chimeric plants containing both transformed and non-transformed in meristematic buds, the presence of an efficient refined selection system is essential in transformation studi...

Sreeramanan, S.; Maziah, M.; Abdullah, M. P.; Rosli, N. M.; Xavier, R.

2006-01-01

26

The Wealth of Kashmir Himalaya-Gymnosperms  

OpenAIRE

Gymnosperms almost a neglected group of plants in Indian subcontinent especially in Kashmir Himalaya deserves special attention in many respects. Gymnosperm species of the Kashmir Himalaya not only dominate forests-the green gold of the State of Jammu and Kashmir, but are source of diverse economic and medicinal products. The stems, bark, young twigs, leaves, berries, fruits, etc. of gymnosperms are exploited to obtain medicines and other useful products. Many gymnosperm species, such as Taxu...

Dar, A. R.; Dar, G. H.

2006-01-01

27

Potential selection for female choice in Viola tricolor  

OpenAIRE

That sexual selection can be an active force in plant evolution is still under debate. When the number of pollen grains deposited onto a stigma exceeds the number of available ovules, competition among pollen grains for fertilizations will result in selection on traits that increase siring ability (e.g. pollen tube growth rate). The pistil can be regarded as an arena for pollen competition, where pistil size and shape have the potential to intensify competition and thereby increase the possib...

Skogsmyr, Io; Lankinen, A?sa

2000-01-01

28

Potential Selectable Marker for Genetic Transformation in Banana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Successful genetic transformation of banana requires effective selection systems. The effectiveness of kanamycin, neomycin, genetic in G-418, paromomycin, basta and hygromycin as selection agents to inhibit the growth of single meristematic buds of Pisang Rastali (AAB were evaluated. Due to the potential generation of chimeric plants containing both transformed and non-transformed in meristematic buds, the presence of an efficient refined selection system is essential in transformation studies. Single buds were cultured on solid and liquid MS media supplemented with 5 mg L-1 of BAP for a period of four weeks. Six selection agents tested each at 0, 25, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 mg L-1. In preliminary experiment, basta and hygromycin were required at lower concentrations. Therefore, experiment was carried out at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 mg L-1. Of six compounds tested, basta and hygromycin was suitable selection agent since it inhibits the growth of single buds at lower concentrations. However, hygromycin selection makes it the preferred selection over basta for easily scoreable phenotype and faster inhibition response of explants. Genetic in G-418 is effective than kanamycin, neomycin and paromomycin for selecting transformed plants conferring resistance to npt11 gene. The use of liquid medium containing selection agents showed effective in banana due lower concentrations required and good contact between explants and medium.

S. Sreeramanan

2006-01-01

29

Simulation Games: Practical References, Potential Use, Selected Bibliography.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several recently published books on simulation and games are briefly discussed. Selected research studies and demonstration projects are examined to show the potential of simulation and gaming for teaching and training and for the study of social and psychological processes. The bibliography lists 113 publications which should lead the reader to…

Kidder, Steven J.

30

Determination of Half-wave Potentials of Selected Chlorophenols  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Cyclic voltammetry was used in cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) micellar solution to determine the half-wave potentials of selected chlorophenols, CPs. It is observed that all the electrochemical parameters of the studied CPs decrease with an increase in the number of chlorine atom(s) attached [...] to the parent compound. The mathematical relationship between the obtained E1/2 and the number of chlorine atoms in the parent compound is given. The formal potentials, E0', of the CPs are approximated from the obtained half-wave potentials.

M.O., Iwunze; B., Abel.

2012-09-01

31

Wind energy potential in selected areas in Jordan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? This paper investigates the potential of producing wind power. ? Four locations are selected for wind power generation. ? The payback period is calculated and found reasonable. ? This study reveals that the total rated wind power that can be generated from the four selected wind farms is 136 MW. ? On the other hand, the expected total energy that can be produced from the four selected wind farms is 18.9 × 103 GW h. - Abstract: The present paper investigates the potential of wind energy in selected areas in Jordan. The aim of this work is to set up promising wind farms that are able to feed electricity to the Jordanian distribution authority with excellent percentage of clean energy. There are some particular locations in Jordan where the wind potential is very promising for economical electrical power generation. Four of these promising locations are investigated in this paper for the possibility of building and investing 100 MW wind turbine in each of these four locations. The environmental data needed to perform the present study are obtained from the local Meteorological department. The suggested wind turbines to be implemented in each of the four locations are selected from the international rating and specification catalogues of wind turbine manufacturers. This study reveals that the total rated wind power that can be generated from the four selected wind farms is 136 MW. On the other hand, the expected total energy that can bepected total energy that can be produced from the four selected wind farms is 18.9 × 103 GW h.

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Microwave-dressed state-selective potentials for atom interferometry  

CERN Document Server

We propose a novel and robust technique to realize a beam splitter for trapped Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). The scheme relies on the possibility of producing different potentials simultaneously for two internal atomic states. The atoms are coherently transferred, via a Rabi coupling between the two long-lived internal states, from a single well potential to a double-well. We present numerical simulations supporting our proposal and confirming excellent efficiency and fidelity of the transfer process with realistic numbers for a BEC of $^{87}$Rb. We discuss the experimental implementation by suggesting state-selective microwave potentials as an ideal tool to be exploited for magnetically trapped atoms. The working principles of this technique are tested on our atom chip device which features an integrated coplanar micro-wave guide. In particular, the first realization of a double-well potential by using a microwave dressing field is reported. Experimental results are presented together with numerical simu...

Guarrera, V; Reichel, J; Rosenbusch, P

2015-01-01

33

Deprivation selectively modulates brain potentials to food pictures  

OpenAIRE

Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were used to examine whether the processing of food pictures is selectively modulated by changes in the motivational state of the observer. Sixteen healthy male volunteers were tested twice 1 week apart, either after 24 hr of food deprivation or after normal food intake. ERPs were measured while participants viewed appetitive food pictures as well as standard emotional and neutral control pictures. Results show that the ERPs to food pictures in a hungry, ...

Stockburger, Jessica; Weike, Almut I.; Hamm, Alfons O.; Schupp, Harald Thomas

2008-01-01

34

Brief Communication: Contending estimates of 2003-2008 glacier mass balance over the Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

We present glacier thickness changes over the entire Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya arc based on ICESat satellite altimetry data for 2003-2008. We highlight the importance of C-band penetration for studies based on the SRTM elevation model. This penetration seems to be of potentially larger magnitude and variability than previously assumed. The most negative rate of region-wide glacier elevation change (glaciers of the western Kunlun Shan are slightly gaining volume, and Pamir and Karakoram seem to be on the western edge of this mass-gain anomaly rather than its centre. For the Ganges, Indus and Brahmaputra basins, the glacier mass change reaches -24 ± 2 Gt yr-1, about 10% of the current glacier contribution to sea-level rise. For selected catchments, we estimate glacier imbalance contributions to river run-off from a few percent to greater than 10%.

Kääb, A.; Treichler, D.; Nuth, C.; Berthier, E.

2015-03-01

35

Uranium and radon surveys in Siwalik Himalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Integrated measurements of radon in subsurface soil and groundwater are being used for uranium exploration and earthquake prediction. It is well established that large scale mobilization of uranium and radium is carried out by Himalayan rivers which are major sources of radioactivity on the Indian ocean. Our laboratory has been engaged in uranium/thorium estimation and radon studies in the Siwalik Himalaya since 1980, using scintillometry, track-etch technique, surface barrier silicon-junction detectors and pulse ionisation counters (alpha-loggers). Fission track technique and alpha autoradiography is also used to reveal uranium anomalies in geological samples of the area. Siwalik vertebrate fossil bones from Saharanpur (U.P.), Naraiangarh (Haryana) and Nalagarh (H.P.) show anomalously high uranium content variation from 93.8 to 418 ppm which is a riddle for geochemists. The daily and long term variation of radon was monitored in Siwalik Himalaya since 1989 under a Department of Science and Technology (DST) sponsored project. The effect of meteorological parameters on radon emanation is also studied. Radon results are correlated by the gamma activity and in situ uranium content in the soil of the area. The maximum values of radon are recorded in Chhinjra, Rameda, Kasol and Samurkalan areas of Himachal Pradesh. Results indicate that there is a need to undertake epidemiological study correlating cancer risk with high radon values in the Siwalik Himalaya. (author)s in the Siwalik Himalaya. (author)

36

Imaging the Indian subcontinent beneath the Himalaya.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rocks of the Indian subcontinent are last seen south of the Ganges before they plunge beneath the Himalaya and the Tibetan plateau. They are next glimpsed in seismic reflection profiles deep beneath southern Tibet, yet the surface seen there has been modified by processes within the Himalaya that have consumed parts of the upper Indian crust and converted them into Himalayan rocks. The geometry of the partly dismantled Indian plate as it passes through the Himalayan process zone has hitherto eluded imaging. Here we report seismic images both of the decollement at the base of the Himalaya and of the Moho (the boundary between crust and mantle) at the base of the Indian crust. A significant finding is that strong seismic anisotropy develops above the decollement in response to shear processes that are taken up as slip in great earthquakes at shallower depths. North of the Himalaya, the lower Indian crust is characterized by a high-velocity region consistent with the formation of eclogite, a high-density material whose presence affects the dynamics of the Tibetan plateau. PMID:15988523

Schulte-Pelkum, Vera; Monsalve, Gaspar; Sheehan, Anne; Pandey, M R; Sapkota, Som; Bilham, Roger; Wu, Francis

2005-06-30

37

Geology and uranium occurrences of the Himalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Himalayan terrain constitutes one of the important uranium provinces of India. Mineral economics in the conventional sense will always be against any mineral deposit in the Himalaya until a very advanced stage of development in areas of transport and communication is achieved

38

Selection theory of free dendritic growth in a potential flow  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kruskal-Segur approach to selection theory in diffusion-limited or Laplacian growth is extended via combination with the Zauderer decomposition scheme. This way nonlinear bulk equations become tractable. To demonstrate the method, we apply it to two-dimensional crystal growth in a potential flow. We omit the simplifying approximations used in a preliminary calculation for the same system [Fischaleck, Kassner, Europhys. Lett.EULEEJ0295-507510.1209/0295-5075/81/54004 81, 54004 (2008)], thus exhibiting the capability of the method to extend mathematical rigor to more complex problems than hitherto accessible.

von Kurnatowski, Martin; Grillenbeck, Thomas; Kassner, Klaus

2013-04-01

39

The role of glaciers in stream flow from the Nepal Himalaya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent concerns related to the potential impacts of the retreat of Himalayan glaciers on the hydrology of rivers originating in the catchment basins of the Himalaya have been accompanied by few analyses describing the role of glaciers in the hydrologic regime of these mountains. This is, at least in part, a result of the relative inaccessibility of the glaciers of the Himalaya, at altitudes generally between 4000–7000 m, and the extreme logistical difficulties of: 1 reaching the glaciers, and 2 conducting meaningful research once they have been reached. It is apparent that an alternative to traditional "Alpine" glaciology is required in the mountains of the Hindu Kush-Himalaya region. The objectives of the study discussed here have been to develop methodologies that will begin to quantify the role of complete glacier systems in the hydrologic regime of the Nepal Himalaya, and to develop estimates of the potential impact of a continued retreat of these glacier, based on the use of disaggregated low-altitude data bases, topography derived from satellite imagery, and simple process models of water and energy exchange in mountain regions.

While the extent of mesoscale variability has not been established by studies to date, it is clear that the dominant control on the hydrologic regime of the tributaries to the Ganges Basin from the eastern Himalaya is the interaction between the summer monsoon and the 8000 m of topographic relief represented by the Himalayan wall. All the available evidence indicates that the gradient of specific runoff with altitude resulting from this interaction is moderately to strongly curvilinear, with maximum runoff occurring at mid-altitudes, and minima at the altitudinal extremes. At the upper minimum of this gradient, Himalayan glaciers exist in what has been characterized as an "arctic desert".

The methodologies developed for this study involve the relationship between area-altitude distributions of catchment basins and glaciers, based on Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM3 data and water and energy exchange gradients. Based on these methodologies, it is estimated that the contribution of glacier annual melt water to annual stream flow into the Ganges Basin from the glacierized catchments of the Nepal Himalaya represents approximately 4% of the total annual stream flow volume of the rivers of Nepal, and thus, is a minor component of the annual flow of the Ganges River. The models developed for this study indicate that neither stream flow timing nor volume of the rivers flowing into the Ganges Basin from Nepal will be affected materially by a continued retreat of the glaciers of the Nepal Himalaya.

D. Alford

2010-04-01

40

Energy and sustainable development in the Himalayas; Energie et developpement durable dans l'Himalaya  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

150 million people live in the Himalayas, in a rigorous climatic and geographical context. The majority of these areas of high altitude are cold and arid deserts. The simplest stakes are the daily concern of the inhabitants of these areas: to preserve an ecosystem and its biodiversity, already weakened, to reduce the burden of the firewood collection, to have access to the public services (care, teaching...), to improve the living conditions (housing comfort, local economy as agriculture, craft industry). The access to energy can help to solve part of these social and economic problems, to satisfy the basic needs (heating, kitchen, hygiene), to reduce the human constraint and to support economic activities. For more than 20 years the GERES has developed passive, simple and reproducible solar technology, perfectly adapted to the local conditions met in these areas. These data sheets will allow the readers: to understand the particular context of these areas, to know the current solutions brought by the populations, to know the solutions being able to improve the situation and technical, economic and social criteria, allowing the populations to carry out suitable choices, to determine the potential, using renewable energies, to have concrete references. (author)

Stauffer, V. [Groupe Energies Renouvelables, Environnement et Solidarite, Developpement Durable et Solidarite Internationale (ABAC-GERES), 13 - Aubagne (France)

2004-07-01

41

Generalized Selectivity Description for Polymeric Ion-Selective Electrodes Based on the Phase Boundary Potential Model  

OpenAIRE

A generalized description of the response behavior of potentiometric polymer membrane ion-selective electrodes is presented on the basis of ion-exchange equilibrium considerations at the sample—membrane interface. This paper includes and extends on previously reported theoretical advances in a more compact yet more comprehensive form. Specifically, the phase boundary potential model is used to derive the origin of the Nernstian response behavior in a single expression, which is valid for a ...

Bakker, Eric

2010-01-01

42

Evolution of earthquake-triggered landslides in the Kashmir Himalaya, northern Pakistan  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of the 08 October 2005 Kashmir earthquake and subsequent snow melt and monsoon rainfall on slope stability was evaluated using repeat photography in the Kashmir Himalaya of northern Pakistan. Sixty-eight landslide-affected locations were selected and photographed in November 2005, May/June 2006, June 2007, and August 2007 to evaluate all potential geomorphic changes. Eighty percent of the locations showed no or very little change, 11% of the locations showed a partial vegetation recovery on the slopes, while 9% showed an increase in the landslide area. All those locations that showed an increase in landsliding were located along rivers and/or roads. The small change in landslide extent is remarkable given that the region experienced one of the heaviest monsoon seasons in the last decade and is counter to earlier predictions of accelerated slope erosion by landsliding in the immediate years following the earthquake. Extensive fissures and ground cracks at many localities, however, still present a potential of future landsliding under wetter conditions. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Khattak, G.A.; Owen, L.A.; Kamp, U.; Harp, E.L.

2010-01-01

43

Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS)-geological perspective and a case study from Ladakh Himalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is a recent addition to the conventional mass spectrometry and is based on measurement of cosmogenic radionuclides. It is a highly potential technique to understand a variety of geological problems particularly in geomorphology, paleoclimatology and ocean research and is in fact the only technique to precisely measure erosion rates, river incision rates, sedimentation rates and surface exposure ages. The paper briefly presents the geological perspectives of the AMS technique and some preliminary results from Ladakh Himalaya

44

Carbon allocation, sequestration and carbon dioxide mitigation under plantation forests of north western Himalaya, India  

OpenAIRE

The organic carbon and soils of the world comprise bulk of the terrestrial carbon and serve as amajorsink and source of atmospheric carbon. Increasing atmospheric concentrations of green house gases may be mitigated by increasing carbon sequestration in vegetation and soil. The study attempted to estimate biomass production and carbon sequestration potential of different plantation ecosystems in north western Himalaya, India. Biomass, carbon density of biomass, soil, detritus, carbon sequestr...

Bandana Devi; Bhardwaj, D. R.; Pankaj Panwar; Sharmistha Pal; Gupta, N. K.; Thakur, C. L.

2013-01-01

45

Atmospheric carbonaceous aerosols from Indo-Gangetic Plain and Central Himalaya: impact of anthropogenic sources.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present-day scenario of growing anthropogenic activities, carbonaceous aerosols contribute significantly (?20-70%) to the total atmospheric particulate matter mass and, thus, have immense potential to influence the Earth's radiation budget and climate on a regional to global scale. In addition, formation of secondary organic aerosols is being increasingly recognized as an important process in contributing to the air-pollution and poor visibility over urban regions. It is, thus, essential to study atmospheric concentrations of carbonaceous species (EC, OC and WSOC), their mixing state and absorption properties on a regional scale. This paper presents the comprehensive data on emission sources, chemical characteristics and optical properties of carbonaceous aerosols from selected urban sites in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) and from a high-altitude location in the central Himalaya. The mass concentrations of OC, EC and WSOC exhibit large spatio-temporal variability in the IGP. This is attributed to seasonally varying emissions from post-harvest agricultural-waste burning, their source strength, boundary layer dynamics and secondary aerosol formation. The high concentrations of OC and SO4(2-), and their characteristic high mass scattering efficiency, contribute significantly to the aerosol optical depth and scattering coefficient. This has implications to the assessment of single scattering albedo and aerosol radiative forcing on a regional scale. PMID:25199599

Ram, Kirpa; Sarin, M M

2015-01-15

46

The potential impact of reversibility on selection of tubal sterilization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite continuing interest in development of reversible sterilization, baseline data regarding how much more acceptable reversible procedures would be than currently available methods have not been available. This study provides such data from 1074 randomly selected obstetric/gynecology patients or reproductive age in metropolitan San Antonio. Basic socio-demographic data and attitudinal information with respect to both permanent and hypothetically reversible tubal ligation were elicited via a self-administered questionnaire. Responses toward permanent and reversible sterilization were compared and analyzed for statistically significant differences. Results indicate that approval of, serious consideration of, intent to eventually undergo, and immediate demand for tubal sterilization would be increased 25%, 95%, 178%, and 163%, respectively, if reversible procedures were available. All increases are statistically significant at P < .0001. These data, confirming pilot study results reported a year ago, indicate that the option of reversibility is exceedingly important to potential candidates for sterilization and its availability would significantly increase the acceptability of female surgical sterilization as an alternative method of contraception. PMID:7438751

Shain, R N

1980-09-01

47

Source Mechanisms, Velocity Structures and Himalaya Tectonics  

Science.gov (United States)

The Himalayan Nepal-Tibet Seismic Experiment (HIMNT; in a region bounded by 26.7 and 29.5 degrees N latitudes and 85 and 88 degrees E longitudes) produced, for the first time, broadband seismic data appropriate for determining earthquake and lithospheric characteristics with a local network astride as well as along the high Himalaya. A suite of studies are being conducted in an attempt to gain subsurface information for a better understanding of the orogenic processes that produced the mountain range. First, it is somewhat surprising that of the 20 earthquakes (M>3.5) for which we are able to use waveform inversion to derive focal mechanisms the great majority of them are tensile types with generally EW oriented T-axes. Some of these events are shallow (~20 km) crustal events and a few are deeper crustal or even upper mantle ones (50-80 km). Several of them appear to be related to the N-S trending graben structures at the surface. Initial attempts at tomography yield structures that generally agree with the the results of receiver function analyses (Schulte-Pelkum, this meeting), with a crust of about 45 km under southern Himalaya and much thicker under the Nothern Himalaya in Tibet. The relocated seismicity using hypoDD (this paper and Monsalve et al., this meeting) lie in well-defined zones. In the region around Mount Everest a zone dips at shallow angle (< 10 degrees) from the Greater Himalaya toward the south can be seen. Under the low foothills in south Nepal steep dipping zones between 30 and 60 km are found in some sections. The seismicity in the upper crust (<30 km) under the high Himalayan range is notable in places but under the eastern part of our network deeper crustal (60 < h < 80 km) concentrate without much shall seismicity. While the shallow (~20 km) reflector from the receiver function analyses can be interpreted as the presence of Indian lithosphere and lends support to the INDEPTH model, the interpretation of seismicity and focal mechanisms indicate that a more complicated model may be needed. Since we have only recorded relatively small (M < 4.5) events in the region, are we just taking a glimpse of the ongoing processes in between large events? Would the large events produce major underthrusting consistent with some of the current models?

Wu, F. T.; Sheehan, A. F.; Huang, G.; Monsalve, G.

2003-12-01

48

Southwest-facing slopes control the formation of debris-covered glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To understand the formation conditions of debris-covered glaciers, we examined the dimension and shape of debris-covered areas and potential debris-supply (PDS slopes of 208 glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya. This was undertaken using satellite images with 2.5 m spatial resolution for manual delineation of debris-covered areas and PDS slopes. The most significant correlation exists between surface area of southwest-facing PDS slopes and debris-covered area. This result suggests that the southwest-facing PDS slopes supply the largest quantity of debris mantle. The shape of debris-covered areas is also an important variable quantitatively defined using a geometric index. Elongate or stripe-like debris-covered areas on north-flowing glaciers are common throughout the Bhutan Himalaya, associated with the small quantities of debris from north-facing PDS slopes. In contrast, south-flowing glaciers have large ablation zones, entirely covered by debris. Our findings suggest that this difference is caused by effective diurnal freeze–thaw cycles rather than seasonal freeze–thaw cycles, permafrost degradation, or snow avalanches. In terms of geographic setting, local topography also contributes to glacier debris supply and the proportion of debris cover on the studied glaciers is suppressed by the arid Tibetan climate, whereas the north-to-south asymmetric topography of the Bhutan Himalaya has less influence on the proportion of debris cover.

H. Nagai

2013-04-01

49

Black carbon aerosols over the Himalayas: direct and surface albedo forcing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Absorbing aerosols such as black carbon (BC or dust over high-altitude Himalayan regions have potential implications on the regional climate and hydrological cycle over South Asia. Making use of extensive measurements of atmospheric BC from several Himalayan stations, an assessment of radiative forcing due to direct and snow-albedo darkening is examined. Generally, BC concentration in the atmosphere peaks during pre-monsoon season over the Himalayas and the climatological mean of atmospheric BC over Hanle (western Himalayas, 4.5?km msl and Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (central Himalayas, 5?km msl are 106±27?ng m?3 and 190±95?ng m?3, respectively. Based on the optical and physical properties of composite aerosols measured at Hanle, clear sky direct radiative forcing (DRF at the top of the atmosphere is estimated as 1.69?W m?2 over snow surface and ?1.54?W m?2 over sandy surface during pre-monsoon season. The estimated amount of BC in the snow varied from 117 to 1.7?µg kg?1 for wide range of dry deposition velocities (0.01–0.054?cm s?1 of BC, snow depth (2–10?cm and snow densities (195–512?kg m?3. Using a size-resolved wet scavenging parametrisation, the amount of BC on snow due to wet scavenging is estimated as 29?µg kg?1 for an accumulated snow depth of 27?cm. For the range of 10–200?µg kg?1 of BC in snow, the diurnally averaged forcing due to snow darkening has been found to vary from 0.87 to 10.2?W m?2 for fresh snow and from 2.6 to 28.1?W m?2 for the aged snow, which is significantly higher than the DRF. The direct and surface albedo radiative forcing could lead to significant warming over the Himalayas during pre-monsoon.

Vijayakumar S. Nair

2013-09-01

50

EVALUATION OF GARHWAL HIMALAYA WILD EDIBLE TUBER DIOSCOREA DELTOIDEA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Uttarakhand is highly enriched with edible wild tubers. Such tubers are highly potential with medicinal value and nutritional value due to the presence of bio-actives. These tubers are consumed by local inhabitants to play a significant role as supplementary food. The present study is aimed at evaluating the nutritional value, successive extraction, thin layer chromatography of medicinal plant, Dioscorea deltoidea. It is a popular wild edible tubers bearing plant of Indian Himalaya having good nutritional and medicinal potential. These will be the best source of the nutraceuticals. Since tubers are richer in micronutrients and bioactive secondary metabolites, The medicinal plant tuber contain ash value, (total ash 3.34 ± 0.15%, moisture 58.92±0.10%, crude fat 0.60±0.20% and crude fiber 7.50±0.14%, the successive extractive values were studied fresh part weight. The preliminary phytochemical analysis test showed the presence of carbohydrates and glycosides, alkaloid, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, unsaturated triterpenoids and sterol, resin.

Chandra Subhash

2012-03-01

51

Landscape drivers, signatures, and erosion rates from the western Himalaya using detrital Beryllium-10  

Science.gov (United States)

The Himalaya represents one of the most dynamic orogenic systems on the planet. Characterized by both large tectonic and climatic gradients, the Himalaya has been used as a proving ground over the last decade to test contrasting theories about the relative role climate and tectonics play in driving overall landscape form and sediment flux in active mountain belts. Despite considerable efforts to date, results remain contradictory and are further complicated by the inherent dependence between precipitation and topography in orogenic systems. In this study we seek to shed additional light on this debate using a combination of satellite derived data (TRMM rainfall, Landsat land cover, Google Earth-derived channel widths), digital elevation model landscape metrics (normalized channel steepness indices, width-adjusted specific stream power, hillslope angles), existing apatite fission track ages, and ~65 new detrital Beryllium-10 erosion-rate estimates spread across the Ganges and Mahakali watersheds in the western Himalaya. This dataset represents one of the largest detrital CRN studies to date in the Himalaya and argues for dominant tectonic control of sediment flux in the region. Comparisons of erosion-rate estimates with established landscape metrics is in agreement with recently published relationships from other mountain belts and argues against a large-scale precipitation-modulated landscape signature. This finding is evidenced by 1) a general increase in mean hillslope and normalized channel steepness values with increasing precipitation, 2) a lack of coincidence between high erosion rates and precipitation amount or intensity, and 3) spatial coincidence between erosion rates, known tectonic units, and apatite fission-track ages. Whereas these data do not require or demonstrate a clear precipitation dependence, we do acknowledge that they allow for this potential, especially within distinct tectonic regimes where sufficient erosion rate-landscape metric scatter may mask more subtle precipitation driven trends and overprints. This analysis provides a detailed view into the spatial variability of erosion across a large region of the Himalaya at the centennial to millennial timescale (apparent erosion rates range from 0.1 to 7 mm/yr) and should provide key insights for future debates about the relative contributions of climate and tectonics in active orogenic evolution.

Fisher, G.; Bookhagen, B.; Burbank, D. W.; Whipple, K. X.; Godard, V.

2013-12-01

52

Uranium and radon surveys in western Himalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The water samples from mountain springs, streams and river systems in the western Himalaya were collected and analysed in the laboratory for uranium and radon contents. It is observed that the Himalayan river system is conspicuous by its high dissolved uranium and radium concentration. The water samples contain from 0.89 ppb to 63.4 ppb of uranium and from 34 Bq/I to 364 Bq/I of radon. The radon emanation in soil is measured by the track-etch method, emanometry and alpha-logger technique. The daily and long-term variation of radon was monitored in some mineralized zones of Himachal Pradesh (HP) state with high uranium content in the soil. The maximum values of radon are recorded in Chhinjra, Rameda, Samurkala and Kasol areas of HP. (author)

53

Measurement of radon concentration in groundwater of Kumaon Himalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, radon concentration in springs and hand pumps of Kumaon Himalaya, India was measured using radon emanometry technique. The radon measurements were made in springs and groundwater from the hand pumps being used as drinking water sources by general population. The hand pumps and springs were selected near the dwellings and workplaces, where the general public utilizes these water sources for their daily needs. The water samples from springs were collected in an air-tight bottle from the original discharge point (outlet) of the spring having distinct geological unit and geohydrological regime. The water was transferred from discharge point of the spring to the bottom of the bottle using PVC tubing. For hand pumps, the water was pumped out for some time and the samples were collected in 1 L bottle directly from the pump outlet. After allowing the sample bottle to over flow for a while and when no bubbles were visually observed, the sample volume was reduced to a pre-marked position leaving 250 ml of air in the bottle above the water surface. The sample bottle was then connected in a close circuit with Lucas cell, hand operated rubber pump and a glass tube containing CaCl2 to absorb the moisture. The air was then circulated in close circuit for a period of 15 mm till the radon formed a uniform mixture with the air and the resulting alpha activity was recorded. The resulting numbers of the alpha counts were then converted into Bq/l by using the cal then converted into Bq/l by using the calibration factor 1 cpm = 0.0663 Bq/l. The results of radon measurements in springs and hand pumps from the study area are given. Field measurements were taken in different geological units of Kumaun region in Himalaya. The radon concentration in spring water varies from 1 Bq/l to 76 Bq/l with geometric mean 10 Bq/l, whereas in hand pumps it varies from 3 Bq/l to 392 Bq/l with geometric mean of 40 Bq/l. The higher values of radon in the water samples of hand pumps are possibly because of its greater depth, which allows water to interact with a greater thickness of aquifer and thus more radon is expected in hand pumps and tube wells. Radon level was found higher in the area consisting of granite, quartz porphyry, schist, phyllites states and lowest in the area having sedimentary rocks, predominantly dominated by quartzite rocks

54

The Diversity Potential of Relay Selection with Practical Channel Estimation  

CERN Document Server

We investigate the diversity order of decode-and-forward relay selection in Nakagami-m fading, in cases where practical channel estimation techniques are applied. In this respect, we introduce a unified model for the imperfect channel estimates, where the effects of noise, time-varying channels, and feedback delays are jointly considered. Based on this model, the correlation between the actual and the estimated channel values, \\rho, is expressed as a function of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), yielding closed-form expressions for the overall outage probability as a function of \\rho. The resulting diversity order and power gain reveal a high dependence of the performance of relay selection on the high SNR behavior of \\rho, thus shedding light onto the effect of channel estimation on the overall performance. It is shown that when the channel estimates are not frequently updated in applications involving time-varying channels, or when the amount of power allocated for channel estimation is not sufficiently high...

Michalopoulos, Diomidis S; Schober, Robert; Karagiannidis, George K

2011-01-01

55

Potential application of palladium nanoparticles as selective recyclable hydrogenation catalysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The search for more efficient catalytic systems that might combine the advantages of both homogeneous (catalyst modulation) and heterogeneous (catalyst recycling) catalysis is one of the most exciting challenges of modern chemistry. More recently with the advances of nanochemistry, it has been possible to prepare soluble analogues of heterogeneous catalysts. These nanoparticles are generally stabilized against aggregation into larger particles by electrostatic or steric protection. Herein we demonstrate the use of room temperature ionic liquid for the stabilization of palladium nanoparticles that are recyclable catalysts for the hydrogenation of carbon-carbon double bonds and application of these catalysts to the selective hydrogenation of internal or terminal C=C bonds in unsaturated primary alcohols. The particles suspended in room temperature ionic liquid show no metal aggregation or loss of catalytic activity even on prolonged use

56

Selective Mycobacterium tuberculosis Shikimate Kinase Inhibitors as Potential Antibacterials  

Science.gov (United States)

Owing to the persistence of tuberculosis (TB) as well as the emergence of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) forms of the disease, the development of new antitubercular drugs is crucial. Developing inhibitors of shikimate kinase (SK) in the shikimate pathway will provide a selective target for antitubercular agents. Many studies have used in silico technology to identify compounds that are anticipated to interact with and inhibit SK. To a much more limited extent, SK inhibition has been evaluated by in vitro methods with purified enzyme. Currently, there are no data on in vivo activity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis shikimate kinase (MtSK) inhibitors available in the literature. In this review, we present a summary of the progress of SK inhibitor discovery and evaluation with particular attention toward development of new antitubercular agents.

Gordon, Sara; Simithy, Johayra; Goodwin, Douglas C; Calderón, Angela I

2015-01-01

57

Antioxidant and DNA damage protection potentials of selected phenolic acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, ten different phenolic acids (caffeic, chlorogenic, cinnamic, ferulic, gallic, p-hydroxybenzoic, protocatechuic, rosmarinic, syringic, and vanillic acids) were evaluated for their antioxidant and DNA damage protection potentials. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by using four different test systems named as ?-carotene bleaching, DPPH free radical scavenging, reducing power and chelating effect. In all test systems, rosmarinic acid showed the maximum activity potential, while protocatechuic acid was determined as the weakest antioxidant in ?-carotene bleaching, DPPH free radical scavenging, and chelating effect assays. Phenolic acids were also screened for their protective effects on pBR322 plasmid DNA against the mutagenic and toxic effects of UV and H2O2. Ferulic acid was found as the most active phytochemical among the others. Even at the lowest concentration value (0.002?mg/ml), ferulic acid protected all of the bands in the presence of H2O2 and UV. It is followed by caffeic, rosmarinic, and vanillic acids. On the other hand, cinnamic acid (at 0.002?mg/ml), gallic acid (at 0.002?mg/ml), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (at 0.002 and 0.004?mg/ml), and protocatechuic acid (at 0.002 and 0.004?mg/ml) could not protect plasmid DNA. PMID:25542528

Sevgi, Kemal; Tepe, Bektas; Sarikurkcu, Cengiz

2015-03-01

58

Selection of materials with potential in sensible thermal energy storage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thermal energy storage is a technology under investigation since the early 1970s. Since then, numerous new applications have been found and much work has been done to bring this technology to the market. Nevertheless, the materials used either for latent or for sensible storage were mostly investigated 30 years ago, and the research has lead to improvement in their performance under different conditions of applications. In those years a significant number of new materials were developed in many fields other than storage and energy, but a great effort to characterize and classify these materials was done. Taking into account the fact that thousands of materials are known and a large number of new materials are developed every year, the authors use the methodology for materials selection developed by Prof. Ashby to give an overview of other materials suitable to be used in thermal energy storage. Sensible heat storage at temperatures between 150 and 200 C is defined as a case study and two different scenarios were considered: long term sensible heat storage and short term sensible heat storage. (author)

Fernandez, A.I.; Martinez, M.; Segarra, M. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Martorell, I.; Cabeza, L.F. [GREA Innovacio Concurrent, Edifici CREA, Universitat de Lleida, Pere de Cabrera s/n, 25001 Lleida (Spain)

2010-10-15

59

Selection of materials with potential in sensible thermal energy storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermal energy storage is a technology under investigation since the early 1970s. Since then, numerous new applications have been found and much work has been done to bring this technology to the market. Nevertheless, the materials used either for latent or for sensible storage were mostly investigated 30 years ago, and the research has lead to improvement in their performance under different conditions of applications. In those years a significant number of new materials were developed in many fields other than storage and energy, but a great effort to characterize and classify these materials was done. Taking into account the fact that thousands of materials are known and a large number of new materials are developed every year, the authors use the methodology for materials selection developed by Prof. Ashby to give an overview of other materials suitable to be used in thermal energy storage. Sensible heat storage at temperatures between 150 and 200 C is defined as a case study and two different scenarios were considered: long term sensible heat storage and short term sensible heat storage. (author)

60

Cytological studies of Brassicaceae burn. (Cruciferae juss.) from Western Himalayas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cytological studies have been carried out on 12 species of Brassicaceae Burn. on population basis from different geographical areas of Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh in the Western Himalayas. Variable chromosome reports for Barbaraea intermedia (n = 16), Cardamine loxostemonoides (n = 8), Nasturtium officinale (n = 8), Sisymbrium orientale (n = 14) on world-wide basis have been added to the previous reports of these species. The chromosome numbers in seven species as Barbaraea intermedia (n = 8), B. vulgaris (n = 8), Capsella bursa-pastoris (n = 8), Descuriania sophia (n = 10), Rorippa islandica (n = 8), Sisymbrium strictum (n = 7) and Thlaspi alpestre (n = 7) have been worked out for the first time from India. The meiotic course in the populations of seven species such as Barbaraea intermedia, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Coronopus didymus, Descuriania sophia, Nasturtium officinale, Sisymbrium orientale and S. strictum varies from normal to abnormal while all the populations of two species Barbaraea vulgaris and Sisymbrium irio show abnormal meiotic course. Meiotic abnormalities are in the form of cytomixis, chromosomal stickiness, unoriented bivalents, inter-bivalent connections, formation of laggards and bridges, all resulting into abnormal microsporogenesis. Heterogenous sized fertile pollen grains and reduced reproductive potentialities have invariably been observed in all the meiotically abnormal populations. However, the meiotic course in all the populations of Cardamine loxostemonoides, Rorippa islandica and Thalspi alpestre is found to be normal with high pollen fertility. PMID:23427609

Jeelani, S M; Rani, S; Kumar, S; Kumari, S; Gupta, R C

2013-01-01

61

High frequency new particle formation in the Himalayas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rising air pollution levels in South Asia will have worldwide environmental consequences. Transport of pollutants from the densely populated regions of India, Pakistan, China, and Nepal to the Himalayas may lead to substantial radiative forcing in South Asia with potential effects on the monsoon circulation and, hence, on regional climate and hydrological cycles, as well as to dramatic impacts on glacier retreat. An improved description of particulate sources is needed to constrain the simulation of future regional climate changes. Here, the first evidence of very frequent new particle formation events occurring up to high altitudes is presented. A 16-month record of aerosol size distribution from the Nepal Climate Observatory at Pyramid (Nepal, 5,079 m above sea level), the highest atmospheric research station, is shown. Aerosol concentrations are driven by intense ultrafine particle events occurring on >35% of the days at the interface between clean tropospheric air and the more polluted air rising from the valleys. During a pilot study, we observed a significant increase of ion cluster concentrations with the onset of new particle formation events. The ion clusters rapidly grew to a 10-nm size within a few hours, confirming, thus, that in situ nucleation takes place up to high altitudes. The initiation of the new particle events coincides with the shift from free tropospheric downslope winds to thermal upslope winds from the valley in the morning hours. The new particle formation events represent a very significant additional source of particles possibly injected into the free troposphere by thermal winds. PMID:18852453

Venzac, Hervé; Sellegri, Karine; Laj, Paolo; Villani, Paolo; Bonasoni, Paolo; Marinoni, Angela; Cristofanelli, Paolo; Calzolari, Francescopiero; Fuzzi, Sandro; Decesari, Stefano; Facchini, Maria-Cristina; Vuillermoz, Elisa; Verza, Gian Pietro

2008-10-14

62

Global warming may lead to catastrophic floods in the Himalayas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Nepal, data from 49 surveillance stations show that there has been a distinct temperature increase since the middle of the 1970s, the greatest changes being on the highest summits. When lakes overfill and beaches threaten to break down, this is a result of the global warming that melts the glaciers. The glaciers in Bhutan are observed to decrease by 30 - 40 metres per year, in some years as much as 100 metres. In the village of Tribeni an advanced warning system has been established to warn the 10 000 inhabitants of a potential flood from Lake Tsho Rolpa 108 km upstream. Research from the Himalayas also point to another serious threat. The melting threatens not only human lives, tourism, foot paths, roads, bridges and power stations. Since the mountains are the water towers of the world, filling rivers and lakes with water upon which all life depends, continued shrinking of the world's glaciers as is now observed will cause many rivers and fresh-water systems to dry out. Researchers from the UN Unep programme and International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development have registered at least 44 glacier lakes that are increasing so fast that they may cause outburst floods within five years. Similar investigations are being planned in India, Pakistan and China

63

Disinfection of greywater effluent and regrowth potential of selected bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chlorination and UV irradiation of RBC (rotating biological contactor)-treated light GW (greywater) was investigated. The ability of chlorine and UV to inactivate indictor bacteria (FC - Faecal Coliforms, HPC - Heterotrophic Plate Count) and specific pathogens (P.a. - Pseudomonas aeruginosa sp., S.a. - Staphylococcus aureus sp.), was assessed and their regrowth potential was examined. The RBC removed 88.5-99.9% of all four bacteria groups. Nevertheless, the treated GW had to be disinfected. Most of the chlorine was consumed during the first 0.5 h, while later its decay rate decreased significantly, leaving enough residual after 6 h to prevent regrowth and to further inactivate bacteria in the stored GW effluent. Under exposure to low UV doses (?69 mJ/cm(2)) FC was the most resistant bacteria group, followed by HPC, P.a. and S.a. Exposure to higher doses (?439 mJs/cm(2)) completely inactivated FC, P.a. and S.a., while no further HPC inactivation was observed. FC, P.a. and S.a. did not exhibit regrowth after exposure to all the UV doses applied (up to 6 h storage). HPC did not exhibit regrowth after exposure to low UV doses (19-69 mJ/cm2), while it presented statistically significant regrowth in un-disinfected effluent and after exposure to higher UV doses (147-439 mJ/cm(2)). PMID:21411943

Friedler, Eran; Yardeni, Anat; Gilboa, Yael; Alfiya, Yuval

2011-01-01

64

Selected natural phenolic compounds - potential treatment for peripheral neuropathy?  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuropathic pain is a syndrome comprising pain caused by a lesion or dysfunction of the nervous system, or resulting from lesions or diseases of the somatosensory system. Neuropathic pain is often connected with adverse effects of chemotherapy administered because of cancer, infiltration of the nervous tissue with cancer cells, neurodegeneration and diabetes mellitus. Disbalance in the production of various cytokines plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many of the diseases connected with neuropathies. These cytokines comprise in particular interleukins IL-1?, IL-15, and IL-6, tumour necrosis factors, and prostaglandins. The biochemistry of the production of cytokines is directed by nuclear factors, which affect the expression of the mRNA for the respective cytokines or enzymes metabolizing the cytokines. The main nuclear factor which regulates the expression of cytokines is NF-?B. Because of insufficient effectiveness or adverse effects of the pharmacological treatment of peripheral neuropathy, many patients seek supportive or adjuvant therapy. Natural compounds which modulate the production of inflammatory cytokines may reduce the symptoms of neuropathies. Many natural phenolic compounds belong to substances affecting the activity of NF-?B and consequently the activity of cytokines which are regulated by this substance. The aim of this mini-review is to present information about three natural phenols which are potentially usable for the treatment of neuropathies: curcumin, resveratrol and mangiferin, and bring attention to the practical usability thereof. Curcumin and mangiferin are active constituents of plants; they have been used for centuries in traditional medicine. Biological effects of resveratrol have been known for a relatively short time; since the discovery of the so-called French paradox, attention has been focused on resveratrol. This summary includes particularly the information related to the influence on the activity of NF-?B, expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines, and antiradical activity, because imbalance between the creation and degradation of free radicals plays an important role in the activation of NF-?B and in inflammatory processes. It also briefly summarizes basic information concerning bioavailability, metabolism and practical application of the aforementioned substances. Keywords: phenols curcumin mangiferin NF-?B peripheral neuropathy resveratrol. PMID:24870550

Smejkal, Karel

2014-01-01

65

Constraints and prospects of uranium exploration in Himalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exploration for uranium in the Himalaya over the last thirty years has brought to light five distinct types of mineralisation, namely, vein-type, hydrothermal shear controlled-type, disseminated-type, syngenetic-type, and sandstone-type. The first three are associated with lower to middle proterozoic metasedimentary rocks, metabasic rocks, and granitoids of the lesser Himalaya in close proximity to the main central thrust (MCT). The carbonaceous slates of Haimanta group (late proterozoic to eocambrian) and the Mussoorie phosphorites (eocambrian) represent the syngenetic types. The sandstone-type is associated with the late tertiary Siwaliks of the northwestern Himalaya. The constraints in geology and uranium exploration in the Himalaya have been briefly discussed and principal uranium occurrences in relation to their tectonic environment and genesis listed. The need for geochemical characterization of the Himalayan granitoids and the metabasics related to known uranium mineralisation and new areas have been suggested. Integrated application of radiometric, geochemical and geophysical methods of prospecting and remote sensing techniques in regional geological correlation, identification of subtle rock alterations associated with mineralized zones, geologic structures, and deep crustal lineaments have been advocated. A case for the exploration of the areas of lesser Himalaya outside the MCT has been made out so as to locate hitherto unknown types of uranium deposits incerto unknown types of uranium deposits including, strata bound, metamorphic, and intra granitic types, possibly with better depth persistence. (author). 57 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

66

Streaming potentials in gramicidin channels measured with ion-selective microelectrodes.  

OpenAIRE

Streaming potentials have been measured for gramicidin channels with a new method employing ion-selective microelectrodes. It is shown that ideally ion-selective electrodes placed at the membrane surface record the true streaming potential. Using this method for ion concentrations below 100 mM, approximately seven water molecules are transported whenever a sodium, potassium, or cesium ion, passes through the channel. This new method confirms earlier measurements (Rosenberg, P.A., and A. Finke...

Tripathi, S.; Hladky, S. B.

1998-01-01

67

Spring-recharging in the Himalayas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

in the settlement of mountain villages in the Himalayas. In fact, in many places, it was the single factor that determined the location of the villages and naturally rainwater has been the source which recharge the catchments of the springs. Forest cover keeps these catchment areas alive for the slow and constant recharging of the springs. In the recent past due to continuous deforestation, the catchment areas have been drastically reduced. Eventually, these denuded lands were unable to conserve water, which has resulted in the drying-up and dying of many mountain springs. Certainly, this became a major threat to both the natural habitats of the springs, as well as to the survival of the communities. In order to meet the water needs of the villages, the government-development agencies devised a distribution system in which water was diverted from regions with an adequate supply to those deprived of water. This approach to remedy the water shortage brought about significant water conflicts, as the rights to water resources were not well defined. This system also did not adequately address water-management and distribution lines for the water resources

68

Atmospheric brown clouds reach the Tibetan Plateau by crossing the Himalayas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau region (HTP, despite being a remote and sparsely populated area, is regularly exposed to polluted air masses with significant amounts of aerosols including black carbon. These dark, light-absorbing particles are known to exert a great melting potential on mountain cryospheric reservoirs through albedo reduction and radiative forcing. This study combines the available yet sparse ground-based and satellite data to identify a severe aerosol pollution episode observed simultaneously in central Tibet and on the southern side of the Himalayas during 13–19 March 2009. We detail how polluted air masses such as an atmospheric brown cloud (ABC over South Asia reached the Tibetan Plateau during this pre-monsoon case study. In order to address the mechanisms of pollution transport in the complex topography of the HTP, air-mass trajectories are calculated using hourly outputs from the high-resolution numerical weather prediction model COSMO. Cross-mountain pollution transport is found to occur to a large extent at elevated tropospheric levels other than just through major river valleys. Lifting and advection of polluted air masses over the great mountain range is enabled by a combination of synoptic and local meteorological settings. Winds over the Indo Gangetic Plain (IGP are generally weak at lower levels during the event, allowing for accumulation of pollutants. The passing of synoptic-scale troughs leads to south-westerly flow in the middle troposphere over northern and central India. Thus, ABC can build up south of the Himalayas and get carried northwards across the mountain range and onto the Tibetan Plateau as the winds obtain a southerly component. Air masses from the ABC hot-spot of the IGP can reach the high glaciers, which may have serious implications for the cryosphere in the HTP region and for climate on regional to global scales.

Z. L. Lüthi

2014-11-01

69

Atmospheric brown clouds reach the Tibetan Plateau by crossing the Himalayas  

Science.gov (United States)

The Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau region (HTP), despite being a remote and sparsely populated area, is regularly exposed to polluted air masses with significant amounts of aerosols including black carbon. These dark, light-absorbing particles are known to exert a great melting potential on mountain cryospheric reservoirs through albedo reduction and radiative forcing. This study combines the available yet sparse ground-based and satellite data to identify a severe aerosol pollution episode observed simultaneously in central Tibet and on the southern side of the Himalayas during 13-19 March 2009. We detail how polluted air masses such as an atmospheric brown cloud (ABC) over South Asia reached the Tibetan Plateau during this pre-monsoon case study. In order to address the mechanisms of pollution transport in the complex topography of the HTP, air-mass trajectories are calculated using hourly outputs from the high-resolution numerical weather prediction model COSMO. Cross-mountain pollution transport is found to occur to a large extent at elevated tropospheric levels other than just through major river valleys. Lifting and advection of polluted air masses over the great mountain range is enabled by a combination of synoptic and local meteorological settings. Winds over the Indo Gangetic Plain (IGP) are generally weak at lower levels during the event, allowing for accumulation of pollutants. The passing of synoptic-scale troughs leads to south-westerly flow in the middle troposphere over northern and central India. Thus, ABC can build up south of the Himalayas and get carried northwards across the mountain range and onto the Tibetan Plateau as the winds obtain a southerly component. Air masses from the ABC hot-spot of the IGP can reach the high glaciers, which may have serious implications for the cryosphere in the HTP region and for climate on regional to global scales.

Lüthi, Z. L.; Škerlak, B.; Kim, S.-W.; Lauer, A.; Mues, A.; Rupakheti, M.; Kang, S.

2014-11-01

70

Temporal and spatial variations in erosion rate in the Sikkim Himalaya as a function of climate and tectonics  

Science.gov (United States)

The Tista River is a major tributary of the Brahmaputra drainage system (Eastern Himalaya). Its headwaters are located in the glaciated northernmost parts of the Sikkim and its catchment area amounts to more than 12,000 km2 including a depositional megafan (extending mostly in Bangladesh and West Bengal-India). The Tista has recently incised its megafan at the topographic front of the mountain range by about 30 meters. Neither the timing of deposition/incision of the megafan sediments, nor the erosion rates of the source areas as well as their potential relationships, have been investigated in detail. Comparing these data is essential to distinguish between a climatic and/or tectonic control of the evolution of the Sikkim Himalaya and piedmont. To constrain erosion rates in the hinterland at different temporal scales (respectively millenial and geological timescales), we report cosmogenic nuclide (10Be) and thermochronological (apatite fission-tracks) data on modern river sands. Results were mapped to evidence spatial variations of erosion/exhumation rates in the Tista catchment. Cosmogenic nuclides were also used to date the onset of incision of the megafan and relate it to potential changes in hinterland erosion. In addition, isotope geochemistry (?Nd and 87Sr/86Sr) performed on modern river sands and Late-Quaternary megafan sediments allows characterizing the isotopic signature of the different source areas and constraining variations in provenance of the Tista megafan deposits through time in response to changing climatic conditions. Results show that the Tista fan deposits are mainly sourced from the High Himalayan Crystalline domain with excursions more influenced by the Lesser Himalaya domain. These data provide a new comprehensive view on modern erosion and long-term exhumation of the Sikkim Himalaya. This study of a "closed system" will help our knowledge and understanding of erosional processes and sediment fluxes in mountainous environments as a function of climate and tectonics.

Abrahami, Rachel; Huyghe, Pascale; van der Beek, Peter; Carcaillet, Julien

2014-05-01

71

Active Faults of the Northwest Himalaya: Pattern, Rate, and Timing of Surface Rupturing Earthquakes  

Science.gov (United States)

The 2005 Kashmir earthquake (Mw 7.6) is the only Himalayan earthquake to rupture the surface since the 15th to 16th century A.D. when >Mw 8.5 earthquakes ruptured the Himalayan Frontal thrust (HFT) in the central Himalaya. Megathrust-type earthquakes like these seem to relieve a majority of the accumulated interseismic strain and concentrate permanent strain across a narrow width at the deformation front (faults within the orogen appear to accommodate little strain). The 2005 within-plate rupture in Kashmir may be a clue that a different seismotectonic model applies to the northwest Himalaya where active deformation occurs on faults distributed more than 120 km across the orogen. An asymmetric anticline marks the deformation front in Kashmir where the HFT is inferred to be blind, though ~20 m-high escarpments suggest that unrecognized thrust fault(s) may reach the surface locally. Folded river terraces and dip data also suggest that this frontal fold contains a SW-dipping back thrust. In Pakistan the Salt Range thrust system (SRT) defines the thrust front. New mapping and preliminary OSL dates from deformed Holocene sediments exposed along the westernmost SRT reveal that the fault slips at 1-7 mm/yr and last ruptured within the last several thousand years. Within the orogenic wedge to the north of the deformation front, active shortening occurs along a system of surface-rupturing reverse faults, extending from the Balakot-Bagh fault (source of the 2005 Kashmir earthquake) to the Reasi fault (RF) in Indian Kashmir to the southeast. One strand of the RF displaces a 350 m-high, 80 ± 6 ka (preliminary OSL age) fluvial terrace, yielding a minimum shortening rate of 3-5 mm/yr. Trenches excavated across the RF nearby reveal a distinct angular unconformity that likely formed during a surface rupture ~4500 yrs BP. Farther north, three northeast-dipping reverse faults cut Quaternary terraces on the southwest side of the Kashmir Valley. Trenches expose evidence for at least 2 surface rupturing events in the latest Quaternary and a shortening rate of 0.3 to 1.3 mm/yr. The active structures described above can account for 15 to 50% of India-Asia convergence, with up to ~20% of the shortening occurring on structures within the orogenic belt. Seismicity in the NW Himalaya is also broadly distributed but tends to concentrate in several places (e.g., the Indus-Kohistan and Hazara Lower seismic zones). Like in the central Himalaya, the zones of seismicity in the NW Himalaya may locate regions where interseismic strain accumulates, possibly in the middle crust along thrust ramps, and is released during large (>Mw 7.5) events. These relatively infrequent earthquakes likely activate portions (all?) of the plate boundary detachment fault and/or the within-plate fault systems. It may be possible for the region to generate earthquakes as large as >Mw 8.5, taking into account a reasonable average slip value and maximum possible rupture area. Recognition of internal surface-rupturing reverse faults indicates probabilistic models for seismic hazards in the NW Himalaya ought to account for great earthquakes on the Main Himalayan thrust (the basal detachment), moderate earthquakes on upper plate faults, and potentially events in the down-going Indian plate.

Yule, J.; Madden, C.; Gavillot, Y.; Hebeler, A.; Meigs, A.; Hussein, A.; Malik, M.; Bhat, M.; Kausar, A.; Ramzan, S.; Sayab, M.; Yeats, R. S.

2012-12-01

72

Potential site selection for radioactive waste repository using GIS (Study area: Negeri Sembilan) - Phase 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main purpose in this paper is to create the Geographic Information System (GIS) based analysis on the potential site area for near-surface radioactive waste repository in the state of Negeri Sembilan. There are several parameters should be considered related to the safety assessment in selecting the potential site. These parameters such as land-use, urban area, soil, rainfall, lithology, lineament, geomorphology, landslide potential, slope, elevation, hydrogeology and protected land need to be considered before choosing the site. In this phase, we only consider ten parameters for determining the potential suitable site. (author)

73

Screening, evaluation and selection ofphosphate-solubilising fungi as potential biofertiliser  

OpenAIRE

Phosphate-solubilising saprophytic fungi have a potential application in plant nutrition; therefore, the aim of this study was 1) to perform a screening and isolation of native phosphofungi from volcanic soils of southern Chile, 2) to select a liquid medium for the evaluation of these phosphofungi and 3) to test a selected phospho fungus as a biofertiliser in a volcanic soil. The phosphofungi were screened using Martin medium (rose bengal-streptomycin agar) with calcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2) ...

Morales, A.; Alvear, M.; Valenzuela, E.; Castillo, C. E.; Borie, F.

2011-01-01

74

Energy Planning in Selected European Regions - Methods for Evaluating the Potential of Renewable Energy Sources  

OpenAIRE

Given their potentially positive impact on climate protection and the preservation of fossil resources, alternative energy sources have become increasingly important for the energy supply over the past years. However, the questions arises what economic and ecological impacts and potential conflicts over land use resources are associated with the promotion of renewable energy production. Using the examples of three selected European Regions in Poland, France and German, the dissertation discus...

Sliz-szkliniarz, Beata

2013-01-01

75

Are northeast and western Himalayas earthquake dynamics better "organized" than Central Himalayas: An artificial neural network approach  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Los Himalayas entre los 20 y 38 grados de latitud N y los 70 a 98 grados de longitud E están entre las regiones más activas y vulnerables a los temblores en el mundo. Se examina la evolución de la sismicidad en el tiempo (M > 4) en los Himalayas centrales, occidentales y del Noreste para el interval [...] o de 1960-2003 utilizando el método de redes neuronales artificiales (ANN). El modelo de capas múltiples sirve para simular la frecuencia de sismos con una resolución mensual. Para el entrenamiento del ANN se utiliza un algoritmo de propagación en reversa con optimización de gradiente, y se generaliza el resultado con validación cruzada. Se concluye que las tres regiones se caracterizan por procesos que evolucionan en un plano multidimensional caótico similar a una dinámica auto-organizada. El sector central posee un coeficiente de correlación más bajo que las otras dos regiones, que parecen estar mejor "organizadas", lo que es consistente con la información geológica y tectónica disponible. Abstract in english The Himalaya covering 20-38° N latitude and 70-98° E longitude, is one of the most seismo-tectonically active and vulnerable regions of the world. Visual inspection of the temporal earthquake frequency pattern of the Himalayas indicates the nature of the tectonic activity prevailing in this region. [...] However, the quantification of this dynamical pattern is essential for constraining a model and characterizing the nature of earthquake dynamics in this region. We examine the temporal evolution of seismicity (M > 4) of the Central Himalaya (CH), Western Himalaya (WH) and Northeast Himalaya (NEH), for the period of 1960-2003 using artificial neural network (ANN) technique. We use a multilayer feedforward artificial neural network (ANN) model to simulate monthly resolution earthquake frequency time series for all three regions. The ANN is trained using a standard back-propagation algorithm with gradient decent optimization technique and then generalized through cross-validation. The results suggest that earthquake processes in all three regions evolved on a high dimensional chaotic plane akin to "self-organized" dynamical pattern. Earthquake processes of NEH and WH show a higher predictive correlation coefficient (50-55%) compared to the CH (30%), implying that the earthquake dynamics in the NEH and WH are better "organized" than in the CH region. The available tectonogeological observations support the model predictions.

S., Sri Lakshmi; R. K., Tiwari.

2007-03-01

76

METHOD FOR DETERMINING POTENTIAL ODOR CONTRIBUTION OF SELECTED KRAFT PROCESS STREAMS  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this project was to define the potential odor contribution of selected process streams in the kraft industry that are routinely sewered. A procedure was suggested that can be used for this purpose. Use of a dynamic olfactometer and odor panels to measure odor thr...

77

Morphometric analysis of Suketi river basin, Himachal Himalaya, India  

Science.gov (United States)

Suketi river basin is located in the Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh, India. It encompasses a central inter-montane valley and surrounding mountainous terrain in the Lower Himachal Himalaya. Morphometric analysis of the Suketi river basin was carried out to study its drainage characteristics and overall groundwater resource potential. The entire Suketi river basin has been divided into five sub-basins based on the catchment areas of Suketi trunk stream and its major tributaries. Quantitative assessment of each sub-basin was carried out for its linear, areal, and relief aspects. The analysis reveals that the drainage network of the entire Suketi river basin constitutes a 7th order basin. Out of five sub-basins, Kansa khad sub-basin (KKSB), Gangli khad sub-basin (GKSB) and Ratti khad sub-basin (RKSB) are 5th order sub-basins. The Dadour khad sub-basin (DKSB) is 6th order sub-basin, while Suketi trunk stream sub-basin (STSSB) is a 7th order sub-basin. The entire drainage basin area reflects late youth to early mature stage of development of the fluvial geomorphic cycle, which is dominated by rain and snow fed lower order streams. It has low stream frequency (Fs) and moderate drainage density (Dd) of 2.69 km/km 2. Bifurcation ratios (Rb) of various stream orders indicate that streams up to 3rd order are surging through highly dissected mountainous terrain, which facilitates high overland flow and less recharge into the sub-surface resulting in low groundwater potential in the zones of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order streams of the Suketi river basin. The circulatory ratio (Rc) of 0.65 and elongation ratio (Re) of 0.80 show elongated nature of the Suketi river basin, while infiltration number (If) of 10.66 indicates dominance of relief features and low groundwater potential in the high altitude mountainous terrain. The asymmetry factor (Af) of Suketi river basin indicates that the palaeo-tectonic tilting, at drainage basin scale, was towards the downstream right side of the drainage basin. The slope map of Suketi river basin has been classified into three main zones, which delineate the runoff zone in the mountains, recharge zone in the transition zone between mountains and valley plane, and discharge zone in the plane areas of Balh valley.

Pophare, Anil M.; Balpande, Umesh S.

2014-10-01

78

The potential for using cognitive styles as selection predictors for allied health education administration programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Institutions of higher education appear to be using inappropriate measures to select students who aspire to become allied health education administrators. Therefore, new selection predictors need to be developed and validated. This article reports the results of a survey investigation conducted to determine the feasibility of using two cognitive styles, dogmatism and integrative complexity, as selection predictors for allied health graduate leadership programs. The findings indicate that current allied health education administrators are similar in cognitive style, low in dogmatism and high in integrative complexity. The findings support the premise that cognitive styles are related to both occupational choice and performance and, thus, provide a potentially powerful basis for selecting appropriate individuals for allied health graduate leadership programs. PMID:6735897

Blagg, J D

1984-05-01

79

Cycles of Sediment Aggradation and Incision in the Western Sub-Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

The magnitude of sediment delivery from the Himalayan mountains to the foreland, is characterized by large fluctuations on different timescales. At the first order, these fluctuations are manifested by periods of sediment aggradation, associated with the formation of large alluvial fans during times of high sediment delivery and re-incision and remobilization during reduced sediment delivery. At longer timescale (106-107 yr) sediment delivery is controlled by tectonic processes, whereas at shorter timescales (103-105 yr) climatic fluctuations such as variations in monsoonal strength or Quaternary glacial and interglacial oscillations dictate sediment production and transport. However, detailed stratigraphic information and chronologies of Quaternary sediment aggradation and incision cycles within the Sub-Himalaya are lacking and the degree of variability in sediment delivery during these episodes has remained unclear. In this study, we investigate Quaternary sediments exposed within the Sub-Himalaya of the Kangra re-entrant to the west of the Beas river. Here, the outlets of the drainage basins provide an ideal location to analyze aggradation and re-incision of transiently-stored sediments. The sediment-source region for this area is the Dhauladhar range, in the Higher Himalaya, which has been uplifting since the Late Miocene, thus restricting the potential source region for Late Cenozoic sediments supplied to the foreland. Folded and faulted Siwalik sediments of the Sub-Himalaya have formed sediment-filled intramontane piggy-back basin and have been progressively excavated. Thus far, we document a prolonged sediment-aggradation period by a thick sequence of boulder conglomerates. Subsequent re-incision of this fill, has left atleast three distinct terrace levels, which are recognized regionally at elevations ~5-10m, 65±10m and 140±10m above the present-day riverbed. The composition of the fill unit is dominated by 60% granitic clasts and is therefore distinct from the regionally exposed Siwalik conglomerates (>65% quartzite). We interpret the provenance signal to mean that the exposed lithologies in the catchment most likely had changed from quartzite-rich Higher Himalayan cover units to unroofed granites between the time of deposition of the Upper Siwalik conglomerates and sedimentary basin fill. Preliminary river profile analyses and topographic profiles along the terrace surfaces revealed tilting of some of the older, higher terrace levels in certain sections towards the north-east when compared to the gradient of the present-day river, suggesting ongoing internal shortening within the Sub-Himalaya. DEM-based geomorphic analysis, surface exposure dating and burial dating of well-shielded sediments using cosmogenic nuclides are in progress. With the expected results, we anticipate to determine the chronology of terrace levels, determine deformation rates, reconstruct the fluvial incision history and ultimately the minimum sediment-flux rate in the study area.

Dey, Saptarshi; Thiede, Rasmus; Bookhagen, Bodo; Strecker, Manfred

2013-04-01

80

Integrated Natural Resource Management: Approaches and Lessons from the Himalaya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Losses of forest cover, biodiversity, agricultural productivity, and ecosystem services in the Himalayan mountain region are interlinked problems and threats to the sustainable livelihoods of 115 x 106 mountain people as well as the inhabitants of the adjoining Indo-gangetic plains. Until the 1970s, environmental conservation, food security, and rural economic development were treated as independent sectors. The poor outcomes of sector-oriented approaches catalyzed efforts to address environmental and socioeconomic problems concurrently. The identification of "key" natural resource management interventions is an important dimension of integrated management. Projects to rehabilitate the degraded lands that cover 40% of the Indian Himalaya could be key interventions provided that they address both socioeconomic and environmental concerns across spatial and temporal scales. However, projects of this type, e.g., investments in conifer plantations on degraded forest lands, have failed because their designs did not take into account the needs of local residents. This study illustrates a case of land rehabilitation in a small isolated village close to the alpine zone. Vital elements of this project strategy included identifying local perceptions and knowledge and involving the local people in the selection and implementation of the interventions needed to restore the land. Communities were found to be more concerned with the immediate economic benefits from bamboo and medicinal species than the long-term benefits of tree planting. The villagers eventually reached a consensus to plant broadleaved multipurpose trees in association with bamboo and medicinal species. Despite assurances that all the economic benefits from rehabilitation would go to the community, the people would not agree to voluntary labor, although they did absorb significant costs by providing social fencing, farmyard manure, and propagules from community forests. Households shared costs and benefits according to traditional norms. The economic benefits to the local people exceeded the rehabilitation cost over the 7-yr life of the project. There were significant on-site environmental benefits in terms of improvements in soil fertility, biodiversity, protective cover, and carbon sequestration, and off-site benefits from more productive use of labor, reduced pressure on protected areas, and the introduction of rare and threatened medicinal species onto private farmland.

R. K. Maikhuri

2002-01-01

81

Altered ion channel conductance and ionic selectivity induced by large imposed membrane potential pulse.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of large magnitude transmembrane potential pulses on voltage-gated Na and K channel behavior in frog skeletal muscle membrane were studied using a modified double vaseline-gap voltage clamp. The effects of electroconformational damage to ionic channels were separated from damage to lipid bilayer (electroporation). A 4 ms transmembrane potential pulse of -600 mV resulted in a reduction of both Na and K channel conductivities. The supraphysiologic pulses also reduced ionic selectivity of the K channels against Na+ ions, resulting in a depolarization of the membrane resting potential. However, TTX and TEA binding effects were unaltered. The kinetics of spontaneous reversal of the electroconformational damage of channel proteins was found to be dependent on the magnitude of imposed membrane potential pulse. These results suggest that muscle and nerve dysfunction after electrical shock may be in part caused by electroconformational damage to voltage-gated ion channels. PMID:7948676

Chen, W; Lee, R C

1994-01-01

82

Six hitherto unreported Basidiomycetic macrofungi from Kashmir Himalayas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pala SA, Wani AH, Bhat MY. 2011. Six hitherto unreported Basidiomycetic macrofungi from Kashmir Himalayas. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 92-97. The Kashmir valley located in the north extreme of the India lies between 33020’ and 34054’ N latitude and 730 55’ and 75035’ E longitude. The forests constituting more than 20% of the geographical area harbors diverse macrofungal species due to their wide variability in climate altitude and nature of species constituting them. The mushroom flora of the Kashmir Valley has not been documented completely until now. In this backdrop, a systematic survey for exploration and inventorization of macrofungal species of Western Kashmir Himalaya was undertaken during the year 2009-2010. During the study six species viz. Agrocybe molesta, Coprinus plicatilis, Inonotus hispidus, Paxillus involutus, Psathyrella candolleana and Russula fragilis were identified first time from the Kashmir.

MOHMAD YAQUB BHAT

2011-07-01

83

Satellite Remote Sensing of Snow/Ice Albedo over the Himalayas  

Science.gov (United States)

The Himalayan glaciers and snowpacks play an important role in the hydrological cycle over Asia. The seasonal snow melt from the Himalayan glaciers and snowpacks is one of the key elements to the livelihood of the downstream densely populated regions of South Asia. During the pre-monsoon season (April-May-June), South Asia not only experiences the reversal of the regional meridional tropospheric temperature gradient (i.e., the onset of the summer monsoon), but also is being bombarded by dry westerly airmass that transports mineral dust from various Southwest Asian desert and arid regions into the Indo-Gangetic Plains in northern India. Mixed with heavy anthropogenic pollution, mineral dust constitutes the bulk of regional aerosol loading and forms an extensive and vertically extended brown haze lapping against the southern slopes of the Himalayas. Episodic dust plumes are advected over the Himalayas, and are discernible in satellite imagery, resulting in dust-capped snow surface. Motivated by the potential implications of accelerated snowmelt, we examine the changes in radiative energetics induced by aerosol transport over the Himalayan snow cover by utilizing space borne observations. Our objective lies in the investigation of potential impacts of aerosol solar absorption on the Top-of-Atmosphere (TOA) spectral reflectivity and the broadband albedo, and hence the accelerated snowmelt, particularly in the western Himalayas. Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity (LER) in the visible and near-infrared wavelengths, derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer radiances, is used to generate statistics for determining perturbation caused due to dust layer over snow surface in over ten years of continuous observations. Case studies indicate significant reduction of LER ranging from 5 to 8% in the 412-860nm spectra. Broadband flux observations, from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System, are also used to investigate changes in shortwave TOA flux over dust-laden and dust-free snow covered regions. Additionally, spatio-temporal and intra-seasonal variations of LER, along with snow cover information, are used to characterize the seasonal melt pattern and thus to distinguish the outstanding aerosol-induced snowmelt signal. Results from this observational work are expected to provide better understanding of the radiative impact of aerosols over snow surface, especially its role in the Himalayan hydro-glacialogical variability.

Hsu, N. Christina; Gautam, Ritesh

2012-01-01

84

Altitude-related deaths in seven trekkers in the Himalayas.  

OpenAIRE

The clinical features and necropsy findings are described for seven trekkers in the Himalayas whose deaths were related to high altitude. The fatal outcome was due to serious pulmonary and cerebral disease. Oedema of the lungs and brain was prominent but so was thrombosis and haemorrhage, features of acute mountain sickness that have received insufficient recognition in the past. Most of the men were middle aged. Some began their trekking soon after flying to high altitude before becoming acc...

Dickinson, J.; Heath, D.; Gosney, J.; Williams, D.

1983-01-01

85

Genetic aspects of uranium mineralization in the Himalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Himalayan Uranium Province hosts five major types of uranium mineralization: (1) stratiform remobilized (Proterozoic), (2) structurally controlled hydrothermal (Proterozoic), (3) black shale-phosphorite (Palaeozoic-Mesozoic), (4) sandstone (Siwalik belt, Tertiary), and (5) primary disseminations in granitoids (Tertiary). Evaluation of the genetic aspects of these types has led to the identification of distinct spatial (lithostratigraphic and tectonic units) and temporal relations among them. The sandstone types are confined to the Tertiary (Middle Miocene to Pleistocene) molasse formations found south of th Main Boundary Thrust (MBT). Between the MBT and the Main Central Thrust, in the Lesser Himalaya, mineralization hosted in the Chail quartzite-phyllite ± metabasic sequences is of stratiform remobilized type. The structurally controlled hydrothermal type is confined to Dalings and gneisses. Syngenetic uranium in black shale-phosphorite sequences of Palaeozoic-Mesozoic age is found on the southern fringes of the Lesser Himalaya, bordering the MBT. Disseminated uranium occurs in the Tertiary and Proterozoic(?) granitoids of the Greater Himalaya and Ladakh. Rb-Sr geochronological data on host rocks and U-Pb dates on uraninites from some areas indicate that uranium mineralization in stratiform remobilized and structurally controlled types hosted by the Chails, Dalings and gneisses is essentially Precambrian and thus existed much before the Himalayan Orogeny. The Himuch before the Himalayan Orogeny. The Himalayan Orogeny, however, appears to have aided in further remobilization. The sandstone type mineralization in the Siwalik, on the other hand, is directly related to the process of formation of the foredeep and molasse sedimentation and subsequent uplift and epigenesis of the uranium mineralization, all of which are directly relatable to the evolution of the Himalaya. The relevance of deep seated lineament structures to mineralization, particularly of uranium, needs to be evaluated critically, as most of the uranium mineralization of the Proterozoic occurs in close proximity to the thrust sheets. (author). 36 refs, 8 figs, 3 tabs

86

Diagnostic potentialities of pneumomediastinography and selective phlebography in the evaluation of thymus evolution in myasthenia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Basing on an analysis of X-ray, intraoperative and histological findings in 124 operated on patients (thymectomy) with myasthenia the authors describe potentialities of pneumomediastinography (PMG) (pheumomediastinotomography-PMTG) in the determination of its main variants (hyperplasia, involUtion, tumor). Clear knowledge of the variants of x-ray image of the normal anatomical structures of the anterior mediastinum and age peculiarities of the thymus for correct interpretation of pneumomediastinograms is necessary. The importance of selective phlebography of the thymus for differential diagnosis of thymomas and nodular indurations of the fatty tissue in the anterior mediastinum, thymomas and fatty involution of the thymus, residual thymus and zones of fibrous-adipose tissue in the mediastinum is stressed. Selective phlebography is a simple and safe method that adds to PMG (PMTG) potentialities in the evaluation of thymus evolution in myasthenia

87

Crossmodal effects of Guqin and piano music on selective attention: an event-related potential study.  

Science.gov (United States)

To compare the effects of music from different cultural environments (Guqin: Chinese music; piano: Western music) on crossmodal selective attention, behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) data in a standard two-stimulus visual oddball task were recorded from Chinese subjects in three conditions: silence, Guqin music or piano music background. Visual task data were then compared with auditory task data collected previously. In contrast with the results of the auditory task, the early (N1) and late (P300) stages exhibited no differences between Guqin and piano backgrounds during the visual task. Taking our previous study and this study together, we can conclude that: although the cultural-familiar music influenced selective attention both in the early and late stages, these effects appeared only within a sensory modality (auditory) but not in cross-sensory modalities (visual). Thus, the musical cultural factor is more obvious in intramodal than in crossmodal selective attention. PMID:19766172

Zhu, Weina; Zhang, Junjun; Ding, Xiaojun; Zhou, Changle; Ma, Yuanye; Xu, Dan

2009-11-27

88

Selection of potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria from fermented olives by in vitro tests  

OpenAIRE

The present study aims to evaluate the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from naturally fermented olives and select candidates to be used as probiotic starters for the improvement of the traditional fermentation process and the production of newly added value functional foods. Seventy one (71) lactic acid bacterial strains (17 Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 1 Ln. pseudomesenteroides, 13 Lactobacillus plantarum, 37 Lb. pentosus, 1 Lb. paraplantarum, and 2 Lb. paracasei sub...

Argyri, Anthoula; Zoumpopoulou, Georgia; Karatzas, Kimon Andreas; Tsakalidou, Effie; Nychas, George John; Panagou, Efstathios; Tassou, Chrysoula

2012-01-01

89

EEG Channel Selection Using Particle Swarm Optimization for the Classification of Auditory Event-Related Potentials  

OpenAIRE

Brain-machine interfaces (BMI) rely on the accurate classification of event-related potentials (ERPs) and their performance greatly depends on the appropriate selection of classifier parameters and features from dense-array electroencephalography (EEG) signals. Moreover, in order to achieve a portable and more compact BMI for practical applications, it is also desirable to use a system capable of accurate classification using information from as few EEG channels as possible. In the present wo...

Alejandro Gonzalez; Isao Nambu; Haruhide Hokari; Yasuhiro Wada

2014-01-01

90

Regulation and Regulatory Role of WNT Signaling in Potentiating FSH Action during Bovine Dominant Follicle Selection  

OpenAIRE

Follicular development occurs in wave like patterns in monotocous species such as cattle and humans and is regulated by a complex interaction of gonadotropins with local intrafollicular regulatory molecules. To further elucidate potential mechanisms controlling dominant follicle selection, granulosa cell RNA harvested from F1 (largest) and F2 (second largest) follicles isolated at predeviation (PD) and onset of diameter deviation (OD) stages of the first follicular wave was subjected to preli...

Gupta, P. S. P.; Folger, Joseph K.; Rajput, Sandeep K.; Lv, Lihua; Yao, Jianbo; Ireland, James J.; Smith, George W.

2014-01-01

91

Current response of ion-selective solvent polymeric membranes at controlled potential  

OpenAIRE

From electrochemical measurements at the interface of two immiscible electrolytes, the current at controlled potential is usually a linear function of the ion concentration in the aqueous phase. Surprisingly, a linear relationship between the current and the logarithm of the sample ion activity is found for corresponding measurements on ion-selective electrode membranes. Here, a theoretical explanation for the apparent contradiction between the behavior of the two kinds of system is given. Ex...

Sutter, Jolanda; Morf, Werner E.; Rooij, Nicolaas F.; Pretsch, Erno?

2010-01-01

92

Impact of management scenarios and fishing gear selectivity on the potential economic gains from Namibian hake  

OpenAIRE

This paper develops a model for Namibian hake, which incorporates the biology, gear selectivity and the economies of the hake fisheries in a framework that allows the analysis of fishing gear impacts on the potential economic gains from the resource. The objective is to produce quantitative results on the key variables of the fishery, namely economic rent, standing biomass and catch levels, that will support the optimal sustainable management of one of Namibia's most valuable fishery resource...

Sumaila, Ussif Rashid

1999-01-01

93

Body Wave Crustal Attenuation Characteristics in the Garhwal Himalaya, India  

Science.gov (United States)

We estimate frequency-dependent attenuation of P and S waves in Garhwal Himalaya using the extended coda normalization method for the central frequencies 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 16 Hz, with earthquake hypocentral distance ranging from 27 to 200 km. Forty well-located local earthquake waveforms were used to study the seismic attenuation characteristics of the Garhwal Himalaya, India, as recorded by eight stations operated by Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun, India, from 2007 to 2012. We find frequency-dependent P and S wave quality factors as defined by the relations Q P = 56 ± 8f 0.91±0.002 and Q S = 151 ± 8f 0.84±0.002 by fitting a power-law frequency dependence model for the estimated values over the whole region. Both the Q P and Q S values indicate strong attenuation in the crust of Garhwal Himalaya. The ratio of Q S/Q P > 1 obtained for the entire analyzed frequency range suggests that the scattering loss is due to a random and high degree of heterogeneities in the earth medium, playing an important role in seismic wave attenuation in the Himalayan crust.

Negi, Sanjay S.; Paul, Ajay; Joshi, Anand; Kamal

2014-11-01

94

Radon variation in drinking water with different lithotectonic units of Uttaranchal Himalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The water samples from Kumaun and Garhwal Himalayas were taken from the sources used directly for the drinking purpose. In all 81 measurements of radon (222Rn) in drinking water were made. Some of the values were found higher than the maximum contamination level (MCL) of 11.1 Bq.1-1 set by US environmental radiation protection. The data were collected from different lithotectonic units along and across the various regional thrust planes, faults, shears etc. The observed values were than correlated with the geological formations and structure of the area. An effort was made for the mathematical interrelationship among the mean radon values from different lithological group. This study is also helpful for identifying regions having a strong potential of radon exposure. (author)

95

Natural sources of atmospheric trace elements across the Himalaya and the Tibetan Plateau from a unique set of ice cores: initial results  

Science.gov (United States)

The Himalayan chain and the Tibetan Plateau, sometimes called the Third Pole because of the largest occurrence of ice stored at low latitudes, are remote and pristine areas and therefore constitute an excellent observational point of the Asian atmosphere and have the potential to provide clues about current and past atmospheric contamination at high elevation. However, only limited spatial information is available on the atmospheric trace elements deposition to the Third Pole and these data are not sufficient to provide a balanced assessment of the impact of trace element deposition on such a large region. By using an existing set of unique ice cores retrieved from Guliya (Western Tibetan plateau), Naimona'nyi and Dasuopu (Central Himalaya), Puruogangri and Dunde (Central and Northern Tibetean plateau, respectively), we aim at identifying the sources and distribution of atmospheric trace elements over space and time to the Third Pole glaciers. Twenty trace elements (Ag, Al, As, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sn, Ti, Tl, U, V, and Zn) were preliminarily determined in selected ancient samples from these ice cores by means of our recently acquired inductively-coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometer. Concentrations are very variable from site to site and span a range of more than 6 orders of magnitude, from the sub-ppt up to the ppm level, between the different trace metals. These data allow an initial quantification of trace element deposition and the characterization of their natural background (crustal, evaporitic and volcanic constituents).

Gabrielli, P.; Davis, M. E.; Thompson, L. G.

2011-12-01

96

Mining for diagnostic information in body surface potential maps: A comparison of feature selection techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In body surface potential mapping, increased spatial sampling is used to allow more accurate detection of a cardiac abnormality. Although diagnostically superior to more conventional electrocardiographic techniques, the perceived complexity of the Body Surface Potential Map (BSPM acquisition process has prohibited its acceptance in clinical practice. For this reason there is an interest in striking a compromise between the minimum number of electrocardiographic recording sites required to sample the maximum electrocardiographic information. Methods In the current study, several techniques widely used in the domains of data mining and knowledge discovery have been employed to mine for diagnostic information in 192 lead BSPMs. In particular, the Single Variable Classifier (SVC based filter and Sequential Forward Selection (SFS based wrapper approaches to feature selection have been implemented and evaluated. Using a set of recordings from 116 subjects, the diagnostic ability of subsets of 3, 6, 9, 12, 24 and 32 electrocardiographic recording sites have been evaluated based on their ability to correctly asses the presence or absence of Myocardial Infarction (MI. Results It was observed that the wrapper approach, using sequential forward selection and a 5 nearest neighbour classifier, was capable of choosing a set of 24 recording sites that could correctly classify 82.8% of BSPMs. Although the filter method performed slightly less favourably, the performance was comparable with a classification accuracy of 79.3%. In addition, experiments were conducted to show how (a features chosen using the wrapper approach were specific to the classifier used in the selection model, and (b lead subsets chosen were not necessarily unique. Conclusion It was concluded that both the filter and wrapper approaches adopted were suitable for guiding the choice of recording sites useful for determining the presence of MI. It should be noted however that in this study recording sites have been suggested on their ability to detect disease and such sites may not be optimal for estimating body surface potential distributions.

McCullagh Paul J

2005-09-01

97

Changes in Rongbuk lake and Imja lake in the Everest region of Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

The Himalaya holds the world record in terms of range and elevation. It is one of the most extensively glacierized regions in the world except the Polar Regions. The Himalaya is a region sensitive to climate change. Changes in the glacial regime are indicators of global climate changes. Since the second half of the last century, most Himalayan glaciers have melted due to climate change. These changes directly affected the changes of glacial lakes in the Himalayan region due to the glacier retreat. New glacial lakes are formed, and a number of them have expanded in the Everest region of the Himalayas. This paper focuses on the two glacial lakes which are Imja Lake, located at the southern slope, and Rongbuk Lake, located at the northern slope in the Mt. Everest region, Himalaya to present the spatio-temporal changes from 1976 to 2008. Topographical conditions between two lakes were different (Kruskal-Wallis test, p Everest region of Himalaya in the future.

Chen, W.; Doko, T.; Liu, C.; Ichinose, T.; Fukui, H.; Feng, Q.; Gou, P.

2014-12-01

98

Screening, evaluation and selection ofphosphate-solubilising fungi as potential biofertiliser  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Phosphate-solubilising saprophytic fungi have a potential application in plant nutrition; therefore, the aim of this study was 1) to perform a screening and isolation of native phosphofungi from volcanic soils of southern Chile, 2) to select a liquid medium for the evaluation of these phosphofungi a [...] nd 3) to test a selected phospho fungus as a biofertiliser in a volcanic soil. The phosphofungi were screened using Martin medium (rose bengal-streptomycin agar) with calcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2) or calcium phytate as the phosphorus source. Six promising strains (Penicillium sp., Penicillium albidum, Penicillium thomii, Penicillium restrictum, Penicillium frequentans and Gliocladium roseum) were evaluated in the liquid media of Agnihotri, Asea-Wakelin, Pikovskaya and Nahas. The soluble phosphorus, acid phosphatase activity, pH and fungal biomass were determined. In most soils, the greatest proportion of phosphofungi solubilised organic P. The Asea-Wakelin medium appears to be the medium of choice for the quantitative evaluation of phosphofungi isolated from the volcanic soils tested. Penicillium albidum was selected as a potential biofertiliser due to its capacity to solubilise both inorganic and organic P via its specific solubilising activity (64 mg P/g fungus), phosphatase secretion and enhancement of the growth and mineral nutrition of lettuce plants growing in a volcanic soil.

A, Morales; M, Alvear; E, Valenzuela; C.E, Castillo; F, Borie.

99

Potential assessment of genome-wide association study and genomic selection in Japanese pear Pyrus pyrifolia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the potential of marker-assisted selection (MAS) in fruit tree breeding has been reported, bi-parental QTL mapping before MAS has hindered the introduction of MAS to fruit tree breeding programs. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are an alternative to bi-parental QTL mapping in long-lived perennials. Selection based on genomic predictions of breeding values (genomic selection: GS) is another alternative for MAS. This study examined the potential of GWAS and GS in pear breeding with 76 Japanese pear cultivars to detect significant associations of 162 markers with nine agronomic traits. We applied multilocus Bayesian models accounting for ordinal categorical phenotypes for GWAS and GS model training. Significant associations were detected at harvest time, black spot resistance and the number of spurs and two of the associations were closely linked to known loci. Genome-wide predictions for GS were accurate at the highest level (0.75) in harvest time, at medium levels (0.38-0.61) in resistance to black spot, firmness of flesh, fruit shape in longitudinal section, fruit size, acid content and number of spurs and at low levels (pear. PMID:23641189

Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Hayashi, Takeshi; Terakami, Shingo; Takada, Norio; Sawamura, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Toshiya

2013-03-01

100

A General Definition of the Heritable Variation That Determines the Potential of a Population to Respond to Selection  

OpenAIRE

Genetic selection is a major force shaping life on earth. In classical genetic theory, response to selection is the product of the strength of selection and the additive genetic variance in a trait. The additive genetic variance reflects a population’s intrinsic potential to respond to selection. The ordinary additive genetic variance, however, ignores the social organization of life. With social interactions among individuals, individual trait values may depend on genes in others, a phenom...

Bijma, P.

2011-01-01

101

Acoustic Noise Alters Selective Attention Processes as Indicated by Direct Current (DC Brain Potential Changes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Acoustic environmental noise, even of low to moderate intensity, is known to adversely affect information processing in animals and humans via attention mechanisms. In particular, facilitation and inhibition of information processing are basic functions of selective attention. Such mechanisms can be investigated by analyzing brain potentials under conditions of externally directed attention (intake of environmental information versus internally directed attention (rejection of environmental stimuli and focusing on memory/planning processes. This study investigated brain direct current (DC potential shifts—which are discussed to represent different states of cortical activation—of tasks that require intake and rejection of environmental information under noise. It was hypothesized that without background noise rejection tasks would show more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks and that under noise both kinds of tasks would show positive DC shifts as an expression of cortical inhibition caused by noise. DC potential shifts during intake and rejection tasks were analyzed at 16 standard locations in 45 persons during irrelevant speech or white noise vs. control condition. Without noise, rejection tasks were associated with more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks. During background noise, however, this difference disappeared and both kinds of tasks led to positive DC shifts. Results suggest—besides some limitations—that noise modulates selective attention mechanisms by switching to an environmental information processing and noise rejection mode, which could represent a suggested “attention shift”. Implications for fMRI studies as well as for public health in learning and performance environments including susceptible persons are discussed.

Karin Trimmel

2014-09-01

102

Sophisticated design of PVC membrane ion-selective electrodes based on the mixed potential theory.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mixed potential (MP) theory was successfully utilized to design an ionophore-based polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane K(+) ion-selective electrode (ISE). Prior to the application of the MP theory, the transfer of K(+) and interfering ions (Na(+), Li(+), and H(+)) facilitated by bis(benzo-15-crown-5) (BB15C5) or dibenzo-18-crown-6 (DB18C6) at a micro PVC membrane/water interface was studied by ion-transfer voltammetry (ITV). The reversible half-wave potentials were then obtained for the facilitated transfer of the ions. Using such voltammetric data and the literature data about diffusion coefficients of ions, we could well-predict the potential responses of the BB15C5- or DB18C6-based K(+) ISE, as the function of the concentrations of primary and interfering ions, and also of the counterion for K(+) [e.g., tetrakis(4-chlorophenyl)borate] added to the membrane. Thus, the MP theory has been proven to be useful to optimize the membrane composition for a higher ion selectivity and a lower detection limit. It has also been found that the leaching of ions from an inner solution is too small to affect the detection limit, at least for the designed PVC membrane ISE. PMID:23594104

Imoto, Maya; Sakaki, Toru; Osakai, Toshiyuki

2013-05-01

103

Active prey selection in two pelagic copepods feeding on potentially toxic and non-toxic dinoflagellates  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Grazing on two red tide dinoflagellates, the potentially toxic Karenia mikimotoi and the non-toxic Gyrodinium instriatum, was examined in two species of marine copepods, Pseudocalanus elongatus and Temora longicornis. Both copepods cleared K. mikimotoi at rates that were a little lower but comparable to those at which they cleared the slightly larger G. instriatum when the two dinoflagellates were offered separately. However, when feeding on mixtures of the two prey species, the clearance rates on K. mikimotoi were substantially reduced in both copepods while their clearances of G. instiatum remained unaltered, suggesting active prey selection. Video observations of individual prey capture and feeding events showed prey rejection frequencies (caught and then released cells) that did not differ between mixed and mono-specific diets. This suggests that the selection between prey cells occurs prior to capture and that it is based on remote characterization of the cells.

Schultz, Mette; KiØrboe, Thomas

2009-01-01

104

A New Kinematic Model for the Himalayan Development Based on Along-Strike Variations in Structural Geometry in the NW Indian Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

Models for the development of the Himalayan orogen have focused on cross-sectional reconstructions based on the classic 3-layer division: the low-grade Lesser Himalayan Sequence (LHS) underthrust along the Main Central Thrust (MCT) beneath the high-grade Greater Himalayan Crystallines (GHC) and the low-grade Tethyan Himalayan Sequence (THS) overlie the GHC along the South Tibet Detachment (STD). Past research confirms this 3-layer paradigm throughout the central Himalaya but not across the western Himalaya where the GHC is discontinuously exposed. In the NW Indian Himalaya Late Proterozoic THS rocks can be traced continuously in places from the Indus-Tsangpo Suture in the north southward to the MCT. Our mapping along the uppermost Beas Valley demonstrates that the STD there is a gently north-dipping structure that is overturned to the south and merges with the MCT along a leading-edge branch line. The 3-layer paradigm persists to the north of this branch line, but to the south THS rocks are thrust directly over LHS rocks along the MCT. Current Himalayan models, e.g. wedge extrusion and channel flow, do not conform to this observed geometry. We propose a new kinematic model that includes the GHC as a thrust horse sandwiched between two decollements that merge in their up-dip directions. The dynamic evolution of the Himalaya implied by our model varies dramatically with previous models, which require focused erosion and the gradient of gravitational potential between Tibet and the Indian craton to play significant roles. Our kinematic model implies that the Himalaya grew via standard fold-and-thrust belt kinematics without the need of localized driving phenomena. To illuminate this model, we constructed a balanced cross-section across the NW Indian Himalaya. New analytical data, including U-Pb geochronology of igneous and detrital zircons help constrain the balanced cross-section. The geometry, kinematics, and geochronologic data reveal new correlations across the MCT discontinuity between both Early Proterozoic rocks and Late Proterozoic rocks, thus demonstrating that Himalayan Proterozoic rocks are likely derived from India.

Webb, A. G.; Yin, A.; Harrison, T. M.; Celerier, J.; Burgess, W. P.; Gehrels, G. E.

2006-12-01

105

Altitudinal variation of soil organic carbon stocks in temperate forests of Kashmir Himalayas, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil organic carbon stocks were measured at three depths (0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm) in seven altitudes dominated by different forest types viz. Populus deltoides, 1550-1800 m; Juglans regia, 1800-2000 m; Cedrus deodara, 2050-2300 m; Pinus wallichiana, 2000-2300 m; mixed type, 2200-2400 m; Abies pindrow, 2300-2800 m; and Betula utilis, 2800-3200 m in temperate mountains of Kashmir Himalayas. The mean range of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks varied from 39.07 to 91.39 Mg C ha(-1) in J. regia and B. utilis forests at 0-30 cm depth, respectively. Among the forest types, the lowest mean range of SOC at three depths (0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm) was observed in J. regia (18.55, 11.31, and 8.91 Mg C ha(-1), respectively) forest type, and the highest was observed in B. utilis (54.10, 21.68, and 15.60 Mg C ha(-1), respectively) forest type. SOC stocks showed significantly (R (2)?=?0.67, P?=?0.001) an increasing trend with increase in altitude. On average, the percentages of SOC at 0-10-, 10-20-, and 20-30-cm depths were 53.2, 26.5, and 20.3 %, respectively. Bulk density increased significantly with increase in soil depth and decreased with increase in altitude. Our results suggest that SOC stocks in temperate forests of Kashmir Himalaya vary greatly with forest type and altitude. The present study reveals that SOC stocks increased with increase in altitude at high mountainous regions. Climate change in these high mountainous regions will alter the carbon sequestration potential, which would affect the global carbon cycle. PMID:25619695

Ahmad Dar, Javid; Somaiah, Sundarapandian

2015-02-01

106

Framing hydropower as green energy: assessing drivers, risks and tensions in the Eastern Himalayas  

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Full Text Available The culturally and ecologically diverse region of the Eastern Himalayas is the target of ambitious hydropower development plans. Policy discourses at national and international levels position this development as synergistically positive: it combines the production of clean energy to fuel economic growth at regional and national levels with initiatives to lift poor mountain communities out of poverty. Different from hydropower development in the 20th century in which development agencies and banks were important players, contemporary initiatives importantly rely on the involvement of private actors, with a prominent role of the private finance sector. This implies that hydropower development is not only financially viable but also understood as highly profitable. This paper examines the new development of hydropower in the Eastern Himalaya of Nepal and India. It questions its framing as green energy, interrogates its links with climate change, and examines its potential for investment and capital accumulation. To do this, we also review the evidence on the extent to which its construction and operation may modify existing hydrogeological processes and ecosystems, as well as its impacts on the livelihoods of diverse groups of people that depend on these. The paper concludes that hydropower development in the region is characterised by inherent contentions and uncertainties, refuting the idea that dams constitute development projects whose impacts can be simply predicted, controlled and mitigated. Indeed, in a highly complex geological, ecological, cultural and political context that is widely regarded to be especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change, hydropower as a development strategy makes for a toxic cocktail.

R. Ahlers

2014-11-01

107

Selection of phosphorus solubilizing bacteria with biocontrol potential for growth in phosphorus rich animal bone charcoal  

OpenAIRE

Bacteria with the ability to solubilize phosphorus (P) and to improve plant health were selected and tested for growth and survival in P-rich animal bone charcoal (ABC). ABC is suggested to be suitable as a carrier for biocontrol agents, offering them a protected niche as well as delivering phosphate to plants, meanwhile re-using P from waste of the food chain. Ninety-seven bacterial isolates from different soils were tested for their potential to dissolve P from ABC. Of these isolates, 60% s...

Postma, J.; Nijhuis, E. H.; Sommeus, E.

2010-01-01

108

Characterization of silver nanoparticles in selected consumer products and its relevance for predicting children's potential exposures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to their antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, and antimicrobial properties, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are used in consumer products intended for use by children or in the home. Children may be especially affected by the normal use of consumer products because of their physiological functions, developmental stage, and activities and behaviors. Despite much research to date, children's potential exposures to AgNPs are not well characterized. Our objectives were to characterize selected consumer products containing AgNPs and to use the data to estimate a child's potential non-dietary ingestion exposure. We identified and cataloged 165 consumer products claiming to contain AgNPs that may be used by or near children or found in the home. Nineteen products (textile, liquid, plastic) were selected for further analysis. We developed a tiered analytical approach to determine silver content, form (particulate or ionic), size, morphology, agglomeration state, and composition. Silver was detected in all products except one sippy cup body. Among products in a given category, silver mass contributions were highly variable and not always uniformly distributed within products, highlighting the need to sample multiple areas of a product. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of AgNPs. Using this data, a child's potential non-dietary ingestion exposure to AgNPs when drinking milk formula from a sippy cup is 1.53?g Ag/kg. Additional research is needed to understand the number and types of consumer products containing silver and the concentrations of silver in these products in order to more accurately predict children's potential aggregate and cumulative exposures to AgNPs. PMID:25747543

Tulve, Nicolle S; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Vance, Marina E; Rogers, Kim; Mwilu, Samuel; LeBouf, Ryan F; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Willis, Robert; Thomas, Treye A; Marr, Linsey C

2015-05-01

109

Is rate of glacial retreat accelerated in Indian Himalaya? (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Himalaya has one of the largest concentration of glaciers and rivers like Indus, Ganga and Bramhputra originate from this region. The snow and glacier melt is an important source of water for these rivers. However, this source of water may get affected in the near future due to changes in the cryosphere. Therefore, retreat of Himalayan glaciers are discussed extensively in scientific and public forums in India. Conventionally health of glaciers is assessed using changes in glacial length, as it is widely measured. However changes in glacial length and loss in areal extent near terminus needs to be interpreted carefully, as these changes can be influenced by numerous terrain and climatically sensitive parameters. The terrain parameters which can influence glacial retreat are slope, area altitude distribution, debris cover and orientation. In addition, climatically sensitive parameters like mass balance, glacial lakes and black carbon can also influence glacier retreat. These multiple influences can produce a complex pattern of glacial retreat. In this paper long-term glacier retreat in three river basins in the Indian Himalaya as Tista, Baspa and Parbati will be discussed. These basins are located in different climatically sensitive regions and each basin has unique dominant process of mass wasting. In addition to terrain parameters, influence of process like formation and expansion of moraine dammed lakes in Tista basin, deposition of black carbon on accumulation area in Baspa basin and debris cover in Parbati basin will also be discussed. This will provide understanding on varying influence of different mass wasting processes on glacial retreat during last five decades in the Indian Himalaya.

Kulkarni, A. V.

2013-12-01

110

Selection of Lactobacillus strains from fermented sausages for their potential use as probiotics.  

Science.gov (United States)

A rapid screening method was used to isolate potentially probiotic Lactobacillus strains from fermented sausages after enrichment in MRS broth at pH 2.5 followed by bile salt stressing (1% bile salts w/v). One hundred and fifty acid- and bile-resistant strains were selected, avoiding preliminary and time-consuming isolation steps. Strains were further characterized for survival at pH 2.5 for 3 h in phosphate-buffered saline and for growth in the presence of 0.3% bile salts with and without pre-exposure at low pH. Twenty-eight strains showed a survival >80% at pH 2.5 for 3 h; moreover, most of the strains were able to grow in the presence of 0.3% bile salts. Low pH and bile resistance was shown to be dependent on both the species, identified by phenotypic and molecular methods, and the strain tested. This is the first report on the direct selection of potentially probiotic lactobacilli from dry fermented sausages. Technologically interesting strains may be used in the future as probiotic starter cultures for novel fermented sausage manufacture. PMID:22061328

Pennacchia, C; Ercolini, D; Blaiotta, G; Pepe, O; Mauriello, G; Villani, F

2004-06-01

111

Granulometric selectivity in Liza ramado and potential contamination resulting from heavy metal load in feeding areas  

Science.gov (United States)

The stomach contents of thin-lipped grey mullets Liza ramado were analysed in terms of granulometric composition and compared to the sediment of potential feeding areas in the Tagus estuary. Total organic matter (TOM) content and heavy metal content were determined in the surface sediment of three areas and eight trace elements were quantified: Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn. The three sampled areas did not differ in TOM; and the heavy metal content was below Effects Range-Low level for most elements. The mean observed concentrations were present in the following sequence: Zn > Pb > Cr > Cu ? Ni > Co > Cd > Hg. Stomach contents granulometric composition provided information about the feeding selectivity of the mullets. Sediment fractions with particle size between 20 and 50 ?m are preferred, independently of the fishes' length. Smaller standard length (SL) fishes have a higher positive selection of fine grained sediments than those with a larger SL. Finer fractions usually have higher concentration of heavy metals, which makes younger specimens of the thin-lipped grey mullet potentially more exposed to heavy metal load in the estuary. Metal concentration was not independent from the sampling point, presenting higher values near the margins and the estuary tidal drainage system. This means that during the first period of each tidal cycle, the mullets will feed first on the most contaminated areas, as a consequence of their movement following the rising tide to feed on previously exposed areas.

Pedro, Sílvia; Canastreiro, Vera; Caçador, Isabel; Pereira, Eduarda; Duarte, Armando C.; Raposo de Almeida, Pedro

2008-11-01

112

Hierarchical virtual screening: identification of potential high-affinity and selective ?(3)-adrenergic receptor agonists.  

Science.gov (United States)

The hierarchical virtual screening (HVS) study, consisting of pharmacophore modelling, docking and VS of the generated focussed virtual library, has been carried out to identify novel high-affinity and selective ?(3)-adrenergic receptor (?-AR) agonists. The best pharmacophore model, comprising one H-bond donor, two hydrophobes, one positive ionizable and one negative ionizable feature, was developed based on a training set of 51 ?(3)-AR agonists using the pharmacophore generation protocol implemented in Discovery Studio. The model was further validated with the test set, external set and ability of the pharmacophoric features to complement the active site amino acids of the homology modelled ?(3)-AR developed using MODELLER software. The focussed virtual library was generated using the structure-based insights gained from our earlier reported comprehensive study focussing on the structural basis of ?-AR subtype selectivity of representative agonists and antagonists. The HVS with the sequential use of the best pharmacophore model and homology modelled ?(3)-AR in the screening of the generated focussed library has led to the identification of potential virtual leads as novel high-affinity and selective ?(3)-AR agonists. PMID:22452658

Saxena, A K; Roy, K K

2012-07-01

113

Xanomeline and the antipsychotic potential of muscarinic receptor subtype selective agonists.  

Science.gov (United States)

Binding studies initially suggested that the muscarinic agonist, xanomeline, was a subtype selective muscarinic M(1) receptor agonist, and a potential new treatment for Alzheimer's disease. However, later in vitro and in vivo functional studies suggest that this compound is probably better described as a subtype selective M(1)/M(4) muscarinic receptor agonist. This subtype selectivity profile has been claimed to explain the limited classical cholinomimetic side effects, particularly gastrointestinal, seen with xanomeline in animals. However, in both healthy volunteers and Alzheimer's patients many of these side effects have been reported for xanomeline and in the patient population this led to a >50% discontinuation rate. Clearly, the preclinical studies have not been able to predict this adverse profile of xanomeline, and this suggests that either xanomeline is not as subtype selective as predicted from preclinical research or that there are differences between humans and animals with regard to muscarinic receptors. Nevertheless, in Alzheimer's patients xanomeline dose-dependently improves aspects of behavioral disturbance and social behavior including a reduction in hallucinations, agitation, delusions, vocal outbursts and suspiciousness. The effects on cognition are not as robust and mainly seen at the highest doses tested. These effects in Alzheimer's patients have given impetus to the suggestion that muscarinic agonists have potential antipsychotic effects. The current review assesses the antipsychotic profile of xanomeline within the framework of the limited clinical studies with cholinergic agents in man, and the preclinical research on xanomeline using various models commonly used for the assessment of new antipsychotic drugs. In general, xanomeline has an antipsychotic-like profile in various dopamine models of psychosis and this agrees with the known interactions between the cholinergic and dopaminergic systems in the brain. Moreover, current data suggests that the actions of xanomeline at the M(4) muscarinic receptor subtype might mediate its antidopaminergic effects. Particularly intriguing are studies showing that xanomeline, even after acute administration, selectively inhibits the firing of mesolimbic dopamine cells relative to dopamine cell bodies projecting to the striatum. This data suggest that xanomeline would have a faster onset of action compared to current antipsychotics and would not induce extrapyramidal side effects. The preclinical data on the whole are promising for an antipsychotic-like profile. If in a new formulation (i.e., transdermal) xanomeline has less adverse effects, this drug may be valuable in the treatment of patients with psychosis. PMID:12847557

Mirza, Naheed R; Peters, Dan; Sparks, Robin G

2003-01-01

114

Phenological attributes of Angelica glauca and A. archangelica expressed at two different climatic zones in Western Himalaya  

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Full Text Available Angelica glauca Edgew. and A. archangelica Linn., are high value medicinal and aromatic plants of the Himalaya. The present study examined phenological attributes of these species under cultivation at two different climatic zones in Western Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India. Plants of both species were cultivated in Tungnath (TN, an alpine zone (3600 m asl and in Pothivasa (PV, a temperate zone (2200 m asl. The results showed that the commencement and completion periods of phenophases, viz., growth initiation, vegetative phase, flowering, fruiting and senescence in both species varied greatly between the climatic zones. However, this variation was negligible between the species. It indicates that there is a need to develop location specific strategy for cultivation and management of the selected species. Further, the information will be highly helpful in determining appropriate time of cultivation practices, viz., seed sowing to harvesting of these species. Based on the corresponding life cycle of these species, it was also concluded that both the species can be cultivated in similar climatic conditions. Overall, the study will help in understanding adaptation features and planning strategies for successful cultivation and effective conservation management of these species.

Rajiv K. Vashistha

2010-01-01

115

A likelihood method for computing selection times in spiking and local field potential activity.  

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The timing of neural responses to ongoing behavior is an important measure of the underlying neural processes. Neural processes are distributed across many different brain regions and measures of the timing of neural responses are routinely used to test relationships between different brain regions. Testing detailed models of functional neural circuitry underlying behavior depends on extracting information from single trials. Despite their importance, existing methods for analyzing the timing of information in neural signals on single trials remain limited in their scope and application. We develop a novel method for estimating the timing of information in neural activity that we use to measure selection times, when an observer can reliably use observations of neural activity to select between two descriptions of the activity. The method is designed to satisfy three criteria: selection times should be computed from single trials, they should be computed from both spiking and local field potential (LFP) activity, and they should allow us to make comparisons between different recordings. Our approach characterizes the timing of information in terms of an accumulated log-likelihood ratio (AccLLR), which distinguishes between two alternative hypotheses and uses the AccLLR to estimate the selection time. We develop the AccLLR procedure for binary discrimination using example recordings of spiking and LFP activity in the posterior parietal cortex of a monkey performing a memory-guided saccade task. We propose that the AccLLR method is a general and practical framework for the analysis of signal timing in the nervous system. PMID:20884767

Banerjee, Arpan; Dean, Heather L; Pesaran, Bijan

2010-12-01

116

Implications of recent levelling observations for Tehri and other high dams in the Himalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seismic hazards around the Tehri and other existing and proposed high dams in the Himalaya are a matter of concern to many people. The magnitude and dimensions of the problem appear to increase with every new set of geophysical and geological data gathered from the Himalaya. But the flexibility and readiness of the people involved to improve their designs for the dams transparently in the light of the evolving perceptions about seismic hazards is not evident to us at least. In this article the evidence for an aspect of seismic hazards in the Himalaya is buttressed. (author). 44 refs., 3 figs

117

Tectonic controls of transient landscapes in the Bhutan Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research has identified many landscapes within the Himalaya that are not easily explained by classical critical taper models of orogenic wedges. One of the most striking examples is the sharp physiographic transition between the more subdued landforms of the Lower Himalayan ranges and the Higher Himalayan ranges to the north in Nepal. This transition has been attributed to several potential causes: changes in the rheology of rocks at depth, a ramp in the basal detachment of the orogenic wedge, a blind duplex, or a north-dipping, surface-breaking thrust fault. A similar, but more subdued transition marks the northern margin of perched, low-relief landscape patches found at ca. 3000 m in Bhutan. These low-relief surfaces, characterized by bogs and thick saprolites at the surface, overlie piggyback basins within the evolving orogenic wedge, filled with hundreds of meters of colluvial and alluvial deposits. The southern boundaries of the low-relief surfaces are less regular than the physiographic transition at their northern boundaries. The surfaces occur at similar elevations but are not continuous geographically, having been dissected by a series of river systems draining southward from the crest of the range. Pronounced knickpoints have formed at the southern margins of the low-relief surfaces. Our work suggests that there is a young (Pliocene-Pleistocene) fault system coincident with the physiographic transition in Bhutan. This high-angle, north-dipping structure, the Lhuentse fault, has minor normal-sense offset and could not have been responsible for differential uplift of the rugged terrain (in the hanging wall) relative to the low-relief landscape (in the footwall). The Lhuentse fault is coincident with the back limb of a previously inferred blind duplex at depth, and thus may be associated with active deformation on a rotated horse within the duplex. This duplex may also be responsible for the creation of the low-relief landscapes to the south of the Lhuentse fault due to upstream tilting in the back limb of the antiformal rock uplift pattern. Erosion patterns modeled on the basis of newly acquired 40Ar/39Ar and (U-Th)/He thermochronometric data as well as basin-average erosion rates from detrital cosmogenic nuclide concentrations are consistent with this hypothesis. We used a landscape evolution model (CHILD) to track landscape response to an imposed antiformal rock uplift gradient produced by an active duplex at depth. Rotation associated with the back limb of such a duplex causes aggradation, surface uplift, and headward migration of knickpoints. The wedge of sediment deposited during fluvial aggradation migrates northward beyond the back limb where uplift lessens. At this position in the landscape, a subdued physiographic transition develops in the model, similar to the one observed in Bhutan. Our modeling suggests that the presence and juxtaposition of low-relief landscapes and a physiographic transition, and our observed distribution of erosion rates can be explained by a single, simple mechanism related to the growth of a blind duplex.

Adams, B. A.; Whipple, K. X.; Hodges, K. V.; Van Soest, M. C.; Heimsath, A. M.

2013-12-01

118

A Selective Dopamine Reuptake Inhibitor Improves Prefrontal Cortex-Dependent Cognitive Function: Potential Relevance to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

OpenAIRE

Drugs used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) improve prefrontal cortex (PFC)-dependent cognitive function. The majority of ADHD-related treatments act either as dual norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) reuptake inhibitors (psychostimulants) or selective NE reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). Certain benztropine analogs act as highly selective DA reuptake inhibitors while lacking the reinforcing actions, and thus abuse potential, of psychostimulants. To assess the potential u...

Schmeichel, Brooke E.; Zemlan, Frank P.; Berridge, Craig W.

2012-01-01

119

Spatiotemporal Perturbations of Pore fluid Pressure in Kumaon Himalayas  

Science.gov (United States)

Convergence of Indian and Eurasian Plate induces significant seismic activity in the regions around the plate boundaries and pose a serious seismic risk to population living around Himalayas. As important as this area is; the studies relating to seismic risk evaluation has been limited and severely inadequate. Advent of newer techniques and the seismic deployment done by National Geophysical Research Institute during 2004 and 2008 for collection of high quality data enables us to study the stress and pore fluid pressure state and rate changes in space and time to assess the seismic risk. Many studies have predicated the occurrence of earthquake sequences on overpressurized fluids which lead to the failure of the faults. Knowledge about pore fluid pressure at hypocentral depths can provide critical insights in to risk evaluation as pore fluid pressure and triggering of events are closely related. The methodology of Focal Mechanism Tomography developed by Terakawa Toshiko (2010) enables us to map a three dimensional distribution of pore fluid pressure. The scheme has been shown to exhibit good reliability in previous studies and has been applied to many seismically active regions. We make use of this methodology to study the spatiotemporal changes in pore fluid pressure at hypocentral depths in Kumaon Himalaya region. We analyzed well constrained 785 shallow events (Depthstars) which were analyzed to give focal mechanism for further analysis. The blue triangles represent the stations which were deployed during the period 2004-2008 for collection of this data.

Mannu, U.; Nandan, S.

2012-12-01

120

Soil-gas radon as seismotectonic indicator in Garhwal Himalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research on earthquake-related radon monitoring has received enormous attention recently. Anomalous behaviour of radon in soil and groundwater can be used as a reliable precursor for an impending earthquake. While earthquake prediction may not yet be possible, earthquake prediction research has greatly increased our understanding of earthquake source mechanisms, the structural complexities of fault zones, and the earthquake recurrence interval, expected at a given location. This paper presents some results of continuous monitoring of radon in soil-gas in Garhwal Himalaya, India. Daily soil-gas radon monitoring with seismic activity and meteorological parameters were performed in the same laboratory system, located at H.N.B. Garhwal University Campus, Tehri Garhwal, India. Radon anomalies along with meteorological parameters were found to be statistically significant for the seismic events within the magnitudes M2.0-M6.0 and epicentral distances of 16-250 km from the monitoring station. The frequent positive and negative anomalies with constant environmental perturbation indicate the opening and closing of micro cracks within the volume of dilatancy by strain energy. The spike-like and sharp peak anomalies were recorded before, during and after earthquakes occurred in the area. The variations in radon concentrations in soil-gas are found to be correlated with seismic activities in the Garhwal Himalaya. The correlation between radon level and meteorological parameters iadon level and meteorological parameters is also discussed

121

Soil-gas radon as seismotectonic indicator in Garhwal Himalaya  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research on earthquake-related radon monitoring has received enormous attention recently. Anomalous behaviour of radon in soil and groundwater can be used as a reliable precursor for an impending earthquake. While earthquake prediction may not yet be possible, earthquake prediction research has greatly increased our understanding of earthquake source mechanisms, the structural complexities of fault zones, and the earthquake recurrence interval, expected at a given location. This paper presents some results of continuous monitoring of radon in soil-gas in Garhwal Himalaya, India. Daily soil-gas radon monitoring with seismic activity and meteorological parameters were performed in the same laboratory system, located at H.N.B. Garhwal University Campus, Tehri Garhwal, India. Radon anomalies along with meteorological parameters were found to be statistically significant for the seismic events within the magnitudes M2.0-M6.0 and epicentral distances of 16-250 km from the monitoring station. The frequent positive and negative anomalies with constant environmental perturbation indicate the opening and closing of micro cracks within the volume of dilatancy by strain energy. The spike-like and sharp peak anomalies were recorded before, during and after earthquakes occurred in the area. The variations in radon concentrations in soil-gas are found to be correlated with seismic activities in the Garhwal Himalaya. The correlation between radon level and meteorological parameters is also discussed.

Ramola, R.C. [Department of Physics, H. N. B. Garhwal University, Badshahi Thaul Campus, Tehri Garhwal-249199 (India)], E-mail: rcramola@gmail.com; Prasad, Yogesh; Prasad, Ganesh [Department of Physics, H. N. B. Garhwal University, Badshahi Thaul Campus, Tehri Garhwal-249199 (India); Kumar, Sushil; Choubey, V.M. [Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun-248001 (India)

2008-10-15

122

Seasonal and long-term vertical deformation in the Nepal Himalaya constrained by GPS and GRACE measurements  

Science.gov (United States)

We analyze continuous GPS measurements in Nepal, southern side of the Himalaya, and compare GPS results with GRACE observations in this area. We find both GPS and GRACE show significant seasonal variations. Further comparison indicates that the observed seasonal GPS height variation and GRACE-derived seasonal vertical displacement due to the changing hydrologic load exhibit very consistent results, for both amplitude and phase. For continuous GPS stations whose observation time span are longer than 3 years, the average WRMS reduction is ˜45% when we subtract GRACE-derived vertical displacements from GPS observed time series. The comparison for annual amplitudes between GPS observed and GRACE-derived seasonal displacements also shows consistent correlation. The good seasonal correlation between GPS and GRACE is due to the improved GPS processing strategies and also because of the strong seasonal hydrological variations in Nepal. Besides the seasonal signal, GRACE also indicates a long-term mass loss in the Himalaya region, assuming no GIA effect. This mass loss therefore will lead to crustal uplift since the earth behaves as an elastic body. We model this effect and remove it from GPS observed vertical rates. With a 2D dislocation model, most GPS vertical rates, especially in the central part of Nepal, can be interpreted by interseismic strain from the Main Himalayan Thrust, and several exceptions may indicate the complexity of vertical motion in this region and some potential local effects.

Fu, Yuning; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.

2012-03-01

123

Selective uptake of porphyrins within experimental atheromatous plaques: Potential for laser photodynamic therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors investigated the selective uptake of various porphyrins atheromatous plaques. Grass and microscopic examination of atherosclorotic rabbit aortas under ultraviolet light 48 hours after porphyrin administration disclosed porphyrin fluorescence exclusively on the plaques. As judged from the fluorescence emission, the order of affinity of the porphyrins for plaque is as follows: photofrin II (PF II) > hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) > tetrasulfonatophenyl porphyrin (TPPS) ? hydroxyethylvinyldeuteroporphyrin (HVD), hematoporphyrin (HP). The potential application of intravascular irradiation of plaques labeled with porphyrins in the treatment of atheroma can be investigated using the animal model. Matching the irradiation light wave length to the porphyrin absorption peak allows specific effects to be directed to the plaque without damaging the normal vessel wall

124

ORIGINAL ARTICLE: In-vitro Antioxidant Potential of a Herbal Preparation Containing Four Selected Medicinal Plants  

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Full Text Available Background: The therapeutic effects of several plants used in traditional medicine, are usually attributed to their antioxidant properties. Aim and objective: To evaluate the in-vitro antioxidant potential of herbal preparation a combination of four selected medicinal plants (HP-4 using different experimental models.Material and Methods: Polyphenols, flavonoids and flavonols concentrations and antioxidant activity of herbal preparation (HP-4as compared to butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT and á- tocopherol in various experimental models were evaluated. Results: The antioxidantactivities of HP-4 were concentration dependent in different experimental models and were comparable to activities of BHT anda- tocopherol. Conclusion: Polyherbal formulation of HP-4 is better than individual plant extracts.

Preeti Padmanabhan

2012-07-01

125

Indirect purification method provides high yield and quality ssDNA sublibrary for potential aptamer selection.  

Science.gov (United States)

The quality and yield of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) play key roles in ssDNA aptamer selection. However, current methods for generating and purifying ssDNA provides either low yield due to ssDNA loss during the gel purification process or low specificity due to tertiary structural damage of ssDNA by alkaline or exonuclease treatment in removing dsDNA and by-products. This study developed an indirect purification method that provides a high yield and quality ssDNA sublibrary. Symmetric PCR was applied to generate a sufficient template, while asymmetric PCR using an excessive nonbiotinylated forward primer and an insufficient biotinylated reverse primer combined with a biotin-strepavidin system was applied to eliminate dsDNA, hence, leading to ssDNA purification. However, no alkaline or exonuclease were involved in treating dsDNA, so as to warrant the tertiary structure of ssDNA for potential aptamer SELEX selection. Agarose gel imaging indicated that no dsDNA or by-product contamination was detected in the ssDNA sublibrary generated by the indirect purification method. Purified ssDNA concentration reached 1020±210nM, which was much greater than previous methods. In conclusion, this novel method provided a simple and fast tool for generating and purifying a high yield and quality ssDNA sublibrary. PMID:25747350

Zhang, Yinze; Xu, Hua; Zhou, Huayou; Wu, Fan; Su, Yuqin; Liang, Yanlian; Zhou, Dan

2015-05-01

126

Diffusion in a logarithmic potential: scaling and selection in the approach to equilibrium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The equation which describes a particle diffusing in a logarithmic potential arises in diverse physical problems such as momentum diffusion of atoms in optical traps, condensation processes, and denaturation of DNA molecules. A detailed study of the approach of such systems to equilibrium via a scaling analysis is carried out, revealing three surprising features: (i) the solution is given by two distinct scaling forms, corresponding to a diffusive (x??t) and a subdiffusive (x<selected by the initial condition; and (iii) this dependence on the initial condition manifests a 'phase transition' from a regime in which the scaling solution depends on the initial condition to a regime in which it is independent of it. The selection mechanism which is found has many similarities to the marginal stability mechanism, which has been widely studied in the context of fronts propagating into unstable states. The general scaling forms are presented and their practical and theoretical applications are discussed

127

A Probabilistic Estimate of the Most Perceptible Earthquake Magnitudes in the NW Himalaya and Adjoining Regions  

Science.gov (United States)

NW Himalaya and its neighboring region (25°-40°N and 65°-85°E) is one of the most seismically hazardous regions in the Indian subcontinent, a region that has historically experienced large to great damaging earthquakes. In the present study, the most perceptible earthquake magnitudes, M p, are estimated for intensity I = VII, horizontal peak ground acceleration a = 300 cm/s2 and horizontal peak ground velocity v = 10 cm/s in 28 seismogenic zones using the two earthquake recurrence models of Kijko and Sellevoll (Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 82(1):120-134 1992 ) and Gumbel's third asymptotic distribution of extremes (GIII). Both methods deal with maximum magnitudes. The earthquake perceptibility is calculated by combining earthquake recurrence models with ground motion attenuation relations at a particular level of intensity, acceleration and velocity. The estimated results reveal that the values of M p for velocity v = 10 cm/s show higher estimates than corresponding values for intensity I = VII and acceleration a = 300 cm/s2. It is also observed that differences in perceptible magnitudes calculated by the Kijko-Sellevoll method and GIII statistics show significantly high values, up to 0.7, 0.6 and 1.7 for intensity, acceleration and velocity, respectively, revealing the importance of earthquake recurrence model selection. The estimated most perceptible earthquake magnitudes, M p, in the present study vary from M W 5.1 to 7.7 in the entire zone of the study area. Results of perceptible magnitudes are also represented in the form of spatial maps in 28 seismogenic zones for the aforementioned threshold levels of intensity, acceleration and velocity, estimated from two recurrence models. The spatial maps show that the Quetta of Pakistan, the Hindukush-Pamir Himalaya, the Caucasus mountain belt and the Himalayan frontal thrust belt (Kashmir-Kangra-Uttarkashi-Chamoli regions) exhibit higher values of the most perceptible earthquake magnitudes ( M W > 6.0). These spatially-distributed values indicate good agreement with high seismic hazard zones in previously published hazard maps based on seismicity, maximum expected earthquake magnitudes during specific time intervals and maximum expected acceleration. These maps have useful implications in preparing earthquake selection criteria for the anti-seismic design of non-critical structures in the study region.

Yadav, R. B. S.; Koravos, G. Ch.; Tsapanos, T. M.; Vougiouka, G. E.

2015-02-01

128

Antimicrobial potential of immobilized Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454 against selected bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Immobilization of living cells of lactic acid bacteria could be an alternative or complementary method of immobilizing organic acids and bacteriocins and inhibit undesirable bacteria in foods. This study evaluated the inhibition potential of immobilized Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454 on selected bacteria by a modified method of the agar spot test. L. lactis was immobilized in calcium alginate (1 to 2%)-whey protein concentrate (0 and 1%) beads. The antimicrobial potential of immobilized L. lactis was evaluated in microbiological media against pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Staphylococcus aureus) or Pseudomonas putida, a natural meat contaminant, and against seven gram-positive bacteria used as indicator strains. Results obtained in this study indicated that immobilized L. lactis inhibited the growth of S. aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus sakei, Kocuria varians, and Pediococcus acidilactici. Only 4 h of incubation at 35 degrees C resulted in a clear inhibition zone around the beads that increased with time. With the addition of 10 mM of a chelating agent (EDTA) to the media, results showed growth inhibition of E. coli; however, P. putida and Salmonella Typhi were unaffected by this treatment. These results indicate that immobilized lactic acid bacteria strains can be successfully used to produce nisin and inhibit bacterial growth in semisolid synthetic media. PMID:15222547

Millette, M; Smoragiewicz, W; Lacroix, M

2004-06-01

129

Objective selection of EEG late potentials through residual dependence estimation of independent components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a novel method to objectively select electroencephalographic (EEG) cortical sources estimated by independent component analysis (ICA) in event-related potential (ERP) studies. A proximity measure based on mutual information is employed to estimate residual dependences of the components that are then hierarchically clustered based on these residual dependences. Next, the properties of each group of components are evaluated at each level of the hierarchical tree by two indices that aim to assess both cluster tightness and physiological reliability through a template matching process. These two indices are combined in three different approaches to bring to light the hierarchical structure of the cluster organizations. Our method is tested on a set of experiments with the purpose of enhancing late positive ERPs elicited by emotional picture stimuli. Results suggest that the best way to look for physiologically plausible late positive potential (LPP) sources is to explore in depth the tightness of those clusters that, taken together, best resemble the template. According to our results, after brain sources clustering, LPPs are always identified more accurately than from ensemble-averaged raw data. Since the late components of an ERP involve the same associative areas, regardless of the modality of stimulation or specific tasks administered, the proposed method can be simply adapted to other ERP studies, and extended from psychophysiological studies to pathological or sport training evaluation support

130

Atmospheric transport and accumulation of organochlorine compounds on the southern slopes of the Himalayas, Nepal.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies have been devoted to the transport and accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in mountain environments. The Himalayas have the widest altitude gradient of any mountain range, but few studies examining the environmental behavior of POPs have been performed in the Himalayas. In this study, air, soil, and leaf samples were collected along a transect on the southern slope of the Himalayas, Nepal (altitude: 135-5100 m). Local emission occurred in the lowlands, and POPs were transported by uplift along the slope. During the atmospheric transport, the HCB proportion increased from the lowlands (20%) to high elevation (>50%), whereas the proportions of DDTs decreased. The largest residue of soil POPs appeared at an altitude of approximately 2500 m, and may be related to absorption by vegetation and precipitation. The net deposition tendencies at the air-soil surface indicated that the Himalayas may be a 'sink' for DDTs and PCBs. PMID:24880535

Gong, Ping; Wang, Xiao-ping; Li, Sheng-hai; Yu, Wu-sheng; Li, Jiu-le; Kattel, Dambaru Ballab; Wang, Wei-cai; Devkota, Lochan Prasad; Yao, Tan-dong; Joswiak, Daniel R

2014-09-01

131

Regulation and regulatory role of WNT signaling in potentiating FSH action during bovine dominant follicle selection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Follicular development occurs in wave like patterns in monotocous species such as cattle and humans and is regulated by a complex interaction of gonadotropins with local intrafollicular regulatory molecules. To further elucidate potential mechanisms controlling dominant follicle selection, granulosa cell RNA harvested from F1 (largest) and F2 (second largest) follicles isolated at predeviation (PD) and onset of diameter deviation (OD) stages of the first follicular wave was subjected to preliminary RNA transcriptome analysis. Expression of numerous WNT system components was observed. Hence experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that WNT signaling modulates FSH action on granulosa cells during follicular waves. Abundance of mRNA for WNT pathway members was evaluated in granulosa cells harvested from follicles at emergence (EM), PD, OD and early dominance (ED) stages of the first follicular wave. In F1 follicles, abundance of CTNNB1 and DVL1 mRNAs was higher and AXIN2 mRNA was lower at ED versus EM stages and DVL1 and FZD6 mRNAs were higher and AXIN2 mRNA was lower in F1 versus F2 follicle at the ED stage. Bovine granulosa cells were treated in vitro with increasing doses of the WNT inhibitor IWR-1+/- maximal stimulatory dose of FSH. IWR-1 treatment blocked the FSH-induced increase in granulosa cell numbers and reduced the FSH-induced increase in estradiol. Granulosa cells were also cultured in the presence or absence of FSH +/- IWR-1 and hormonal regulation of mRNA for WNT pathway members and known FSH targets determined. FSH treatment increased CYP19A1, CCND2, CTNNB1, AXIN2 and FZD6 mRNAs and the stimulatory effect on CYP19A1 mRNA was reduced by IWR-1. In contrast, FSH reduced CARTPT mRNA and IWR-1 partially reversed the inhibitory effect of FSH. Results support temporal and hormonal regulation and a potential role for WNT signaling in potentiating FSH action during dominant follicle selection. PMID:24936794

Gupta, P S P; Folger, Joseph K; Rajput, Sandeep K; Lv, Lihua; Yao, Jianbo; Ireland, James J; Smith, George W

2014-01-01

132

Selection of potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria from fermented olives by in vitro tests.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study aims to evaluate the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from naturally fermented olives and select candidates to be used as probiotic starters for the improvement of the traditional fermentation process and the production of newly added value functional foods. Seventy one (71) lactic acid bacterial strains (17 Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 1 Ln. pseudomesenteroides, 13 Lactobacillus plantarum, 37 Lb. pentosus, 1 Lb. paraplantarum, and 2 Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei) isolated from table olives were screened for their probiotic potential. Lb. rhamnosus GG and Lb. casei Shirota were used as reference strains. The in vitro tests included survival in simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions, antimicrobial activity (against Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli O157:H7), Caco-2 surface adhesion, resistance to 9 antibiotics and haemolytic activity. Three (3) Lb. pentosus, 4 Lb. plantarum and 2 Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei strains demonstrated the highest final population (>8 log cfu/ml) after 3 h of exposure at low pH. The majority of the tested strains were resistant to bile salts even after 4 h of exposure, while 5 Lb. plantarum and 7 Lb. pentosus strains exhibited partial bile salt hydrolase activity. None of the strains inhibited the growth of the pathogens tested. Variable efficiency to adhere to Caco-2 cells was observed. This was the same regarding strains' susceptibility towards different antibiotics. None of the strains exhibited ?-haemolytic activity. As a whole, 4 strains of Lb. pentosus, 3 strains of Lb. plantarum and 2 strains of Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei were found to possess desirable in vitro probiotic properties similar to or even better than the reference probiotic strains Lb. casei Shirota and Lb. rhamnosus GG. These strains are good candidates for further investigation both with in vivo studies to elucidate their potential health benefits and in olive fermentation processes to assess their technological performance as novel probiotic starters. PMID:23200662

Argyri, Anthoula A; Zoumpopoulou, Georgia; Karatzas, Kimon-Andreas G; Tsakalidou, Effie; Nychas, George-John E; Panagou, Efstathios Z; Tassou, Chrysoula C

2013-04-01

133

Glacial Lake Expansion in the Central Himalayas by Landsat Images, 1990–2010  

OpenAIRE

Glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) is a serious hazard in high, mountainous regions. In the Himalayas, catastrophic risks of GLOFs have increased in recent years because most Himalayan glaciers have experienced remarkable downwasting under a warming climate. However, current knowledge about the distribution and recent changes in glacial lakes within the central Himalaya mountain range is still limited. Here, we conducted a systematic investigation of the glacial lakes within the entire centra...

Nie, Yong; Liu, Qiao; Liu, Shiyin

2013-01-01

134

Changes in Imja Lake and Karda Lake in the Everest Region of Himalaya  

OpenAIRE

The Himalaya is a region sensitive to climate change. Changes in the glacial regime are one indicator of global climate changes. There are several studies focusing on analysis of temporal changes of these glacial lakes in the Himalaya region. However, the researches on addressing these trends in relation with surrounding topographical conditions are quite limited. In this study, we analyzed spatio-temporal changes in Imja Lake, located on the southern slope, and Karda Lake, located on th...

Wenbo Chen; Tomoko Doko; Hiromichi Fukui; Wanglin Yan

2013-01-01

135

Interaction between glacier and glacial lake in the Bhutan, Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

Recession of mountain glaciers in the Himalayas has been reported in the context of global warming. Associated with the glacier retreat, supraglacial lakes have been formed on the termini of debris-covered glaciers. Although it has been said that lake-terminating glaciers flow faster than land-terminating glaciers, observational evidence was scarce. We observationally investigated the influence of the presence/absence of glacial lakes on changes in surface elevation through glacier dynamics in two debris-covered glaciers, Thorthormi Glacier (land-terminating) and Lugge Glacier (lake-terminating), in the Lunana region, the Bhutan Himalaya. We surveyed the surface elevation of debris-covered areas of the two glaciers in 2004 and 2011 by a differential GPS. Change in surface elevation of the lake-terminating Lugge Glacier was much more negative than that of the land-terminating Thorthormi Glacier. Considering almost flat slope and location at lower elevation, however, larger ice thinning rate of the Thorthormi Glacier should have been expected than the Lugge Glacier. We measured surface flow speed of the two glaciers during 2009-2010 by multitemporal orthorectified The Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM) images of ALOS. Surface flow speed of the Thorthormi Glacier was faster in the upper reaches and reduced toward the downstream. In contrast, the flow speed at the Lugge Glacier measured in the same periods was greatest at the lower most part. Observed spatial distribution of surface flow speed at both glaciers are evaluated by a two-dimensional numerical flow model. The model shows that contribution of basal sliding to surface flow velocity is large in the lower part of both glaciers. Particularly in the Thorthormi Glacier, approximately 100% of surface flow velocity attribute to basal sliding. Calculated emergence velocity at the Thorthormi Glacier is larger than that at the Lugge Glacier. This result suggests that decreasing in flow velocity towards the terminus in the Thorthormi Glacier causes compressive flow and thus counterbalances surface melting, resulting in inhibition of the surface lowering. In contrast, the extensional flow of the Lugge Glacier accelerated the surface lowering. In this study we show the observational evidences, in which the glacier lake formation makes contrast the thinning rates of glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya. If the supraglacial lake on Thorthormi Glacier expands, the surface lowering will be accelerated in the future.

Tsutaki, S.; Fujita, K.; Yamaguchi, S.; Sakai, A.; Nuimura, T.; Sugiyama, S.; Komori, J.; Takenaka, S.; Tshering, P.

2012-12-01

136

Exhumation and extrusion of the Great Himalaya Complex (GHC)  

Science.gov (United States)

The predominant stretching lineation in the Great Himalaya Complex (GHC) trends perpendicular orogen, which has been attributed to southward exhumation of these mid-crustal rocks between the South Tibet Detachment (STD) and Main Central Thrust (MCT) in wedge extrusion (e.g., Burchfiel and Royden, 1985; Grujic et al., 1996) and channel flow models (e.g., Beaumont et al., 2001; Hodges et al., 2001; Grujic et al., 2002), or to emplacement of the GHC between the MCT and STD in tectonic wedging models (Yin, 2006; Webb et al., 2007, 2011a, b). Our new structural and geochronological data from southern Tibet demonstrate widespread lateral flow marked by orogen-parallel stretching lineation in the upper part of the GHC, which corresponds to decoupling between the high-grade GHC rocks and the overlying Tethyan Himalayan Sequence (THS). The kinematic framework reveals a top-to-the-east shear sense in the eastern GHC, both top-to-the-east and top-to-the-west shearing in the central GHC, and a top-to-the-west shear sense in the western GHC during the late Oligocene and Miocene. Geological observations along the Butwal-Pokhara- Jomsom cross section of the Central Nepal-Himalaya indicate that the STD is characterized by small-scale ductile normal shearing at the top part of the GHC and large-scale listric folding structures at the lower part of the Tethys Himalaya unit (TH) composed by Paleozoic- Mesozoic sediments. But the very wide thrusting deformation domain with about 8 km thickness existed in the both sides of the MCT shows possible ductile thrust shearing occurred earlier than We propose that exhumation and extrusion of the GHC probably experienced following complex processes: (1) Early Partial melting occurred at the deep part of the GHC at Eocene; (2) Orogen-parallel gravitational collapse in the late Oligocene and Miocene; (3) Exhumation of the GHC caused by thrusting and extrusion of the GHC between the MCT and STD at Miocene.

Xu, Zhiqin; Wang, Qi; Cao, Hui

2013-04-01

137

Earthquakes of the Nepal Himalaya: Towards a physical model of the seismic cycle  

Science.gov (United States)

Documenting geodetic strain across the Nepal Himalaya with various GPS and leveling data, we show that unlike other subduction zones that exhibit a heterogeneous and patchy coupling pattern along strike, the last hundred kilometers of the Main Himalayan Thrust fault, or MHT, appear to be uniformly locked, devoid of any of the "creeping barriers" that traditionally ward off the propagation of large events. The approximately 20 mm/yr of reckoned convergence across the Himalaya matching previously established estimates of the secular deformation at the front of the arc, the slip accumulated at depth has to somehow elastically propagate all the way to the surface at some point. And yet, neither large events from the past nor currently recorded microseismicity nearly compensate for the massive moment deficit that quietly builds up under the giant mountains. Along with this large unbalanced moment deficit, the uncommonly homogeneous coupling pattern on the MHT raises the question of whether or not the locked portion of the MHT can rupture all at once in a giant earthquake. Univocally answering this question appears contingent on the still elusive estimate of the magnitude of the largest possible earthquake in the Himalaya, and requires tight constraints on local fault properties. What makes the Himalaya enigmatic also makes it the potential source of an incredible wealth of information, and we exploit some of the oddities of Himalayan seismicity in an effort to improve the understanding of earthquake physics and cipher out the properties of the MHT. Thanks to the Himalaya, the Indo-Gangetic plain is deluged each year under a tremendous amount of water during the annual summer monsoon that collects and bears down on the Indian plate enough to pull it away from the Eurasian plate slightly, temporarily relieving a small portion of the stress mounting on the MHT. As the rainwater evaporates in the dry winter season, the plate rebounds and tension is increased back on the fault. Interestingly, the mild waggle of stress induced by the monsoon rains is about the same size as that from solid-Earth tides which gently tug at the planets solid layers, but whereas changes in earthquake frequency correspond with the annually occurring monsoon, there is no such correlation with Earth tides, which oscillate back-and-forth twice a day. We therefore investigate the general response of the creeping and seismogenic parts of MHT to periodic stresses in order to link these observations to physical parameters. First, the response of the creeping part of the MHT is analyzed with a simple spring-and-slider system bearing rate-strengthening rheology, and we show that at the transition with the locked zone, where the friction becomes near velocity neutral, the response of the slip rate may be amplified at some periods, which values are analytically related to the physical parameters of the problem. Such predictions therefore hold the potential of constraining fault properties on the MHT, but still await observational counterparts to be applied, as nothing indicates that the variations of seismicity rate on the locked part of the MHT are the direct expressions of variations of the slip rate on its creeping part, and no variations of the slip rate have been singled out from the GPS measurements to this day. When shifting to the locked seismogenic part of the MHT, spring-and-slider models with rate-weakening rheology are insufficient to explain the contrasted responses of the seismicity to the periodic loads that tides and monsoon both place on the MHT. Instead, we resort to numerical simulations using the Boundary Integral CYCLes of Earthquakes algorithm and examine the response of a 2D finite fault embedded with a rate-weakening patch to harmonic stress perturbations of various periods. We show that such simulations are able to reproduce results consistent with a gradual amplification of sensitivity as the perturbing period get larger, up to a critical period corresponding to the characteristic time of evolution of the seismicity in response t

Ader, Thomas J.

138

Conflicting selection on diaspore traits limits the evolutionary potential of seed dispersal by ants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Conflicts of selection on diaspore traits throughout the dispersal cycle can limit the evolutionary consequences of seed dispersal. However, these conflicts have never been investigated in directed dispersal systems. We explored conflicts of selection through life stages of dispersal in the myrmecochorous herb Helleborus foetidus. Seeds are subject to two contrasting partial selective scenarios. Undispersed seeds are subject to positive directional selection on seed size characters, whereas seeds dispersed are subject to stabilizing selection for size. In both scenarios, seedling establishment determined the magnitude and direction of selection. This does not reflect ant preferences for seed size. However, total selection still depends largely on ant activity, as ants control the relative importance of each selective scenario. We advocate the use of analytical approaches combining multiplicative fitness and microenvironment-specific selection to more realistically estimate the realized selection on traits functional during several life stages. This approach may be extended to any organism dispersing offspring to different environments. PMID:19460082

Manzaneda, Antonio J; Rey, P J; Alcántara, J M

2009-07-01

139

Quantifying sources, transport, deposition and radiative forcing of black carbon over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau  

Science.gov (United States)

Black carbon (BC) particles over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau (HTP), both airborne and those deposited on snow, have been shown to affect snowmelt and glacier retreat. Since BC over the HTP may originate from a variety of geographical regions and emission sectors, it is essential to quantify the source-receptor relationships of BC in order to understand the contributions of natural and anthropogenic emissions and provide guidance for potential mitigation actions. In this study, we use the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) with a newly developed source tagging technique, nudged towards the MERRA meteorological reanalysis, to characterize the fate of BC particles emitted from various geographical regions and sectors. Evaluated against observations over the HTP and surrounding regions, the model simulation shows a good agreement in the seasonal variation of the near-surface airborne BC concentrations, providing confidence to use this modeling framework for characterizing BC source-receptor relationships. Our analysis shows that the relative contributions from different geographical regions and source sectors depend on seasons and the locations in the HTP. The largest contribution to annual mean BC burden and surface deposition in the entire HTP region is from biofuel and biomass (BB) emissions in South Asia, followed by fossil fuel (FF) emissions from South Asia, then FF from East Asia. The same roles hold for all the seasonal means except for the summer when East Asia FF becomes more important. For finer receptor regions of interest, South Asia BB and FF have the largest impact on BC in Himalayas and Central Tibetan Plateau, while East Asia FF and BB contribute the most to Northeast Plateau in all seasons and Southeast Plateau in the summer. Central Asia and Middle East FF emissions have relatively more important contributions to BC reaching Northwest Plateau, especially in the summer. Although local emissions only contribute about 10% to BC in the HTP, this contribution is extremely sensitive to local emission changes. Lastly, we show that the annual mean radiative forcing (0.42 W m-2) due to BC in snow outweighs the BC dimming effect (-0.3 W m-2) at the surface over the HTP. We also find strong seasonal and spatial variation with a peak value of 5 W m-2 in the spring over Northwest Plateau. Such a large forcing of BC in snow is sufficient to cause earlier snow melting and potentially contribute to the acceleration of glacier retreat.

Zhang, R.; Wang, H.; Qian, Y.; Rasch, P. J.; Easter, R. C.; Ma, P.-L.; Singh, B.; Huang, J.; Fu, Q.

2015-01-01

140

Cloud-Aerosol Drivers of Reflective Roof and Solar Power Potential Benefits Across Selected Indian Cities  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of reflective roof surfaces is an adaptive strategy for sustainable warm-climate human environments that can improve human comfort for un-conditioned buildings, energy consumption for conditioned buildings, the urban heat island effect, and potentially net radiation absorbed by the earth. Here, we evaluate the (1) potential radiative benefits of installing cool roofs and (2) incoming surface radiation available for solar power generation across selected Indian cities using a combination of satellite data (MODIS and MERRA) and a radiative transfer model (RRTMG). The radiative transfer model was run multiple times at each time step and location in order to separate the effects of clouds and aerosols on top of the atmosphere outgoing shortwave radiation reflected from roofs and on bottom of the atmosphere incoming shortwave radiation available for solar power generation. Modeled downwelling shortwave radiation at the surface was first validated against measurements obtained from urban rooftops during the 9-month (June, 2011-March, 2012) a joint Indian-US Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) campaign. Results show that model bias at two Indian cities, Nainital (-4.2% average midday bias) and Pantnagar (0.5% average midday bias) was small compared to the radiative benefit obtained from a typical increase in surface reflectance (e.g., 0.3-0.6). Although both cities are located in the northern state of Uttarakhand, differences in terrain type, pollution burdens and cloudiness allow for validation of the model across a wide range of conditions. For example, Nainital is located in complex terrain at an altitude of ~2,000 meters near the Himalayan Mountains while Pantnagar is located in a flat plain at an altitude of ~300 meters. Pantnagar had a larger aerosol burden than Nainital as the average aerosol optical depth at Pantnagar (0.47) was larger than Nainital (0.33). Nainital was cloudier, with clouds observed on 62% of the days during the validation period while clouds were observed in Pantnagar on only 47% of the days. We then extend the model analysis to major Indian cities including New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, and Bangalore. Preliminary results indicate that total (anthropogenic and natural) aerosols reduce the additional top of the atmosphere outgoing radiation from the installation of reflective roofs by an average of 45-110 W m-2 at midday, with the high end of the range set at New Dehli and the low end of the range set at Nainital. Similarly, aerosols reduce total incoming surface radiation by 61-150 W m-2, hence reducing potential solar power generation by up to 25% at some locations depending on the utilization of direct vs. diffuse solar energy. Ongoing analysis will evaluate inter-annual trends and variation in cloud and aerosol effects along with spatial variation across each selected city, and 1st order estimates of the potential improvements to radiative benefit and solar power generation from improvements to air quality. The authors note that the methods employed in this work to estimate radiative benefits from air quality changes assume constant cloud fields and do not account for any aerosol-cloud indirect effects or effects from land-use change (i.e. increased surface albedo from wide-scale adoption of reflective roofs).

Millstein, D.; Fischer, M. L.

2013-12-01

141

Dating of movements along thrusts and faults in the Himalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiometric dating of movements along the MCT (Vaikrita Thrust), two local but deep seated thrust and the Sumdoh Fault Zone bordering the Kinnar Kailas Granite in the Baspa and Satluj valleys, NE Himachal Himalaya, has been attempted for the first time by fission track method. Garnet and apatite fission track ages suggest the age of the latest phase of movements around 14 and 7 m.y. respectively along the MCT and Sumdoh Fault. The vertical uplift rates along them were 1.1mm/year from 14 to 7 m.y. and 0.6 mm/year from 7 m.y. to recent geologic past respectively, as against the value 0.036 mm/year during the period from 210 to 17 m.y. in the undisturbed area. (author)

142

Potential for selection bias with tumor tissue retrieval in molecular epidemiology studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Molecular epidemiological studies of cancer generally require tumor tissue to evaluate somatic genetic alterations. Frequently this requires retrieval of fixed tissue blocks from hospital pathology archives. The availability of this material may be associated with disease severity, diagnostic practices, hospitals, or risk factors for disease. Tumor material is not available when the diagnosis is made clinically without histological confirmation. These characteristics create difficulties in defining the study base population. Incomplete access to tumor tissue has implications for description of the natural history of disease, estimates of the prevalence of mutation in the population, and evaluation of environmental exposures and critical target gene mutations. Differential diagnostic practices by age groups or across hospitals may create a biased population with respect to potential risk factors. However, this will not bias case-case comparisons unless the mutation of interest is associated both with the exposure of interest and the presence of a tumor block. When subjects with less severe disease are more likely to have biopsies, information regarding the natural history of the disease will be obscured. Investigation of the interaction of environmental agents and critical target gene mutations may be limited if, for example, an environmental agent is associated with a more aggressive form of the disease. Using an ongoing pancreatic cancer case-control study as an example, we discuss the potential for bias associated with differential availability of tumor blocks including consideration of tumor, patient, and hospital characteristics. Due to incomplete retrieval of tissue, the determinants of selection should be described in all studies using tumor tissue, and the implications for generalizability, power, and interpretation of findings in population-based studies should be considered. PMID:11750233

Hoppin, Jane A; Tolbert, Paige E; Taylor, Jack A; Schroeder, Jane C; Holly, Elizabeth A

2002-01-01

143

Screening of different Fusarium species to select potential species for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Onze diferentes espécies de Fusarium foram isoladas a partir de vários materiais vegetais infectados e selecionados para escolher uma espécie potencialmente importante para a síntese de nanopartículas de prata. Todos os isolados foram identificados com base nas características de cultivo e microscóp [...] icas usando as chaves de identificação de Fusarium. Para a confirmação e identificação preliminar dos isolados de espécies de Fusarium, a análise BLAST on-line foi utilizada. Das espécies isoladas onze mostraram a capacidade para a síntese de nanopartículas de prata. A síntese de nanopartículas de prata foi confirmada por espectroscopia de UV-Vis que monstrou um pico característico em torno de 420 nm. Além disso, a confirmação da síntese de nanopartículas de prata foi realizada utilizando a análise de rastreamento de nanoparticulas (nanoparticle tracking analysis-NTA), medidas de potencial zeta, espectroscopia de correlação de fótons (PCS), difratometria de raios X de pó (XRD), e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (TEM). As menores nanopartículas de prata foram sintetizadas por F. oxysporum (3-25 nm), enquanto as maiores foram obtidas com F. solani (3-50 nm). Abstract in english Eleven different Fusarium species were isolated from various infected plant materials and screened to select a potential species for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. All the isolates were identified on the basis of cultural and microscopic characteristics using Fusarium identification keys. Fo [...] r the confirmation of preliminary identified isolates of Fusarium species, online BLAST analysis was carried out. All the eleven species demonstrated the ability for synthesis of silver nanoparticles. This was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy, which gave characteristic peak around 420 nm. Further confirmation of silver nanoparticles was carried out using nanoparticles tracking analysis (NTA), zeta potential, photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), powder X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The smallest size of silver nanoparticles was synthesized by F. oxysporum (3-25 nm) and largest size silver nanoparticles were synthesized by F. solani (3-50 nm).

Swapnil C., Gaikwad; Sonal S., Birla; Avinash P., Ingle; Aniket K., Gade; Priscyla D., Marcato; Mahendra, Rai; Nelson, Duran.

1974-19-01

144

Combining thermal data, topography and texture analysis to analyze debris-covered glaciers: a case study from Kangchendzonga area, eastern Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

Accurate delineation of debris-covered glaciers in the Himalaya is needed for estimating rates of glacier area change, mass balance and the contribution of these glaciers to regional hydrology. The delineation of debris-covered glacial remains a challenge in glacier mapping from spaceborne imagery, particularly in optical remote sensing, due to the similarity of the spectral signature of debris-covered ice to surrounding moraines, which makes it difficult to apply standard semi-automated algorithms generally used for clean ice delineation. This paper exploits the potential of visible, infrared and thermal Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) imagery combined with high-resolution Quickbird and Worldview2 imagery for mapping debris cover in the eastern part of the Himalaya. We combine band ratios, thresholds and normalized difference indices with topographic parameters derived from the ASTER digital elevation model in a decision tree algorithm to estimate potentially debris-covered area in the Sikkim Himalaya, with a focus on the Kangchendzonga area. We also evaluate the potential of texture analysis such as statistical techniques and filtering in spatial and frequency domain to characterize debris-covered surfaces and to improve the current classification schemes. Criteria and thresholds for each condition in the decision tree are chosen on the basis of a-priori knowledge extracted from an older topographic map and field observations. The predictive performance of the decision tree algorithm is evaluated using high-resolution Quickbird and Worldview2 data on several debris-covered glacier tongues in the study area. Results of the decision tree algorithm are promising, and show that most glacier tongues can be captures with the use of multi-spectral data combined with topographic variables. Texture analysis shows differences in surface roughness between debris-covered tongues and the surrounding non-ice moraine and clean ice, indicating its potential to improve the decision tree algorithm.

Racoviteanu, A.; Arneaud, Y.; Williams, M.

2012-04-01

145

Brief Communication: Contending estimates of early 21st century glacier mass balance over the Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present glacier thickness changes over the entire Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya arc based on ICESat satellite altimetry data for 2003–2008. The strongest thinning (?1 is observed for the East Nyainqêntanglha Shan. Conversely, glaciers of the West Kunlun Shan are slightly gaining volume, and Pamir and Karakoram seem to be on the western edge of an anomaly rather than its centre. For the Ganges, Indus and Brahmaputra basins, the glacier mass change reaches ?22 ± 3 Gt yr?1, about 10% of the current glacier contribution to sea-level rise. For selected catchments over the study area we estimate glacier imbalance contributions to river runoff from a few percent to far over 10%. We highlight the importance of C-band penetration for studies based on the SRTM elevation model. To the very east and west of our study area, this penetration seems to be of larger magnitude and variability than previously assumed.

A. Kääb

2014-11-01

146

Dispersal syndrome differentiation of Pinus armandii in Southwest China: Key elements of a potential selection mosaic  

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Pinus armandii is a species of pine native to China with a wide geographical distribution and large-wingless seeds (about 300 mg). The study is to determine the variation in seed dispersal traits among populations within a relative small geographic scale and furthermore to explore if the trait differentiation results in the differences in dispersers, in particular nutcrackers ( Nucifraga caryocatactes) and scatter-hoarding rodents. We conducted studies at five sites at different elevations in northwest Yunnan Province. The study sites are separated by 10-200 km and divided into populations partly isolated by mountains and rivers. The cone and seed traits diverged significantly among the five study sites while the traits among individual trees at each site did not differ significantly. Nutcrackers and scatter-hoarding rodents presented conflicting preference in cone and seed traits: nutcrackers preferred smaller cones with smaller seeds, which increased the foraging efficiency of nutcrackers; while scatter-hoarding rodents tended to cache larger seeds. Consistent with variation in preferences by nutcrackers and scatter-hoarding rodents, in nutcracker-dominated sites, pines were characterized by smaller cones, smaller seeds, and thinner seed coats; while in sites where nutcrackers were not abundant, pines had relatively larger cones with larger seeds, which could enhance caching activities by scatter-hoarding rodents. The study provided some key elements for potential selection mosaic on cone and seed traits of a long-lived perennial tree among populations with limited geographical range.

Chen, Fan; Chen, Jin

2011-11-01

147

Indirect ion selective electrode methods potentially overestimate peritoneal dialysate sodium losses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Measurements of dialysate sodium are used to estimate peritoneal dialysis sodium losses and sodium sieving, a measure of hydraulic permeability of the peritoneum. Peritoneal dialysates differ from serum samples in terms of pH, osmolality, protein and glucose concentration. We wished to determine whether these factors affected sodium measurement. Dialysate samples were taken from 52 consecutive peritoneal dialysis patients attending for a standard peritoneal dialysis equilibrium test (PET), 20 with standard lactate dialysate and 32 with neutral pH dialysate and sodium was measured by both flame photometry and indirect ion selective electrode (ISE). Sodium measured by ISE consistently overestimated that measured by flame photometer, mean bias 1.5?mmol/L (95% confidence limits 1.2 to 1.8), P?flame 125.3?±?1.17 vs. 131.6?±?0.39?mmol/L, than standard lactate dialysates ISE 127.4?±?1.05 vs 132.7?±?0.27?mmol/L, P?flame photometry during the PET. Sodium measurements by either method appeared to be affected by hypertonic dialysates, but there were differences with pH. This may potentially lead to errors in both overestimating peritoneal sodium losses and the proportion of patients with ultrafiltration failure due to loss of sodium sieving. PMID:24206257

Persaud, Jahm; Thomas, Michael; Davenport, Andrew

2014-08-01

148

Improvement of selected strains through gamma irradiation for enhanced lipolytic potential  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the present investigation was to enhance the production of industrially important enzyme lipase by subjecting the wild lipase producing fungal strains i.e. Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus microsporus and Penicillium atrovenetum to various doses of gamma irradiation (20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140 and 160 Gy). The isolation and lipolytic activity of selected mutant derived strains is described in this paper. Among all the mutants tested, MBL-5 obtained at 140Gy of Aspergillus niger strain showed highest extracellular lipase activity (13.75 +- 0.15 U mL/sup -1/) while MBL-1 Rhizopus microsporus at the rate 20Gy showed the lowest activity i.e., 1.06 +- 0.11 U mL/sup -1/. A range of pH 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 was used to check the lipolytic potential of various mutants along with their wild type. It was observed that MBL-5 (Aspergillus niger) and MBL-2 (Rhizopus microsporus) showed enhanced extracellular lipase activity at pH 11 while MBL-3 (Penicillium atrovenetum) showed the highest extracellular lipase activity 22.53 +- 0.21 U mL/sup -1/ at pH 9. It indicates a possible role for the MBL-2, MBL-3 and MBL-5 mutant strains in the detergent industry for the development of eco-friendly technologies. (author)

149

Microscopic origin of stereochemically active lone pair formation from orbital selective external potential calculations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nature of the stereochemically active lone pair has long been a matter for debate. Here, by application of our recently developed orbital selective external potential (OSEP) method, we have studied the microscopic mechanism of stereochemically active lone pairs in various compounds. The OSEP method allows us to shift the energy level of a specific atomic orbital, therefore is helpful to identify unambiguously the role of this orbital in the chemical and physical properties of the system we are interested in. Our numerical results, with compelling proofs, demonstrate that the on-site mixing of the cation valence s orbital with the nominally empty p orbitals of the same subshell is crucial to the formation of a lone pair, whereas the anion p orbital has only a small effect. Our detailed investigation of Sn and Pb monochalcogenides shows that structures of these systems have significant effects on lone pairs. In return, the formation of lone pairs, which can be controlled by our OSEP method, could result in structural instabilities of Sn and Pb monochalcogenides. (paper)

150

EEG channel selection using particle swarm optimization for the classification of auditory event-related potentials.  

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Brain-machine interfaces (BMI) rely on the accurate classification of event-related potentials (ERPs) and their performance greatly depends on the appropriate selection of classifier parameters and features from dense-array electroencephalography (EEG) signals. Moreover, in order to achieve a portable and more compact BMI for practical applications, it is also desirable to use a system capable of accurate classification using information from as few EEG channels as possible. In the present work, we propose a method for classifying P300 ERPs using a combination of Fisher Discriminant Analysis (FDA) and a multiobjective hybrid real-binary Particle Swarm Optimization (MHPSO) algorithm. Specifically, the algorithm searches for the set of EEG channels and classifier parameters that simultaneously maximize the classification accuracy and minimize the number of used channels. The performance of the method is assessed through offline analyses on datasets of auditory ERPs from sound discrimination experiments. The proposed method achieved a higher classification accuracy than that achieved by traditional methods while also using fewer channels. It was also found that the number of channels used for classification can be significantly reduced without greatly compromising the classification accuracy. PMID:24982944

Gonzalez, Alejandro; Nambu, Isao; Hokari, Haruhide; Wada, Yasuhiro

2014-01-01

151

Pre-selecting potential sites for a low and intermediate level waste repository in Mexico  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The storage in surface or shallow depths is viable for radioactive waste of low and intermediate level which contains short half life radionuclide that will decay to insignificant radioactive levels in some decades and some long half life radionuclide but at very low concentrations. The site selection process for construction of radioactive waste storage facilities, that presents and adequate stability in long term, and predictable performance in future and the capacity to meet all the operational requirements, is one of the main tasks that challenge the agencies for waste disposition. Different regions of Mexican Republic have been investigated in order to satisfy basic criteria related with some subjects physiographic, geologic, geohydrologic s, tectonics and seismic, as well as other factors as population density. An analysis of the existing information provides reason to expect that the Central region could host a repository for low and intermediate level waste. One of the most promising sites for a surface-type repository is situated in this region. The analysis of the preliminary results from the investigations performed at this site, described in this paper, confirmed its potential suitability: the site has geological and geotechnical features suitable for a repository. (Author)

152

Distribution and Potential Mobility of Selected Heavy Metals in a Fluvial Environment Under the Influence of Tanneries  

OpenAIRE

In this study we evaluated the occurrence of heavy metals in a fluvial environment under the influence of tanneries – the Cadeia and Feitoria rivers basin (RS, south Brazil), highlighting the distribution and potential mobility of the selected elements. Every three months, over one year-period, selected heavy metals and ancillary parameters were analyzed in water and sediment samples taken at ten sites along the rivers. Water analyses followed APHA recommendations, and sediment analyses wer...

Rodrigues M. L. K.; Formoso M. L. L.

2013-01-01

153

A Moho ramp imaged beneath the High Himalaya in Garhwal, India  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study we image the Moho beneath the Himalaya of Garhwal, India (at approximately 79°E) using common conversion point (CCP) stacking of receiver functions (RFs). We calculate RFs using iterative time-domain deconvolution on a catalog of 450 events recorded on a linear array of 21 broadband seismometers operated for 21 months in 2005-2006 by India's National Geophysical Research Institute (NGRI). Our images show a horizontal Moho beneath the Lesser Himalaya and an abrupt increase of ? 5 km in Moho depth beneath the High Himalaya, implying a local dip of 20±5°. A steeply-dipping Moho beneath the High Himalaya has been proposed by some workers on the basis of gravity modeling, and is observed in some seismic images elsewhere in the range, but is not a widely-recognized feature of the Himalaya. Geophysical profiles across the Himalaya are not numerous enough to say whether the steep Moho is a local feature only, or is widespread but has not yet been consistently observed. A steeply-dipping Moho implies a flexure in the downgoing India plate, which we propose may play a role in the formation of the topographic front of the Himalaya. Recent studies have proposed that a ramp in the Main Himalayan Thrust-the basal décollement into which the Himalayan thrust faults root-may focus rock uplift, leading to an abrupt steepening of topography and the observed physiographic transition between the Lesser and Higher Himalaya. The mechanism of rock uplift may be out-of-sequence thrusting on the MCT-I, or stacking of imbricate thrust sheets which form as a result of underplating at the ramp. A flexure of the India plate, implied by the steep Moho dip that we observe, is a likely mechanism for controlling the formation and location of this décollement ramp, and thereby the initiation of high topography. Geophysical profiles across the Himalaya are not yet numerous enough to constrain along-strike variations in this steeply-dipping Moho, so its relationship to the formation of the topographic front of the Himalaya throughout the rest of the range remains a topic for further study.

Caldwell, W. B.; Klemperer, S. L.; Lawrence, J.; Rai, S. S.; Ashish, A.

2011-12-01

154

Selection of Origanum vulgare plants for essential oil, carvacrol, total phenols and antioxidant potential  

OpenAIRE

In the summer of 2005, individual plant selection was performed on different oregano populations started at Applied Plant Research (PPO-WUR) in Lelystad, The Netherlands. Selection was focused on erect growing, healthy, leafy but flowering, productive plants. Samples of these visually selected plants were analyzed for essential oil content and its main components (such as carvacrol). Some of the selected plants were also screened for phenolic components and antioxidant activity. This paper de...

Mheen, H. J. C. J.; Havkin-frenkel, D.; Berg, W.

2010-01-01

155

Large landslides lie low: Vertical domains of denudation processes in the arid Himalaya-Karakoram orogen  

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Large bedrock landslides (defined here as affecting >0.1 km2 in planform area) are thought to substantially contribute to denuding active mountain belts, and limiting the growth of topographic relief produced by concurrent tectonic uplift and fluvial or glacial incision. While most research on large landslides has focused on tectonically active, humid mountain belts with varying degrees of rainstorm and earthquake activity, lesser attention has been devoted to arid mountain belts. Especially in the Himalaya, where high denudation rates are commonly associated with high landslide activity, previous work has largely ignored landslide processes in the arid compartments of the orogen. This was motivation for us to compile a landslide inventory covering the arid Himalaya-Karakoram of NW India and N Pakistan within the Indus catchment. Our data set contains 493 rock-slope failures that we compiled from published studies and mapping from remote sensing imagery. Using an empirical volume-area scaling approach we estimate the total landslide volume at >250 km3. This is more than thousand times the contemporary annual sediment load in the Indus River. We analyse the distribution of these volumetrically significant landslides with respect to the regional hypsometry, contemporary glacier cover, and the distribution of rock glaciers. We find that large bedrock landslides in the arid Himalaya-Karakoram region preferentially detach near or from below the study area's median elevation, while glaciers and rock glaciers occupy higher elevations almost exclusively. This trend holds true for both the study area and parts thereof. The largest and highest-lying landslides occur in the Karakoram mountains, where local relief exceeds 6 km, and >90% of the landslide areas lie below the region's median elevation. Our analysis reveals a hitherto unrecognized vertical layering of denudation processes, with landslides chiefly operating below the median elevation, whereas mass transport by glaciers and rock glaciers dominates higher elevation bands. Given a SE-ward decreasing topographic amplitude and increasing median elevation, bedrock landslides tend to affect higher portions of the landscape, while their vertical drop heights decrease accordingly. We conclude that these vertical domains of denudation processes conflict with the view that large bedrock landslides contribute to limiting relief in active mountain belts, unless (a) more frequent and smaller rock falls take on this role, and/or (b) evidence of large bedrock landslides above the permanent snow line is being censored rapidly. In either case, our data favour a model where large rock-slope failures undermine the lower portions of arid high-relief landscapes near the limits of Pleistocene glaciations, potentially signalling a regional postglacial hillslope adjustment. We thus call for a more detailed and refined view on how large rock-slope failures contribute to shaping arid mountain belts.

Blöthe, Jan Henrik

2014-05-01

156

Looking at the roots of the highest mountains: the lithospheric structure of the Himalaya-Tibet and the Zagros orogens. Results from a geophysical-petrological study  

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The Himalaya-Tibet and Zagros orogens are the two most prominent mountain belts built by continental collision. They are part of a huge belt of Cenozoic age which runs from the Pyrenees to Burma. In its central sector, the collision with the southern margin of the Eurasian plate has resulted not only in the building of mountain ranges over the north-eastern edges of the Arabian and Indian plates but also in widespread deformation 1000-3000 km from the suture zones. Zagros and Himalaya-Tibet orogens share many geodynamic processes but at different rates, amount of convergence and stage of development. The study of their present-day structures provides new insights into their quasi coeval collisional event pointing out differences and similarities in the mountain building processes. We present 2D crust and upper mantle cross-sections down to 400 km depth, along four SW-NE trending profiles. Two profiles cross the Zagros Mountains, running from the Mesopotamian Foreland Basin up to the Alborz and Central Iran. Two other profiles run through the Himalaya-Tibetan orogen: the western transect crosses the western Himalaya, Tarim Basin, Tian Shan Mountains and Junggar Basin; the eastern transect runs from the Indian shield to the Beishan Basin, crossing the eastern Himalaya, Tibetan Plateau, Qaidam Basin and Qilian Mountains. We apply the LitMod-2D code which integrates potential fields (gravity and geoid), isostasy (elevation) and thermal (heat flow and temperature distribution) equations, and mantle petrology. The resulting crust and upper mantle structure is constrained by available data on elevation, Bouguer anomaly, geoid height, surface heat flow and seismic data including P- and S-wave tomography models. Our results show distinct deformation patterns between the crust and the lithospheric mantle beneath the Zagros and Himalaya-Tibetan orogens, indicating a strong strain partitioning in both areas. At crustal level, we found a thickening beneath the Zagros and the Alborz ranges, more pronounced in the southern profile. At sub-crustal level, a lithospheric mantle thinning affects the whole area beneath the Zagros range extending to the north through the zone below the Alborz and the central Iran. In the Himalaya-Tibet region our results show stronger strain partitioning in the horizontal (east-west) direction than in the vertical (depth) direction. At crustal level, the Tibetan Plateau extends more than 1000 km in the eastern profile, whereas it is squeezed between the Himalayan Mountains and the Tarim Basin along the western profile (~600 km). At sub-crustal level, the lithospheric mantle is more homogeneous in thickness and mineral composition along the western profile than the eastern one. Finally, our results on mineral composition show that both collisional regions are characterised by a predominant lherzolitic lithospheric mantle, whereas we observe compositional variations around the suture zones, probably related to subduction and mantle delamination processes.

Tunini, L.; Jimenez-Munt, I.; Fernandez, M.; Villasenor, A.; Afonso, J. C.; Verges, J.

2013-12-01

157

Selected Extracellular microRNA as Potential Biomarkers of Multiple Sclerosis Activity-Preliminary Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Four distinct disease courses are known, although approximately 90 % of patients are diagnosed with the relapsing-remitting form (RRMS). The name "multiple sclerosis" pertains to the underlying pathology: the presence of demyelinating plaques in the CNS, in particular in the periventricular region, corpus callosum, cervical spine, and the cerebellum. There are ongoing efforts to discover biomarkers that would allow for an unequivocal diagnosis, assess the activity of inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes, or warn of disease progression. At present, small noncoding RNA particles-microRNA (miRNA, miR) seem to be particularly noteworthy, as they take part in posttranscriptional regulation of expression of various genes. Changes in composition as well as function of miRNA found in body fluids of MS patients are subjects of research, in the hope they prove accurate markers of MS activity. This preliminary study aims to evaluate the expression of selected extracellular microRNA particles (miRNA-let-7a, miRNA-92a, miRNA-684a) in patients experiencing MS relapse and remission, with healthy volunteers serving as a control group and to evaluate the correlation between miRNA expression and selected clinical parameters of those patients. Thirty-seven patients suffering from MS formed two examined groups: 20 patients undergoing relapse and 17 in remission. Thirty healthy volunteers formed the control group. All patients who were subjects to peripheral blood sampling had been hospitalized in the Department of Neurology and Stroke(1). Four milliliters of venous whole blood had been collected into EDTA tubes. The basis for the selection of the three particular miRNA investigated in this study (miRNA-let-7a, miRNA-92a, miRNA-684a) was a preliminary bioinformatic analysis of data compiled from several medical databases, including Ovid MEDLINE®, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), miRWalk, and miRBase. The isolation of extracellular microRNA from plasma was carried out using miRNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen) reagents. The reverse transcription was carried out with TaqMan® MicroRNA Reverse Transcription Kit (Applied Biosystems), as per manufacturers' instructions. Standard microRNA TaqMan® tests (Applied Biosystems) were used for miRNA quantification. The qPCR were performed on a 7900 HT Fast Real-Time PCR System (Applied Biosystems) and analyzed using Sequence Detection System 2.3 software. In addition, all patients at the Department of Neurology and Stroke undergo a routine complete blood count with differential. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the expression of selected microRNA (has-miR-let-7a, miR-92a, and miR-648a) in the plasma of patients with MS during a relapse as well as in remission and attempt to correlate the acquired data with clinically relevant parameters of the disease. Finding such correlations may potentially lead to the use of miRNA as a biomarker of MS, which could help diagnose the disease and assess its severity and the efficacy of treatment. The difference in the expression of has-miR-let-7a in the remission group and the control group was statistically significant (p?=?0.002). Similarly, the expression of miRNA-648a in patients in remission was significantly different from the expression in the control group (p?=?0.02). Analysis of the correlation between the expression of miRNA-92a and the severity of the disease as measured by the EDSS scale in patients undergoing relapse showed significant negative linear correlation (r?=?-0.54, p?=?0.01). Higher miR-648a expression correlated with more frequent flare-ups in the joint group of patients in remission and relapse (p?=?0.03). This study is one of the few that demonstrate significantly changed expression of selected extracellular miRNA in plasma of MS patients and correlate those findings with clinical parameters. These observations may suggest that some miRNA subsets may be potential biomarkers for

Kacperska, Magdalena Justyna; Jastrzebski, Karol; Tomasik, Bartlomiej; Walenczak, Jakub; Konarska-Krol, Maria; Glabinski, Andrzej

2015-05-01

158

Phenolic content, antioxidant potential and Aedes aegyptii ecological friend larvicidal activity of some selected Egyptian plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyphenols constitute a distinct group of natural compounds of medicinal importance exhibiting wide range of physiological activities as antioxidant, immunestimulant, antitumor and antiparasitic. Yellow fever and dengue fever are mosquito-borne infectious diseases transmitted by Aedes aegyptii, the presence of yellow fever in Sudan and dengue fever in Saudi Arabia are threats to Egypt with the reemerging of Ae. aegyptii in Southern Egypt, larvae control is feasible than flying adults. This work was conducted targeting estimation of the relative levels of total phenolic content, antioxidant potential and larvicidal activity of 110 selected Egyptian plants. The highest total phenolic contents were estimated in aqueous extracts of Coronilla scorpioides L., Forsskaolea tenacissima L., Crataegus sinaica Boiss., Pistacia khinjuk Boiss. and Loranthus acacia Benth.; they were 916.70 +/- 4.80, 813.70 +/- 4.16, 744.90 +/- 4.93, 549.00 +/- 3.93& 460.80 +/- 4.02 mg% while those of methanol extracts were estimated in Coronilla scorpioides, Forsskaolea tenacissima, Crataegus sinaica, Loranthus acacia and Pistacia khinjuk, they were 915.60-4.86, 664.60 +/- 4.16, 659.30 +/- 4.80, 590.80 +/- 4.49 & 588.00 +/- 3.85 mg% respectively. Investigation of the antioxidant potentials revealed that the most potent plants were Co-ronilla scorpioides, Forsskaolea tenacissima, Crataegus sinaica, Pistacia khinjuk and Loranthus acacia with calculated values of 454.80 +/- 4.83, 418.4 +/- 4.16, 399.10 +/- 4.90, 342.5 +/- 2.72 & 239.7 +/- 2.91% for aqueous extracts and 452.9 +/- 4.94, 389.6 +/- 4.6, 378.48 +/- 3.84, 352.3 +/- 3.06 & 346.5 +/- 2.98% for methanol extracts respectively while screening of larvicidal activity proved that Coronilla scorpioides, Forsskaolea tenacissima, Crataegus sinaica, Pistacia khinjuk and Loranthus acacia exhibited highest potency calculated as 22.53 +/- 2.01, 23.85 +/- 2.07, 28.17 +/- 2.06, 31.60 +/- 2.93 & 39.73 +/- 4.58 mg% aqueous extracts and 18.53 +/- 1.95, 18.8 +/- 1.67, 20.17 +/- 1.85, 23.28 +/- 2.7 & 28.48 +/- 3.9 mg% methanol ones respectively. PMID:23697028

El-Hela, Atef A; Abdel-Hady, Nevein M; Dawoud, Gouda T M; Hamed, Abdo M; Morsy, Tosson A

2013-04-01

159

Cluster analysis for identifying sub-groups and selecting potential discriminatory variables in human encephalitis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Encephalitis is an acute clinical syndrome of the central nervous system (CNS, often associated with fatal outcome or permanent damage, including cognitive and behavioural impairment, affective disorders and epileptic seizures. Infection of the central nervous system is considered to be a major cause of encephalitis and more than 100 different pathogens have been recognized as causative agents. However, a large proportion of cases have unknown disease etiology. Methods We perform hierarchical cluster analysis on a multicenter England encephalitis data set with the aim of identifying sub-groups in human encephalitis. We use the simple matching similarity measure which is appropriate for binary data sets and performed variable selection using cluster heatmaps. We also use heatmaps to visually assess underlying patterns in the data, identify the main clinical and laboratory features and identify potential risk factors associated with encephalitis. Results Our results identified fever, personality and behavioural change, headache and lethargy as the main characteristics of encephalitis. Diagnostic variables such as brain scan and measurements from cerebrospinal fluids are also identified as main indicators of encephalitis. Our analysis revealed six major clusters in the England encephalitis data set. However, marked within-cluster heterogeneity is observed in some of the big clusters indicating possible sub-groups. Overall, the results show that patients are clustered according to symptom and diagnostic variables rather than causal agents. Exposure variables such as recent infection, sick person contact and animal contact have been identified as potential risk factors. Conclusions It is in general assumed and is a common practice to group encephalitis cases according to disease etiology. However, our results indicate that patients are clustered with respect to mainly symptom and diagnostic variables rather than causal agents. These similarities and/or differences with respect to symptom and diagnostic measurements might be attributed to host factors. The idea that characteristics of the host may be more important than the pathogen is also consistent with the observation that for some causes, such as herpes simplex virus (HSV, encephalitis is a rare outcome of a common infection.

Crowcroft Natasha S

2010-12-01

160

Environmental impact assessment of mountain tourism in developing regions: A study in Ladakh, Indian Himalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mountain tourism in developing countries is becoming a growing environmental concern due to extreme seasonality, lack of suitable infrastructures and planning, and interference with fragile ecosystems and protected areas. This paper presents a study devoted to assess the adverse environmental impacts of tourism, and in particular of trekking-related activities, in Ladakh, Indian Himalaya. The proposed approach is based on the use of Geographical Information System (GIS) modeling and remote sensing imageries to cope with the lack of data that affect the region. First, stressors associated with trekking, and environmental receptors potentially affected were identified. Subsequently, a baseline study on stressors (trail use, waste dumping, camping, pack animal grazing and off-road driving) and receptors (soil, water, wildlife, vegetation) was conducted through field work, data collection, and data processing supported by GIS. Finally, impacts were modeled by considering the intensity of the stressors, and the vulnerability and the value of the receptors. The results were spatially aggregated into watershed units, and combined to generate composite impact maps. The study concluded that the most affected watersheds are located in the central and southeastern part of Ladakh, along some of the most visited trails and within the Hemis and the Tsokar Tsomoriri National parks. The main objective of the study was to understand patterns of tourism-induced environmental degradatiof tourism-induced environmental degradation, so as to support mitigation interventions, as well as the development of suitable tourism policies.

161

Canola Cake as a Potential Substrate for Proteolytic Enzymes Production by a Selected Strain of Aspergillus oryzae: Selection of Process Conditions and Product Characterization  

OpenAIRE

Oil cakes have excellent nutritional value and offer considerable potential for use in biotechnological processes that employ solid-state fermentation (SSF) for the production of high value products. This work evaluates the feasibility of using canola cake as a substrate for protease production by a selected strain of Aspergillus oryzae cultivated under SSF. The influences of the following process parameters were considered: initial substrate moisture content, incubation temperature, inoculum...

Freitas, Adriana C.; Castro, Ruann J. S.; Fontenele, Maria A.; Egito, Antonio S.; Farinas, Cristiane S.; Pinto, Gustavo A. S.

2013-01-01

162

Selective isolation and differentiation of a stromal population of human embryonic stem cells with osteogenic potential  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The derivation of osteogenic cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) has been hampered by the absence of easy and reproducible protocols. hESC grown in feeder-free conditions, often show a sub population of fibroblast-like, stromal cells growing between the colonies. Thus, we examined the possibility that these cells represent a population of stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells (hESC-stromal). Two in house derived hES cell lines (Odense3 and KMEB3) as well as an externally derived cell line (Hues8) were transitioned to feeder-free conditions. A sub population of fibroblast-like cells established between the hESC colonies were isolated by selective adherence to hyaluronic acid-coated plates (100?g/ml) and were characterized using a combination of FACS analysis and staining. The cells were CD44(+), CD29(+), CD73(+), CD166(+), CD146(+), and CD105(+); and, Oct4(-), CD34(-), CD45(-) and CXCR4(-). When cultured in osteogenic differentiation media, up regulation of osteoblastic lineage markers (DLX5, MSX2, RUNX2, SPARC, ALP, COL1a1, BGLAP, IBSP, DCN, LOX-L4) and production of in vitro mineralized matrix was detected. hESC-stromal cells loaded on a carrier and implanted either subcutaneously or in a critical size calvarial defect in immune deficient mice for 10weeks, resulted in new bone formation and partial repair of the calvarial defect. In conclusion, hESC-stromal can be isolated from hESC cultures and represent a good source for obtaining cells with osteogenic differentiation potential suitable for regenerative medicine protocols.

Harkness, Linda M; Mahmood, Amer

2011-01-01

163

Carbon allocation, sequestration and carbon dioxide mitigation under plantation forests of north western Himalaya, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The organic carbon and soils of the world comprise bulk of the terrestrial carbon and serve as a major sink and source of atmospheric carbon. Increasing atmospheric concentrations of green house gases may be mitigated by increasing carbon sequestration in vegetation and soil. The study attempted to estimate biomass production and carbon sequestration potential of different plantation ecosystems in north western Himalaya, India. Biomass, carbon density of biomass, soil, detritus, carbon sequestration and CO2 mitigation potential were studied under different plantation forest ecosystems comprising of eight different tree species: Quercus leucotrichophora, Pinus roxburghii, Acacia catechu, Acacia mollissima, Albizia procera, Alnusnitida, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Ulmus villosa. Above (185.57±48.99tha-1 and below ground (42.47±10.38 tha-1 biomass was maximum in Ulmus villosa. The vegetation carbon density was maxium in Albizia procera(118.37±1.49 tha-1 and minimum (36.50±9.87 tha-1 in Acacia catechu. Soil carbon density was maximum (219.86±10.34 tha-1 in Alnus nitida, and minimum (170.83±20.60 tha-1 in Pinus roxburghii. Detritus was higher in Pinus roxburghii (6.79±2.0 tha-1. Carbon sequestration (7.91±3.4 tha-1 and CO2 mitigation potential (29.09±12.78 tha-1 was maximum in Ulmus villosa. Pearson correlation matrix revealed significant positive relationship of ecosystem carbon with plantation biomass, soil carbon and CO2 mitigation potential. With the emerging threat of climate change, such assessment of forest and soil carbon inventory would allow to devise best land management and policy decisions for sustainable management of fragile hilly ecosystem.

Bandana Devi

2013-05-01

164

The ?1- and ?2-adrenoceptor selectivity of drugs with potential effects on blood pressure - a radioligand-binding study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In screening compounds with potential antihypertensive properties, the determination of their relative selectivities for ?1- and ?2-adrenoceptors is important not only for the elucidation of their mechanisms of action but also, possibly, for the assessment of their potential side-effects. The relative selectivity of a number of drugs for ?1- and ?2-adrenoceptors was determined by means of radioligand-binding studies. The ?-adrenoceptor antagonists prazosin and indoramin display selectivities for ?1-adrenoceptors of about factors 1 000 and 4 000 respectively. The ?-adrenoceptor agonists clonidine and 2-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenylimino)-imidazoline (DPI) display selectivities for ?2-adrenoceptors of about factors 200 and 300 respectively. The ?-adrenoceptor antagonist mianserin displays approximately equal, albeit relatively low, affinities for ?1- and ?2-adrenoceptors. In view of the distribution of ?1- and ?2-adrenoceptors in vascular smooth muscle and in the reflex arcs controllig blood pressure, the low incidence of reflex tachycardia associated with the use of prazosin and indoramin can be explained on the basis of their ?1-adrenoceptor selectivity. Similarly, the hypertensive crisis which may follow the withdrawal of clonidine can be explained on the basis of a selective ?2-adrenoceptor agonistic action. The finding that miantion. The finding that mianserin has such low affinities for both ?1- and ?2-adrenoceptors may explain why, at therapeutically effective antidepressant dosages, it is usually devoid of adverse haemodynamic effects

165

Plant operator selection system for evaluating employment candidates' potential for success in electric power plant operations positions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Plant Operator Selection System is a battery of tests and questionnaires that can be administered to job candidates in less than three hours. Various components of the battery measure what a job candidate has accomplished in previous educational and work situations, how well a candidate compares with others on a number of important aptitudes or abilities, and whether or not a candidate possesses the kind of personal stability required in power plant operations positions. A job candidate's answers to the tests and questionnaires of the Plant Operator Selection System are scored and converted to an OVERALL POTENTIAL INDEX. Values of the OVERALL POTENTIAL INDEX [OPI] range between 0 and 15. Candidates with high OPI values are much more likely to become effective and successful plant operators than candidates with low OPI values. It is possible to estimate the financial advantages to a company of using the Plant Operator Selection System in evaluating candidates for plant operations jobs

166

Precipitation and snow cover in the Himalaya: from reanalysis to regional climate simulations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We applied a Regional Climate Model (RCM to simulate precipitation and snow cover over the Himalaya, between March 2000 and December 2002. Due to its higher resolution, our model simulates a more realistic spatial variability of wind and precipitation than those of the reanalysis of the European Centre of Medium range Weather Forecast (ECMWF used as lateral boundaries. In this region, we found very large discrepancies between the estimations of precipitation provided by reanalysis, rain gauges networks, satellite observations, and our RCM simulation. Our model clearly underestimates precipitation at the foothills of the Himalaya and in its eastern part. However, our simulation provides a first estimation of liquid and solid precipitation in high altitude areas, where satellite and rain gauge networks are not very reliable. During the two years of simulation, our model resembles the snow cover extent and duration quite accurately in these areas. Both snow accumulation and snow cover duration differ widely along the Himalaya: snowfall can occur during the whole year in western Himalaya, due to both summer monsoon and mid-latitude low pressure systems bringing moisture into this region. In Central Himalaya and on the Tibetan Plateau, a much more marked dry season occurs from October to March. Snow cover does not have a pronounced seasonal cycle in these regions, since it depends both on the quite variable duration of the monsoon and on the rare but possible occurrence of snowfall during the extra-monsoon period.

M. Ménégoz

2013-10-01

167

Depositional environment and provenance of Middle Siwalik sediments in Tista valley, Darjiling District, Eastern Himalaya, India  

Science.gov (United States)

The frontal part of the active, wedge-shaped Indo-Eurasian collision boundary is defined by the Himalayan fold-and-thrust belt whose foreland basin accumulated sediments that eventually became part of the thrust belt and is presently exposed as the sedimentary rocks of the Siwalik Group. The rocks of the Siwalik Group have been extensively studied in the western and Nepal Himalaya and have been divided into the Lower, Middle and Upper Subgroups. In the Darjiling-Sikkim Himalaya, the Upper Siwalik sequence is not exposed and the Middle Siwalik Subgroup exposed in the Tista river valley of Darjiling Himalaya preserves a ~325 m thick sequence of sandstone, conglomerate and shale. The Middle Siwalik section has been repeated by a number of north dipping thrusts. The sedimentary facies and facies associations within the lithostratigraphic column of the Middle Siwalik rocks show temporal repetition of sedimentary facies associations suggesting oscillation between proximal-, mid- and distal fan setups within a palaeo-alluvial fan depositional environment similar to the depositional setup of the Siwalik sediments in other parts of the Himalaya. These oscillations are probably due to a combination of foreland-ward movement of Himalayan thrusts, climatic variations and mountain-ward shift of fan-apex due to erosion. The Middle Siwalik sediments were derived from Higher- and Lesser Himalayan rocks. Mineral characteristics and modal analysis suggest that sedimentation occurred in humid climatic conditions similar to the moist humid climate of the present day Eastern Himalaya.

Kundu, Abhik; Matin, Abdul; Mukul, Malay

2012-02-01

168

Penalized regression procedures for variable selection in the potential outcomes framework.  

Science.gov (United States)

A recent topic of much interest in causal inference is model selection. In this article, we describe a framework in which to consider penalized regression approaches to variable selection for causal effects. The framework leads to a simple 'impute, then select' class of procedures that is agnostic to the type of imputation algorithm as well as penalized regression used. It also clarifies how model selection involves a multivariate regression model for causal inference problems and that these methods can be applied for identifying subgroups in which treatment effects are homogeneous. Analogies and links with the literature on machine learning methods, missing data, and imputation are drawn. A difference least absolute shrinkage and selection operator algorithm is defined, along with its multiple imputation analogs. The procedures are illustrated using a well-known right-heart catheterization dataset. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25628185

Ghosh, Debashis; Zhu, Yeying; Coffman, Donna L

2015-05-10

169

GIS development to monitor climate change and its geohydrological consequences on non-monsoon crop pattern in Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

The main objective of the study was to assess climate change and its geohydrological impacts on non-monsoon crop pattern at watershed level through GIS development on climate informatics, land use informatics, hydro-informatics and agro-informatics. The Dabka watershed constitutes a part of the Kosi Basin in densely populated Lesser Himalaya, India in district Nainital has been selected for the case illustration. This reconnaissance study analyzed the climatic database for last three decades (1982-2012) and estimates that the average temperature and evaporation loss have been rising with the rate of 0.07 °C/yr and 4.03 mm/yr respectively whereas the average rainfall has been decreasing with the rate of 0.60 mm/yr. These rates of climate change increasing with mounting elevations. Consequently the existing microclimatic zones (sub-tropical, temperate and moist temperate) shifting towards higher altitudes and affecting the favorable conditions of the land use pattern and decreased the eco-friendly forest and vegetation cover. The land use degradation and high rate of deforestation (0.22 km2 or 1.5%/yr) leads to accelerate several hydrological problems during non-monsoon period (i.e. decreasing infiltration capacity of land surface, declining underground water level, drying up natural perennial springs and streams, decreasing irrigation water availability etc.). In order to that the non-monsoon crops yield has been decreasing with the rate of 0.60% each year as the results suggest that the average crop yield is just about 58 q/ha whereas twenty five to thirty year back it was recorded about 66 q/ha which is about 12% higher (8 q/ha) than existing yield. On the other hand the population increasing with the growth rate of 2% each year. Therefore, decreasing crop yield and increasing population raised food deficiency problem and the people adopting other occupations which ultimately affecting rural livelihood of the Himalaya.

Rawat, Pradeep K.

2014-09-01

170

Alteraciones musculares en montañistas que ascendieron a Los Himalayas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available El ascenso a los Montes Himalayas de un grupo de escaladores venezolanos permitió la obtención de muestras de músculo esquelético dos meses antes y un mes después de la expedición, con el objeto de estudiar los cambios producidos por la altura. Se tomó biopsia del músculo quadriceps femoris con la a [...] guja de Bergström en 5 sujetos dos meses antes, y en 4 sujetos un mes después de realizada la expedición. Las muestras fueron procesadas para estudio histoquímico con el objeto de clasificar los tipos de fibras musculares mediante la reacción de la adenosina trifosfatasa miofibrilar; los capilares se evidenciaron con la reacción de la a-amilasa-PAS. Además se estudió la ultraestructura con microscopía electrónica de transmisión. Se encontró que los sujetos cuyo músculo estaba en mejores condiciones alcanzaron la meta de 7.100 metros de altura. Estos sujetos presentaron posteriormente daño muscular segmentario marcado, en forma de atrofia muscular, daño capilar e infiltración de macrófagos. No hubo modificación en la proporción de los tipos de fibras. Se concluye que la actuación depende del estado previo del músculo y que la hipoxia, el esfuerzo muscular y el frío combinados, producen lesiones musculares segmentarias que persisten al menos por un mes. Abstract in english Skeletal muscle needle biopsies were obtained from quadriceps femoris muscle in five venezuelan climbers, two months before, and in four of the subjects, one month after an expedition to the Himalayas Mountains. In the samples, fibre types were determined by the miofibrillar adenosin triphosphatase [...] reaction, and capillaries were stained with the a-amylase-PAS reaction. Part of each sample was processed for ultrastructural study. The climbers performance was related to the previous state of the muscle. The three subjects that reached the goal of 7100 m altitude were those with normal of slightly altered muscles in the biopsy before the expedition. One month after the descent, muscle showed segmental alterations manifested as atrophy, capillary damage and infiltration of macrophages. No change was found in muscle fibre proportions. It is concluded that performance of the climbers depends on the previous state of skeletal muscle, and that the combined effect of altitude, exercise and cold produced segmental damage in skeletal muscle.

SH, Torres; HJ, Finol; A, Brito; H, Rivera.

2002-01-01

171

Determination of heavy metal pollution in soils from selected potentially contaminated sites in Tema  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the study was to assess the concentration and determine the level of pollution by harmful heavy metals in soils from selected potentially contaminated sites in Tema. The metals of interest include; mercury, lead, cadmium, cobalt zinc, arsenic, nickel, copper and chromium. A total of forty seven (47) samples comprising thirty eight sub-samples (38) and nine (9) composite samples were collected from nine (9) different locations. These included playgrounds, steel processing factories, used Lead Acid Battery (ULAB) recycling plant, mechanic workshops and the municipal waste disposal site. The samples were prepared after which the elemental concentrations were determined using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) with a secondary target excitation arrangement (5.9 keV). The analysis of the samples yielded the following mean heavy metal concentrations in mg/kg: 424.38 (Cr); 408.68 (Ni); 14427 (Cu); 4129.87 (Zn); 1580.68 (As); 647.48 (Hg); 73361.51 (Pb) and 1176.16 (Co). The mean concentrations of heavy metals in the soils were in the following order Pb>Zn>As>Co>Cu>Hg>Cr>Ni. Mercury was detected at only two of the sites. The average heavy metals in the soils from the sites were generally high since most of them exceeded the optimum and action values of the New Dutch List. The Enrichment Factor (EF) ratios show that the enrichment of the elements in the soils ranged from deficiently to extremely highly enriched. The contamination factor show that the d. The contamination factor show that the contamination by the heavy metals were low at some of the sites and very high at others. The geoaccumulation indices indicated that the playground (PG) has not been contaminated by any of the metals, C8 is contaminated strongly by mercury only and the contamination at the remaining sites varied from moderately contaminated to extremely contaminated by the metals. The Igeo also indicated that the elements accounting for extreme contamination are lead, arsenic, copper, zinc mercury and chromium. Lead accounted for the most contamination. The Pollution Load Index (PLI) rated Gravita as the mot contaminated of the sites and the Play ground the least contaminated. The pollution load indices indicated that two (2) out of the nine sites in the study were uncontaminated by the heavy metals (PLISS>WD>AFL>TS>L19>C8>PG. (au)

172

Effects of selected pharmacological agents on avian auditory and vestibular compound action potentials.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glutamate is currently the consensus candidate for the hair cell transmitter in the inner ear of vertebrates. However, other candidate transmitter systems have been proposed and there may be differences in this regard for auditory and vestibular neuroepithelia. In the present study, perilymphatic perfusion was used to deliver prescribed concentrations of ten drugs to the interstitial fluids of the inner ear of hatchling chickens (n = 124). Dose-response curves were obtained for four of these pharmacological agents. The work was carried out in part to distinguish further the neuroepithelial chemical receptors mediating auditory and vestibular compound action potentials (CAPs). Kainic acid (KA) eliminated both auditory and vestibular responses. D-alpha-Aminoadipic acid (DAA) and dizocilpine maleate (MK-801), both NMDA-specific antagonists, failed to alter vestibular CAPs at any concentration. MK-801 significantly and selectively reduced auditory CAPs at concentrations equal to or greater than 1 mM. Similarly, kynurenic acid (4-hydroxyquinoline-2-carboxylic acid, 1 mM), a glutamate antagonist, significantly reduced auditory but not vestibular CAPs. A non-NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist, 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX), reduced vestibular CAPs significantly but only at the highest concentration tested (1 mM). In contrast, CNQX reduced auditory responses at concentration as low as 1 microM. The CNQX concentration effective in reducing auditory CAPs by 50% (EC(50)) was approximately 20 microM. Glutamate (1 mM) as well as alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA), a glutamate agonist, significantly reduced auditory CAPs (AMPA EC(50)=100 microM). Bicuculline, a GABA(A) receptor antagonist, and L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, failed to alter responses from either modality. These findings support the hypothesis that glutamate receptors mediate auditory CAPs in birds. However, the results underscore a remarkable difference in sensitivity of the vestibular neuroepithelium (here gravity receptors) to non-NMDA receptor antagonists. The basis of the vestibular insensitivity to glutamate blockers is unknown but it may reflect differences in receptors themselves, differences in the transmission modes available to vestibular synapses or differences in the access of compounds to vestibular neuroepithelial receptors from the interstitial-perilymphatic fluid spaces. PMID:15350279

Irons-Brown, Shunda R; Jones, Timothy A

2004-09-01

173

Impact of Climate Change on Glacier Health and Water Resources in the Indus Watershed, NW Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

The Indus River is the 21st largest river in the world, with a mean discharge of ~5.5 m3/s. More than 178 million people rely on the water provided by the Indus River for agriculture, industrial development and hydropower generation. Much of the discharge of the Indus comes from seasonal melt from the more than 2600 glaciers of the northwestern Himalayas. These glaciers are quite sensitive to shifting climate, and increasing regional temperature and changing precipitation patterns have the potential to alter glacial melt runoff rates dramatically, particularly in the monsoon-influenced valleys on the southern side of the range. We have calculated current glacial-melt contributions to the Indus River remotely using glacier size, the distribution of glaciers in the watershed, reanalysis climate output and empirical ablation rates. Preliminary calculations indicate glacial-melt accounts for ~40% of annual river discharge, and up to 70% of summer runoff. Understanding the impact of regional climate change on the mass balance of glaciers in the Indus watershed is essential. Any small shifts in regional climate could significantly affect the mass budget of these glaciers, and in turn the amount of discharge in the Indus River, as well as its tributaries. The distribution of these glaciers in relation to the major pathways of moisture delivery during the summer monsoon also suggests potentially very different responses to future climate change. Using similar calculation methods in conjunction with field measurements and future temperature and precipitation projections in the region, we are determining the potential change in discharge of the Indus River over time, and helping to quantify the significance of glacier health and glacier melt on regional water resources both today and in the future.

Asay, M.; Koppes, M. N.; Rupper, S.; McKean, A.; Parks, E.

2009-12-01

174

Natural selection among Kinnaura of the Himalayan highland: A comparative analysis with other Indian and Himalayan populations  

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Full Text Available The present investigation on fertility and mortality differential among Kinnaura of the Himalayan highland is based on data collected from 160 post-menopausal women belonging to the middle and high altitude region of Kinnaur district of Himachal Pradesh (Indian Himalayas. Selection potential based on differential fertility and mortality was computed for middle- and high-altitude women. Irrespective of the methodology, the total index of selection was found to be highest among middle-altitude women (0.386 as compared with high-altitude (0.370 women, whereas for the total population it is estimated to be 0.384. It was found that the Kinnaura of the Himalayan highland showing moderate index of total selection and relative contribution of the mortality component (Im to the index of total selection is higher than the corresponding fertility component (If. The analysis of embryonic and post-natal mortality components shows that the post-natal mortality components are higher in comparison with the embryonic mortality components among highlanders and needs special intervention and health care. The present findings are compared with other Indian tribes as well as non-tribes of the Himalayan region and other parts of the country. It reveals that this index among Kinnaura is moderate than the other population groups; among the Himalayan population, the highest was reported for Galong (It = 1.07 of Arunachal, whereas the lowest was reported from Ahom (It = 0.218 of Manipur. The correlation and regression analysis between total index of selection (It and fertility (If and mortality (Im components for pooled data of populations of the Indian Himalayan states show that If and Im account for 21.6 and 29.1% variability, respectively. In Crow?s total index of selection (It along with strong association, which is significant at the 1% level, this indicates that mortality plays a greater role in natural selection in comparison with fertility among populations of the Indian Himalayas.

Gautam Rajesh

2009-01-01

175

Geological investigations at a high altitude, remote coal mine on the Northwest Pakistan and Afghanistan frontier, Karakoram Himalaya  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Northwest Pakistan and Afghanistan frontier is located one of the most remote, inaccessible, and inhospitable part of the Himalayan orogenic belt. In this region, two of the world's largest and most distinct mountain belts intersect; the Karakoram Himalaya (mainly in Pakistan) and the Hindu Kush (mainly in Afghanistan). Located at high altitude, in a remote part of Northwest Pakistan, close to the border with Afghanistan, tribal villagers began excavating a series of audits into the steep mountain slopes, beneath glaciers, to extract valuable coal and carbonaceous shale resources. These were discovered in 1996, by the villagers, whilst hunting, and may represent some of the highest mine workings in the world. Small-scale mining operations subsequently developed using rudimentary mining methods and the mine became known as the Reshit or Pamir Coal Mine.The coal deposits are sedimentary, highly disturbed and tectonised, having been subjected to multiple phases of orogenic crustal deformation. The coal occurs as discrete lenses, several tens of metres in their lateral dimension, between steeply dipping, overturned and thrusted limestone beds of Jurassic age. The coal provided a vital, alternative source of fuel for the villagers since the local, traditional fuel supply was wood, which had become severely depleted, and imports of kerosene from neighbouring China and Afghanistan were too expensive. The mining operations experienced severe problems. These included several collapses of mine entrances, the failure of the adits to intersect the coal-bearing zones, the potential threat of geological hazards, mining-induced hazards and harsh high-altitude operating conditions, particularly during the winter months. International aid was provided to assist the villagers and a geological investigation was commissioned to investigate the problems at the mine. The geology of Karakoram Himalaya is relatively poorly understood. Until recently the region was restricted to foreign visitors and large areas of this mountain belt are virtually unmapped. Existing geological and topographic maps are difficult to obtain or are unavailable due to the close proximity of political frontiers, national borders and security reasons. The mineral resource potential of this region is virtually unknown. Few western geologists have visited this area due to its inaccessibility and political constraints, being situated close the frontiers with China, Afghanistan, and the disputed Pakistan and India territory of Kashmir.The Pakistan and Afghanistan border, is once again, now closed to foreign visitors. The objectives of this paper are to document the occurrence of coal and carbonaceous shale, at high altitude, in the Karakoram Himalaya and to provide details on the geology, geological hazards, reserves and labour-intensive mining operations. These observations and information may provide the basis for future mineral exploration, mining-geology, mining-engineering, feasibility studies and engineering geological investigation in the Karakoram Himalaya.

Donnelly, Laurance J. [Chartered Geologist, Halcrow Group Ltd., Deanway Technology Centre, Wilmslow Road, Handforth, Cheshire, SK9 3FB (United Kingdom)

2004-12-03

176

Powerful technique to test selectivity of agents acting on cardiac ion channels: the action potential voltage-clamp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Action potential voltage-clamp (APVC) is a technique to visualize the profile of various currents during the cardiac action potential. This review summarizes potential applications and limitations of APVC, the properties of the most important ion currents in nodal, atrial, and ventricular cardiomyocytes. Accordingly, the profiles ("fingerprints") of the major ion currents in canine ventricular myocytes, i.e. in cells of a species having action potential morphology and set of underlying ion currents very similar to those found in the human heart, are discussed in details. The degree of selectivity of various compounds, which is known to be a critical property of drugs used in APVC experiments, is overviewed. Thus the specificity of agents known to block sodium (tetrodotoxin, saxitoxin), potassium (chromanol 293B, HMR 1556, E-4031, dofetilide, sotalol, 4-aminopyridine, BaCl(2)), calcium (nifedipine, nisolpidine, nicardipine, diltiazem, verapamil, gallopamil), and chloride (anthracene-9-carboxylic acid, DIDS) channels, the inhibitor of the sodium-calcium exchanger (SEA0400), and the activator of sodium current (veratridine) are accordingly discussed. Based on a theory explaining how calcium current inhibitors block calcium channels, the structural comparison of the studied substances usually confirmed the results of the literature. Using these predictions, a hypothetical super-selective calcium channel inhibitor structure was designed. APVC is a valuable tool not only for studying the selectivity of the known ion channel blockers, but is also suitable for safety studies to exclude cardiac ion channel actions of any agent under development. PMID:21774754

Szentandrássy, N; Nagy, D; Ruzsnavszky, F; Harmati, G; Bányász, T; Magyar, J; Szentmiklósi, A J; Nánási, P P

2011-01-01

177

Metastatic potential of B16 melanoma cells after in vitro selection for organ-specific adherence  

OpenAIRE

Heterogeneous primary tumors contain subpopulations of cells that differ in ability to metastasize to specific host organs. We have used cryostat sections of host organs to select for metastatic variants of B16 melanoma cells with increased adhesion to specific syngeneic tissues. By repeating the selection procedure with lung tissue, a subpopulation of cells was isolated that demonstrated a specific increase in binding to cryostat sections of mouse lung. This altered binding was reflected by ...

1985-01-01

178

On the potential of channel selection for recognition of reverberated speech with multiple microphones  

OpenAIRE

The performance of ASR systems in a room environment with distant microphones is strongly affected by reverberation. As the degree of signal distortion varies among acoustic channels (i.e. microphones), the recognition accuracy can benefit from a proper channel selection. In this paper, we experimentally show that there exists a large margin for WER reduction by channel selection, and discuss several possible methods which do not require any a-priori classification. Moreover, by using a...

Wolf, Martin; Nadeu Camprubi?, Climent

2010-01-01

179

Monsoon variability in the Himalayas under the condition of global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An ice core-drilling program was carried out at the accumulation area of Dasuopu glacier (28deg23'N, 85deg43'E, 7100 m a.s.l.) in the central Himalayas in 1997. The ice core was analyzed continuously for stable isotopes (?18O), and major ions throughout the core. Cycles indicated by ?18O, cations were identified and counted as seasonal fluctuations as annual increment from maximum to maximum values. Reconstructed 300-year annual net accumulation (water equivalent) from the core, with a good correlation to Indian monsoon, reflects a major precipitation trend in the central Himalayas. The accumulation trend, separated from the time series, shows a strong negative correlation to Northern Hemisphere temperature. Generally, as northern hemisphere temperature increases 0.1degC, the accumulation decreases about 80 mm, reflecting monsoon rainfall in the central Himalayas has decreased over the past decades in the condition of global warming. (author)

180

Treeline dynamics with climate change at the central Nepal Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

Treeline shifting in tandem with climate change has widely been reported from various parts of the world. In Nepal, several impacts of climate change on the physical environment have been observed, but study on the biological impacts is lacking. This dendrochronological study was carried out at the treeline in the high mountain slope of Kalchuman Lake (3750-4003 m a.s.l.) area of Manaslu Conservation Area in the central Nepal Himalaya to explore the impact of climate change on the treeline dynamic. Two belt transect plots (size: 20 m wide, > 250 m long) were laid which included treeline as well as tree species limit. Ecological mapping of all individuals of dominant trees Abies spectabilis and Betula utilis was done and their tree cores were collected. Stand character and age distribution revealed an occurrence of more matured B. utilis (max. age 198 years) compared to A. spectabilis (max. age 160 years). A. spectabilis contained an overwhelmingly high population (89%) of younger plants (continues to change throughout the century.

Gaire, N. P.; Koirala, M.; Bhuju, D. R.; Borgaonkar, H. P.

2014-07-01

181

The mammalian fauna from the Central Himalaya, Nepal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nepal harbors unique mammalian fauna, but it is poorly studied at higher elevation. Mammalian fauna were recorded in Manaslu Conservation Area, Dudhkunda and Dudhkoshi valley of Solukhumbu district and Kanchenjunga Conservation Area of Nepal during March 2011 to April 2013 along the trail and the study plots from 700m to 4400m a.s.l. Semi-structured interviews were made with local people to understand their behavior and habitats. Altogether, 29 mammalian fauna were recorded. Five species were recorded new for the areas. Overall, Carnivore species (nine were encountered more, followed by species of the order Cetartiodactyla (seven. The highest number of mammalian fauna (18 was identified from Manaslu Conservation Area whereas the least (11 from Dudhkunda and Dudhkoshi valley. Human wildlife conflict was frequent with Himalayan Goral (Naemorhedus goral, Barking Deer (Muntiacus vaginalis, Himalayan Tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus, Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta, Nepal Grey Langur (Semnopithecus schistaceus and Himalayan Black Bear (Ursus thibetanus for crop depredation in these areas. Although mammalian research started a long time ago, scenario of comprehensive research is not satisfactory in the Central Himalaya, Nepal.

Hem Bahadur Katuwal

2013-07-01

182

Seismic slip deficit in the Kashmir Himalaya from GPS observations  

Science.gov (United States)

measurements in Kashmir Himalaya reveal range-normal convergence of 11 ± 1 mm/yr with dextral shear of 5 ± 1 mm/yr. The transition from a fully locked 170 km wide décollement to the unrestrained descending Indian plate occurs at ~25 km depth over an ~23 km wide transition zone. The convergence rate is consistent with the lower bounds of geological estimates for the Main Frontal Thrust, Riasi, and Balapora fault systems, on which no surface slip has been reported in the past millennium. Of the 14 damaging Kashmir earthquakes since 1123, none may have exceeded Mw = 7.6. Therefore, either a seismic moment deficit equivalent to a Mw ? 8.7 earthquake exists or the historical earthquake magnitudes have been underestimated. Alternatively, these earthquakes have occurred on reverse faults in the Kashmir Valley, and the décollement has been recently inactive. Although this can reconcile the inferred and theoretical moment release, it is quantitatively inconsistent with observed fault slip in Kashmir.

Schiffman, Celia; Bali, Bikram Singh; Szeliga, Walter; Bilham, Roger

2013-11-01

183

BotEC: The Himalayas and Continental Drift  

Science.gov (United States)

Queston: The story of the Himalayas can be traced back to the breakup of the supercontinent, called Pangaea, about 200 million years ago, when India began its rapid movement northward towards Asia. Asia was a much smaller continent then. Then, between 45 and 55 million years ago, India and Asia collided. Before collision, India moved northward at about 7-10 centimeters per year. Remarkably, India's northward movement was slowed only a little after the collisionâit continues to plow into Asia at a rate of 5-6 centimeters per year. We can measure the present northward movement of India into Asia using GPS measurements over a period of time. So, there is little doubt of the continued movement of India. There is much debate about how the northward march of India into Asia is being accommodated. Of course, the high Himalayan Plateau is a manifestation of this collision between two continents. Let's assume that India began to plow into the Asian continent 55 million years ago and that, since then, it has continued to uniformly move northward into the Asian continent at 6 centimeters per year (for 55 million years). Calculate the total distance (in kilometers) that India has plowed into Asia.

Peter Kresan

184

Study of natural radionuclide in soil samples of Garhwal Himalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Natural radioactivity and the associated external exposure due to gamma radiation depends on the geological and geographical conditions, and appear at different levels in the soil of each region in world. The natural radionuclide are widely distributed in various geological formations and ecosystems such as rocks, soil groundwater and food stuffs. In present study the distribution of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K contents were measured in the soil samples collected from different litho logical unit of Garhwal Himalayas. The analysis of soil sample was carried out using gamma ray spectrometer. The activity concentration of naturally occurring radio nuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in these soil samples were found to vary from BDL to 131.48 Bq/kg, 8.84 Bq/kg to 384.42 Bq/kg and 471.22 to 1406.25 Bq/kg, respectively. The distribution of radionuclide widely depends upon the rock formation and chemical properties with in earth. The activity concentration varied widely depending on sample origin. The external absorbed gamma dose due 226Ra, 232Th and 40K was also calculated which vary from 49.06 nGy/h to 306.11 nGy/h. The radium equivalent activity from these soil sample were found from 99.59 Bq/kg to 694.04 Bq/kg. (author)

185

Deep structure over the eastern syntaxis of the Himalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows. Magnetotelluric surveys were conducted over two profiles for mapping the major tectonic features over the eastern syntaxial bend. These studies over the main frontal thrust and Main boundary thrust of the Himalaya and the Mishmi thrust in the Indo Burman range have shown that the signatures of these thrusts at deeper level are not coincident with their corresponding surface expressions. Thus main frontal and the main boundary thrusts are traced about 20 km south of the surface manifestations where as the Mishmi thrust at deeper levels is about 25 km west of the location observed on the surface. The global positioning studies (Gan, W, et al. (2007) J. Geophys. Res. Article No: B08416) are indicative of eastward (transverse to the strike) movements of the sedimentary overburden north of the main frontal thrust, in this region. Another conspicuous feature is the south dipping thrust / reverse fault delineated to the north of the Main frontal thrust earlier observed in the Tawang-Bomdilla region (Gokarn et al, 2008, 19th EM induction workshop, Beijing China). Its signatures at shallow depth in this region are however obscured by the presence of then supracrustal deposits of the Abhor volcanics and Yinkiang formations occurring in small discrete patches in the close vicinity of this feature.

186

Three hitherto unreported macro-fungi from Kashmir Himalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Himalayan state, Jammu and Kashmir due to its climate ranging from tropical deciduous forests to temperate and coniferous forests provides congenial habitat for the growth of diverse macro fungal species which in turn gives it the status of 'hub' of macro-fungal species. The macro fungal species richness of the state is directly related to its expansive forest communities and diverse weather patterns, but all the regions of the state have not been extensively surveyed till now. In this backdrop, a systematic survey for exploration and inventorization of macro fungal species of Western Kashmir Himalaya was undertaken during the year 2009 and 2010, which in turn resulted identification of the three species viz., Thelephora caryophyllea (Schaeff.) Pers., Coltricia cinnamomea (Pers.) Murr., and Guepinia helvelloides Fr. as new reports from the Kashmir. These species were identified on the basis of macro and microscopic characters and also the aid of taxonomic keys, field manuals, mushroom herbaria and help from expert taxonomists in the related field was taken into account. (author)

187

A regional climate study of aerosol impacts on Indian monsoon and precipitations over the Himalayas  

Science.gov (United States)

In the context of the PAPRIKA program we are studying the potential effects of aerosol particle on Indian climate and Himalayan region. Using the RegCM4 regional climate model we performed some experiments including on-line representation of natural and anthropogenic aerosols for present day and future conditions over the CORDEX-India domain. Dynamical boundary forcing is taken for ERAI-Interim over the period 2000-2010, and chemical boundary-conditions are prescribed as a monthly climatology form an ECEARTH/CAM simulation for present day. Different set of anthropogenic emissions (SO2, carbonaceous aerosols) are considered (IPCC RCP4.5 and REAS) whereas natural aerosol (dust and sea-salt) are calculated on line. In order to account for aerosol radiative feedback on surface energy budget over the oceans, we also implemented a 'q-flux' slab ocean model as an alternative to pure SST forcing. After a step of validation of aerosol simulation against observations, we investigate through a series of experiments the dynamical feedback of direct radiative effect of aerosol over this domain, focusing specifically on Indian Monsoon and precipitation over the Himalayas. We discriminate the effect of anthropogenic vs. natural aerosol while outlining the main mechanism of the regional climate response, as well as the sensitivity to emissions inventory. Our results will be discussed notably against previous GCM based studies. Finally we will possibly discuss future projections based on RCP4.5 EC-EARTH forcing and including aerosol effects, as well as the potential radiative effects of absorbing aerosol deposition on the Himalayan snow covers.

Solmon, F.; Von Hardenberg, J.; Nair, V.; Palazzi, E.

2013-12-01

188

Potential and Structural Variation of Some Selected Cultivated Bamboo Species in Peninsular Malaysia  

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Full Text Available Screening of different cultivated bamboo species to find out potential variety of bamboo is most important. Structural variations in term of anatomy, physical and strength properties of 3 year-old cultivated Gigantochloa brang, G. levis, G. scotechinii and G. wrayi were investigated for screening purposes. The culms of these bamboos were selected, harvested and processed for subsequent studies. The results show that each species exhibited differences in the anatomy, physical and strength properties. Each species has differences in the fiber characteristics which showed significant differences between species in terms of length, diameter and lumen sizes. The vascular bundle for these genera were between 4-7/4mm2 and were dense at the outer position in the cross section of the culm having 8.5 vascular bundle/4mm2, middle 4.88 vascular bundle/4mm2 and at the inner position having 3.4 vascular bundle per/4mm2. The vascular bundle length was between 845-1183 um and a width of 530-759 um. The fibre lengths were between (1745.00-2039.98 um, diameter (17.26-22.75 um, lumen (3.83-8.66 um and wall thickness (1.3 -5.31um. The moisture content (MC of the bamboo in green condition ranged between 73-112%, the MC is higher at internodes (95% compared to nodes (78%. Position at inner layer has MC at 126%, middle at 83% and outer at 41%. Density increases from outer to inner layer which started from 500 kg/m2 at inner and increased to more than 820 kg/m2 at outer part of bamboo at 12% moisture content. The specific gravity for all species tested was about 0.69 - 0.78, but the inner position is 0.58, middle 0.73 and outer positions is 0.94. Shrinkage at radial, tangential and the volumetric were at 5-9, 7-12, and 10-17% respectively for all species. Position in a higher rate of shrinkage were at inner (8.6, 13.50, 15.44%, follow by middle (6.85, 9.72, 12.57% and outer (5.04, 6.52, 10.40% respectively. The tensile strength for the bamboos ranged between 103.38-122.15 MPa. The tensile strength of dried bamboo is 138.87 MPa compared with 89.95 MPa for green bamboo. The tensile of modulus of air dried bamboo is 4003.85 MPa compared with 2786.96 MPa for green bamboo. The modulus of rupture (MOR for the bamboos ranged between 91.19-132 MPa. The MOR for dried bamboo was 142.21 MPa compared to the green bamboo 99.56 MPa. The modulus of elasticity (MOE varies between 11961.70-20430.40 MPa. MOE of air dried bamboo was 17610.00 MPa and green bamboo 13777.80 MPa.

Razak Wahab

2012-05-01

189

Selective Cholinergic Depletion in Medial Septum Leads to Impaired Long Term Potentiation and Glutamatergic Synaptic Currents in the Hippocampus  

OpenAIRE

Cholinergic depletion in the medial septum (MS) is associated with impaired hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. Here we investigated whether long term potentiation (LTP) and synaptic currents, mediated by alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the CA1 hippocampal region, are affected following cholinergic lesions of the MS. Stereotaxic intra-medioseptal infusions of a selective immunotoxin, 192-saporin, against choliner...

Kanju, Patrick M.; Parameshwaran, Kodeeswaran; Sims-robinson, Catrina; Uthayathas, Subramaniam; Josephson, Eleanor M.; Rajakumar, Nagalingam; Dhanasekaran, Muralikrishnan; Suppiramaniam, Vishnu

2012-01-01

190

Selection and characterization of potential sites for a spent nuclear fuel repository in Sweden  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Geological, geochemical, geophysical, rock mechanical, hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological investigations are included in the site selection studies for a spent nuclear fuel repository in Sweden. The investigations started in 1977 and are carried out in crystalline rock. The final site will be selected around the year 2000 through a screening process of investigated sites. The field studies generate numerous data that are compiled into a descriptive model for each site. The descriptive model forms the basis for the numerical calculation of the groundwater flow within the site. This paper presents the major instruments and methods that are used in the ongoing program as well as some of the obtained results

191

Interactions of biotic and abiotic environmental factors in an ectomycorrhizal symbiosis, and the potential for selection mosaics  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Geographic selection mosaics, in which species exert different evolutionary impacts on each other in different environments, may drive diversification in coevolving species. We studied the potential for geographic selection mosaics in plant-mycorrhizal interactions by testing whether the interaction between bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don and one of its common ectomycorrhizal fungi (Rhizopogon occidentalis Zeller and Dodge varies in outcome, when different combinations of plant and fungal genotypes are tested under a range of different abiotic and biotic conditions. Results We used a 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment to test the main and interactive effects of plant lineage (two maternal seed families, fungal lineage (two spore collections, soil type (lab mix or field soil, and non-mycorrhizal microbes (with or without on the performance of plants and fungi. Ecological outcomes, as assessed by plant and fungal performance, varied widely across experimental environments, including interactions between plant or fungal lineages and soil environmental factors. Conclusion These results show the potential for selection mosaics in plant-mycorrhizal interactions, and indicate that these interactions are likely to coevolve in different ways in different environments, even when initially the genotypes of the interacting species are the same across all environments. Hence, selection mosaics may be equally as effective as genetic differences among populations in driving divergent coevolution among populations of interacting species.

Hoeksema Jason D

2008-05-01

192

Diversity of Medicinal Plants among Different Forest-use Types of the Pakistani Himalaya.  

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Diversity of Medicinal Plants among Different Forest-use Types of the Pakistani Himalaya Medicinal plants collected in Himalayan forests play a vital role in the livelihoods of regional rural societies and are also increasingly recognized at the international level. However, these forests are being heavily transformed by logging. Here we ask how forest transformation influences the diversity and composition of medicinal plants in northwestern Pakistan, where we studied old-growth forests, forests degraded by logging, and regrowth forests. First, an approximate map indicating these forest types was established and then 15 study plots per forest type were randomly selected. We found a total of 59 medicinal plant species consisting of herbs and ferns, most of which occurred in the old-growth forest. Species number was lowest in forest degraded by logging and intermediate in regrowth forest. The most valuable economic species, including six Himalayan endemics, occurred almost exclusively in old-growth forest. Species composition and abundance of forest degraded by logging differed markedly from that of old-growth forest, while regrowth forest was more similar to old-growth forest. The density of medicinal plants positively correlated with tree canopy cover in old-growth forest and negatively in degraded forest, which indicates that species adapted to open conditions dominate in logged forest. Thus, old-growth forests are important as refuge for vulnerable endemics. Forest degraded by logging has the lowest diversity of relatively common medicinal plants. Forest regrowth may foster the reappearance of certain medicinal species valuable to local livelihoods and as such promote acceptance of forest expansion and medicinal plants conservation in the region. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12231-012-9213-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:23293378

Adnan, Muhammad; Hölscher, Dirk

2012-12-01

193

Evaluation of oenological potential on clonal selections of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon from Chile  

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Full Text Available 13 clonal selections of cv Cabernet Sauvignon, established in Nancagua VI Region, Chile (34.39?°S?71.17?°W. The genetic identity of the vines was confirmed by ampelography and microsatellite markers (SSR. Evaluations in the 2012–2013 season include: performance, analytical and sensorial parameters on the wines made by microvinification. The results were statistically analyzed with the Statgraphics Plus program and multiple comparison test of Tukey at 95% confidence level. Sensorially, the wines were evaluated by a panel of 12 experts. The results were likewise analyzed by testing principal components (PCA with covariance matrix without rotation. In the season studied the selection 108 highlighted with a high yield (kg/plant, in the composition of the wine selections generally highlighted for contents of total polyphenols and anthocyanins over average. The results show typical sensory characteristics of wines from that grape variety, and it was possible to group the selections by their attributes (PCA with cherry red wines at different intensities, but without significant differences, with fruity and vegetal aromas, interesting complex flavors and with structured tannins.

Ceppi de Lecco C.

2014-01-01

194

Canola Cake as a Potential Substrate for Proteolytic Enzymes Production by a Selected Strain of Aspergillus oryzae: Selection of Process Conditions and Product Characterization.  

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Oil cakes have excellent nutritional value and offer considerable potential for use in biotechnological processes that employ solid-state fermentation (SSF) for the production of high value products. This work evaluates the feasibility of using canola cake as a substrate for protease production by a selected strain of Aspergillus oryzae cultivated under SSF. The influences of the following process parameters were considered: initial substrate moisture content, incubation temperature, inoculum size, and pH of the buffer used for protease extraction and activity analysis. Maximum protease activity was obtained after cultivating Aspergillus oryzae CCBP 001 at 20°C, using an inoculum size of 10(7)?spores/g in canola cake medium moistened with 40?mL of water to 100?g of cake. Cultivation and extraction under selected conditions increased protease activity 5.8-fold, compared to the initial conditions. Zymogram analysis of the enzymatic extract showed that the protease molecular weights varied between 31 and 200?kDa. The concentrated protease extract induced clotting of casein in 5?min. The results demonstrate the potential application of canola cake for protease production under SSF and contribute to the technological advances needed to increase the efficiency of processes designed to add value to agroindustrial wastes. PMID:24455400

Freitas, Adriana C; Castro, Ruann J S; Fontenele, Maria A; Egito, Antonio S; Farinas, Cristiane S; Pinto, Gustavo A S

2013-12-25

195

Host selection of potential West Nile virus vectors in Puerto Barrios, Guatemala, 2007.  

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The selection of vertebrate hosts by Culex mosquitoes relative to West Nile virus (WNV) transmission in neotropical countries such as Guatemala is not described. This study determined the feeding patterns of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. nigripalpus and estimated the relative contribution of two common and frequently infected wild bird species, Turdus grayi and Quiscalus mexicanus, to WNV transmission. Engorged mosquitoes were collected from rural and urban habitats after the dry and wet seasons in the Department of Izabal in 2007. Host selection by Cx. nigripalpus varied significantly between urban and rural habitats. Both Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. nigripalpus fed predominantly on chickens and other domestic animals. Blood meals from wild birds were rare, accounting for 1.1% of blood meals identified from Cx. quinquefasciatus and 6.5% of blood meals from Cx. nigripalpus. Transmission of WNV by these two mosquito species may be dampened by extensive feeding on reservoir-incompetent hosts. PMID:23208881

Kading, Rebekah C; Reiche, Ana Silvia Gonzalez; Morales-Betoulle, Maria Eugenia; Komar, Nicholas

2013-01-01

196

Treeline dynamics with climate change at Central Nepal Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

Global climate change has multidimensional impacts with several biological fingerprints, and treeline shifting in tandem with climate change is a widely observed phenomenon in various parts of the world. In Nepal several impacts of climate change on physical environments have been observed. However, studies on the biological impacts are lacking. This dendrochronological study was carried out at the treeline ecotone (3750-4003 m a.s.l.) in the Kalchuman Lake (Kal Tal) area of the Manaslu Conservation Area in central Nepal Himalaya with the aim to study the dynamic impact of climate change at the treeline. The study provides an insight into regeneration and treeline dynamics over the past 200 yr. Two belt transect plots (size: 20 m wide, >250 m long) were laid covering forest line, treeline as well as tree species Abies spectabilis and Betula utilis was done and their tree-cores were collected. Stand character and age distribution revealed an occurrence of more matured B. utilis (max. age 198 yr old) compared to A. spectabilis (max. age 160 yr). A. spectabilis contained an overwhelmingly high population (89%) of younger plants (continues to cha spectabilis correlated negatively with the mean monthly temperature of May-August of the current year and with September of the previous year. The regeneration of A. spectabilis, on the other hand, was positively related with May-August precipitation and January-April temperature of the current year. The reconstructed average summer temperature (May-August) using tree ring data revealed alternate period of cool and warm period with warming in the 2nd half of the 20th century. Further palynological and geochronological studies of sediments of the Kalchuman Lake would advance our understanding of past climatic trends and dynamics of the associated treeline and vegetation in the area.

Gaire, N. P.; Koirala, M.; Bhuju, D. R.; Borgaonkar, H. P.

2013-10-01

197

Distribution of the Late-Quaternary deformation in Northwestern Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

Three main Cenozoic thrusts at the front of Northwestern Himalaya have accommodated most of the India-Eurasia convergence across the belt over the last million years and produced the present relief. Their recent tectonic activity is poorly known because of the long period of inaccessibility of the Jammu and Kashmir state, and because the latest and only large earthquake recorded in the region occurred in 1555 AD. We show where the deformation is localized during the Late-Quaternary, and determine shortening rates across the structures by analyzing the geometry and chronology of geomorphic markers. The Main Boundary Thrust in this region ceased moving at least ?30 ka ago. On the contrary, the more external Medlicott-Wadia Thrust and Main Frontal Thrust, both merging at depth on the sub-flat detachment of the Main Himalayan Thrust, exhibit hectometric-scale deformations accumulated during the last thousands of years. The total shortening rate absorbed by these faults over the last 14-24 ka is between 13.2 and 27.2 mm/yr (11.2 ± 3.8 and 9.0 ± 3.2 mm /yr, respectively). Part of this deformation may be associated to the geometry of the Chenab reentrant, which could generate an extra oblique component. However, the lower bound of our shortening rates is consistent with previously determined geodetic rates. Active deformation on these structures follows an in-sequence/out-of-sequence pattern, with breaking of both ramps being possible for earthquakes triggered on the main detachment.

Vassallo, R.; Mugnier, J.-L.; Vignon, V.; Malik, M. A.; Jayangondaperumal, R.; Srivastava, P.; Jouanne, F.; Carcaillet, J.

2015-02-01

198

Phytoremediation potential of Alocasia microrrhiza grown on soil collected from selected dumpsites in Ekiti State, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

This study investigates the effect of enhanced phytoextraction on the accumulation of heavy metals by Alocasia microrrhiza cultivated on soil collected from selected dumpsites in Ekiti State, Nigeria. The application of 1g/kg EDTA decreased the heights of plants relative to control, but significantly increased the concentration of heavy metals in various tissues of the plant. Notably, concentration of Pb and Cu were greater than the threshold value of 100mg/kg, indicative of the fact that Alo...

Asaolu S. S.; Awokunmi E. E.; Ajayi O. O.; Adebayo O. A.

2013-01-01

199

Host Selection of Potential West Nile Virus Vectors in Puerto Barrios, Guatemala, 2007  

OpenAIRE

The selection of vertebrate hosts by Culex mosquitoes relative to West Nile virus (WNV) transmission in neotropical countries such as Guatemala is not described. This study determined the feeding patterns of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. nigripalpus and estimated the relative contribution of two common and frequently infected wild bird species, Turdus grayi and Quiscalus mexicanus, to WNV transmission. Engorged mosquitoes were collected from rural and urban habitats after the dry and wet seaso...

Kading, Rebekah C.; Reiche, Ana Silvia Gonzalez; Morales-betoulle, Maria Eugenia; Komar, Nicholas

2013-01-01

200

Potential evapotranspiration and its impact on autumn phenological phases of selected plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work deals with the assessment of the impact of water balance on the timing of phenological phases at two locations (Hips and Bukovina), on the selected tree species (hazel (Corylus avellana L.), hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.), sessile oak (Quercus petraea, Liebl.)). Phenological observations have been held since 2007, and together with measurements of meteorological parameters allow us to evaluate the microclimate in the stands in detail. (authors)

201

The assessment of genetic potential in performance tested gilts by means of selection indexes method  

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Full Text Available The objective of this research paper was to make an assessment of breeding value of performance tested gilts of Swedish Landrace and F1 crossbreds of Swedish Landrace and Great Yorkshire by the method of selection index. The traits on whose basis the breeding value was estimated were: daily liveweight gain, average backfat thickness measured at two sites and carcass meat percentage. These traits were corrected for body mass of 100kg by the method of base indexes and the following average values were determined: corrected daily liveweight gain (KZDP 408.93g/day, corrected average backfat thickness measured at two sites (KSL 9.77mm and corrected carcass meat percentage (KPM 61.08%. Studying the effect of genotype, year and birth season of gilts a statistically significant variation (P>0.05 of these traits provoked by the mentioned factors was not determined while the gilts` sire statistically highly significantly (P<0.001 influenced all studied traits. Heritability coefficients were: h2= 0.255 for KZDP, h2= 0.356 for KSL and h2 = 0.349 for KPM. The four selection index equations were constructed among which as the most optimal was chosen the one which includes all three traits (KZDP, KSL and KPM and whose coefficient of the correlation of selection index and aggregate genotype was rIAG = 0.594. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31081

Popovac Mladen

2014-01-01

202

Quantifying BTEX in aqueous solutions with potentially interfering hydrocarbons using a partially selective sensor array.  

Science.gov (United States)

Partially selective gold nanoparticle sensors have the sensitivity and selectivity to discriminate and quantify benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p-xylene and naphthalene (BTEXN) at concentrations relevant to the US Environmental Protection Agency. In this paper we demonstrate that gold nanoparticle chemiresistors can do so in the presence of 16 other hydrocarbons and that they did not reduce the discriminating power of the array. A two-level full factorial designed experiment was performed on unary, binary, ternary, quaternary, quinary combinations of BTEXN analytes with and without the possibly interfering hydrocarbons. The nominal component concentration of the mixtures was 100 ?g L(-1), equivalent to approximately 100 parts per billion (ppb). Concentrations predicted with the random forests method had an average root mean square error of 10-20% of the component concentrations. This level of accuracy was achieved regardless of whether or not the 16 possibly interfering hydrocarbons were present. This work shows that the sensitivity and selectivity of gold nanoparticles chemiresistor sensors towards BTEXN analytes are not unduly affected by the other hydrocarbons that are expected to be present at a petroleum remediation site. PMID:25768651

Cooper, J S; Kiiveri, H; Hubble, L J; Chow, E; Webster, M S; Müller, K-H; Sosa-Pintos, A; Bendavid, A; Raguse, B; Wieczorek, L

2015-05-01

203

A filter-based feature selection approach for identifying potential biomarkers for lung cancer  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer in the world and its treatment is dependant on the type and stage of cancer detected in the patient. Molecular biomarkers that can characterize the cancer phenotype are thus a key tool in planning a therapeutic response. A common protocol for identifying such biomarkers is to employ genomic microarray analysis to find genes that show differential expression according to disease state or type. Data-mining techniques such as feature selection are often used to isolate, from among a large manifold of genes with differential expression, those specific genes whose differential expression patterns are of optimal value in phenotypic differentiation. One such technique, Biomarker Identifier (BMI, has been developed to identify features with the ability to distinguish between two data groups of interest, which is thus highly applicable for such studies. Results Microarray data with validated genes was used to evaluate the utility of BMI in identifying markers for lung cancer. This data set contains a set of 129 gene expression profiles from large-airway epithelial cells (60 samples from smokers with lung cancer and 69 from smokers without lung cancer and 7 genes from this data have been confirmed to be differentially expressed by quantitative PCR. Using this data set, BMI was compared with various well-known feature selection methods and was found to be more successful than other methods in finding useful genes to classify cancerous samples. Also it is evident that genes selected by BMI (given the same number of genes and classification algorithms showed better discriminative power than those from the original study. After pathway analysis on the selected genes by BMI, we have been able to correlate the selected genes with well-known cancer-related pathways. Conclusions Our results show that BMI can be used to analyze microarray data and to find useful genes for classifying samples. Pathway analysis suggests that BMI is successful in identifying biomarker-quality cancer-related genes from the data.

Lee In-Hee

2011-03-01

204

Volatile organic compounds over Eastern Himalaya, India: temporal variation and source characterization using Positive Matrix Factorization  

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Full Text Available A first ever study on the characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs has been made over a Himalayan high altitude station in India. A total of 18 VOCs (mono aromatics-BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, non-BTEX substituted aromatics and halocarbon have been measured over Darjeeling (27.01° N, 88.15° E, 2200 m a.s.l. in the eastern Himalaya in India during the period of July 2011–June 2012. The annual average concentration of the sum of 18 target VOCs (TVOC was 376.3 ± 857.2 ?g m?3. Monoaromatics had the highest contribution (72% followed by other substituted aromatics (22% and halocarbon (6% compounds. Toluene was the most abundant VOC in the atmosphere of Darjeeling with the contribution of ~37% to TVOC followed by benzene (~21%, ethylbenzene (~9% and xylenes (~6%. TVOC concentrations were highest during the postmonsoon season with minimum solar radiation and lowest during the premonsoon season with maximum solar radiation. Anthropogenic activities related mainly to tourists like diesel and gasoline emissions, biomass and coal burning, use of solvent and solid waste emissions were almost equal in both the seasons. Seasonal variation in TVOCs over Darjeeling was mainly governed by the incoming solar radiation rather than the emission sources. Source apportionment study using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF model indicated that major fraction of (~60% TVOC were contributed by diesel and gasoline exhausts followed by solvent evaporation (18% and other sources. Diesel exhaust was also found to have the maximum potential in tropospheric ozone formation. The atmospheric loading of BTEX over Darjeeling was found to be comparable with several Indian metro cities and much higher than other cities around the world.

C. Sarkar

2014-12-01

205

Volatile organic compounds over Eastern Himalaya, India: temporal variation and source characterization using Positive Matrix Factorization  

Science.gov (United States)

A first ever study on the characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been made over a Himalayan high altitude station in India. A total of 18 VOCs (mono aromatics-BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene), non-BTEX substituted aromatics and halocarbon) have been measured over Darjeeling (27.01° N, 88.15° E, 2200 m a.s.l.) in the eastern Himalaya in India during the period of July 2011-June 2012. The annual average concentration of the sum of 18 target VOCs (TVOC) was 376.3 ± 857.2 ?g m-3. Monoaromatics had the highest contribution (72%) followed by other substituted aromatics (22%) and halocarbon (6%) compounds. Toluene was the most abundant VOC in the atmosphere of Darjeeling with the contribution of ~37% to TVOC followed by benzene (~21%), ethylbenzene (~9%) and xylenes (~6%). TVOC concentrations were highest during the postmonsoon season with minimum solar radiation and lowest during the premonsoon season with maximum solar radiation. Anthropogenic activities related mainly to tourists like diesel and gasoline emissions, biomass and coal burning, use of solvent and solid waste emissions were almost equal in both the seasons. Seasonal variation in TVOCs over Darjeeling was mainly governed by the incoming solar radiation rather than the emission sources. Source apportionment study using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model indicated that major fraction of (~60%) TVOC were contributed by diesel and gasoline exhausts followed by solvent evaporation (18%) and other sources. Diesel exhaust was also found to have the maximum potential in tropospheric ozone formation. The atmospheric loading of BTEX over Darjeeling was found to be comparable with several Indian metro cities and much higher than other cities around the world.

Sarkar, C.; Chatterjee, A.; Majumdar, D.; Ghosh, S. K.; Srivastava, A.; Raha, S.

2014-12-01

206

Region-wide glacier mass balances over the Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya during 1999–2011  

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Full Text Available The recent evolution of Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya (PKH glaciers, widely acknowledged as valuable high-altitude as well as mid-latitude climatic indicators, remains poorly known. To overcome the lack of region-wide mass balance data, we compared the 2000 Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM digital elevation model (DEM to recent (2008–2011 DEMs derived from SPOT5 stereo-imagery for 8 sites spread from Pamir to eastern Himalaya. The region-wide glacier mass balances were contrasted during the last decade, with moderate mass losses in eastern and central Himalaya (?0.21 ± 0.10 m yr?1 w.e. to ?0.29 ± 0.09 m yr?1 w.e. and larger losses in western Himalaya (?0.41 ± 0.11 m yr?1 w.e.. Recently reported slight mass gain of glaciers in central Karakoram is confirmed for a larger area (+0.10 ± 0.19 m yr?1 w.e. and, new, also observed for glaciers in western Pamir (+0.14 ± 0.10 m yr?1 w.e.. We propose that the "Karakoram anomaly" should be renamed the "Pamir-Karakoram anomaly", at least for the last decade. The overall mass balance of PKH glaciers is estimated at ?0.12 ± 0.06 m yr?1 w.e. In contrast to Indus, the relative glacier imbalance contribution to Brahmaputra and Ganges discharges is higher than previously modeled glacier seasonal contribution.

J. Gardelle

2013-03-01

207

Extreme rainfalls in Eastern Himalaya and southern slope of Meghalaya Plateau and their geomorphologic impacts  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the detailed rainfall characteristics of 3 key areas located in the eastern monsoon India: the margin of Darjeeling Himalaya, the margin of Bhutanese Himalaya and the Cherrapunji region at the southern slope of Meghalaya Upland. All these areas are sensitive to changes but differ in annual rainfall totals (2000-4000 mm, 4000-6000 m and 6000-23,000 mm respectively) and in the frequency of extreme rainfalls. Therefore the response of geomorphic processes is different, also due to various human impact. In the Darjeeling Himalaya the thresholds may be passed 2-3 times in one century and the system may return to the former equilibrium. At the margin of western Bhutanese Himalaya in 1990s, the clustering of three events caused an acceleration in the transformation and formation of a new trend of evolution, especially in the piedmont zone. In the Cherrapunji of Meghalaya region in the natural conditions the effects of dozens of extreme rainfalls every year were checked by the dense vegetation cover. After deforestation and extensive land use the fertile soil was removed and either the exposed bedrock or armoured debris top layer protect the surface against degradation and facilitate only rapid overland flow. A new "sterile" system has been formed.

Soja, Roman; Starkel, Leszek

2007-02-01

208

Oblique convergence and slip partitioning in the NW Himalaya: Implications from GPS measurements  

Science.gov (United States)

We report GPS measurements of crustal deformation across the Kashmir Himalaya. We combined these results with the published results of GPS measurements from the Karakoram fault system and suggest that in the Kashmir Himalaya, the motion between the southern Tibet and India plate is oblique with respect to the structural trend. We estimated this almost north-south oblique motion to be 17 ± 2 mm/yr, which is partitioned between dextral motion of 5 ± 2 mm/yr on the Karakoram fault system and oblique motion of 13.6 ± 1 mm/yr with an azimuth of N198°E in the northwest-southeast trending Kashmir Himalayan frontal arc. Thus, the partitioning of the India-Southern Tibet oblique motion is partial in the Kashmir Himalayan frontal arc. However, in the neighboring Nepal Himalaya, there is no partitioning; the entire India-Southern Tibet motion of 19-20 mm/yr is arc normal and is accommodated entirely in the Himalayan frontal arc. The convergence rate in the Kashmir frontal Himalaya is about 25% less than that in the Nepal Himalayan region. However, here the Karakoram fault system accommodates about 20% of the southern Tibet and Indian plate convergence and marks the northern extent of the NW Himalayan arc sliver. The Kaurik Chango rift, a north-south oriented seismically active cross-wedge transtensional fault appears to divide the sliver in two parts causing varying translatory motion on the Karakoram fault on either side of the Kaurik Chango rift.

Kundu, Bhaskar; Yadav, Rajeev Kumar; Bali, Bikram Singh; Chowdhury, Sonalika; Gahalaut, V. K.

2014-10-01

209

AMS exposure dating: evolution of river valley profiles across Himalayas during late Quaternary-Holocene  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

River valley profile is one geomorphic feature, which contain relict landforms inherited from past periods with changing intensities of tectonic and climatic parameters. This aspect has been a subject of current research interest, using exposure dating technique. The results of some recent studies from major river valleys across Himalayas are being discussed

210

Radon/helium studies for earthquake prediction N-W Himalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents the preliminary data of radon monitoring stated in the Himalayan orogenic belt. Radon anomalies are correlated with microseismic activity in the N-W Himalaya. The He/Rn ratio will be used as a predictive tool for earthquakes

211

Application of the mixed-potential theory to the interpretation of the potential response of a PVC membrane ion-selective electrode for desipramine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential response of an ion-exchanger type PVC ion-selective electrode (ISE) for a drug ion, desipramine(+) (DES(+)), was analyzed by a mixed-potential (MP) theory proposed previously. The transfer of DES(+) and its analogous ions, imipramine(+) (IMP(+)) and neostigmine(+) (NEO(+)), at a micro ?-nitrophenyl octyl ether/water interface was studied by ion-transfer voltammetry; also, the standard ion-transfer potentials (?(O)(W)?(j)(o)) of the ions were then determined. The application of MP theory with the ?(O)(W)?(j)(o) values successfully explained the under-Nernstian response of DES(+)-ISE due to interference from IMP(+) or NEO(+). In this study, a universal method based on numerical calculations was developed for evaluating MP associated with plural interfering ions, which was impossible in the previous method based on analytical equations. Using the universal method, we could well predict the detection limit of DES(+)-ISE theoretically. The MP theory is promising for the sophisticated design of ISEs, which is not due to conventional "trial-and-error" procedures. PMID:22729041

Osakai, Toshiyuki; Imoto, Maya; Sato, Yoshitsugu; Sakaki, Toru

2012-01-01

212

Patterns of paternity skew among polyandrous social insects : what can they tell us about the potential for sexual selection?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Monogamy results in high genetic relatedness among offspring and thus it is generally assumed to be favored by kin selection. Female multiple mating (polyandry) has nevertheless evolved several times in the social Hymenoptera (ants, bees, and wasps), and a substantial amount of work has been conducted to understand its costs and benefits. Relatedness and inclusive fitness benefits are, however, not only influenced by queen mating frequency but also by paternity skew, which is a quantitative measure of paternity biases among the offspring of polyandrous females. We performed a large-scale phylogenetic analysis of paternity skew across polyandrous social Hymenoptera. We found a general and significant negative association between paternity frequency and paternity skew. High paternity skew, which increases relatedness among colony members and thus maximizes inclusive fitness gains, characterized species with low paternity frequency. However, species with highly polyandrous queens had low paternity skew, with paternity equalized among potential sires. Equal paternity shares among fathers are expected to maximize fitness benefits derived from genetic diversity among offspring. We discuss the potential for postcopulatory sexual selection to influence patterns of paternity in social insects, and suggest that sexual selection may have played a key, yet overlooked role in social evolution.

Jaffé, Rodolfo; Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco

2012-01-01

213

The evolution and adaptive potential of transcriptional variation in sticklebacks-signatures of selection and widespread heritability.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evidence implicating differential gene expression as a significant driver of evolutionary novelty continues to accumulate, but our understanding of the underlying sources of variation in expression, both environmental and genetic, is wanting. Heritability in particular may be underestimated when inferred from genetic mapping studies, the predominant "genetical genomics" approach to the study of expression variation. Such uncertainty represents a fundamental limitation to testing for adaptive evolution at the transcriptomic level. By studying the inheritance of expression levels in 10,495 genes (10,527 splice variants) in a threespine stickleback pedigree consisting of 563 individuals, half of which were subjected to a thermal treatment, we show that 74-98% of transcripts exhibit significant additive genetic variance. Dominance variance is also prevalent (41-99% of transcripts), and genetic sources of variation seem to play a more significant role in expression variance in the liver than a key environmental variable, temperature. Among-population comparisons suggest that the majority of differential expression in the liver is likely due to neutral divergence; however, we also show that signatures of directional selection may be more prevalent than those of stabilizing selection. This predominantly aligns with the neutral model of evolution for gene expression but also suggests that natural selection may still act on transcriptional variation in the wild. As genetic variation both within- and among-populations ultimately defines adaptive potential, these results indicate that broad adaptive potential may be found within the transcriptome. PMID:25429004

Leder, Erica H; McCairns, R J Scott; Leinonen, Tuomas; Cano, José M; Viitaniemi, Heidi M; Nikinmaa, Mikko; Primmer, Craig R; Merilä, Juha

2015-03-01

214

Selected new developments in vibrational structure theory: potential construction and vibrational wave function calculations.  

Science.gov (United States)

This perspective addresses selected recent developments in the theoretical calculation of vibrational spectra, energies, wave functions and properties. The theoretical foundation and recently developed computational protocols for constructing hierarchies of vibrational Hamiltonian operators are reviewed. A many-mode second quantization (SQ) formulation is discussed prior to the discussion of anharmonic wave functions. Emphasis is put on vibrational self-consistent field (VSCF) based methods and in particular vibrational coupled cluster (VCC) theory. Other issues are also reviewed briefly, such as inclusion of thermal effects, response theoretical calculation of spectra, and the difficulty in treating dense spectra. PMID:22491444

Christiansen, Ove

2012-04-10

215

Disease-Consensus Index as a tool of selecting potential hypoglycemic plants in Chikindzonot, Yucatán, México.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a general lack of adequate methods to quantitatively assess the importance of specific medicinal plants in a culture. In Mexico like in many other countries type 2 diabetes is an increasing health problem and the use of medicinal plants to treat this disease is widespread. In the present study we propose a mathematical tool for analysing ethnopharmacological field data, with the ultimate aim to select species with most prominent impact on a community to treat a single disease. Using this tool in a Yucatec Mayan community we demonstrate that Malmea depressa (Baill.) R.E. Fr. and Cecropia peltata L. are culturally most salient hypoglycemic plants in this community. PMID:16621373

Andrade-Cetto, Adolfo; Becerra-Jiménez, Jaime; Martínez-Zurita, Eddy; Ortega-Larrocea, Pilar; Heinrich, Michael

2006-09-19

216

Survey on basic knowledge about exposure and potential environmental and health risks for selected nanomaterials  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Based on a literature review this report provides a general description as well as an environmental and health profile of 7 nanomaterials. The examined nanomaterials are selected because of expected high use or specific environmental and health properties. Fullerenes, iron, silver, nanoclay and titanium-, cerium-, and silicondioxides were studied in the project. Based on current uses, it is concluded that current applications of nano-iron and nanoclay can not cause unexpected “nano-associated” health or environmental problems. Although no specific risk associated with current uses of any of the 7 other nanomaterials were identified, there are areas where there may be reason for attention and thus need for more knowledge.

Mikkelsen, Sonja Hagen; Hansen, Erik

2011-01-01

217

Influence of the heteroatom size on the redox potentials of selected polyoxoanions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The apparent formal potentials for the one-electron redox process of most Keggin-type heteropolytungstates, XW(12)O(40)(q-), have long been shown to linearly depend on their overall negative charges, in the absence of proton interference in the process. However, for a given overall negative charge, these formal potentials are also shown here to depend on the specific central heteroatom X. In the present work, cyclic voltammetry was used to study a large variety of Keggin-type anions, under conditions where their comparisons are straightforward. In short, apparent potential values get more negative (the clusters are more difficult to reduce) for smaller central heteroatoms within a given family of Keggin-type heteropolyanions carrying the same overall negative charge. Density functional theory calculations were performed on the same family of Keggin compounds and satisfactorily reproduce these trends. They show that internal XO(4) units affect differently the tungstate oxide cage. The electrostatic potential created by each internal anionic unit in a fragment-like approach (XO(4)(q-)@W(12)O(36)) was analyzed, and it is observed that X atoms of the same group show slight differences. Within each group of the periodic table, X atoms with lower atomic numbers are also smaller in size. The net effect of such a tendency is to produce a more negative potential in the surroundings and thus a smaller capacity to accept electrons. The case of [BW(12)O(40)](5-) illustrates well this conclusion, with the smallest heteroatom of the Keggin series with group III central elements and a very negative reduction potential with respect to the other elements of the same group. Particularly in this case, the electronic structure of the Keggin anion shows the effects of the small size of boron: the highest occupied molecular orbitals of [BW(12)O(40)](5-) appear to be approximately 0.35 eV higher than those in the other clusters of the same charge, explaining that the BO(4) unit is more unstable than AlO(4) or GaO(4) despite carrying the same formal charge. PMID:20586427

Mbomekallé, Israël-Martyr; López, Xavier; Poblet, Josep M; Sécheresse, Francis; Keita, Bineta; Nadjo, Louis

2010-08-01

218

Tectonic zonation of the Central Himalaya and the crustal evolution of collision and compressional belts  

Science.gov (United States)

The Central Himalayan segment is divided from south to north into sub-parallel structural-facies zones. The Main Boundary Fault (MBF) plays the role of an important tectonic element dividing the Siwalik Molasse along the foothills of the Himalaya against the para-autochthonous and allochthonous tectonic units of the Southern Himalaya. On the basis of recent researches I suggest that the Himalayan region should be divided geologically into two major geologic zones. I propose to call the dividing structural line between them, the Main Axial Zone (MAZ) of the Himalaya, which is situated in the crystalline complex of the Higher Himalaya. This deep seated structure in the Himalaya has played a crucial role in the history of geological development as well as incorporating the root zone of southward-pushed thrust sheets. The Main Central Thrust (MCT) tectonically separates the carbonate para-autochthonous zone of Southern Himalaya from the metamorphosed crystalline "Vaikrita" complex. The Vaikrita Central Crystalline Complex in its turn is separated from the huge pile of the sedimentary Tethyan Complex by the "Tethyan Thrust" (TT). Farther north the "Great Himalaya Suture" (GHS) called the Indus-Tsangpo Suture divides the northern extremity of Himalaya from the Karakoram erogenic belt. The GHS has provided excellent conditions for the study of mantle remains on the oceanic crust with the occurrence of ophiolitic melange which was the result of subduction of a continental type plate and obduction of oceanic material. In recent years a large number of data has been recorded especially as a result of Sino-French and other scientific expeditions in the Tibetan region. Reversed critical wide angle reflection profiles of the crust mantle boundary south of the Great Himalaya Suture (GHS) or the Indus-Tsango (Yarlung-Zangbo) Suture in Tibet reveal a deep 70 km Moho extending north of the Higher Himalaya whilst to the south the Moho is 15 km higher. Thus in the southern region of Tibet the crust gets thinner gradually towards the south, and reduces to about 38 km in the Gangetic plain of India. The 300 km of terrain between the GHS and the Gangetic plain represent the transitional collision and compressional belt. The magnetolluric and explosive seismographic data indicate that the layered structures are developed within the crust transisting to the upper mantle. The Moho discontinuity exhibits step terraces. The low velocity and resistance layer within the crust indicates that the crust is overlapping and superimposed. Thus the intense compression from south to north caused by the Indian plate caused the crust to overlap, shorten, thicken and become isostatically adjusted to give rise to the Tibetan plateau. The successive occurrence of nappe-shear zones led to progressive superimposing and thickening of the crust. It also indicates intra-continental subduction and destruction of the lithosphère after plate collision.

Sinha, Anshu K.

1987-03-01

219

Strategies for selecting recombinant CHO cell lines for cGMP manufacturing: realizing the potential in bioreactors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Manufacture of recombinant proteins from mammalian cell lines requires the use of bioreactor systems at scales of up to 20,000 L. The cost and complexity of such systems can prohibit their extensive use during the process to construct and select the manufacturing cell line. It is therefore common practice to develop a model of the production process in a small scale vessel, such as a shake-flask, where lower costs, ease of handling, and higher throughput are possible. This model can then be used to select a small number of cell lines for further evaluation in bioreactor culture. Here, we extend our previous work investigating cell line construction strategies to assess how well the behavior of cell lines in such a shake-flask assessment predicts behavior in the associated bioreactor production process. A panel of 29 GS-CHO cell lines, all producing the same antibody, were selected to include a mixture of high and low producers from a pool of 175 transfectants. Assessment of this panel in 10 L bioreactor culture revealed wide variation in parameters including growth, productivity, and metabolite utilization. In general, those cell lines which were high producing in the bioreactor cultures had also been higher producing in an earlier shake-flask assessment. However, some changes in rank position of the evaluated cell lines were seen between the two systems. A potential explanation of these observations is discussed and approaches to improve the predictability of assessments used for cell line selection are considered. PMID:20623581

Porter, Alison J; Dickson, Alan J; Racher, Andrew J

2010-01-01

220

Potential biochemical markers for selection of disease resistance in Vigna radiata  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek (Green gram), a major pulse crop is prone to damaging diseases caused by Erysiphe polygoni, Cercospora canescens and Rhizoctonia sp. Therefore, the development of multiple resistance is a major breeding objective in green gram. Resistance to powdery mildew has already been developed, however, there are no reports on the development of resistance to Cercospora in green gram. Owing to limitation of conventional screening methods, the improvement for multiple disease resistance is inadequate, in this crop. It needs an efficient and quick selection method, for screening the plant population at an early stage. It is well established that the resistant interaction, in plants, involves accumulation of antibiotic compound phytoalexin (Genestein in Vigna radiata) and induction of enzymes such as ?-1,3 gulcanase and Chitinases. These compounds are not only induced by pathogens but also pathogen-derived elicitors. These biochemical compounds can be used as resistance indicative biochemical markers for screening the natural or mutagen induced genetic diversity in populations of Vigna radiata in non-destructive manner. It, however, needs a systematic study of plant defense response. This paper deals with the response of resistant and susceptible cultivars of vigna radiata to Cercospora elicitor and development of non-destructive selection method for disease resistance. (author)

221

Stimulus selectivity and spatial coherence of gamma components of the local field potential  

OpenAIRE

The gamma frequencies of the local field potential (LFP) provide a physiological correlate for numerous perceptual and cognitive phenomena and have been proposed to play a role in cortical function. Understanding the spatial extent of gamma and its relationship to spiking activity is critical for interpreting this signal and elucidating its function, but previous studies have provided widely disparate views of these properties. We addressed these issues by simultaneously recording LFPs and sp...

Jia, Xiaoxuan; Smith, Matthew A.; Kohn, Adam

2011-01-01

222

Selecting the optimal method to calculate daily global reference potential evaporation from CFSR reanalysis data  

OpenAIRE

Potential evaporation (PET) is one of the main inputs of hydrological models. Yet, there is limited consensus on which PET equation is most applicable in hydrological climate impact assessments. In this study six different methods to derive global scale reference PET time series from CFSR reanalysis data are compared: Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor and original and modified versions of the Hargreaves and Blaney-Criddle method. The calculated PET time series are (1) evaluated against global...

Sperna Weiland, F. C.; Tisseuil, C.; Du?rr, H. H.; Vrac, M.; Beek, L. P. H.

2011-01-01

223

The method of assessment of solar potential for selected area with use Geographical Information Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes a method for analyse the spatial distribution of solar energy potential based on calculated solar irradiation with use of GIS (Geographical Information System. Program GIS GRASS gives opportunity to create spatial distribution of solar radiation which is taking into account such important elements like: terrain, atmosphere, pollutants, water and aerosol in atmosphere, clouds. The use of GIS GRASS module – named r.sun gives opportunity to generate spatial distribution of solar radiation on Lower Silesia (south – west part of Poland. In this work the analyse of solar potential to obtain hot water in the individual household were done. This analyse was based on the amount of total solar radiation monthly sums generated by r.sun module. Spatial distribution of solar potential was used to classify the Lower Silesia region in terms of work efficiency solar installations. It is very usefully because it gives people information about the date of the return of the funds invested in the purchase of the solar collectors.

Netzel P.

2012-10-01

224

Electrical resistivity cross-section across the Garhwal Himalaya: Proxy to fluid-seismicity linkage  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnetotelluric (MT) measurements along a profile cutting across the Garhwal Himalaya of India are inverted to obtain 2-D electrical resistivity structures of the Himalayan wedge and of the underthrusting Indian plate. The imaged resistivity cross-section is dominated by a low-angle north-east dipping intra-crustal high conducting layer (IC-HCL) with an average thickness of 5 km. At transition from the Lesser Himalaya to the Higher Himalaya, the IC-HCL is marked by a ramp structure across which its top jumps from a depth of 8 km to 13 km. High conductivity of the layer is caused by pounding of upward propagating metamorphic fluids trapped by tectonically induced neutral buoyancy. In compression regime of the Himalaya, the mechanical weakening effects of the fluids counteract the fault-normal stresses, thereby facilitating thrust-type earthquakes on a plane imaged as the top of the IC-HCL. It is suggested that in the Himalaya collision belt, like the active subduction zone, the active seismic plane forming seat of large and great earthquakes is located a few kilometers above the top of the down-going plate. In this tectonic setting, the high conductance ramp symbolizes a block of low shear strength and high strain, which under the deviatoric stresses release accentuated stresses into the brittle crust, thereby generating small but more frequent earthquakes in the narrow Himalayan Seismic Belt. In response to either the co-seismic pumping or the stress transfer during inter-seismic period, the upward infiltration of fluid fluxes into the over pressurized zones sufficiently reduces the shear strength of local thrusts and shear zones, turning these into locales of concentrated seismicity.

Rawat, Gautam; Arora, B. R.; Gupta, P. K.

2014-12-01

225

Phylogeography of microbial phototrophs in the dry valleys of the high Himalayas and Antarctica.  

Science.gov (United States)

High-elevation valleys in dry areas of the Himalayas are among the most extreme, yet least explored environments on Earth. These barren, rocky valleys are subjected to year-round temperature fluctuations across the freezing point and very low availability of water and nutrients, causing previous workers to hypothesize that no photoautotrophic life (primary producers) exists in these locations. However, there has been no work using modern biogeochemical or culture-independent molecular methods to test the hypothesis that photoautotrophs are absent from high Himalayan soil systems. Here, we show that although microbial biomass levels are as low as those of the Dry Valleys of Antarctica, there are abundant microbial photoautotrophs, displaying unexpected phylogenetic diversity, in barren soils from just below the permanent ice line of the central Himalayas. Furthermore, we discovered that one of the dominant algal clades from the high Himalayas also contains the dominant algae in culture-independent surveys of both soil and ice samples from the Dry Valleys of Antarctica, revealing an unexpected link between these environmentally similar but geographically very distant systems. Phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses demonstrated that although this algal clade is globally distributed to other high-altitude and high-latitude soils, it shows significant genetic isolation by geographical distance patterns, indicating local adaptation and perhaps speciation in each region. Our results are the first to demonstrate the remarkable similarities of microbial life of arid soils of Antarctica and the high Himalayas. Our findings are a starting point for future comparative studies of the dry valleys of the Himalayas and Antarctica that will yield new insights into the cold and dry limits to life on Earth. PMID:20826485

Schmidt, S K; Lynch, R C; King, A J; Karki, D; Robeson, M S; Nagy, L; Williams, M W; Mitter, M S; Freeman, K R

2011-03-01

226

Relation between methanogenic archaea and methane production potential in selected natural wetland ecosystems across China  

Science.gov (United States)

Methane (CH4) emissions from natural wetland ecosystems exhibit large spatial variability at regional, national, and global levels related to temperature, water table, plant type and methanogenic archaea etc. To understand the underlying factors that induce spatial differences in CH4 emissions, and the relationship between the population of methanogenic archaea and CH4 production potential in natural wetlands around China, we measured the CH4 production potential and the abundance of methanogenic archaea in vertical soil profiles sampled from the Poyang wetland in the subtropical zone, the Hongze wetland in the warm temperate zone, the Sanjiang marsh in the cold temperate zone, and the Ruoergai peatland in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in the alpine climate zone. The top soil layer had the highest population of methanogens (1.07-8.29 × 109 cells g-1 soil) in all wetlands except the Ruoergai peatland and exhibited the maximum CH4 production potential measured at the mean in situ summer temperature. There is a significant logarithmic correlation between the abundance of methanogenic archaea and the soil organic carbon (R2 = 0.72, P 0.05, n = 13), it is related to the dissolved organic carbon concentration (R2 = 0.31, P = 0.05, n = 13). This suggests that the methanogen population might be not an effective index for predicting the CH4 production in wetland ecosystems. The CH4 production rate of the top soil layer increases with increasing latitude, from 273.64 ?g CH4 kg-1 soil d-1 in the Poyang wetland to 664.59 ?g CH4 kg-1 soil d-1 in the Carex lasiocarpa marsh of the Sanjiang Plain. We conclude that CH4 production potential in the freshwater wetlands of Eastern China is mainly affected by the supply of methanogenic substrates rather than temperature; in contrast, low summer temperatures at high elevations in the Ruoergai peatland of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau result in the presence of dominant species of methanogens with low CH4 production potential, which in turn suppresses CH4 production.

Liu, D. Y.; Ding, W. X.; Jia, Z. J.; Cai, Z. C.

2011-02-01

227

Selective Attention Modulates Early Human Evoked Potentials during Emotional Face-Voice Processing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent findings on multisensory integration suggest that selective attention influences cross-sensory interactions from an early processing stage. Yet, in the field of emotional face-voice integration, the hypothesis prevails that facial and vocal emotional information interacts preattentively. Using ERPs, we investigated the influence of selective attention on the perception of congruent versus incongruent combinations of neutral and angry facial and vocal expressions. Attention was manipulated via four tasks that directed participants to (i) the facial expression, (ii) the vocal expression, (iii) the emotional congruence between the face and the voice, and (iv) the synchrony between lip movement and speech onset. Our results revealed early interactions between facial and vocal emotional expressions, manifested as modulations of the auditory N1 and P2 amplitude by incongruent emotional face-voice combinations. Although audiovisual emotional interactions within the N1 time window were affected by the attentional manipulations, interactions within the P2 modulation showed no such attentional influence. Thus, we propose that the N1 and P2 are functionally dissociated in terms of emotional face-voice processing and discuss evidence in support of the notion that the N1 is associated with cross-sensory prediction, whereas the P2 relates to the derivation of an emotional percept. Essentially, our findings put the integration of facial and vocal emotional expressions into a new perspective-one that regards the integration process as a composite of multiple, possibly independent subprocesses, some of which are susceptible to attentional modulation, whereas others may be influenced by additional factors. PMID:25269113

Ho, Hao Tam; Schröger, Erich; Kotz, Sonja A

2015-04-01

228

Relation between methanogenic archaea and methane production potential in selected natural wetland ecosystems across China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Methane (CH4 emissions from natural wetland ecosystems exhibit large spatial variability at regional, national, and global levels related to temperature, water table, plant type and methanogenic archaea etc. To understand the underlying factors that induce spatial differences in CH4 emissions, and the relationship between the population of methanogenic archaea and CH4 production potential in natural wetlands around China, we measured the CH4 production potential and the abundance of methanogenic archaea in vertical soil profiles sampled from the Poyang wetland in the subtropical zone, the Hongze wetland in the warm temperate zone, the Sanjiang marsh in the cold temperate zone, and the Ruoergai peatland in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in the alpine climate zone. The top soil layer had the highest population of methanogens (1.07–8.29 × 109 cells g?1 soil in all wetlands except the Ruoergai peatland and exhibited the maximum CH4 production potential measured at the mean in situ summer temperature. There is a significant logarithmic correlation between the abundance of methanogenic archaea and the soil organic carbon (R2 = 0.72, P < 0.001, n = 13 and between the abundance of methanogenic archaea and the total nitrogen concentrations (R2 = 0.76, P < 0.001, n = 13 in wetland soils. This indicates that the amount of soil organic carbon may affect the population of methanogens in wetland ecosystems. While the CH4 production potential is not significantly related to methanogen population (R2 = 0.01, P > 0.05, n = 13, it is related to the dissolved organic carbon concentration (R2 = 0.31, P = 0.05, n = 13. This suggests that the methanogen population might be not an effective index for predicting the CH4 production in wetland ecosystems. The CH4 production rate of the top soil layer increases with increasing latitude, from 273.64 ?g CH4 kg?1 soil d?1 in the Poyang wetland to 664.59 ?g CH4 kg?1 soil d?1 in the Carex lasiocarpa marsh of the Sanjiang Plain. We conclude that CH4 production potential in the freshwater wetlands of Eastern China is mainly affected by the supply of methanogenic substrates rather than temperature; in contrast, low summer temperatures at high elevations in the Ruoergai peatland of the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau result in the presence of dominant species of methanogens with low CH4 production potential, which in turn suppresses CH4 production.

D. Y. Liu

2011-02-01

229

Selection of potential probiotic Enterococcus faecium isolated from Portuguese fermented food.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from fermented products were evaluated for potential use as probiotic strains. In addition to efaAfm gene, commonly found in E. faecium food isolates, none of the isolates possessed virulence genes and none had positive reactions for the production of tyramine, histamine, putrescine and cadaverine in the screening medium used. All of these four isolates proved to be resistant to 65 °C. E. faecium 119 did not show antimicrobial activity against any of the target bacteria investigated. E. faecium 85 and 101 inhibited Listeria innocua and E. faecium DSMZ 13590. The strain E. faecium 120 inhibited seven target bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes 7946, L. monocytogenes 7947, L. innocua 2030c, L. innocua NCTC 11286, E. faecium DSMZ 13590, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213) and was chosen as the representative to assess the ability to survive gastrointestinal tract passage simulation, as well as the protective role of two food matrices (skim milk and Alheira) during its passage. For both matrices used, no significant differences (p<0.05) were obtained between the types of digestion - quick and slow passage simulation. In the skim milk matrix the isolate was reduced to values below the detection limit of the enumeration technique by the end of the two digestions, in contrast to the Alheira matrix, for which isolate 120 showed a reduction of only ca. 1 log CFU/ml. The E. faecium strain 120 was shown to be a potential candidate for further investigations as a potential probiotic culture. PMID:25268323

Barbosa, Joana; Borges, Sandra; Teixeira, Paula

2014-11-17

230

Neutron scattering studies of methyl derivatives of benzene selected as potential materials for cold neutron moderators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vibrational spectra of toluene, m- and p-xylenes and mesitylene, measured by inelastic incoherent neutron scattering at 20 K, are compared. Internal barriers for methyl rotation in free molecules of these compounds are quite low. External barriers caused by crystal packing significantly increase the frequencies of methyl librations in solid p-xylene and the low temperature phase III of mesitylene. The vibrational spectra of glassy states of mesitylene in solution with toluene and m-xylene indicate relatively low barriers for methyl librations and, typical for disordered solids, additional density of states at low frequencies, which makes these materials preferable as potential moderators for cold neutron sources

231

Carbon storage and sequestration potential of selected tree species in India  

OpenAIRE

A dynamic growth model (CO2FIX) was used for estimating the carbon sequestration potential of sal (Shorea Robusta Gaertn. f.), Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus Tereticornis Sm.), poplar (Populus Deltoides Marsh), and teak (Tectona Grandis Linn. f.) forests in India. The results indicate that long-term total carbon storage ranges from 101 to 156 Mg C?ha?1, with the largest carbon stock in the living biomass of long rotation sal forests (82 Mg C?ha?1). The net annual carbon sequestration rates we...

Kaul, M.; Mohren, G. M. J.; Dadhwal, V. K.

2010-01-01

232

Mediatorless N(2) incorporated diamond nanowire electrode for selective detection of NADH at stable low oxidation potential.  

Science.gov (United States)

The electrocatalytic properties of a N2 incorporated diamond nanowire (N-DNW) unmodified electrode towards the oxidation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) was critically evaluated. The electrochemical behavior of the N-DNW unmodified electrode was examined and compared with that of boron-doped diamond, glassy carbon electrode, and graphite electrodes. The N-DNW electrode had high selectivity and high sensitivity for the differential pulse voltammetric detection of NADH in the presence of ascorbic acid at the lower and stable oxidation potential. Moreover, it exhibited strong stability after prolonged usage. The oxidation peak potential at the N-DNW electrode remained unchanged even after exposure to the solution, followed by washing, drying, and storage in laboratory air for 20 days, with minimization of surface contamination. Therefore, the N-DNW unmodified electrode shows promise for the detection of NADH and is attractive for use in a dehydrogenase based biosensor and other analytical applications. PMID:24352298

Shalini, Jayakumar; Sankaran, Kamatchi Jothiramalingam; Chen, Huang-Chin; Lee, Chi-Young; Tai, Nyan-Hwa; Lin, I-Nan

2014-02-21

233

SOIL CARBON DYNAMICS AND GLOBAL WARMING POTENTIAL OF SELECTED SOIL SERIES AND LANDUSE CATEGORIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Land use conversion is usually accompanied by a decline in soil organic carbon. This work is aimed to determine the soil organic carbon affected by the multiple land use in a particular soil series. The study was conducted in Ustic Haplohumults soil series of Kottayam district of Kerala including land uses like Cropland, Wetland, Agricultural land, Homestead and Mixed vegetation land. Change in land use induced significant losses of soil and particulate organic carbon. The maximum SOC content (7.39% was observed in abandoned paddy field which is nearly 89% more than the lowest values of 0.76% recorded from the Homestead soil. Soil carbon sequestration potential of different land uses varies on spatial and temporal basis along with the interplay of environmental externalities. Potential for CO2 production and global warming of various soils was in accordance with C mineralization and this explains the role and capacity of various land use under consideration to store and release carbon. In the present study it was found that the soils of coconut plantation serve as a better system in terms of maximum SOC storage and minimum carbon emission. The present study reveals the significance and importance of specific land use category which is optimal for particular soil series towards soil carbon storage.

Feba Merin Chacko

2014-03-01

234

Phytoremediation potential of selected plants for nitrate and phosphorus from ground water.  

Science.gov (United States)

The phytoremediation potential of three aquatic plants namely, water lettuce (Pistia stratioes), water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), and water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) for nitrate N and phosphorus from nutrient treated ground water was assessed. A total of twelve treatment combinations including four levels of nitrate (expressed as nitrate N 0, 20, 40, and 60 mg/l) and three levels of phosphorus (0, 20, and 40 mg/l) were treated for the total volume of 1 and 20 liters of water respectively, for Pistia stratiotes and Eichhornia crassipes. For Ipomoea aquatica ten treatment combinations with five levels of nitrate N (0, 10, 20, 40, and 50 mg/l) and two levels of phosphorus (0 and 5 mg/l) were treated to 3 liters of water. The design used was a two factor factorial with three replicates. Water was analyzed at weekly interval for nitrate N and phosphorus. Pistia stratiotes, Eichhornia crassipes and Ipomoea aquatica had the potential to remove nitrate N between 61.5-91.8%, 40-63.5%, and 29.3-75% during the period of six, three and three and weeks, respectively. In addition, 90-99%, 75-97.2%, and 75-83.3% of phosphorus was removed from water by Pistia stratiotes, Eichhornia crassipes and Ipomoea aquatica respectively, during the same period. PMID:24912224

Sundaralingam, T; Gnanavelrajah, N

2014-01-01

235

Energy performance contracting - energy saving potential of selected energy conservation measures (ECM)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report has been developed under the research project 'Etablering af grundlag for energitjenester i Danmark' (project number: ENS-33031-0185) under the Danish research programme - EFP. The objective of this project has been to contribute to the utilisation of the large potential for energy conservations in the building sector within the public, industry and service sectors through the development of a better basis for decision making for both the Energy Service Companies (ESCOes) and the building owners. The EU directive on Energy Service Contracting points at the buildings as the area where the biggest potential market for energy services and energy efficiency improvements are. The EFP-project has two parts: (1) A Danish part and (2) participation in the international cooperation project 'Holistic Assesment Tool-Kit on Energy Efficient Retrofit Measures for Government Buildings (EnERGo)', Annex 46 under the IEA R and D program 'Energy Conservation In Buildings And Community Systems' (ECBCS). This report describes the Danish contributions to the IEA projects subtask B, which has a primary objective to develop a database of energy conservation measures (ECM) with descriptions and performance characteristics of these. (au)

Johansson, M. (Dansk Energi Analyse A/S, Frederiksberg (Denmark)); Langkilde, G.; Olesen, Bjarne W. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, ICIEE, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Moerck, O. (Cenergia Energy Consultants, Herlev (Denmark)); Sundman, O. (DONG Energy, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Engelund Thomsen, K. (Aalborg Univ., SBi, Hoersholm (Denmark))

2008-09-15

236

Potential and limitations of multidecadal satellite soil moisture observations for selected climate model evaluation studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Soil moisture is an essential climate variable (ECV of major importance for land–atmosphere interactions and global hydrology. An appropriate representation of soil moisture dynamics in global climate models is therefore important. Recently, a first multidecadal, observation-based soil moisture dataset has become available that provides information on soil moisture dynamics from satellite observations (ECVSM, essential climate variable soil moisture. The present study investigates the potential and limitations of this new dataset for several applications in climate model evaluation. We compare soil moisture data from satellite observations, reanalysis and simulations from a state-of-the-art land surface model and analyze relationships between soil moisture and precipitation anomalies in the different dataset. Other potential applications like model parameter optimization or model initialization are not investigated in the present study. In a detailed regional study, we show that ECVSM is capable to capture well the interannual and intraannual soil moisture and precipitation dynamics in the Sahelian region. Current deficits of the new dataset are critically discussed and summarized at the end of the paper to provide guidance for an appropriate usage of the ECVSM dataset for climate studies.

A. Loew

2013-09-01

237

Treeline dynamics with climate change at Central Nepal Himalaya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Global climate change has multidimensional impacts with several biological fingerprints, and treeline shifting in tandem with climate change is a widely observed phenomenon in various parts of the world. In Nepal several impacts of climate change on physical environments have been observed. However, studies on the biological impacts are lacking. This dendrochronological study was carried out at the treeline ecotone (3750–4003 m a.s.l. in the Kalchuman Lake (Kal Tal area of the Manaslu Conservation Area in central Nepal Himalaya with the aim to study the dynamic impact of climate change at the treeline. The study provides an insight into regeneration and treeline dynamics over the past 200 yr. Two belt transect plots (size: 20 m wide, >250 m long were laid covering forest line, treeline as well as tree species Abies spectabilis and Betula utilis was done and their tree-cores were collected. Stand character and age distribution revealed an occurrence of more matured B. utilis (max. age 198 yr old compared to A. spectabilis (max. age 160 yr. A. spectabilis contained an overwhelmingly high population (89% of younger plants (A. spectabilis at the rate of 2.61 m yr?1 since 1850 AD. The upper distribution limit of B. utilis was found stagnant in the past few decades. An increment in plant density as well as upward shifting in the studied treeline ecotones was observed. Thus, two species presented species-specific responses to climate change and much wider differences anticipated in their population status as climate continues to cha spectabilis correlated negatively with the mean monthly temperature of May–August of the current year and with September of the previous year. The regeneration of A. spectabilis, on the other hand, was positively related with May–August precipitation and January–April temperature of the current year. The reconstructed average summer temperature (May–August using tree ring data revealed alternate period of cool and warm period with warming in the 2nd half of the 20th century. Further palynological and geochronological studies of sediments of the Kalchuman Lake would advance our understanding of past climatic trends and dynamics of the associated treeline and vegetation in the area.

N. P. Gaire

2013-10-01

238

Attenuation of coda waves in the Garhwal Lesser Himalaya, India  

Science.gov (United States)

Qc estimates for the Uttarkashi and the Chamoli regions of the Garhwal Lesser Himalaya have been obtained by analyzing the coda waves of 159 local earthquakes recorded during 2008 and 2009 employing a 12-station seismological network. Earthquakes around the Uttarkashi region are located in the epicentral distance range of 5.0 to 93.9 km, focal depth range of 1.63 to 42.13 km, and coda magnitude range of 0.2 to 2.9, whereas earthquakes around Chamoli region are located in the epicentral distance range of 19.8-109.2 km, focal depth range of 1.36 to 40.72 km, and coda magnitude range of 1.0 to 3.0. The coda waves of 30 s duration, recorded on 982 seismograms, have been analyzed in seven frequencies range centered at 1.5, 3.0, 6.0, 9.0, 12.0, 18.0, and 24.0 Hz for four to five lapse time windows (LTW) using the single backscattering model given by Aki and Chouet (J Geophys Res 80:3322-3342, 1975). Mean value of Qc estimates vary from 76 at 1.5 Hz to 2201 at 24.0 Hz for LTW range of 10-40 s and from 216 at 1.5 Hz to 3243 at 24.0 Hz for LTW range of 50-80 s (for the Uttarkashi region) and from 147 at 1.5 Hz to 2273 at 24.0 Hz for LTW range of 20-50 s and from 188 at 1.5 Hz to 2826 at 24.0 Hz for LTW range of 50-80 s (for Chamoli region). The Qc values thus obtained showed a clear dependence on frequency and LTW and frequency dependence Qc relationships, Qc = Q0f?, for LTWs that have been obtained as Qc = 57f1.20 (10-40 s), Qc = 97f1.07 (20-50 s), Qc = 116f1.03 (30-60 s), Qc = 130f1.03 (40-70 s), and Qc = 162f0.95 (50-80 s) for Uttarkashi region and Qc = 107f0.95 (20-50 s), Qc = 115f0.96 (30-60 s), Qc = 128f0.95 (40-70 s), and Qc = 145f0.95 (50-80 s) for Chamoli region.

Jain, S. K.; Gupta, S. C.; Kumar, Ashwani

2015-04-01

239

Assessment of radon variability in the borehole in Garhwal Himalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a part of multi-parametric earthquake precursory studies at Ghuttu, Central Himalaya, radon concentration is being measured at two depths in a 68 m borehole. One measurement is taken at a depth of 10 m from surface in the air column above the water table and the second one at 50 m within the water column. Besides radon concentration, air temperature, water temperature, atmospheric pressure, rainfall and water level fluctuations are also recorded with sampling interval of 15 minute. The continuous time series of radon variations at 10 m depth along with other environmental parameters over 3 years (2007-2009) recording shows strong variability including well-defined seasonal, day-to-day and diurnal variations The strong seasonal variations with summer maximum and winter minimum closely follow the similar variations in atmospheric temperature with time lag of few days. The control of temperature gradient in borehole on the emission of radon is evident in the form of different patterns of daily variations. Four types of daily variations are observed (i) positive peaks in late afternoon, (ii) negative peaks in early morning hours (iii) sinusoidal with double peaks and iv) long intervals when daily variations are conspicuously absent, particularly in winter and rainy season. Examination and correlation with environmental factors has revealed that when atmospheric temperature is well below the water temperature in borehole, the later show constant value around 19? in all seasons. In this situation, temperature gradients are not conducive to set up the convection currents for the emanation of radon to surface. Thus, explaining the absence of daily variation in radon concentration in winter. During the rainy season, following continuous rainfalls, once the soil/rocks are saturated with water radon concentrations show fair stability. Long pauses in rainfall give jerky variability during rainy season with no clear pattern of daily variation. During rest of the seasons when surface temperature are always higher than that of water temperature the nature of observed pattern can be reconciled in the form and amplitude of daily progression in temperature gradient. An accurate description and elimination of the effect of environmental variables is essential. Efficacy of approach developed will demonstrated in isolating earthquake precursory signatures in this continuous radon data. (author)

240

Estimation of Leakage Potential of Selected Sites in Interstate and Tri-State Canals Using Geostatistical Analysis of Selected Capacitively Coupled Resistivity Profiles, Western Nebraska, 2004  

Science.gov (United States)

With increasing demands for reliable water supplies and availability estimates, groundwater flow models often are developed to enhance understanding of surface-water and groundwater systems. Specific hydraulic variables must be known or calibrated for the groundwater-flow model to accurately simulate current or future conditions. Surface geophysical surveys, along with selected test-hole information, can provide an integrated framework for quantifying hydrogeologic conditions within a defined area. In 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Platte Natural Resources District, performed a surface geophysical survey using a capacitively coupled resistivity technique to map the lithology within the top 8 meters of the near-surface for 110 kilometers of the Interstate and Tri-State Canals in western Nebraska and eastern Wyoming. Assuming that leakage between the surface-water and groundwater systems is affected primarily by the sediment directly underlying the canal bed, leakage potential was estimated from the simple vertical mean of inverse-model resistivity values for depth levels with geometrically increasing layer thickness with depth which resulted in mean-resistivity values biased towards the surface. This method generally produced reliable results, but an improved analysis method was needed to account for situations where confining units, composed of less permeable material, underlie units with greater permeability. In this report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the North Platte Natural Resources District, the authors use geostatistical analysis to develop the minimum-unadjusted method to compute a relative leakage potential based on the minimum resistivity value in a vertical column of the resistivity model. The minimum-unadjusted method considers the effects of homogeneous confining units. The minimum-adjusted method also is developed to incorporate the effect of local lithologic heterogeneity on water transmission. Seven sites with differing geologic contexts were selected following review of the capacitively coupled resistivity data collected in 2004. A reevaluation of these sites using the mean, minimum-unadjusted, and minimum-adjusted methods was performed to compare the different approaches for estimating leakage potential. Five of the seven sites contained underlying confining units, for which the minimum-unadjusted and minimum-adjusted methods accounted for the confining-unit effect. Estimates of overall leakage potential were lower for the minimum-unadjusted and minimum-adjusted methods than those estimated by the mean method. For most sites, the local heterogeneity adjustment procedure of the minimum-adjusted method resulted in slightly larger overall leakage-potential estimates. In contrast to the mean method, the two minimum-based methods allowed the least permeable areas to control the overall vertical permeability of the subsurface. The minimum-adjusted method refined leakage-potential estimation by additionally including local lithologic heterogeneity effects.

Vrabel, Joseph; Teeple, Andrew P.; Kress, Wade H.

2009-01-01

241

A model study of the energy and mass balance of Chhota Shigri glacier in the Western Himalaya, India  

OpenAIRE

The impact of climate change on Himalaya mountain glaciers is increasingly subject of public and scientific debate. However, observational data are sparse and important knowledge gaps remain in the understanding of what drives changes in these glaciers' mass balances. The present study investigates the glacier regime on Chhota Shigri, a benchmark glacier for the observation of climate change in the monsoon-arid transition zone of Western Himalaya. Results of an energy-balance model dri...

Pithan, F.

2011-01-01

242

POLYGONATUM VERTICILLATUM (LINN.) ALL. AND POLYGONATUM CIRRHIFOLIUM (WALL.) ROYLE: TWO THREATENED VITAL HEALERS FROM ASTHAVERGA NURTURED BY GARHWAL HIMALAYA, INDIA  

OpenAIRE

The biodiversity of Garhwal Himalaya supports a large number of medicinal plants used in various ailments as a drug. Polygonatum verticillatum and Polygonatum cirrhifolium, the healers from 'Asthaverga' of 'Ayurveda', are reported from Garhwal Himalaya, but due to overexploitation are encompassed in threatened category. The present study is a documentation of these plants to facilitate the conservation of these crude drugs in their natural habitat and to domesticate them. The study also provi...

BISHT POONAM; PRASAD PRATTI; NAUTIYAL BHAGWATI PRASAD

2011-01-01

243

[Selection and purification potential evaluation of woody plant in vertical flow constructed wetlands in the subtropical area].  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to solve the problem that wetland herbaceous plants tend to die during winter in subtropics areas, selection and purification potential evaluation experiments were carried out by introducing into the constructed wetlands 16 species of woody wetland plants. Cluster analysis was performed by including the morphological characteristics, physiological characteristics, as well as nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation of the woody wetland plants. The results indicated that there were significant differences among the tested woody plants in their survival rate, height increase, root length increase and vigor, Chlorophyll content, Superoxide dismutase, Malonaldehyde, Proline, Peroxidase, biomass, average concentration and accumulation of nitrogen and phosphorus. Based on the established evaluation system, the tested plants were clustered into 3 groups. The plants in the 1st group possessing high purification potentials are Nerium oleander and Hibiscus syriacus. Those in the 2nd group possessing moderate purification potentials are Trachycarpus fortune, Llex latifolia Thunb., Gardenia jasminoides, Serissa foetida and Ilex crenatacv Convexa. And those in the 3rd group with low purification potentials are Jasminum udiflorum, Hedera helix, Ligustrum vicaryi, Ligustrum lucidum, Buxus sempervives, Murraya paniculata, Osmanthus fragrans, Mahoniafortune and Photinia serrulata. PMID:24812951

Chen, Yong-Hua; Wu, Xiao-Fu; Hao, Jun; Chen, Ming-Li; Zhu, Guang-Yu

2014-02-01

244

[Selection of winter plant species for wetlands constructed as sewage treatment systems and evaluation of their wastewater purification potentials].  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to establish an evaluation system for selection of winter wetland plants possessing high wastewater purification potentials in subtropics areas, designed sewage treatment experiments were carried out by introducing into the constructed wetlands 25 species of winter wetland plants. Cluster analysis was performed by including harmful environment-resistant enzyme and substrate enzyme activities into the commonly applied plant screening and assessment indexes system. The obtained results indicated that there were significant differences among the tested winter plants in their root length and vigor, leaf malonaldehyde (MDA), biomass, average nitrogen and phosphorus concentration and uptake, and urease and phosphoric acid enzyme activities in the root areas. Based on the established evaluation system, the tested plants were clustered into 3 groups. The plants in the 1st group possessing high purification potentials are Oenanthe javanica, Brassicacapestris, Juncus effusu, Saxifragaceae, Iris pseudoacorus, Osmanthus fragrans and Iris ensata; those in the 2nd group possessing moderate purification potentials are Brassica oleracea var acephala, Calendula officinalis, Aucuba japonica, Ligustrum lucidu, Beta vulgaris, Rhododendron simsii and Ilex latifolia; and those in the 3rd group with low purification potentials are Brassica oleracea var acephala, Calistephus chinensis, Rosa chinensis, Antirrhinums, Liriope palatyphylla, Zephyranthes candida, Fatshedera lizei, Petunia hybrida, Ilex quihoui, Dianthus caryophyllus and Loropetalum chinensis. PMID:21090294

Chen, Yong-hua; Wu, Xiao-fu; Chen, Ming-li; Jiang, Li-juan; Li, Ke-lin; Lei, Dian; Wang, Hai-bin

2010-08-01

245

Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) oviposition site selection stimuli on sugarcane, and potential field applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a key pest of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and rice, Oryza sativa L., in Texas, has not been controlled with chemical insecticides or biological agents, but some sugarcane varieties have shown degrees of resistance. Assessment of selected sugarcane leaf characteristics indicate that preference for oviposition sites is mostly determined by the presence of a leaf fold and secondarily by the availability of dry leaf tissue, both of which are antixenotic nonchemical stimuli. We suggest that breeding sugarcane lines bearing leaves that do not fold on drying could provide substantial antixenotic resistance against the Mexican rice borer. Previously identified antixenotic chemical stimuli, i.e., low quantities or absence of important nutrients in green leaf tissue, only become apparent when resistant and susceptible sugarcane varieties are compared. Varietal differences in oviposition preference, however, were not observed on excised dry leaf tissue, indicating that expression of resistance in terms of chemical stimuli requires detection of biochemicals in nearby living leaf tissue. Excised dry sugarcane leaves retain the two dominant nonchemical oviposition preference stimuli for Mexican rice borers, and the leaves effectively trapped eggs away from intact plants when dry leaves were used as "mulch" at the bottom of greenhouse cages. Under commercial sugarcane field conditions, bundled dry leaves also collected Mexican rice borer eggs. Possible applications of dry sugarcane leaf substrate for egg scouting and for trapping eggs are discussed. PMID:20857726

Showler, Allan T; Castro, Boris A

2010-08-01

246

Phytoremediation potential of Alocasia microrrhiza grown on soil collected from selected dumpsites in Ekiti State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of enhanced phytoextraction on the accumulation of heavy metals by Alocasia microrrhiza cultivated on soil collected from selected dumpsites in Ekiti State, Nigeria. The application of 1g/kg EDTA decreased the heights of plants relative to control, but significantly increased the concentration of heavy metals in various tissues of the plant. Notably, concentration of Pb and Cu were greater than the threshold value of 100mg/kg, indicative of the fact that Alocasia microrrhiza could be a good candidate for Pb and Cuphytoextraction. BF, TF and RR values (1.1–1.6, (4.3-4.8 and (1.4–2.3 revealed the effectiveness of the plant to translocate Pb and Cu to their harvestable portion. RRs values greater than one also indicated the efficiency of plant under chelate-induced phytoextraction. However, the concentration of heavy metals did not vary significantly at p < 0.05 (LSD test in all dumpsites investigated.

Asaolu S. S.

2013-04-01

247

Potential aluminium(III)- and gallium(III)-selective optical sensors based on porphyrazines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Porphyrazines possessing non-coordinating alkyl (propyl) and aralkyl (4-tert-butylphenyl) groups in the periphery were studied as optical sensors for a set of mono-, di- and trivalent cations. Investigated porphyrazines in the UV-Vis monitored titrations revealed significant responses towards aluminium and gallium cations, unlike other metal ions studied. Additionally, porphyrazine possessing 4-tert-butylphenyl peripheral substituents showed sensor property towards ruthenium cation and was chosen for further investigation. The presence of isosbestic points in absorption spectra for its titration with aluminium, gallium and ruthenium cations, accompanied by a linear Benesi-Hildebrand plot, proved complex formation. The continuous variation method was used to determine binding stoichiometry in 1:1 porphyrazine-metal ratio. X-Ray studies and density functional theory calculations were employed to investigate octa(4-tert-butylphenyl)porphyrazine structure. The results helped to explain the observed selectivity towards certain ions. Interaction between ion and porphyrazine meso nitrogen in a Lewis acid-Lewis base manner is proposed. PMID:21558658

Goslinski, Tomasz; Tykarska, Ewa; Kryjewski, Michal; Osmalek, Tomasz; Sobiak, Stanislaw; Gdaniec, Maria; Dutkiewicz, Zbigniew; Mielcarek, Jadwiga

2011-01-01

248

Cultivar variation and selection potential relevant to the production of cellulosic ethanol from wheat straw  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Optimizing cellulosic ethanol yield depends strongly on understanding the biological variation of feedstocks. Our objective was to study variation in capacity for producing fermentable sugars from straw of winter wheat cultivars with a high-throughput pretreatment and hydrolysis well-plate technique. This technique enabled us to estimate cultivar-related and environmental correlations between sugar yield, chemical composition, agronomic qualities, and distribution of botanical plant parts of wheat straw cultivars. Straws from 20 cultivars were collected in duplicates on two sites in Denmark. Following hydrothermal pretreatment (180 °C for 17.6 min) and co-hydrolysis, sugar release and sugar conversion were measured. Up to 26% difference in sugar release between cultivars was observed. Sugar release showed negative cultivar correlation with lignin and ash content, whereas sugar release showed positive cultivar correlation with content of carbohydrates and plant height. Accessibility to cellulose can impede thesugar conversion rate, and convertibility of each botanical fraction might be more important to overall sugar conversion than the relative proportions of botanical fractions. Our results suggest that selection of cultivars for improved biofuel feedstock of wheat straw is possible, because heritability of sugar release is 57% and there are few adverse correlations to other agronomic traits.

Lindedam, Jane; Andersen, Sven Bode

2012-01-01

249

Keynote address: cellular reduction of nitroimidazole drugs: potential for selective chemotherapy and diagnosis of hypoxic cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nitroimidazole drugs were initially developed as selective radiosensitizers of hypoxic cells and, consequently, as adjuvants to improve the local control probabilities of current radiotherapies. Misonidazole (MISO), the prototype radiosensitizing drug, was found in Phase I clinical studies to cause dose-limiting neurotoxicities (mainly peripheral neuropathies). MISO was also found to be cytotoxic in the absence of radiation and to covalently bind to cellular molecules, both processes demonstrating rates much higher in hypoxic compared with oxygenated cells. It is likely that neurotoxicity, cellular cytotoxicity and adduct formation results from reactions between reduction intermediates of MISO and cellular target molecules. Spin-offs from radiosensitizer research include the synthesis and characterization of more potent hypoxic cytotoxins and the exploitation of sensitizer-adducts as probes for measuring cellular and tissue oxygen levels. Current developments in hypoxic cell cytotoxin and hypoxic cell marker research are reviewed with specific examples from studies which characterize the cellular reduction of TF-MISO, (1-(2-nitro-1-imidazolyl)-3[2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy]-2-propanol). 45 references

250

Antiplasmodial potential of selected medicinal plants from eastern Ghats of South India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malaria caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is a major health problem of the developing world. In the present study medicinal plants from Eastern Ghats of South India have been extracted with ethyl acetate and assayed for growth inhibition of asexual erythrocytic stages of chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive (3D7) and (CQ)-resistant (INDO) strains of P. falciparum in culture using the fluorescence-based SYBR Green I assay. Studied extracts showed a spectrum of antiplasmodial activities ranging from (a) very good (IC(50)10-15 ?g/mL: Ficus religiosa and Murraya koenigii); (c) moderate (IC(50)>15-25 ?g/mL: Ficus benghalensis); (d) poor activity (IC(50)>25-60 ?g/mL) and (e) inactive (IC(50)>60 ?g/mL). Resistance indices ranging from 0.78 to 1.28 suggest that some of these extracts had equal promise against the CQ resistant INDO strain of P. falciparum. Cytotoxicity assessment of the extracts against HeLa cell line using MTT assay revealed that the selectivity indices in the range of 3-15 suggesting a good margin of safety. PMID:23399920

Kaushik, Naveen Kumar; Bagavan, Asokan; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Mohanakrishnan, Dinesh; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Elango, Gandhi; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Sahal, Dinkar

2013-05-01

251

Historical and potential scour around bridge piers and abutments of selected stream crossings in Indiana  

Science.gov (United States)

Historical scour data were collected by means of geophysical techniques and used to evaluate the scour-computation procedures recommended by the U.S. Federal Highway Administration and 12 other pub- lished pier-scour equations. Geophysical data were collected at 10 bridges in Indiana. For this evaluation it was assumed that the historical scour measured by use of geophysical techniques was associated with the peak historical discharge. The hydraulic conditions for the peak historical discharge were estimated by use of a model that computes water-surface profiles. For the evaluation, the results of the contraction and pier-scour equations were combined to determine a computed bed elevation, which was compared to the minimum historical bed elevation at the upstream end of the piers estimated from the geophysical data. None of the pier-scour equations accurately represented the historical scour at all of the study sites. On the basis of the limited data presented, the Federal Highway Administration procedures provided a combination of accuracy and safety, required by design equations, equal to or better than the other equations evaluated. The potential scour was com- puted according to the procedures recommended by the Federal Highway Administration. At two bridges, the procedures overpredicted historical scour by more than 10 feet, and at two other bridges, the proce- dure underpredicted historical scour by more than 5 ft therefore, the potential-scour computations need to be verified by additional data and sediment-transport modeling. Computed abutment scour appeared to be excessive at about half of the sites.

Mueller, D.S.; Miller, R.L.; Wilson, J.T.

1994-01-01

252

A method for selecting potential geosites. The case of glacial geosites in the Chablais area (French and Swiss Prealps)  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 2009, an Interreg IVA project (123 Chablais), dealing with the promotion of natural and cultural heritage in the Chablais area, has been developed. It is linked to the creation of the Chablais Geopark. In a context of development of smart forms of tourism, the objective was to develop a strategy promoting the glacial heritage to a wide public in an area where the glaciers have almost disappeared. The recognition of specific places as geoheritage is the result of a double process: a scientific one, based on more or less sophisticated methods, and a social one, that is the acknowledgment by the society. One of the first scientific tasks is to produce a list of "potential geosites" that will be assessed in more details. However, this selection is often a weak point of inventories. It often seems like a "black box" without any transparency. In this project (123 Chablais) we carried out an inventory of glacial geosites, using the method developed by Reynard et al. (2007, 2012). However, a method has been created to enlighten the selection process, and to enhance choices in geoheritage management. As it was not possible to consider all sites in the Chablais area, a mixed selection approach was developed, halfway between completeness and specificity (Martin, 2012). The first step was the creation of a list of "points of interest", established using different sources: literature review, fieldwork and use of GIS to cross information. A selection was then performed according to two criteria: correspondence with a glacial stage (time axis) and belonging to a type of forms (spatial axis). Finally, selected sites aimed at providing a representative overview of the regional glacial witnesses. Therefore, representative sites of the regional geology were selected as well as sites presenting regional peculiarities Temporal and spatial attributes were given to the 101 points of interest identified. From a temporal point of view, this inventory aimed at presenting the main stages of the glacial retreat since the Last Glacial Maximum. From a spatial point of view, the objective was to show the different types of glacial remnants, but also some landforms related to deglaciation processes. Finally, 32 glacial and associated geosites were selected. Each geosite was submitted to a full evaluation process, including basis information, description, explanation of morphogenesis and an evaluation of values assigned to geosites. This assessment, first qualitative, provided valuable information concerning their intrinsic interest and their management. A numerical evaluation was also assessed to classify geosites and define an order of priority for their touristic promotion. It is worth to be noted that each selected points of interest can in fact be qualified as a geosite, using a clear method of selection. In this study, the numerical evaluation is not a mean to select geosites but a way to rank one geosite to another. Some geosites can be abandoned if intrinsic values are too low. Despite a well-defined protocol, the subjectivity and authors' choices are part of the selection process and inventory. This fact is certainly not a weakness. It must be considered whenever such inventory is made. Reference Martin, S. (2012). Valoriser le géopatrimoine par la médiation indirecte et la visualisation des objets géomorphologiques (Thèse de doctorat). Université de Lausanne, Lausanne. Reynard E., Fontana G., Kozlik L., Scapozza C. (2007). A method for assessing the scientific and additional values of geomorphosites, Geographica Helvetica, 62(3), 148-158. Reynard, E., Perret, A., Grangier, L., & Kozlik, L. (2012). Methodological approach for the assessment, protection, promotion and management of geoheritage. EGU General Assembly, Vienna.

Perret, Amandine; Reynard, Emmanuel

2014-05-01

253

Climate Past and Present: A Study on Glaciology of Himalayas in India  

Science.gov (United States)

Glaciers are moving bodies of ice and snow, which are normally present above the snow line. Glaciers and ice sheets are hundreds to more than one thousand meters thick and change significantly only over decades. On these longer time scales they can influence atmospheric circulation and global sea levels. Glaciers play an important role in maintaining ecosystem stability as they act as buffers and regulate the runoff water supply from high mountains to the plains during both dry and wet spells. The present study is an attempt to analyze the Climate of the Past and Present of the Himalayas with reference to study the glaciology. The study also attempted to use the remote sensed data to explore the past and present situation of glaciology of the Himalayas. Since mountain glaciology of Himalayas played a vital role and stand as an example to explore the possibility of the climate change that occurred from the past to the present and also to determine the status in the future. The Study was based on the secondary and primary data collected from available sources and also collected from various published records to document the evidences for the same. It was observed that the Himalayan glaciers account for about 70% of the world’s non-polar glaciers and affect the lives of millions of people in several countries: China, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nepal and Bangladesh. Their runoff feeds two of the oldest rivers in the world, the Indus and the Ganges, whose tributaries carry precious water for 500 million people on the northern Indian plains. Most of the glaciers in the Himalayas are of a summer-accumulation type, that is major accumulation and ablation take place simultaneously during summer (Fujita et. al, 1997). The glaciers of the Himalayas include some of the longest outside the Polar Regions and reached their largest extent during the end of the last ice age (more than 20,000 years ago). The evidence of these large ice masses can be seen in 'U' shaped valleys, which characterize much of the higher Himalayas. On the basis of their mode of occurrence and dimensions, glaciers have broadly been classified into three categories: valley glaciers, piedmont glaciers and continental glaciers. Himalayan glaciers fall in the category of valley glaciers. It has been estimated that an area of about 32,000 sq. km is under permanent cover of ice and snow in the Himalayas (Negi, 1991). This amounts to about 17% of the total geographical area of the Himalayas. Higher concentration of glaciers in the Himalayas lie in the regions with the highest mountain peaks, that is, Nanga Parbat, Nun Kun, Kinner Kailash, Nanda Devi, Nanda Kot, Annapurna, Mt. Everest, Makalu and Kanchanjunga. There are a number of small, medium and large size glaciers in the Himalayan ranges with typical landform features. Some of the famous and important ones include Baltoro glacier, Gangotari glacier, Gasherbrum glacier, Siachen glacier, Kanchanjunga glacier and Hispar glacier. Of these, the Siachen glacier is the most well known, on account of its strategic significance in the South Asian region. Glaciers are dynamic in nature; they grow and shrink in response to changing climate. During the Pleistocene era (2 million years ago) glaciers occupied about 30% of the total area of the earth as against 10% at present.

Shanmuganandan, S.

2003-04-01

254

Marker-assisted selection as a potential tool for genetic improvement in developing countries: debating the issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Marker-assisted selection (MAS) is a complementary technology, for use in conjunction with more established conventional methods of genetic selection, for plant and animal improvement. It has generated a good deal of expectations, many of which have yet to be realized. Although documentation is limited, the current impact of MAS on products delivered to farmers seems small. While the future possibilities and potential impacts of MAS are considerable, there are also obstacles to its use, particularly in developing countries. Principal among these are issues relating to current high costs of the technology and its appropriateness, given that publicly funded agricultural research in many developing countries is suboptimal and development priorities do not necessarily include genetic improvement programmes. Other potential obstacles to the uptake of MAS in developing countries include limited infrastructure, the absence of conventional selection and breeding programmes, poor private sector involvement and lack of research on specific crops of importance in developing countries. Intellectual property rights may also be an important constraint to development and uptake of MAS in the developing world. It is hoped that through partnerships between developing and developed country institutions and individuals, including public-private sector collaboration, MAS costs can be reduced, resources pooled and shared and capacity developed. With the assistance of the Consultative Grouth the assistance of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) and international organizations such as FAO, developing countries can benefit more from MAS. These were some of the outcomes of a moderated e-mail conference, entitled 'Molecular Marker- Assisted Selection as a Potential Tool for Genetic Improvement of Crops, Forest Trees, Livestock and Fish in Developing Countries', that FAO hosted at the end of 2003. During the four-week conference, 627 people subscribed and 85 messages were posted, about 60 percent coming from people living in developing countries. Most messages (88 percent) came from people working in research centres (national or international) or universities. The remainder came from people working as independent consultants or from farmer organizations, government agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) or United Nations (UN) organizations. (author)

255

Comparing the genetic architecture and potential response to selection of invasive and native populations of reed canary grass.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evolutionary processes such as migration, genetic drift, and natural selection are thought to play a prominent role in species invasions into novel environments. However, few empirical studies have explored the mechanistic basis of invasion in an evolutionary framework. One promising tool for inferring evolutionarily important changes in introduced populations is the genetic variance-covariance matrix (G matrix). G matrix comparisons allow for the inference of changes in the genetic architecture of introduced populations relative to their native counterparts that may facilitate invasion. Here, we compare the G matrices of reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) populations across native and invasive ranges, and between populations along a latitudinal gradient within each range. We find that the major differences in genetic architecture occur between populations at the Northern and Southern margins within each range, not between native and invasive populations. Previous studies have found that multiple introductions in introduced populations caused an increase in genetic variance on which selection could act. In addition, we find that differences in the evolutionary potential of Phalaris populations are driven by differences in latitude, suggesting that selection also shapes the evolutionary trajectory of invasive populations. PMID:25568018

Calsbeek, Brittny; Lavergne, Sebastien; Patel, Manisha; Molofsky, Jane

2011-11-01

256

Structural differences of matrix metalloproteinases with potential implications for inhibitor selectivity examined by the GRID/CPCA approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of proteolytic enzymes, which have been the focus of a lot of research in recent years because of their involvement in various disease conditions. In this study, structures of 10 enzymes (MMP1, MMP2, MMP3, MMP7, MMP8, MMP9, MMP12, MMP13, MMP14, and MMP20) were examined with the intention of highlighting regions that could be potential sites for obtaining selectivity. For this purpose, the GRID/CPCA approach as implemented in GOLPE was used. Counterions were included to take into account the different electrostatic properties of the proteins, and the GRID calculations were performed, allowing the protein side chains to move in response to interaction with the probes. In the search for selectivity, the MMPs are known to be a very difficult case because the enzymes of this family are very similar. The well-known differences in the S1' pocket were observed, but in addition, the pockets S3 and S2 called for attention. This is an observation that emphasizes the needfor design of inhibitors exploiting the unprimed side of the active site, if possible, in combination with the S1' site. Despite small differences, a rational usage of the findings described in this work should make it possible to use a combination of the features of the individual enzyme pockets, making most of the MMP enzymes possible targets for selective inhibition. The results suggest the possibility of distinguishing between 8 of the 10 enzymes by this approach.

Terp, Gitte Elgaard; Cruciani, Gabriele

2002-01-01

257

Application of in vitro methods for selection of Lactobacillus casei strains as potential probiotics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Probiotics have established their efficacy as dietary adjuncts providing benefits to consumers, but the selection of probiotics before incorporation in diet requires close scrutiny in the form of in vitro as well as in vivo tests. The present study was undertaken to check different in vitro characteristics of seven Lactobacillus casei strains. The characteristics studied include acid and bile tolerance, adhesion and cell surface hydrophobicity, antimicrobial effect on common pathogens and cholesterol reduction. All strains were able to resist pH 3 for 3 h, though resistance to pH 2 was exhibited by NCDC 17, C1 and Y strains only. NCDC 63 and VT strains were able to tolerate 1% and 2% bile concentrations for 12 h. There was wide variation in ability of strains to adhere to isolated rat epithelial cells. The index was highest for C1 at 66%. The electron microscopic adhesion studies on the stainless steel chips did not reveal any specific attachment to surfaces by any of strains. The hydrophobic character for octane was highest for strain C1 at 54.06% and lowest for strain C2 at 4.65%. The ability to antagonize common pathogens was observed in all strains but this activity was attributed to production of organic acids and no specific compound caused the inhibitory effect. The cholesterol reducing ability varied not only for strains but also for time of incubation. NCDC 17 showed maximum reduction in cholesterol level after 48 h of incubation with buffalo plasma as the source of cholesterol. Overall there existed variations in different strains with respect to different characters of significance to be a probiotic. PMID:16040148

Mishra, Vijendra; Prasad, D N

2005-08-15

258

Maternal use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and risk of miscarriage - assessing potential biases  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: The use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during pregnancy has been associated with miscarriage, but the association may be biased by maternal mental illness, lifestyle and exposure misclassification. METHODS: A register study on all pregnancies in Denmark between 1996 and 2009 was conducted using individualised data from the Danish National Patient Register, the Medical Birth Register, the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, the Danish National Prescription database and the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). RESULTS: A total of 1?191164 pregnancies were included in the study, of which 98275 also participated in the DNBC. Pregnancies exposed to SSRIs during or before pregnancy were more likely than unexposed pregnancies to result in first trimester miscarriage, hazard rate (HR)=1.08 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04, 1.13] and HR=1.26 [95% CI 1.16, 1.37], respectively. No difference was observed for second trimester miscarriage. SSRI-exposed pregnancies without a maternal depression/anxiety diagnosis from a psychiatric department were less likely to result in first trimester miscarriage than unexposed pregnancies with a diagnosis, HR=0.85 [95% CI 0.76, 0.95]. SSRI-exposed pregnancies were characterised by an unhealthier maternal lifestyle and mental health profile than unexposed pregnancies, whereas no convincing differences were observed between pregnancies exposed to SSRIs during versus before pregnancy. Substantial disagreement was found between prescriptions and self-reported use of SSRIs, but it did not affect the estimated hazard ratios. CONCLUSION: Confounding by indication and lifestyle in pregnancy may explain the association between SSRI use and miscarriage.

Johansen, Rie Laurine Rosenthal; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

2015-01-01

259

Potential consequences of selection to change gestation length on performance of Holstein cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic evaluations for gestation length (GL) for Holstein service sires were studied to determine their effectiveness in predicting GL in an independent data set. Consequences of selection on GL were also assessed by examining correlated changes in milk and fitness traits. Holstein bulls with ? 300 calvings between 1998 and 2005 were stratified into the following 7 groups using predicted transmitting ability (PTA) for service sire GL: traits were also examined for the (independent) mates with the same service sire groups. Intermediate service sire PTA GL was optimal for yield traits and days open; performance for productive life and culling generally became less favorable as service sire PTA GL increased. A second examination was made by replacing service sire PTA GL groups in the model with phenotypic cow GL groups. Relationships between GL and subsequent performance for milk yield and fitness traits were examined using 9 phenotypic cow GL groups: ? 271, 272-273, …, 284-285, and ? 286 d. Performance generally improved for subsequent lactation yield as cow GL increased; however, intermediate GL was optimal for productive life, calving ease, stillbirth, culling, and days open. Results indicated that neither shortening nor increasing the mean for GL in the Holstein breed provided much overall benefit when all traits were considered. The same traits examined in the cows for the correlated effect from various GL were also examined in their offspring to determine whether the GL producing the calf had any influence on these same traits when the offspring reached their own productive period. Little carryover occurred from GL on the dam to the other traits observed on the offspring when examined a generation later. PMID:21257069

Norman, H D; Wright, J R; Miller, R H

2011-02-01

260

Utilization of the Potentials of Selected Microorganisms as Biocontrol and Biofertilizer for Enhanced Crop Improvement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Some selected microorganisms isolated from rhizosphere of crops, were screened for their abilities to enhance crop growth and suppress plant parasitic nematodes; in screenhouse experiments. Two promising hybrids of soybean genotypes: TGx 1448-2E (medium duration and TGx 1485-1D (early maturing and a high yielding hybrid of maize genotype Oba Super 1 were used. Microorganisms assessed included the fungi: Trichoderma pseudokoningii, Trichoderma viride, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Aspergillus niger, Glomus mosseae and the rhizobacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida. One thousand juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita were applied to soybean, while five thousand Pratylenchus zeae (juveniles and adults were applied to maize. Fungal spores and rhizobacteria cells approximately 2.5x106 mL-1 concentration were applied per plant, for maize experiment. For soybean experiment, Bradyrhizobium japonicum (106 cells, Trichoderma pseudokoningii (6.8x106 spores and G. mosseae (200 spores were inoculated per plant. The effect of microorganism`s application was compared with a nematicide (carbofuran treatment, untreated control and a nematode only control. The parameters measured were nematode density, root damage due to plant parasitic nematode infection, relative leaf chlorophyll content and plant growth parameters. The inoculated beneficial microorganisms in most cases significantly (p?0.05 reduced the nematode density across the treatments in test crops by up to 79.6% and improved plant growth by up to 46.0%, when treatments performances were compared across treatments. Most of the beneficial microorganisms assessed have prospects of enhancing nematode management through nematode density reduction and improving crop production.

E.O. Oyekanmi

2008-01-01

261

Investigation of greenhouse gas reduction potential and change in technological selection in Indian power sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to the growing energy needs along with increasing concerns towards control of greenhouse gas emissions, most developing countries are under pressure to find alternative methods for energy conversion and policies to make these technologies economically viable. One of the instruments that have been adopted by many industrial countries is that of the carbon tax. The rate of introducing carbon taxes however, depends upon the local economic conditions and market forces. The case of Indian power sector has been examined by using MARKAL model for introduction of carbon taxes at four different trajectories. Their implications on the power generation choices have been investigated for a time span of 25 years from the year 2000. In general large hydropower plants have emerged as the first choice followed by wind energy systems. However, cheaper availability of coal in India keeps scope of use of coal based technologies for which pressurised fluidised bed combustion technology has been found to be the balanced choice among fossil technologies. There exists a potential of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by about 25% as compared to the 'business-as-usual' case in presence of high carbon tax rates

262

Helpful or harmful? Potential effects of exercise on select inflammatory conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inflammation has been characterized as a double-edged sword, requiring a balance between health as maintained by regular exercise and activities that would exacerbate inflammatory diseases. The influence of exercise on inflammation is complex and has been widely studied in both healthy patient populations as well as populations of patients with many inflammatory and/or autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Inflammatory markers can be affected by the type of exercise and muscle contraction, as well as the intensity, duration, and consistency of the exercise sessions. Because of these potentially important effects, many members of the general public, as well as some clinicians, believe that exercise could exacerbate symptoms and accelerate the progression of such conditions. The effects of different types of exercise have been studied among patients with inflammatory conditions such as ankylosing spondylitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, and idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, as well as congestive heart failure, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome, which are considered low-grade systemic inflammatory diseases. This review will help exercise professionals and clinicians understand the effects of exercise on inflammatory markers, as well as offer effective treatment options and recommendations for patients exercising with rheumatic or inflammatory conditions. PMID:24231601

Thomas, Jennifer L

2013-11-01

263

Selection of potential cold water marine species for testing of oil dispersants, and chemically dispersed oil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study regarding marine species for toxicity testing for Alaska conditions was presented and the potential adverse impacts of a large marine oil spill in cold water were discussed with the objective to determine if the spill should be treated by the use of oil dispersants. Without dispersion, the oil can pollute marine epifauna and can deposit on beaches. The decision to apply dispersants to a marine oil spill requires knowledge of the toxicity of the undispersed oil to pelagic marine life occurring via natural dispersion as opposed to the toxicity of the oil-dispersant mixture. Most standard toxicity tests apply to warm water species. This paper discussed the need to have a standard test species relevant to Alaska waters for toxicity testing. In this study, toxicity testing was done according to the methods of the Chemical Response to Oil Spills : Ecological Effects Research Forum (CROSERF). The testing included capturing adult species in the winter and holding them until larval hatching. Toxicity testing was completed in a narrow time frame before hatching ceased. Many chemical samples were tested. Topsmelt, urchins, shellfish, mysids, copepods, pink salmon fry, and tidepool sculpin were considered by the author to be the most useful for certain types of toxicity testing. 29 refs

264

Subject Combination and Electrode Selection in Cooperative Brain-Computer Interface Based on Event Related Potentials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available New paradigms are required in Brain-Computer Interface (BCI systems for the needs and expectations of healthy people. To solve this issue, we explore the emerging field of cooperative BCIs, which involves several users in a single BCI system. Contrary to classical BCIs that are dependent on the unique subject’s will, cooperative BCIs are used for problem solving tasks where several people shall be engaged by sharing a common goal. Similarly as combining trials over time improves performance, combining trials across subjects can significantly improve performance compared with when only a single user is involved. Yet, cooperative BCIs may only be used in particular settings, and new paradigms must be proposed to efficiently use this approach. The possible benefits of using several subjects are addressed, and compared with current single-subject BCI paradigms. To show the advantages of a cooperative BCI, we evaluate the performance of combining decisions across subjects with data from an event-related potentials (ERP based experiment where each subject observed the same sequence of visual stimuli. Furthermore, we show that it is possible to achieve a mean AUC superior to 0.95 with 10 subjects and 3 electrodes on each subject, or with 4 subjects and 6 electrodes on each subject. Several emerging challenges and possible applications are proposed to highlight how cooperative BCIs could be efficiently used with current technologies and leverage BCI applications.

Hubert Cecotti

2014-04-01

265

Potential of selective insecticides for managing Uraba lugens (Lepidoptera: Nolidae) on Eucalypts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The leaf skeletonizer Uraba lugens Walker (Lepidoptera: Nolidae), an Australian species, locally known as "gumleaf skeletonizer", is well established in New Zealand. This insect has the potential to become a serious pest of forestry and amenity eucalypts (Eucalyptus spp.) and is the focus of a long-term management program. The use of synthetic chemical or biological insecticides is one possible control method within an integrated control program. A series of dose-response trials were conducted using laboratory bioassays to test the efficacy of several insecticides against U. lugens: pyrethroids, spinosad, Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki Berliner (Btk) and an insect growth regulator, Mimic. Pyrethroids and spinosad proved highly effective against U. lugens larvae, achieving 100% mortality after 3-6-d exposure. The performance of Btk was lower against gregarious skeletonizing larvae compared with solitary chewing larvae. When good coverage of the target foliage is achieved, >90% mortality is possible with Btk. Mimic performed poorly against U. lugens compared with other insecticides tested (insecticide efficacy. Treatments applied to Eucalyptus nitens (Deane & Maiden) Maiden had reduced efficacy compared with E. cinerea F. Muell. ex Benth. or E. fastigata Deane & Maiden. Cooler temperatures also reduced insecticide efficacy, presumably by decreasing movement and food consumption by U. lugens. Recommendations on spray applications to control U. lugens in New Zealand are given. PMID:16813312

Mansfield, S; Withers, T M; Gous, S F; Potter, K J B; Kriticos, D J; Watson, M C; Kimberley, M O

2006-06-01

266

Phytotoxicity of biosolids and screening of selected plant species with potential for mercury phytoextraction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mercury contaminated stockpiles of biosolids (3.5-8.4 mg kg(-1) Hg) from Melbourne Water's Western Treatment Plant (MW-WTP) were investigated to evaluate the possibility for their phytoremediation. Nine plant species (Atriplex codonocarpa, Atriplex semibaccata, Austrodanthonia caespitosa, Brassica juncea, Brassica napus, Gypsophila paniculata, Sorghum bicolor, Themeda triandra and Trifolium subterraneum) were screened for phytoextraction potential in Hg-contaminated biosolids from MW-WTP. In addition, the same plant species were germinated and grown in two other substrates (i.e. potting mix and potting mix spiked with mercury(II)). Growth measurements and the mercury uptake for all three substrates were compared. Some plant species grown in potting mix spiked with mercury(II) grew more vigorously than in the other two substrates and showed higher levels of sulphur in their tissues. These results suggested that the mercury stress activated defence mechanisms and it was hypothesised that this was the likely reason for the enhanced production of sulphur compounds in the plant species studied which stimulated their growth. Some species did not grow in biosolids because of the combined effect of high mercury toxicity and high salt content. Atriplex conodocarpa and Australodanthonia caespitose proved to be the most suitable candidates for mercury phytoextraction because of their ability to translocate mercury from roots to the above-ground tissues. PMID:19775810

Lomonte, Cristina; Doronila, Augustine I; Gregory, David; Baker, Alan J M; Kolev, Spas D

2010-01-15

267

Seleção de plantas com potencial para fitorremediação de tebuthiuron Plant selection with potential for tebuthiuron phytodecontamination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo selecionar espécies tolerantes ao tebuthiuron, visando utilizá-las em programas de fitorremediação de solos contaminados com esse herbicida. Foram avaliadas: Amaranthus hybridus, Crotalaria juncea, Chamaesyce hyssopifolia, C. hirta, Canavalia ensiformes, Helianthus annus, Pennisetum typhoides, Estizolobium aterrimum, Raphanus raphanistrum e Crotalaria incana. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, em vasos contendo 3 dm³ de solo de textura argilo-arenosa com 2,18 dag kg¹ de matéria orgânica. O experimento foi delineado em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições de tratamentos em fatorial 10 x 4 x 4, os quais foram constituídos por 10 espécies, quatro doses de tebuthiuron (0,0; 5,0; 1,0; e 2,0 kg ha-1, aplicadas em pré-emergência, e quatro épocas de avaliação (15, 30, 45 e 60 dias após a semeadura. Foram avaliadas a fitotoxicidade do herbicida, a altura de plantas e a massa de matéria seca da parte aérea, de raízes e do total da planta. Canavalia ensiformes e Pennisetum typhoides foram tolerantes ao tebuthiuron na dose de 0,5 kg ha-1. Estizolobium aterrimum tolerou tebuthiuron até a dose de 1,0 kg ha¹, apresentando fitotoxicidade menos acentuada e menor redução de altura de plantas e da massa de matéria seca da parte aérea, de raízes e do total da planta em relação ao tratamento testemunha.This study aimed to select tebuthiuron- tolerant plants to use them in phytoremediation programs in contaminated soils. The evaluated species were: Amaranthus hybridus, Crotalaria juncea, C. hyssopifolia, Chamaesyce hirta, Canavalia ensiformes, Helianthus annus, Pennisetum typhoides, Estizolobium aterrimum, Raphanus raphanistrum and Crotalaria incana. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, with a sandy-clay soil with 2.18 dag kg-1 of organic matter, in pots of 3 dm³ capacity. The experiment was arranged in a 10 x 4 x 4 factorial scheme in a randomized block design with three replications. The treatments consisted of: 10 species, four tebuthiuron doses (0.0; 0.5; 1.0 e 2.0 kg ha-1 applied in pre-emergence, and four evaluation times (15, 30, 45, and 60 days after sowing. Phytotoxicity, plant height and, above-ground, root and total biomass dry matter were evaluated. Canavalia ensiformes and Pennisetum typhoides were tolerant to tebuthiuron at the dose of 0.5 kg ha-1, and Estizolobium aterrimum up to the dose of 1.0 kg ha-1, with the latter showing less phytotoxicity symptoms and a smaller reduction of plant height, above-ground, root, and total biomass dry matter, as compared to the control treatment.

F.R. Pires

2003-12-01

268

In vitro screening of potential probiotic activities of selected lactobacilli isolated from unpasteurized milk products for incorporation into soft cheese.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim was to select potentially probiotic lactobacilli from 88 strains isolated from unpasteurized milk and cheese products, and to incorporate these bacteria in a viable state into a soft cheese, without changing its quality. The survival of these bacteria was assessed in acidic and bile conditions, after freezing at -80 degrees C. Four strains from unpasteurized Camembert--two Lactobacillus plantarum strains and two Lb. paracasei/casei strains--were identified and typed by PCR and PFGE and were found to display potentially probiotic characteristics in addition to resistance to low pH and bile. These characteristics were resistance to lysozyme, adhesion to CACO-2 cells, antimicrobial effects against common foodborne pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, innocuity following the ingestion of high doses by mice and appropriate antibiotic susceptibility profiles. The potential of Lb. plantarum strain UCMA 3037 for incorporation into a soft cheese (Pont-l'Eveque registered designation of origin (RDO)) was investigated. This strain grew well and survived in sufficient numbers (more than 10(7) cfu/g throughout the shelf-life of the product) in the cheese. This strain did not change the quality score of the product until the best before date (75 days after manufacture). Thus, unpasteurized Camembert is a natural source of potentially probiotic lactobacilli, which could be used as an additive in the development of potentially probiotic soft cheeses. Further work is required to demonstrate the persistence and efficacy of these strains in the human host upon ingestion. PMID:15605712

Coeuret, Valérie; Gueguen, Micheline; Vernoux, Jean Paul

2004-11-01

269

Geomorphic impacts, age and significance of two giant landslide dams in the Nepal Himalayas: Ringmo-Phoksundo (Dolpo District) and Dhampu-Chhoya (Mustang District).  

Science.gov (United States)

Large catastrophic slope failures have recently retained much attention in the northern dry Himalayas (1). They play a prominent role in the denudation history of active orogens at a wide range of spatial and time scales (2), and they impact durably landforms and process evolution in upstream catchments. Their occurrence mostly results from three different potential triggers: earthquakes, post-glacial debuttressing, and permafrost melting. We focus on two examples of giant rock slope failures that occurred across and north of the Higher Himalaya of Nepal and assess their respective influence on the regional, geomorphic evolution. The Ringmo rockslide (4.5 km3) results from the collapse of a mountain wall (5148 m) cut into palaeozoic dolomites of the Tethysian Himalayas. It caused the damming of the Suli Gad River at the origin of the Phoksumdo Lake (3600 m asl). The presence of glacial till at the very base of the sequence suggests the rockslide event is post-glacial, a field assumption confirmed by cosmogenic dating. Two consistent 36Cl ages of 20,885 ±1675 argue for a single, massive event of paraglacial origin that fits well with the last chronologies available on the Last Glacial Maximum in the Nepal Himalaya. The persistence of the Phoksumdo Lake is due to its dam stability (i.e. high lime content of landslide components) and to low sediment flux from the arid, upper Suli Gad catchment. The Dhampu-Chhoya rock avalanche (about 1 km3, area extent 10 km2) was derived from the northward failure of the Kaiku ridge, uphold by north-dipping, upper crystallines of the Higher Himalaya. It dammed the Kali Gandaki River, with complex interactions with the Late Pleistocene ice tongues derived from the Dhaulagiri (8167 m) and Nilgiris (7061 m) peaks. Both the rock avalanche and glaciers controlled the existence and level of the "Marpha Lake" (lacustrine deposits up to Kagbeni). Again, consistent 10Be ages of 29,680 ± 1015 ka obtained from two large blocks (>1000 m3) suggest a single event, in full agreement with other 10Be dates obtained by a different team from the same site (3). This latter event occurred during glaciation, and was likely triggered in connection with the North Himalayan Fault and/or Thakkhola fault activity. Post-landslide dam evolution includes rapid dissection of lacustrine deposits (4), yet the braided pattern of the Kali Gandaki evidence the delay in headward erosion caused by landslide dam persistence. References: (1) Hewitt K., 2009. Catastrophic rock slope failures and late Quaternary developments in the Nanga Parbat-Haramosh Massif, Upper Indus basin, northern Pakistan. Quaternary Science Reviews, 28, 1055-1069; (2) Korup, O., Clague, J.J., 2009. Natural hazards, extreme events, and mountain topography. Quaternary Science Reviews 28, 977-990; (3) Zech R., Zech M, Kubik P.W., Kharki K., Zech W. (2009). Deglaciation and landscape history around Annapurna, Nepal, based on 10Be surface exposure dating, Quaternary Science Reviews, v. 28(11-12), pp.1106-1118; (4) Fort M., Cossart E. (2013) Erosion assessment in the middle Kali Gandaki (Nepal): A sediment budget approach. Journal of Nepal Geological Society, Vol. 46, pp. 25-40.

Fort, Monique; Braucher, Regis; Bourlès, Didier; Guillou, Valery; Nath Rimal, Lila; Gribenski, Natacha; Cossart, Etienne

2014-05-01

270

Seleção de plantas com potencial para fitorremediação de tebuthiuron / Plant selection with potential for tebuthiuron phytodecontamination  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivo selecionar espécies tolerantes ao tebuthiuron, visando utilizá-las em programas de fitorremediação de solos contaminados com esse herbicida. Foram avaliadas: Amaranthus hybridus, Crotalaria juncea, Chamaesyce hyssopifolia, C. hirta, Canavalia ensiformes, Helianthus a [...] nnus, Pennisetum typhoides, Estizolobium aterrimum, Raphanus raphanistrum e Crotalaria incana. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, em vasos contendo 3 dm³ de solo de textura argilo-arenosa com 2,18 dag kg¹ de matéria orgânica. O experimento foi delineado em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições de tratamentos em fatorial 10 x 4 x 4, os quais foram constituídos por 10 espécies, quatro doses de tebuthiuron (0,0; 5,0; 1,0; e 2,0 kg ha-1), aplicadas em pré-emergência, e quatro épocas de avaliação (15, 30, 45 e 60 dias após a semeadura). Foram avaliadas a fitotoxicidade do herbicida, a altura de plantas e a massa de matéria seca da parte aérea, de raízes e do total da planta. Canavalia ensiformes e Pennisetum typhoides foram tolerantes ao tebuthiuron na dose de 0,5 kg ha-1. Estizolobium aterrimum tolerou tebuthiuron até a dose de 1,0 kg ha¹, apresentando fitotoxicidade menos acentuada e menor redução de altura de plantas e da massa de matéria seca da parte aérea, de raízes e do total da planta em relação ao tratamento testemunha. Abstract in english This study aimed to select tebuthiuron- tolerant plants to use them in phytoremediation programs in contaminated soils. The evaluated species were: Amaranthus hybridus, Crotalaria juncea, C. hyssopifolia, Chamaesyce hirta, Canavalia ensiformes, Helianthus annus, Pennisetum typhoides, Estizolobium at [...] errimum, Raphanus raphanistrum and Crotalaria incana. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, with a sandy-clay soil with 2.18 dag kg-1 of organic matter, in pots of 3 dm³ capacity. The experiment was arranged in a 10 x 4 x 4 factorial scheme in a randomized block design with three replications. The treatments consisted of: 10 species, four tebuthiuron doses (0.0; 0.5; 1.0 e 2.0 kg ha-1) applied in pre-emergence, and four evaluation times (15, 30, 45, and 60 days after sowing). Phytotoxicity, plant height and, above-ground, root and total biomass dry matter were evaluated. Canavalia ensiformes and Pennisetum typhoides were tolerant to tebuthiuron at the dose of 0.5 kg ha-1, and Estizolobium aterrimum up to the dose of 1.0 kg ha-1, with the latter showing less phytotoxicity symptoms and a smaller reduction of plant height, above-ground, root, and total biomass dry matter, as compared to the control treatment.

F.R., Pires; C.M., Souza; A.A., Silva; M.E.L.R., Queiroz; S.O., Procópio; J.B., Santos; E.A., Santos; P.R., Cecon.

2003-12-01

271

Development and reproductive potential of diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) on selected wild crucifer species.  

Science.gov (United States)

The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is an oligophagous insect that primarily feeds on members of the family Cruciferae. The development, survival, and reproductive potential of P. xylostella were studied on eight wild cruciferous species: Rorippa indica (L.) Hiern, Cardamine hirsuta L., Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl, Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic, Cardamine leucantha (Tausch) O. E. Schulz, Orychophragmus violaceus (L.) O. E. Schulz, Thlaspi arvense L., and Cardamine macrophylla Willd. Developmental durations of immatures from egg to adult emergence differed significantly among the plant species, with the longest period recorded on C. macrophylla (20.8 d) and the shortest on R. indica (15.8 d). The female pupae of P. xylostella reared on C. leucantha and T. arvense were lighter (4.2 and 4.3 mg/pupa) than those reared on other hosts (5.2-6.5 mg/pupa), and the male pupae from T. arvense were the lightest (3.1 mg/pupa) among all colonies. Survival from egg to adult emergence ranged from 95.7% on R. indica to 48.8% on T. arvense. The longevity (10.1 d) of P. xylostella female and the oviposition period (7.7 d) were the longest when larvae fed R. indica than those that fed on other wild hosts. Female adults of P. xylostella from O. violaceus, C. macrophylla, and Ca. bursa-pastoris had higher fecundity (305-351 eggs/female) than from other wild host plants, whereas that from R. indica had the lowest fecundity (134 eggs/female). C. hirsuta was the best wild host plant for P. xylostella because of the highest intrinsic rates of increase (rm = 0.2402), whereas T. arvense was the least favorable hosts with the lowest intrinsic rates of increase (rm = 0.1577). The results from this study will be useful for interpretation of the performance and population dynamics of P. xylostella on wild hosts and cultivated cruciferous vegetables. PMID:24367918

Niu, Yan-Qin; Sun, Yuan-Xing; Liu, Tong-Xian

2014-02-01

272

Selecting the optimal method to calculate daily global reference potential evaporation from CFSR reanalysis data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Potential evaporation (PET is one of the main inputs of hydrological models. Yet, there is limited consensus on which PET equation is most applicable in hydrological climate impact assessments. In this study six different methods to derive global scale reference PET time series from CFSR reanalysis data are compared: Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor and original and modified versions of the Hargreaves and Blaney-Criddle method. The calculated PET time series are (1 evaluated against global monthly Penman-Monteith PET time series calculated from CRU data and (2 tested on their usability for modeling of global discharge cycles.

The lowest root mean squared differences and the least significant deviations (95 % significance level between monthly CFSR derived PET time series and CRU derived PET were obtained for the cell specific modified Blaney-Criddle equation. However, results show that this modified form is likely to be unstable under changing climate conditions and less reliable for the calculation of daily time series. Although often recommended, the Penman-Monteith equation did not outperform the other methods. In arid regions (e.g., Sahara, central Australia, US deserts, the equation resulted in relatively low PET values and, consequently, led to relatively high discharge values for dry basins (e.g., Orange, Murray and Zambezi. Furthermore, the Penman-Monteith equation has a high data demand and the equation is sensitive to input data inaccuracy. Therefore, we preferred the modified form of the Hargreaves equation, which globally gave reference PET values comparable to CRU derived values. Although it is a relative efficient empirical equation, like Blaney-Criddle, the equation considers multiple spatial varying meteorological variables and consequently performs well for different climate conditions. In the modified form of the Hargreaves equation the multiplication factor is uniformly increased from 0.0023 to 0.0031 to overcome the global underestimation of CRU derived PET obtained with the original equation. It should be noted that the bias in PET is not linearly transferred to actual evapotranspiration and runoff, due to limited soil moisture availability and precipitation.

The resulting gridded daily PET time series provide a new reference dataset that can be used for future hydrological impact assessments or, more specifically, for the statistical downscaling of daily PET derived from raw GCM data.

F. C. Sperna Weiland

2011-07-01

273

Assessment of the antioxidant potential of selected plant extracts--in vitro and in vivo experiments on pork.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antioxidant potential of selected plant extracts was assessed in vitro and in vivo experiments on pork. In the in vitro experiment, the anti-oxidative capacity of ethanol-water extract of Melissa officinalis (MW), ethanol-propylene-glycol extracts of M. officinalis (MP), Origanum vulgaris (O) and Salvia officinalis (S) at different dilutions was analysed. Furthermore a 2% essential oil concentrate was added to Origanum (OSi) and Salvia (SSi). In the two in vivo experiments in total 104 Slovak White Meaty pigs were fed with plant extracts (MW and O) at different doses with/without additional vitamin E. In the in vitro experiment Melissa (MW) showed a higher antioxidant potential compared to Origanum and Salvia assessed by TEAC assay. Addition of essential oil to Origanum improved substantially the anti-oxidative capacity. In the in vivo experiment the highest muscle anti-oxidative effect was obtained by feeding 60 ml Origanum. Small improvement in muscle antioxidant potential was observed by feeding Melissa or Origanum in combination with vitamin E. By feeding 10 ml Melissa, Origanum or Salvia the meat quality parameters such as pH(1) and pH(24), drip loss and shear force was not affected. After 5 days storage of meat the redness value was positively affected. PMID:20488625

Lahucky, Rudolf; Nuernberg, Karin; Kovac, Lubomir; Bucko, Ondrej; Nuernberg, Gerd

2010-08-01

274

Electrochemical control of the standard potential of solid-contact ion-selective electrodes having a conducting polymer as ion-to-electron transducer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • The standard potential of solid-contact ion-selective electrodes was adjusted electrochemically. • The standard potential was shifted by applying a potential that deviates from the open-circuit potential. • The standard potential was shifted by applying current pulses in the nA range. - Abstract: This work addresses the well-known problem of variations in the standard potential (E°) of solid-contact ion-selective electrodes (SC-ISEs) that have a conducting polymer (CP) as ion-to-electron transducer covered by a polymeric ion-selective membrane. Poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) doped with poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate), i.e. PEDOT(PSS), was electrodeposited on glassy carbon (GC) disk electrodes and used as the solid contact for three different types of PVC-based membranes in order to elucidate the possibility to electrochemically control E° for this type of SC-ISE. The GC/PEDOT(PSS) electrode was thus coated with potassium-selective membranes with and without the lipophilic salt tetradocedylammonium tetrakis(4-clorophenyl)borate (ETH-500) and by a cation-sensitive membrane without ionophore. The results show that the standard potential of the studied types of SC-ISEs can be shifted by applying a potential that deviates from the open-circuit potential of the electrode in the chosen electrolyte solution or by applying current pulses in the nA range

275

Distribution and Potential Mobility of Selected Heavy Metals in a Fluvial Environment Under the Influence of Tanneries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study we evaluated the occurrence of heavy metals in a fluvial environment under the influence of tanneries – the Cadeia and Feitoria rivers basin (RS, south Brazil, highlighting the distribution and potential mobility of the selected elements. Every three months, over one year-period, selected heavy metals and ancillary parameters were analyzed in water and sediment samples taken at ten sites along the rivers. Water analyses followed APHA recommendations, and sediment analyses were based on methods from USEPA (SW846 and European Community (BCR sequential extraction. The determinations were performed by ICP/OES, except for Hg (CV/ETA. Statistical factor analysis was applied to water and sediment data sets, in order to obtain a synthesis of the environmental diagnosis. The results revealed that water quality decreased along the rivers, and mainly on the dry period (January, showing the influence of tannery plants vicinity and flow variations. Except for Fe, Al, and eventually Mn, heavy metal contents in water were in agreement with Brazilian standards. Concerning sediments, Al, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn, Ti, and Zn concentrations appeared to reflect the base levels, while Cr and Hg were enriched in the deposits from the lower part of the basin. The partition of heavy metals among the sediment geochemical phases showed higher mobility of Mn along the sampling sites, followed by Cr in the lower reach of the basin, most affected by tanneries. Since Cr was predominantly associated to the oxidizable fraction, its potential mobilization from contaminated sediments would be associated to redox conditions. The detection of Hg in the tissue of a bottom-fish species indicated that the environmental conditions are apparently favoring the remobilization of this metal from contaminated sediments.

Rodrigues M. L. K.

2013-04-01

276

Origin and radiative forcing of black carbon transported to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The remote and high elevation regions of central Asia are influenced by black carbon (BC emissions from a variety of locations. BC deposition contributes to melting of glaciers and questions exist, of both scientific and policy interest, as to the origin of the BC reaching the glaciers. We use the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem model to identify the location from which BC arriving at a variety of locations in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau originates. We then calculate its direct and snow-albedo radiative forcing. We analyze the seasonal variation in the origin of BC using an adjoint sensitivity analysis, which provides a detailed map of the location of emissions that directly contribute to black carbon concentrations at receptor locations. We find that emissions from northern India and central China contribute the majority of BC to the Himalayas, although the precise location varies with season. The Tibetan Plateau receives most BC from western and central China, as well as from India, Nepal, the Middle East, Pakistan and other countries. The magnitude of contribution from each region varies with season and receptor location. We find that sources as varied as African biomass burning and Middle Eastern fossil fuel combustion can significantly contribute to the BC reaching the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. We compute radiative forcing in the snow-covered regions and estimate the forcing due to the BC induced snow-albedo effect at about 5–15 W m?2 within the region, an order of magnitude larger than radiative forcing due to the direct effect, and with significant seasonal variation in the northern Tibetan Plateau. Radiative forcing from reduced snow albedo accelerates glacier melting. Our analysis can help inform mitigation efforts to slow the rate of glacial melt by identifying regions that make the largest contributions to BC deposition in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau.

M. Kopacz

2010-09-01

277

Hydrological response to climate change in a glaciated catchment in the Himalayas  

OpenAIRE

The analysis of climate change impact on the hydrology of high altitude glacierized catchments in the Himalayas is complex due to the high variability in climate, lack of data, large uncertainties in climate change projection and uncertainty about the response of glaciers. Therefore a high resolution combined cryospheric hydrological model was developed and calibrated that explicitly simulates glacier evolution and all major hydrological processes. The model was used to assess the future deve...

Immerzeel, W. W.; Beek, L. P. H.; Konz, M.; Shresta, A. B.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

2012-01-01

278

Joint spatial variability of aerosol, clouds and rainfall in the Himalayas from satellite data  

OpenAIRE

Satellite-based precipitation, Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), Cloud Optical Depth (COD), and Aerosol Index (AI) data were used to characterize the linkages among landform and the intra-annual variability of aerosols, cloudiness and rainfall in the Himalayas using empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis. The first modes of AOD and AI show the presence of two branches of dust aerosol: over the Indus river basin and the Thar desert with a sharp west-east gradient parallel to the southern slop...

Shrestha, P.; Barros, A. P.

2010-01-01

279

Seasonal Variation of Benthic Macro Invertebrates from Tons River of Garhwal Himalaya Uttarakhand  

OpenAIRE

Present investigation was carried out to assess the seasonal variation of benthic macro-invertebrates from the Tons river, a tributary of Yamuna River in Garhwal Himalaya, Uttrakhand during December, 2007 to November, 2009. The seasonal benthic diversity was correlated with various physic-chemical parameters which documented that the macrobenthic diversity is mostly regulated by the dissolved oxygen in the water while temperature and free CO2 were found to be inversely correlated with the ben...

Sheetal Mamgain; Negi, R. K.

2013-01-01

280

Region-wide glacier mass balances over the Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya during 1999–2011  

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Full Text Available The recent evolution of Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya (PKH glaciers, widely acknowledged as valuable high-altitude as well as mid-latitude climatic indicators, remains poorly known. To estimate the region-wide glacier mass balance for 9 study sites spread from the Pamir to the Hengduan Shan (eastern Himalaya, we compared the 2000 Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM digital elevation model (DEM to recent (2008–2011 DEMs derived from SPOT5 stereo imagery. During the last decade, the region-wide glacier mass balances were contrasted with moderate mass losses in the eastern and central Himalaya (?0.22 ± 0.12 m w.e. yr?1 to ?0.33 ± 0.14 m w.e. yr?1 and larger losses in the western Himalaya (?0.45 ± 0.13 m w.e. yr?1. Recently reported slight mass gain or balanced mass budget of glaciers in the central Karakoram is confirmed for a larger area (+0.10 ± 0.16 m w.e. yr?1 and also observed for glaciers in the western Pamir (+0.14 ± 0.13 m w.e. yr?1. Thus, the "Karakoram anomaly" should be renamed the "Pamir-Karakoram anomaly", at least for the last decade. The overall mass balance of PKH glaciers, ?0.14 ± 0.08 m w.e. yr?1, is two to three times less negative than the global average for glaciers distinct from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Together with recent studies using ICESat and GRACE data, DEM differencing confirms a contrasted pattern of glacier mass change in the PKH during the first decade of the 21st century.

J. Gardelle

2013-08-01

281

Comparative Study of Herbaceous Vegetation in Lower Dachigam National Park, Kashmir Himalaya, India  

OpenAIRE

The present study was conducted to estimate the variation in herbaceous community features in terms of diversity, species richness and distribution pattern in the two different ecosystems i.e., site I (pastureland) and site II (forest) in the lower Dachigam National Park of Kashmir, Himalaya. The pasture site is located outside the National Park and is under grazing were as forest site is located inside the National Park and is protected. The study was done on seasonal basis and the results r...

Bhat, G. A.; Soni, P.; Shameem, S. A.

2010-01-01

282

Diversity of Culturable Soil Micro-fungi along Altitudinal Gradients of Eastern Himalayas  

OpenAIRE

Very few studies have addressed the phylogenetic diversity of fungi from Northeast India under the Eastern Himalayan range. In the present study, an attempt has been made to study the phylogenetic diversity of culturable soil fungi along the altitudinal gradients of eastern Himalayas. Soil samples from 24 m above sea level to 2,000 m above sea level altitudes of North-East India were collected to investigate soil micro-fungal community structure and diversity. Molecular characterization of th...

Devi, Lamabam Sophiya; Khaund, Polashree; Nongkhlaw, Fenella M. W.; Joshi, S. R.

2012-01-01

283

Local perceptions of climate change validated by scientific evidence in the Himalayas  

OpenAIRE

The Himalayas are assumed to be undergoing rapid climate change, with serious environmental, social and economic consequences for more than two billion people. However, data on the extent of climate change or its impact on the region are meagre. Based on local knowledge, we report perceived changes in climate and consequences of such changes for biodiversity and agriculture. Our analyses are based on 250 household interviews administered in 18 villages, and focused group discussions conducted...

Chaudhary, Pashupati; Bawa, Kamaljit S.

2011-01-01

284

Similarities and differences of aerosol optical properties between southern and northern slopes of the Himalayas  

OpenAIRE

The Himalayas is located at the southern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, and it acts as a natural barrier for the transport of atmospheric aerosols, e.g. from the polluted regions of South Asia to the main body of the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we investigate the seasonal and diurnal variations of aerosol optical properties measured at the three Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites over the southern (Pokhara station and EVK2-CNR station in Nepal) and northern (Qomolangma (Mt. Everes...

Xu, C.; Ma, Y. M.; Yang, K.; Zhu, Z. K.; Wang, J. M.; Amatya, P. M.; Zhao, L.

2013-01-01

285

GPS measurements of present-day convergence across the Nepal Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

The high elevations of the Himalaya and Tibet result from the continuing collision between India and Asia, which started more than 60 million years ago1-4. From geological and seismic studies of the slip rate of faults in Asia5, it is believed that approximately one-third of the present-day convergence rate between India and Asia (58 +/- 4mmyr-1) is responsible for the shortening, uplift and moderate seismicity of the Himalaya. Great earthquakes also occur infrequently in this region, releasing in minutes the elastic strain accumulated near the boundary zone over several centuries, and accounting for most of the advance of the Himalaya over the plains of India. The recurrence time for these great earthquakes is determined by the rate of slip of India beneath Tibet, which has hitherto been estimated indirectly from global plate motions6, from the slip rates of faults in Asia7,8, from seismic productivity9, and from the advance of sediments on the northern Ganges plain10. Here we report geodetic measurements, using the Global Positioning System (GPS), of the rate of contraction across the Himalaya, which we find to be 17.52 +/- 2 mm yr -1. From the form of the deformation field, we estimate the rate of slip of India beneath Tibet to be 20.5 +/- 2 mmyr-1. Strain sufficient to drive one or more great Himalayan earthquakes, with slip similar to that accompanying the magnitude 8.1 Bihar/Nepal 1934 earthquake, may currently be available in western Nepal.

Bilham, Roger; Larson, Kristine; Freymueller, Jeffrey

1997-03-01

286

Origin and radiative forcing of black carbon transported to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The remote and high elevation regions of central Asia are influenced by black carbon (BC emissions from a variety of locations. BC deposition contributes to melting of glaciers and questions exist, of both scientific and policy interest, as to the origin of the BC reaching the glaciers. We use the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem model to identify the location from which BC arriving at a variety of locations in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau originates. We then calculate its direct and snow-albedo radiative forcing. We analyze the seasonal variation in the origin of BC using an adjoint sensitivity analysis, which provides a detailed map of the location of emissions that directly contribute to black carbon concentrations at receptor locations. We find that emissions from northern India and central China contribute the majority of BC to the Himalayas, although the precise location varies with season. The Tibetan Plateau receives most BC from western and central China, as well as from India, Nepal, the Middle East, Pakistan and other countries. The magnitude of contribution from each region varies with season and receptor location. We find that sources as varied as African biomass burning and Middle Eastern fossil fuel combustion can significantly contribute to the BC reaching the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. We compute radiative forcing in the snow-covered regions and find the forcing due to the BC induced snow-albedo effect to vary from 5–15 W m?2 within the region, an order of magnitude larger than radiative forcing due to the direct effect, and with significant seasonal variation in the northern Tibetan Plateau. Radiative forcing from reduced snow albedo likely accelerates glacier melting. Our analysis may help inform mitigation efforts to slow the rate of glacial melt by identifying regions that make the largest contributions to BC deposition in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau.

M. Kopacz

2011-03-01

287

Mechanical analysis of controls on strain partitioning in the Himalayas of central Nepal  

OpenAIRE

We present a mechanical analysis of the problem of slip partitioning between the major thrust systems in a collisional range. We focus on two structures in the Himalayas of central Nepal: the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT) and the Main Central Thrust (MCT). We use finite element modeling to test the influence of various parameters, such as friction coefficients and surface processes, and we investigate how they affect the distribution of deformation between these two faults. We observe that repr...

Godard, Vincent; Burbank, Douglas W.

2011-01-01

288

Longest time series of glacier mass changes in the Himalaya based on stereo imagery  

OpenAIRE

Mass loss of Himalayan glaciers has wide-ranging consequences such as declining water resources, sea level rise and an increasing risk of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). The assessment of the regional and global impact of glacier changes in the Himalaya is, however, hampered by a lack of mass balance data for most of the range. Multi-temporal digital terrain models (DTMs) allow glacier mass balance to be calculated since the availability of stereo imagery. Here we present the lon...

Bolch, T.; Pieczonka, T.; Benn, D. I.

2010-01-01

289

Structure and Function of Shisham Forests in Central Himalaya, India: Dry Matter Dynamics  

OpenAIRE

The biomass and net primary productivity (NPP) of 5? to 15?year?old Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.) forests growing in central Himalaya were estimated. Allometric equations were developed for all above? and below?ground components of trees and shrubs for each stand. Understorey forest floor biomass and litter fall were also estimated in forest stands. The biomass (dry matter), forest floor biomass (standing crop litter), tree litter fall and NPP of trees and shrubs increased wit...

Lodhiyal, Neelu; Lodhiyal, L. S.; Pangtey, Y. P. S.

2002-01-01

290

Radon variations in soil and groundwater of Bhilagana valley, Garhwal Himalaya, India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radon measurements were made in the soil-gas and groundwater present in various lithological units and across the major tectonic zone (Munsiari and Bhatwari-Ramgarh Thrust) located between Ghansali and Ghuttu area in Bhilangana valley of the Garhwal Himalaya, India. High concentrations of radon were observed both in soil-gas and groundwater samples located close to the tectonic planes. Overall radon concentration in this area was found to be controlled by lithology, structure and associated uranium mineralization. (author)

291

Volatile-assisted intrusion and autometasomatism of leucogranites in the Khumbu Himalaya, Nepal  

OpenAIRE

Leucogranite crops out in the upper Imja Khola, Khumbu Himalaya, Nepal, where it makes up approximately 50% of the exposed bedrock. Leucogranites and their associated aplite-pegmatites typically intruded as concordant sills, millimeters- to kilometers-wide. The exceptional Nuptse granite is an ellipsoidal pluton of nearly 1-km radius, which probably resulted from the ballooning of a sill and is wrapped in concordant country rock foliation. Small-scale structures and mineral paragenesis indica...

Weinberg, Rf; Searle, Mp

1999-01-01

292

Field relations, petrogenesis and emplacement of the Bhagirathi leucogranite, Garhwal Himalaya  

OpenAIRE

The Bhagirathi leucogranite forms a series of low-angle en echelon, lensoidal intrusions at the top of the High Himalayan slab in the central Himalaya of Garhwal, northern India. The leucogranite comprises the assemblage: K-feldspar + quartz + plagioclase + tourmaline + muscovite ± biotite ± garnet. Compared to other High Himalayan leucogranites it is particularly rich in tourmaline. The granite is generally compositionally homogeneous although it is magmatically banded in both the upper an...

Searle, Mp; Metcalfe, Rp; Rex, Aj; Norry, Mj

1993-01-01

293

Violation of the electric dipole selection rules in indirect multiphoton excitation of image potential states on Ag(100)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Photoemission from image potential states (IPS) on Ag(100) is investigated using angle resolved multiphoton photoemission induced by 150 fs laser pulses. For the first time we demonstrate that IPS populated by indirect transitions can be observed with light polarized parallel to the plane of incidence and light polarized normal to the plane of incidence. The latter is a process normally forbidden by the dipole transition selection rules. These findings are related to the creation of a hot electron population. This interpretation is supported by the reduction of the IPS electron effective mass, about 6%, when measured by indirect multiphoton population, followed by one- photon photoemission. The change of the effective mass is attributed to the interaction, with momentum exchange, between the non-equilibrium electron population in the bulk and the IPS. As a result of the momentum exchange the electronic excitations are not restricted anymore by the polarization selection rules. In the figure, panel A, photoemission spectra at hv = 4.28 eV in s and p polarization are shown. The inset represents a schematic energy level diagram at k parallel 0 of Ag(100) surface states, showing a direct one-photon population, two-photon photoemission via the n=1 IPS. In panel B, the spectra at hv 3.14 eV in s and p polarization are shown. In this case a direct population would be forbidden by dipole selection rules in s polarization, hence a indirect mechanism must be invokedence a indirect mechanism must be invoked

294

Potential social, institutional, and environmental impacts of selected energy-conservation measures in two Washington communities. [Seattle and Yakima  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The likely environmental, social, and institutional impacts of selected energy-conservation measures in two communities in Washington state are reported. The five conservation measures investigated in this study were: (1) retrofitting existing buildings; (2) district heating and Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES); (3) small automobiles and vehicle redesign; (4) land-use and housing modifications; and (5) electric-utility rate reform. Twenty potential impact areas were selected for analysis. These areas were divided into five categories of environmental impacts, economic impacts, community impacts, personal impacts, and overall quality of life in the community. The research was conducted in Seattle and Yakima, Washington. In each location, about two dozen public officials and business, labor, and community leaders were interviewed. Their diverse views are summarized. The Seattle respondents saw energy conservation as a highly desirable policy with a number of temporary, transitional problems arising as energy-conservation measures were implemented. Yakima respondents, in contrast, did not expect to encounter many serious energy problems in the foreseeable future and consequently viewed energy conservation as a relatively minor community concern. Moreover, they anticipated that many conservation measures, if implemented by the government, would encounter either apathy or resistance in their community. Two broad generalizations can bedrawn from these interviews: (1) energy conservation will basically be beneficial for the natural environment and our society; and (2) if energy conservation does become a dominant thrust in our society, it could stimulate and reinforce a much broader process of fundamental social change. (LCL)

Edelson, E.; Olsen, M.

1980-03-01

295

The potential of selected macroalgal species for treatment of AMD at different pH ranges in temperate regions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The metal bioaccumulation potential of selected macroalgae species at different pH ranges was study for usage as part of a possible secondary passive acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment technology in algae ponds. Two separate studies were conducted to determine the suitability of macroalgae for passive treatment when metabolic processes in macrophytes and microorganisms in constructed wetlands decrease during winter months. In the field study, the bioconcentration of metals (mg/kg dry weight) measured in the benthic macroalgae mats was in the following order: site 1. Oedogonium crassum Al > Fe > Mn > Zn; site 2. Klebsormidium klebsii, Al > Fe > Mn > Zn; site 3. Microspora tumidula, Fe > Al > Mn > Zn and site 4. M. tumidula, Fe > Mn > Al > Zn. In the laboratory study, cultured macroalgae K. klebsii, O. crassum and M. tumidula isolated from the field sampling sites were exposed to three different pH values (3, 5 and 7), while bioaccumulation of the metals, Al, Fe, Mn and Zn and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity were measured in the different selected algae species at a constant water temperature of 14 °C. Bioaccumulation of Al was the highest for O. crassum followed by K. klebsii and M. tumidula (p low water temperature. PMID:24835955

Oberholster, Paul J; Cheng, Po-Hsun; Botha, Anna-Maria; Genthe, Bettina

2014-09-01

296

In vivo identification and manipulation of the Ca2+ selectivity filter in the Drosophila transient receptor potential channel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Null mutations in the transient receptor potential (trp) gene eliminate the major, Ca2+-selective component of the light-sensitive conductance in Drosophila photoreceptors. Although it is the prototypical member of the TRP ion channel superfamily, conclusive evidence that TRP is a pore-forming channel subunit in vivo is lacking. We show here that mutating a specific acidic residue (Asp621) in the putative pore virtually eliminated Ca2+ permeation in vivo and altered other biophysical properties of the native TRP conductance. The results identify Asp621 as a critical residue of the TRP Ca2+ selectivity filter, provide the first rigorous demonstration that a TRP protein is a pore-forming subunit in any native system, and point to the likely location of the pore in mammalian canonical TRP channels. The specific elimination of Ca2+ permeation in TRP also provided a unique opportunity to address the roles of Ca2+ influx in vivo. We found that Asp621 mutations profoundly affected several key aspects of the light response and caused light-dependent retinal degeneration. PMID:17234592

Liu, Che H; Wang, Tao; Postma, Marten; Obukhov, Alexander G; Montell, Craig; Hardie, Roger C

2007-01-17

297

Influence of regional precipitation patterns on stable isotopes in ice cores from the central Himalayas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several ice cores have been recovered from the Dasuopu Glacier and the East Rongbuk (ER Glacier in the central Himalayas since the 1990s. Although the distance between the ER and the Dasuopu ice core drilling sites is only ?125 km, the stable isotopic record (?18O or ?D of the ER core is interpreted as a precipitation proxy while the Dasuopu core as a temperature proxy. Thus, the climatological significance of the stable isotopic records of these Himalayan ice cores remains a subject of debate. Based on analysis of regional precipitation patterns over the region, we find that the different interpretations of the Dasuopu and Everest isotopic records may not be contradictive. The north–south and west–east seesaws of the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM precipitation are primarily responsible for precipitation falling at the ER site, which results in a negative correlation between the ER ?18O or ?D record and precipitation amount along the southern slope of the central Himalayas, corresponding to the "amount effect". In addition to the ISM precipitation, non-summer monsoonal precipitation associated with winter westerlies also significantly contributes to precipitation falling at the Dasuopu site, which may cause a positive correlation between the Dasuopu stable isotopic record and temperature, in response to the "temperature effect". Our results have important implications for interpreting the stable isotopic ice core records recovered from different climatological regimes of the Himalayas.

H. Pang

2013-05-01

298

New insights into trace element wet deposition in the Himalayas: amounts, seasonal patterns, and implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our research provides the first complete year-long dataset of wet deposition of trace elements in the high Himalayas based on a total of 42 wet deposition events on the northern slope of Mt. Qomolangma (Everest). Except for typical crustal elements (Al, Fe, and Mn), the concentration level of most trace elements (Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Cd, Sn, Cs, Pb, Bi, and U) are generally comparable to those preserved in snow pits and ice cores from the nearby East Rongbuk Glacier. Cadmium was the element most affected by anthropogenic emissions. No pronounced seasonal variations are observed for most trace elements despite different transport pathways. In our study, the composition of wet precipitation reflects a regional background condition and is not clearly related to specific source regions. For the trace element record from ice cores and snow pits in the Himalayas, it could be deduced that the pronounced seasonal patterns were caused by the dry deposition of trace elements (aerosols) during their long exposure to the atmosphere after precipitation events. Our findings are of value for the understanding of the trace element deposition mechanisms in the Himalayas. PMID:25205151

Cong, Zhiyuan; Kang, Shichang; Zhang, Yulan; Gao, Shaopeng; Wang, Zhongyan; Liu, Bin; Wan, Xin

2015-02-01

299

Late Pleistocene-Holocene morphosedimentary architecture, Spiti River, arid higher Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

The Spiti River drains the rain shadow zone of western Himalaya. In the present study, the fluvial sedimentary record of Spiti valley was studied to understand its responses to tectonics and climate. Geomorphic changes along the river enable to divide the river into two segments: (i) upper valley with a broad, braided channel where relict sedimentary sequences rise 15-50 m high from the riverbed and (ii) lower valley with a narrow, meandering channel that incises into bedrock, and here, the fluvio-lacustrine sediments reside on a bedrock bench located above the riverbed. The transition between these geomorphic segments lies along the river between Seko-Nasung and Lingti villages (within Tethyan Himalaya). Lithofacies analyses of the sedimentary sequences show six different lithofacies. These can be grouped into three facies associations, viz. (A) a glacial outwash; (B) sedimentation in a channel and in an accreting bar under braided conditions; and (C) formation of lake due to channel blockage by landslide activities. Seventeen optically stimulated luminescence ages derived from ten sections bracketed the phases of river valley aggradation between 14-8 and 50-30 ka. These aggradation phases witnessed mass wasting, channel damming and lake formation events. Our record, when compared with SW monsoon archives, suggests that the aggradation occurred during intensified monsoon phase of MIS 3/4 and that proceeded the Last Glacial Maxima. Thus, the study reports monsoon modulated valley aggradation in the NW arid Himalaya.

Srivastava, Pradeep; Ray, Yogesh; Phartiyal, Binita; Sharma, Anupam

2013-03-01

300

Geochemical characterization of supraglacial debris via in situ and optical remote sensing methods: a case study in Khumbu Himalaya, Nepal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Surface glacier debris samples and field spectra were collected from the ablation zones of Nepal Himalaya Ngozumpa and Khumbu glaciers in November and December 2009. Geochemical and mineral compositions of supraglacial debris were determined by X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. This composition data was used as ground truth in evaluating field spectra and satellite supraglacial debris composition and mapping methods. Satellite remote sensing methods for characterizing glacial surface debris include visible to thermal infrared hyper- and multispectral reflectance and emission signature identification, semi-quantitative mineral abundance indicies and spectral image composites. Satellite derived supraglacial debris mineral maps displayed the predominance of layered silicates, hydroxyl-bearing and calcite minerals on Khumbu Himalayan glaciers. Supraglacial mineral maps compared with satellite thermal data revealed correlations between glacier surface composition and glacier surface temperature. Glacier velocity displacement fields and shortwave, thermal infrared false color composites indicated the magnitude of mass flux at glacier confluences. The supraglacial debris mapping methods presented in this study can be used on a broader scale to improve, supplement and potentially reduce errors associated with glacier debris radiative property, composition, areal extent and mass flux quantifications.

K. A. Casey

2012-01-01

301

Chemical composition and fungitoxic activity of essential oil of Thuja orientalis L. grown in the north-western Himalaya.  

Science.gov (United States)

The essential oil from fresh leaves of Thuja orientalis L. grown in the north-western Himalaya was isolated by means of hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Twenty-two compounds representing 94.0% of the total oil were identified. The leaf oil contained alpha-pinene (29.2%), Delta-3-carene (20.1%), alpha-cedrol (9.8%), caryophyllene (7.5%), alpha-humulene (5.6%), limonene (5.4%), alpha-terpinolene (3.8%) and alpha-terpinyl acetate (3.5%) as major constituents. The essential oil showed antifungal activity against Alternaria alternata in a direct bioautography assay. Two main bioactive compounds named as b1 (Rf = 0.54) and b2 (Rf = 0.80) were observed and tested for antifungal activity; they produced an inhibition zone of 5 and 10 mm in diameter, respectively. The components b1 and b2 were further purified by preparative thin layer chromatography and their antifungal efficacy was re-tested. The minimum inhibitory amount (MIA) of b1 and b2 against A. alternata was determined as 30.5 and 4.5 microg, respectively, using a bioautography assay. The bioactive constituent corresponding to b1 was determined as alpha-cedrol by using GC/MS analysis. The potential of essential oils as a source of natural biocides is discussed. PMID:18533464

Guleria, Sanjay; Kumar, Ashok; Tiku, Ashok Kumar

2008-01-01

302

Glass and Glass-Ceramic Materials from Simulated Composition of Lunar and Martian Soils: Selected Properties and Potential Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

In-situ resource processing and utilization on planetary bodies is an important and integral part of NASA's space exploration program. Within this scope and context, our general effort is primarily aimed at developing glass and glass-ceramic type materials using lunar and martian soils, and exploring various applications of these materials for planetary surface operations. Our preliminary work to date have demonstrated that glasses can be successfully prepared from melts of the simulated composition of both lunar and martian soils, and the melts have a viscosity-temperature window appropriate for drawing continuous glass fibers. The glasses are shown to have the potential for immobilizing certain types of nuclear wastes without deteriorating their chemical durability and thermal stability. This has a direct impact on successfully and economically disposing nuclear waste generated from a nuclear power plant on a planetary surface. In addition, these materials display characteristics that can be manipulated using appropriate processing protocols to develop glassy or glass-ceramic magnets. Also discussed in this presentation are other potential applications along with a few selected thermal, chemical, and structural properties as evaluated up to this time for these materials.

Ray, C. S.; Sen, S.; Reis, S. T.; Kim, C. W.

2005-01-01

303

Aldose reductase inhibitory, anti-cataract and antioxidant potential of selected medicinal plants from the Marathwada region, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

The water, ethanol and chloroform extracts of selected plants such as Adhatoda vasica (L.) (Acanthaceae), Caesalpinia bonduc (L.), Cassia fistula (L.) (Caesalpiniaceae) and Biophytum sensitivum (L.) (Oxalidaceae) were evaluated for rat lens aldose reductase inhibitory (RLAR) potential, anti-cataract and antioxidant activities. All the samples inhibited the aldose reductase considerably and exhibited anti-cataract activity, while C. fistula (IC(50), 0.154 mg mL(-1)) showed significant RLAR inhibitory activity as compared to the other tested samples, and was further found to be more effective in maintaining sugar-induced lens opacity in the rat lens model. The antioxidant potential of plant extracts was determined using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazine), hydroxyl (OH), nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) scavenging activities, along with determination of reducing power, ferrous ion chelating ability and inhibition of polyphenol oxidase (PPO). The extracts of the tested plant showed significant free radical scavenging activities and inhibited the activity of enzyme PPO, a model oxidising enzyme. The plant samples were found to possess considerable amounts of vitamin C, total polyphenols and flavonoids. PMID:21462076

Gacche, R N; Dhole, N A

2011-04-01

304

Optimization of Cat's Whiskers Tea (Orthosiphon stamineus) Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Selective Chemotherapeutic Potential against Prostate Cancer Cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cat's whiskers (Orthosiphon stamineus) leaves extracts were prepared using supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) with full factorial design to determine the optimum extraction parameters. Nine extracts were obtained by varying pressure, temperature, and time. The extracts were analysed using FTIR, UV-Vis, and GC-MS. Cytotoxicity of the extracts was evaluated on human (colorectal, breast, and prostate) cancer and normal fibroblast cells. Moderate pressure (31.1?MPa) and temperature (60°C) were recorded as optimum extraction conditions with high yield (1.74%) of the extract (B2) at 60?min extraction time. The optimized extract (B2) displayed selective cytotoxicity against prostate cancer (PC3) cells (IC50 28?µg/mL) and significant antioxidant activity (IC50 42.8?µg/mL). Elevated levels of caspases 3/7 and 9 in B2-treated PC3 cells suggest the induction of apoptosis through nuclear and mitochondrial pathways. Hoechst and rhodamine assays confirmed the nuclear condensation and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential in the cells. B2 also demonstrated inhibitory effects on motility and colonies of PC3 cells at its subcytotoxic concentrations. It is noteworthy that B2 displayed negligible toxicity against the normal cells. Chemometric analysis revealed high content of essential oils, hydrocarbon, fatty acids, esters, and aromatic sesquiterpenes in B2. This study highlights the therapeutic potentials of SC-CO2 extract of cat's whiskers in targeting prostate carcinoma. PMID:25276215

Al-Suede, Fouad Saleih R; Khadeer Ahamed, Mohamed B; Abdul Majid, Aman S; Baharetha, Hussin M; Hassan, Loiy E A; Kadir, Mohd Omar A; Nassar, Zeyad D; Abdul Majid, Amin M S

2014-01-01

305

An application of zeta potential method for the selection of nano-fluids to enhance IVR capability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In-vessel Retention (IVR) is one of the key severe accident management strategies that have been applied currently for advanced light water reactors such as APR1000 or APR1400. The concept of IVR consists of external cooling of the reactor vessel by flooding the reactor cavity to remove the decay heat from the molten core through the lower head of the vessel. However, the heat removal process is limited by the occurrence of critical heat flux (CHF) at the reactor vessel outer surface that may lead to a sharp increase of local temperature, damaging the integrity of the reactor vessel. In order to obtain higher power of nuclear reactors and to assure the achievement of the IVR capability during accident conditions, an enhancement of CHF at the outer surface of the vessel is required. The potential use of nano-fluids to increase the CHF is among the main IVR enhancing approaches. In this study, Al2O3 and CNT nano-fluids with different concentrations have been used as the potential coolant to enhance IVR capabilities. The dispersion stability of the nano-fluids was verified by zeta potential measurements. The results showed effects of time, concentration and pH on the stability of nanofluids. Three types of nano-fluids were selected as the candidates to apply for the IVR. A series of experiments have been performed in this study to understand the pool-boiling critical heat flux behavior on downward facing surfaces submerged in a pool of nano-fluids afaces submerged in a pool of nano-fluids at very low concentration. The inclination angle was changed from horizontal to vertical to investigate the effect of orientation on CHF enhancement which is needed for the application in IVR

306

A Label-free Selected Reaction Monitoring Workflow Identifies a Subset of Pregnancy Specific Glycoproteins as Potential Predictive Markers of Early-onset Pre-eclampsia*  

OpenAIRE

Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a serious complication of pregnancy with potentially life threatening consequences for both mother and baby. Presently there is no test with the required performance to predict which healthy first-time mothers will go on to develop PE. The high specificity, sensitivity, and multiplexed nature of selected reaction monitoring holds great potential as a tool for the verification and validation of putative candidate biomarkersfor disease states. Realization of this potential...

Blankley, Richard T.; Fisher, Christal; Westwood, Melissa; North, Robyn; Baker, Philip N.; Walker, Michael J.; Williamson, Andrew; Whetton, Anthony D.; Lin, Wanchang; Mccowan, Lesley; Roberts, Claire T.; Cooper, Garth J. S.; Unwin, Richard D.; Myers, Jenny E.

2013-01-01

307

Contemporary deformation in the Kashmir-Himachal, Garhwal and Kumaon Himalaya: significant insights from 1995-2008 GPS time series  

Science.gov (United States)

We present new insights on the time-averaged surface velocities, convergence and extension rates along arc-normal transects in Kumaon, Garhwal and Kashmir-Himachal regions in the Indian Himalaya from 13 years of high-precision Global Positioning System (GPS) time series (1995-2008) derived from GPS data at 14 GPS permanent and 42 campaign stations between and . The GPS surface horizontal velocities vary significantly from the Higher to Lesser Himalaya and are of the order of 30 to 48 mm/year NE in ITRF 2005 reference frame, and 17 to 2 mm/year SW in an India fixed reference frame indicating that this region is accommodating less than 2 cm/year of the India-Eurasia plate motion (). The total arc-normal shortening varies between along the different transects of the northwest Himalayan wedge, between the Indo-Tsangpo suture to the north and the Indo-Gangetic foreland to the south indicating high strain accumulation in the Himalayan wedge. This convergence is being accommodated differentially along the arc-normal transects; in Lesser Himalaya and 3-4 mm/year in Higher Himalaya south of South Tibetan Detachment. Most of the convergence in the Lesser Himalaya of Garhwal and Kumaon is being accommodated just south of the Main Central Thrust fault trace, indicating high strain accumulation in this region which is also consistent with the high seismic activity in this region. In addition, for the first time an arc-normal extension of has also been observed in the Tethyan Himalaya of Kumaon. Inverse modeling of GPS-derived surface deformation rates in Garhwal and Kumaon Himalaya using a single dislocation indicate that the Main Himalayan Thrust is locked from the surface to a depth of over a width of 110 km with associated slip rate of . These results indicate that the arc-normal rates in the Northwest Himalaya have a complex deformation pattern involving both convergence and extension, and rigorous seismo-tectonic models in the Himalaya are necessary to account for this pattern. In addition, the results also gave an estimate of co-seismic and post-seismic motion associated with the 1999 Chamoli earthquake, which is modeled to derive the slip and geometry of the rupture plane.

Jade, Sridevi; Mukul, Malay; Gaur, V. K.; Kumar, Kireet; Shrungeshwar, T. S.; Satyal, G. S.; Dumka, Rakesh Kumar; Jagannathan, Saigeetha; Ananda, M. B.; Kumar, P. Dileep; Banerjee, Souvik

2014-06-01

308

Selection bias in a population survey with registry linkage: potential effect on socioeconomic gradient in cardiovascular risk.  

Science.gov (United States)

Non-participation in population studies is likely to be a source of bias in many types of epidemiologic studies, including those describing social disparities in health. The objective of this paper is to present a non-attendance analysis evaluating the possible impact of selection bias, when investigating the association between education level and cardiovascular risk factors. Data from the INTERGENE research programme including 3,610 randomly selected individuals aged 25-74 (1,908 women and 1,702 men), in West Sweden were used. Only 42% of the invited population participated. Non-attendance analyses were done by comparing data from official registries (Statistics Sweden) covering the entire invited study population. This analysis revealed that participants were more likely to be women, have university education, high income, be married and of Nordic origin compared to non-participants. Among participants, all health behaviours studied were significantly related to education. Physical activity, alcohol use and breakfast consumption were higher in the more educated group, while there were more smokers in the less educated group. Central obesity, obesity and hypertension were also significantly associated with lower education level. Weaker associations were observed for blood lipids, diabetes, high plasma glucose level and perceived stress. The socio-demographic differences between participants and non-participants indicated by the register analysis imply potential biases in epidemiological research. For instance, the positive association between education level and frequent alcohol consumption, may, in part be explained by participation bias. For other risk factors studied, an underestimation of the importance of low socioeconomic status may be more likely. PMID:20127393

Strandhagen, Elisabeth; Berg, Christina; Lissner, Lauren; Nunez, Leyla; Rosengren, Annika; Torén, Kjell; Thelle, Dag S

2010-03-01

309

Analysis of wind speed data and wind energy potential in three selected locations in south-east Nigeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, the wind speed characteristics and energy potential in selected three locations in south eastern part of Nigeria were investigated using wind speed data that span between 24 and 37 years measured at 10m height. It was shown that the annual mean wind speed at height of 10 m for Enugu, Owerri, and Onitsha are 5.42 m/s, 3.36 m/s, and 3.59 m/s, respectively, while the annual mean power densities are, respectively, 96.98 W/m2, 23.23 W/m2 and 28.34 W/m{sup 2}. It was further shown that the mean annual value of the most probable wind speed are 5.47m/s, 3.72m/s and 3.50m/s for Enugu, Owerri and Onitsha, respectively, while the respective annual value of the wind speed carrying maximum energy 6.48m/s, 4.33m/s, and 3.90m/s.The performance of selected commercial wind turbine models (with rated power between 50kW and 1000kW) designed for electricity generation and a windmill (rated power of 0.36kW) for water pumping located in these sites were examined.The annual energy output and capacity factor for these turbines as well as the water produced by the windmill were determined. The minimum required design parameters for a wind turbine to be a viable option for electricity generation in each location are also suggested. (orig.)

Oyedepo, Sunday O. [Covenant Univ., Ota, Ogun State (Nigeria). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Adaramola, Muyiwa S. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Energy and Process Engineering; Paul, Sunday S. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

2012-07-01

310

Multilocation trial of potential selected mutant lines of groundnut (arachis hypogaea) at 3 location in Peninsular Malaysia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two fixed mutant lines of groundnut derived from cultivar Matjan were selected for their yield potential at M10 generation. Multilocation trial of these mutants (MJ40/42 and MJ20/165-5) was carried out to evaluate genotype stability at different climate and soil types in Peninsular Malaysia. The mutant lines were planted and compared with their parent (Matjan) and control variety (MKT1). The identified locations were in Taiping (Perak), Machang (Kelantan), and Air Hitam (Johor). The soils at the locations were of the Serdang, Bungor and Rengam series, respectively. The trial was carried out simultaneously in the same year at each location. Mutant MJ20/165-5 showed stable performance at all location compared to other genotypes tested. Its yield was higher than the parent in Kelantan and Johor trial and showed similar performance in Perak. This mutant also showed better yield performance than the control varieties in the Kelantan trial. Meanwhile, mutant line MJ40/42 gave better yield in Kelantan and Johor but did not perform well in Perak as compared to its parent and control varieties. (Author)

311

The Discovery of Potentially Selective Human Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase (nNOS) Inhibitors: A Combination of Pharmacophore Modelling, CoMFA, Virtual Screening and Molecular Docking Studies  

OpenAIRE

Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) plays an important role in neurotransmission and smooth muscle relaxation. Selective inhibition of nNOS over its other isozymes is highly desirable for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases to avoid undesirable effects. In this study, we present a workflow for the identification and prioritization of compounds as potentially selective human nNOS inhibitors. Three-dimensional pharmacophore models were constructed based on a set of known nNOS inhib...

Guanhong Xu; Yue Chen; Kun Shen; Xiuzhen Wang; Fei Li; Yan He

2014-01-01

312

Atmospheric pollution for trace elements in the remote high-altitude atmosphere in central Asia as recorded in snow from Mt. Qomolangma (Everest) of the Himalayas.  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of 42 snow samples covering over a one-year period from the fall of 2004 to the summer of 2005 were collected from a 2.1-m snow pit at a high-altitude site on the northeastern slope of Mt. Everest. These samples were analyzed for Al, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Cd, Sb, Pb, and Bi in order to characterize the relative contributions from anthropogenic and natural sources to the fallout of these elements in central Himalayas. Our data were also considered in the context of monsoon versus non-monsoon seasons. The mean concentrations of the majority of the elements were determined to be at the pg g(-1) level with a strong variation in concentration with snow depth. While the mean concentrations of most of the elements were significantly higher during the non-monsoon season than during the monsoon season, considerable variability in the trace element inputs to the snow was observed during both periods. Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, and Bi displayed high crustal enrichment factors (EFc) in most samples, while Cr, Ni, Rb, and Pb show high EFc values in some of the samples. Our data indicate that anthropogenic inputs are potentially important for these elements in the remote high-altitude atmosphere in the central Himalayas. The relationship between the EFc of each element and the Al concentration indicates that a dominant input of anthropogenic trace elements occurs during both the monsoon and non-monsoon seasons, when crustal contribution is relatively minor. Finally, a comparison of the trace element fallout fluxes calculated in our samples with those recently obtained at Mont Blanc, Greenland, and Antarctica provides direct evidence for a geographical gradient of the atmospheric pollution with trace elements on a global scale. PMID:18676004

Lee, Khanghyun; Hur, Soon Do; Hou, Shugui; Hong, Sungmin; Qin, Xiang; Ren, Jiawen; Liu, Yapping; Rosman, Kevin J R; Barbante, Carlo; Boutron, Claude F

2008-10-01

313

The importance of observed gradients of air temperature and precipitation for modelling water supply projections of a glacierised watershed in the Nepalese Himalayas  

Science.gov (United States)

Precipitation and temperature vary strongly over short horizontal distances in mountain environments, yet observations are scarce and mostly limited to small numbers of valley stations. The scarcity of meteorological observations at high altitude is particularly problematic in the Himalayas, which play an essential role in the water supply of millions of people downstream. Water supply projections depend on hydrological models, ideally forced by spatial fields of precipitation and air temperature for the accurate simulation of rain and melt runoff. Hydrological models can easily be fitted with seemingly high accuracy to observed runoff, even when meteorological inputs are of poor quality, with detrimental effects, however, on the representation of processes. In this study we use the results of a field campaign conducted during the 2012 monsoon season in the Langtang glacierised catchment in the greater Himalaya of Nepal to illustrate the importance of observations of gradients of air temperature and precipitation in projections of mass balance, seasonal snow and runoff. During the field campaign temperature loggers, tipping buckets and a high altitude pluviometer and snow depth gauge were installed and the data are used to force and recalibrate a high resolution glacio-hydrological model. The results are compared to a model run forced and calibrated using data from a single meteorological station. We show that optimal calibrated parameters vary in response to the quality of input data used, and that internal processes are reproduced differently. It is concluded that short-term campaigns to monitor horizontal and vertical gradients in air temperature and precipitation have the potential to improve the correct process representation in glacio-hydrological models, contribute to an accurate definition of model parameters and subsequently improve the quality of projections of future water supply.

Immerzeel, W. W.; Pellicciotti, F.; Bierkens, M. F.

2012-12-01

314

Characterization and Metal Detoxification Potential of Moderately Thermophilic Bacillus cereus from Geothermal Springs of Himalaya  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Two thermophilic Bacillus cereus strains (B. cereus-TA2 and B. cereus-TA4) used in the present study were isolated from the geothermal spring of Hunza valley, Gilgit, Pakistan. They showed the ability to withstand and grow at high temperature (85°C). Both these strains could resist multiple metals ( [...] copper, cadmium, mercury, manganese, zinc, arsenic, chromium and selenium). Strain B. cereus-TA4 reduced Cr (VI) at pH 5.0 to 9.0 but maximum reduction (83%) was observed at pH 7.0 after 48 h when initially supplied with 200 µg mL-1 of K2CrO4. Lower initial concentrations such as 100 µg mL-1 supported higher reduction (90 to 95%) than that of high concentration such as 500 µg mL-1 (20 to 30%). Both the strains reduced nearly 70% of Se (IV) after 48 h of growth at pH 7.0 when initially supplied with 200 µg mL-1 of Na2SeO3. The optimum temperature for maximum Se (IV) reduction was 45°C for both the strains.

Aslam Khan, Ghalib; Muhammad, Yasin; Muhammad, Faisal.

2014-07-01

315

Darkening of the mid-Himalaya glaciers since 2000 and the potential causes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Himalayan glaciers are a vital water source for people in the high regions of Asia. Their complete melting would be a crisis for approximately 1 billion people. Albedo is one of the key parameters that affect the energy balance of the snow and ice surfaces. Since 2000, albedos have been retrieved from satellite data for eleven representative Himalayan glaciers. It was found that most of the glaciers showed declining trends in the albedo of their upper areas, indicating that they have generally become darker in the past decade. A simulation case study in conjunction with in situ measurements showed that light-absorbing constituents (e.g., black carbon and dust) could be partly responsible for this phenomenon during late springtime; the background regional warming could also be responsible. The current surface radiation absorption in Himalayan glaciers could lead to significant melting, causing most of them to be in danger of rapid mass loss. (letter)

316

POLYGONATUM VERTICILLATUM (LINN. ALL. AND POLYGONATUM CIRRHIFOLIUM (WALL. ROYLE: TWO THREATENED VITAL HEALERS FROM ASTHAVERGA NURTURED BY GARHWAL HIMALAYA, INDIA  

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Full Text Available The biodiversity of Garhwal Himalaya supports a large number of medicinal plants used in various ailments as a drug. Polygonatum verticillatum and Polygonatum cirrhifolium, the healers from 'Asthaverga' of 'Ayurveda', are reported from Garhwal Himalaya, but due to overexploitation are encompassed in threatened category. The present study is a documentation of these plants to facilitate the conservation of these crude drugs in their natural habitat and to domesticate them. The study also provides information regarding the resident’s outlook, living in surrounding area of these species, towards these species.

BISHT POONAM

2011-12-01

317

Ionic composition of wet precipitation over the southern slope of central Himalayas, Nepal.  

Science.gov (United States)

Severe atmospheric pollution transported to Himalayas from South Asia may affect fragile ecosystem and can be harmful for human health in the region. In order to understand the atmospheric chemistry in the southern slope of central Himalayas, where the data is limited, precipitation has been sampled at four sites: Kathmandu (1,314 m), Dhunche (2, 065 m), Dimsa (3,078 m), and Gosainkunda (4,417 m) in Nepal for over a 1-year period characterized by an urban, rural, and remote sites, respectively. HCO3 ? is the dominant anion, while the NH4 + is the dominant cation in precipitation at the four sites. Generally, most of ions (e.g., SO4 2?, NO3 ?, NH4 +, HCO3 ?, and Ca2+) have higher concentrations in urban site compared to the rural sites. Neutralization factor calculation showed that precipitation in the region is highly neutralized by NH4 + and Ca2+. Empirical orthogonal function and correlation analysis indicated that the precipitation chemistry was mostly influenced by crustal, anthropogenic, and marine sources in Nepal. Among different sites, urban area was mostly influenced by anthropogenic inputs and crustal dusts, whereas remote sites were mostly from marine and crustal sources. Seasonal variations show higher ionic concentrations during non-monsoon seasons mainly due to limited precipitation amount. On the other hand, lower ionic concentrations were observed during monsoon season when higher amount of precipitation washes out aerosols. Thus, precipitation chemistry from this work can provide a useful database to evaluate atmospheric environment and its impacts on ecosystem in the southern slope of central Himalayas, Nepal. PMID:24122162

Tripathee, Lekhendra; Kang, Shichang; Huang, Jie; Sillanpää, Mika; Sharma, Chhatra Mani; Lüthi, Zoe Lucia; Guo, Junming; Paudyal, Rukumesh

2014-02-01

318

Use of indigenous knowledge in environmental decision-making by communities in the Kumaon Himalayas  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is designed to find out how people in rural communities residing in the middle Himalayas use indigenous knowledge to support environmental decisions while addressing water and land use related concerns. The study not only serves to enrich our understanding of community decision-making, especially as connected to land use and ecological issues, but also helps us understand how youth in village communities in the Himalayan bioregion negotiate a balance between indigenous and exogenous knowledge. Using qualitative methods including interviews, field observations, and focus groups, the research examines discussions and activities leading to decision-making about environmental issues in the communities residing in the Kumaon region of the middle Himalayas of India. The study helps answer the following questions: (1) In the Kumaon region, what is the relevant indigenous knowledge used to make decisions about specific environmental issues such as land management and water management? (2) How much of this indigenous knowledge is used by adult community members while making decisions about the environment? (3) How much of this indigenous knowledge is passed on to the future generation (process of intergenerational knowledge transfer)? (4) How will youth make use of indigenous knowledge in relation to exogenous knowledge while trying to negotiate issues related to their environment? In answering these questions, this study serves to deepen our understanding of how communities in the Himalayas balance the influx of modernization/globalization and engage in decision-making toward environmental sustainability. It supports a better understanding of how to design curriculum and environmental education programs for learning in communities of the Himalayan bioregion, and perhaps also offers some valuable direction for designing environmental conservation and education programs for the developing world.

Honwad, Sameer

319

The Impact of Orographic Rainfall on Discharge and Erosion in the Andes and Himalaya (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

Quantifying the degree to which tectonic and erosive processes shape landscape is key to understanding the evolution of tectonically active mountain belts. Here I explore the interplay of these two processes in the two largest orogens on Earth: The meriodionally-oriented Andes and the zonal, monsoon-soaked Himalaya. Technical advances over the past three decades have facilitated increasingly routine application of satellite-derived products to study the hydrologic budget on Earth. I use the high-resolution Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) to identify rainfall distributions at a ~5x5 km2 spatial scale for the past 11 years using the platform’s precipitation radar and microwave imager. I emphasize on calibrated, mean annual and seasonal rainfall rates, but also explore single, storm-rainfall amounts in their spatiotemporal context. In order to estimate fluvial erosion, I first derive discharges by integrating rainfall over all major, mountainous catchments in the Himalaya and Andes. These water volumes in combination with channel slopes and widths are used to quantify specific stream power and steepness indices as erosion-rate proxies. For the Himalaya, I derive discharges by including a satellite derived, calibrated snow-melt model. This is important for catchments with a significant snow cover, for example in western Himalayan catchments that receive up to 50% of their annual discharge from snow melt. In an attempt to validate various stream-power based models, I compare them to new and previously published catchment-wide erosion rates derived from cosmogenic-isotope inventories. This analysis highlights the importance of orographically induced, spatially-focused rainfall on catchment-scale erosion processes.

Bookhagen, B.

2009-12-01

320

Seismogenic, electrically conductive, and fluid zones at continental plate boundaries in New Zealand, Himalaya, and California  

Science.gov (United States)

We explore the idea that fluid occurrence below the seismogenic zone plays an active role in the rupture process by examining how fluids spatially relate to seismicity at three continental plate boundaries: South Island of New Zealand, the Himalaya, and San Andreas fault, USA. With this objective, we project earthquake hypocenters onto magnetotelluric (MT) electrical resistivity cross-sections. MT detection of conductive zones in the crust containing low fractions of fluids (<1%) requires an interconnected network of fluid-filled porosity facilitated by shearing, fracturing, and/or grainedge wetting. Mechanisms promoting fluid reservoirs in the ductile crust include: 1) stalling of upward propagating porosity waves, 2) tectonically induced neutral buoyancy, and 3) development of ductile shear zones. Distinct conductive horizons are detected at depth in the ductile crust in New Zealand and the Himalaya where the tectonic convergence is high. In the Parkfield segment of the San Andreas fault, where convergence is low, there is high conductivity in the ductile crust but it forms a sub-vertical corridor to the surface with no distinct top. The tops of sub-horizontal conductive zones are ˜20 km depth in New Zealand and ˜25-40 km in the Himalaya where the seismogenic crust extends only to 12 and 25 km depth, respectively. The deep conductive layer in New Zealand may have originated as a "water sill" facilitating water-weakening, localized deformation, and eventually becoming a water-rich, anisotropic, mylonized, ductile shear zone. Fluid exchange through the active Alpine fault may initiate or be initiated by fault rupture. Localized, unstable flow in deep fluidized zones detected by MT may trigger earthquakes above.

Jiracek, George R.; Gonzalez, Victor M.; Grant Caldwell, T.; Wannamaker, Philip E.; Kilb, Debi

321

Impact of Himalayas and Tibetan plateau uplift on regional climate and isotopic lapse rate  

Science.gov (United States)

The Himalayan-Tibet barrier dominates atmospheric circulation over central Asia and influences global climate. The current high Tibetan Plateau owes gradually during the north-northeastward penetration of the Indian subcontinent into the Eurasian continent and in 2 main stages of abrupt uplift due to break of Neo-Tethyan slab ~45 Ma and convective removal of Lhasa lithospheric root ~30-26Ma. Therefore, the northern plateau may have attained its present-day elevation not earlier than ~13Ma. Nevertheless, several studies based on stable-isotope paleoaltimetry call for paleoelevations at ~35Ma comparable with present-day. Understanding variation of isotopic lapse rate through the time and with changing of absolute value of elevations is critical to estimate paleoelevations and consequently carry on reliable paleoclimate reconstructions. For the purpose of simulating changes in isotopic composition of precipitation due to uplift of the Himalayas and Tibetan plateau the atmospheric general circulation model LMDZ-iso has been used. This model captures the spatial and temporal patterns of precipitation ?18O and their relationships with moisture transport from the westerlies and Indian monsoon. Three sensitivity experiments with modern and reduced elevations over the Himalayas-Tibet show changes in precipitation rate, precipitation ?18O, as well as moisture sources over India, East-Southern Asia and Himalaya and Tibetan plateau areas. Moreover, our results allow to capture changing in isotopic lapse rate with shifts of mountains height. This result has implications for the region uplift history, because oxygen isotope paleoaltimetry assumes that the modern ?18O lapse rate is representative of times when the mountains were lower.

Botsyun, Svetlana; Sepulchre, Pierre; Donnadieu, Yannick

2014-05-01

322

Evolution of fluvial style in the Siwalik Group in the foothills of the Nepal Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

Middle Miocene to Pleistocene fluvial sediments of the Siwalik (Churia) Group are widely distributed in the southern frontal area of the Himalaya. The succession is about 6 km thick, and was derived from denudation of the Himalayan orogen. The Siwalik Group in Nepal is well exposed in the Surai Khola area (western Nepal), and the Hetauda-Bakiya Khola area (central Nepal). The group is separated into northern and southern belts by the Central Churia Thrust (CCT). Eight facies associations (FA1 to FA8) are recognized in the Siwalik Group in these areas. They are interpreted as the deposits of fine-grained meandering, flood-flow-dominated fine-grained meandering, sandy meandering, deep sandy braided, comparatively shallow sandy braided, anastomosed, gravelly braided, and debris-flow-dominated braided systems, respectively. FA6, FA7 and FA8 occur only in the southern belt. In each area, the sedimentary succession generally coarsens upwards. The accumulation of these facies associations, related to the paleomagnetic time frame, indicates that flooding increased dramatically from about 10.5 to 9.5 Ma, and fluvial style changed from meandering to braided between 9.0 and 6.5 Ma. A gravelly fluvial system prevailed after 3.0 to 2.5 Ma. The evolution of these fluvial styles is intimately related to the uplift of the Himalaya and associated thrust movements, and consequent effects on atmospheric circulation and precipitation. By comparison with the characteristics of the submarine Bengal Fan deposits, it is apparent that an increase in flood flow is strongly influenced by increased precipitation due to onset and intensification of monsoon climate. The sandy braided system was mainly induced by regional tectonic uplift, and the gravelly fluvial system may have been formed due to regional thrust movements along the Himalaya frontal area.

Nakayama, Katsuhiro; Ulak, Prakash D.

1999-05-01

323

ECOLOGICAL FEATURES AND CONSERVATION OF ARNEBIA EUCHROMA. A CRITICALLY ENDANGERED MEDICINAL PLANT IN WESTERN HIMALAYA  

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Full Text Available Arnebia euchroma (Royle ex Benth. Johnston, commonly known as ‘Ratanjot’ is an important medicinal plant species and is found distributed in the western Himalaya at elevations ranging between 3200 - 4500 m above sea level. Considering its potent medicinal properties, cultural significance, declining population density and critically endangered status of this taxon, the present investigation was carried out for the assessment of its availability in the natural alpine landscapes of the Spiti cold desert of western Himalaya in Himachal Pradesh (India. We focused our study on its ecological features, population dynamics and performance in natural habitats, so as to formulate conservation plans. In order to achieve the objectives of the present study, a total of 620 areas were set by using a random sampling technique at six different locations where A. euchroma was found distributed naturally. The highest population density was recorded in undulating meadows (5.30 individuals/m2 with a maximum circumference (4.18±1.80cm at an elevation of 4240 m above sea level, with maximum frequency of occurrence (100%. Ecological surveys revealed that distribution was restricted in specific habitats rich in soil nutrients with high pH (8.025 - 8.37. The significance of the role of various ecological variables is explained in detail in the present paper. Habitat specificity, low population, and anthropogenic pressure justify the rarity status of this taxon in the Spiti valley. The authors discussed different implications to develop appropriate strategies for a long-term monitoring and sustainability of A. euchroma in the Spiti cold desert of western Himalaya.

Koushalya Nandan SINGH

2012-09-01

324

A Probabilistic Assessment of Earthquake Hazard Parameters in NW Himalaya and the Adjoining Regions  

Science.gov (United States)

The maximum likelihood estimation method is applied to study the geographical distribution of earthquake hazard parameters and seismicity in 28 seismogenic source zones of NW Himalaya and the adjoining regions. For this purpose, we have prepared a reliable, homogeneous and complete earthquake catalogue during the period 1500-2010. The technique used here allows the data to contain either historical or instrumental era or even a combination of the both. In this study, the earthquake hazard parameters, which include maximum regional magnitude ( M max), mean seismic activity rate ( ?), the parameter b (or ? = b/log e) of Gutenberg-Richter (G-R) frequency-magnitude relationship, the return periods of earthquakes with a certain threshold magnitude along with their probabilities of occurrences have been calculated using only instrumental earthquake data during the period 1900-2010. The uncertainties in magnitude have been also taken into consideration during the calculation of hazard parameters. The earthquake hazard in the whole NW Himalaya region has been calculated in 28 seismogenic source zones delineated on the basis of seismicity level, tectonics and focal mechanism. The annual probability of exceedance of earthquake (activity rate) of certain magnitude is also calculated for all seismogenic source zones. The obtained earthquake hazard parameters were geographically distributed in all 28 seismogenic source zones to analyze the spatial variation of localized seismicity parameters. It is observed that seismic hazard level is high in Quetta-Kirthar-Sulaiman region in Pakistan, Hindukush-Pamir Himalaya region and Uttarkashi-Chamoli region in Himalayan Frontal Thrust belt. The source zones that are expected to have maximum regional magnitude ( M max) of more than 8.0 are Quetta, southern Pamir, Caucasus and Kashmir-Himanchal Pradesh which have experienced such magnitude of earthquakes in the past. It is observed that seismic hazard level varies spatially from one zone to another which suggests that the examined regions have high crustal heterogeneity and seismotectonic complexity.

Yadav, R. B. S.; Bayrak, Yusuf; Tripathi, J. N.; Chopra, S.; Singh, A. P.; Bayrak, Erdem

2012-09-01

325

Studies of the in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials of selected Yemeni medicinal plants from the island Soqotra  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent years have witnessed that there is a revival of interest in drug discovery from medicinal plants for the maintenance of health in all parts of the world. The aim of this work was to investigate 26 plants belonging to 17 families collected from a unique place in Yemen (Soqotra Island for their in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Methods The 26 plants were extracted with methanol and hot water to yield 52 extracts. Evaluation for in vitro anticancer activity was done against three human cancer cell lines (A-427, 5637 and MCF-7 by using an established microtiter plate assay based on cellular staining with crystal violet. Antimicrobial activity was tested against three Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria, one yeast species and three multiresistant Staphylococcus strains by using an agar diffusion method and the determination of MIC against three Gram-positive bacteria with the broth micro-dilution assay. Antioxidant activity was investigated by measuring the scavenging activity of the DPPH radical. Moreover, a phytochemical screening of the methanolic extracts was done. Results Notable cancer cell growth inhibition was observed for extracts from Ballochia atro-virgata, Eureiandra balfourii and Hypoestes pubescens, with IC50 values ranging between 0.8 and 8.2 ?g/ml. The methanol extracts of Acanthospermum hispidum, Boswellia dioscorides, Boswellia socotrana, Commiphora ornifolia and Euphorbia socotrana also showed noticeable antiproliferative potency with IC50 values Acacia pennivenia, Boswellia dioscorides, Boswellia socotrana, Commiphora ornifolia, Euclea divinorum, Euphorbia socotrana, Leucas samhaensis, Leucas virgata, Rhus thyrsiflora, and Teucrium sokotranum with inhibition zones > 15 mm and MIC values ? 250 ?g/ml. In addition, the methanolic extracts of Acacia pennivenia, Boswellia dioscorides, Boswellia socotrana and Commiphora ornifolia showed good antioxidant potential at low concentrations (more than 80% at 50 ?g/ml. Conclusion Our results show once again that medicinal plants can be promising sources of natural products with potential anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidative activity. The results will guide the selection of some plant species for further pharmacological and phytochemical investigations.

Bednarski Patrick J

2009-03-01

326

Selection of lactic acid bacteria from Brazilian kefir grains for potential use as starter or probiotic cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brazilian kefir is a homemade fermented beverage that is obtained by incubating milk or a brown sugar solution with kefir grains that contribute their different microbiological compositions. It is highly important to isolate and characterize microorganisms from Brazilian kefir grains to obtain starter cultures for the industrial production of a standardized commercial kefir. Thus, the present study aimed to isolate lactic acid bacteria from eight kefir grains that were propagated in milk or sugar solutions from five different locations in Brazil and to select Lactobacillus isolates based on desirable in vitro probiotic properties. One hundred eight isolates from both substrates were identified by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and/or 16S rRNA gene sequencing and were determined to belong to the following 11 species from the genera: Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus (L.), and Oenococcus. Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus kefiri, and Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens were isolated only from milk grains, whereas Lactobacillus perolens, Lactobacillus parafarraginis, Lactobacillus diolivorans, and Oenococcus oeni were isolated exclusively from sugar water grains. When the microbial compositions of four kefir grains were evaluated with culture-independent analyses, L. kefiranofaciens was observed to predominant in milk grains, whereas Lactobacillus hilgardii was most abundant in sugar water kefir. Unfortunately, L. hilgardii was not isolated from any grain, although this bacteria was detected with a culture-independent methodology. Fifty-two isolated Lactobacilli were tested for gastric juice and bile salt tolerance, antagonism against pathogens, antimicrobial resistance, and surface hydrophobicity. Three Lactobacillus strains (L. kefiranofaciens 8U, L. diolivorans 1Z, and Lactobacillus casei 17U) could be classified as potential probiotics. In conclusion, several lactic acid bacteria that could be used in combination with yeasts as starter cultures for both milk kefir and sugar water kefir were characterized, and the functional properties of several of the lactobacilli isolated from the kefir grains were suggestive of their possible use as probiotics in both kefir and other dairy products. PMID:25542841

Zanirati, Débora Ferreira; Abatemarco, Mário; Sandes, Sávio Henrique de Cicco; Nicoli, Jacques Robert; Nunes, Álvaro Cantini; Neumann, Elisabeth

2015-04-01

327

Impact of Different Land Use Management on Soil Enzyme Activities and Bacterial Genetic Fingerprints of North-Western Himalayas  

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Full Text Available Land uses has significant impact on soil biological properties that incessantly intimates the soil quality change and are assessed by soil microbial and biochemical indicators, as they are highly sensitive to change in environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of land use on soil enzyme activities and gene diversity in selected location of Northwestern Himalayas, India. Nine different land use system of similar soil type at depth 0-15 cm were analyzed for soil enzymes (Dehydrogenase, Acid Phosphatase, Alkaline Phosphatase, Nitrate Reductase, Arylsulphatase, and Phytase and genetic fingerprints (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA analysis. The land use systems investigated are Oak (Quercus incana, Deodar (Cedrus deodara, Pine (Pinus roxburghii trees, Apple orchids and crop based systems in uplands and valleys. All the soil enzymes were significantly higher in forest ecosystem followed by organic farm and conventional maize-wheat farm soil. The principal component analysis (PCA of nine different land use systems based on soil enzymes shows significant variation in data and all the long-term agricultural lands were segregated together. However maize-wheat and organic farm are group together in the PCA plot. Hierarchical clustering by wards method of soil enzymes clusters the deodar forest soil, oak forest soil and organic farming in one cluster and segregates remaining land use system in another. RAPD analysis showed high polymorphism between samples and similarity indexing using unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages resulted in four clusters. Land use showed significantly negative impact on soil enzymes and genetic fingerprints in long-term agricultural lands as compared to natural forest ecosystem and organic farming as reveal by RAPD assisted marker.

Raj Deo Singh

2014-12-01

328

21 Ma Eclogite From the Main Central Thrust Sheet, Eastern Nepal Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

Though uncommon throughout the Himalaya, eclogites have been documented in the Kaghan Valley of Pakistan, the Tso Morari dome in India, the Kharta region of Tibet, and the Makalu-Everest region of the Arun River valley in eastern Nepal. The Kaghan and Tso Morari UHP eclogites have been dated at ~50 Ma, and are commonly viewed as reflecting aborted subduction of the leading edge of the Indian plate during the initial stages of Indo- Asian collision. Here we show that the Arun eclogites are significantly younger, only ~21 Ma, so reflect either different origins, or substantial time lags in tectonics along strike. The Arun eclogites are stratigraphically continuous with the surrounding Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS) felsic gneisses, and have been interpreted as metamorphosed basaltic sills. P-T conditions have been estimated at >14 kbar at 670-710 °C. The GHS in this region overlies Lesser Himalayan rocks along the Main Central Thrust (MCT), which can be traced for over 2000 km along strike. Lu-Hf dates from garnet separates in one relict eclogite indicate an age of 20.7±0.4 Ma (MSWD = 2.2). Five garnet amphibolites from nearby were also dated via Lu-Hf, and their ages range from 14-20 Ma (13.9±2.5, 14.1±0.3, 14.5±2.8, 15.1±0.6, and 19.8±1.1 Ma). The ~21 Ma age obtained from the eclogite postdates eclogite ages from the western Himalaya (Kaghan and Tso Morari) by ~30 Myr, and has important implications for tectonic models of Himalayan orogenesis. One possible model is that (aborted) subduction, slab breakoff, and ascent of India's leading edge occurred diachronously: ~50 Ma in the western Himalaya, ~20 Ma in eastern Nepal, and presumably even younger in the eastern Himalaya. Alternatively, because the Arun eclogites did not reach ultra-high pressure conditions seen by western eclogites (only ?45, not ?90 km depth), they may simply reflect deepening or longer transport of the MCT in the Arun area. Regardless, a ~21 Ma age for these eclogites combined with several 14-15 Ma ages for nearby garnet amphibolites implies young initial movement on the MCT at Arun, as late as 14 Ma.

Corrie, S. L.; Kohn, M. J.; Vervoort, J. D.; Parkinson, C. D.

2007-12-01

329

Origin and radiative forcing of black carbon transported to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau  

OpenAIRE

The remote and high elevation regions of central Asia are influenced by black carbon (BC) emissions from a variety of locations. BC deposition contributes to melting of glaciers and questions exist, of both scientific and policy interest, as to the origin of the BC reaching the glaciers. We use the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem model to identify the location from which BC arriving at a variety of locations in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau originates. We then calculate its direct and snow-albed...

Kopacz, M.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Wang, J.; Leibensperger, E. M.; Henze, D. K.; Singh, K.

2010-01-01

330

Size Analysis of the Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene Upper Siwalik Sediments, Northwestern Himalaya, India  

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Full Text Available Size analysis of the Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene Upper Siwalik sediments comprising the Pinjor Formation in the type area and adjoining regions reveals that the sediments are bimodal to polymodal in nature, medium to fine grained and are moderately sorted. The inclusive graphic standard deviation and moment standard deviation values suggest the deposition of sediments in shallow to moderately deep fluvial agitated water. The log probability plots reveal that saltation mode is the dominant mode of transportation of detritus. The sediments are continental in character and are derived from crystalline, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks of the Himalaya exposed to the North of the type area Pinjor.

Mahavir Singh

2013-10-01

331

Phenology of plants in relation to ambient environment in a subalpine forest of Uttarakhand, western Himalaya.  

Science.gov (United States)

Observations on phenology of some representative trees, shrubs, under-shrubs and herbs in a subalpine forest of Uttarakhand, western Himalaya were recorded. With the commencement of favorable growth season in April, occurrence of leaf fall was indicatory growth phenomenon in Quercus semecarpifolia, Q. floribunda and Abies spectabilis. However, active vegetative growth in herbaceous species starts onward April and fruit maturation and seed dehiscence are completed from mid of September to October. In general, vegetative growth and reproductive stages in majority of the studied species seems to be dependent on adequate moisture content and also flowering and fruiting in subalpine plants correlate ambient temperature. PMID:25049468

Bisht, Vinod K; Kuniyal, Chandra P; Bhandari, Arvind K; Nautiyal, Bhagwati P; Prasad, P

2014-07-01

332

Glacier changes in the Garhwal Himalaya, India, from 1968 to 2006 based on remote sensing  

OpenAIRE

Glacier outlines are mapped for the upper Bhagirathi and Saraswati/Alaknanda basins of the Garhwal Himalaya using Corona and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) satellite images acquired in 1968 and 2006, respectively. A subset of glaciers was also mapped using Landsat TM images acquired in 1990. Glacier area decreased from 599.9 ± 15.6 km2 (1968) to 572.5 ± 18.0 km2 (2006), a loss of 4.6 ± 2.8%. Glaciers in the Saraswati/Alaknanda basin and upper Bhagira...

Bhambri, R.; Bolch, T.; Chaujar, R. K.; Kulshreshtha, S. C.

2011-01-01

333

Hinterland tectonics and drainage evolution recorded by foreland basin archives: the Neogene Siwaliks of the Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

Provenance analysis and detrital thermochronology of detrital synorogenic sediments, derived from erosion of mountain belts and deposited in surrounding sedimentary basins, are well-established methods to examine the exhumation history of convergent zones, tectonic activity and the associated evolution of the drainage network. We have conducted multidisciplinary studies on magnetostratigraphically dated sections throughout the Neogene Siwalik foreland basin of the Himalayan belt since more than 10 years. Sr, Nd and Hf isotopes are used as provenance indicators, providing information on the nature and size of catchment basins and their evolution through time in response to tectonics. Detrital zircon and apatite thermochronology provides constraints on exhumation rates in the hinterland of the Himalaya and the deformation of the Sub-Himalayan foreland basin. Throughout the Himalaya, detrital zircons from the Siwaliks generally show three age peaks: two static peaks (i.e., displaying constant peak ages through time), and a moving peak. The latter shows a constant lag time of ~4 m.y. corresponding to source-area exhumation rates on the order of 1.8 km/my, while the two static peaks respectively reveal a major 15-20 Ma exhumation event in the belt, the significance of which is still debated, and inheritance of pre-Himalayan ages that indicate recycling of Tethyan sediments. Therefore, our ZFT results suggest that the exhumation dynamics are broadly similar throughout the Himalaya since at least 13 m.y, as also shown by the Bengal Fan detrital sediment record. We relate this switch in tectonic regime to the destabilization of the Himalayan wedge that is rendered overcritical as a response to the transience of dynamic topography caused by the deforming underlying Indian slab. Nonetheless, in detail, the timing of thrusting in the Siwalik domain is delayed by about 1 my eastward as demonstrated by both structural and apatite fission-track data, suggesting overall eastward propagation of the main faults. The evolution of the sedimentary provenance can be explained by overall forward propagation of deformation in the Himalayan fold-thrust belt. In both the eastern and western syntaxes, it also shows stability of the major drainage systems of the Yarlung-Brahmaputra and Indus, respectively, suggesting that hinterland river incision kept pace with uplift of the syntaxes during the Neogene. Drainage reorganization may take place in the foreland basin because of thin-skinned tectonics but did not significantly affect sediment routing and the contribution of different sources of the upper catchment to the overall sediment budget. In contrast, major rivers in the Central Himalaya (such as the Kali Gandaki or the Karnali) could have been affected by changes in their upper catchment.

Huyghe, Pascale; van der Beek, Peter; Matthias, Bernet; Catherine, Chauvel; Jean-Louis, Mugnier; Laurent, Husson; François, Chirouze

2014-05-01

334

Chemical characteristics of pond waters within the debris area of Lirung Glacier in Nepal Himalaya  

OpenAIRE

Water samples were analyzed from ponds developed within the debris-covered area of Lirung Glacier (28º 12.9’N, 86º 39.9’E; 4000 m a.s.l.) in the Himalayas of Nepal during the pre-monsoon to post-monsoon period of 1996. Major chemical species were classified into three groups based on their relationships relative to the sum of cations: conservative (SiO2, Ca2+, K+, and Alkalinity), semiconservative (Na+, Mg2+, and SO4 2-) and non-conservative (NH4 +, NO3 - and Cl-). The dominant processe...

Takeuchi, Nozomu; Yamamoto, Mineko; Masuzawa, Toshiyuki; Bhatt, Maya P.

2007-01-01

335

Structure and Function of Shisham Forests in Central Himalaya, India: Nutrient Dynamics  

OpenAIRE

The structure and function of Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.) forests were investigated in relation to nutrient dynamics in 5? to 15?year?old stands growing in central Himalaya. Nutrient concentrations and storage in different layers of vegetation were in the order: tree > shrub > herb. Forest soil, litter and vegetation accounted for 80·1–91·9, 1·0–1·5 and 7·0–18·4 %, respectively, of the total nutrients in the system. There were considerable reductions (trees 32·8–43·...

Lodhiyal, Neelu; Lodhiyal, L. S.; Pangtey, Y. P. S.

2002-01-01

336

Relation between soil-gas radon variation and different lithotectonic units, Garhwal Himalaya, India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Measurements of radon concentration and uranium content in soil and rocks were made in the regions of the Alaknanda and Bhagirathi valleys in the Garhwal Himalaya by using radon emanometry and X-ray fluorescence method, respectively. The data were collected from different lithotectonic units along and across the various regional thrust planes, faults, shears, etc. The observed values were then correlated with the geological formations and structure of the area. Radon concentrations were found to be controlled by lithology, structure and associated uranium mineralization. A positive linear correlation was also observed between soil-gas radon and in situ uranium in the area.

Choubey, Vinay M.; Bist, K.S.; Saini, N.K. [Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehra Dun (India); Ramola, R.C. [Physics Department, H.N.B. Garhwal University campus, Tehri Garhwal (India)

1999-11-01

337

Relation between soil-gas radon variation and different lithotectonic units, Garhwal Himalaya, India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of radon concentration and uranium content in soil and rocks were made in the regions of the Alaknanda and Bhagirathi valleys in the Garhwal Himalaya by using radon emanometry and X-ray fluorescence method, respectively. The data were collected from different lithotectonic units along and across the various regional thrust planes, faults, shears, etc. The observed values were then correlated with the geological formations and structure of the area. Radon concentrations were found to be controlled by lithology, structure and associated uranium mineralization. A positive linear correlation was also observed between soil-gas radon and in situ uranium in the area

338

Measurement of radon exhalation rate from soil samples of Garhwal Himalaya, India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laboratory experiment was performed for the measurement of radon exhalation rate from the soil samples collected from Garhwal Himalayas. This study is accompanied by the measurement of soil-gas radon concentration in the same area. Both results were compared with the geological formation and structure of the area. No correlation was observed between soil-gas radon concentration and radon exhalation rate. However, it was found to be controlled by the lithology, geological structure and uranium mineralization in the area. The relationship between radon emanation, geological formation and occurrence of high indoor radon concentration is discussed. (author)

339

Serial changes in spirometry during an ascent to 5,300 m in the Nepalese Himalayas.  

OpenAIRE

The aims of the present study were to determine the changes in forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) and peak expiratory flow (PEF), during an ascent to 5,300 m in the Nepalese Himalayas, and to correlate the changes with arterial oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry (SpO2) and symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS). Forty-six subjects were studied twice daily during an ascent from 2,800 m (mean barometric pressure 550.6 mmHg) to 5,300 m (mean barome...

Mason, Np; Barry, Pw; Pollard, Aj; Collier, Dj; Taub, Na; Miller, DE; Milledge, Js

2000-01-01

340

Rauwolfia (Reserpine) As a Potential Antihypertensive Agent: A Review  

OpenAIRE

The root of Rauwolfia serpentina Benth has been used in India from century. The genus name was selected in honor of Dr. Leonhard Rauwolf, a 16thcentury German botanist, Physician & explorer. Rauwolfia serpentina is a large climbing/twining herb or shrub, belonging to family Apocynaceae and found in the Assam, Pegu, Himalayas, Java, Tennasserim, Deccan, Peninsula, Bihar and the Malay Peninsula. Reserpine is the principle alkaloid of Rauwolfia serpentina and has its clinical application with su...

Gawade B.V.; Fegade S.A.

2012-01-01

341

The Discovery of Potentially Selective Human Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase (nNOS Inhibitors: A Combination of Pharmacophore Modelling, CoMFA, Virtual Screening and Molecular Docking Studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS plays an important role in neurotransmission and smooth muscle relaxation. Selective inhibition of nNOS over its other isozymes is highly desirable for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases to avoid undesirable effects. In this study, we present a workflow for the identification and prioritization of compounds as potentially selective human nNOS inhibitors. Three-dimensional pharmacophore models were constructed based on a set of known nNOS inhibitors. The pharmacophore models were evaluated by Pareto surface and CoMFA (Comparative Molecular Field Analysis analyses. The best pharmacophore model, which included 7 pharmacophore features, was used as a search query in the SPECS database (SPECS®, Delft, The Netherlands. The hit compounds were further filtered by scoring and docking. Ten hits were identified as potential selective nNOS inhibitors.

Guanhong Xu

2014-05-01

342

Identification and conservation of important plant areas (IPAS) for the distribution of medicinal, aromatic and economic plants in the Hindukush-Himalaya mountain range  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Study on the identification of Important Plant Areas (IPAs) was conducted in seven valleys of Hindukush-Himalayas mountainous ranges of Pakistan during 2005 and 2006. The principal aim of the study is to search new avenues for the conservation and sustainable utilization of threatened medicinal and economic plants and their habitats in IPAs. IPAs are sites of tremendous ecological and economic values that still exist in the world and are being managed on specific sites to study wild plant diversity. Several of such plants are used in the traditional medicines that are being used since the dawn of history to provide basic healthcare to people the world over. According to WHO, 80% of the human population of Africa still use medicinal plants in their primary healthcare. The popularity of herbal drugs is on the constant rise in many developed countries of the world, while in developing countries like Pakistan; medicinal plants contribute significantly to the income sources of people living in remote areas. Keeping such importance in view, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched a global vision in the form of 'Global Strategy for Plant Conservation' having various targets and mile stones. Target 5 of the strategy required for the global integration of the herbal medicine in health care system with proper identification of medicinal plants and the conservation of sites where such plants are found naturally, as its basic elements. In order to contribute to the specifieds. In order to contribute to the specified target, WHO advised the relevant institutions to develop research plans and conservation programmes that are focused on the Global strategy in general and target 5 in specific. While complementing the appeal and contributing to its vision, a study was conducted in various eco-systems of the Pakistan's Hindukush-Himalayas region, identifying Important Plant Areas (IPAs) for their subsequent conservation and uses for scientific purposes. Site selection for the study was based on: 1). Exceptional vegetation richness for the representative bio-geographic zone; 2). Presence of naturally occurring medicinal herbs with species of global or regional concern, and (3). Threatened habitats that are supporting plant species of medicinal and economic values. Apart from various values of the selected sites such as their scientific and economic importance, the selected sites had a treasure of indigenous knowledge related to the wise uses and conservation of medicinal plants. The study also focused on exploring the complex natural interactions between plants and other organisms; their dependence under various environmental parameters; traditional knowledge of the local inhabitants; and the significance of the landscape to Conserve such plants on long-term basis. (author)

343

Testing the channel flow model in the eastern Himalaya, eastern Bhutan: insights from preliminary thermobarometric data  

Science.gov (United States)

The study of modern continent-continent collision provides insight into the links between the upper and lower crust, including the processes involved in the deep burial and exhumation of crustal rocks. Rocks of the Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS), which were buried to mid- to lower-crustal levels, are exposed throughout the Himalayan orogenic belt, between the top-to-the-south Main Central Thrust and the top-to-the-north South Tibetan Detachment. The GHS consists of orthogneiss, metasedimentary rocks, and large-scale (>100 km2) leucogranite bodies. Within the Bhutan Himalaya, the top-to-the south Kakhtang Thrust (KT) separates the GHS into upper (GHSu) and lower (GHSl) structural levels. Previous studies have mapped the location of the KT by the crossing of the second sillimanite isograd and by a significant increase in the volume of crystallized melt. Previous work in Bhutan has mainly focused on the GHSl, whereas the extrusion of the higher-temperature GHSu has not been well studied, and there is little quantitative data describing the P-T history of these rocks. In order to test between different end-member models for the exhumation of the GHSu, including channel flow and critical taper, new thermobarometry data was collected from a transect of samples across the KT. The channel-flow model predicts that the GHSu would have achieved peak upper-amphibolite facies P-T conditions followed by retrograde, near-isothermal decompression. In contrast, the critical-taper model predicts near-isobaric cooling of the GHSu. The electron microprobe at UC-Santa Barbara was used to measure the composition of and test for zoning within garnet, plagioclase, and biotite. Garnets in all four samples are typically subhedral to euhedral and show relatively weak zonation and flat Mg, Fe, and Ca profiles. A few garnets do exhibit bell-shaped Mn and Ca profiles. In addition, a ca. 100 ?m rim high in Mg, Ca and Mn but low in Fe is present on all garnets and is indicative of diffusional processes. Using the compositions from zoned garnet, biotite, and plagioclase, THERMOCALC P-T calculations, the garnet-biotite exchange thermometer and GASP barometer, we have obtained preliminary P-T conditions. Two kyanite schists below the KT yield similar P-T estimates of ~5.0-8.5 kbar and ~550-800°C for core and rim components. A sillimanite schist above the KT reveals potentially much higher pressures (up to ~23 kbar) at ~550-850°C for cores and ~700-800°C for rims. However, the plagioclase appears heterogeneous, and more analyses are needed to verify the pressures attained by this sample. In contrast, orthogneiss above the KT reveals lower temperature estimates of ~500-650°C for cores and rims. These preliminary P-T estimates constrain the peak P-T conditions across the KT and possibly reveal much higher pressures for the GHSu. Additional thermobarometry data and analyses of possible cordierite replacing garnet will be used to further constrain the P-T history of GHS rocks in Bhutan.

Agustsson, K. S.; Gordon, S. M.; Long, S. P.; Seward, G. G.; Zeiger, K. J.; Penfold, M. L.

2013-12-01

344

Surface characteristics of debris-covered glacier tongues in the Khumbu Himalaya derived from remote sensing texture analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The delineation of debris-covered glaciers remains a challenge in optical remote sensing, due to the similarity of the spectral signature of debris-covered ice to surrounding lateral moraines, making it difficult to apply standard semi-automated algorithms commonly used for clean ice delineation. Furthermore, supraglacial debris exhibits considerable spatial variability in its characteristics such as debris cover thickness, particle size, thermal resistance and thermal conductivity. These properties are needed in order to map the extent of debris cover and to estimate ice melt under the debris cover or at the surface. In this study we evaluate the potential of texture analysis for detecting surface characteristics of debris-cover glacier tongues in the Khumbu Himalaya, using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and high-resolution Ikonos data. We focus on mapping supra-glacier lakes and exposed ice walls using texture analysis algorithms such as grey-level co-occurrence measures (GLCM), filtering, image segmentation, and particle boundaries. We compare the performance of various existing commercial software suitable for texture analysis such as ERDAS Objective, Aphelion, as well as public domain image display and analysis software used originally for medical analysis, notably Image SXM and ImageJ. Preliminary results based on geostatistics and GLCM measures show differences in surface roughness of debris cover when compared to surrounding ice-free moraines. We expand on these results and aim at developing a quasi-automated algorithm for extracting surface features, which will be used as input in an energy balance model for estimating melting under debris cover as well as surface ice melt.

Racoviteanu, Adina; Arnaud, Yves; Nicholson, Lindsay

2013-04-01

345

Paleoseismic investigation along Nalagarh Thrust: Evidence of Late Pleistocene earthquake in Pinjaur Dun, Northwestern sub-Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

The present article is the first time reporting of a paleoearthquake that occurred during Late Pleistocene time along the Nalagarh Thrust (NT) in the Pinjaur Dun in northwestern sub-Himalaya. Using CORONA satellite photographs, multi-spectral IRS satellite data, and aerial photographs, a prominent active fault has been identified at Nalagarh in Pinjaur Dun. This fault in the alluvial fan is located very close to the NT which borders the topographic front of the Tertiary rocks against Quaternary deposits. A trench excavation survey was carried out at Nalagarh for detailed paleoseismic studies across this thrust fault. Displacing all the lithologic units of the fan sequence, the fault plane has an average dip of 30° due ENE and a vertical displacement of 1.6 m and slip of ˜2.5 m along the fault. The lithological units, consisting of alternating sand and gravel, show back tilting and asymmetrical tight folding. Based on Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) ages, the oldest litho-unit in the trench is 85.83 ± 7.2 ka and the youngest is 67.05 ± 8.4 ka. The OSL age of the sample collected from the easterly exposure of the fault shows an age of 20 ka. The faulting and associated induced deformation features suggest occurrence of a Late Pleistocene large magnitude earthquake along NT in the Nalagarh region of the Pinjaur Dun following the deposition of the Quaternary sedimentary units. The Late Pleistocene fault substantiates the seismic potential of Pinjaur Dun and calls for more exhaustive study of paleoearthquakes in this fast developing industrial belt and highly populous mountainous region.

Philip, G.; Suresh, N.; Bhakuni, S. S.; Gupta, V.

2011-03-01

346

Role of snow-albedo feedback in higher elevation warming over the Himalayas, Tibetan Plateau and Central Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent literature has shown that surface air temperature (SAT) in many high elevation regions, including the Tibetan Plateau (TP) has been increasing at a faster rate than at their lower elevation counterparts. We investigate projected future changes in SAT in the TP and the surrounding high elevation regions (between 25°–45°N and 50°–120°E) and the potential role snow-albedo feedback may have on amplified warming there. We use the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) model which have different spatial resolutions as well as different climate sensitivities. We find that surface albedo (SA) decreases more at higher elevations than at lower elevations owing to the retreat of the 0 °C isotherm and the associated retreat of the snow line. Both models clearly show amplified warming over Central Asian mountains, the Himalayas, the Karakoram and Pamir during spring. Our results suggest that the decrease of SA and the associated increase in absorbed solar radiation (ASR) owing to the loss of snowpack play a significant role in triggering the warming over the same regions. Decreasing cloud cover in spring also contributes to an increase in ASR over some of these regions in CCSM4. Although the increase in SAT and the decrease in SA are greater in GFDL than CCSM4, the sensitivity of SAT to changes in SA is the same at the highest elevations for both models during spring; this suggests that the climate sensitivity between models may differ, in part, owing to their corresponding treatments of snow cover, snow melt and the associated snow/albedo feedback.

Ghatak, Debjani; Sinsky, Eric; Miller, James

2014-11-01

347

Assessing Ethnobotanical Values and Threat Status of Wild Asparagus (Stemona Tuberosa Lour.): A Case Study in Eastern Himalaya, India  

OpenAIRE

The paper presents taxonomy, habitat, distribution, threat status, conservation strategies and usage pattern of Stemona tuberosa Lour. (Family Stemonaceae), a lesser known liana species. A less known medicinal use of this species recorded from Indian Himalaya is reported. The methodology for use from roots and tubers are provided along with photographs of the plant.

Singh, Bikarma; Borthakur, Sashin Kumar; Phukan, Sandhaya Jyoti Phukan; Sinha, Bipin Kumar

2012-01-01

348

Chemical composition and biological effects of Artemisia maritima and Artemisia nilagirica essential oils from wild plant of Western Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

Artemisia species possess pharmacological properties that are used for medical purposes worldwide. In this paper, the essential oils from the aerial parts of A. nilagirica and A. maritima from the western Indian Himalaya region are described. The main compounds analyzed by simultaneous GC/MS and GC/...

349

Ab initio and DFT derived potential energy functions in simulations of selected polyesters based on atomistic models  

Science.gov (United States)

This study focuses on atomistic simulations of polyesters, the main interest being in the performance of classical models. The Polymer Consistent Force Field (PCFF), developed for synthetic polymers, forms the basis for the simulations. The calculated properties of synthetic polymers depend strongly on the conformational statistics of the polymer chains, and the force field is, therefore, of crucial importance for the reliability of the simulations. Thus, the PCFF has been tested by comparing its results for model molecules of the polyesters studied with those of quantum mechanical ab initio and density functional theory (DFT) calculations regarding the rotational behaviour of typical bonds in these polyesters. The calculations showed that there were severe disagreements between the quantum mechanical and the PCFF studies, leading thus to re-optimisation of the particular torsion potentials of the PCFF. The quantum mechanical methods used were also compared, and though they gave mostly similar results, the DFT methods were found to underestimate some of the torsional barriers. The modified PCFF was shown to yield results in good agreement with experimental data for single chain properties of the selected polyesters. The dependence of the RIS Metropolis Monte Carlo (RMMC) method, used for these property calculations, on different run parameters, was discussed in more detail. The RMMC method, using the original and modified PCFFs, was also used in studies on the flexibility of some polyesters, which are known to be biodegradable, i.e. of polylactic (PLA) and polyglycolic (PGA) acids and some of their copolymers. The original PCFF was found to reproduce the flexibilities of these polyesters in contradiction with the results obtained with the modified PCFF. Finally, the modified PCFF was applied to molecular dynamics simulations on the constructed amorphous models for PLA and PGA and some of their copolymers to study the probability for hydrolysis as the first stage of biodegradation. The main conclusion of this study is, that re- optimisation of the torsion parameters was necessary to reproduce the torsional behaviour obtained by QM methods. The modified PCFF can, thus, be reliably used in single chain property calculations and in studies on bulk material properties of polyesters containing structural units studied in this work.

Blomqvist, Johanna Marjaana

350

Aerosol Characteristics at a High Altitude Location in Central Himalayas: Optical Properties and Radiative Forcing  

CERN Document Server

Collocated measurements of the mass concentrations of aerosol black carbon (BC) and composite aerosols near the surface were carried out along with spectral aerosol optical depths (AODs) from a high altitude station, Manora Peak in Central Himalayas, during a comprehensive aerosol field campaign in December 2004. Despite being a pristine location in the Shivalik Ranges of Central Himalayas, and having a monthly mean AOD (at 500 nm) of 0.059 $\\pm$ 0.033 (typical to this site), total suspended particulate (TSP) concentration was in the range 15 - 40 micro g m^(-3) (mean value 27.1 $\\pm$ 8.3 micro g m^(-3)). Interestingly, aerosol BC had a mean concentration of 1.36 $\\pm$ 0.99 micro g m^(-3), contributed to ~5.0 $\\pm$ 1.3 % to the composite aerosol mass. This large abundance of BC is found to have linkages to the human activities in the adjoining valley and to the boundary layer dynamics. Consequently, the inferred single scattering albedo lies in the range of 0.87 to 0.94 (mean value 0.90 $\\pm$ 0.03), indicatin...

Pant, P; Dumka, U C; Sagar, R; Satheesh, S K; Moorthy, K K; Sagar, Ram

2006-01-01

351

Snowfall less sensitive to warming in Karakoram than in Himalayas due to a unique seasonal cycle  

Science.gov (United States)

The high mountains of Asia, including the Karakoram, Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau, combine to form a region of perplexing hydroclimate changes. Glaciers have exhibited mass stability or even expansion in the Karakoram region, contrasting with glacial mass loss across the nearby Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau, a pattern that has been termed the Karakoram anomaly. However, the remote location, complex terrain and multi-country fabric of high-mountain Asia have made it difficult to maintain longer-term monitoring systems of the meteorological components that may have influenced glacial change. Here we compare a set of high-resolution climate model simulations from 1861 to 2100 with the latest available observations to focus on the distinct seasonal cycles and resulting climate change signatures of Asia's high-mountain ranges. We find that the Karakoram seasonal cycle is dominated by non-monsoonal winter precipitation, which uniquely protects it from reductions in annual snowfall under climate warming over the twenty-first century. The simulations show that climate change signals are detectable only with long and continuous records, and at specific elevations. Our findings suggest a meteorological mechanism for regional differences in the glacier response to climate warming.

Kapnick, Sarah B.; Delworth, Thomas L.; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Malyshev, Sergey; Milly, P. C. D.

2014-11-01

352

Monazite geochronology unravels the timing of crustal thickening in NW Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

Greenschist to amphibolite grade Haimanta metasediments of the NW Himalaya preserve much of the prograde metamorphic history of Eohimalayan crustal thickening, which has been erased by Oligo-/Miocene migmatization elsewhere in the Himalaya. Our zircon and monazite U/Th-Pb data unravel a multi-stage prograde metamorphic evolution. The earliest evidence of prograde Barrovian metamorphic monazite growth is ~ 41 Ma. Peak metamorphic conditions (~ 8-8.5 kbar, ~ 600-700 °C) were attained at 37-36 Ma and followed by a prolonged evolution at high temperatures with at least three distinct episodes of monazite growth, which may be related to the formation of the northern Himalayan nappes (e.g., Shikar Beh nappe, Nyimaling nappe). Rapid exhumation of the crystalline started at ~ 26 Ma and resulted in cooling through the muscovite 40Ar/39Ar closure temperature by 21.8 Ma. Although a local continuation of the South Tibetan detachment is not unambiguously identified in central Himachal Pradesh extrusion was likely facilitated by a system of several minor late Oligocene/early Miocene top-to-the-N to NE shear zones. In contrast to the crystalline of Zanskar and eastern Himachal Pradesh, extrusion was not accompanied by widespread decompression melting.

Stübner, Konstanze; Grujic, Djordje; Parrish, Randall R.; Roberts, Nick M. W.; Kronz, Andreas; Wooden, Joe; Ahmad, Talat

2014-12-01

353

Longest time series of glacier mass changes in the Himalaya based on stereo imagery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mass loss of Himalayan glaciers has wide-ranging consequences such as declining water resources, sea level rise and an increasing risk of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs. The assessment of the regional and global impact of glacier changes in the Himalaya is, however, hampered by a lack of mass balance data for most of the range. Multi-temporal digital terrain models (DTMs allow glacier mass balance to be calculated since the availability of stereo imagery. Here we present the longest time series of mass changes in the Himalaya and show the high value of early stereo spy imagery such as Corona (years 1962 and 1970 aerial images and recent high resolution satellite data (Cartosat-1 to calculate a time series of glacier changes south of Mt. Everest, Nepal. We reveal that the glaciers are significantly losing mass with an increasing rate since at least ~1970, despite thick debris cover. The specific mass loss is 0.32 ± 0.08 m w.e. a?1, however, not higher than the global average. The spatial patterns of surface lowering can be explained by variations in debris-cover thickness, glacier velocity, and ice melt due to exposed ice cliffs and ponds.

T. Bolch

2010-12-01

354

Radon and thoron monitoring in the environment of Kumaun Himalayas: survey and outcomes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Monitoring of radon, thoron and their daughter products was carried out in houses of Kumaun Himalaya, India using LR-115 plastic track detectors. The measurements were made in residential houses from June 1999 to May 2000 at a height of 2.5 m from ground level using a twin chamber radon dosimeter. The twin chamber radon dosimeter can record the values of radon, thoron and their decay products separately. Maximum and minimum indoor radon and thoron concentrations were evaluated and activity concentrations of radon and thoron daughters were estimated. The resulting dose rates due to radon, thoron and their decay products varied from 0.04 to 1.89 ?Sv/h. A detailed analysis of the distribution of radon, thoron and their decay products inside the house is also reported. The observed dose rates inside the houses of Kumaun Himalaya were found to be lower than the ICRP recommended value of 200 Bq/m3 and thus are within safe limits

355

Radon and thoron monitoring in the environment of Kumaun Himalayas: survey and outcomes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Monitoring of radon, thoron and their daughter products was carried out in houses of Kumaun Himalaya, India using LR-115 plastic track detectors. The measurements were made in residential houses from June 1999 to May 2000 at a height of 2.5 m from ground level using a twin chamber radon dosimeter. The twin chamber radon dosimeter can record the values of radon, thoron and their decay products separately. Maximum and minimum indoor radon and thoron concentrations were evaluated and activity concentrations of radon and thoron daughters were estimated. The resulting dose rates due to radon, thoron and their decay products varied from 0.04 to 1.89 {mu}Sv/h. A detailed analysis of the distribution of radon, thoron and their decay products inside the house is also reported. The observed dose rates inside the houses of Kumaun Himalaya were found to be lower than the ICRP recommended value of 200 Bq/m{sup 3} and thus are within safe limits.

Ramola, R.C. E-mail: rcramola@sancharnet.in; Negi, M.S.; Choubey, V.M

2005-07-01

356

Widespread expansion of glacier moraine-dammed lakes in the Chinese Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

More moraine-dammed lakes in the Himalaya may form and enlarge due to glacier retreat and increased meltwater availability under the climatic warming that has been recorded across this mountain range over the last few decades. Because of this, and because such lakes have caused major GLOF (glacial lake outburst flood) events before, international organisations have been developing lake inventories to evaluate flood risks in the Himalaya, mainly in the south. Here we present the first complete inventory of moraine-dammed lakes on the Chinese side, which shows expansion and formation dominate their behaviour from the 1970s to the 2000s. We found that while their number has remained at ?1200, their combined area has drastically increased, and glacier retreat also helped focus this overall growth in a narrow elevation range where many large new lakes have appeared. Our discovery of a glacier-recession signal in the lakes' variation underlines the need to study the climatological and glaciological factors behind lake evolution.

Liu, Shiyin; Ng, Felix; Wang, Xin; Guo, Wanqin; Yao, Xiaojun; Yu, Pengchun; Xu, Junli; Ding, Yongjian

2010-05-01

357

Divergence of water balance mechanisms in two melanic Drosophila species from the western Himalayas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Drosophila busckii is more abundant under colder and drier montane habitats in the western Himalayas as compared to Drosophila melanogaster but the mechanistic basis of such climatic adaptations is largely unknown. We tested the hypothesis whether genetic variation or phenotypic plasticity of cuticular traits confer adaptive protection against desiccation stress in two melanic Drosophila species living under drier montane localities. For D. melanogaster, changes in melanisation are known to be associated with reduced water loss but there are no data on D. busckii. We investigated changes in body melanisation, cuticular lipids, desiccation resistance, water loss, extractable hemolymph volume (%), and dehydration tolerance in six sympatric populations of D. busckii and D. melanogaster over an altitudinal range of 640-2236 m. D. busckii is a melanic species but changes in cuticular water loss are negatively correlated with cuticular lipid mass and not with body melanisation. In D. melanogaster, there are no plastic effects (14-28 °C) for cuticular lipid mass but variation in body melanisation is associated with desiccation-related traits. Effects of organic solvents (hexane or chloroform: methanol), developmental plasticity and seasonal variation in cuticular lipids affect body water loss in D. busckii but no such changes occur in D. melanogaster. Thus, sympatric populations of D. busckii and D. melanogaster have evolved different water balance mechanisms under shared environmental conditions in the western Himalayas. Multiple measures of desiccation resistance in these species show clinal variation with altitude, consistent with adaptation to increased desiccation stress. PMID:21220040

Parkash, Ravi; Aggarwal, Dau Dayal; Kalra, Bhawna; Ranga, Poonam

2011-04-01

358

Elemental and individual particle analysis of atmospheric aerosols from high Himalayas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Atmospheric aerosols were collected during the scientific expedition to Mt. Qomolangma (Everest) in May-June, 2005. The elemental concentrations of the aerosols were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. This yielded data for the concentration of 14 elements: Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb. The mean elemental concentrations were generally comparable with those from central Asia and the Arctic, while much higher than those from Antarctic. Size, morphology, and chemical composition of 900 individual aerosol particles were determined by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Based on morphology and elemental composition, the particles were clustered into eight groups: soot (8%), tar ball (3%), alumosilicates/silica (55%), calcium sulfate (16%), Ca/Mg carbonate (2%), Fe/Ti-rich particles (3%), Pb-rich particles (1%), and biological particles (12%). The sampling site, located at 6,520 m in the Himalayas, is particularly remote and located at high altitude. Nonetheless, high aerosol enrichment factors for copper, chromium, lead, nickel, vanadium, and zinc all suggest the influence of long-range transported pollution, while enrichment in calcium and the presence of alumino-silicates in individual particle analyses indicates a distinct mineral dust influence. The backward air mass trajectories showed that the northwestern part of India may contribute to the atmospheric aerosol in the central high Himalayas. PMID:19083111

Cong, Zhiyuan; Kang, Shichang; Dong, Shuping; Liu, Xiande; Qin, Dahe

2010-01-01

359

K-Ar geochronology of the Kulu-Mandi Belt, NW Himalaya, India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The K-Ar dates of micas and whole rock amphibolites from the Kulu-Mandi Belt define two distinct groups, (1) 20 to 75 m. y., and (2) 277 to 366 m. y. Our data together with the other available K-Ar and Rb-Sr mineral and whole rock data, enable us to confirm three major events in the Himalaya, the Late Precambrian-Cambrian Assyntian (Cadomian) Orogenic cycle, the Late Palaeozoic Hercynian Magmatic-Epeirogenic cycle and the Late Cretaceous-Teritiary Himalayan Orogenic cycle. The mineral dating is significant for delineating different phases of the last i.e. the Himalayan Oregeny. The radiometric data, so far to hand, indicate that the main activity of the young, Himalayan metamorphism was probably around 50 to 70 m. y. (Late Cretaceous-Eocene) and this was followed by a major uplift during the 10 to 25 m. y. (Mid. Miocene) time, which was responsible for thrusting and formation of nappe structures in the Himalaya. (orig.)

360

Changes in Imja Lake and Karda Lake in the Everest Region of Himalaya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Himalaya is a region sensitive to climate change. Changes in the glacial regime are one indicator of global climate changes. There are several studies focusing on analysis of temporal changes of these glacial lakes in the Himalaya region. However, the researches on addressing these trends in relation with surrounding topographical conditions are quite limited. In this study, we analyzed spatio-temporal changes in Imja Lake, located on the southern slope, and Karda Lake, located on the northern slope of the Mt. Everest region, in 1976, 1992, 2000, and 2008. Moreover, we examined whether the topographic conditions differ between the two slopes. Landsat and ASTER GDEM (advanced space borne thermal emission and reflection radiometer, global digital elevation model data were used to identify boundaries of target glacial lakes and to calculate three indices of growth rate compared to year of 1976 (%, GRa, growth rate compared to preceding year (%, GRb, and growth speed (m2/year, GS of the two lakes. The topographic conditions in circular buffer zones from the centroid of the two lakes were analyzed. Although the area of two lakes demonstrated linear increase from 1976 to 2008, growth rate compared to year of 1976 (GRa differed significantly (Kruskal-Wallis test, p squared test for independence on m × n contingency table between 1976, 1992, 2000, and 2008 on growth speed (GS. The two slopes differed in terms of three topographical variables: altitude, aspect, and angle of inclination (Kruskal-Wallis test, p

Wenbo Chen

2013-10-01

361

Modelling bed overdeepenings for the glaciers in the Himalaya-Karakoram region using GlabTop2  

Science.gov (United States)

Calculating ice thickness distribution and bed topographies for large glacier samples is an essential task to estimate stored ice volumes with their potential for sea level rise and to model possible future retreat scenarios of glacier evolution under conditions of continued warming. Modelling such bed topographies to become exposed in the near future by continued glacier retreat also enables modelling of future landscapes with their landforms, processes and interactions. As the erosive power of glaciers can form numerous and sometimes large closed topographic bed depressions, many overdeepenings are commonly found in formerly glaciated mountain ranges. Where such overdeepend parts are becoming exposed and filled with water rather than sediments new lakes can come into existence. GlabTop (Glacier bed Topography) has been used to model ice thickness distribution and bed topographies of large glacier samples. It is an ice dynamical approach, based on the assumption of perfect plasticity of ice, which relates glacier thickness to its local surface slope via the basal shear stress estimated for each glacier based on an empirical relation between shear stress and elevation range as a governing factor of mass turnover. From comparison with radio-echo soundings in the Swiss Alps, the uncertainty range of local ice thicknesses calculated with GlabTop is estimated at about ±30%. The spatial variability of ice depths, i.e. the glacier-bed topography, primarily depends on surface slope as provided by DEMs and is quite robust. For the entire Swiss Alps, GlabTop revealed a considerable number (more than 500) of (partly large) overdeepenings in the modelled glacier beds with a total area of about 50-60 km2 and a total volume of about 1.5-2.5 km3. A number of lakes have formed in such modelled overdeepenings during the past years and decades. To calculate bed topographies with their overdeepenings for the 28'100 glaciers of the Himalaya-Karakoram region the GlabTop-approach was modified and named GlabTop2. While the original approach relied on so called glacier branch lines that had to be digitized manually, GlabTop2 is fully automated and requires only a DEM and glacier outlines as an input. The result is the same: ice thickness distribution and bed topographies, which can be used for volume calculations and for model simulations concerning glacier retreat scenarios and future landscapes. According to the model output there are about 15'000 overdeepenings covering an area of about 2000 km2 and having a total volume of about 120 km3 (3-4% of the now existing glacier volume) in the Himalaya-Karakoram region. In a statistical analysis concerning the morphological characteristics of these overdeepenings, mean and maximum values of the parameters surface area, length, width, depth, volume, frontal/adverse slope and their statistical interrelations are determined with their corresponding uncertainty ranges and compared with a corresponding analysis for the Swiss Alps. While the modelled overdeepenings based on model runs with different data input differ in shape, the locations of the overdeepenings are robust and the values for the extracted parameters are comparable.

Linsbauer, Andreas; Frey, Holger; Haeberli, Wilfried; Machguth, Horst

2014-05-01

362

Structural Evidence for the Leading Edge of the Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex in the Kathmandu Region, Central Nepal Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

Current models for the tectonic evolution of the Himalaya - wedge extrusion, channel flow, and tectonic wedging - make divergent predictions for the terminations of major faults and tectonic units. To test these models, field mapping was conducted along the northern margin of the Kathmandu Nappe in central Nepal. This work reveals the leading edge of the Greater Himalayan Crystalline complex, i.e., the high grade crystalline core of the Himalaya. The Kathmandu Nappe is dominated by three sequences that are folded in a syncline and bounded below by the Main Central thrust. These sequences are: (1) a southward tapering wedge of kyanite-bearing gneisses overlain by (2) garnet-bearing pelitic and psammitic metamorphic rocks succeeded along a sedimentary contact by (3) unmetamorphosed Lower Paleozoic Tethyan strata. Structural mapping along the contact between the kyanite-bearing gneisses and the garnet-bearing metamorphic rocks reveals a dominantly top-north shear zone (featuring S-C mylonite, extensional crenulation cleavage, and shear band fabrics) that intersects the Main Central thrust to the south. This shear zone is interpreted as the southern extension of the South Tibet detachment. It follows that (1) the kyanite gneiss wedge represents the Greater Himalayan Crystalline complex and (2) the intersection line of the South Tibet detachment with the Main Central thrust represents the leading edge of this unit. The intersection line has also been recently identified in the western Himalaya, so this line appears subparallel to the arc of the orogen. As the South Tibet detachment is generally sub-horizontal to north-dipping and its southern tip (the intersection line) is locally preserved in the central and western Himalaya, this structure was not exposed during its active motion. Only tectonic wedging models can accommodate the 3-D geometry of the Greater Himalayan Crystalline complex in the central and western Himalaya.

Webb, A. G.

2008-12-01

363

Selection bias in a population survey with registry linkage: potential effect on socioeconomic gradient in cardiovascular risk  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Non-participation in population studies is likely to be a source of bias in many types of epidemiologic studies, including those describing social disparities in health. The objective of this paper is to present a non-attendance analysis evaluating the possible impact of selection bias, when investigating the association between education level and cardiovascular risk factors. Data from the INTERGENE research programme including 3,610 randomly selected individuals aged 25?...

Strandhagen, Elisabeth; Berg, Christina; Lissner, Lauren; Nunez, Leyla; Rosengren, Annika; Tore?n, Kjell; Thelle, Dag S.

2010-01-01

364

Lack of Abuse Potential in a Highly Selective Dopamine D3 Agonist, PF-592,379, in Drug Self-Administration and Drug Discrimination in Rats  

OpenAIRE

Dopamine D3-preferring agonists are commonly used to treat Parkinson’s disease and restless leg syndrome; however, laboratory animal studies suggest that they may possess a moderate abuse potential. These studies aimed to compare the highly-selective, full D3 agonist PF-592,379 to that of the less selective D3 agonist 7-OH-DPAT, and the indirect dopamine agonist cocaine in drug self-administration and discrimination assays. Although rats readily acquired high rates of fixed ratio (FR)1 resp...

Collins, Gregory T.; Butler, Paul; Wayman, Chris; Ratcliffe, Sian; Gupta, Paul; Oberhofer, Geoffrey; Caine, S. Barak

2012-01-01

365

Selection of candidate container materials for the conceptual waste package design for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preliminary selection criteria have been developed, peer-reviewed, and applied to a field of 41 candidate materials to choose three alloys for further consideration during the advanced conceptual design phase of waste package development for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These three alloys are titanium grade 12, Alloy C-4, and Alloy 825. These selections are specific to the particular conceptual design outlined in the Site Characterization Plan. Other design concepts that may be considered in the advanced conceptual design phase may favor other materials choices

366

Selection of candidate container materials for the conceptual waste package design for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Preliminary selection criteria have been developed, peer-reviewed, and applied to a field of 41 candidate materials to choose three alloys for further consideration during the advanced conceptual design phase of waste package development for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These three alloys are titanium grade 12, Alloy C-4, and Alloy 825. These selections are specific to the particular conceptual design outlined in the Site Characterization Plan. Other design concepts that may be considered in the advanced conceptual design phase may favor other materials choices.

Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Halsey, W.G.; McCright, R.D.; Clarke, W.L. Jr. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Gdowski, G.E. [KMI, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-02-01

367

Zeta potential of selected bacteria in drinking water when dead, starved, or exposed to minimal and rich culture media.  

Science.gov (United States)

The zeta potentials of E. coli, GFP (green fluorescence protein)-labeled E. coli, Salmonella Newport, and Pseudomonas sp. in different states (nutrient-starved and dead) and grown in rich and minimal media were measured. Capillary electrophoresis experiments were conducted to measure the zeta potential of the different cells suspended in a drinking water sample. Salmonella Newport strain showed a lower zeta potential compared to E. coli, GFP-labeled E. coli, and Pseudomonas sp. Starved E. coli cells had a lower zeta potential compared to E. coli cells grown under rich media conditions. Salmonella Newport cells grown in minimal media also had a lower zeta potential compared to rich, starved, and dead cells. The different bacterial cell types exhibited differences in size as well. These results suggest that when bacterial cells are present in drinking water they can exhibit significant heterogeneity in the size and zeta potential, depending on their physiological state. PMID:17985185

Soni, Kamlesh A; Balasubramanian, Ashwin K; Beskok, Ali; Pillai, Suresh D

2008-01-01

368

Transport of sediments in Himalaya-Karakorum and its influence on hydropower plants; Sedimenttransportprozesse im Himalaya-Karakorum und ihre Bedeutung fuer Wasserkraftanlagen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the present study the sediment transport processes in alpine mountain areas and their impact on hydropower development projects are investigated. The aim of the present work is to contribute to the understanding of the transport process system, which is characterized by high magnitude-low frequency - events, to ensure an appropriate layout of high head hydropower projects in mountain regions. The sediment transport in large areas in the macro scale is triggered by natural hazards, such as earthquakes, rock slides, earth movements, debris flows, glacial lake outbursts and floods. The basic principle of complex transport processes in this scale is described and explained on the example of the Himalaya-Karakorum-region. The sediment transport process in the smaller scale, so called meso scale, is investigated by means of extensive field measurements at river reaches of 16 different mountain rivers of a 80000 km{sup 2} large project area. The measurements include topographic survey works and measurements of discharge, bed load and suspended load. Since the conditions of mountain rivers in terms of size of bed material as well as available flow velocities can be considered as extreme, an appropriate bed load sampler named B-69 was developed, constructed and used in the field. Moreover the hydraulic as well as the sedimentological efficiency of the sampler was tested in the laboratory tests. Due to the nice performance of the bed load sampler B-69 at high flow velocities it might be useful for flood conditions in gravel-bed rivers in other parts of the world as well. Based on the results of the study the parameter of the river slope can be considered as the most important one for the characteristics of the morphology, the flow conditions, the bed stability as well as the bed load transport in steep mountain rivers. With increasing slope morphological structures in the longitudinal direction will develop from flat bed conditions. The so called step-pool-systems consist of a cascade of staircase local falls. Their distance in-between the falls as well as their height difference at the steps is strongly depending on the river slope. (orig.) [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit beschaeftigt sich mit den Sedimenttransportprozessen in alpinen Gebirgsregionen und deren Auswirkungen auf Wasserkraftanlagen. Ziel der Arbeit ist es, zum Verstaendnis des natuerlichen Sedimenttransportes mit der fuer Gebirgsregionen typischen Charakteristik von 'High Magnitude-Low Frequency - Prozessen' beizutragen, um eine den Transportverhaeltnissen geeignete Auslegung von geplanten Wasserkraftanlagen zu finden. Am Beispiel der Gebirgsregion des Himalaya-Karakorums werden die komplexen Transportvorgaenge im grossraeumigen Raum des Makromassstabes erlaeutert. Dabei wird auf die Massentransporte eingegangen, die durch Naturgefahren wie Erdbeben, Felsgleitungen, Erdrutsche, Muren, Gletscherbrueche und Hochwaesser ausgeloest werden. Der Schwerpunkt der Arbeit liegt in der Durchfuehrung von umfangreichen Naturmessungen im untergeordneten Raum des Mesomassstabes im Bereich von einzelnen Flussabschnitten. Die Naturmessungen umfassen morphologische und topographische Aufnahmen, Abfliessmessungen, Geschiebe- sowie Schwebstoffmessungen an 16 Gebirgsfluessen eines insgesamt 80000 km{sup 2} grossen Projektgebietes im Himalaya-Karakorum. Aufgrund der extremen Verhaeltnisse der Gebirgsfluesse der Region hinsichtlich vorhandener Korngroesse des Bettmaterials sowie die Groessenordnung der Fliessgeschwindigkeiten wurde fuer die Untersuchungen eigens der mobile Geschiebesammler B-69 entwickelt, gebaut und auf seine hydraulische und sedimentologische Effizienz hin geprueft. Der Einsatz des B-69 hat sich im Feld bewaehrt und ist fuer weitere Anwendungen bei Hochwasserereignissen in kiesfuehrenden Fluessen geeignet. Als massgebender Parameter zur Beschreibung der Morphologie, der Stroemung, der Sohlenstabilitaet und des Geschiebetransportes von Gebirgsfluessen im Mesomassstab konnte das Gefaelle I festgestellt werden. Das Gefaelle ist bestimmend fuer die Ausbildung d

Palt, S.M.

2001-07-01

369

Shilajit: A Natural Phytocomplex with Potential Procognitive Activity  

OpenAIRE

Shilajit is a natural substance found mainly in the Himalayas, formed for centuries by the gradual decomposition of certain plants by the action of microorganisms. It is a potent and very safe dietary supplement, restoring the energetic balance and potentially able to prevent several diseases. Recent investigations point to an interesting medical application toward the control of cognitive disorders associated with aging, and cognitive stimulation. Thus, fulvic acid, the main active principle...

Carlos Carrasco-Gallardo; Leonardo Guzmán; Maccioni, Ricardo B.

2012-01-01

370

Modelling glacier change in the Everest region, Nepal Himalaya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we apply a glacier mass balance and ice redistribution model to simulate historical and future glacier change in the Everest region of Nepal. High-resolution temperature and precipitation fields derived from gridded APHRODITE data, and validated against independent station observations from the EVK2CNR network, are used to drive the historical model from 1961 to 2007. The model is calibrated against geodetically derived estimates of net glacier mass change from 1992 to 2008, termini position of four large glaciers at the end of the calibration period, average velocities observed on selected debris-covered glaciers, and total glacierized area. We integrate field-based observations of glacier mass balance and ice thickness with remotely-sensed observations of decadal glacier change to validate the model. Between 1961 and 2007, the mean modelled volume change over the Dudh Kosi basin is ?6.4 ± 1.5 km3, a decrease of 15.6% from the original estimated ice volume in 1961. Modelled glacier area change between 1961 and 2007 is ?101.0 ± 11.4 km2, a decrease of approximately 20% from the initial extent. Scenarios of future climate change, based on CMIP5 RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 end members, suggest that glaciers in the Everest region will continue to lose mass through the 21st century. Glaciers in the basin are concentrated between 5000 and 6000 m of elevation, and are thus expected to be sensitive to changes in temperature and equilibrium line altitude (ELA. Glacier volume reductions between ?35 to ?62% are possible by 2050, and sustained temperature increases to 2100 may result in total glacier volume losses of between ?73 and ?96%.

J. M. Shea

2014-10-01

371

Macro Invertebrate Community from Sonamarg Streams of Kashmir Himalaya  

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Full Text Available This study analyses a macroinvertebrate community survey for River Sindh and its tributary including Baltal, Yashmarg, Sonamarg and Thajwas Grar considering the extreme hydrological conditions linked with the seasonal low-flow period typical for some streams in this area. This study attempts to provide an overview of the macro invertebrate assemblages and physico-chemical variables of the River Sindh and its important tributary. Four study sites were selected from the River Sindh and its tributary including Baltal, Yashmarg, Sonamarg and Thajwas Grar for studying the ecological distribution of Macroinvertebrate assemblages. Totally, 33 taxa of macroinvertebrates were recorded from the two streams belonging to Mollusca-3 (Gastropoda-2 and Bivalvia-1, Annelida-1 and Arthropoda-29 (Insecta-29. Among insects Ephemeroptera (7, Trichoptera (6 and Diptera (13 dominated. Except Yashmrag all sites were found devoid of annelids while as the mollusks were found absent at Sonamarg. Highest values of Shannon Weiner Index were found at Yashmarg (2.42 and lowest at Sonamarg (1.99 while as highest and lowest Sorensen?s similarity coefficient were found between Baltal/Thajwas Grar (0.68 and Yashmarg/Thajwas Grar (0.39, respectively. A perusal of the data on physico-chemical characteristics showed that these streams were hard water type with high dissolved oxygen content. The ionic composition of the stream waters revealed the predominance of bicarbonate and calcium. Insecta dominated both qualitatively as well as quantitatively and the study revealed that the substrate compositions dominated by gravel, pebble and leaf litters are primary determinants of the invertebrate community structure recording maximum species diversity and abundance. Sample locations impacted by Amarnath yatris pilgrimage comparatively reflected slightly higher increase in nutrients than Thajwas Grar almost devoid of pilgrimage effect.

A.R. Yousuf

2011-01-01

372

Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 1. Data, maps, models and methods used for selection of potential areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings plus different types of material from the research periods) and radioactive waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The Minister for Health and Prevention presented the background and decision plan for the Danish Parliament in January 2009. All political parties agreed on the plan. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. In the present study, the salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included. The present report briefly describes the existing data collections (including databases, maps and models), that are used during the work of selection of ca. 20 potentially suitable areas. Most of the information is stored in GEUS databases: Location of boreholes, borehole data, rock sediment and ground water compounds, maps, geophysical data and much more, but information is also collected from other institutions. The methods are described in more details (chapter 6) and this description is the direct background for the selection process, the characterisation of the 20 areas and for the final selection of the 2 or 3 most potential sites. (LN)

Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

2011-07-01

373

Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 1. Data, maps, models and methods used for selection of potential areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings plus different types of material from the research periods) and radioactive waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The Minister for Health and Prevention presented the background and decision plan for the Danish Parliament in January 2009. All political parties agreed on the plan. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. In the present study, the salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included. The present report briefly describes the existing data collections (including databases, maps and models), that are used during the work of selection of ca. 20 potentially suitable areas. Most of the information is stored in GEUS databases: Location of boreholes, borehole data, rock sediment and ground water compounds, maps, geophysical data and much more, but information is also collected from other institutions. The methods are described in more details (chapter 6) and this description is the direct background for the selection process, the characterisation of the 20 areas and for the final selection of the 2 or 3 most potential sites. (LN)

374

Tectonics, exhumation, and drainage evolution of the eastern Himalaya since 13 Ma from detrital geochemistry and thermochronology, Kameng River Section, Arunachal Pradesh  

OpenAIRE

The exhumation history of the central Himalaya is well documented, but lateral variations in exhumation remain poorly constrained. In this study, we identify sediment source areas and examine the late Neogene exhumation history of the eastern Himalaya from the synorogenic sedimentary record of its foreland basin. We present Nd and Hf isotopic data as well as apatite and zircon fission-track analyses from the Miocene–Pliocene Siwalik Group along the recently dated Kameng River section in Aru...

Chirouze, F.; Huyghe, P.; Beek, P.; Chauvel, C.; Chakraborty, T.; Dupont-nivet, G.; Bernet, M.

2013-01-01

375

Connecting hydrology and suspended sediment transport with precipitation in the Nepal Himalayas  

Science.gov (United States)

The transfer of precipitation into rivers involves temporary water storage in reservoirs such as soils, groundwater, snow and glaciers, where different residence times influence the hydrological cycle. Precipitation in the Nepal Himalayas is strongly controlled by orographic effects, and describes a strong north-south (10 fold) rainfall gradient. Around 80% of the annual rainfall occurs during the monsoon season (June-September). The spatio-temporal distribution of precipitation has numerous consequences for surface processes and water availability, and the very clear seasonality - monsoon and non-monsoon - exerts a very distinct annual hydrological cycle. Suspended sediments volumes in rivers, draining large orogens, are mainly controlled by the transport capacity of rivers and by the mobilization of material in the upstream areas, for example by landsliding. In particular, the occurrence of erosion and associated highly concentrated suspended sediment fluxes in rivers are closely tied to monsoon precipitation. In this contribution we discuss the dependency of suspended sediment concentration and hydrology on precipitation, in the major drainage basins of the Nepal Himalayas. First, we show that the APHRODITE (Asian Precipitation- Highly-Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation of Water Resources) precipitation dataset is the best available for this region. Second, we show analysis of daily hydrological and climatological records (~30 yr dataset) for the major drainage basins of the Nepal Himalayas (12 gauging stations), which reveal an annual anticlockwise precipitation-discharge hysteresis loop. This loop we observe in both glaciated and unglaciated catchments. This implies the temporal storage capacity of water in a transient reservoir, whose estimated characteristic response time (~45 days) and diffusivity (~1 m2/s) is typical for fractured basement aquifers. The storage capacity represents ~25 km3 for all of Nepal, whereas we also estimate snow and glacier melt contribution to be ~14 km3/yr. Third, on the basis of these information we discuss the suspended sediment fluxes and their relation with precipitation and flood events. We explain the reason and cause of an observed annual discharge-sediment concentration hysteresis effect and show that sediment fluxes and storm discharge are linearly related. From the clear relationship between st