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Sample records for himalayas selection potential

  1. Permafrost in the Himalayas: specific characteristics, evolution vs. climate change and impacts on potential natural hazards

    Fort, Monique

    2015-04-01

    Mountain environments are very sensitive to climate change, yet assessing the potential impacts of these changes is not easy because of the complexity and diversity of mountain systems. The Himalayan permafrost belt presents three main specificities: (1) it develops in a geodynamically active mountain, which means that the controlling factors are not only temperature but also seismo-tectonic activity; (2) due to the steepness of the southern flank of the Greater Himalaya and potential large scale rock failures, permafrost evidence manifests itself best in the inner valleys and on the northern, arid side of the Himalayas (elevations >4000m); (3) the east-west strike of the mountain range creates large spatial discontinuity in the "cold" belt, mostly related to precipitation nature and availability. Only limited studies have been carried to date, and there is no permanent "field laboratory", nor continuous records but a few local studies. Based on preliminary observations in the Nepal Himalayas (mostly in Mustang and Dolpo districts), and Indian Ladakh, we present the main features indicating the existence of permafrost (either continuous or discontinuous). Rock-glaciers are quite well represented, though their presence may be interpreted as a combined result from both ground ice and large rock collapse. The precise altitudinal zonation of permafrost belt (specifying potential permafrost, probable permafrost, observed permafrost belts) still requires careful investigations in selected areas. Several questions arise when considering the evolution of permafrost in a context of climate change, with its impacts on the development of potential natural hazards that may affect the mountain population. Firstly, permafrost degradation (ground ice melting) is a cause of mountain slope destabilization. When the steep catchments are developed in frost/water sensitive bedrock (shales and marls) and extend to high elevations (as observed in Mustang or Dolpo), it would supply more mass-wasting and debris-flow events and may directly threat the infrastructures recently built to unlock these remote areas. Secondly, acceleration of permafrost degradation might also affect the steepest rock walls (as in Khumbu, Manang and Mustang Himals) and cause rock avalanches that could impact nearby settlements, as suggested by relicts of past events. Lastly, ground ice is a hidden source of water in areas without permanent glacial ice. In a context of global warming this non-renewable resource would be depleted and no longer available for the population living in these areas, all the more as growing tourism activities are increasing the demand for water consumption that may conflicts with irrigated agricultural uses down valley. More in-situ observations and long-term monitoring studies should certainly be useful to understand climate trends hence permafrost evolution and their consequences in order to help mountain populations of the cold, arid Himalayas to adjust to progressive changes in their environmental conditions and resources.

  2. Hot springs and the geothermal energy potential of Jammu & Kashmir State, N.W. Himalaya, India

    Craig, J.; Absar, A.; Bhat, G.; Cadel, G.; Hafiz, M.; Hakhoo, N.; Kashkari, R.; Moore, J.; Ricchiuto, T. E.; Thurow, J.; Thusu, B.

    2013-11-01

    India has an estimated geothermal power potential of 10,600 MWe, but this potential is entirely undeveloped at present. The 'Geothermal Atlas of India' prepared by the Geological Survey of India (GSI) in 1991 describes some 340 hot spring sites and identifies more than 300 sites with geothermal potential in at least seven key geothermal provinces throughout India. There are more than 20 hot spring sites in Jammu & Kashmir State, mainly in the Chenab Valley in the Lesser/Central Himalaya, the Kashmir Valley and in the High Himalaya region of Ladakh. At least three localities in the Ladakh region - Chamuthang and Puga in the Indus valley and Panamik in the Nubra Valley - are considered to have geothermal power generation potential of between 3 and > 20 MWe.

  3. Stalagmite growth perturbations from the Kumaun Himalaya as potential earthquake recorders

    Rajendran, C. P.; Sanwal, Jaishri; Morell, Kristin D.; Sandiford, Mike; Kotlia, B. S.; Hellstrom, John; Rajendran, Kusala

    2016-04-01

    The central part of the Himalaya (Kumaun and Garhwal Provinces of India) is noted for its prolonged seismic quiescence, and therefore, developing a longer-term time series of past earthquakes to understand their recurrence pattern in this segment assumes importance. In addition to direct observations of offsets in stratigraphic exposures or other proxies like paleoliquefaction, deformation preserved within stalagmites (speleothems) in karst system can be analyzed to obtain continuous millennial scale time series of earthquakes. The Central Indian Himalaya hosts natural caves between major active thrusts forming potential storehouses for paleoseismological records. Here, we present results from the limestone caves in the Kumaun Himalaya and discuss the implications of growth perturbations identified in the stalagmites as possible earthquake recorders. This article focuses on three stalagmites from the Dharamjali Cave located in the eastern Kumaun Himalaya, although two other caves, one of them located in the foothills, were also examined for their suitability. The growth anomalies in stalagmites include abrupt tilting or rotation of growth axes, growth termination, and breakage followed by regrowth. The U-Th age data from three specimens allow us to constrain the intervals of growth anomalies, and these were dated at 4273 ± 410 years BP (2673-1853 BC), 2782 ± 79 years BP (851-693 BC), 2498 ± 117 years BP (605-371 BC), 1503 ± 245 years BP (262-752 AD), 1346 ± 101 years BP (563-765 AD), and 687 ± 147 years BP (1176-1470 AD). The dates may correspond to the timings of major/great earthquakes in the region and the youngest event (1176-1470 AD) shows chronological correspondence with either one of the great medieval earthquakes (1050-1250 and 1259-1433 AD) evident from trench excavations across the Himalayan Frontal Thrust.

  4. Hazard Assessment of Glacial Lake Outburst Flood and Potential of ICTs for Coping: A Case of Eastern Himalaya of Nepal

    Bhattarai, D. R.; Pradhananga, D.

    2014-12-01

    Alarming rate of retreat of glaciers and formation of glacial lakes in higher elevation of Nepal Himalaya has been reported to be related with the pronounced atmospheric temperature rise in the region. Glacier Lake Outburst Floods (GLOF) are the growing climate induced hazards in the Himalaya increasing the vulnerability of community living in the mountain valley, and the fragile ecosystem. This study tried to come up with the potential impacts from glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) in highland of eastern region of Nepal and potential role of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) in coping. I analyzed the trend of climatic pattern (temperature and precipitation) of the Eastern Himalaya Region of Nepal available from Department of Hydrology and Meteorology (DHM), Government of Nepal, and also prepared the latest location map of the glacial lakes using google earth and ArcGIS application in the highland of the Kanchanjungha Conservation Area of the region. Tiptala glacial lake, located at an elevation of 4950 masl, within the conservation area, was selected for the GLOF hazard assessment. I used semi-structured questioner survey and key informants interviews in the community living below the lake in the highland of the study area in order to assess the potential hazard of GLOF. Analysis shows the increasing trend of atmospheric temperature in the region. With the varying sizes, 46 glacial lakes were located in the region, which covers over 2.57 sq. km in total. Though the larger portion of the downstream area of the Tiptala glacial lake fall in the remote location away from major residential area, few villages, major pasture lands for Yaks, foot trails, and several bridges across the Tamor River below the lake are in risk of GLOF. Poor access due to extreme geographical remoteness and capacity to afford the modern technologies in the community is seen as the major limiting factor to the knowledge and information about the climate change and related impacts. Modern ICTs has high potential to reduce the risk of climate related hazards in the remote area by information dissemination and awareness.

  5. Carbon Stock Potential of Oak and Pine Forests in Garhwal Region in Indian Central Himalayas

    Nanda Nautiyal

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Oak (Quercus leucotichophora and pine (Pinus roxburghii are the two most dominant forest types occurring in Indian Central Himalayas. CO2 mitigation potential of these two forest types was observed in the present study. Carbon stock densities for AGTB, BB, LHG, DWS, AGSB and SOC were estimated and higher values were recorded in oak forest stands. Total carbon density estimated was 2420.54 Mg/ha for oak forest of Gopeshwar and 986.93 Mg/ha for pine forest of Nandprayag. CO2 mitigation potential of oak forest of Gopeshwar was recorded to be 8,713.94 CO2e and of pine forests 3552.95 CO2e.

  6. A Multidimensional Poverty Measure for the Hindu KushHimalayas, Applied to Selected Districts in Nepal

    Jean-Yves Gerlitz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 211 million people live in the Hindu KushHimalaya region. Although poverty levels in this region are high, there is a lack of cohesive information on the socioeconomic status of its populations that would enable decision-makers to understand different manifestations of poverty and design effective poverty alleviation programs. Hence, the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD, in consultation with international and regional partners, has developed the Multidimensional Poverty Measure for the Hindu KushHimalayas (MPM-HKH. This measure aims to identify and describe poor and vulnerable households across the Hindu KushHimalaya regionwhich is predominantly rural and mountainous and covers several of the worlds least developed countriesin a consistent manner. This article documents how the MPM-HKH was developed and demonstrates the utility of this approach, using Nepal as an example, by analyzing household survey data from 23 districts. The analysis gives important clues about differences in the intensity and composition of multidimensional poverty across these locations, which highlights the need for location-specific poverty alleviation strategies. The findings should help decision-makers to identify areas of intervention and choose the best measures to reduce poverty.

  7. Great earthquakes, seismicity gaps and potential for earthquake disaster along the Himalaya plate boundary

    Khattri, K. N.

    1987-06-01

    Analysis of the space-time patterns of seismicity in the Himalaya plate boundary has established the existence of three seismic gaps: (1) The "Kashmir gap" lying west of the 1905 Kangra earthquake; (2) the "Central gap", situated between the 1905 Kangra and the 1934 Bihar earthquakes; (3) the "Assam gap" between the 1897 and 1950 Assam earthquakes. This study has shown that the above great earthquakes were preceded as well as followed by long periods (? 19 years) of decreased levels of seismic activity in the epicentral regions. Remarkable decrease in the seismicity following the year 1970 has been observed in the western half of the Central gap as well as in the Assam gap. Local seismic investigation in the Assam gap confirms this feature and the seismicity suggests the existence there of an asperity. The local seismic investigations in Garhwal Himalaya have shown that the small earthquakes are confined to the upper 6-8 km of the crust and may have strike-slip motions. These earthquakes occur in a region where teleseismically recorded events were few.

  8. Seedling growth and survival of selected wild edible fruit species of the Sikkim Himalaya, India

    Sundriyal, Manju; Sundriyal, R. C.

    2005-07-01

    In the Sikkim Himalaya, an enormous variety of wild growing plants are exploited at large scale for collection of their edible parts, of which six most prominently utilized fruit species (viz., Baccaurea sapida, Diploknema butyracea, Elaeagnus latifolia, Eriolobus indica, Machilus edulis and Spondias axillaris) were investigated. The growth of nursery raised seedlings was measured at 3 month intervals until two years old in terms of absolute growth rate (AGR), relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), leaf area ratio (LAR), leaf weight ratio (LWR), stem weight ratio (SWR), root weight ratio (RWR) and root-shoot ratio (RSR). Spondias axillaris and Machilus edulis had the maximum AGR, RGR, LAR and SWR among all species. LWR was highest for B. sapida. RGR, LAR and LWR declined with the age of seedlings. RGR was negatively correlated with NAR, SWR, RWR and RSR, though it showed a positive relationship with LAR. For all species, seedlings attained significant sizes after one year of age, and showed reasonable survival after transplantation into the farmers' fields. It is expected that information on the growth behaviour of these species would be useful while they are adopted into agroforestry systems. It is suggested that these species should be multiplied at large scale and distributed to the local inhabitants to reduce pressure on them in natural stands as well as provide economic benefit to the subsistence farmers.

  9. Forage selection by Royle's pika (Ochotona roylei) in the western Himalaya, India.

    Bhattacharyya, Sabuj; Adhikari, Bhupendra S; Rawat, Gopal S

    2013-10-01

    Forage selection decisions of herbivores are often complex and dynamic; they are modulated by multiple cues, such as quality, accessibility and abundance of forage plants. To advance the understanding of plant-herbivore interactions, we explored foraging behavior of the alpine lagomorph Royle's pika (Ochotona roylei) in Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary, India. Pika bite counts on food plants were recorded through focal sampling in three permanently marked plots. Food plant abundance was recorded by traditional quadrat procedures; forage selection was estimated with Jacob's selection index. Multiple food-choice experiments were conducted to determine whether forage selection criteria would change with variation in food plant composition. We also analyzed leaf morphology and nutrient content in both major food plants and abundantly available non-food plants. Linear regression models were used to test competing hypotheses in order to identify factors governing forage selection. Royle's pika fed primarily on 17 plant species and each forage selection decision was positively modulated by leaf area and negatively modulated by contents of avoided substances (neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, acid detergent lignin and tannin) in food plants. Furthermore, significance of the interaction term "leaf size × avoided substance" indicates that plants with large leaves were selected only when they had low avoided substance content. The forage selection criteria did not differ between field and laboratory experiments. The parameter estimates of best fit models indicate that the influence of leaf size or amount of avoided substance on pika forage selection was modulated by the magnitude of predation risk. PMID:23932023

  10. Exotic Lolium perenne Varieties: Their Forage Value and Soil Cover Potential in Himalayas Region

    S. D. Ahmad

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Rawalakot lies under humid temperate region at the height of 5500 ft from the sea level. The area is hilly and soils are prone to heavy erosion due to the loss of vegetative cover. Winter frost and snow often kills the local forages and thus depriving the livestock from green herbage altogether. Seven varieties of Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass from European and American germplasm were evaluated for their forage value and soil cover potential under Rawalakot conditions. All varieties compared were diploid (2n = 14. The comparison was based on plant height, fresh and dry matter yield, number of cuttings/ year and tillers plant-1. The variety VA88002 was found to be the best one in plant height and dry and fresh herbage yield followed by SERVO and APUS. When tiller number was compared, the variety APUS was found to be at the top followed by VA88001 and others. All varieties were of spreading nature with increasing persistence in following years and found to be suitable for cutting, grazing and soil conservation

  11. Detection of snow melt and freezing in Himalaya using OSCAT data

    Rajashree V Bothale; P V N Rao; C B S Dutt; V K Dadhwal

    2015-02-01

    A study of the snow cover melt and freeze using Ku band Oceansat scatterometer (OSCAT) HH polarised backscatter coefficient (0HH) for 2011 and 2012 is reported for the Himalayas, which contain the worlds largest reserve of ice and snow outside polar regions. The analysis shows spatial and temporal inter-annual variations in the onset of melt/freeze across four regions (Upper Himalaya, Western Himalaya, Central Himalaya, and Eastern Himalaya), nine elevation bands and four aspect zones. A threshold based on temperature0HH relation and average 0HH for the months JanuaryMarch was used for melt/freeze detection. When the three consecutive images (6 days) satisfied the threshold, the day of first image was selected as melt onset/freeze day. The average melt onset dates were found to be March 11 11 days for Eastern Himalaya, April 3 18 days for Central Himalaya, April 16 27 days for Western Himalaya, and May 12 18 days for Upper Himalaya. Similarly average freeze onset dates were found to be August 23 27 days for Eastern Himalaya, September 08 24 days for Central Himalaya, August 27 11 days for Western Himalaya, and September 13 11 days for Upper Himalaya. All the zones experienced the melt onset earlier by around 20 days in 2011 at elevation above 5000 m. All the zones experienced freeze earlier in 2012, with onset being 18, 19, 11, and 21 days earlier in Eastern, Central, Western, and Upper Himalaya, respectively.

  12. Natural hazards versus climate change and their potential impacts in the dry, northern Himalayas: focus on the upper Kali Gandaki (Mustang District, Nepal)

    Fort, Monique

    2014-01-01

    In the Himalayas, the consequences of climate change are a fairly debated issue, mainly questioning the availability of water resources to the lowland population. North of the monsoon Himalayas, a semi-arid, continental climate prevails and settlements rely economically mostly on irrigated crops, high altitude rangelands, trade and tourism. The upper Kali Gandaki (Mustang) is situated in this area, with sharp contrasts between valley bottoms (\\3,000 m) and high, glaciated peaks (up to [8,000 ...

  13. Hydropower development in the Central Himalayas

    Singh, N. (Irrigation Design Organization, Rourkee (India))

    1992-10-01

    The Central Himalayas comprise eight hill districts of the State of Uttar Pradesh, India. These mountains are the source of the Ganga and its main tributaries: the Yamuna, Ramganga and Sarda rivers. The identified hydro potential of the Ganga, Yamuna, Sarda and their tributaries in the Central Himalayas is about 30 000 MW, with an annual average energy potential of 100 TWh. The projects which have been completed so far have only developed 3.2 per cent of this potential. The projects which are now under construction will exploit another 10.4 per cent of the potential. Thus, the untapped potential is as much as 85 per cent of the total. The minor tributaries also offer vast potential for mini and micro hydroelectric stations. In most conservative estimates, this potential is about 2000 MW. (author).

  14. AMS exposure dating : a case study from Himalaya and Tibet and its application potentials in earth science studies in India

    The development of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has made possible low level (10-6 atoms/gm) measurements of 10Be, 14C, 26Al, 36Cl, 129I isotopes in geological materials. Early studies investigated 10Be atoms of cosmogenic nuclides produced mainly in the atmosphere (called garden variety), which subsequently admixed with the geological material from land surfaces get transported into the ocean waters and fixed in the ocean sediments. Subsequently, focus shifted to in-situ produced long-lived isotopes in quartz and their measurement in the terrestrial samples. This opened a new field of exposure dating and its potential applications in earth sciences and their role to study the time controlled processes resulting in diverse geomorphic landforms

  15. Export market potential for selected horticultural crops

    This paper examines the feasibility of utilising an irradiation plant to disinfest fresh fruit and vegetables destined for export markets. It examines the export market potential of selected crops with the prime view of estimating likely trends in export markets in the future. These trends will have a significant bearing on throughput levels, and hence on the economic viability of an ionising energy plant

  16. Electrode potential and selective ionic adsorption

    A simple description of the electrode potential based on the selective ionic adsorption is proposed. It is shown that if the adsorption-desorption coefficients entering in the Langmuir kinetic equation for the adsorption at the limiting surfaces are not identical, a difference of potential between the electrode and the bulk of the solution exists. In the case where the thickness of the sample is large with respect to the length of Debye, this difference of potential depends only on the adsorption-desorption coefficients and on the length of Debye of the ionic solution.

  17. Electrode potential and selective ionic adsorption

    Alexe-Ionescu, A.L. [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Splaiul Independentei 313, 060042 Bucharest (Romania); Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Laboratory for Engineering of the Neuromuscular System, and Dipartimento di Elettronica, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Barbero, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)], E-mail: giovanni.barbero@polito.it; Merletti, R. [Laboratory for Engineering of the Neuromuscular System, and Dipartimento di Elettronica, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2009-04-27

    A simple description of the electrode potential based on the selective ionic adsorption is proposed. It is shown that if the adsorption-desorption coefficients entering in the Langmuir kinetic equation for the adsorption at the limiting surfaces are not identical, a difference of potential between the electrode and the bulk of the solution exists. In the case where the thickness of the sample is large with respect to the length of Debye, this difference of potential depends only on the adsorption-desorption coefficients and on the length of Debye of the ionic solution.

  18. Limit of strain partitioning in the Himalaya marked by large earthquakes in western Nepal

    Murphy, M. A.; Taylor, M. H.; Gosse, J.; Silver, C. R. P.; Whipp, D. M.; Beaumont, C.

    2014-01-01

    Great earthquakes and high seismic risk in the Himalaya are thought to be focussed near the range front, where the Indian Plate slides beneath the mountain range. However, the Himalaya is curved and plate convergence becomes increasingly oblique westwards. Strain in the western Himalaya is hypothesized to be partitioned, such that western parts move northwestwards with respect to the central Himalaya. Here we use field data to identify a 63-km-long earthquake rupture on a previously unrecognized fault in the western Himalaya, far from the range front. We use radiocarbon dating to show that one or more earthquakes created 10m of surface displacement on the fault between AD 1165 and 1400. During this time interval, large range-front earthquakes also occurred. We suggest that the active fault we identified is part of a larger fault system, the Western Nepal Fault System, which cuts obliquely across the Himalaya. We combine our observations with a geodynamical model to show that the Western Nepal Fault System marks the termination of the strain-partitioned region of the western Himalaya and comprises a first-order structure in the three-dimensional displacement field of the mountain range. Our findings also identify a potential seismic hazard within the interior of the Himalaya that may necessitate significant changes to seismic hazard assessments.

  19. Glacier Ecosystems of Himalaya

    Kohshima, S.; Yoshimura, Y.; Takeuchi, N.; Segawa, T.; Uetake, J.

    2012-12-01

    Biological activity on glaciers has been believed to be extremely limited. However, we found various biotic communities specialized to the glacier environment in various part of the world, such as Himalaya, Patagonia and Alaska. Some of these glacier hosted biotic communities including various cold-tolerant insects, annelids and copepods that were living in the glacier by feeding on algae and bacteria growing in the snow and ice. Thus, the glaciers are simple and relatively closed ecosystems sustained by the primary production in the snow and ice. In this presentation, we will briefly introduce glacier ecosystems in Himalaya; ecology and behavior of glacier animals, altitudinal zonation of snow algal communities, and the structure of their habitats in the glacier. Since the microorganisms growing on the glacier surface are stored in the glacial strata every year, ice-core samples contain many layers with these microorganisms. We showed that the snow algae in the ice-core are useful for ice core dating and could be new environmental signals for the studies on past environment using ice cores. These microorganisms in the ice core will be important especially in the studies of ice core from the glaciers of warmer regions, in which chemical and isotopic contents are often heavily disturbed by melt water percolation. Blooms of algae and bacteria on the glacier can reduce the surface albedo and significantly affect the glacier melting. For example, the surface albedo of some Himalayan glaciers was significantly reduced by a large amount of dark-colored biogenic material (cryoconite) derived from snow algae and bacteria. It increased the melting rates of the surfaces by as much as three-fold. Thus, it was suggested that the microbial activity on the glacier could affect the mass balance and fluctuation of the glaciers.

  20. Glacial lakes in the Indian Himalayas--from an area-wide glacial lake inventory to on-site and modeling based risk assessment of critical glacial lakes.

    Worni, Raphael; Huggel, Christian; Stoffel, Markus

    2013-12-01

    Glacial lake hazards and glacial lake distributions are investigated in many glaciated regions of the world, but comparably little attention has been given to these topics in the Indian Himalayas. In this study we present a first area-wide glacial lake inventory, including a qualitative classification at 251 glacial lakes >0.01 km(2). Lakes were detected in the five states spanning the Indian Himalayas, and lake distribution pattern and lake characteristics were found to differ significantly between regions. Three glacial lakes, from different geographic and climatic regions within the Indian Himalayas were then selected for a detailed risk assessment. Lake outburst probability, potential outburst magnitudes and associated damage were evaluated on the basis of high-resolution satellite imagery, field assessments and through the use of a dynamic model. The glacial lakes analyzed in the states of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh were found to present moderate risks to downstream villages, whereas the lake in Sikkim severely threatens downstream locations. At the study site in Sikkim, a dam breach could trigger drainage of ca. 1610(6)m(3) water and generate maximum lake discharge of nearly 7000 m(3) s(-). The identification of critical glacial lakes in the Indian Himalayas and the detailed risk assessments at three specific sites allow prioritizing further investigations and help in the definition of risk reduction actions. PMID:23218457

  1. Antioxidant, Hepatoprotective Potential and Chemical Profiling of Propolis Ethanolic Extract from Kashmir Himalaya Region Using UHPLC-DAD-QToF-MS

    Wali, Adil F.; Avula, Bharathi; Ali, Zulfiqar; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Mushtaq, Ahlam; Rehman, Muneeb U.; Akbar, Seema; Masoodi, Mubashir Hussain

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract of propolis (KPEt) from Kashmir Himalaya against isoniazid and rifampicin (INH-RIF) induced liver damage in rats. Hepatic cellular injury was initiated by administration of INH-RIF combination (100?mg/kg) intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection for 14 days. We report the protective effects of KPEt against INH-RIF induced liver oxidative stress, inflammation, and enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants. Oral administration of KPEt at both doses (200 and 400?mg/kg body weight) distinctly restricted all modulating oxidative liver injury markers and resulted in the attenuation of INH-RIF arbitrated damage. The free radical scavenging activity of KPEt was evaluated by DPPH, nitric oxide, and superoxide radical scavenging assay. The components present in KPEt identified by ultra high performance liquid chromatography diode array detector time of flight-mass spectroscopy (UHPLC-DAD-QToF-MS) were found to be flavonoids and phenolic acids. The protective efficacy of KPEt is possibly because of free radical scavenging and antioxidant property resulting from the presence of flavonoids and phenolic acids. PMID:26539487

  2. Methanogens at the top of the world: occurrence and potential activity of methanogens in newly deglaciated soils in high-altitude cold deserts in the Western Himalayas

    RoeyAngel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Methanogens typically occur in reduced anoxic environments. However, in recent studies it has been shown that many aerated upland soils, including desert soils also host active methanogens. Here we show that soil samples from high–altitude cold deserts in the western Himalayas (Ladakh, India produce CH4 after incubation as slurry under anoxic conditions at rates comparable to those of hot desert soils. Samples of matured soil from three different vegetation belts (arid, steppe, and subnival were compared with younger soils originating from frontal and lateral moraines of receding glaciers. While methanogenic rates were higher in the samples from matured soils, CH4 was also produced in the samples from the recently deglaciated moraines. In both young and matured soils, those covered by a biological soil crust (biocrust were more active than their bare counterparts. Isotopic analysis showed that in both cases CH4 was initially produced from H2/CO2 but later mostly from acetate. Analysis of the archaeal community in the in situ soil samples revealed a clear dominance of sequences related to Thaumarchaeota, while the methanogenic community comprised only a minor fraction of the archaeal community. Similar to other aerated soils, the methanogenic community was comprised almost solely of the genera Methanosarcina and Methanocella, and possibly also Methanobacterium in some cases. Nevertheless, approximately 103 gdw-1 soil methanogens were already present in the young moraine soil together with cyanobacteria. Our results demonstrate that Methanosarcina and Methanocella not only tolerate atmospheric oxygen but are also able to survive in these harsh cold environments. Their occurrence in newly deglaciated soils shows that they are early colonisers of desert soils, similar to cyanobacteria, and may play a role in the development of desert biocrusts.

  3. Methanogens at the top of the world: occurrence and potential activity of methanogens in newly deglaciated soils in high-altitude cold deserts in the Western Himalayas.

    Aschenbach, Katrin; Conrad, Ralf; Reháková, Klára; Doležal, Jiří; Janatková, Kateřina; Angel, Roey

    2013-01-01

    Methanogens typically occur in reduced anoxic environments. However, in recent studies it has been shown that many aerated upland soils, including desert soils also host active methanogens. Here we show that soil samples from high-altitude cold deserts in the western Himalayas (Ladakh, India) produce CH4 after incubation as slurry under anoxic conditions at rates comparable to those of hot desert soils. Samples of matured soil from three different vegetation belts (arid, steppe, and subnival) were compared with younger soils originating from frontal and lateral moraines of receding glaciers. While methanogenic rates were higher in the samples from matured soils, CH4 was also produced in the samples from the recently deglaciated moraines. In both young and matured soils, those covered by a biological soil crust (biocrust) were more active than their bare counterparts. Isotopic analysis showed that in both cases CH4 was initially produced from H2/CO2 but later mostly from acetate. Analysis of the archaeal community in the in situ soil samples revealed a clear dominance of sequences related to Thaumarchaeota, while the methanogenic community comprised only a minor fraction of the archaeal community. Similar to other aerated soils, the methanogenic community was comprised almost solely of the genera Methanosarcina and Methanocella, and possibly also Methanobacterium in some cases. Nevertheless, ~10(3) gdw(-1) soil methanogens were already present in the young moraine soil together with cyanobacteria. Our results demonstrate that Methanosarcina and Methanocella not only tolerate atmospheric oxygen but are also able to survive in these harsh cold environments. Their occurrence in newly deglaciated soils shows that they are early colonizers of desert soils, similar to cyanobacteria, and may play a role in the development of desert biocrusts. PMID:24348469

  4. Anticancer potential of selected Fallopia Adans species

    OLARU, OCTAVIAN TUDOREL; VENABLES, LUANNE; VAN DE VENTER, MARYNA; NITULESCU, GEORGE MIHAI; MARGINA, DENISA; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDIS M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the anticancer potential of three species belonging to the Fallopia genus (Polygonaceae): Fallopia convolvulus (F. convolvulus, Fallopia dumetorum (F. dumetorum) and Fallopia aubertii (F. aubertii). For this purpose, crude extracts were obtained and characterized for their phenolic and flavonoid total content and examined for their anticancer activity on three tumor cell lines: breast cancer (MCF7), colon carcinoma (Caco-2) and cervical cancer (HeLa) cells. The cytotoxic potential of the three species was assessed by MTT assay, cell cycle analysis and by the evaluation of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). The acute toxicity of the extracts was evaluated using one in vitro cell model (Vero cells, an African Green monkey kidney cell line) and two invertebrate in vivo models (Daphnia magna and Artemia salina). The highest total phenolic and flavonoid content was found in the F. aubertii flower extracts. The cytotoxic effects of the extracts from F. aubertii and F. convolvulus on all three cell lines were examined at concentrations ranging from 3 to 300 µg/ml. G2/M cell cycle arrest was induced by all the extracts, and a significant increase in the subG1 cell population was observed. The hydroethanolic extract from the flowers of F. aubertii induced cell apoptosis more rapidly than the other extracts. The MMP indicates the involvement of the mitochondria in the induction of apoptosis. A positive correlation between the total phenolic content of the extracts and the IC50 values against the HeLa cells was also noted. None of the extracts exhibited significantly toxic effects. Considering the antitumor potential of F. aubertii and F. convolvulus, these two species may represent a good source of plant extracts with anticancer properties. PMID:26622671

  5. Prospects of Sustainable Livestock Farming in the Uttarakhand Himalaya, India

    V. P. Sati; R. B. Singh

    2010-01-01

    Livestock farming forms an integral part in the economy of the Uttarakhand Himalaya and plays an important role in the mixed crop farming system. In addition, high diversity in livestock composition is the characteristic features of the mainland of Uttarakhand. The state obtains high potential of milk production because of availability of fodder as a form of extensive grasslands, which are locally known as bugyals or kharaks and fodder trees. Livestock, other than milk production, are widely ...

  6. Lg attenuation tomographic models of Himalaya and southern Tibet

    Singh, Chandrani; Mondal, Pushkar; Singh, Sagar; Mohanty, Debasis D.; Jaiswal, Namrata; Ravi Kumar, M.

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the Lg attenuation structure of the crust beneath the tectonically complex Himalaya and southern Tibet regions adopting a tomographic regionalization method. A total of 1671 earthquake waveforms registered at 38 seismic stations operated in the region are selected for the initial LgQ measurements using the standard two-station method. Q0 (1 Hz LgQ) values of 76 high quality interstation paths are finally considered as input for the tomographic inversion. The estimates of Q0 exhibit distinct variations in the crustal attenuation from north to south across the whole region. The zones of lowest Q0 values (attenuation and velocity structure reported for the region. We interpret the variations in the attenuation characteristics in terms of both the intrinsic and scattering contributions caused by thermal effects, presence of aqueous fluids as well as heterogeneities present below these seismically active regions. Our results are found to be comparable with the other parts of Himalaya and Tibet.

  7. Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Surface Irradiance in the Himalaya

    Dobreva, I. D.; Bishop, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Climate-glacier dynamics in the Himalaya are complex. Research indicates extreme local variability in glacier fluctuations and the presence of regional trends. The glaciers in the Karakoram Himalaya depart from world trends of glacier recession, as many are advancing or surging. Nevertheless, glacier sensitivity to climate change has yet to be quantitatively assessed given numerous controlling factors. We attempt to address part of the problem by evaluating the role of topography in explaining variations in surface irradiance. Specifically, we developed a spectral-based topographic solar radiation model that accounts for multi-scale topographic effects. We evaluate surface irradiance simulations over a multitude of glaciers across the Karakoram and Nepalese Himalaya and examine spatio-temporal patterns to determine which alpine glaciers are more susceptible to radiation forcing. Simulation results reveal that many Nepalese glaciers characterized by rapid downwasting, retreat and expanding proglacial lakes, exhibit relatively high-magnitude daily irradiance patterns spatially focused over the terminus region, while other glacier surface areas received less short-wave irradiance. These results were found to be associated with basin-scale relief conditions and topographic shielding. Altitudinal variation in glacier surface irradiance was found to increase during the later portion of the ablation season, as changes in solar geometry produce more cast shadows that protect glaciers given extreme relief. Topographic effects on surface irradiance vary significantly from glacier to glacier, demonstrating the important role of glacier and mountain geodynamics on glacier sensitivity to climate change. Spatial and altitudinal patterns, coupled with information regarding supraglacial debris distribution, depth and ice-flow velocities, may potentially explain glacier sensitivity to climate change and the local variability of glacier fluctuations in the Himalaya.

  8. Wind energy potential in selected areas in Jordan

    Highlights: ? This paper investigates the potential of producing wind power. ? Four locations are selected for wind power generation. ? The payback period is calculated and found reasonable. ? This study reveals that the total rated wind power that can be generated from the four selected wind farms is 136 MW. ? On the other hand, the expected total energy that can be produced from the four selected wind farms is 18.9 103 GW h. - Abstract: The present paper investigates the potential of wind energy in selected areas in Jordan. The aim of this work is to set up promising wind farms that are able to feed electricity to the Jordanian distribution authority with excellent percentage of clean energy. There are some particular locations in Jordan where the wind potential is very promising for economical electrical power generation. Four of these promising locations are investigated in this paper for the possibility of building and investing 100 MW wind turbine in each of these four locations. The environmental data needed to perform the present study are obtained from the local Meteorological department. The suggested wind turbines to be implemented in each of the four locations are selected from the international rating and specification catalogues of wind turbine manufacturers. This study reveals that the total rated wind power that can be generated from the four selected wind farms is 136 MW. On the other hand, the expected total energy that can be produced from the four selected wind farms is 18.9 103 GW h.

  9. Revisiting the earthquake sources in the Himalaya: Perspectives on past seismicity

    Rajendran, Kusala; Rajendran, C. P.

    2011-05-01

    The ~ 2500 km-long Himalaya plate boundary experienced three great earthquakes during the past century, but none of them generated any surface rupture. The segments between the 1905-1934 and the 1897-1950 sources, known as the central and Assam seismic gaps respectively, have long been considered holding potential for future great earthquakes. This paper addresses two issues concerning earthquakes along the Himalaya plate boundary. One, the absence of surface rupture associated with the great earthquakes, vis-à-vis the purported large slip observed from paleoseismological investigations and two, the current understanding of the status of the seismic gaps in the Central Himalaya and Assam, in view of the paleoseismological and historical data being gathered. We suggest that the ruptures of earthquakes nucleating on the basal detachment are likely to be restricted by the crustal ramps and thus generate no surface ruptures, whereas those originating on the faults within the wedges promote upward propagation of rupture and displacement, as observed during the 2005 Kashmir earthquake, that showed a peak offset of 7 m. The occasional reactivation of these thrust systems within the duplex zone may also be responsible for the observed temporal and spatial clustering of earthquakes in the Himalaya. Observations presented in this paper suggest that the last major earthquake in the Central Himalaya occurred during AD 1119-1292, rather than in 1505, as suggested in some previous studies and thus the gap in the plate boundary events is real. As for the Northwestern Himalaya, seismically generated sedimentary features identified in the 1950 source region are generally younger than AD 1400 and evidence for older events is sketchy. The 1897 Shillong earthquake is not a décollement event and its predecessor is probably ~ 1000 years old. Compared to the Central Himalaya, the Assam Gap is a corridor of low seismicity between two tectonically independent seismogenic source zones that cannot be considered as a seismic gap in the conventional sense.

  10. Estimation of Crustal Thickness in Nepal Himalayas Using Local and Regional Earthquake Data

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Koulakov, I.; Maksotova, G.; Raoof, J.; Kayal, J. R.; Jakovlev, A.; Vasilevsky, A.

    2014-12-01

    Variation of crustal thickness beneath Nepal Himalayas is estimated by tomographic inversion of regional earthquake data. The Nepal Himalayas is fairly well distributed with denser network and earthquakes. Some 10864 P- and 5293 S-arrival times from 821 selected events Mw > 4.0 recorded during 2004-2014 are used for this study; on average, almost 20 phases per event have been available. The tomographic results shed a new light on crustal thickness variation along and across the Nepal Himalayas. The crustal thickness varies between 40 and 80 km from foothills to high Himalayas, which is verified by synthetic modeling. The crustal thickness also widely varies along the strike of the Himalayas. The zones of higher and lower crustal thicknesses may be correlated with some hidden transverse structures in the foothills region, which are well reflected in gravity and magnetic maps. The estimated crustal thickness matches fairly well with the free air gravity anomaly; thinner crust corresponds to lower gravity anomaly and vice versa. Some correlation with the magnetic field anomaly is also observed. Higher magnetic anomaly corresponds to thicker crust. We propose that the more rigid segments of incoming Indian crust comprising of igneous and metamorphic rocks cause more compression in the Himalayan thrust zone and leads to stronger crustal thickening. Under thrusting of weaker crust / sediments, on the other hand, is associated with less shortening, and thus cause the thinner crust in the collision zone.

  11. Changes in Rongbuk lake and Imja lake in the Everest region of Himalaya

    Chen, W.; Doko, T.; Liu, C.; Ichinose, T.; Fukui, H.; Feng, Q.; Gou, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Himalaya holds the world record in terms of range and elevation. It is one of the most extensively glacierized regions in the world except the Polar Regions. The Himalaya is a region sensitive to climate change. Changes in the glacial regime are indicators of global climate changes. Since the second half of the last century, most Himalayan glaciers have melted due to climate change. These changes directly affected the changes of glacial lakes in the Himalayan region due to the glacier retreat. New glacial lakes are formed, and a number of them have expanded in the Everest region of the Himalayas. This paper focuses on the two glacial lakes which are Imja Lake, located at the southern slope, and Rongbuk Lake, located at the northern slope in the Mt. Everest region, Himalaya to present the spatio-temporal changes from 1976 to 2008. Topographical conditions between two lakes were different (Kruskal-Wallis test, p Lake was located at 623 m higher than Imja Lake, and radiation of Rongbuk Lake was higher than the Imja Lake. Although size of Imja Lake was larger than the Rongbuk Lake in 2008, the growth speed of Rongbuk Lake was accelerating since 2000 and exceeds Imja Lake in 2000-2008. This trend of expansion of Rongbuk Lake is anticipated to be continued in the 21st century. Rongbuk Lake would be the biggest potential risk of glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) at the Everest region of Himalaya in the future.

  12. Simulation Games: Practical References, Potential Use, Selected Bibliography.

    Kidder, Steven J.

    Several recently published books on simulation and games are briefly discussed. Selected research studies and demonstration projects are examined to show the potential of simulation and gaming for teaching and training and for the study of social and psychological processes. The bibliography lists 113 publications which should lead the reader to…

  13. Physiological and biochemical plasticity of Lepidium latifolium as 'sleeper weed' in Western Himalayas.

    Bhat, Hilal A; Kaur, Tarandeep; Bhat, Rohini; Vyas, Dhiraj

    2016-03-01

    To understand the spread of native populations of Lepidium latifolium growing in different altitudes in Ladakh region of Western Himalayas, photosynthetic and fluorescence characteristics were evaluated in relation to their micro-environment. Three sites representing sparsely populated (SPS), moderately populated (MPS) and densely populated site (DPS) were selected. Results showed that the DPS had higher photosynthetic accumulation than MPS and SPS. The higher transpiration rate at DPS despite lower vapor pressure deficit and higher relative humidity suggest the regulation of its leaf temperature by evaporative cooling. Intrinsic soil parameters such as water holding capacity and nutrient availability also play crucial role in higher biomass here. The quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv /Fm , non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), ΦPSII ) and light curve at various PPFDs suggests better light harvesting potential and light compensation point at DPS than the other two sites. Concomitantly, plants at SPS had significantly higher lipid peroxidation, suggesting a stressful environment, and higher induction of antioxidative enzymes. Metabolic content of reduced glutathione also suggests an efficient mechanism in DPS and MPS than SPS. High light intensities at MPS are managed by specialized contrive of carotenoid pigments and PsbS gene product. Large pool of violaxanthin and lutein plays an important role in this response. It is suggested that L. latifolium is present as 'sleeper weed' that has inherent biochemical plasticity involving multiple processes in Western Himalayas. Its potential spread is linked to site-specific micro-environment, whereby, it prefers flat valley bottoms with alluvial fills having high water availability, and has little or no altitudinal effect. PMID:26260637

  14. Microwave-dressed state-selective potentials for atom interferometry

    Guarrera, V; Reichel, J; Rosenbusch, P

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel and robust technique to realize a beam splitter for trapped Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). The scheme relies on the possibility of producing different potentials simultaneously for two internal atomic states. The atoms are coherently transferred, via a Rabi coupling between the two long-lived internal states, from a single well potential to a double-well. We present numerical simulations supporting our proposal and confirming excellent efficiency and fidelity of the transfer process with realistic numbers for a BEC of $^{87}$Rb. We discuss the experimental implementation by suggesting state-selective microwave potentials as an ideal tool to be exploited for magnetically trapped atoms. The working principles of this technique are tested on our atom chip device which features an integrated coplanar micro-wave guide. In particular, the first realization of a double-well potential by using a microwave dressing field is reported. Experimental results are presented together with numerical simu...

  15. Brief Communication: Contending estimates of 2003-2008 glacier mass balance over the Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya

    Kääb, A.; Treichler, D.; Nuth, C.; Berthier, E.

    2015-03-01

    We present glacier thickness changes over the entire Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya arc based on ICESat satellite altimetry data for 2003-2008. We highlight the importance of C-band penetration for studies based on the SRTM elevation model. This penetration seems to be of potentially larger magnitude and variability than previously assumed. The most negative rate of region-wide glacier elevation change (Pamir and Karakoram seem to be on the western edge of this mass-gain anomaly rather than its centre. For the Ganges, Indus and Brahmaputra basins, the glacier mass change reaches -24 ± 2 Gt yr-1, about 10% of the current glacier contribution to sea-level rise. For selected catchments, we estimate glacier imbalance contributions to river run-off from a few percent to greater than 10%.

  16. Imaging the Indian subcontinent beneath the Himalaya.

    Schulte-Pelkum, Vera; Monsalve, Gaspar; Sheehan, Anne; Pandey, M R; Sapkota, Som; Bilham, Roger; Wu, Francis

    2005-06-30

    The rocks of the Indian subcontinent are last seen south of the Ganges before they plunge beneath the Himalaya and the Tibetan plateau. They are next glimpsed in seismic reflection profiles deep beneath southern Tibet, yet the surface seen there has been modified by processes within the Himalaya that have consumed parts of the upper Indian crust and converted them into Himalayan rocks. The geometry of the partly dismantled Indian plate as it passes through the Himalayan process zone has hitherto eluded imaging. Here we report seismic images both of the decollement at the base of the Himalaya and of the Moho (the boundary between crust and mantle) at the base of the Indian crust. A significant finding is that strong seismic anisotropy develops above the decollement in response to shear processes that are taken up as slip in great earthquakes at shallower depths. North of the Himalaya, the lower Indian crust is characterized by a high-velocity region consistent with the formation of eclogite, a high-density material whose presence affects the dynamics of the Tibetan plateau. PMID:15988523

  17. Microwave-dressed state-selective potentials for atom interferometry

    Guarrera, V.; Szmuk, R.; Reichel, J.; Rosenbusch, P.

    2015-08-01

    We propose a novel and robust technique to realize a beam splitter for trapped Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). The scheme relies on the possibility of producing different potentials simultaneously for two internal atomic states. The atoms are coherently transferred, via a Rabi coupling between the two long-lived internal states, from a single well potential to a double-well. We present numerical simulations supporting our proposal and confirming excellent efficiency and fidelity of the transfer process with realistic numbers for a BEC of 87Rb. We discuss the experimental implementation by suggesting state-selective microwave (MW) potentials as an ideal tool to be exploited for magnetically trapped atoms. The working principles of this technique are tested on our atom chip device which features an integrated coplanar MW guide. In particular, the first realization of a double-well potential by using a MW dressing field is reported. Experimental results are presented together with numerical simulations, showing good agreement. Simultaneous and independent control on the external potentials is also demonstrated in the two Rubidium clock states. The transfer between the two states, featuring respectively a single and a double-well, is characterized and it is used to measure the energy spectrum of the atoms in the double-well. Our results show that the spatial overlap between the two states is crucial to ensure the functioning of the beamsplitter. Even though this condition could not be achieved in our current setup, the proposed technique can be realized with current state-of-the-art devices being particularly well suited for atom chip experiments. We anticipate applications in quantum enhanced interferometry.

  18. The role of glaciers in stream flow from the Nepal Himalaya

    D. Alford

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent concerns related to the potential impacts of the retreat of Himalayan glaciers on the hydrology of rivers originating in the catchment basins of the Himalaya have been accompanied by few analyses describing the role of glaciers in the hydrologic regime of these mountains. This is, at least in part, a result of the relative inaccessibility of the glaciers of the Himalaya, at altitudes generally between 4000–7000 m, and the extreme logistical difficulties of: 1 reaching the glaciers, and 2 conducting meaningful research once they have been reached. It is apparent that an alternative to traditional "Alpine" glaciology is required in the mountains of the Hindu Kush-Himalaya region. The objectives of the study discussed here have been to develop methodologies that will begin to quantify the role of complete glacier systems in the hydrologic regime of the Nepal Himalaya, and to develop estimates of the potential impact of a continued retreat of these glacier, based on the use of disaggregated low-altitude data bases, topography derived from satellite imagery, and simple process models of water and energy exchange in mountain regions.

    While the extent of mesoscale variability has not been established by studies to date, it is clear that the dominant control on the hydrologic regime of the tributaries to the Ganges Basin from the eastern Himalaya is the interaction between the summer monsoon and the 8000 m of topographic relief represented by the Himalayan wall. All the available evidence indicates that the gradient of specific runoff with altitude resulting from this interaction is moderately to strongly curvilinear, with maximum runoff occurring at mid-altitudes, and minima at the altitudinal extremes. At the upper minimum of this gradient, Himalayan glaciers exist in what has been characterized as an "arctic desert".

    The methodologies developed for this study involve the relationship between area-altitude distributions of catchment basins and glaciers, based on Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM3 data and water and energy exchange gradients. Based on these methodologies, it is estimated that the contribution of glacier annual melt water to annual stream flow into the Ganges Basin from the glacierized catchments of the Nepal Himalaya represents approximately 4% of the total annual stream flow volume of the rivers of Nepal, and thus, is a minor component of the annual flow of the Ganges River. The models developed for this study indicate that neither stream flow timing nor volume of the rivers flowing into the Ganges Basin from Nepal will be affected materially by a continued retreat of the glaciers of the Nepal Himalaya.

  19. Global warming may lead to catastrophic floods in the Himalayas; Flomkatastrofe truer Himalaya

    Tveitdal, Svein; Bjoerke, Aake

    2002-07-01

    In Nepal, data from 49 surveillance stations show that there has been a distinct temperature increase since the middle of the 1970s, the greatest changes being on the highest summits. When lakes overfill and beaches threaten to break down, this is a result of the global warming that melts the glaciers. The glaciers in Bhutan are observed to decrease by 30 - 40 metres per year, in some years as much as 100 metres. In the village of Tribeni an advanced warning system has been established to warn the 10 000 inhabitants of a potential flood from Lake Tsho Rolpa 108 km upstream. Research from the Himalayas also point to another serious threat. The melting threatens not only human lives, tourism, foot paths, roads, bridges and power stations. Since the mountains are the water towers of the world, filling rivers and lakes with water upon which all life depends, continued shrinking of the world's glaciers as is now observed will cause many rivers and fresh-water systems to dry out. Researchers from the UN Unep programme and International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development have registered at least 44 glacier lakes that are increasing so fast that they may cause outburst floods within five years. Similar investigations are being planned in India, Pakistan and China.

  20. Evolution of earthquake-triggered landslides in the Kashmir Himalaya, northern Pakistan

    Khattak, G.A.; Owen, L.A.; Kamp, U.; Harp, E.L.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of the 08 October 2005 Kashmir earthquake and subsequent snow melt and monsoon rainfall on slope stability was evaluated using repeat photography in the Kashmir Himalaya of northern Pakistan. Sixty-eight landslide-affected locations were selected and photographed in November 2005, May/June 2006, June 2007, and August 2007 to evaluate all potential geomorphic changes. Eighty percent of the locations showed no or very little change, 11% of the locations showed a partial vegetation recovery on the slopes, while 9% showed an increase in the landslide area. All those locations that showed an increase in landsliding were located along rivers and/or roads. The small change in landslide extent is remarkable given that the region experienced one of the heaviest monsoon seasons in the last decade and is counter to earlier predictions of accelerated slope erosion by landsliding in the immediate years following the earthquake. Extensive fissures and ground cracks at many localities, however, still present a potential of future landsliding under wetter conditions. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. CODA Q estimates for Kumaun Himalaya

    A Paul; S C Gupta; Charu C Pant

    2003-12-01

    Coda (c) estimates for the Kumaun Himalaya region have been obtained in high frequency range. Local earthquakes, recorded by a digital seismic network in the region, which fall in the epicentral distances range of 10 to 80km and with a local magnitude range of 1.4 to 2.8, have been used. The coda waves of 30 sec window length, filtered at seven frequency bands centered at 1.5, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 Hz, have been analysed using the single backscattering model. The values of c estimates vary from 65 to 283 at 1.5 Hz to 2119 to 3279 at 24.0 Hz which showed that c is frequency dependent and its value increases as frequency increases. A frequency-dependent c relationship, c = (92 ± 4.73) (1.07 ± .023), is obtained for the region representing the average attenuation characteristics of seismic waves for Kumaun Himalaya region.

  2. Uranium and radon surveys in Siwalik Himalaya

    Integrated measurements of radon in subsurface soil and groundwater are being used for uranium exploration and earthquake prediction. It is well established that large scale mobilization of uranium and radium is carried out by Himalayan rivers which are major sources of radioactivity on the Indian ocean. Our laboratory has been engaged in uranium/thorium estimation and radon studies in the Siwalik Himalaya since 1980, using scintillometry, track-etch technique, surface barrier silicon-junction detectors and pulse ionisation counters (alpha-loggers). Fission track technique and alpha autoradiography is also used to reveal uranium anomalies in geological samples of the area. Siwalik vertebrate fossil bones from Saharanpur (U.P.), Naraiangarh (Haryana) and Nalagarh (H.P.) show anomalously high uranium content variation from 93.8 to 418 ppm which is a riddle for geochemists. The daily and long term variation of radon was monitored in Siwalik Himalaya since 1989 under a Department of Science and Technology (DST) sponsored project. The effect of meteorological parameters on radon emanation is also studied. Radon results are correlated by the gamma activity and in situ uranium content in the soil of the area. The maximum values of radon are recorded in Chhinjra, Rameda, Kasol and Samurkalan areas of Himachal Pradesh. Results indicate that there is a need to undertake epidemiological study correlating cancer risk with high radon values in the Siwalik Himalaya. (author)

  3. Selective potentiation of alpha 1 glycine receptors by ginkgolic acid

    Galyna Maleeva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Glycine receptors (GlyRs belong to the superfamily of pentameric cys-loop receptor-operated channels and are involved in numerous physiological functions, including movement, vision and pain. In search for compounds performing subunit-specific modulation of GlyRs we studied action of ginkgolic acid, an abundant Ginkgo biloba product. Using patch-clamp recordings, we analysed the effects of ginkgolic acid in concentrations from 30nM to 25µM on α1- α3 and α1/β configurations of GlyR and on GABAARs expressed in cultured CHO-K1 cells and mouse neuroblastoma (N2a cells. Ginkgolic acid caused an increase in the amplitude of currents mediated by homomeric α1 and heteromeric α1/β GlyRs and provoked a left-shift of the concentration-dependent curves for glycine. Even at high concentrations (10-25 µM ginkgolic acid was not able to augment ionic currents mediated by α2 and α3 GlyRs, or by GABAAR consisting of α1/β2/γ2 subunits. Mutation of three residues (T59A/A261G/A303S in the α2 GlyR subunit to the corresponding ones from the α1 converted the action of ginkgolic acid to potentiation with a distinct decrease in EC50 for glycine, suggesting an important role for these residues in modulation by ginkgolic acid. Our results suggest that ginkgolic acid is a novel selective enhancer of α1 GlyRs

  4. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS)-geological perspective and a case study from Ladakh Himalaya

    Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is a recent addition to the conventional mass spectrometry and is based on measurement of cosmogenic radionuclides. It is a highly potential technique to understand a variety of geological problems particularly in geomorphology, paleoclimatology and ocean research and is in fact the only technique to precisely measure erosion rates, river incision rates, sedimentation rates and surface exposure ages. The paper briefly presents the geological perspectives of the AMS technique and some preliminary results from Ladakh Himalaya

  5. Atmospheric brown clouds reach the Tibetan Plateau by crossing the Himalayas

    Lüthi, Z. L.; B. Škerlak; S.-W. Kim; Lauer, A; Mues, A.; Rupakheti, M.; Kang, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau region (HTP), despite being a remote and sparsely populated area, is regularly exposed to polluted air masses with significant amounts of aerosols including black carbon. These dark, light-absorbing particles are known to exert a great melting potential on mountain cryospheric reservoirs through albedo reduction and radiative forcing. This study combines the available yet sparse ground-based and satellite data to identify ...

  6. Atmospheric brown clouds reach the Tibetan Plateau by crossing the Himalayas

    Lüthi, Z. L.; B. Škerlak; S.-W. Kim; Lauer, A; Mues, A.; Rupakheti, M.; Kang, S.

    2015-01-01

    The Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau region (HTP), despite being a remote and sparsely populated area, is regularly exposed to polluted air masses with significant amounts of aerosols including black carbon. These dark, light-absorbing particles are known to exert a great melting potential on mountain cryospheric reservoirs through albedo reduction and radiative forcing. This study combines ground-based and satellite remote sensing data to identify a severe...

  7. Arc parallel extension in Higher and Lesser Himalayas, evidence from western Arunachal Himalaya, India

    Sharmistha De Sarkar; George Mathew; Kanchan Pande

    2013-06-01

    The existence of EW extensional features from northeast (NE) Himalaya is poorly documented. Our investigation in the western part of Arunachal Himalaya provides evidences of active Quaternary EW arc-parallel extensional features in the Higher and Lesser Himalayas. They are represented by arcperpendicular normal faults and arc-parallel sinistral strike-slip faults. We discuss the occurrences of these arc-parallel extensional features in terms of oblique convergence and radial expansion models. The partitioning of stress due to oblique convergence is argued based on evidences of left-lateral slip in NEHimalaya, right-lateral slip in NW-Himalaya and absence of translation in the central part. The amount of arc-parallel extension in the hinterland regions is correlated to the amount of radial shortening in the foreland. The computation of arc-parallel extension in the NE Himalayan arc is carried out by defining a small-circle centered at 88 39? \\pm 0.7?E longitude and 33 40? \\pm 0.6?N latitude having a radius of 770.7 15.1 km, for the segment between 92 01? and 95 16?E longitudes. The amount of arc-parallel extension estimated is ?110 km for the NE Himalayan segment. Our result agrees closely with the 104 km extension determined based on geodetically computed extension rate and age of initiation of rifting in southern Tibet.

  8. Study on the Swelling Potential of some Selected Rocks

    Pettersen Skippervik, Catrine

    2014-01-01

    Weaknesses zones consisting of sheared and fractured rock mass have a swelling potential in the presence of clays rich in montmorillonite. When it comes to intact rocks there are questions regarding both the swelling potential and the main reasons for swelling in the different rock types. This is experienced in several projects, where swelling of intact rock has been different than what was expected. To better understand what is causing the behaviour of intact rock when exposed to water a com...

  9. Protection from potential exposures: application to selected radiation sources

    This ICRP Report begins with the general principles of radiation protection in the case of potential exposures, followed by special issues in application and compliance with regulatory aims. The rest of the report uses event trees or fault trees to derive the logical structure of six scenarios of potential exposure, i.e. two irradiators, a large research accelerator, an accelerator for industrial isotope production, an industrial radiography device using a mobile source of radiation, and finally a medical gamma radiotherapy device. (UK)

  10. Potential of biomass fuel conservation in selected Asian countries

    The potential of savings in the biomass consumed for energy in seven Asian countries--China, India, Pakistan, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka and Vietnam--is estimated, if the centuries-old traditional methods of biomass use are reconsidered and an efficient, rational use is implemented. The present pattern and share of biomass consumption of different traditional biomass energy devices are recorded. The efficiency of traditional technologies and that of improved ones--technologies which are practically applicable or already in use somewhere else--are compared and the potential of biomass savings is calculated. The total biomass saving potential in all seven countries together has been estimated at 322 million tons/year. (Author)

  11. A study of algal biomass potential in selected Canadian regions.

    Passell, Howard David; Roach, Jesse Dillon; Klise, Geoffrey T.

    2011-11-01

    A dynamic assessment model has been developed for evaluating the potential algal biomass and extracted biocrude productivity and costs, using nutrient and water resources available from waste streams in four regions of Canada (western British Columbia, Alberta oil fields, southern Ontario, and Nova Scotia). The purpose of this model is to help identify optimal locations in Canada for algae cultivation and biofuel production. The model uses spatially referenced data across the four regions for nitrogen and phosphorous loads in municipal wastewaters, and CO{sub 2} in exhaust streams from a variety of large industrial sources. Other data inputs include land cover, and solar insolation. Model users can develop estimates of resource potential by manipulating model assumptions in a graphic user interface, and updated results are viewed in real time. Resource potential by location can be viewed in terms of biomass production potential, potential CO{sub 2} fixed, biocrude production potential, and area required. The cost of producing algal biomass can be estimated using an approximation of the distance to move CO{sub 2} and water to the desired land parcel and an estimation of capital and operating costs for a theoretical open pond facility. Preliminary results suggest that in most cases, the CO{sub 2} resource is plentiful compared to other necessary nutrients (especially nitrogen), and that siting and prospects for successful large-scale algae cultivation efforts in Canada will be driven by availability of those other nutrients and the efficiency with which they can be used and re-used. Cost curves based on optimal possible siting of an open pond system are shown. The cost of energy for maintaining optimal growth temperatures is not considered in this effort, and additional research in this area, which has not been well studied at these latitudes, will be important in refining the costs of algal biomass production. The model will be used by NRC-IMB Canada to identify promising locations for both demonstration and pilot-scale algal cultivation projects, including the production potential of using wastewater, and potential land use considerations.

  12. Black carbon aerosols over the Himalayas: direct and surface albedo forcing

    Vijayakumar S. Nair

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Absorbing aerosols such as black carbon (BC or dust over high-altitude Himalayan regions have potential implications on the regional climate and hydrological cycle over South Asia. Making use of extensive measurements of atmospheric BC from several Himalayan stations, an assessment of radiative forcing due to direct and snow-albedo darkening is examined. Generally, BC concentration in the atmosphere peaks during pre-monsoon season over the Himalayas and the climatological mean of atmospheric BC over Hanle (western Himalayas, 4.5?km msl and Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (central Himalayas, 5?km msl are 10627?ng m?3 and 19095?ng m?3, respectively. Based on the optical and physical properties of composite aerosols measured at Hanle, clear sky direct radiative forcing (DRF at the top of the atmosphere is estimated as 1.69?W m?2 over snow surface and ?1.54?W m?2 over sandy surface during pre-monsoon season. The estimated amount of BC in the snow varied from 117 to 1.7?g kg?1 for wide range of dry deposition velocities (0.010.054?cm s?1 of BC, snow depth (210?cm and snow densities (195512?kg m?3. Using a size-resolved wet scavenging parametrisation, the amount of BC on snow due to wet scavenging is estimated as 29?g kg?1 for an accumulated snow depth of 27?cm. For the range of 10200?g kg?1 of BC in snow, the diurnally averaged forcing due to snow darkening has been found to vary from 0.87 to 10.2?W m?2 for fresh snow and from 2.6 to 28.1?W m?2 for the aged snow, which is significantly higher than the DRF. The direct and surface albedo radiative forcing could lead to significant warming over the Himalayas during pre-monsoon.

  13. Nature and timing of large landslides in the Himalaya and Transhimalaya of northern India

    Dortch, Jason M.; Owen, Lewis A.; Haneberg, William C.; Caffee, Marc W.; Dietsch, Craig; Kamp, Ulrich

    2009-06-01

    Four large landslides, each with a debris volume >10 6 m 3, in the Himalaya and Transhimalaya of northern India were examined, mapped, and dated using 10Be terrestrial cosmogenic radionuclide surface exposure dating. The landslides date to 7.71.0 ka (Darcha), 7.90.8 ka (Patseo), 6.60.4 ka (Kelang Serai), and 8.50.5 ka (Chilam). Comparison of slip surface dips and physically reasonable angles of internal friction suggests that the landslides may have been triggered by increased pore water pressure, seismic shaking, or a combination of these two processes. However, the steepness of discontinuities in the Darcha rock-slope, suggests that it was more likely to have started as a consequence of gravitationally-induced buckling of planar slabs. Deglaciation of the region occurred more than 2000 years before the Darcha, Patseo, and Kelang Serai landslides; it is unlikely that glacial debuttressing was responsible for triggering the landslides. The four landslides, their causes, potential triggers and mechanisms, and their ages are compared to 12 previously dated large landslides in the region. Fourteen of the 16 dated landslides occurred during periods of intensified monsoons. Seismic shaking, however, cannot be ruled out as a mechanism for landslide initiation, because the Himalaya has experienced great earthquakes on centennial to millennial timescales. The average Holocene landscape lowering due to large landslides for the Lahul region, which contains the Darcha, Patseo, and Kelang Serai landslides, is 0.12 mm/yr. Previously published large-landslide landscape-lowering rates for the Himalaya differ significantly. Furthermore, regional glacial and fluvial denudation rates for the Himalaya are more than an order of magnitude greater. This difference highlights the lack of large-landslide data, lack of chronology, problems associated with single catchment/large landslide-based calculations, and the need for regional landscape-lowering determinations over a standardized time period.

  14. Tree ring imprints of long-term changes in climate in western Himalaya, Indi

    R R Yadav

    2009-11-01

    Tree-ring analyses from semi-arid to arid regions in western Himalaya show immense potential for developing millennia long climate records. Millennium and longer ring-width chronologies of Himalayan pencil juniper (Juniperus polycarpos), Himalayan pencil cedar (Cedrus deodara) and Chilgoza pine (Pinus gerardiana) have been developed from different sites in western Himalaya. Studies conducted so far on various conifer species indicate strong precipitation signatures in ring-width measurement series. The paucity of weather records from stations close to tree-ring sampling sites poses difficulty in calibrating tree-ring data against climate data especially precipitation for its strong spatial variability in mountain regions. However, for the existence of strong coherence in temperature, even in data from distant stations, more robust temperature reconstructions representing regional and hemispheric signatures have been developed. Tree-ring records from the region indicate multi-century warm and cool anomalies consistent with the Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age anomalies. Significant relationships noted between mean premonsoon temperature over the western Himalaya and ENSO features endorse utility of climate records from western Himalayan region in understanding long-term climate variability and attribution of anthropogenic impact.

  15. Regional Glacier Sensitivity to Climate Change in the Monsoonal Himalaya: Implications for Water Resources

    Rupper, S.; Maurer, J. M.; Schaefer, J. M.; Tsering, K.; Rinzin, T.; Dorji, C.; Johnson, E. S.; Cook, E. R.

    2014-12-01

    The rapid retreat of many glaciers in the monsoonal Himalaya is of potential societal concern. However, the retreat pattern in the region has been very heterogeneous, likely due in part to the inherent heterogeneity of climate and glaciers within the region. Assessing the impacts of glacier change on water resources, hydroelectric power, and hazard potential requires a detailed understanding of this potentially complex spatial pattern of glacier sensitivity to climate change. Here we quantify glacier surface-mass balance and meltwater flux across the entire glacierized region of the Bhutanese watershed using a full surface-energy and -mass balance model validated with field data. We then test the sensitivity of the glaciers to climatic change and compare the results to a thirty-year record of glacier volume changes. Bhutan is chosen because it (1) sits in the bulls-eye of the monsoon, (2) has >600 glaciers that exhibit the extreme glacier heterogeneity typical of the Himalayas, and (3) faces many of the economic and hazard challenges associated with glacier changes in the Himalaya. Therefore, the methods and results from this study should be broadly applicable to other regions of the monsoonal Himalaya. Our modeling results show a complex spatial pattern of glacier sensitivity to changes in climate across the Bhutanese Himalaya. However, our results also show that 90% of the total meltwater flux, and that these glaciers are uniformly the glaciers most sensitive to changes in temperature (and less sensitive to other climate variables). We compare these results to a thirty-year record of glacier volume changes over the same region. In particular, we extract DEMs and orthorectified imagery from 1976 historical spy satellite images and 2006 ASTER images. DEM differencing shows that the glaciers that have changed most over the past thirty years also have the highest modeled temperature sensitivity. These results suggest that, despite the complex glacier heterogeneity in the region, the regional meltwater resources are controlled by a very small percentage of the glaciers, and that these glaciers are particularly vulnerable to changes in temperature.

  16. Genesis of early Cambrian phosphorite of Krol Belt, Lesser Himalaya

    Mazumdar, A.; Banerjee, D.M.

    -National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004, India 2D.M. Banerjee Professor of Geology (INSA Honorary Scientist), 25, Uttaranchal Apartments, 5, I.P. Extension, Patpargunj, Delhi 110 092, India Early Cambrian phosphogenesis in the lesser Hima... of the early Cambrian (Tommotian) phosphorites of Krol Belt, Lesser Himalaya. Geological setup The Baliana, Krol and Tal Group sedimentary rocks rep- resent the Neoproterozoic-early Cambrian sequence of the Krol Belt in the Lesser Himalaya11. This thick...

  17. Distribution pattern of orchids in Uttarakhand, Western Himalayas, India

    Jeewan Singh Jalal

    2012-01-01

    Orchids are widely distributed in tropics, subtropics and temperate regions. Within the tropics, orchids form an important feature of the vegetation, chiefly as epiphytes. India’s epiphytic orchid is to be found primarily in the Eastern Himalayas and Western Ghats, while the terrestrial species flourishes in the Western Himalayas. In the state of Uttarakhand, India, orchid distribution is not homogeneous. Orchids are typically concentrated along the riverine areas and in pockets of moist fore...

  18. Pyrometallurgical slags as a potential source of selected metals recovery

    K. Nowińska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Complex analysis of concentration and form of occurrence such metals as Zn, Pb, Fe and Cu in slags formed during a current zinc production in the Imperial Smelting Process (ISP is a possible basis for development of optimal recovery technology. For this purpose studies of slags from the current production of the Shaft Furnace Unit and of the Lead Refining of the “Miasteczko Śląskie” Zinc Smelting Plant were carried out. The studies results show that slags includes high concentrations of: Zn from 0,064 % to 1,680 %, Pb from 10,56 % to 50,71 %, Fe from 0,015 % to 2,576 %, Cu from 7,48 % to 64,95 %, and change in a broad range. This slags show significant heterogeneity, caused by intermetallic phases (Zn - Pb, Cu - Zn, Cu - Pb formed on the surface thereof. It is so possible that slag can be a potential source of this metals recovery.

  19. Perspectives and industrial potential of PGA selectivity and promiscuity.

    Grulich, Michal; Štěpánek, Václav; Kyslík, Pavel

    2013-12-01

    Penicillin G acylases (PGAs) are robust industrial catalysts used for biotransformation of β-lactams into key intermediates for chemical production of semi-synthetic β-lactam antibiotics by hydrolysis of natural penicillins. They are used also in reverse, kinetically controlled synthetic reactions for large-scale productions of these antibiotics from corresponding beta-lactam nuclei and activated acyl donors. Further biocatalytic applications of PGAs have recently been described: catalysis of peptide syntheses and the resolutions of racemic mixtures for the production of enantiopure active pharmaceutical ingredients that are based on enantioselective acylation or chiral hydrolysis. Moreover, PGAs rank among promiscuous enzymes because they also catalyze reactions such as trans-esterification, Markovnikov addition or Henry reaction. This particular biocatalytic versatility represents a driving force for the discovery of novel members of this enzyme family and further research into the catalytic potential of PGAs. This review deals with biocatalytic applications exploiting enantioselectivity and promiscuity of prokaryotic PGAs that have been recently reported. Biocatalytic applications are discussed and presented with reaction substrates converted into active compounds useful for the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:23863475

  20. EVALUATION OF GARHWAL HIMALAYA WILD EDIBLE TUBER DIOSCOREA DELTOIDEA

    Chandra Subhash

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Uttarakhand is highly enriched with edible wild tubers. Such tubers are highly potential with medicinal value and nutritional value due to the presence of bio-actives. These tubers are consumed by local inhabitants to play a significant role as supplementary food. The present study is aimed at evaluating the nutritional value, successive extraction, thin layer chromatography of medicinal plant, Dioscorea deltoidea. It is a popular wild edible tubers bearing plant of Indian Himalaya having good nutritional and medicinal potential. These will be the best source of the nutraceuticals. Since tubers are richer in micronutrients and bioactive secondary metabolites, The medicinal plant tuber contain ash value, (total ash 3.34 ± 0.15%, moisture 58.92±0.10%, crude fat 0.60±0.20% and crude fiber 7.50±0.14%, the successive extractive values were studied fresh part weight. The preliminary phytochemical analysis test showed the presence of carbohydrates and glycosides, alkaloid, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, unsaturated triterpenoids and sterol, resin.

  1. Measurement of radon concentration in groundwater of Kumaon Himalaya

    In this study, radon concentration in springs and hand pumps of Kumaon Himalaya, India was measured using radon emanometry technique. The radon measurements were made in springs and groundwater from the hand pumps being used as drinking water sources by general population. The hand pumps and springs were selected near the dwellings and workplaces, where the general public utilizes these water sources for their daily needs. The water samples from springs were collected in an air-tight bottle from the original discharge point (outlet) of the spring having distinct geological unit and geohydrological regime. The water was transferred from discharge point of the spring to the bottom of the bottle using PVC tubing. For hand pumps, the water was pumped out for some time and the samples were collected in 1 L bottle directly from the pump outlet. After allowing the sample bottle to over flow for a while and when no bubbles were visually observed, the sample volume was reduced to a pre-marked position leaving 250 ml of air in the bottle above the water surface. The sample bottle was then connected in a close circuit with Lucas cell, hand operated rubber pump and a glass tube containing CaCl2 to absorb the moisture. The air was then circulated in close circuit for a period of 15 mm till the radon formed a uniform mixture with the air and the resulting alpha activity was recorded. The resulting numbers of the alpha counts were then converted into Bq/l by using the calibration factor 1 cpm = 0.0663 Bq/l. The results of radon measurements in springs and hand pumps from the study area are given. Field measurements were taken in different geological units of Kumaun region in Himalaya. The radon concentration in spring water varies from 1 Bq/l to 76 Bq/l with geometric mean 10 Bq/l, whereas in hand pumps it varies from 3 Bq/l to 392 Bq/l with geometric mean of 40 Bq/l. The higher values of radon in the water samples of hand pumps are possibly because of its greater depth, which allows water to interact with a greater thickness of aquifer and thus more radon is expected in hand pumps and tube wells. Radon level was found higher in the area consisting of granite, quartz porphyry, schist, phyllites states and lowest in the area having sedimentary rocks, predominantly dominated by quartzite rocks

  2. Global warming may lead to catastrophic floods in the Himalayas

    In Nepal, data from 49 surveillance stations show that there has been a distinct temperature increase since the middle of the 1970s, the greatest changes being on the highest summits. When lakes overfill and beaches threaten to break down, this is a result of the global warming that melts the glaciers. The glaciers in Bhutan are observed to decrease by 30 - 40 metres per year, in some years as much as 100 metres. In the village of Tribeni an advanced warning system has been established to warn the 10 000 inhabitants of a potential flood from Lake Tsho Rolpa 108 km upstream. Research from the Himalayas also point to another serious threat. The melting threatens not only human lives, tourism, foot paths, roads, bridges and power stations. Since the mountains are the water towers of the world, filling rivers and lakes with water upon which all life depends, continued shrinking of the world's glaciers as is now observed will cause many rivers and fresh-water systems to dry out. Researchers from the UN Unep programme and International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development have registered at least 44 glacier lakes that are increasing so fast that they may cause outburst floods within five years. Similar investigations are being planned in India, Pakistan and China

  3. Earthquake recurrence in the central Himalaya: Some outstanding issues

    Chittenipattu, Rajendran; Rajendran, Kusala; John, Biju; Sanwal, Jaishri

    2013-04-01

    Evaluation of the historic and geologic data from the central Himalaya suggests that the region experienced many significant earthquakes in the past. However, many questions remain on the pattern of earthquake recurrence, style of deformation and causative structures. A major question is when the last great earthquake in the central Himalaya was. While the renewal time of earthquakes originating on the detachment fault might match the expectations of the seismic gap models, the subsidiary faults within the wedge may localize strain leading to earthquakes events that need not maintain any temporal relation with the plate boundary breaking earthquakes and leading to surface slip due to the favorable geometry of the ramps. Observed temporal and spatial clustering of earthquakes along the Himalaya, nature of surface rupture and the amplified slip reported from geological section associated with the paleo-earthquakes may result from the dual nature of seismic sources along the Himalaya. This fundamental difference in source zones may be the key to understanding the temporal and spatial clustering of earthquakes along the Himalaya. The class of earthquakes that originate on the duplex zone propagate vertically on the steeply dipping faults and leading to surface ruptures, as observed in the 2005 Kashmir earthquake, that showed a peak surface offset of 7 m. Archaeo-seismological evidence point to a great earthquake in the central Himalaya occurred sometime between AD 1000 and AD 1290, suggesting a temporal gap of >800 years for great earthquakes in the region. Our studies also suggest that the source zone of the 1803 earthquake can be located close to Uttarkashi, on the duplex zone. The possible out-sequence-events like the 1803 Garhwal earthquake apparently suggest that the duplex zone south of the MCT is equally, if not more, active and capable of generating large/great earthquakes in the central Himalaya rather than the Himalayan frontal thrusts.. The age determinations of the paleoliquefaction features from the alluvial plain in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh suggest that previous great earthquakes in the respective segments may have occurred about 1000 years ago. These dates have some correlation with previous studies on the active faults on the Nepal side. We will present the results of our recent investigations of the geological proxies in the Himalaya and the Gangetic alluvial Plains along with a critical evaluation of the previous studies and discuss our strategy to address some of the outstanding questions on the earthquake recurrence in the central Himalaya.

  4. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology of the Siwalik Group of the Nepal Himalaya: implications for provenance analysis

    Baral, Upendra; Lin, Ding; Chamlagain, Deepak

    2016-04-01

    This paper deals with the provenance analysis of the Neogene foreland basin sediments of the Siwalik Group in the Nepal Himalaya. This study adopts the techniques of the optical petrography and detrital zircon U-Pb ages from two river sections: the Koshi Nadi in eastern Nepal and the Surai Khola in western Nepal Himalaya. The optical petrography data and resulting QFL plot show a "recycled orogeny" field for the studied sandstone samples, indicating northern lithotectonic units; Tethys Himalaya, Higher Himalaya and Lesser Himalaya as the source of the foreland basin sediments. The detrital zircon geochronological data set has clearly revealed that the cluster ages are younger than ~1000 Ma; however, the older grains (>1000 Ma) are significantly fewer. The obtained age spectrum is similar to the Tethys Himalaya and the upper Lesser Himalaya, but the lower Lesser Himalayan rocks were not distinct, which indicates that sediments in the Neogene foreland basin of the Nepal Himalaya were primarily sourced from the Tethys Himalaya and upper Lesser Himalaya. The minor subordinate scattered peaks that roughly correspond to the age of the Higher Himalaya and lower Lesser Himalaya may indicate that a lower proportion of the sediments might have a link with the Higher Himalaya and lower Lesser Himalaya. Therefore, the provenance of the Siwalik Group in the Nepal Himalaya might have witnessed a mixed type of provenance similar to the northwestern Himalaya.

  5. Review - Origins and Migrations in the Extended Eastern Himalayas

    Jack Hayes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Toni Huber and Stuart Blackburn (eds. 2012. Origins and Migrations in the Extended Eastern Himalayas. Leiden: Brill. Volume 16 in Brill's Tibetan Studies Library, This multidisciplinary anthology draws from papers presented at the international conference "Origins and Migrations Among TibetoBurman-Speakers of the Extended Eastern Himalaya" held at Humboldt University, Berlin in 2008. This collection of articles contributes to discussions surrounding the nature of and questions surrounding data, hypotheses, and theories of origins and migration in the 'extended Eastern Himalaya'. This region includes the hill peoples and territory ranging from eastern Nepal to Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, upland Southeast Asia and southwest China. Although there is some thematic overlap among the fourteen essays, they are quite a diverse lot, critically examining local and regional history, theoretical and methodological issues writ large, myths and rituals, society and social narrative, language and linguistic relationships, identity formation, and local-state dynamics related to local ideas about origins and migration. This book is particularly useful for gaining a better understanding of the issues linked to topics and theories of identity in the Eastern Himalaya (and wider Himalaya region more broadly considering the core importance of 'origins' in any construction or reconstruction of identity among diverse and widely spread communities. Graduate students and specialists...

  6. An approach for estimating the breach probabilities of moraine-dammed lakes in the Chinese Himalayas using remote-sensing data

    X. Wang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available To make first-order estimates of the probability of moraine-dammed lake outburst flood (MDLOF and prioritize the probabilities of breaching posed by potentially dangerous moraine-dammed lakes (PDMDLs in the Chinese Himalayas, an objective approach is presented. We first select five indicators to identify PDMDLs according to four predesigned criteria. The climatic background was regarded as the climatic precondition of the moraine-dam failure, and under different climatic preconditions, we distinguish the trigger mechanisms of MDLOFs and subdivide them into 17 possible breach modes, with each mode having three or four components; we combined the precondition, modes and components to construct a decision-making tree of moraine-dam failure. Conversion guidelines were established so as to quantify the probabilities of components of a breach mode employing the historic performance method combined with expert knowledge and experience. The region of the Chinese Himalayas was chosen as a study area where there have been frequent MDLOFs in recent decades. The results show that the breaching probabilities (P of 142 PDMDLs range from 0.037 to 0.345, and they can be further categorized as 43 lakes with very high breach probabilities (P ? 0.24, 47 lakes with high breach probabilities (0.18 ? P < 0.24, 24 lakes with mid-level breach probabilities (0.12 ? P < 0.18, 24 lakes with low breach probabilities (0.06 ? P < 0.12, and four lakes with very low breach probabilities (p < 0.06.

  7. Can grass phytoliths and indices be relied on during vegetation and climate interpretations in the eastern Himalayas? Studies from Darjeeling and Arunachal Pradesh, India

    Biswas, Oindrila; Ghosh, Ruby; Paruya, Dipak Kumar; Mukherjee, Biswajit; Thapa, Kishore Kumar; Bera, Subir

    2016-02-01

    While documenting the vegetation response to climatic changes in mountains, the use of grass phytolith data relies on the ability of phytolith assemblages or indices to differentiate the elevationally stratified vegetation zones. To infer the potential and limitations of grass phytolith assemblages and indices to reconstruct vegetation vis-à-vis climate in the Himalayan mountain regions, we analyzed phytolith assemblages from 66 dominant grasses and 153 surface soils from four different forest types along the c. 130-4000 m a.s.l. elevation gradients in the Darjeeling and Arunachal Himalayas. Grass short cell phytolith assemblages from modern grasses show significant variability with rising elevation. To test the reliability of the above observation, phytoliths from the soil samples were subjected to linear discriminant analysis (DA). DA classified 85.3% and 92.3% of the sites to their correct forest zones in the Darjeeling and Arunachal Himalayas respectively. Relative abundance of bilobate, cross, short saddle, plateau saddle, rondel and trapeziform types allow discrimination of the phytolith assemblage along the elevation gradient. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) on the soil phytolith data further revealed their relationships with the climatic variables. Temperature and evapotranspiration were found to be the most influential for differential distribution of grass phytolith assemblages with rising elevation in the eastern Himalayas. We also tested the reliability of phytolith indices (Ic, Iph and Fs) for tracing the dominance of different grass subfamilies in the eastern Himalayas. Ic proved to be most reliable in discriminating C3/C4 grass along the elevation gradient while Iph and Fs proved to be less reliable. We observed that in the monsoon dominated eastern Himalayas, a little adjustment in Ic index may enhance the accuracy of interpretations. In future studies more precise identification of phytolith sub-types from additional sites in the eastern Himalayas may further improve our interpretations related to past climate condition.

  8. Changing glacial lakes and associated outburst floods risks in Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, Indian Himalaya

    Mal, S.; Singh, R. B.

    2014-09-01

    Glacial lakes and associated outburst floods (GLOFs) have increased in the Himalayan region due to climate change during the last century that has led to huge losses to society. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to map glacial lakes, their increasing extent, and associated damage potential in Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (NDBR), Indian Himalaya. The glacial lakes were mapped on Landsat TM (3 November, 2009 and 6 November 2010) and Landsat MSS satellite images (15 November 1976 and 26 October 1979) to assess their changing area. Potential GLOFs sites have been identified and studied for their damage potentials using site characteristics and past occurrence of GLOFs. A total of 35 lakes were mapped, of which 14 lakes are located at more than 4500 m. The size and damage potentials of lakes have increased. Some lakes grew so much that they merged to form a big lake. All of these are potential GLOFs and can cause severe damage to society.

  9. Atmospheric brown clouds reach the Tibetan Plateau by crossing the Himalayas

    Z. L. Lüthi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau region (HTP, despite being a remote and sparsely populated area, is regularly exposed to polluted air masses with significant amounts of aerosols including black carbon. These dark, light-absorbing particles are known to exert a great melting potential on mountain cryospheric reservoirs through albedo reduction and radiative forcing. This study combines ground-based and satellite remote sensing data to identify a severe aerosol pollution episode observed simultaneously in central Tibet and on the southern side of the Himalayas during 13–19 March 2009 (pre-monsoon. Trajectory calculations based on the high-resolution numerical weather prediction model COSMO are used to locate the source regions and study the mechanisms of pollution transport in the complex topography of the HTP. We detail how polluted air masses from an atmospheric brown cloud (ABC over South Asia reach the Tibetan Plateau within a few days. Lifting and advection of polluted air masses over the great mountain range is enabled by a combination of synoptic-scale and local meteorological processes. During the days prior to the event, winds over the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP are generally weak at lower levels, allowing for accumulation of pollutants and thus the formation of ABCs. The subsequent passing of synoptic-scale troughs leads to southwesterly flow in the middle troposphere over northern and central India, carrying the polluted air masses across the Himalayas. As the IGP is known to be a hotspot of ABCs, the cross-Himalayan transport of polluted air masses may have serious implications for the cryosphere in the HTP and impact climate on regional to global scales. Since the current study focuses on one particularly strong pollution episode, quantifying the frequency and magnitude of similar events in a climatological study is required to assess the total impact.

  10. Atmospheric brown clouds reach the Tibetan Plateau by crossing the Himalayas

    Z. L. Lüthi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau region (HTP, despite being a remote and sparsely populated area, is regularly exposed to polluted air masses with significant amounts of aerosols including black carbon. These dark, light-absorbing particles are known to exert a great melting potential on mountain cryospheric reservoirs through albedo reduction and radiative forcing. This study combines the available yet sparse ground-based and satellite data to identify a severe aerosol pollution episode observed simultaneously in central Tibet and on the southern side of the Himalayas during 13–19 March 2009. We detail how polluted air masses such as an atmospheric brown cloud (ABC over South Asia reached the Tibetan Plateau during this pre-monsoon case study. In order to address the mechanisms of pollution transport in the complex topography of the HTP, air-mass trajectories are calculated using hourly outputs from the high-resolution numerical weather prediction model COSMO. Cross-mountain pollution transport is found to occur to a large extent at elevated tropospheric levels other than just through major river valleys. Lifting and advection of polluted air masses over the great mountain range is enabled by a combination of synoptic and local meteorological settings. Winds over the Indo Gangetic Plain (IGP are generally weak at lower levels during the event, allowing for accumulation of pollutants. The passing of synoptic-scale troughs leads to south-westerly flow in the middle troposphere over northern and central India. Thus, ABC can build up south of the Himalayas and get carried northwards across the mountain range and onto the Tibetan Plateau as the winds obtain a southerly component. Air masses from the ABC hot-spot of the IGP can reach the high glaciers, which may have serious implications for the cryosphere in the HTP region and for climate on regional to global scales.

  11. Atmospheric brown clouds reach the Tibetan Plateau by crossing the Himalayas

    Lüthi, Z. L.; Škerlak, B.; Kim, S.-W.; Lauer, A.; Mues, A.; Rupakheti, M.; Kang, S.

    2015-06-01

    The Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau region (HTP), despite being a remote and sparsely populated area, is regularly exposed to polluted air masses with significant amounts of aerosols including black carbon. These dark, light-absorbing particles are known to exert a great melting potential on mountain cryospheric reservoirs through albedo reduction and radiative forcing. This study combines ground-based and satellite remote sensing data to identify a severe aerosol pollution episode observed simultaneously in central Tibet and on the southern side of the Himalayas during 13-19 March 2009 (pre-monsoon). Trajectory calculations based on the high-resolution numerical weather prediction model COSMO are used to locate the source regions and study the mechanisms of pollution transport in the complex topography of the HTP. We detail how polluted air masses from an atmospheric brown cloud (ABC) over South Asia reach the Tibetan Plateau within a few days. Lifting and advection of polluted air masses over the great mountain range is enabled by a combination of synoptic-scale and local meteorological processes. During the days prior to the event, winds over the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) are generally weak at lower levels, allowing for accumulation of pollutants and thus the formation of ABCs. The subsequent passing of synoptic-scale troughs leads to southwesterly flow in the middle troposphere over northern and central India, carrying the polluted air masses across the Himalayas. As the IGP is known to be a hotspot of ABCs, the cross-Himalayan transport of polluted air masses may have serious implications for the cryosphere in the HTP and impact climate on regional to global scales. Since the current study focuses on one particularly strong pollution episode, quantifying the frequency and magnitude of similar events in a climatological study is required to assess the total impact.

  12. Phase associations and potential selective extraction methods for selected high-tech metals from ferromanganese nodules and crusts with siderophores

    Highlights: Phase associations of metals in marine FeMn nodules and crusts were determined. Selective leaching experiments with siderophore desferrioxamine B were conducted. Siderophores selectively mobilize high-tech metals associated with Fe carrier phases. Base metal liberation including Fe and Mn is limited. Siderophores have promising potential for application in ore processing industries. - Abstract: Deep-sea ferromanganese deposits contain a wide range of economically important metals. Ferromanganese crusts and nodules represent an important future resource, since they not only contain base metals such as Mn, Ni, Co, Cu and Zn, but are also enriched in critical or rare high-technology elements such as Li, Mo, Nb, W, the rare earth elements and yttrium (REY). These metals could be extracted from nodules and crusts as a by-product to the base metal production. However, there are no proper separation techniques available that selectively extract certain metals out of the carrier phases. By sequential leaching, we demonstrated that, except for Li, which is present in an easily soluble form, all other high-tech metals enriched in ferromanganese nodules and crusts are largely associated with the Fe-oxyhydroxide phases and only to subordinate extents with Mn-oxide phases. Based on this fact, we conducted selective leaching experiments with the Fe-specific organic ligand desferrioxamine-B, a naturally occurring and ubiquitous siderophore. We showed by leaching of ferromanganese nodules and crusts with desferrioxamine-B that a significant and selective extraction of high-tech metals such as Li, Mo, Zr, Hf and Ta is possible, while other elements like Fe and the base metals Mn, Ni, Cu, Co and Zn are not extracted to large extents. The set of selectively extracted elements can be extended to Nb and W if Mn and carbonate phases are stripped from the bulk nodule or crust prior to the siderophore leach by e.g. a sequential leaching technique. This combination of sequential leaches with a siderophore leach enhanced the extraction to 3050% of each Mo, Nb, W and Ta from a mixed type Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ) nodule and 4080% from a diagenetic Peru Basin nodule, whilst only 510% Fe and even less Mn are extracted from the nodules. Li is extracted to about 60% from the CCZ nodule and a maximum of 80% Li is extracted from the Peru Basin nodule. Our pilot work on selective extraction of high-tech metals from marine ferromanganese nodules and crusts showed that specific metal-binding organic ligands may have promising potential in future processing technologies of these oxide deposits

  13. Active Faults of the Northwest Himalaya: Pattern, Rate, and Timing of Surface Rupturing Earthquakes

    Yule, J.; Madden, C.; Gavillot, Y.; Hebeler, A.; Meigs, A.; Hussein, A.; Malik, M.; Bhat, M.; Kausar, A.; Ramzan, S.; Sayab, M.; Yeats, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    The 2005 Kashmir earthquake (Mw 7.6) is the only Himalayan earthquake to rupture the surface since the 15th to 16th century A.D. when >Mw 8.5 earthquakes ruptured the Himalayan Frontal thrust (HFT) in the central Himalaya. Megathrust-type earthquakes like these seem to relieve a majority of the accumulated interseismic strain and concentrate permanent strain across a narrow width at the deformation front (faults within the orogen appear to accommodate little strain). The 2005 within-plate rupture in Kashmir may be a clue that a different seismotectonic model applies to the northwest Himalaya where active deformation occurs on faults distributed more than 120 km across the orogen. An asymmetric anticline marks the deformation front in Kashmir where the HFT is inferred to be blind, though ~20 m-high escarpments suggest that unrecognized thrust fault(s) may reach the surface locally. Folded river terraces and dip data also suggest that this frontal fold contains a SW-dipping back thrust. In Pakistan the Salt Range thrust system (SRT) defines the thrust front. New mapping and preliminary OSL dates from deformed Holocene sediments exposed along the westernmost SRT reveal that the fault slips at 1-7 mm/yr and last ruptured within the last several thousand years. Within the orogenic wedge to the north of the deformation front, active shortening occurs along a system of surface-rupturing reverse faults, extending from the Balakot-Bagh fault (source of the 2005 Kashmir earthquake) to the Reasi fault (RF) in Indian Kashmir to the southeast. One strand of the RF displaces a 350 m-high, 80 ± 6 ka (preliminary OSL age) fluvial terrace, yielding a minimum shortening rate of 3-5 mm/yr. Trenches excavated across the RF nearby reveal a distinct angular unconformity that likely formed during a surface rupture ~4500 yrs BP. Farther north, three northeast-dipping reverse faults cut Quaternary terraces on the southwest side of the Kashmir Valley. Trenches expose evidence for at least 2 surface rupturing events in the latest Quaternary and a shortening rate of 0.3 to 1.3 mm/yr. The active structures described above can account for 15 to 50% of India-Asia convergence, with up to ~20% of the shortening occurring on structures within the orogenic belt. Seismicity in the NW Himalaya is also broadly distributed but tends to concentrate in several places (e.g., the Indus-Kohistan and Hazara Lower seismic zones). Like in the central Himalaya, the zones of seismicity in the NW Himalaya may locate regions where interseismic strain accumulates, possibly in the middle crust along thrust ramps, and is released during large (>Mw 7.5) events. These relatively infrequent earthquakes likely activate portions (all?) of the plate boundary detachment fault and/or the within-plate fault systems. It may be possible for the region to generate earthquakes as large as >Mw 8.5, taking into account a reasonable average slip value and maximum possible rupture area. Recognition of internal surface-rupturing reverse faults indicates probabilistic models for seismic hazards in the NW Himalaya ought to account for great earthquakes on the Main Himalayan thrust (the basal detachment), moderate earthquakes on upper plate faults, and potentially events in the down-going Indian plate.

  14. Potential site selection for radioactive waste repository using GIS (Study area: Negeri Sembilan) - Phase 1

    The main purpose in this paper is to create the Geographic Information System (GIS) based analysis on the potential site area for near-surface radioactive waste repository in the state of Negeri Sembilan. There are several parameters should be considered related to the safety assessment in selecting the potential site. These parameters such as land-use, urban area, soil, rainfall, lithology, lineament, geomorphology, landslide potential, slope, elevation, hydrogeology and protected land need to be considered before choosing the site. In this phase, we only consider ten parameters for determining the potential suitable site. (author)

  15. Structural control on along-strike variation in the seismicity of the northwest Himalaya

    Arora, B. R.; Gahalaut, V. K.; Kumar, Naresh

    2012-09-01

    An overview of seismicity along the northwest Himalaya exhibit along-strike segmentation intricately controlled by the subsurface topographic ridges on the underthrusting Indian Plate as well by rift and nappe structures in the overriding wedge of the Himalaya. The segmentation exists for thrust dominated large magnitude earthquakes (M > 6) seated on the active detachment beneath the Outer and Lesser Himalaya. Segmentation also prevails for moderate and small magnitude earthquakes concentrated in a narrow Himalaya Seismic Belt (HSB) straddling northern Lesser Himalaya and southern Higher Himalaya. Numerical calculations of stress distribution favour that the degree of seismicity in the HSB is a good proxy to the presence of mid-crustal ramp connecting the locked section of active detachment to aseismically slipping detachment beneath Higher Himalaya. Further, gap or diffused pattern in the concentrated seismicity in the HSB, in agreement with mapped high electrical conductive structure, suggests ramp structure may be absent where underthrusting Delhi-Hardwar Ridge interacts with the Himalaya arc. In the nappe dominated tectonics, the accommodation of the accumulating strains on the listric thrust faults, produces increased frequency of moderate magnitude earthquakes and thereby possibly influences stress level on the detachment. This may explain relatively less frequent occurrences of large earthquake in the Kangra-Chamba region compared to that in the Garhwal Himalaya. The low level seismicity in the Simla region may also be influenced by the active Kaurik Chango Rift in the Higher Himalaya, as the former casts a stress shadow on the latter.

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from the Central-Himalaya region: Distribution, sources, and risks to humans and wildlife.

    Bi, Xiang; Luo, Wei; Gao, Jiajia; Xu, Lan; Guo, Junming; Zhang, Qianggong; Romesh, Kumar Y; Giesy, John P; Kang, Shichang; de Boer, Jacob

    2016-06-15

    The Central Himalayas are not only a natural boundary between China and Nepal but also a natural barrier for transport of air masses from South Asia. In this study, 99 samples of surface soil were collected from five regions of Nepal on the southern side of the Central Himalayas, and 65 samples of surface soil were obtained from the northern side on the edge of the Tibetan Plateau, China (TPC). Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils were measured to determine their distribution, potential for accumulation, and sources, as well as risks to humans and the environment. Mean concentrations of Σ16PAHs were 2.4×10(2) and 3.3×10(2)ng/g dry mass (dm) in soils collected from the TPC and Nepal, respectively. Significant correlations between concentrations of lower molecular weight PAHs (LMW-PAHs) in soils and altitude were found. Total organic carbon (TOC) in soil was positively but weakly correlated with concentrations of PAHs in the study area, which suggested little role of TOC in adsorption of PAHs. The cities of Kathmandu and Pokhara in Nepal and Nyemo (especially Zhangmu Port), Shigatse, and Lhasa on the TPC, were areas with relatively great concentrations of PAHs in soils. The main sources of PAHs identified by positive matrix factorization were emissions from motor vehicles and combustion of coal and biomass in the Central Himalayas. Calculated total benzo[a]pyrene potency equivalents of 0.23-44ng/gdm and index of additive cancer risk of 3.8×10(-3)-9.2×10(-1) indicated that PAHs in almost all soils investigated posed de minimis risk of additional cancer to residents via direct contact and had no significant risk of additional cancers through consumption of potable water. Mean risk quotient values indicated that 39% of soils had a slight risk to wildlife and the ambient environment of the Central Himalayas. PMID:26971206

  17. Energy Planning in Selected European Regions - Methods for Evaluating the Potential of Renewable Energy Sources

    Sliz-Szkliniarz, Beata

    2013-01-01

    Given their potentially positive impact on climate protection and the preservation of fossil resources, alternative energy sources have become increasingly important for the energy supply over the past years. However, the questions arises what economic and ecological impacts and potential conflicts over land use resources are associated with the promotion of renewable energy production. Using the examples of three selected European Regions in Poland, France and German, the dissertation discus...

  18. Subtractive Cell-SELEX Selection of DNA Aptamers Binding Specifically and Selectively to Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells with High Metastatic Potential

    Chen, Hao; Yuan, Chun-Hui; Yang, Yi-Fei; Yin, Chang-Qing; Guan, Qing; Wang, Fu-Bing; Tu, Jian-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Relapse and metastasis are two key risk factors of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) prognosis; thus, it is emergent to develop an early and accurate detection method for prognostic evaluation of HCC after surgery. In this study, we sought to acquire oligonucleotide DNA aptamers that specifically bind to HCC cells with high metastatic potential. Two HCC cell lines derived from the same genetic background but with different metastatic potential were employed: MHCC97L (low metastatic properties) as subtractive targets and HCCLM9 (high metastatic properties) as screening targets. To mimic a fluid combining environment, initial DNA aptamers library was firstly labelled with magnetic nanoparticles using biotin-streptavidin system and then applied for aptamers selection. Through 10-round selection with subtractive Cell-SELEX, six aptamers, LY-1, LY-13, LY-46, LY-32, LY-27/45, and LY-7/43, display high affinity to HCCLM9 cells and do not bind to MHCC97L cells, as well as other tumor cell lines, including breast cancer, lung cancer, colon adenocarcinoma, gastric cancer, and cervical cancer, suggesting high specificity for HCCLM9 cells. Thus, the aptamers generated here will provide solid basis for identifying new diagnostic targets to detect HCC metastasis and also may provide valuable clues for developing new targeted therapeutics.

  19. Selection of optimal recording sites for limited lead body surface potential mapping: A sequential selection based approach

    McCullagh Paul J

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study we propose the development of a new algorithm for selecting optimal recording sites for limited lead body surface potential mapping. The proposed algorithm differs from previously reported methods in that it is based upon a simple and intuitive data driven technique that does not make any presumptions about deterministic characteristics of the data. It uses a forward selection based search technique to find the best combination of electrocardiographic leads. Methods The study was conducted using a dataset consisting of body surface potential maps (BSPM recorded from 116 subjects which included 59 normals and 57 subjects exhibiting evidence of old Myocardial Infarction (MI. The performance of the algorithm was evaluated using spatial RMS voltage error and correlation coefficient to compare original and reconstructed map frames. Results In all, three configurations of the algorithm were evaluated and it was concluded that there was little difference in the performance of the various configurations. In addition to observing the performance of the selection algorithm, several lead subsets of 32 electrodes as chosen by the various configurations of the algorithm were evaluated. The rationale for choosing this number of recording sites was to allow comparison with a previous study that used a different algorithm, where 32 leads were deemed to provide an acceptable level of reconstruction performance. Conclusion It was observed that although the lead configurations suggested in this study were not identical to that suggested in the previous work, the systems did bear similar characteristics in that recording sites were chosen with greatest density in the precordial region.

  20. In Vitro and Ex Vivo Selection Procedures for Identifying Potentially Therapeutic DNA and RNA Molecules

    Soledad Marton

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It was only relatively recently discovered that nucleic acids participate in a variety of biological functions, besides the storage and transmission of genetic information. Quite apart from the nucleotide sequence, it is now clear that the structure of a nucleic acid plays an essential role in its functionality, enabling catalysis and specific binding reactions. In vitro selection and evolution strategies have been extremely useful in the analysis of functional RNA and DNA molecules, helping to expand our knowledge of their functional repertoire and to identify and optimize DNA and RNA molecules with potential therapeutic and diagnostic applications. The great progress made in this field has prompted the development of ex vivo methods for selecting functional nucleic acids in the cellular environment. This review summarizes the most important and most recent applications of in vitro and ex vivo selection strategies aimed at exploring the therapeutic potential of nucleic acids.

  1. Event-related brain potentials in selective listening to frequent and rare stimuli.

    Alho, K; Lavikainen, J; Reinikainen, K; Sams, M; Ntnen, R

    1990-01-01

    Our previous event-related brain potential (ERP) results suggest that during selective listening, relevant stimuli are selected for further processing by comparing each stimulus to an "attentional trace," a neuronal representation of the physical features of the relevant stimuli that distinguish them from the irrelevant stimuli. This comparison process is reflected by the early component of the processing negativity (PN), which is largest and longest to the relevant stimuli (perfectly matching with the trace). In the present study, the subjects selectively listened to designated tone stimuli which randomly appeared among irrelevant tones of a different pitch. The probability of relevant stimuli in a block was varied. The processing negativity elicited by relevant stimuli was smaller the less frequent they were. The results support the attentional-trace theory of selective attention, which proposes that, in addition to active maintenance, the trace also depends on the rate of sensory reinforcement provided by the relevant stimuli. PMID:2339190

  2. Seismotectonics of the Kangra region, Northwest Himalaya

    Kumar, S.; Mahajan, A. K.

    2001-02-01

    The occurrence of major and moderate earthquakes having thrust and strike-slip mechanism along the longitudinal and transverse feature within the same seismogenic zone requires us to study the area in detail to infer the seismotectonics. The epicentral distribution of earthquakes >4.0 (mb) between Chamba and Sundernagar region shows the high rate of activity either north of Chamba, i.e. north of the Main Central Thrust (MCT) or north of Dharamsala in between the Panjal Thrust (PT) and MCT in the Dhauladhar Range. It is, however, surprising that all the moderate earthquakes that have triggered in the Kangra region have either been in the frontal belt along the transverse features or have followed the arcuate belt close to the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT). The spatio-temporal variation of the seismicity from 1973 to 2000 (>4.0 mb) reveals a migration trend between Chamba and Sundernagar. During the seventies and early eighties, the seismicity was concentrated in the Chamba region and in the late eighties and early nineties, the seismicity shifted around Dharamsala and later further north. In this arcuate tectonic belt of the Chamba-Sundernagar region, the foreland region has a characteristic tectonic setting. All the fault and fold structures in the Oligocene-Miocene and Neogene-Pliestocene sediments in the foreland region show relative movement in the area of transverse tectonics. The surface structures, i.e. thinning and thickening of the sediments, are controlled by the basement cofiguration controlled by the subduction process. The MBT and the PT are closely spaced and meet each other just northwest of Dharamsala. The width of the Lesser Himalaya in the Chamba-Sundernagar region is also much narrower as compared to the region in the east, in Garhwal Kumaun and western Nepal. This suggests that the convergence is taken up largely by underthrusting of the Lesser Himalayan formations along the PT. The occurrence of a moderate earthquake of magnitude 6.5 in 1978 and the 1986 Dharamsala earthquake along the SE-dipping and SW-dipping nodal planes within the NE-dipping thrust regime and displacement of the MBT and PT from 4 to 12 km reflects the active involvement of the NE-SW trending fault system in controlling the seismic behavior of the Kangra region. The microearthquake migration in time and space in the Chamba-Sundernagar region also reflects the time differential segmental collision behavior of the basement.

  3. Morphometric analysis of Suketi river basin, Himachal Himalaya, India

    Anil M Pophare; Umesh S Balpande

    2014-10-01

    Suketi river basin is located in the Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh, India. It encompasses a central inter-montane valley and surrounding mountainous terrain in the Lower Himachal Himalaya. Morphometric analysis of the Suketi river basin was carried out to study its drainage characteristics and overall groundwater resource potential. The entire Suketi river basin has been divided into five sub-basins based on the catchment areas of Suketi trunk stream and its major tributaries. Quantitative assessment of each sub-basin was carried out for its linear, areal, and relief aspects. The analysis reveals that the drainage network of the entire Suketi river basin constitutes a 7th order basin. Out of five sub-basins, Kansa khad sub-basin (KKSB), Gangli khad sub-basin (GKSB) and Ratti khad sub-basin (RKSB) are 5th order subbasins. The Dadour khad sub-basin (DKSB) is 6th order sub-basin, while Suketi trunk stream sub-basin (STSSB) is a 7th order sub-basin. The entire drainage basin area reflects late youth to early mature stage of development of the fluvial geomorphic cycle, which is dominated by rain and snow fed lower order streams. It has low stream frequency (Fs) and moderate drainage density (Dd) of 2.69 km/km2. Bifurcation ratios (Rb) of various stream orders indicate that streams up to 3rd order are surging through highly dissected mountainous terrain, which facilitates high overland flow and less recharge into the subsurface resulting in low groundwater potential in the zones of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order streams of the Suketi river basin. The circulatory ratio (Rc) of 0.65 and elongation ratio (Re) of 0.80 show elongated nature of the Suketi river basin, while infiltration number (If) of 10.66 indicates dominance of relief features and low groundwater potential in the high altitude mountainous terrain. The asymmetry factor (Af) of Suketi river basin indicates that the palaeo-tectonic tilting, at drainage basin scale, was towards the downstream right side of the drainage basin. The slope map of Suketi river basin has been classified into three main zones, which delineate the runoff zone in the mountains, recharge zone in the transition zone between mountains and valley plane, and discharge zone in the plane areas of Balh valley.

  4. Considering Future Potential Regarding Structural Diversity in Selection of Forest Reserves

    Lundström, Johanna; Öhman, Karin; Rönnqvist, Mikael; Gustafsson, Lena

    2016-01-01

    A rich structural diversity in forests promotes biodiversity. Forests are dynamic and therefore it is crucial to consider future structural potential when selecting reserves, to make robust conservation decisions. We analyzed forests in boreal Sweden based on 17,599 National Forest Inventory (NFI) plots with the main aim to understand how effectiveness of reserves depends on the time dimension in the selection process, specifically by considering future structural diversity. In the study both the economic value and future values of 15 structural variables were simulated during a 100 year period. To get a net present structural value (NPSV), a single value covering both current and future values, we used four discounting alternatives: (1) only considering present values, (2) giving equal importance to values in each of the 100 years within the planning horizon, (3) applying an annual discount rate considering the risk that values could be lost, and (4) only considering the values in year 100. The four alternatives were evaluated in a reserve selection model under budget-constrained and area-constrained selections. When selecting young forests higher structural richness could be reached at a quarter of the cost over almost twice the area in a budget-constrained selection compared to an area-constrained selection. Our results point to the importance of considering future structural diversity in the selection of forest reserves and not as is done currently to base the selection on existing values. Targeting future values increases structural diversity and implies a relatively lower cost. Further, our results show that a re-orientation from old to young forests would imply savings while offering a more extensive reserve network with high structural qualities in the future. However, caution must be raised against a drastic reorientation of the current old-forest strategy since remnants of ancient forests will need to be prioritized due to their role for disturbance-sensitive species. PMID:26866480

  5. A preliminary assessment of the role of glaciers in the hydrologic regime of the Nepal Himalaya

    Armstrong, R.; Alford, D.; Racoviteanu, A.

    2009-04-01

    The hydrologic regime of the Himalaya is not well-defined and there is a lack of a basic data to support the understanding of the runoff sources and timing in many mountain rivers of the region. Because of this absence of data, applying of hydrologic concepts and models developed for mountain catchments in Europe or North America is often impossible and likely to be inappropriate. Thus, determining the impact of the retreat of Himalayan glaciers on regional-scale water supplies is problematic. Current concerns about the retreat of Himalayan glaciers have been accompanied by little, if any, comprehensive analysis of the actual role of glaciers in the total hydrologic regime and such assessments have typically disregarded mass balance relationships across the approximately 3,000 meters of topographic relief between the glacier termini and the highest accumulation zones. The ultimate purpose of the study described here is to assess, and begin to quantify, the role of complete glacier systems in the hydrologic regime of the Nepal Himalaya, and to develop estimates of the potential impact of a continued retreat of these glaciers. There are approximately 3250 glaciers in the Nepal Himalaya, covering an area of slightly more than 5,300 km2, and containing some 460 km3 of ice. These glaciers cover approximately 4% of the total 147,000 km2 surface area of Nepal, and are located on, or near, the crest of the Himalaya, with the bulk of the ice contained in basins that are at altitudes generally between 4,000 - 6000 meters above sea level. In this study we apply methods which disaggregate available data sets to reflect the altitudinal gradients that define the mountain hydrologic regime. For glacier mass balance estimates, the input variables are: 1) surface areas of both basins and glaciers, 2) basin and glacier area-altitude distributions, 3) glacier equilibrium line altitudes, 4) slope of the ablation gradient for the glaciers of Nepal, 5) maximum altitude of the 00 C. isotherm each year, and the altitudinal range through which it moves annually. For orographic runoff estimates, the variables are: 1) area-altitude distribution of each catchment basin studied, and 2) disaggregated hydrometric data, to reflect the importance of scale and location in the analysis of mountain hydrologic systems. The ablation gradient, the rate of increasing specific ice melt with decreasing altitude in the ablation zone, is determined to be 1.4m/100m, a probable value for the latitude of the Nepal Himalaya based on measurements found in the literature which are representative of a range of latitudes. The mean maximum altitude of the 00 C. isotherm during the ablation period is approximately 5400 m, determined by extrapolating low altitude air temperature values. This altitude defines the location of an equilibrium line altitude (ELA), the dividing line between zones of net accumulation and ablation on the glacier surface. The volume of ablation between the ELA and the glacier terminus is estimated as the product of specific ice melt values taken from the ablation gradient and the area-altitude values of corresponding belts in the glacier ablation zone. The resulting mass balance calculations are considered to be "best-estimate" meso-scale approximations which could be refined with field measurements. It is currently estimated that the contribution of glacier melt water to annual streamflow volume in the study area varies among catchment basins from 2-13% of total annual flow measured at low altitude hydrometric stations, and represents 2-3% of the total annual streamflow volume of the rivers flowing out of Nepal. The preliminary results from this continuing study indicate that this relationship will not be affected significantly in the near future by a continued retreat of the glaciers.

  6. Cycles of Sediment Aggradation and Incision in the Western Sub-Himalaya

    Dey, Saptarshi; Thiede, Rasmus; Bookhagen, Bodo; Strecker, Manfred

    2013-04-01

    The magnitude of sediment delivery from the Himalayan mountains to the foreland, is characterized by large fluctuations on different timescales. At the first order, these fluctuations are manifested by periods of sediment aggradation, associated with the formation of large alluvial fans during times of high sediment delivery and re-incision and remobilization during reduced sediment delivery. At longer timescale (106-107 yr) sediment delivery is controlled by tectonic processes, whereas at shorter timescales (103-105 yr) climatic fluctuations such as variations in monsoonal strength or Quaternary glacial and interglacial oscillations dictate sediment production and transport. However, detailed stratigraphic information and chronologies of Quaternary sediment aggradation and incision cycles within the Sub-Himalaya are lacking and the degree of variability in sediment delivery during these episodes has remained unclear. In this study, we investigate Quaternary sediments exposed within the Sub-Himalaya of the Kangra re-entrant to the west of the Beas river. Here, the outlets of the drainage basins provide an ideal location to analyze aggradation and re-incision of transiently-stored sediments. The sediment-source region for this area is the Dhauladhar range, in the Higher Himalaya, which has been uplifting since the Late Miocene, thus restricting the potential source region for Late Cenozoic sediments supplied to the foreland. Folded and faulted Siwalik sediments of the Sub-Himalaya have formed sediment-filled intramontane piggy-back basin and have been progressively excavated. Thus far, we document a prolonged sediment-aggradation period by a thick sequence of boulder conglomerates. Subsequent re-incision of this fill, has left atleast three distinct terrace levels, which are recognized regionally at elevations ~5-10m, 6510m and 14010m above the present-day riverbed. The composition of the fill unit is dominated by 60% granitic clasts and is therefore distinct from the regionally exposed Siwalik conglomerates (>65% quartzite). We interpret the provenance signal to mean that the exposed lithologies in the catchment most likely had changed from quartzite-rich Higher Himalayan cover units to unroofed granites between the time of deposition of the Upper Siwalik conglomerates and sedimentary basin fill. Preliminary river profile analyses and topographic profiles along the terrace surfaces revealed tilting of some of the older, higher terrace levels in certain sections towards the north-east when compared to the gradient of the present-day river, suggesting ongoing internal shortening within the Sub-Himalaya. DEM-based geomorphic analysis, surface exposure dating and burial dating of well-shielded sediments using cosmogenic nuclides are in progress. With the expected results, we anticipate to determine the chronology of terrace levels, determine deformation rates, reconstruct the fluvial incision history and ultimately the minimum sediment-flux rate in the study area.

  7. Crossmodal effects of Guqin and piano music on selective attention: an event-related potential study.

    Zhu, Weina; Zhang, Junjun; Ding, Xiaojun; Zhou, Changle; Ma, Yuanye; Xu, Dan

    2009-11-27

    To compare the effects of music from different cultural environments (Guqin: Chinese music; piano: Western music) on crossmodal selective attention, behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) data in a standard two-stimulus visual oddball task were recorded from Chinese subjects in three conditions: silence, Guqin music or piano music background. Visual task data were then compared with auditory task data collected previously. In contrast with the results of the auditory task, the early (N1) and late (P300) stages exhibited no differences between Guqin and piano backgrounds during the visual task. Taking our previous study and this study together, we can conclude that: although the cultural-familiar music influenced selective attention both in the early and late stages, these effects appeared only within a sensory modality (auditory) but not in cross-sensory modalities (visual). Thus, the musical cultural factor is more obvious in intramodal than in crossmodal selective attention. PMID:19766172

  8. Characterization of N200 and P300: Selected Studies of the Event-Related Potential

    Patel, Salil H.; Azzam, Pierre N.

    2005-01-01

    The Event-Related Potential (ERP) is a time-locked measure of electrical activity of the cerebral surface representing a distinct phase of cortical processing. Two components of the ERP which bear special importance to stimulus evaluation, selective attention, and conscious discrimination in humans are the P300 positivity and N200 negativity, appearing 300 ms and 200 ms post-stimulus, respectively. With the rapid proliferation of high-density EEG methods, and interdisciplinary interest in its...

  9. Identifying Potential Clinical Syndromes of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Using PSO-Based Hierarchical Feature Selection Algorithm

    Zhiwei Ji; Bing Wang

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors. Clinical symptoms attributable to HCC are usually absent, thus often miss the best therapeutic opportunities. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) plays an active role in diagnosis and treatment of HCC. In this paper, we proposed a particle swarm optimization-based hierarchical feature selection (PSOHFS) model to infer potential syndromes for diagnosis of HCC. Firstly, the hierarchical feature representation is developed...

  10. Statistically assisted programme selection - International experiences and potential benefits for Switzerland

    Frölich, Markus; Lechner, Michael; Steiger, Heidi

    2003-01-01

    The need for better targeting of active labour market programmes is evident from the many evaluation studies that find insignificant or even negative effects. A statistical system could contribute to a more precise targeting of labour market programmes to those individuals who are likely to benefit from them. Such a system could assist caseworkers in selecting adequate programmes on an individual basis. In this paper, international experiences with these systems are surveyed and a potential a...

  11. Selection and characterization of potential probiotic bacteria for Litopenaeus stylirostris shrimp hatcheries in New Caledonia

    Pham, Dominique; Ansquer, Dominique; Chevalier, Anne; Dauga, Clement; Peyramale, Aude; Wabete, Nelly; Labreuche, Yannick

    2014-01-01

    In New Caledonia, shrimp hatcheries are confronted with mass mortality in the larval stages, a phenomenon poorly understood as no specific causative agent has been identified. This has resulted in an excessive use of prophylactic antibiotics, although their adverse effects in aquaculture are notorious. The present work was thus aimed at selecting potential probiotic strains for penaeid hatcheries. From a pool of more than 400 marine bacterial isolates sampled from the local marine environ...

  12. Environmental change and challenge in the Himalaya. A historical perspective

    Ives, Jack D.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This overview, or retrospective, has two objectives. The first is to demonstrate how the principles of ‘mountain geoecology’ were applied in an attempt to counteract the political and socio-economic impacts of a major and misguided environmental orthodoxy-the Theory of Himalayan Environmental Degradation (henceforth to be referred to as the ‘Theory’. The second is to explore the difficulties of transferring the results of on-going scholarly mountain research into the public and political decision-making process. In this sense the paper should be regarded as a case study of the potentially serious effects of exaggerated and emotionally based responses to orthodoxies founded on assumptions and latter-day myths. A third objective, reserved for the companion paper in this issue, outlines the origins of mountain geoecology and explores how academic research influenced the inclusion of high level concern for mountain problems within AGENDA 21, one of the principal results of the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development (popularly known as the Rio Earth Summit and declaration of 2002 as the International Year of Mountains. The original environmental orthodoxy (the Theory has been eclipsed since the turn of the Millennium by a new populist alarm proposing that the current climate warming will cause all the Himalayan glaciers to disappear in the near future. From this it would follow that, as the glacier melt progresses, numerous large glacial lakes, forming as a consequence, would burst and the ensuing floods would annihilate many millions of people. Eventually, as the glaciers disappeared vital rivers, such as the Ganges and Brahmaputra, would wither to seasonal streams heralding further massive loss of life due to desertification and starvation. This current environmental alarm could be regarded as a present day parallel to the original Theory and will be examined in the final section of the paper. Between 1970 and about 1985 it was almost universal wisdom amongst scholars and development specialists, as well as conservationists, that the Himalaya were on the brink of environmental, and hence socio-economic and political collapse. This theme of gloom and doom was taken up avidly by journalists, politicians, and diplomats; it influenced the expenditure of large sums of aid and development money, and augmented periodic international confrontations. In concise terms, in the early 1970s an assumed approaching environmental disaster was perceived to be driven by relentless growth in the population of subsistence hill communities and their dependence on mountain forests for fuel, fodder, building materials, and conversion to agricultural land. The assumption of rapid and catastrophic deforestation of steep hillslopes under a monsoon climate (the World Bank predicted that there would be no accessible forest remaining in Nepal by the year 2000 led inexorably to a series of dependent assumptions: increasing soil erosion and worsening landslide incidence; accelerated flooding and siltation on the plains of Gangetic India and Bangladesh; social and political unrest, if not serious armed conflict – the notion of a world super-crisis, considering that the region in question contained about ten percent of the world’s entire human population and about thirty percent of its poorest. As will be emphasized later, none of this all-embracing construct was based on reliable evidence, but it was accepted world-wide as a given. It represents a prime example of the dangers associated with convenient adoption of environmental myths, or environmental orthodoxies, especially where the myth is a Western ‘scientific’ construct. I characterized it as The Theory of Himalayan Environmental Degradation (Ives, 1985.Esta perspectiva global, o retrospectiva, tiene dos objetivos. El primero es demostrar cómo se aplicaron los principios de la “geoecología de montaña” en un intento por contrarrestar los impactos políticos y socioeconómicos de una errónea ortodoxia ambiental, la Teoría de la Degradación Ambiental del Himalaya (en adelante referida como la “Teoría”. El segundo es explorar las dificultades para transferir los resultados de la investigación científica en montaña a los procesos públicos de decisión. En este sentido, el artículo debería ser contemplado como un estudio de caso de los efectos potencialmente serios de las exageradas respuestas a las ortodoxias basadas en suposiciones y mitos de última hora. Un tercer objetivo, reservado a otro trabajo publicado en este volumen, subraya los orígenes de la geoecología de montaña y explora cómo la investigación académica influyó en la incorporación de la preocupación por los problemas de la montaña en la AGENDA 21, uno de los principales resultados de la Conferencia de Naciones Unidas de 1992 sobre Medio Ambiente y Desarrollo (popularmente conocida como la Cumbre de Río, y la declaración de 2002 como el Año Internacional de las Montañas. La ortodoxia ambiental original (la Teoría ha sido eclipsada desde el cambio de milenio por una nueva alarma populista que propone que el actual calentamiento climático hará que todos los glaciares del Himalaya desaparezcan en un futuro próximo. De ahí puede deducirse que, a medida que la fusión glaciar progrese, numerosos lagos glaciares reventarían y las consiguientes avenidas aniquilarían a millones de personas. Eventualmente, tras la desaparición de los glaciares, algunos ríos fundamentales, como el Ganges y el Brahmaputra podrían convertirse en ríos estacionales ocasionando la pérdida masiva de vidas humanas debido a la desertificación y el hambre. Esta alarma ambiental podría ser vista como paralela a la Teoría original, y será examinada en la parte final de este artículo. Entre 1970 y 1985 se mantuvo la opinión entre los científicos y especialistas en desarrollo, así como entre los conservacionistas, de que el Himalaya estaba al borde del colapso ambiental, socioeconómico y político. Este pesimismo y predestinación fue adoptado ávidamente por periodistas, políticos y diplomáticos, e influyó en la dedicación de grandes sumas de dinero y ayudas. En pocas palabras, a comienzos de los años setenta se asumió la ocurrencia de un desastre ambiental determinado por el crecimiento demográfico de comunidades que dependían de los bosques de montaña para la obtención de energía, forraje, materiales de construcción y expansión de los terrenos agrícolas. La asunción de una rápida y catastrófica deforestación de laderas pendientes bajo clima monzónico (el Banco Mundial predijo que no habría bosques accesibles en Nepal hacia el año 2000 condujo inexorablemente a aceptar otras suposiciones: aumento de la erosión del suelo y acentuación de la incidencia de los deslizamientos; incremento de la magnitud y frecuencia de las avenidas y del transporte de sedimento en las llanuras del Ganges en India y Bangladesh; conflictividad social y política, cuando no serios conflictos armados, es decir, la noción de una supercrisis mundial, teniendo en cuenta que la región en cuestión contiene alrededor del 10 por ciento de la población mundial y alrededor de la tercera parte de los más pobres. Como se pone de relieve a continuación, ninguna de esas ideas se basaba en evidencias fiables, pero fueron aceptadas mundialmente como un hecho. Representan un ejemplo claro de los peligros asociados a la adopción de mitos u ortodoxias ambientales, especialmente donde el mito es una construcción “científica” del mundo occidental. Yo la definí como la Teoría de la Degradación Ambiental del Himalaya (Ives, 1985.

  13. Fault delineation study using soil-gas method in the Dharamsala area, NW Himalayas, India

    Soil-gas activity in the vicinity of neotectonic fault zones within the Dharamsala area in the region of the NW Himalayas, India, has been investigated by determining enhanced concentration values of radon and helium in the soil, using an ionization chamber and an ASM 100 HDS (Alcatel), respectively. A geological map of the area was used for site selection and to locate the predicted courses of faults. Elevated levels of radon and helium in the soil gas were found along a profile of a major fault (MBT-2). Radon shows variation not only due to the tectonic structures but also due to change in lithology. Helium and radon anomalies together show that apart from conspicuous thrust MBT-2, the area under study is cut across by the N-S transverse faults/lineaments

  14. Evolutionary Dynamics of MERS-CoV: Potential Recombination, Positive Selection and Transmission.

    Zhang, Zhao; Shen, Libing; Gu, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) belongs to beta group of coronavirus and was first discovered in 2012. MERS-CoV can infect multiple host species and cause severe diseases in human. We conducted a series of phylogenetic and bioinformatic analyses to study the evolution dynamics of MERS-CoV among different host species with genomic data. Our analyses show: 1) 28 potential recombinant sequences were detected and they can be classified into seven potential recombinant types; 2) The spike (S) protein of MERS-CoV was under strong positive selection when MERS-CoV transmitted from their natural host to human; 3) Six out of nine positive selection sites detected in spike (S) protein are located in its receptor-binding domain which is in direct contact with host cells; 4) MERS-CoV frequently transmitted back and forth between human and camel after it had acquired the human-camel infection capability. Together, these results suggest that potential recombination events might have happened frequently during MERS-CoV's evolutionary history and the positive selection sites in MERS-CoV's S protein might enable it to infect human. PMID:27142087

  15. Integrated Natural Resource Management: Approaches and Lessons from the Himalaya

    R. K. Maikhuri

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Losses of forest cover, biodiversity, agricultural productivity, and ecosystem services in the Himalayan mountain region are interlinked problems and threats to the sustainable livelihoods of 115 x 106 mountain people as well as the inhabitants of the adjoining Indo-gangetic plains. Until the 1970s, environmental conservation, food security, and rural economic development were treated as independent sectors. The poor outcomes of sector-oriented approaches catalyzed efforts to address environmental and socioeconomic problems concurrently. The identification of "key" natural resource management interventions is an important dimension of integrated management. Projects to rehabilitate the degraded lands that cover 40% of the Indian Himalaya could be key interventions provided that they address both socioeconomic and environmental concerns across spatial and temporal scales. However, projects of this type, e.g., investments in conifer plantations on degraded forest lands, have failed because their designs did not take into account the needs of local residents. This study illustrates a case of land rehabilitation in a small isolated village close to the alpine zone. Vital elements of this project strategy included identifying local perceptions and knowledge and involving the local people in the selection and implementation of the interventions needed to restore the land. Communities were found to be more concerned with the immediate economic benefits from bamboo and medicinal species than the long-term benefits of tree planting. The villagers eventually reached a consensus to plant broadleaved multipurpose trees in association with bamboo and medicinal species. Despite assurances that all the economic benefits from rehabilitation would go to the community, the people would not agree to voluntary labor, although they did absorb significant costs by providing social fencing, farmyard manure, and propagules from community forests. Households shared costs and benefits according to traditional norms. The economic benefits to the local people exceeded the rehabilitation cost over the 7-yr life of the project. There were significant on-site environmental benefits in terms of improvements in soil fertility, biodiversity, protective cover, and carbon sequestration, and off-site benefits from more productive use of labor, reduced pressure on protected areas, and the introduction of rare and threatened medicinal species onto private farmland.

  16. Six hitherto unreported Basidiomycetic macrofungi from Kashmir Himalayas

    MOHMAD YAQUB BHAT

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Pala SA, Wani AH, Bhat MY. 2011. Six hitherto unreported Basidiomycetic macrofungi from Kashmir Himalayas. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 92-97. The Kashmir valley located in the north extreme of the India lies between 33020 and 34054 N latitude and 730 55 and 75035 E longitude. The forests constituting more than 20% of the geographical area harbors diverse macrofungal species due to their wide variability in climate altitude and nature of species constituting them. The mushroom flora of the Kashmir Valley has not been documented completely until now. In this backdrop, a systematic survey for exploration and inventorization of macrofungal species of Western Kashmir Himalaya was undertaken during the year 2009-2010. During the study six species viz. Agrocybe molesta, Coprinus plicatilis, Inonotus hispidus, Paxillus involutus, Psathyrella candolleana and Russula fragilis were identified first time from the Kashmir.

  17. Ethnobotanical uses of Biofencing Plants in Himachal Pradesh, Northwest Himalaya

    Pankaj Sharma3; Usha Devi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to document the traditional knowledge on the utilization of Biofencing plants of Himachal Pradesh, Northwest Himalaya. The study was imperative because of dearth in the data pertaining to Biofencing plants in the study areas. The whole study area was stratified into three zones and a widespread field survey and random sampling method was adopted to assess the live fencing diversity of the region. The region occupies total 61 species. 10 (trees), 45 (shrubs), 4 (herbs)...

  18. Fuelwood consumption pattern at different altitudes in Garhwal Himalaya

    We analyse firewood consumption along altitudinal gradient by households according to their socio-economic conditions in Garhwal Himalaya. Consumption of fuelwood was 789, 664, 518, and 544 kg/cap-yr and energy consumption for fuelwood collection was 41, 53, 52 and 80 x 103 kg/cap-yr, respectively, above 2000, for 1500-2000, 1000-1500, and 500-1000 m. Commercial fuel consumption constituted 0.6-4.5%. (author)

  19. Treeline dynamics with climate change at the central Nepal Himalaya

    Gaire, N. P.; Koirala, M.; D. R. Bhuju; H. P. Borgaonkar

    2014-01-01

    Treeline shifting in tandem with climate change has widely been reported from various parts of the world. In Nepal, several impacts of climate change on the physical environment have been observed, but study on the biological impacts is lacking. This dendrochronological study was carried out at the treeline in the high mountain slope of Kalchuman Lake (37504003 m a.s.l.) area of Manaslu Conservation Area in the central Nepal Himalaya to explore the impact of climate change ...

  20. Climate Change and Rural Out-migration in Himalaya

    Tiwari Prakash C.; Joshi Bhagwati

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines linkages between climate change and rural out-migration in Himalaya. Subsistence agriculture constitutes the main source of food and rural livelihoods in the region although the availability of arable land is severely limited and crop productivity is low. The constraints of the subsistence economy compel a large proportion of the adult male population to outmigrate from the mountain region in search of livelihoods and employment. Changing climatic c...

  1. Electrical resistivity imaging of seismically active frontal Himalaya

    Complete text of publication follows. Given the sensitivity of resistivity to rheology, magnetotelluric measurement are undertaken to study deep crustal electrical structures and their possible linkage to the space-depth distribution of seismicity. Magnetotelluric investigations at Thirty three sites along Bijnaur-Mallari profile cutting across major litho tectonic units of Himalaya starting from Indo Ganges plain, Siwalik, Lesser, Higher Himalaya to Tethys Himalaya. Observing the low solar activity during the survey period each site was occupied for five days. Longer occupancy allowed estimation of impedance tensor at periods greater than 500 sec at most of the stations. However at few stations electric field recordings were very noisy perhaps due to unbalanced power network of the region. This is reflected in larger error bars in estimated impedance tensors. Skewness and other dimensionality parameter indicate the validity of 2-D regional model. Robust impedance decomposition for the period band of 10 Hz- 1000 sec of eleven stations reveal that EM strike coincides with the geologic fabric. Considering regional strike EM field were decoupled in TE, TM mode and then inverted for frequency dependent conductivity distribution along the profile. The most conspicuous feature of the inverted resistivity section is the low resistivity zone at a shallow depth of 10 km beneath the Indo-Gangetic Plains that dips down at a low-angle and extends as a continuous plane right up to the northern limit of the profile. The geometry of this layer is correlated with the basement thrust separating the top of the under thrusting Indian Plate from the over-riding sedimentary wedge of lesser Himalaya. The paper will discuss the tectonic and rheological significance of the results of resistivity imaging using magnetotelluric method along the profile from Bijnaur to Mallari.

  2. Inoculum selection influences the biochemical methane potential of agro-industrial substrates.

    De Vrieze, Jo; Raport, Linde; Willems, Bernard; Verbrugge, Silke; Volcke, Eveline; Meers, Erik; Angenent, Largus T; Boon, Nico

    2015-09-01

    Obtaining a reliable estimation of the methane potential of organic waste streams in anaerobic digestion, for which a biochemical methane potential (BMP) test is often used, is of high importance. Standardization of this BMP test is required to ensure inter-laboratory repeatability and accuracy of the BMP results. Therefore, guidelines were set out; yet, these do not provide sufficient information concerning origin of and the microbial community in the test inoculum. Here, the specific contribution of the methanogenic community on the BMP test results was evaluated. The biomethane potential of four different substrates (molasses, bio-refinery waste, liquid manure and high-rate activated sludge) was determined by means of four different inocula from full-scale anaerobic digestion plants. A significant effect of the selected inoculum on the BMP result was observed for two out of four substrates. This inoculum effect could be attributed to the abundance of methanogens and a potential inhibiting effect in the inoculum itself, demonstrating the importance of inoculum selection for BMP testing. We recommend the application of granular sludge as an inoculum, because of its higher methanogenic abundance and activity, and protection from bulk solutions, compared with other inocula. PMID:25756301

  3. Mass movement in the Himalaya: new insights and research directions

    Shroder, John F.; Bishop, Michael P.

    1998-12-01

    Ongoing studies that relate tectonics to the processes at the surface of Earth show that many more sources of information about agents of shallow denudation, such as mass movement, are required to comprehend the long term erosion that leads to deep denudation over geologic time. Mass movement in the Himalaya is scale-dependent, from the massive extension of whole mountain ranges (gravity tectonics), through the sackung failure of single peaks, to the smallest slope failures. Generally, denudation of the Himalayan orogen begins with slope failure onto glaciers and into river valleys and continues by glacial and fluvial transport. The maximum size of stable slopes and mean angles of slope that are produced by these failures are complex and controlled by a variety of factors, including mass strength of the rocks, stress fields, angles of internal friction controlled by rock type, cohesion that includes the control of rock temperature, bulk unit weight of rock, and discontinuities. The processes of mass movement in the Himalaya have been described many times for the past two centuries. Recently, developments in a variety of fields have been introduced to assess the character of mass movement. Geomorphometry, remote sensing, digital elevation models, and geographic information system technology are revolutionizing the study of mass movement in the Himalaya.

  4. Radon as an earthquake precursor in NW Himalayas, India

    Kumar, Arvind; Singh, Surinder; Singh Bajwa, Bikramjit; Mahajan, Sandeep; Dhar, Sunil; Walia, Vivek

    2010-05-01

    The continuous soil gas radon and daily monitoring of radon concentration in water is carried out at Amritsar (Punjab), Kangra and Chamba Valleys of NW Himalayas India to study the correlation of radon anomalies in relation to seismic activities in the region. In this study, radon monitoring in soil was carried out by using barasol probe manufactured by Algade France whereas the radon content in water was recorded using RAD7 radon monitoring system of Durridge Company USA. The radon anomalies observed in the region have been correlated with the seismic events of M ? 2 recorded in NW Himalayas by Wadia Institute of Himalayas Geology Dehradoon and Indian Meteorological Department, New Delhi. The effect of meteorological parameters viz. temperature, pressure, wind velocity and rainfall on radon emission has been studied. The correlation coefficient between radon and meteorological parameters has been evaluated. The equation for the correction of these correlations to obtain a corrected radon concentration that shows less variability is derived. Empirical equations between earthquake magnitude, epicentral distance and precursor time have been examined and respective constants were determined

  5. Projected hydrologic changes in monsoon-dominated Himalaya Mountain basins with changing climate and deforestation

    Neupane, Ram P.; White, Joseph D.; Alexander, Sara E.

    2015-06-01

    In mountain headwaters, climate and land use changes affect short and long term site water budgets with resultant impacts on landslide risk, hydropower generation, and sustainable agriculture. To project hydrologic change associated with climate and land use changes in the Himalaya Mountains, we used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) calibrated for the Tamor and Seti River basins located at eastern and western margins of Nepal. Future climate change was modeled using averaged temperature and precipitation for 2080 derived from Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) (B1, A1B and A2) of 16 global circulation models (GCMs). Land use change was modeled spatially and included expansion of (1) agricultural land, (2) grassland, and (3) human settlement area that were produced by considering existing land use with projected changes associated with viability of elevation and slope characteristics of the basins capable of supporting different land use type. From these simulations, higher annual stream discharge was found for all GCM-derived scenarios compared to a baseline simulation with maximum increases of 13 and 8% in SRES-A2 and SRES-A1B for the Tamor and Seti basins, respectively. On seasonal basis, we assessed higher precipitation during monsoon season in all scenarios that corresponded with higher stream discharge of 72 and 68% for Tamor and Seti basins, respectively. This effect appears to be geographically important with higher influence in the eastern Tamor basin potentially due to longer and stronger monsoonal period of that region. However, we projected minimal changes in stream discharge for the land use scenarios potentially due to higher water transmission to groundwater reservoirs associated with fractures of the Himalaya Mountains rather than changes in surface runoff. However, when combined the effects of climate and land use changes, discharge was moderately increased indicating counteracting mechanisms of hydrologic yield in these mountains. Better understanding of potential hydrologic response to climate and land use changes in these basins might be crucial for national and transnational water management.

  6. Satellite Remote Sensing of Snow/Ice Albedo over the Himalayas

    Hsu, N. Christina; Gautam, Ritesh

    2012-01-01

    The Himalayan glaciers and snowpacks play an important role in the hydrological cycle over Asia. The seasonal snow melt from the Himalayan glaciers and snowpacks is one of the key elements to the livelihood of the downstream densely populated regions of South Asia. During the pre-monsoon season (April-May-June), South Asia not only experiences the reversal of the regional meridional tropospheric temperature gradient (i.e., the onset of the summer monsoon), but also is being bombarded by dry westerly airmass that transports mineral dust from various Southwest Asian desert and arid regions into the Indo-Gangetic Plains in northern India. Mixed with heavy anthropogenic pollution, mineral dust constitutes the bulk of regional aerosol loading and forms an extensive and vertically extended brown haze lapping against the southern slopes of the Himalayas. Episodic dust plumes are advected over the Himalayas, and are discernible in satellite imagery, resulting in dust-capped snow surface. Motivated by the potential implications of accelerated snowmelt, we examine the changes in radiative energetics induced by aerosol transport over the Himalayan snow cover by utilizing space borne observations. Our objective lies in the investigation of potential impacts of aerosol solar absorption on the Top-of-Atmosphere (TOA) spectral reflectivity and the broadband albedo, and hence the accelerated snowmelt, particularly in the western Himalayas. Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity (LER) in the visible and near-infrared wavelengths, derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer radiances, is used to generate statistics for determining perturbation caused due to dust layer over snow surface in over ten years of continuous observations. Case studies indicate significant reduction of LER ranging from 5 to 8% in the 412-860nm spectra. Broadband flux observations, from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System, are also used to investigate changes in shortwave TOA flux over dust-laden and dust-free snow covered regions. Additionally, spatio-temporal and intra-seasonal variations of LER, along with snow cover information, are used to characterize the seasonal melt pattern and thus to distinguish the outstanding aerosol-induced snowmelt signal. Results from this observational work are expected to provide better understanding of the radiative impact of aerosols over snow surface, especially its role in the Himalayan hydro-glacialogical variability.

  7. Mining for diagnostic information in body surface potential maps: A comparison of feature selection techniques

    McCullagh Paul J

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In body surface potential mapping, increased spatial sampling is used to allow more accurate detection of a cardiac abnormality. Although diagnostically superior to more conventional electrocardiographic techniques, the perceived complexity of the Body Surface Potential Map (BSPM acquisition process has prohibited its acceptance in clinical practice. For this reason there is an interest in striking a compromise between the minimum number of electrocardiographic recording sites required to sample the maximum electrocardiographic information. Methods In the current study, several techniques widely used in the domains of data mining and knowledge discovery have been employed to mine for diagnostic information in 192 lead BSPMs. In particular, the Single Variable Classifier (SVC based filter and Sequential Forward Selection (SFS based wrapper approaches to feature selection have been implemented and evaluated. Using a set of recordings from 116 subjects, the diagnostic ability of subsets of 3, 6, 9, 12, 24 and 32 electrocardiographic recording sites have been evaluated based on their ability to correctly asses the presence or absence of Myocardial Infarction (MI. Results It was observed that the wrapper approach, using sequential forward selection and a 5 nearest neighbour classifier, was capable of choosing a set of 24 recording sites that could correctly classify 82.8% of BSPMs. Although the filter method performed slightly less favourably, the performance was comparable with a classification accuracy of 79.3%. In addition, experiments were conducted to show how (a features chosen using the wrapper approach were specific to the classifier used in the selection model, and (b lead subsets chosen were not necessarily unique. Conclusion It was concluded that both the filter and wrapper approaches adopted were suitable for guiding the choice of recording sites useful for determining the presence of MI. It should be noted however that in this study recording sites have been suggested on their ability to detect disease and such sites may not be optimal for estimating body surface potential distributions.

  8. Forest Ecosystem Dynamics Assessment and Predictive Modelling in Eastern Himalaya

    Kushwaha, S. P. S.; Nandy, S.; Ahmad, M.; Agarwal, R.

    2011-09-01

    This study focused on the forest ecosystem dynamics assessment and predictive modelling deforestation and forest cover prediction in a part of north-eastern India i.e. forest areas along West Bengal, Bhutan, Arunachal Pradesh and Assam border in Eastern Himalaya using temporal satellite imagery of 1975, 1990 and 2009 and predicted forest cover for the period 2028 using Cellular Automata Markov Modedel (CAMM). The exercise highlighted large-scale deforestation in the study area during 1975-1990 as well as 1990-2009 forest cover vectors. A net loss of 2,334.28 km2 forest cover was noticed between 1975 and 2009, and with current rate of deforestation, a forest area of 4,563.34 km2 will be lost by 2028. The annual rate of deforestation worked out to be 0.35 and 0.78% during 1975-1990 and 1990-2009 respectively. Bamboo forest increased by 24.98% between 1975 and 2009 due to opening up of the forests. Forests in Kokrajhar, Barpeta, Darrang, Sonitpur, and Dhemaji districts in Assam were noticed to be worst-affected while Lower Subansiri, West and East Siang, Dibang Valley, Lohit and Changlang in Arunachal Pradesh were severely affected. Among different forest types, the maximum loss was seen in case of sal forest (37.97%) between 1975 and 2009 and is expected to deplete further to 60.39% by 2028. The tropical moist deciduous forest was the next category, which decreased from 5,208.11 km2 to 3,447.28 (33.81%) during same period with further chances of depletion to 2,288.81 km2 (56.05%) by 2028. It noted progressive loss of forests in the study area between 1975 and 2009 through 1990 and predicted that, unless checked, the area is in for further depletion of the invaluable climax forests in the region, especially sal and moist deciduous forests. The exercise demonstrated high potential of remote sensing and geographic information system for forest ecosystem dynamics assessment and the efficacy of CAMM to predict the forest cover change.

  9. FOREST ECOSYSTEM DYNAMICS ASSESSMENT AND PREDICTIVE MODELLING IN EASTERN HIMALAYA

    S. P. S. Kushwaha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the forest ecosystem dynamics assessment and predictive modelling deforestation and forest cover prediction in a part of north-eastern India i.e. forest areas along West Bengal, Bhutan, Arunachal Pradesh and Assam border in Eastern Himalaya using temporal satellite imagery of 1975, 1990 and 2009 and predicted forest cover for the period 2028 using Cellular Automata Markov Modedel (CAMM. The exercise highlighted large-scale deforestation in the study area during 19751990 as well as 19902009 forest cover vectors. A net loss of 2,334.28 km2 forest cover was noticed between 1975 and 2009, and with current rate of deforestation, a forest area of 4,563.34 km2 will be lost by 2028. The annual rate of deforestation worked out to be 0.35 and 0.78% during 19751990 and 19902009 respectively. Bamboo forest increased by 24.98% between 1975 and 2009 due to opening up of the forests. Forests in Kokrajhar, Barpeta, Darrang, Sonitpur, and Dhemaji districts in Assam were noticed to be worst-affected while Lower Subansiri, West and East Siang, Dibang Valley, Lohit and Changlang in Arunachal Pradesh were severely affected. Among different forest types, the maximum loss was seen in case of sal forest (37.97% between 1975 and 2009 and is expected to deplete further to 60.39% by 2028. The tropical moist deciduous forest was the next category, which decreased from 5,208.11 km2 to 3,447.28 (33.81% during same period with further chances of depletion to 2,288.81 km2 (56.05% by 2028. It noted progressive loss of forests in the study area between 1975 and 2009 through 1990 and predicted that, unless checked, the area is in for further depletion of the invaluable climax forests in the region, especially sal and moist deciduous forests. The exercise demonstrated high potential of remote sensing and geographic information system for forest ecosystem dynamics assessment and the efficacy of CAMM to predict the forest cover change.

  10. Geomorphological evidences of post-LGM glacial advancements in the Himalaya: A study from Chorabari Glacier, Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Manish Mehta; Zahid Majeed; D P Dobhal; Pradeep Srivastava

    2012-02-01

    Field geomorphology and remote sensing data, supported by Optical Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating from the Mandakini river valley of the Garhwal Himalaya enabled identification of four major glacial events; Rambara Glacial Stage (RGS) (13 ± 2 ka), Ghindurpani Glacial Stage (GhGS) (9 ± 1 ka), Garuriya Glacial Stage (GGS) (7 ± 1 ka) and Kedarnath Glacial Stage (KGS) (5 ± 1 ka). RGS was the most extensive glaciation extending for ∼6 km down the valley from the present day snout and lowered to an altitude of 2800 m asl at Rambara covering around ∼31 km2 area of the Mandakini river valley. Compared to this, the other three glaciations (viz., GhGS, GGS and KGS) were of lower magnitudes terminating around ∼3000, ∼3300 and ∼3500 m asl, respectively. It was also observed that the mean equilibrium line altitude (ELA) during RGS was lowered to 4747 m asl compared to the present level of 5120 m asl. This implies an ELA depression of ∼373 m during the RGS which would correspond to a lowering of ∼2°C summer temperature during the RGS. The results are comparable to that of the adjacent western and central Himalaya implying a common forcing factor that we attribute to the insolation-driven monsoon precipitation in the western and central Himalaya.

  11. A comparative study on the potential of oxygen release by roots of selected wetland plants

    Yao, Fang; Shen, Gen-xiang; Li, Xue-lian; Li, Huai-zheng; Hu, Hong; Ni, Wu-zhong

    The capacity of root oxygen release by selected wetland plants pre-grown under both nutrient solution and artificial wastewater conditions were determined. The results indicated that the significant differences of root oxygen release by the tested wetland plants existed, and the biochemical process was the main source of root oxygen release as oxygen released by Vetiveria zizanioides L. Nash roots through biochemical process was contributed to 77% and 74% of total root oxygen release under nutrient solution conditions and artificial wastewater conditions, respectively, and that was 72% and 71% of total root oxygen release for Cyperus alternifolius L. It was found that the formation of root plaque with iron oxide was a function of root oxygen release as iron oxide concentration in root plaque was positively correlated to the potential of oxygen released by wetland plant roots with the regression coefficients as 0.874 *( p artificial wastewater conditions, which could be regarded as an important mechanism of wetland plants being tolerant to anoxia during wastewater treatment. It was suggested that the potential of root oxygen release could be used as a parameter for selecting wetland plants that can increase oxygen supply to soil or substrate of constructed wetlands and enhance nutrient transformation and removal, and V. zizanioides L. Nash with the highest potential of root oxygen release and higher tolerance to wastewater could be recommended to establish vegetated wetlands for treating nutrient-rich wastewater such as domestic wastewater.

  12. Acoustic Noise Alters Selective Attention Processes as Indicated by Direct Current (DC Brain Potential Changes

    Karin Trimmel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic environmental noise, even of low to moderate intensity, is known to adversely affect information processing in animals and humans via attention mechanisms. In particular, facilitation and inhibition of information processing are basic functions of selective attention. Such mechanisms can be investigated by analyzing brain potentials under conditions of externally directed attention (intake of environmental information versus internally directed attention (rejection of environmental stimuli and focusing on memory/planning processes. This study investigated brain direct current (DC potential shifts—which are discussed to represent different states of cortical activation—of tasks that require intake and rejection of environmental information under noise. It was hypothesized that without background noise rejection tasks would show more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks and that under noise both kinds of tasks would show positive DC shifts as an expression of cortical inhibition caused by noise. DC potential shifts during intake and rejection tasks were analyzed at 16 standard locations in 45 persons during irrelevant speech or white noise vs. control condition. Without noise, rejection tasks were associated with more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks. During background noise, however, this difference disappeared and both kinds of tasks led to positive DC shifts. Results suggest—besides some limitations—that noise modulates selective attention mechanisms by switching to an environmental information processing and noise rejection mode, which could represent a suggested “attention shift”. Implications for fMRI studies as well as for public health in learning and performance environments including susceptible persons are discussed.

  13. Facilitating the selection and creation of accurate interatomic potentials with robust tools and characterization

    Trautt, Zachary T.; Tavazza, Francesca; Becker, Chandler A.

    2015-10-01

    The Materials Genome Initiative seeks to significantly decrease the cost and time of development and integration of new materials. Within the domain of atomistic simulations, several roadblocks stand in the way of reaching this goal. While the NIST Interatomic Potentials Repository hosts numerous interatomic potentials (force fields), researchers cannot immediately determine the best choice(s) for their use case. Researchers developing new potentials, specifically those in restricted environments, lack a comprehensive portfolio of efficient tools capable of calculating and archiving the properties of their potentials. This paper elucidates one solution to these problems, which uses Python-based scripts that are suitable for rapid property evaluation and human knowledge transfer. Calculation results are visible on the repository website, which reduces the time required to select an interatomic potential for a specific use case. Furthermore, property evaluation scripts are being integrated with modern platforms to improve discoverability and access of materials property data. To demonstrate these scripts and features, we will discuss the automation of stacking fault energy calculations and their application to additional elements. While the calculation methodology was developed previously, we are using it here as a case study in simulation automation and property calculations. We demonstrate how the use of Python scripts allows for rapid calculation in a more easily managed way where the calculations can be modified, and the results presented in user-friendly and concise ways. Additionally, the methods can be incorporated into other efforts, such as openKIM.

  14. Dynamics in the quantum/classical limit based on selective use of the quantum potential

    A classical limit of quantum dynamics can be defined by compensation of the quantum potential in the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The quantum potential is a non-local quantity, defined in the trajectory-based form of the Schrödinger equation, due to Madelung, de Broglie, and Bohm, which formally generates the quantum-mechanical features in dynamics. Selective inclusion of the quantum potential for the degrees of freedom deemed “quantum,” defines a hybrid quantum/classical dynamics, appropriate for molecular systems comprised of light and heavy nuclei. The wavefunction is associated with all of the nuclei, and the Ehrenfest, or mean-field, averaging of the force acting on the classical degrees of freedom, typical of the mixed quantum/classical methods, is avoided. The hybrid approach is used to examine evolution of light/heavy systems in the harmonic and double-well potentials, using conventional grid-based and approximate quantum-trajectory time propagation. The approximate quantum force is defined on spatial domains, which removes unphysical coupling of the wavefunction fragments corresponding to distinct classical channels or configurations. The quantum potential, associated with the quantum particle, generates forces acting on both quantum and classical particles to describe the backreaction

  15. Second generation bioethanol potential from selected Malaysia's biodiversity biomasses: A review.

    Aditiya, H B; Chong, W T; Mahlia, T M I; Sebayang, A H; Berawi, M A; Nur, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Rising global temperature, worsening air quality and drastic declining of fossil fuel reserve are the inevitable phenomena from the disorganized energy management. Bioethanol is believed to clear out the effects as being an energy-derivable product sourced from renewable organic sources. Second generation bioethanol interests many researches from its unique source of inedible biomass, and this paper presents the potential of several selected biomasses from Malaysia case. As one of countries with rich biodiversity, Malaysia holds enormous potential in second generation bioethanol production from its various agricultural and forestry biomasses, which are the source of lignocellulosic and starch compounds. This paper reviews potentials of biomasses and potential ethanol yield from oil palm, paddy (rice), pineapple, banana and durian, as the common agricultural waste in the country but uncommon to be served as bioethanol feedstock, by calculating the theoretical conversion of cellulose, hemicellulose and starch components of the biomasses into bioethanol. Moreover, the potential of the biomasses as feedstock are discussed based on several reported works. PMID:26253329

  16. Dynamics in the quantum/classical limit based on selective use of the quantum potential

    Garashchuk, Sophya, E-mail: garashchuk@sc.edu; Dell’Angelo, David; Rassolov, Vitaly A. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208 (United States)

    2014-12-21

    A classical limit of quantum dynamics can be defined by compensation of the quantum potential in the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The quantum potential is a non-local quantity, defined in the trajectory-based form of the Schrödinger equation, due to Madelung, de Broglie, and Bohm, which formally generates the quantum-mechanical features in dynamics. Selective inclusion of the quantum potential for the degrees of freedom deemed “quantum,” defines a hybrid quantum/classical dynamics, appropriate for molecular systems comprised of light and heavy nuclei. The wavefunction is associated with all of the nuclei, and the Ehrenfest, or mean-field, averaging of the force acting on the classical degrees of freedom, typical of the mixed quantum/classical methods, is avoided. The hybrid approach is used to examine evolution of light/heavy systems in the harmonic and double-well potentials, using conventional grid-based and approximate quantum-trajectory time propagation. The approximate quantum force is defined on spatial domains, which removes unphysical coupling of the wavefunction fragments corresponding to distinct classical channels or configurations. The quantum potential, associated with the quantum particle, generates forces acting on both quantum and classical particles to describe the backreaction.

  17. Antimalarial activity of potential inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase enzyme selected by docking studies.

    Penna-Coutinho, Julia; Cortopassi, Wilian Augusto; Oliveira, Aline Alves; Frana, Tanos Celmar Costa; Krettli, Antoniana Ursine

    2011-01-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase enzyme (PfLDH) has been considered as a potential molecular target for antimalarials due to this parasite's dependence on glycolysis for energy production. Because the LDH enzymes found in P. vivax, P. malariae and P. ovale (pLDH) all exhibit ?90% identity to PfLDH, it would be desirable to have new anti-pLDH drugs, particularly ones that are effective against P. falciparum, the most virulent species of human malaria. Our present work used docking studies to select potential inhibitors of pLDH, which were then tested for antimalarial activity against P. falciparum in vitro and P. berghei malaria in mice. A virtual screening in DrugBank for analogs of NADH (an essential cofactor to pLDH) and computational studies were undertaken, and the potential binding of the selected compounds to the PfLDH active site was analyzed using Molegro Virtual Docker software. Fifty compounds were selected based on their similarity to NADH. The compounds with the best binding energies (itraconazole, atorvastatin and posaconazole) were tested against P. falciparum chloroquine-resistant blood parasites. All three compounds proved to be active in two immunoenzymatic assays performed in parallel using monoclonals specific to PfLDH or a histidine rich protein (HRP2). The IC(50) values for each drug in both tests were similar, were lowest for posaconazole (<5 M) and were 40- and 100-fold less active than chloroquine. The compounds reduced P. berghei parasitemia in treated mice, in comparison to untreated controls; itraconazole was the least active compound. The results of these activity trials confirmed that molecular docking studies are an important strategy for discovering new antimalarial drugs. This approach is more practical and less expensive than discovering novel compounds that require studies on human toxicology, since these compounds are already commercially available and thus approved for human use. PMID:21779323

  18. Evaluation of mitochondrial membrane potential using a computerized device with a tetraphenylphosphonium-selective electrode

    Labajová, A.; Vojtíšková, Alena; Křiváková, P.; Kofránek, J.; Drahota, Zdeněk; Houštěk, Josef

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 353, č. 1 (2006), s. 37-42. ISSN 0003-2697 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD303/03/H065; GA ČR(CZ) GA303/06/1261 Grant ostatní: GA UK(CZ) 126/04/C; IGA MŠk(CZ) RP 394 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : membrane potential * TPP -selective electrode Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.948, year: 2006

  19. A General Definition of the Heritable Variation That Determines the Potential of a Population to Respond to Selection

    2011-01-01

    Genetic selection is a major force shaping life on earth. In classical genetic theory, response to selection is the product of the strength of selection and the additive genetic variance in a trait. The additive genetic variance reflects a population’s intrinsic potential to respond to selection. The ordinary additive genetic variance, however, ignores the social organization of life. With social interactions among individuals, individual trait values may depend on genes in others, a phenomen...

  20. Environmental Asthma Reduction Potential Estimates for Selected Mitigation Actions in Finland Using a Life Table Approach

    Isabell Katharina Rumrich

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To quantify the reduction potential of asthma in Finland achievable by adjusting exposures to selected environmental factors. Methods: A life table model for the Finnish population for 1986–2040 was developed and Years Lived with Disability caused by asthma and attributable to the following selected exposures were estimated: tobacco smoke (smoking and second hand tobacco smoke, ambient fine particles, indoor dampness and mould, and pets. Results: At baseline (2011 about 25% of the total asthma burden was attributable to the selected exposures. Banning tobacco was the most efficient mitigation action, leading to 6% reduction of the asthma burden. A 50% reduction in exposure to dampness and mould as well as a doubling in exposure to pets lead each to a 2% reduction. Ban of urban small scale wood combustion, chosen as a mitigation action to reduce exposure to fine particles, leads to a reduction of less than 1% of the total asthma burden. Combination of the most efficient mitigation actions reduces the total asthma burden by 10%. A more feasible combination of mitigation actions leads to 6% reduction of the asthma burden. Conclusions: The adjustment of environmental exposures can reduce the asthma burden in Finland by up to 10%.

  1. Phenotypic variation and water selection potential in the stem structure of invasive alligator weed

    Du, Leshan; Yang, Beifen; Guan, Wenbin; Li, Junmin

    2016-02-01

    The morphological and anatomical characteristics of stems have been found to be related to drought resistance in plants. Testing the phenotypic selection of water availability on stem anatomical traits would be useful for exploring the evolutionary potential of the stem in response to water availability. To test the phenotypic variation of the stem anatomical traits of an invasive plant in response to water availability, we collected a total of 320 individuals of Alternanthera philoxeroides from 16 populations from terrestrial and aquatic habitats in 8 plots in China and then analyzed the variation, differentiation, plasticity and selection potential of water availability on the stem anatomical traits. We found that except for the thickness of the cortex, all of the examined phenotypic parameters of the A. philoxeroides stem were significantly and positively correlated with soil water availability. The phenotypic differentiation coefficient for all of the anatomical structural parameters indicated that most of the variation existed between habitats within the same plot, whereas there was little variation among plots or among individuals within the same habitat except for variation in the thickness of the cortex. A significant phenotypic plasticity response to water availability was found for all of the anatomical traits of A. philoxeroides stem except for the thickness of the cortex. The associations between fitness and some of the anatomical traits, such as the stem diameter, the cortex area-to-stem area ratio, the pith cavity area-to-stem area ratio and the density of vascular bundles, differed with heterogeneous water availability. In both the aquatic and terrestrial habitats, no significant directional selection gradient was found for the stem diameter, the cortex area-to-stem area ratio or the density of vascular bundles. These results indicated that the anatomical structure of the A. philoxeroides stem may play an important role in the adaptation to changes in water availability.

  2. Framing hydropower as green energy: assessing drivers, risks and tensions in the Eastern Himalayas

    Ahlers, R.; Budds, J.; Joshi, D.; Merme, V.; Zwarteveen, M.

    2015-04-01

    The culturally and ecologically diverse region of the Eastern Himalayas is the target of ambitious hydropower development plans. Policy discourses at national and international levels position this development as synergistically positive: it combines the production of clean energy to fuel economic growth at regional and national levels with initiatives to lift poor mountain communities out of poverty. Different from hydropower development in the 20th century in which development agencies and banks were important players, contemporary initiatives importantly rely on the involvement of private actors, with a prominent role of the private finance sector. This implies that hydropower development is not only financially viable but also understood as highly profitable. This paper examines the new development of hydropower in the Eastern Himalayas of Nepal and India. It questions its framing as green energy, interrogates its links with climate change, and examines its potential for investment and capital accumulation. To do this, we also review the evidence on the extent to which its construction and operation may modify existing hydrogeological processes and ecosystems, as well as its impacts on the livelihoods of diverse groups of people that depend on these. The paper concludes that hydropower development in the region is characterized by inherent contentions and uncertainties, refuting the idea that dams constitute development projects whose impacts can be simply predicted, controlled and mitigated. Indeed, in a highly complex geological, ecological, cultural and political context that is widely regarded to be especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change, hydropower as a development strategy makes for a toxic cocktail.

  3. Decoupling of long-term exhumation and short-term erosion rates in the Sikkim Himalaya

    Abrahami, Rachel; van der Beek, Peter; Huyghe, Pascale; Hardwick, Elisabeth; Carcaillet, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the relative strengths of tectonic and climatic forcing on erosion at different spatial and temporal scales is important to understand the evolution of orogenic topography. To address this question, we quantified exhumation rates at geological timescales and erosion rates at millennial timescales in modern river sands from 10 sub-catchments of the Tista River drainage basin in the Sikkim Himalaya (northeast India) using detrital apatite fission-track thermochronology and cosmogenic 10Be analyses, respectively. We compare these rates to several potential geomorphic or climatic forcing parameters. Our results show that millennial erosion rates are generally higher and spatially more variable than long-term exhumation rates in Sikkim. They also show strongly contrasting spatial patterns, suggesting that the processes controlling these rates are decoupled. At geological timescales, exhumation rates decrease from south to north, with rates up to 1.2 ± 0.6 mm/yr recorded in southwest Sikkim and as low as 0.5 ± 0.2 mm/yr in the northernmost catchment. Long-term exhumation rates do not correlate with any geomorphic or climatic parameter. We suggest they are tectonically controlled: high rates in southwest Sikkim may be linked to the building of the Lesser Himalaya Rangit Duplex, whereas low rates in north Sikkim are consistent with cessation of extensional exhumation along the South Tibetan Detachment after 13 Ma. The highest apparent erosion rates recorded by cosmogenic nuclides (˜5 mm/yr) occur in catchments spanning the Main Central Thrust Zone, but these appear to be strongly influenced by recent landsliding. High millennial erosion rates (1-2 mm/yr) also occur in north Sikkim and may be climatically driven through strong glacial inheritance of the landscape, as attested by high channel-steepness values close to the maximum extent of glaciers during the Last Glacial Maximum. In contrast, variations in rainfall rate do not seem to strongly influence either millennial erosion or long-term exhumation rates in Sikkim.

  4. Genetic parameters for predicted methane production and potential for reducing enteric emissions through genomic selection.

    Haas, Y de; Windig, J J; Calus, M P L; Dijkstra, J; Haan, M de; Bannink, A; Veerkamp, R F

    2011-12-01

    Mitigation of enteric methane (CH₄) emission in ruminants has become an important area of research because accumulation of CH₄ is linked to global warming. Nutritional and microbial opportunities to reduce CH₄ emissions have been extensively researched, but little is known about using natural variation to breed animals with lower CH₄ yield. Measuring CH₄ emission rates directly from animals is difficult and hinders direct selection on reduced CH₄ emission. However, improvements can be made through selection on associated traits (e.g., residual feed intake, RFI) or through selection on CH₄ predicted from feed intake and diet composition. The objective was to establish phenotypic and genetic variation in predicted CH₄ output, and to determine the potential of genetics to reduce methane emissions in dairy cattle. Experimental data were used and records on daily feed intake, weekly body weights, and weekly milk production were available from 548 heifers. Residual feed intake (MJ/d) is the difference between net energy intake and calculated net energy requirements for maintenance as a function of body weight and for fat- and protein-corrected milk production. Predicted methane emission (PME; g/d) is 6% of gross energy intake (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change methodology) corrected for energy content of methane (55.65 kJ/g). The estimated heritabilities for PME and RFI were 0.35 and 0.40, respectively. The positive genetic correlation between RFI and PME indicated that cows with lower RFI have lower PME (estimates ranging from 0.18 to 0.84). Hence, it is possible to decrease the methane production of a cow by selecting more-efficient cows, and the genetic variation suggests that reductions in the order of 11 to 26% in 10 yr are theoretically possible, and could be even higher in a genomic selection program. However, several uncertainties are discussed; for example, the lack of true methane measurements (and the key assumption that methane produced per unit feed is not affected by RFI level), as well as the limitations of predicting the biological consequences of selection. To overcome these limitations, an international effort is required to bring together data on feed intake and methane emissions of dairy cows. PMID:22118100

  5. Clockwise rotation of the Brahmaputra Valley relative to India: Tectonic convergence in the eastern Himalaya, Naga Hills, and Shillong Plateau

    Vernant, P.; Bilham, R.; Szeliga, W.; Drupka, D.; Kalita, S.; Bhattacharyya, A. K.; Gaur, V. K.; Pelgay, P.; Cattin, R.; Berthet, T.

    2014-08-01

    GPS data reveal that the Brahmaputra Valley has broken from the Indian Plate and rotates clockwise relative to India about a point a few hundred kilometers west of the Shillong Plateau. The GPS velocity vectors define two distinct blocks separated by the Kopili fault upon which 2-3 mm/yr of dextral slip is observed: the Shillong block between longitudes 89 and 93°E rotating clockwise at 1.15°/Myr and the Assam block from 93.5°E to 97°E rotating at ≈1.13°/Myr. These two blocks are more than 120 km wide in a north-south sense, but they extend locally a similar distance beneath the Himalaya and Tibet. A result of these rotations is that convergence across the Himalaya east of Sikkim decreases in velocity eastward from 18 to ≈12 mm/yr and convergence between the Shillong Plateau and Bangladesh across the Dauki fault increases from 3 mm/yr in the west to >8 mm/yr in the east. This fast convergence rate is inconsistent with inferred geological uplift rates on the plateau (if a 45°N dip is assumed for the Dauki fault) unless clockwise rotation of the Shillong block has increased substantially in the past 4-8 Myr. Such acceleration is consistent with the reported recent slowing in the convergence rate across the Bhutan Himalaya. The current slip potential near Bhutan, based on present-day convergence rates and assuming no great earthquake since 1713 A.D., is now ~5.4 m, similar to the slip reported from alluvial terraces that offsets across the Main Himalayan Thrust and sufficient to sustain a Mw ≥ 8.0 earthquake in this area.

  6. Interannual Variability of Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) over Western Himalayas

    Tiwari, Sarita; Kar, Sarat C.; Bhatla, R.

    2016-04-01

    Considering the importance of snow and glaciers in the Himalayas for understanding the water cycle and for water resource management of the rivers originating from the Himalayan, interannual variability of snow accumulation process over Himalayas and surrounding region has been studied using snow water equivalent (SWE) data. Remote sensing data from National Snow and Ice Data Centre have been used. These data have been compared against ground (in situ) observations of SWE measured at several gauge stations in the Indian part of the Satluj River basin. Accumulated SWE from remote sensing data and ground observations in the Satluj River basin have good and significant correlation. These data have also been compared against the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis and the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast reanalysis-Interim (ERA-I). Upper air and surface data from the reanalyses have also been used to examine the atmospheric conditions when snowfall occurs and snow accumulates for the season. In this study, it is found that there is large interannual variation in SWE over western Himalayas and Satluj River basin (domain of interest). During excess years of snowfall, strong westerly winds are observed at 500 hPa over India. In wind anomaly, a cyclonic circulation is seen over northern parts of India with a deep trough along Pakistan, Rajasthan and Gujarat region. As a consequence of this trough, a moisture convergence zone is established in the region leading to more amount of snowfall. At the same time, during excess snow accumulation years, the air temperature from the surface to 500 hPa is colder than other years enabling the fallen snow to accumulate through the season.

  7. Interannual Variability of Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) over Western Himalayas

    Tiwari, Sarita; Kar, Sarat C.; Bhatla, R.

    2015-08-01

    Considering the importance of snow and glaciers in the Himalayas for understanding the water cycle and for water resource management of the rivers originating from the Himalayan, interannual variability of snow accumulation process over Himalayas and surrounding region has been studied using snow water equivalent (SWE) data. Remote sensing data from National Snow and Ice Data Centre have been used. These data have been compared against ground (in situ) observations of SWE measured at several gauge stations in the Indian part of the Satluj River basin. Accumulated SWE from remote sensing data and ground observations in the Satluj River basin have good and significant correlation. These data have also been compared against the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis and the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast reanalysis-Interim (ERA-I). Upper air and surface data from the reanalyses have also been used to examine the atmospheric conditions when snowfall occurs and snow accumulates for the season. In this study, it is found that there is large interannual variation in SWE over western Himalayas and Satluj River basin (domain of interest). During excess years of snowfall, strong westerly winds are observed at 500 hPa over India. In wind anomaly, a cyclonic circulation is seen over northern parts of India with a deep trough along Pakistan, Rajasthan and Gujarat region. As a consequence of this trough, a moisture convergence zone is established in the region leading to more amount of snowfall. At the same time, during excess snow accumulation years, the air temperature from the surface to 500 hPa is colder than other years enabling the fallen snow to accumulate through the season.

  8. Precipitation in the Karakoram-Himalaya: a CMIP5 view

    Palazzi, Elisa; von Hardenberg, Jost; Terzago, Silvia; Provenzale, Antonello

    2015-07-01

    This work analyzes the properties of precipitation in the Hindu-Kush Karakoram Himalaya region as simulated by thirty-two state-of-the-art global climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). We separately consider the Hindu-Kush Karakoram (HKK) in the west and the Himalaya in the east. These two regions are characterized by different precipitation climatologies, which are associated with different circulation patterns. Historical model simulations are compared with the Climate Research Unit (CRU) and Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) precipitation data in the period 1901-2005. Future precipitation is analyzed for the two representative concentration pathways (RCP) RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. We find that the multi-model ensemble mean and most individual models exhibit a wet bias with respect to CRU and GPCC observations in both regions and for all seasons. The models differ greatly in the seasonal climatology of precipitation which they reproduce in the HKK. The CMIP5 models predict wetter future conditions in the Himalaya in summer, with a gradual precipitation increase throughout the 21st century. Wetter summer future conditions are also predicted by most models in the RCP 8.5 scenario for the HKK, while on average no significant change can be detected in winter precipitation for both regions. In general, no single model (or group of models) emerges as that providing the best results for all the statistics considered, and the large spread in the behavior of individual models suggests to consider multi-model ensemble means with extreme care.

  9. Is rate of glacial retreat accelerated in Indian Himalaya? (Invited)

    Kulkarni, A. V.

    2013-12-01

    The Himalaya has one of the largest concentration of glaciers and rivers like Indus, Ganga and Bramhputra originate from this region. The snow and glacier melt is an important source of water for these rivers. However, this source of water may get affected in the near future due to changes in the cryosphere. Therefore, retreat of Himalayan glaciers are discussed extensively in scientific and public forums in India. Conventionally health of glaciers is assessed using changes in glacial length, as it is widely measured. However changes in glacial length and loss in areal extent near terminus needs to be interpreted carefully, as these changes can be influenced by numerous terrain and climatically sensitive parameters. The terrain parameters which can influence glacial retreat are slope, area altitude distribution, debris cover and orientation. In addition, climatically sensitive parameters like mass balance, glacial lakes and black carbon can also influence glacier retreat. These multiple influences can produce a complex pattern of glacial retreat. In this paper long-term glacier retreat in three river basins in the Indian Himalaya as Tista, Baspa and Parbati will be discussed. These basins are located in different climatically sensitive regions and each basin has unique dominant process of mass wasting. In addition to terrain parameters, influence of process like formation and expansion of moraine dammed lakes in Tista basin, deposition of black carbon on accumulation area in Baspa basin and debris cover in Parbati basin will also be discussed. This will provide understanding on varying influence of different mass wasting processes on glacial retreat during last five decades in the Indian Himalaya.

  10. The crustal structure of the western Himalayas and Tibet

    Gilligan, Amy; Priestley, Keith F.; Roecker, Steven W.; Levin, Vadim; Rai, S. S.

    2015-05-01

    We present new, high-resolution, shear velocity models for the western Himalayas and West Tibet from the joint inversion of P receiver functions recorded using seismic stations from four arrays in this region and fundamental mode Rayleigh wave group velocity maps from 5-70 s covering Central and Southern Asia. The Tibetan Plateau is a key locality in understanding large-scale continental dynamics. A large number of investigations has examined the structure and processes in eastern Tibet; however, western Tibet remains relatively understudied. Previous studies in this region indicate that the western part of the Tibetan Plateau is not a simple extension of the eastern part. The areas covered by these arrays include the Karakoram and Altan-Tagh faults, and major terrane boundaries in West Tibet and the Himalayas. The arrays used include broadband data collected by the West Tibet Array, a U.S.-China deployment on the western side of the Tibetan Plateau between 2007 and 2011. We use the shear wave velocity models to obtain estimates of Moho depth. The Moho is deep (68-84 km) throughout West Tibet. We do not observe significant steps within the Moho beneath West Tibet. A large step in Moho depth is observed at the Altyn-Tagh fault, where Moho depths are 20-30 km shallower to the north of the fault compared to those to the south. Beneath the Lhasa Terrane and Tethyan Himalayas, we observe a low-velocity zone in the midcrust. This feature is not interrupted by the Karakoram Fault, suggesting that the Karakoram Fault does not cut through the entire crust.

  11. Function-selective domain architecture plasticity potentials in eukaryotic genome evolution.

    Linkeviciute, Viktorija; Rackham, Owen J L; Gough, Julian; Oates, Matt E; Fang, Hai

    2015-12-01

    To help evaluate how protein function impacts on genome evolution, we introduce a new concept of 'architecture plasticity potential' - the capacity to form distinct domain architectures - both for an individual domain, or more generally for a set of domains grouped by shared function. We devise a scoring metric to measure the plasticity potential for these domain sets, and evaluate how function has changed over time for different species. Applying this metric to a phylogenetic tree of eukaryotic genomes, we find that the involvement of each function is not random but highly selective. For certain lineages there is strong bias for evolution to involve domains related to certain functions. In general eukaryotic genomes, particularly animals, expand complex functional activities such as signalling and regulation, but at the cost of reducing metabolic processes. We also observe differential evolution of transcriptional regulation and a unique evolutionary role of channel regulators; crucially this is only observable in terms of the architecture plasticity potential. Our findings provide a new layer of information to understand the significance of function in eukaryotic genome evolution. A web search tool, available at http://supfam.org/Pevo, offers a wide spectrum of options for exploring functional importance in eukaryotic genome evolution. PMID:25980317

  12. The Large-Bodied hominoids of the Himalayas

    Michael Trachtengerts

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The review of available data concerning to large-bodied hominoids detected in the Himalayas is presented. They are mainly footprints (photographs by E.Shipton and M.Ward, P.Bordet, F.Smythe, and A.Woodridge and also narration of one remote observation. It is shown that on the whole these data reveal basic features of the undefined creature, most probably humanlike primate, and allow describing it as a separate species. One of its features is unusual four-toed foot with two strong toes and two small toes. A taxonomic name for this hominoid is proposed Homo pardigitatus sp. nov. ("That has paired toes".

  13. Selective uptake of porphyrins within experimental atheromatous plaques: Potential for laser photodynamic therapy

    The authors investigated the selective uptake of various porphyrins atheromatous plaques. Grass and microscopic examination of atherosclorotic rabbit aortas under ultraviolet light 48 hours after porphyrin administration disclosed porphyrin fluorescence exclusively on the plaques. As judged from the fluorescence emission, the order of affinity of the porphyrins for plaque is as follows: photofrin II (PF II) > hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) > tetrasulfonatophenyl porphyrin (TPPS) ? hydroxyethylvinyldeuteroporphyrin (HVD), hematoporphyrin (HP). The potential application of intravascular irradiation of plaques labeled with porphyrins in the treatment of atheroma can be investigated using the animal model. Matching the irradiation light wave length to the porphyrin absorption peak allows specific effects to be directed to the plaque without damaging the normal vessel wall

  14. Growth and Yield Potential of Nine Selected Genotypes of Sweet Potato

    M. J. Islam

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth and yield potential of nine selected genotypes of sweet potato was studied. Length and weight of vines per plant, number of main stems per plant, number and weight of tubers per plant and weight, length, diameter and dry matter content of tuber varied significantly among the genotypes. The genotypes SP3 gave the highest yield 47.59 t ha -1 followed by SP4 (42.82 t ha -1, SP16 (36.15 t ha -1 and SP1 (35.89 t ha -1. Tuber yield had significant and positive correlation with length and weight of vines per plant, number and weight of tubers per plant, average weight of tuber and diameter of tuber. Considering the associations into direct and indirect effects, weight of tubers per plant followed by average weight of tuber and number of tubers per plant found to contribute to the higher yield.

  15. Potential of Radiotelescopes for Atmospheric Line Observations: I. Observation Principles and Transmission Curves for Selected Sites

    Schneider, Nicola; Baron, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Existing and planned radiotelescopes working in the millimetre (mm) and sub-millimetre wavelengths range provide the possibility to be used for atmospheric line observations. To scrutinize this potential, we outline the differences and similarities in technical equipment and observing techniques between ground-based aeronomy mm-wave radiometers and radiotelescopes. Comprehensive tables summarizing the technical characteristics of existing and future (sub)-mm radiotelescopes are given. The advantages and disadvantages using radiotelescopes for atmospheric line observations are discussed. In view of the importance of exploring the sub-mm and far-infrared wavelengths range for astronomical observations and atmospheric sciences, we present model calculations of the atmospheric transmission for selected telescope sites (DOME-C/Antarctica, ALMA/Chajnantor, JCMT and CSO on Mauna Kea/Hawaii, KOSMA/Swiss Alpes) for frequencies between 0 and 2000 GHz (0 to 150 micron) and typical atmospheric conditions using the forwar...

  16. Effect of selective attention on somatosensory evoked potentials in healthy people.

    Kozieł, H

    1985-01-01

    The effect of selective attention on various waves of the somatosensory evoked potentials was studied in healthy people in the area of specific projection (sensorimotor) and the area of non-specific projection (occipital). Significant changes of the amplitude of waves with latency exceeding 55 msec were observed when attention was concentrated on the received stimulus (I and II group of subjects). In group I the process of attention concentration was associated with a phenomenon connected with the new yet unknown experimental situation (prevalence of amplitude increase), while in group II habituation was observed (prevailing amplitude fall). Waves M125 and N200 in the sensorimotor area and N200 and N235-255 in the occipital area seemed to be associated in a peculiar way with the process of attention concentration. PMID:3837590

  17. Potential of vetiver (vetiveria zizanioides l.) grass in removing selected pahs from diesel contaminated soil

    Phytoremediation has been renowned as an encouraging technology for the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soils, little is known about how plant species behave during the process of PAH phytoremediation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) plant in PAH phytoremediation and extraction potential of Vetiveria zizanioides for selected PAHs from the diesel contaminated soil. The field soil samples were spiked with varying concentrations (0.5% and 1%) of diesel and used for pot experiment which was conducted in greenhouse. Vetiver grass was used as experimental plant. Physico-chemical analysis of soil was performed before and after the experiment. Concentration of selected PAHs i.e. phenanthrene, pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene in soil was determined using HPLC. Plant parameters such as root/shoot length and dry mass were compared after harvest. Concentrations of PAHs were also determined in plant material and in soils after harvesting. Result showed that initial concentration of phenanthrene was significantly different from final concentration in treatments in which soil was spiked with diesel. Initial and final concentration of pyrene in soil was also significantly different from each other in two treatments in which soil was spiked with 1% diesel. Pyrene concentration was significantly different in roots and shoots of plants while benzo(a)pyrene concentration in treatments in which soil was spiked with diesel was also significantly different from roots and shoots. Phenanthrene was less extracted by the plant in all the treatments and it was present in higher concentration in soil as compared to plant. Our results indicate that vetiver grass has effectively removed PAHs from soil consequently a significantly higher root and shoot uptake of PAHs was observed than control treatments. Study concludes Vetiveria zizanioides as potentially promising plant specie for the removal of PAHs from diesel contaminated soil. (author)

  18. Indirect purification method provides high yield and quality ssDNA sublibrary for potential aptamer selection.

    Zhang, Yinze; Xu, Hua; Zhou, Huayou; Wu, Fan; Su, Yuqin; Liang, Yanlian; Zhou, Dan

    2015-05-01

    The quality and yield of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) play key roles in ssDNA aptamer selection. However, current methods for generating and purifying ssDNA provides either low yield due to ssDNA loss during the gel purification process or low specificity due to tertiary structural damage of ssDNA by alkaline or exonuclease treatment in removing dsDNA and by-products. This study developed an indirect purification method that provides a high yield and quality ssDNA sublibrary. Symmetric PCR was applied to generate a sufficient template, while asymmetric PCR using an excessive nonbiotinylated forward primer and an insufficient biotinylated reverse primer combined with a biotin-strepavidin system was applied to eliminate dsDNA, hence, leading to ssDNA purification. However, no alkaline or exonuclease were involved in treating dsDNA, so as to warrant the tertiary structure of ssDNA for potential aptamer SELEX selection. Agarose gel imaging indicated that no dsDNA or by-product contamination was detected in the ssDNA sublibrary generated by the indirect purification method. Purified ssDNA concentration reached 1020±210nM, which was much greater than previous methods. In conclusion, this novel method provided a simple and fast tool for generating and purifying a high yield and quality ssDNA sublibrary. PMID:25747350

  19. Identifying potential clinical syndromes of hepatocellular carcinoma using PSO-based hierarchical feature selection algorithm.

    Ji, Zhiwei; Wang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors. Clinical symptoms attributable to HCC are usually absent, thus often miss the best therapeutic opportunities. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) plays an active role in diagnosis and treatment of HCC. In this paper, we proposed a particle swarm optimization-based hierarchical feature selection (PSOHFS) model to infer potential syndromes for diagnosis of HCC. Firstly, the hierarchical feature representation is developed by a three-layer tree. The clinical symptoms and positive score of patient are leaf nodes and root in the tree, respectively, while each syndrome feature on the middle layer is extracted from a group of symptoms. Secondly, an improved PSO-based algorithm is applied in a new reduced feature space to search an optimal syndrome subset. Based on the result of feature selection, the causal relationships of symptoms and syndromes are inferred via Bayesian networks. In our experiment, 147 symptoms were aggregated into 27 groups and 27 syndrome features were extracted. The proposed approach discovered 24 syndromes which obviously improved the diagnosis accuracy. Finally, the Bayesian approach was applied to represent the causal relationships both at symptom and syndrome levels. The results show that our computational model can facilitate the clinical diagnosis of HCC. PMID:24745007

  20. Diffusion in a logarithmic potential: scaling and selection in the approach to equilibrium

    The equation which describes a particle diffusing in a logarithmic potential arises in diverse physical problems such as momentum diffusion of atoms in optical traps, condensation processes, and denaturation of DNA molecules. A detailed study of the approach of such systems to equilibrium via a scaling analysis is carried out, revealing three surprising features: (i) the solution is given by two distinct scaling forms, corresponding to a diffusive (x∼√t) and a subdiffusive (x<<√t) length scale, respectively; (ii) the scaling exponents and scaling functions corresponding to both regimes are selected by the initial condition; and (iii) this dependence on the initial condition manifests a 'phase transition' from a regime in which the scaling solution depends on the initial condition to a regime in which it is independent of it. The selection mechanism which is found has many similarities to the marginal stability mechanism, which has been widely studied in the context of fronts propagating into unstable states. The general scaling forms are presented and their practical and theoretical applications are discussed

  1. Beyond EICA: understanding post-establishment evolution requires a broader evaluation of potential selection pressures

    Joshua Atwood

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on post-establishment evolution in nonnative plant populations has focused almost exclusively on testing the Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability (EICA hypothesis, which posits that the lack of specialized herbivores in the invaded range drives evolution in nonnative plant populations. Fifteen years of conflicting EICA test results suggest that selection pressures other than specialized herbivory are important in driving post-establishment evolution in invasive species. Alternative hypotheses, such as the Evolution of Reduced Competitive Ability (ERCA hypothesis, have been proposed but have received little attention or testing. We argue that the lack of consensus across studies that test EICA may be due in part to the lack of consistent definitions and varying experimental design parameters, and that future research in this field would benefit from new methodological considerations. We examined previous work evaluating post-establishment evolution and evaluated the range of study systems and design parameters used in testing the EICA hypothesis. Our goal was to identify where different uses of ecological terms and different study parameters have hindered consensus and to suggest a path forward to move beyond EICA in post-establishment evolution studies. We incorporated these methods into a design framework that will increase data harmony across future studies and will facilitate examinations of any potential selection pressure driving evolution in the invaded range.

  2. Effects of 20 Selected Fruits on Ethanol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts.

    Zhang, Yu-Jie; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Sha; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of alcohol is often accompanied by other foods, such as fruits and vegetables. This study is aimed to investigate the effects of 20 selected fruits on ethanol metabolism to find out their potential health benefits and harmful impacts. The effects of the fruits on ethanol metabolism were characterized by the concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood, as well as activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase in liver of mice. Furthermore, potential health benefits and harmful impacts of the fruits were evaluated by biochemical parameters including aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase. Generally, effects of these fruits on ethanol metabolism were very different. Some fruits (such as Citrus limon (yellow), Averrhoa carambola, Pyrus spp., and Syzygium samarangense) could decrease the concentration of ethanol in blood. In addition, several fruits (such as Cucumis melo) showed hepatoprotective effects by significantly decreasing AST or ALT level in blood, while some fruits (such as Averrhoa carambola) showed adverse effects. The results suggested that the consumption of alcohol should not be accompanied by some fruits, and several fruits could be developed as functional foods for the prevention and treatment of hangover and alcohol use disorder. PMID:27043608

  3. Objective selection of EEG late potentials through residual dependence estimation of independent components.

    Milanesi, M; James, C J; Martini, N; Menicucci, D; Gemignani, A; Ghelarducci, B; Landini, L

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents a novel method to objectively select electroencephalographic (EEG) cortical sources estimated by independent component analysis (ICA) in event-related potential (ERP) studies. A proximity measure based on mutual information is employed to estimate residual dependences of the components that are then hierarchically clustered based on these residual dependences. Next, the properties of each group of components are evaluated at each level of the hierarchical tree by two indices that aim to assess both cluster tightness and physiological reliability through a template matching process. These two indices are combined in three different approaches to bring to light the hierarchical structure of the cluster organizations. Our method is tested on a set of experiments with the purpose of enhancing late positive ERPs elicited by emotional picture stimuli. Results suggest that the best way to look for physiologically plausible late positive potential (LPP) sources is to explore in depth the tightness of those clusters that, taken together, best resemble the template. According to our results, after brain sources clustering, LPPs are always identified more accurately than from ensemble-averaged raw data. Since the late components of an ERP involve the same associative areas, regardless of the modality of stimulation or specific tasks administered, the proposed method can be simply adapted to other ERP studies, and extended from psychophysiological studies to pathological or sport training evaluation support. PMID:19550025

  4. Objective selection of EEG late potentials through residual dependence estimation of independent components

    This paper presents a novel method to objectively select electroencephalographic (EEG) cortical sources estimated by independent component analysis (ICA) in event-related potential (ERP) studies. A proximity measure based on mutual information is employed to estimate residual dependences of the components that are then hierarchically clustered based on these residual dependences. Next, the properties of each group of components are evaluated at each level of the hierarchical tree by two indices that aim to assess both cluster tightness and physiological reliability through a template matching process. These two indices are combined in three different approaches to bring to light the hierarchical structure of the cluster organizations. Our method is tested on a set of experiments with the purpose of enhancing late positive ERPs elicited by emotional picture stimuli. Results suggest that the best way to look for physiologically plausible late positive potential (LPP) sources is to explore in depth the tightness of those clusters that, taken together, best resemble the template. According to our results, after brain sources clustering, LPPs are always identified more accurately than from ensemble-averaged raw data. Since the late components of an ERP involve the same associative areas, regardless of the modality of stimulation or specific tasks administered, the proposed method can be simply adapted to other ERP studies, and extended from psychophysiological studies to pathological or sport training evaluation support

  5. Antimicrobial potential of immobilized Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454 against selected bacteria.

    Millette, M; Smoragiewicz, W; Lacroix, M

    2004-06-01

    Immobilization of living cells of lactic acid bacteria could be an alternative or complementary method of immobilizing organic acids and bacteriocins and inhibit undesirable bacteria in foods. This study evaluated the inhibition potential of immobilized Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454 on selected bacteria by a modified method of the agar spot test. L. lactis was immobilized in calcium alginate (1 to 2%)-whey protein concentrate (0 and 1%) beads. The antimicrobial potential of immobilized L. lactis was evaluated in microbiological media against pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Staphylococcus aureus) or Pseudomonas putida, a natural meat contaminant, and against seven gram-positive bacteria used as indicator strains. Results obtained in this study indicated that immobilized L. lactis inhibited the growth of S. aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus sakei, Kocuria varians, and Pediococcus acidilactici. Only 4 h of incubation at 35 degrees C resulted in a clear inhibition zone around the beads that increased with time. With the addition of 10 mM of a chelating agent (EDTA) to the media, results showed growth inhibition of E. coli; however, P. putida and Salmonella Typhi were unaffected by this treatment. These results indicate that immobilized lactic acid bacteria strains can be successfully used to produce nisin and inhibit bacterial growth in semisolid synthetic media. PMID:15222547

  6. In vitro selection of bacteria with potential for use as probiotics in marine shrimp culture

    Felipe do Nascimento Vieira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to isolate strains of lactic acid bacteria with probiotic potential from the digestive tract of marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei, and to carry out in vitro selection based on multiple characters. The ideotype (ideal proposed strain was defined by the highest averages for the traits maximum growth velocity, final count of viable cells, and inhibition halo against nine freshwater and marine pathogens, and by the lowest averages for the traits duplication time and resistance of strains to NaCl (1.5 and 3%, pH (6, 8, and 9, and biliary salts (5%. Mahalanobis distance (D² was estimated among the evaluated strains, and the best ones were those with the shortest distances to the ideotype. Ten bacterial strains were isolated and biochemically identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (3, L. brevis (3, Weissella confusa (2, Lactococcus lactis (1, and L. delbrueckii (1. Lactobacillus plantarum strains showed a wide spectrum of action and the largest inhibition halos against pathogens, both Gram-positive and negative, high growth rate, and tolerance to all evaluated parameters. In relation to ideotype, L. plantarum showed the lowest Mahalanobis (D² distance, followed by the strains of W. confusa, L. brevis, L. lactis, and L. delbrueckii. Among the analyzed bacterial strains, those of Lactobacillus plantarum have the greatest potential for use as a probiotic for marine shrimp.

  7. Reassessing Catastrophic Infill of the Pokhara Valley, Nepal Himalaya

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Bernhardt, Anne; Stolle, Amelie; Adhikari, Basantha; Korup, Oliver

    2014-05-01

    The Pokhara valley, home to Nepal's second largest city and a major tourist attraction (28°15'N, 83°58'E), is covered by 4-5 km3 and 50-100 m thick intramontane fan deposits that resulted from massive aggradation of the Seti Khola, a river draining the Annapurna Massif of the Greater Himalaya. Poorly sorted, gravelly fluvial facies intercalated with debris-flow and mud-flow facies known as the Pokhara Gravels attest to highly energetic transport conditions during one or several catastrophic flow events. In May 2012, a devastative flash flood/debris flow in the Seti Khola rekindled interest in the formation processes and timing of the Pokhara Gravels as they may provide constraints on the magnitudes and frequencies of similar past events. Interpretations of previous sedimentological work and radiocarbon dating (Yamanaka, 1982; Fort, 1987) culminated in the belief that the Pokhara Gravels were catastrophically emplaced only 500 to 1000 years ago, although the exact nature, timing, and triggers of the purported event(s) remain obscure. Specifically, it remains debated whether the Pokhara Gravels were deposited instantaneously, possibly within less than a year, or whether sedimentation was more protracted over perhaps decades to millennia. We present new geomorphological, sedimentological, geochemical, and radiocarbon data and re-assess a potential catastrophic infill of the Pokhara Valley during one or several high-magnitude events. Support for this scenario is given by laterally continuous long-runout (~40 km) debris-flow deposits topped by large (i.e. up to >11-m) boulders, a distinctly calcareous lithology diagnostic of a small Greater Himalayan source area tens of kilometres upstream, and by historical anecdotes of a large flood that destroyed an earlier settlement in the area. However, we show that dated outcrops of fine-grained sediments in tributaries blocked by the Pokhara Gravels yield asynchronous ages. Although our radiocarbon dates are consistent with previously reported ones, pooled ages may equally well reflect more than one depositional event. We infer that massive aggradation must have been ongoing after rivers began incising into the Pokhara Gravels. Yet, geochemical fingerprinting of stillwater sediments located several kilometers upstream in these and other tributary valleys suggests a common and strikingly dominant sediment source limited to the Seti Khola's glaciated headwaters. These findings are at odds with the sedimentology of the Pokhara Gravels that point at one or more phases of deposition, most likely by high-magnitude events, possibly even by different transport processes. In summary, our results call for a much more detailed enquiry into the timing and mode of emplacement of the Pokhara Gravels in order to avoid gross misestimates of the hazard portfolio of the Pokhara valley. References: A. Yamanaka. The Science Reports of Tohoku University, 7th Series (Geography), 32, 46-60 (1982). M. Fort. Zeitsch. f. Geom. N.F., Suppl., 63, 9-36 (1987).

  8. Soil-gas radon as seismotectonic indicator in Garhwal Himalaya.

    Ramola, R C; Prasad, Yogesh; Prasad, Ganesh; Kumar, Sushil; Choubey, V M

    2008-10-01

    Research on earthquake-related radon monitoring has received enormous attention recently. Anomalous behaviour of radon in soil and groundwater can be used as a reliable precursor for an impending earthquake. While earthquake prediction may not yet be possible, earthquake prediction research has greatly increased our understanding of earthquake source mechanisms, the structural complexities of fault zones, and the earthquake recurrence interval, expected at a given location. This paper presents some results of continuous monitoring of radon in soil-gas in Garhwal Himalaya, India. Daily soil-gas radon monitoring with seismic activity and meteorological parameters were performed in the same laboratory system, located at H.N.B. Garhwal University Campus, Tehri Garhwal, India. Radon anomalies along with meteorological parameters were found to be statistically significant for the seismic events within the magnitudes M2.0-M6.0 and epicentral distances of 16-250 km from the monitoring station. The frequent positive and negative anomalies with constant environmental perturbation indicate the opening and closing of micro cracks within the volume of dilatancy by strain energy. The spike-like and sharp peak anomalies were recorded before, during and after earthquakes occurred in the area. The variations in radon concentrations in soil-gas are found to be correlated with seismic activities in the Garhwal Himalaya. The correlation between radon level and meteorological parameters is also discussed. PMID:18502650

  9. Screening of CHP Potential at Federal Sites in Select Regions of the U.S.

    Energy Nexus Group, . .

    2002-02-25

    Combined Cooling Heat and Power (CHP) is a master term for onsite power generation technologies that sequentially produce electrical or mechanical energy and useful thermal energy. Some form of CHP has existed for more than 100 years and it is now achieving a greater level of acceptance due to an increasing need for reliable power service and energy cost management. Capturing and using the heat produced as a byproduct of generating electricity from fuel sources increases the usable energy that can be obtained from the original fuel source. CHP technologies have the potential to reduce energy consumption through increased efficiency--decreasing energy bills as well as pollution. The EPA recognizes CHP as a potent climate change mitigation measure. The U.S. Department of Energy (D.O.E.) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is assisting Federal agencies to realize their energy efficiency goals. CHP is an efficiency measure that is receiving growing attention because of its sizable potential to provide efficiency, environmental, and reliability benefits. CHP therefore benefits the host facility, the electric infrastructure, and the U.S. society as a whole. This report and study seeks to make a preliminary inquiry into near term CHP opportunities for federal facilities in selected U.S. regions. It offers to help focus the attention of policy makers and energy facility managers on good candidate facilities for CHP. First, a ranked list of high potential individual sites is identified. Then, several classes of federal facilities are identified for the multiple opportunities they offer as a class. Recommendations are then offered for appropriate next steps for the evaluation and cost effective implementation of CHP. This study was designed to ultimately rank federal facilities in terms of their potential to take advantage of CHP economic and external savings in the near term. In order to best serve the purposes of this study, projections have been expressed in terms of sizing CHP to thermal and electrical estimates. The table below is a summary of findings of CHP potential for those federal facilities that chose to participate in the screening process. The study focused on three U.S. regions: California, Texas, and New York/New England. All federal facilities in these three regions with reported building space greater than 100,000 square feet were initial targets to contact and offer CHP screening services. Ranking criteria were developed to screen sites for near term CHP potential. The potential site list was pared down for a variety of reasons including site- specific and agency wide decisions not to participate, desk audit assessments, and untraceable contact information. The results are based upon the voluntary participation of those sites we were able to contact, so they reflect a fraction of the total potential CHP opportunities at federal government facilities.

  10. An evaluation of the cytochrome P450 inhibition potential of selected pesticides in human hepatic microsomes.

    Abass, Khaled; Turpeinen, Miia; Pelkonen, Olavi

    2009-08-01

    The goal of this work was to study the ability of 18 pesticides to inhibit selective model activities for all major xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, namely CYP1A1/2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1 and 3A4. Generally organophosphorus insecticides were the most potent and extensive inhibitors, especially towards CYP1A1/2 (IC(50) values of chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion and profenofos approximately 3 micro M), CYP2B6 (IC(50) values of chlorpyrifos and fenitrothion 2.5 micro M), CYP2C8 (fenitrothion 4.3 micro M), CYP2C9 (fenitrothion and malathion 4.8 and 2.5 micro M, respectively), CYP2D6 (chlorpyrifos and phenthoate approximately 3 micro M) and CYP3A4 (chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion and phenthoate 3-4 micro M). Otherwise there were quite considerable differences in potency and extent of inhibition between different organophosphates. Pyrethroids were in general very weak or inactive. Deltamethrin and fenvalerate were potent inhibitors of CYP2D6 (IC(50) values of approximately 3 micro M) while lambda-cyhalothrin potently inhibited both CYP2D6 and CYP3A4-mediated activities (IC(50)'s about 3-4 micro M). Some pesticides caused relatively potent inhibitions sporadically (carbendazim, CYP2D6, IC(50) = 12 micro M; atrazine, CYP3A4, IC(50) = 2.8 micro M; glyphosate, CYP2C9, IC(50) = 3.7 micro M; hexaflumuron, IC(50) = 6.0 micro M). With the exceptions of alpha-cypermethrin, cypermethrin, isoproturon, carbaryl and abamectin, most pesticides inhibited relatively potently at least one CYP-selective activity, which may have relevance for potential interactions in occupational exposures and for further studies on the CYP-associated metabolism of respective pesticides. PMID:20183062

  11. Characterization of the diversity of mycosporine-like amino acids in lichens from high altitude region of Himalaya.

    Shukla, Vertika; Kumari, Rupender; Patel, Davendra K; Upreti, Dalip K

    2016-01-01

    Lichens are tolerant to a number of environmental variables including high-intensity solar radiations, which is mainly due to the presence of chemical substances in the thallus. Especially, cyanobacterial lichens synthesize a unique class of chemical substances known as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) the primary characteristic of which is strong ultraviolet (UV) absorption between 300 and 360 nm. In view of its UV-protecting potential, the applicability of mass spectral fragmentation using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric analysis for the characterization of MAAs in lichen samples was explored. MAA compounds were characterized in four cyanobacteria-containing lichen species belonging to genus Peltigera, Stereocaulon and Lobaria. Among them, Peltigera and Lobaria are true cyanobacteria containing lichens (cyanolichens) while Stereocaulon is a tripartite lichen, as it contains both green algae (in the thallus) and cyanobacteria (in the cephalodia), collected from higher altitudes of Himalaya (Tungnath-Chopta in Garhwal Himalaya, 3432 m) from an exposed locality experiencing high light intensity. Mass spectral data of distinctive fragmentation pattern revealed that all the four species have good diversity of MAA compounds, especially Lobaria retigera was found to be enriched with highest diversity of oxo and imino MAAs. Overall, different numbers of oxo and imino MAA compounds were detected in the remaining lichen species. Good diversity of imino MAAs has ecological significance which is required to be investigated further. Moreover, the impressive diversity characterized in each lichen species suggests that lichens should be thoroughly studied for their MAAs contents. PMID:26286672

  12. Selective oxidation of methionine residues in apolipoprotein A-I and its potential biological consequences

    The earliest stages of HDL oxidation are accompanied by the oxidation of specific Met residues in apolipoprotein AI and AII and the formation of Met sulfoxides (Met(O)) has been proposed to play a significant role in the reduction and hence detoxification of lipid hydroperoxides associated with HDL. Oxidation of HDL may generally decrease the anti-atherogenic properties of this lipoprotein, although both, the inhibition and the enhancement of cholesterol removal from cells has been reported for different types of oxidation. In light of these findings we have investigated the secondary structure, lipid affinity, LCAT activation and cholesterol-efflux promoting properties of native and selectively oxidized apo A-I(apo A-I+32, containing Met(O) at Metl12 and Metl48) in purified or reconstituted forms. Data obtained by circular dichroism revealed that selective oxidation of Met residues 112 and 148 does not alter alpha helicity of the protein in solution, indicating that this oxidation is not sufficient to influence significantly this type of secondary structure of apo A-I in its 'lipid-free' form. The lipid affinity of native apo A-I and apo A-I+32 was determined as the rate of clearance of DMPC multilamellar to small unilamellar vesicles. Compared with the native protein, apo A-I+32 induced a 2-3 fold faster rate of clearance, suggesting that the increased hydrophilicity due Met(O) increased the rate for protein-lipid interactions. Met residues 112 and 148 reside in the hydrophobic faces of helices 5 and 7, and both these regions have been suggested to be important for both, LCAT activation and cholesterol efflux. Kinetic experiments have revealed that the affinity for LCAT is comparable for HDL reconstituted with either apo A-I or apo A-I+32. Efflux of [3H]-cholesterol from lipid-laden human monocytederived macrophages to isolated apolipoproteins was enhanced for apo A-I+32 compared with apo A-I, consistent with the DMPC clearance data. Together these findings suggest that selective oxidation of Met residues of apo A-I may enhance rather than diminish known antiatherogenic activities of the apolipoprotein. Thus, our results are consistent with the overall hypothesis that detoxification of lipid hydroperoxides by Met residues of apo A-I is potentially antiatherogenic

  13. Cloud-Aerosol Drivers of Reflective Roof and Solar Power Potential Benefits Across Selected Indian Cities

    Millstein, D.; Fischer, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    Application of reflective roof surfaces is an adaptive strategy for sustainable warm-climate human environments that can improve human comfort for un-conditioned buildings, energy consumption for conditioned buildings, the urban heat island effect, and potentially net radiation absorbed by the earth. Here, we evaluate the (1) potential radiative benefits of installing cool roofs and (2) incoming surface radiation available for solar power generation across selected Indian cities using a combination of satellite data (MODIS and MERRA) and a radiative transfer model (RRTMG). The radiative transfer model was run multiple times at each time step and location in order to separate the effects of clouds and aerosols on top of the atmosphere outgoing shortwave radiation reflected from roofs and on bottom of the atmosphere incoming shortwave radiation available for solar power generation. Modeled downwelling shortwave radiation at the surface was first validated against measurements obtained from urban rooftops during the 9-month (June, 2011-March, 2012) a joint Indian-US Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) campaign. Results show that model bias at two Indian cities, Nainital (-4.2% average midday bias) and Pantnagar (0.5% average midday bias) was small compared to the radiative benefit obtained from a typical increase in surface reflectance (e.g., 0.3-0.6). Although both cities are located in the northern state of Uttarakhand, differences in terrain type, pollution burdens and cloudiness allow for validation of the model across a wide range of conditions. For example, Nainital is located in complex terrain at an altitude of ~2,000 meters near the Himalayan Mountains while Pantnagar is located in a flat plain at an altitude of ~300 meters. Pantnagar had a larger aerosol burden than Nainital as the average aerosol optical depth at Pantnagar (0.47) was larger than Nainital (0.33). Nainital was cloudier, with clouds observed on 62% of the days during the validation period while clouds were observed in Pantnagar on only 47% of the days. We then extend the model analysis to major Indian cities including New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, and Bangalore. Preliminary results indicate that total (anthropogenic and natural) aerosols reduce the additional top of the atmosphere outgoing radiation from the installation of reflective roofs by an average of 45-110 W m-2 at midday, with the high end of the range set at New Dehli and the low end of the range set at Nainital. Similarly, aerosols reduce total incoming surface radiation by 61-150 W m-2, hence reducing potential solar power generation by up to 25% at some locations depending on the utilization of direct vs. diffuse solar energy. Ongoing analysis will evaluate inter-annual trends and variation in cloud and aerosol effects along with spatial variation across each selected city, and 1st order estimates of the potential improvements to radiative benefit and solar power generation from improvements to air quality. The authors note that the methods employed in this work to estimate radiative benefits from air quality changes assume constant cloud fields and do not account for any aerosol-cloud indirect effects or effects from land-use change (i.e. increased surface albedo from wide-scale adoption of reflective roofs).

  14. A Probabilistic Estimate of the Most Perceptible Earthquake Magnitudes in the NW Himalaya and Adjoining Regions

    Yadav, R. B. S.; Koravos, G. Ch.; Tsapanos, T. M.; Vougiouka, G. E.

    2015-02-01

    NW Himalaya and its neighboring region (25°-40°N and 65°-85°E) is one of the most seismically hazardous regions in the Indian subcontinent, a region that has historically experienced large to great damaging earthquakes. In the present study, the most perceptible earthquake magnitudes, M p, are estimated for intensity I = VII, horizontal peak ground acceleration a = 300 cm/s2 and horizontal peak ground velocity v = 10 cm/s in 28 seismogenic zones using the two earthquake recurrence models of Kijko and Sellevoll (Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 82(1):120-134 1992 ) and Gumbel's third asymptotic distribution of extremes (GIII). Both methods deal with maximum magnitudes. The earthquake perceptibility is calculated by combining earthquake recurrence models with ground motion attenuation relations at a particular level of intensity, acceleration and velocity. The estimated results reveal that the values of M p for velocity v = 10 cm/s show higher estimates than corresponding values for intensity I = VII and acceleration a = 300 cm/s2. It is also observed that differences in perceptible magnitudes calculated by the Kijko-Sellevoll method and GIII statistics show significantly high values, up to 0.7, 0.6 and 1.7 for intensity, acceleration and velocity, respectively, revealing the importance of earthquake recurrence model selection. The estimated most perceptible earthquake magnitudes, M p, in the present study vary from M W 5.1 to 7.7 in the entire zone of the study area. Results of perceptible magnitudes are also represented in the form of spatial maps in 28 seismogenic zones for the aforementioned threshold levels of intensity, acceleration and velocity, estimated from two recurrence models. The spatial maps show that the Quetta of Pakistan, the Hindukush-Pamir Himalaya, the Caucasus mountain belt and the Himalayan frontal thrust belt (Kashmir-Kangra-Uttarkashi-Chamoli regions) exhibit higher values of the most perceptible earthquake magnitudes ( M W > 6.0). These spatially-distributed values indicate good agreement with high seismic hazard zones in previously published hazard maps based on seismicity, maximum expected earthquake magnitudes during specific time intervals and maximum expected acceleration. These maps have useful implications in preparing earthquake selection criteria for the anti-seismic design of non-critical structures in the study region.

  15. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV as a potential target for selective prodrug activation and chemotherapeutic action in cancers.

    Dahan, Arik; Wolk, Omri; Yang, Peihua; Mittal, Sachin; Wu, Zhiqian; Landowski, Christopher P; Amidon, Gordon L

    2014-12-01

    The efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs is often offset by severe side effects attributable to poor selectivity and toxicity to normal cells. Recently, the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) was considered as a potential target for the delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of targeting chemotherapeutic drugs to DPPIV as a strategy to enhance their specificity. The expression profile of DPPIV was obtained for seven cancer cell lines using DNA microarray data from the DTP database, and was validated by RT-PCR. A prodrug was then synthesized by linking the cytotoxic drug melphalan to a proline-glycine dipeptide moiety, followed by hydrolysis studies in the seven cell lines with a standard substrate, as well as the glycyl-prolyl-melphalan (GP-Mel). Lastly, cell proliferation studies were carried out to demonstrate enzyme-dependent activation of the candidate prodrug. The relative RT-PCR expression levels of DPPIV in the cancer cell lines exhibited linear correlation with U95Av2 Affymetrix data (r(2) = 0.94), and with specific activity of a standard substrate, glycine-proline-p-nitroanilide (r(2) = 0.96). The significantly higher antiproliferative activity of GP-Mel in Caco-2 cells (GI₅₀ = 261 μM) compared to that in SK-MEL-5 cells (GI₅₀ = 807 μM) was consistent with the 9-fold higher specific activity of the prodrug in Caco-2 cells (5.14 pmol/min/μg protein) compared to SK-MEL-5 cells (0.68 pmol/min/μg protein) and with DPPIV expression levels in these cells. Our results demonstrate the great potential to exploit DPPIV as a prodrug activating enzyme for efficient chemotherapeutic drug targeting. PMID:25365774

  16. Characteristics of potential gasifier fuels in selected regions of the Lake Victoria Basin

    Geoffrey O., Mosiori; Charles O., Onindo; Paul, Mugabi; Susan B., Tumwebaze; Samuel, Bagabo; Rukundo B., Johnson.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available All countries in the Lake Victoria Basin depend mostly on hydroelectric power for the provision of energy. Gasification technology has a high potential for reducing biomass energy consumption whilst increasing access to modern energy services. The key aspect for the failure of gasification operation [...] s in the Lake Victoria Basin is inadequate adaptation of gasification equipment to fuel characteristics, lack of fuel specification and inappropriate material choice. We therefore investigated the thermo-chemical characterisation of six biomass fuels, namely Pinus caribaea, Calitris robusta, Cupressus lusitanica, Eucalyptus grandis, Pinus patula and sugarcane bagasse from selected regions of the Lake Victoria Basin. Ultimate analysis was done using a Flash 2000 elemental analyser. Moisture content, ash content and volatile matter were determined in oven and muffle furnaces while heating values were determined using a Gallenkamp calorimeter. The mean percentage levels obtained indicate that all six biomass fuels had a mean range for nitrogen of 0.070.2-0.250.07%, for carbon of 40.450.61-48.880.29%, for hydrogen of 4.320.13-5.590.18% and for oxygen of 43.411.58-51.10.64%. Moisture content ranged between 25.741.54% and 56.690.52%, ash content between 0.380.02% and 2.940.14%, volatile matter between 74.680.49% and 82.710.19% and fixed carbon between 14.350.33% and 24.740.27%. Heating values ranged between 16.950.10 MJ/kg and 19.480.42 MJ/kg. The results suggest that all six biomass fuels are potential biomass gasification materials.

  17. Screening of different Fusarium species to select potential species for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles

    Swapnil C., Gaikwad; Sonal S., Birla; Avinash P., Ingle; Aniket K., Gade; Priscyla D., Marcato; Mahendra, Rai; Nelson, Duran.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Onze diferentes espcies de Fusarium foram isoladas a partir de vrios materiais vegetais infectados e selecionados para escolher uma espcie potencialmente importante para a sntese de nanopartculas de prata. Todos os isolados foram identificados com base nas caractersticas de cultivo e microscp [...] icas usando as chaves de identificao de Fusarium. Para a confirmao e identificao preliminar dos isolados de espcies de Fusarium, a anlise BLAST on-line foi utilizada. Das espcies isoladas onze mostraram a capacidade para a sntese de nanopartculas de prata. A sntese de nanopartculas de prata foi confirmada por espectroscopia de UV-Vis que monstrou um pico caracterstico em torno de 420 nm. Alm disso, a confirmao da sntese de nanopartculas de prata foi realizada utilizando a anlise de rastreamento de nanoparticulas (nanoparticle tracking analysis-NTA), medidas de potencial zeta, espectroscopia de correlao de ftons (PCS), difratometria de raios X de p (XRD), e microscopia eletrnica de transmisso (TEM). As menores nanopartculas de prata foram sintetizadas por F. oxysporum (3-25 nm), enquanto as maiores foram obtidas com F. solani (3-50 nm). Abstract in english Eleven different Fusarium species were isolated from various infected plant materials and screened to select a potential species for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. All the isolates were identified on the basis of cultural and microscopic characteristics using Fusarium identification keys. Fo [...] r the confirmation of preliminary identified isolates of Fusarium species, online BLAST analysis was carried out. All the eleven species demonstrated the ability for synthesis of silver nanoparticles. This was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy, which gave characteristic peak around 420 nm. Further confirmation of silver nanoparticles was carried out using nanoparticles tracking analysis (NTA), zeta potential, photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), powder X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The smallest size of silver nanoparticles was synthesized by F. oxysporum (3-25 nm) and largest size silver nanoparticles were synthesized by F. solani (3-50 nm).

  18. View of the Himalaya Mountain Range photographed during MA-9 flight

    1963-01-01

    View of the Himalaya Mountain Range in the India-Nepal-Tibet border area, as photographed from the Mercury-Atlas 9 capsule by Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper Jr., during his 22 orbit Mercury-Atlas 9 (MA-9) spaceflight.

  19. Carbon and oxygen isotope changes in Siwalik soils from Nepal Himalaya

    Siwalik sediments of lower Himalayas are derived from the erosion of the rocks from higher reaches and deposited in the foreland basin. These group of sediments are formed over the time span of last ∼20 Ma

  20. Application of an artificial neural network model for selection of potential lung cancer biomarkers.

    Ligor, Tomasz; Pater, Łukasz; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2015-06-01

    Determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the exhaled breath samples of lung cancer patients and healthy controls was carried out by SPME-GC/MS (solid phase microextraction- gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry) analyses. In order to compensate for the volatile exogenous contaminants, ambient air blank samples were also collected and analyzed. We recruited a total of 123 patients with biopsy-confirmed lung cancer and 361 healthy controls to find the potential lung cancer biomarkers. Automatic peak deconvolution and identification were performed using chromatographic data processing software (AMDIS with NIST database). All of the VOCs sample data operation, storage and management were performed using the SQL (structured query language) relational database. The selected eight VOCs could be possible biomarker candidates. In cross-validation on test data sensitivity was 63.5% and specificity 72.4% AUC 0.65. The low performance of the model has been mainly due to overfitting and the exogenous VOCs that exist in breath. The dedicated software implementing a multilayer neural network using a genetic algorithm for training was built. Further work is needed to confirm the performance of the created experimental model. PMID:25944812

  1. Emergency water supply: a review of potential technologies and selection criteria.

    Loo, Siew-Leng; Fane, Anthony G; Krantz, William B; Lim, Teik-Thye

    2012-06-15

    Access to safe drinking water is one of the first priorities following a disaster. However, providing drinking water to the affected population (AP) is challenging due to severe contamination and lack of access to infrastructure. An onsite treatment system for the AP is a more sustainable solution than transporting bottled water. Emergency water technologies (WTs) that are modular, mobile or portable are suitable for emergency relief. This paper reviews WTs including membrane technologies that are suitable for use in emergencies. Physical, chemical, thermal- and light-based treatment methods, and membrane technologies driven by different driving forces such as pressure, temperature and osmotic gradients are reviewed. Each WT is evaluated by ten mutually independent criteria: costs, ease of deployment, ease of use, maintenance, performance, potential acceptance, energy requirements, supply chain requirements, throughput and environmental impact. A scoring system based on these criteria is presented. A methodology for emergency WT selection based on compensatory multi-criteria analysis is developed and discussed. Finally, critical research needs are identified. PMID:22521949

  2. PRODUCTION POTENTIALS AND THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SELECTED DUCK STRAINS: A MINI REVIEW

    FREDERICK ADZITEY

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical composition of meat is an important factor in human nutrition and contributes to the choice of food by mankind. In recent times humans are much conscious of the health benefits of what they consume. Emphasize on the consumption of balance diets have been given much attention. The consumption of organic foods, vegetables, fruits, foods high in fibre, foods of animal origin with less fat and cholesterol are among the food stuffs being upheld. Poultry meat, eggs and products are widely consumed worldwide without much religious restrictions. The high consumption of poultry meat is partly due to it ease for preparing different dishes and the development of a wide range of processed ready-to-eat meals incorporated with chicken as a major protein source. Poultry meat (white meat is known to be healthier than red meat probably due to its low calorie and lipid contents. Duck meat is comparable to that of chicken despite being red meat and it is a close alternative source of protein and other nutrients for humans. Duck meat is high in protein, iron, selenium and niacin; and lower in calories compared to many cuts of beef. This mini-review reports on the production potentials of ducks and the physicochemical composition of selected duck strains. It also reports on world duck population.

  3. Selection of a mineral binder with potentialities for the stabilization/solidification of aluminum metal

    Cau Dit Coumes, C.; Lambertin, D.; Lahalle, H.; Antonucci, P.; Cannes, C.; Delpech, S.

    2014-10-01

    In a strongly alkaline medium, such as that encountered in conventional cementitious materials based on Portland cement, aluminum metal is corroded, with continued production of hydrogen. In order to develop a mineral matrix having enhanced compatibility with aluminum, a literature review was first undertaken to identify binders capable of reducing the pore solution pH compared with Portland cement. An experimental study was then carried out to measure the hydrogen production resulting from corrosion of aluminum metal rods encapsulated in the different selected cement pastes. The best results were achieved with magnesium phosphate cement, which released very little hydrogen over the duration of the study. This production could be reduced still further by adding a corrosion inhibitor (lithium nitrate) to the mixing solution. Open circuit potential measurement and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy of aluminum electrode encapsulated in two pastes based on Portland cement and magnesium phosphate cement showed different redox behaviors. In the Portland cement paste, the electrochemical data confirmed the corrosion of aluminum whereas this latter tended to a passive state in the magnesium phosphate binder.

  4. Pre-selecting potential sites for a low and intermediate level waste repository in Mexico

    The storage in surface or shallow depths is viable for radioactive waste of low and intermediate level which contains short half life radionuclide that will decay to insignificant radioactive levels in some decades and some long half life radionuclide but at very low concentrations. The site selection process for construction of radioactive waste storage facilities, that presents and adequate stability in long term, and predictable performance in future and the capacity to meet all the operational requirements, is one of the main tasks that challenge the agencies for waste disposition. Different regions of Mexican Republic have been investigated in order to satisfy basic criteria related with some subjects physiographic, geologic, geohydrologic s, tectonics and seismic, as well as other factors as population density. An analysis of the existing information provides reason to expect that the Central region could host a repository for low and intermediate level waste. One of the most promising sites for a surface-type repository is situated in this region. The analysis of the preliminary results from the investigations performed at this site, described in this paper, confirmed its potential suitability: the site has geological and geotechnical features suitable for a repository. (Author)

  5. Selection of a mineral binder with potentialities for the stabilization/solidification of aluminum metal

    Cau Dit Coumes, C., E-mail: celine.cau-dit-coumes@cea.fr [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA/DEN/MAR/DTCD/SPDE, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze cedex (France); Lambertin, D.; Lahalle, H.; Antonucci, P. [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA/DEN/MAR/DTCD/SPDE, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze cedex (France); Cannes, C.; Delpech, S. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud 11, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Binders capable of reducing the pore solution pH compared with Portland cements are reviewed. • The binders are then tested against aluminum corrosion. • Corrosion of aluminum metal is minimal with magnesium phosphate cement. • The H{sub 2} release can be reduced still further by adding LiNO{sub 3} to the mixing solution. • Electrochemical characterizations show that aluminum tends to a passive state. - Abstract: In a strongly alkaline medium, such as that encountered in conventional cementitious materials based on Portland cement, aluminum metal is corroded, with continued production of hydrogen. In order to develop a mineral matrix having enhanced compatibility with aluminum, a literature review was first undertaken to identify binders capable of reducing the pore solution pH compared with Portland cement. An experimental study was then carried out to measure the hydrogen production resulting from corrosion of aluminum metal rods encapsulated in the different selected cement pastes. The best results were achieved with magnesium phosphate cement, which released very little hydrogen over the duration of the study. This production could be reduced still further by adding a corrosion inhibitor (lithium nitrate) to the mixing solution. Open circuit potential measurement and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy of aluminum electrode encapsulated in two pastes based on Portland cement and magnesium phosphate cement showed different redox behaviors. In the Portland cement paste, the electrochemical data confirmed the corrosion of aluminum whereas this latter tended to a passive state in the magnesium phosphate binder.

  6. Wind potential assessment to estimate performance of selected wind turbines in Pandansimo Beach-Yogyakarta

    Tjahjana, D. D. D. P.; Al-Masuun, I. K.; Gustiantono, A.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the characteristics of wind speed and wind energy potential in the Pandansimo Beach-Yogyakarta based on Weibull distribution analysis. Ten-min average time series wind-speed data for a period of 2 year, measured at a height 50 m, are used in this study. The continuously recorded wind speed data were averaged over 10 minutes and stored in data logger. The results showed that the annual mean wind speed at location is 6.249 m/s, while the annual mean power densities is 264 W/m². It was further shown that the mean annual value of the most probable wind speed is 5.5 m/s and the mean annual value of the wind speed carrying maximum energy is 9.608 m/s. The performance of selected commercial wind turbine models designed for electricity generation in the site was examined. The wind turbine with the highest value of capacity factor is VESTAS V-110 with 33.97% and can produce 5951.04 M Wh/year.

  7. Improvement of selected strains through gamma irradiation for enhanced lipolytic potential

    The purpose of the present investigation was to enhance the production of industrially important enzyme lipase by subjecting the wild lipase producing fungal strains i.e. Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus microsporus and Penicillium atrovenetum to various doses of gamma irradiation (20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140 and 160 Gy). The isolation and lipolytic activity of selected mutant derived strains is described in this paper. Among all the mutants tested, MBL-5 obtained at 140Gy of Aspergillus niger strain showed highest extracellular lipase activity (13.75 +- 0.15 U mL/sup -1/) while MBL-1 Rhizopus microsporus at the rate 20Gy showed the lowest activity i.e., 1.06 +- 0.11 U mL/sup -1/. A range of pH 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 was used to check the lipolytic potential of various mutants along with their wild type. It was observed that MBL-5 (Aspergillus niger) and MBL-2 (Rhizopus microsporus) showed enhanced extracellular lipase activity at pH 11 while MBL-3 (Penicillium atrovenetum) showed the highest extracellular lipase activity 22.53 +- 0.21 U mL/sup -1/ at pH 9. It indicates a possible role for the MBL-2, MBL-3 and MBL-5 mutant strains in the detergent industry for the development of eco-friendly technologies. (author)

  8. Selection of a mineral binder with potentialities for the stabilization/solidification of aluminum metal

    Highlights: • Binders capable of reducing the pore solution pH compared with Portland cements are reviewed. • The binders are then tested against aluminum corrosion. • Corrosion of aluminum metal is minimal with magnesium phosphate cement. • The H2 release can be reduced still further by adding LiNO3 to the mixing solution. • Electrochemical characterizations show that aluminum tends to a passive state. - Abstract: In a strongly alkaline medium, such as that encountered in conventional cementitious materials based on Portland cement, aluminum metal is corroded, with continued production of hydrogen. In order to develop a mineral matrix having enhanced compatibility with aluminum, a literature review was first undertaken to identify binders capable of reducing the pore solution pH compared with Portland cement. An experimental study was then carried out to measure the hydrogen production resulting from corrosion of aluminum metal rods encapsulated in the different selected cement pastes. The best results were achieved with magnesium phosphate cement, which released very little hydrogen over the duration of the study. This production could be reduced still further by adding a corrosion inhibitor (lithium nitrate) to the mixing solution. Open circuit potential measurement and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy of aluminum electrode encapsulated in two pastes based on Portland cement and magnesium phosphate cement showed different redox behaviors. In the Portland cement paste, the electrochemical data confirmed the corrosion of aluminum whereas this latter tended to a passive state in the magnesium phosphate binder

  9. Comparison of two snowmelt modelling approaches in the Dudh Koshi Basin (Eastern Himalayas, Nepal)

    Pokhrel, B. K.; Chevallier, P.; Andréassian, V.; Tahir, A.A.; Arnaud, Y.; L. Neppel; Bajracharya, O.R.; Budhathoki, K. P.; ., -

    2014-01-01

    The glaciers in the Nepalese Himalayas are found to be in retreating conditions due to rising temperatures. Lack of data and information on Nepal’s cryosphere has impeded scientific studies and field investigations in the Nepalese Himalayas. Therefore, IRD France and Ev-K2 CNR Italy have conducted the PAPRIKA project in Nepal with the financial support of French and Italian scientific agencies. This project aims to address current and future evolution of the cryosphere in response to gl...

  10. High altitude survival: conflicts between pastoralism and wildlife in the Trans-Himalaya

    Mishra, C.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords : Pastoralism, agriculture, wildlife, Himalaya, competition, bharal, yak, livestock, snow leopard, wolf, herbivore, ungulate, resource, rangeland, steppe, mountainHow harmonious is the coexistence between pastoralism and wildlife? This thesis is a response to repeated calls for a better understanding of pastoralism and its impacts on wildlife in India. Based on studies in the high altitude rangelands of the Trans-Himalaya that have a grazing history of over three millennia, I attempt...

  11. Potential applications of reproductive and molecular genetic technologies in the selective breeding of aquaculture species

    Nguyen, N.H.; Ponniah, A.G.; Ponzoni, R.W.

    2006-01-01

    The use of reproductive and genetic technologies can increase the efficiency of selective breeding programs for aquaculture species. Four technologies are considered, namely: marker-assisted selection, DNA fingerprinting, in-vitro fertilization, and cryopreservation. Marker-assisted selection can result in greater genetic gain, particularly for traits difficult or expensive to measure, than conventional selection methods, but its application is currently limited by lack of high density linkag...

  12. Geophysical Characterization of the Salna Sinking Zone, Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Sastry, Rambhatla G.; Mondal, Suman K.

    2013-01-01

    Infrastructure and communication facilities are repeatedly affected by ground deformation in Gharwal Himalaya, India; for effective remediation measures, a thorough understanding of the real reasons for these movements is needed. In this regard, we undertook an integrated geophysical and geotechnical study of the Salna sinking zone close to the Main Central Thrust in Garhwal Himalaya. Our geophysical data include eight combined electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and induced polarization imaging (IPI) profiles spanning 144-600 m, with 3-10 m electrode separation in the Wenner-Schlumberger configuration, and five micro-gravity profiles with 10-30 m station spacing covering the study region. The ERT sections clearly outline the heterogeneity in the subsurface lithology. Further, the ERT, IPI, and shaliness (shaleyness) sections infer the absence of clayey horizons and slip surfaces at depth. However, the Bouguer gravity analysis has revealed the existence of several faults in the subsurface, much beyond the reach of the majority of ERT sections. These inferred vertical to subvertical faults run parallel to the existing major lineaments and tectonic elements of the study region. The crisscross network of inferred faults has divided the entire study region into several blocks in the subsurface. Our studies stress that the sinking of the Salna village area is presently taking place along these inferred vertical to subvertical faults. The Chamoli earthquake in March 1999 probably triggered seismically induced ground movements in this region. The absence of few gravity-inferred faults in shallow ERT sections may hint at blind faults, which could serve as future source(s) for geohazards in the study region. Soil samples at two sites of study region were studied in a geotechnical laboratory. These, along with stability studies along four slope sections, have indicated the critical state of the study region. Thus, our integrated studies emphasize the crucial role of micro-gravity in finding fine subsurface structure at deeper depth level; supported by ERT and IPI at shallow depth intervals, they can satisfactorily explain the Salna sinking zone close to Lesser Himalaya. The geotechnical studies also lend support to these findings. These integrated studies have yielded a better understanding of the mass-wasting mechanism for the study region.

  13. Automated tube potential selection for standard chest and abdominal CT in follow-up patients with testicular cancer: comparison with fixed tube potential

    To evaluate prospectively, in patients with testicular cancer, the radiation dose-saving potential and image quality of contrast-enhanced chest and abdominal CT with automated tube potential selection. Forty consecutive patients with testicular cancer underwent contrast-enhanced arterio-venous chest and portal-venous abdominal CT with automated tube potential selection (protocol B; tube potential 80-140 kVp), which is based on the attenuation of the CT topogram. All had a first CT at 120 kVp (protocol A) using the same 64-section CT machine and similar settings. Image quality was assessed; dose information (CTDIvol) was noted. Image noise and attenuation in the liver and spleen were significantly higher for protocol B (P vol was significantly lower for protocol B compared to protocol A (reduction by 12%, P < 0.01). In patients with testicular cancer, radiation dose of chest and abdominal CT can be reduced with automated tube potential selection, while image quality is preserved. (orig.)

  14. Selected extracellular microRNA as potential biomarkers of multiple sclerosis activity--preliminary study.

    Kacperska, Magdalena Justyna; Jastrzebski, Karol; Tomasik, Bartlomiej; Walenczak, Jakub; Konarska-Krol, Maria; Glabinski, Andrzej

    2015-05-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Four distinct disease courses are known, although approximately 90% of patients are diagnosed with the relapsing-remitting form (RRMS). The name "multiple sclerosis" pertains to the underlying pathology: the presence of demyelinating plaques in the CNS, in particular in the periventricular region, corpus callosum, cervical spine, and the cerebellum. There are ongoing efforts to discover biomarkers that would allow for an unequivocal diagnosis, assess the activity of inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes, or warn of disease progression. At present, small noncoding RNA particles-microRNA (miRNA, miR) seem to be particularly noteworthy, as they take part in posttranscriptional regulation of expression of various genes. Changes in composition as well as function of miRNA found in body fluids of MS patients are subjects of research, in the hope they prove accurate markers of MS activity. This preliminary study aims to evaluate the expression of selected extracellular microRNA particles (miRNA-let-7a, miRNA-92a, miRNA-684a) in patients experiencing MS relapse and remission, with healthy volunteers serving as a control group and to evaluate the correlation between miRNA expression and selected clinical parameters of those patients. Thirty-seven patients suffering from MS formed two examined groups: 20 patients undergoing relapse and 17 in remission. Thirty healthy volunteers formed the control group. All patients who were subjects to peripheral blood sampling had been hospitalized in the Department of Neurology and Stroke(1). Four milliliters of venous whole blood had been collected into EDTA tubes. The basis for the selection of the three particular miRNA investigated in this study (miRNA-let-7a, miRNA-92a, miRNA-684a) was a preliminary bioinformatic analysis of data compiled from several medical databases, including Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), miRWalk, and miRBase. The isolation of extracellular microRNA from plasma was carried out using miRNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen) reagents. The reverse transcription was carried out with TaqMan MicroRNA Reverse Transcription Kit (Applied Biosystems), as per manufacturers' instructions. Standard microRNA TaqMan tests (Applied Biosystems) were used for miRNA quantification. The qPCR were performed on a 7900 HT Fast Real-Time PCR System (Applied Biosystems) and analyzed using Sequence Detection System 2.3 software. In addition, all patients at the Department of Neurology and Stroke undergo a routine complete blood count with differential. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the expression of selected microRNA (has-miR-let-7a, miR-92a, and miR-648a) in the plasma of patients with MS during a relapse as well as in remission and attempt to correlate the acquired data with clinically relevant parameters of the disease. Finding such correlations may potentially lead to the use of miRNA as a biomarker of MS, which could help diagnose the disease and assess its severity and the efficacy of treatment. The difference in the expression of has-miR-let-7a in the remission group and the control group was statistically significant (p?=?0.002). Similarly, the expression of miRNA-648a in patients in remission was significantly different from the expression in the control group (p?=?0.02). Analysis of the correlation between the expression of miRNA-92a and the severity of the disease as measured by the EDSS scale in patients undergoing relapse showed significant negative linear correlation (r?=?-0.54, p?=?0.01). Higher miR-648a expression correlated with more frequent flare-ups in the joint group of patients in remission and relapse (p?=?0.03). This study is one of the few that demonstrate significantly changed expression of selected extracellular miRNA in plasma of MS patients and correlate those findings with clinical parameters. These observations may suggest that some miRNA subsets may be potential biomarkers for M

  15. Earthquakes of the Nepal Himalaya: Towards a physical model of the seismic cycle

    Ader, Thomas J.

    Documenting geodetic strain across the Nepal Himalaya with various GPS and leveling data, we show that unlike other subduction zones that exhibit a heterogeneous and patchy coupling pattern along strike, the last hundred kilometers of the Main Himalayan Thrust fault, or MHT, appear to be uniformly locked, devoid of any of the "creeping barriers" that traditionally ward off the propagation of large events. The approximately 20 mm/yr of reckoned convergence across the Himalaya matching previously established estimates of the secular deformation at the front of the arc, the slip accumulated at depth has to somehow elastically propagate all the way to the surface at some point. And yet, neither large events from the past nor currently recorded microseismicity nearly compensate for the massive moment deficit that quietly builds up under the giant mountains. Along with this large unbalanced moment deficit, the uncommonly homogeneous coupling pattern on the MHT raises the question of whether or not the locked portion of the MHT can rupture all at once in a giant earthquake. Univocally answering this question appears contingent on the still elusive estimate of the magnitude of the largest possible earthquake in the Himalaya, and requires tight constraints on local fault properties. What makes the Himalaya enigmatic also makes it the potential source of an incredible wealth of information, and we exploit some of the oddities of Himalayan seismicity in an effort to improve the understanding of earthquake physics and cipher out the properties of the MHT. Thanks to the Himalaya, the Indo-Gangetic plain is deluged each year under a tremendous amount of water during the annual summer monsoon that collects and bears down on the Indian plate enough to pull it away from the Eurasian plate slightly, temporarily relieving a small portion of the stress mounting on the MHT. As the rainwater evaporates in the dry winter season, the plate rebounds and tension is increased back on the fault. Interestingly, the mild waggle of stress induced by the monsoon rains is about the same size as that from solid-Earth tides which gently tug at the planets solid layers, but whereas changes in earthquake frequency correspond with the annually occurring monsoon, there is no such correlation with Earth tides, which oscillate back-and-forth twice a day. We therefore investigate the general response of the creeping and seismogenic parts of MHT to periodic stresses in order to link these observations to physical parameters. First, the response of the creeping part of the MHT is analyzed with a simple spring-and-slider system bearing rate-strengthening rheology, and we show that at the transition with the locked zone, where the friction becomes near velocity neutral, the response of the slip rate may be amplified at some periods, which values are analytically related to the physical parameters of the problem. Such predictions therefore hold the potential of constraining fault properties on the MHT, but still await observational counterparts to be applied, as nothing indicates that the variations of seismicity rate on the locked part of the MHT are the direct expressions of variations of the slip rate on its creeping part, and no variations of the slip rate have been singled out from the GPS measurements to this day. When shifting to the locked seismogenic part of the MHT, spring-and-slider models with rate-weakening rheology are insufficient to explain the contrasted responses of the seismicity to the periodic loads that tides and monsoon both place on the MHT. Instead, we resort to numerical simulations using the Boundary Integral CYCLes of Earthquakes algorithm and examine the response of a 2D finite fault embedded with a rate-weakening patch to harmonic stress perturbations of various periods. We show that such simulations are able to reproduce results consistent with a gradual amplification of sensitivity as the perturbing period get larger, up to a critical period corresponding to the characteristic time of evolution of the seismicity in response to a step-like perturbation of stress. This increase of sensitivity was not reproduced by simple 1D-spring-slider systems, probably because of the complexity of the nucleation process, reproduced only by 2D-fault models. When the nucleation zone is close to its critical unstable size, its growth becomes highly sensitive to any external perturbations and the timings of produced events may therefore find themselves highly affected. A fully analytical framework has yet to be developed and further work is needed to fully describe the behavior of the fault in terms of physical parameters, which will likely provide the keys to deduce constitutive properties of the MHT from seismological observations. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  16. Dating of movements along thrusts and faults in the Himalaya

    Radiometric dating of movements along the MCT (Vaikrita Thrust), two local but deep seated thrust and the Sumdoh Fault Zone bordering the Kinnar Kailas Granite in the Baspa and Satluj valleys, NE Himachal Himalaya, has been attempted for the first time by fission track method. Garnet and apatite fission track ages suggest the age of the latest phase of movements around 14 and 7 m.y. respectively along the MCT and Sumdoh Fault. The vertical uplift rates along them were 1.1mm/year from 14 to 7 m.y. and 0.6 mm/year from 7 m.y. to recent geologic past respectively, as against the value 0.036 mm/year during the period from 210 to 17 m.y. in the undisturbed area. (author)

  17. Quantifying sources, transport, deposition, and radiative forcing of black carbon over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau

    Zhang, Rudong; Wang, Hailong; Qian, Yun; Rasch, Philip J.; Easter, Richard C.; Ma, Po-Lun; Singh, Balwinder; Huang, Jianping; Fu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Black carbon (BC)particles over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau (HTP), both airborne and those deposited on snow, have been shown to affect snowmelt and glacier retreat. Since BC over the HTP may originate from a variety of geographical regions and emission sectors, it is essential to quantify the source-receptor relationships of BC in order to understand the contributions of natural and anthropogenic emissions and provide guidance for potential mitigation actions. In this study, we use the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) with a newly developed source tagging technique, nudged towards the MERRA meteorological reanalysis, to characterize the fate of BC particles emitted from various geographical regions and sectors. Evaluated against observations over the HTP and surrounding regions, the model simulation shows a good agreement in the seasonal variation of the near-surface airborne BC concentrations, providing confidence to use this modeling framework for characterizing BC source- receptor relationships. Our analysis shows that the relative contributions from different geographical regions and source sectors depend on seasons and the locations in the HTP. The largest contribution to annual mean BC burden and surface deposition in the entire HTP region is from biofuel and biomass (BB) emissions in South Asia, followed by fossil fuel (FF) emissions from South Asia, then FF from East Asia. The same roles hold for all the seasonal means except for the summer when East Asia FF becomes more important. For finer receptor regions of interest, South Asia BB and FF have the largest impact on BC in Himalayas and Central Tibetan Plateau, while East Asia FF and BB contribute the most to Northeast Plateau in all seasons and Southeast Plateau in the summer. Central Asia and Middle East FF emissions have relatively more important contributions to BC reaching Northwest Plateau, especially in the summer. Although the HTP local emissions only contribute about 10% of BC in the HTP, this contribution is extremely sensitive to changes in the local emissions. Lastly, we show that the annual mean radiative forcing (0.42 W m-2) due to BC in snow outweighs the BC dimming effect-0.3 W m-2)at the surface over the HTP, although the mean BC-in- snow forcing is likely overestimated. We find strong seasonal and sub -region variation with a peak value of 5W m-2 in the spring over Northwest Plateau. The annual mean dust-in-snow forcing is comparable to that of BC over the entire HTP but significantly larger than BC over the North east Plateau. Such a large forcing of BC in snow is sufficient to cause earlier snow melting and potentially contribute to the acceleration of glacier retreat

  18. The Himalayas: barrier and conduit for gene flow.

    Gayden, Tenzin; Perez, Annabel; Persad, Patrice J; Bukhari, Areej; Chennakrishnaiah, Shilpa; Simms, Tanya; Maloney, Trisha; Rodriguez, Kristina; Herrera, Rene J

    2013-06-01

    The Himalayan mountain range is strategically located at the crossroads of the major cultural centers in Asia, the Middle East and Europe. Although previous Y-chromosome studies indicate that the Himalayas served as a natural barrier for gene flow from the south to the Tibetan plateau, this region is believed to have played an important role as a corridor for human migrations between East and West Eurasia along the ancient Silk Road. To evaluate the effects of the Himalayan mountain range in shaping the maternal lineages of populations residing on either side of the cordillera, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA variation in 344 samples from three Nepalese collections (Newar, Kathmandu and Tamang) and a general population of Tibet. Our results revealed a predominantly East Asian-specific component in Tibet and Tamang, whereas Newar and Kathmandu are both characterized by a combination of East and South Central Asian lineages. Interestingly, Newar and Kathmandu harbor several deep-rooted Indian lineages, including M2, R5, and U2, whose coalescent times from this study (U2, >40 kya) and previous reports (M2 and R5, >50 kya) suggest that Nepal was inhabited during the initial peopling of South Central Asia. Comparisons with our previous Y-chromosome data indicate sex-biased migrations in Tamang and a founder effect and/or genetic drift in Tamang and Newar. Altogether, our results confirm that while the Himalayas acted as a geographic barrier for human movement from the Indian subcontinent to the Tibetan highland, it also served as a conduit for gene flow between Central and East Asia. PMID:23580401

  19. Genetic variation in a host-parasite association: potential for coevolution and frequency-dependent selection.

    Carius, H J; Little, T J; Ebert, D

    2001-06-01

    Models of host-parasite coevolution assume the presence of genetic variation for host resistance and parasite infectivity, as well as genotype-specific interactions. We used the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna and its bacterial microparasite Pasteuria ramosa to study genetic variation for host susceptibility and parasite infectivity within each of two populations. We sought to answer the following questions: Do host clones differ in their susceptibility to parasite isolates? Do parasite isolates differ in their ability to infect different host clones? Are there host clone-parasite isolate interactions? The analysis revealed considerable variation in both host resistance and parasite infectivity. There were significant host clone-parasite isolate interactions, such that there was no single host clone that was superior to all other clones in the resistance to every parasite isolate. Likewise, there was no parasite isolate that was superior to all other isolates in infectivity to every host clone. This form of host clone-parasite isolate interaction indicates the potential for coevolution based on frequency-dependent selection. Infection success of original host clone-parasite isolate combinations (i.e., those combinations that were isolated together) was significantly higher than infection success of novel host clone-parasite isolate combinations (i.e., those combinations that were created in the laboratory). This finding is consistent with the idea that parasites track specific host genotypes under natural conditions. In addition, correspondence analysis revealed that some host clones, although distinguishable with neutral genetic markers, were susceptible to the same set of parasite isolates and thus probably shared resistance genes. PMID:11475049

  20. Narcissus and Leadership Potential:The measurement and implications of narcissism in leadership selection processes

    Gimsø, Christian Enger

    2014-01-01

    Incorporating theoretical and empirical work from the literature on narcissism, it is postulated that narcissism poses a particular risk in leader selection settings. By appearing confident, charismatic, intelligent, and with a high self-esteem and authority, narcissists will slip through normal selection processes by resembling an implicit image of a prototypical leader for those that select and hire them. In three independent, yet connected studies, the role played by trait narcissism i...

  1. Brief Communication: Contending estimates of early 21st century glacier mass balance over the Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya

    A. Kb

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We present glacier thickness changes over the entire Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya arc based on ICESat satellite altimetry data for 20032008. The strongest thinning (?1 is observed for the East Nyainqntanglha Shan. Conversely, glaciers of the West Kunlun Shan are slightly gaining volume, and Pamir and Karakoram seem to be on the western edge of an anomaly rather than its centre. For the Ganges, Indus and Brahmaputra basins, the glacier mass change reaches ?22 3 Gt yr?1, about 10% of the current glacier contribution to sea-level rise. For selected catchments over the study area we estimate glacier imbalance contributions to river runoff from a few percent to far over 10%. We highlight the importance of C-band penetration for studies based on the SRTM elevation model. To the very east and west of our study area, this penetration seems to be of larger magnitude and variability than previously assumed.

  2. Brief Communication: Contending estimates of early 21st century glacier mass balance over the Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya

    Kääb, A.; Nuth, C.; Treichler, D.; Berthier, E.

    2014-11-01

    We present glacier thickness changes over the entire Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya arc based on ICESat satellite altimetry data for 2003-2008. The strongest thinning (Pamir and Karakoram seem to be on the western edge of an anomaly rather than its centre. For the Ganges, Indus and Brahmaputra basins, the glacier mass change reaches -22 ± 3 Gt yr-1, about 10% of the current glacier contribution to sea-level rise. For selected catchments over the study area we estimate glacier imbalance contributions to river runoff from a few percent to far over 10%. We highlight the importance of C-band penetration for studies based on the SRTM elevation model. To the very east and west of our study area, this penetration seems to be of larger magnitude and variability than previously assumed.

  3. Soil quality index as affected by different cropping systems in northwestern Himalayas.

    Sofi, J A; Bhat, A G; Kirmai, N A; Wani, J A; Lone, Aabid H; Ganie, Mumtaz A; Dar, G I H

    2016-03-01

    Soil quality assessment provides a tool for evaluating the sustainability of soils under different crop cafeterias. Our objective was to develop the soil quality index for evaluating the soil quality indicators under different cropping systems in northwest Himalaya-India. Composite soil samples were taken from the study area from different cropping systems which include T1 (forest soil control), T2 (rice-oilseed, lower belts), T3 (rice-oilseed, higher belts), T4 (rice-oats), T5 (rice-fallow), T6 (maize-oats), T7 (maize-peas), T8 (apple), T9 (apple-beans), and T10 (apple-maize). Physical, chemical, and biological soil indicators were determined, and it was found that soil enzyme activities involved in nutrient cycling were significantly higher in forest soils, which were reflected in higher levels of available pool of nutrients. Carbon stocks were found significantly higher in forest soil which was translated in improved soil physical condition. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to reduce multidimensionality of data followed by scoring by homothetic transformation of the selected indicators. Pearson's interclass correlation was performed to avoid redundancy, and highly correlated variables were not retained. Inclusion of legumes in the apple orchard floor recorded highest soil quality rating across the treatments. Cereal-based cropping systems were found in lower soil quality rating; however, the incorporation of peas in the system improved soil health. PMID:26875075

  4. Determination of heavy metal pollution in soils from selected potentially contaminated sites in Tema

    The objective of the study was to assess the concentration and determine the level of pollution by harmful heavy metals in soils from selected potentially contaminated sites in Tema. The metals of interest include; mercury, lead, cadmium, cobalt zinc, arsenic, nickel, copper and chromium. A total of forty seven (47) samples comprising thirty eight sub-samples (38) and nine (9) composite samples were collected from nine (9) different locations. These included playgrounds, steel processing factories, used Lead Acid Battery (ULAB) recycling plant, mechanic workshops and the municipal waste disposal site. The samples were prepared after which the elemental concentrations were determined using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) with a secondary target excitation arrangement (5.9 keV). The analysis of the samples yielded the following mean heavy metal concentrations in mg/kg: 424.38 (Cr); 408.68 (Ni); 14427 (Cu); 4129.87 (Zn); 1580.68 (As); 647.48 (Hg); 73361.51 (Pb) and 1176.16 (Co). The mean concentrations of heavy metals in the soils were in the following order Pb>Zn>As>Co>Cu>Hg>Cr>Ni. Mercury was detected at only two of the sites. The average heavy metals in the soils from the sites were generally high since most of them exceeded the optimum and action values of the New Dutch List. The Enrichment Factor (EF) ratios show that the enrichment of the elements in the soils ranged from deficiently to extremely highly enriched. The contamination factor show that the contamination by the heavy metals were low at some of the sites and very high at others. The geoaccumulation indices indicated that the playground (PG) has not been contaminated by any of the metals, C8 is contaminated strongly by mercury only and the contamination at the remaining sites varied from moderately contaminated to extremely contaminated by the metals. The Igeo also indicated that the elements accounting for extreme contamination are lead, arsenic, copper, zinc mercury and chromium. Lead accounted for the most contamination. The Pollution Load Index (PLI) rated Gravita as the mot contaminated of the sites and the Play ground the least contaminated. The pollution load indices indicated that two (2) out of the nine sites in the study were uncontaminated by the heavy metals (PLISS>WD>AFL>TS>L19>C8>PG. (au)

  5. Refrigeration Playbook: Natural Refrigerants; Selecting and Designing Energy-Efficient Commercial Refrigeration Systems That Use Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants

    Nelson, Caleb [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Reis, Chuck [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Nelson, Eric [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Armer, James [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Arthur, Rob [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Heath, Richard [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Rono, James [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Hirsch, Adam [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doebber, Ian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report provides guidance for selecting and designing energy efficient commercial refrigeration systems using low global warming potential refrigerants. Refrigeration systems are generally the largest energy end use in a supermarket type building, often accounting for more than half of a building's energy consumption.

  6. Plant operator selection system for evaluating employment candidates' potential for success in electric power plant operations positions

    The Plant Operator Selection System is a battery of tests and questionnaires that can be administered to job candidates in less than three hours. Various components of the battery measure what a job candidate has accomplished in previous educational and work situations, how well a candidate compares with others on a number of important aptitudes or abilities, and whether or not a candidate possesses the kind of personal stability required in power plant operations positions. A job candidate's answers to the tests and questionnaires of the Plant Operator Selection System are scored and converted to an OVERALL POTENTIAL INDEX. Values of the OVERALL POTENTIAL INDEX [OPI] range between 0 and 15. Candidates with high OPI values are much more likely to become effective and successful plant operators than candidates with low OPI values. It is possible to estimate the financial advantages to a company of using the Plant Operator Selection System in evaluating candidates for plant operations jobs

  7. Mitigation of enteric methane for French cattle: potential extent and cost of selected actions

    Doreau, Michel; Bamière, Laure; Pellerin, Sylvain; Lherm, Michel; Benoit, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (i) to select options for enteric methane abatement in French conditions, while maintaining production and changing practices but not systems, and (ii) to evaluate the extent of abatement and its cost from 2010 to 2030. Two options were selected: supplying unsaturated fats, and using nitrates as a dietary additive in the diet. Unsaturated fats resulted in a higher abatement, because a greater number of animals were concerned by the option, but incurred a higher t...

  8. Spatial prediction of landslide susceptibility in parts of Garhwal Himalaya, India, using the weight of evidence modelling.

    Guri, Pardeep Kumar; Ray, P K Champati; Patel, Ramesh Chandra

    2015-06-01

    Garhwal Himalaya in northern India has emerged as one of the most prominent hot spots of landslide occurrences in the Himalaya mainly due to geological causes related to mountain building processes, steep topography and frequent occurrences of extreme precipitation events. As this region has many pilgrimage and tourist centres, it is visited by hundreds of thousands of people every year, and in the recent past, there has been rapid development to provide adequate roads and building infrastructure. Additionally, attempts are also made to harness hydropower by constructing tunnels, dams and reservoirs and thus altering vulnerable slopes at many places. As a result, the overall risk due to landslide hazards has increased many folds and, therefore, an attempt was made to assess landslide susceptibility using 'Weights of Evidence (WofE)', a well-known bivariate statistical modelling technique implemented in a much improved way using remote sensing and Geographic Information System. This methodology has dual advantage as it demonstrates how to derive critical parameters related to geology, geomorphology, slope, land use and most importantly temporal landslide distribution in one of the data scarce region of the world. Secondly, it allows to experiment with various combination of parameters to assess their cumulative effect on landslides. In total, 15 parameters related to geology, geomorphology, terrain, hydrology and anthropogenic factors and 2 different landslide inventories (prior to 2007 and 2008-2011) were prepared from high-resolution Indian remote sensing satellite data (Cartosat-1 and Resourcesat-1) and were validated by field investigation. Several combinations of parameters were carried out using WofE modelling, and finally using best combination of eight parameters, 76.5 % of overall landslides were predicted in 24 % of the total area susceptible to landslide occurrences. The study has highlighted that using such methodology landslide susceptibility assessment can be carried out in vast stretches of Himalaya in short time in order to assess the impact of development as well as climate change/variability. The resultant map can play a critical role in selecting areas for remedial measures for slope stabilisation as well planning for future development of the region. PMID:25944750

  9. Evolution and outburst risk analysis of moraine-dammed lakes in the central Chinese Himalaya

    Wang Shijin; Jiao Shitai

    2015-04-01

    The recent evolution and outburst risk of two typical moraine-dammed lakes, Galong and Gangxi, central Chinese Himalaya, are analyzed using topographic maps from 1974 and Landsat satellite imagery acquired in 1988, 2000 and 2014. The datasets show the areas of Galong and Gangxi lakes increasing at rates of 0.45 and 0.34 km2/year during the period 19742014, an expansion of 501% and 107%, respectively, in the past 41 years, while the areas of the parent glaciers, Reqiang and Jipucong decreased by 44.22% and 37.76%, respectively. The accelerating retreat of the glaciers not only reflects their generally negative mass balance but is consistent with the rapid expansion of the moraine-dammed lakes. When acted upon by external forces such as earthquakes, heavy rainfall, rapid melting of glaciers and dead ice, and snow/ice/rock avalanches, these lakes can become extremely dangerous, easily forming outburst mudslides, which can potentially spread to the Poiqu river basin and develop into cross-border (China and Nepal) GLOF disasters. Therefore, there is an urgent need to strengthen integrated risk management of glacial lake outburst disasters with multiple objectives and modes.

  10. Spatial Coupling Among Landslides, Geological Structures, Cataclinal Slopes, and Fluvial Knick Zones in Nepal Himalayas

    Ojha, T. P.; DeCelles, P. G.

    2014-12-01

    This work aims to identify potential landslide hazard zones in the event of heavy precipitation and seismic activity by examining spatial relationships among existing landslides, earthquake epicenters, fault zones, cataclinal (dip) slopes, anaclinal (escarp) slopes, and river steepness index in the Nepal Himalaya. In order to understand this relationship we have mapped existing landslides on Google Earth images and ESRI base maps, assembled high-resolution digital topographic data by digitizing Nepal Government published topographic maps, and gathered geological data from detailed field mapping and compilation of published geological maps. Slope angle and aspect, and dip direction and angle were extracted from GIS-based digital topographical and geological datasets to develop the new slope maps with cataclinal (dip) and anaclinal (escarp) slope distributions. Longitudinal river profiles were also extracted from high resolution DEM's derived from manually digitized contours. The slope maps with cataclinal and anaclinal slope distributions, earthquake epicenters, major geological structures, longitudinal river profiles, and landslide inventories were visualized in ESRI ArcMap 10.2 to examine the spatial correlation among landslides, fault zones, cataclinal slopes and river steepness index. We have found that landslides are spatially correlated with cataclinal slopes and fluvial knick zones with high steepness index in certain thrust boundaries. The main finding of this work is that the topographic slope threshold alone is a crude measure of landslide susceptibility. The analysis of slope using the geometric relationship among topography and geological bedding is crucial for determining landslide susceptibility in the Himalayan region.

  11. Environmental impact assessment of mountain tourism in developing regions: A study in Ladakh, Indian Himalaya

    Mountain tourism in developing countries is becoming a growing environmental concern due to extreme seasonality, lack of suitable infrastructures and planning, and interference with fragile ecosystems and protected areas. This paper presents a study devoted to assess the adverse environmental impacts of tourism, and in particular of trekking-related activities, in Ladakh, Indian Himalaya. The proposed approach is based on the use of Geographical Information System (GIS) modeling and remote sensing imageries to cope with the lack of data that affect the region. First, stressors associated with trekking, and environmental receptors potentially affected were identified. Subsequently, a baseline study on stressors (trail use, waste dumping, camping, pack animal grazing and off-road driving) and receptors (soil, water, wildlife, vegetation) was conducted through field work, data collection, and data processing supported by GIS. Finally, impacts were modeled by considering the intensity of the stressors, and the vulnerability and the value of the receptors. The results were spatially aggregated into watershed units, and combined to generate composite impact maps. The study concluded that the most affected watersheds are located in the central and southeastern part of Ladakh, along some of the most visited trails and within the Hemis and the Tsokar Tsomoriri National parks. The main objective of the study was to understand patterns of tourism-induced environmental degradation, so as to support mitigation interventions, as well as the development of suitable tourism policies.

  12. Evolution and outburst risk analysis of moraine-dammed lakes in the central Chinese Himalaya

    Shijin, Wang; Shitai, Jiao

    2015-04-01

    The recent evolution and outburst risk of two typical moraine-dammed lakes, Galong and Gangxi, central Chinese Himalaya, are analyzed using topographic maps from 1974 and Landsat satellite imagery acquired in 1988, 2000 and 2014. The datasets show the areas of Galong and Gangxi lakes increasing at rates of 0.45 and 0.34 km2/year during the period 1974-2014, an expansion of 501% and 107%, respectively, in the past 41 years, while the areas of the parent glaciers, Reqiang and Jipucong decreased by 44.22% and 37.76%, respectively. The accelerating retreat of the glaciers not only reflects their generally negative mass balance but is consistent with the rapid expansion of the moraine-dammed lakes. When acted upon by external forces such as earthquakes, heavy rainfall, rapid melting of glaciers and dead ice, and snow/ice/rock avalanches, these lakes can become extremely dangerous, easily forming outburst mudslides, which can potentially spread to the Poiqu river basin and develop into cross-border (China and Nepal) GLOF disasters. Therefore, there is an urgent need to strengthen integrated risk management of glacial lake outburst disasters with multiple objectives and modes.

  13. Ground state potential energy surfaces around selected atoms from resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    Simon Schreck; Annette Pietzsch; Brian Kennedy; Conny Såthe; Miedema, Piter S.; Simone Techert; Strocov, Vladimir N.; Thorsten Schmitt; Franz Hennies; Jan-Erik Rubensson; Alexander Föhlisch

    2016-01-01

    Thermally driven chemistry as well as materials’ functionality are determined by the potential energy surface of a systems electronic ground state. This makes the potential energy surface a central and powerful concept in physics, chemistry and materials science. However, direct experimental access to the potential energy surface locally around atomic centers and to its long-range structure are lacking. Here we demonstrate how sub-natural linewidth resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering at ...

  14. Glacial Lake Outburst Flood Risk in the Poiqu/Bhote Koshi/Sun Koshi River Basin in the Central Himalayas

    Narendra Raj Khanal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Himalayas have experienced several glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs, and the risk of GLOFs is now increasing in the context of global warming. Poiqu watershed in the Tibet Autonomous Region, China, also known as the Bhote Koshi and Sun Koshi downstream in Nepal, has been identified as highly prone to GLOFs. This study explored the distribution of and changes in glacial lakes, past GLOFs and the resulting losses, risk from potential future GLOFs, and risk reduction initiatives within the watershed. A relationship was established between lake area and volume of lake water based on data from 33 lakes surveyed within the Hindu Kush Himalayan region, and the maximum possible discharge was estimated using this and other previously developed empirical equations. We recommend different strategies to reduce GLOF risk and highlight the need for a glacial lake monitoring and early-warning system. We also recommend strong regional cooperation, especially on issues related to transboundary rivers.

  15. Carbon allocation, sequestration and carbon dioxide mitigation under plantation forests of north western Himalaya, India

    Bandana Devi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The organic carbon and soils of the world comprise bulk of the terrestrial carbon and serve as amajorsink and source of atmospheric carbon. Increasing atmospheric concentrations of green house gases may be mitigated by increasing carbon sequestration in vegetation and soil. The study attempted to estimate biomass production and carbon sequestration potential of different plantation ecosystems in north western Himalaya, India. Biomass, carbon density of biomass, soil, detritus, carbon sequestration and CO2 mitigation potential were studied underdifferent plantation forest ecosystems comprising of eight different tree species viz.Quercus leucotrichophora, Pinus roxburghii, Acacia catechu, Acacia mollissima, Albizia procera, Alnus nitida, Eucalyptus tereticornisandUlmus villosa. Above (185.57 ? 48.99 tha-1 and below ground (42.47 ? 10.38 tha-1 biomass was maximum inUlmus villosa. The vegetation carbon density was maxium inAlbizia procera(118.37 ? 1.49 tha-1 and minimum (36.50 ? 9.87 tha-1 inAcacia catechu. Soil carbon density was maximum (219.86? 10.34 tha-1 inAlnus nitida, and minimum (170.83? 20.60 tha-1inPinus roxburghii. Detritus was higher inPinus roxburghii(6.79 ? 2.0 tha-1. Carbon sequestration (7.91? 3.4 tha-1 and CO2 mitigation potential (29.09 ? 12.78 tha-1 was maximum inUlmus villosa. Pearson correlation matrix revealed significant positive relationship of ecosystem carbon with plantation biomass, soil carbon and CO2 mitigation potential. With the emerging threat of climate change, such assessment of forest and soil carbon inventory would allow to devise best land management and policy decisions forsustainable management of fragile hilly ecosystem.

  16. Carbon allocation, sequestration and carbon dioxide mitigation under plantation forests of north western Himalaya, India

    Bandana Devi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The organic carbon and soils of the world comprise bulk of the terrestrial carbon and serve as a major sink and source of atmospheric carbon. Increasing atmospheric concentrations of green house gases may be mitigated by increasing carbon sequestration in vegetation and soil. The study attempted to estimate biomass production and carbon sequestration potential of different plantation ecosystems in north western Himalaya, India. Biomass, carbon density of biomass, soil, detritus, carbon sequestration and CO2 mitigation potential were studied under different plantation forest ecosystems comprising of eight different tree species: Quercus leucotrichophora, Pinus roxburghii, Acacia catechu, Acacia mollissima, Albizia procera, Alnusnitida, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Ulmus villosa. Above (185.5748.99tha-1 and below ground (42.4710.38 tha-1 biomass was maximum in Ulmus villosa. The vegetation carbon density was maxium in Albizia procera(118.371.49 tha-1 and minimum (36.509.87 tha-1 in Acacia catechu. Soil carbon density was maximum (219.8610.34 tha-1 in Alnus nitida, and minimum (170.8320.60 tha-1 in Pinus roxburghii. Detritus was higher in Pinus roxburghii (6.792.0 tha-1. Carbon sequestration (7.913.4 tha-1 and CO2 mitigation potential (29.0912.78 tha-1 was maximum in Ulmus villosa. Pearson correlation matrix revealed significant positive relationship of ecosystem carbon with plantation biomass, soil carbon and CO2 mitigation potential. With the emerging threat of climate change, such assessment of forest and soil carbon inventory would allow to devise best land management and policy decisions for sustainable management of fragile hilly ecosystem.

  17. Depositional environment and provenance of Middle Siwalik sediments in Tista valley, Darjiling District, Eastern Himalaya, India

    Abhik Kundu; Abdul Matin; Malay Mukul

    2012-02-01

    The frontal part of the active, wedge-shaped Indo-Eurasian collision boundary is defined by the Himalayan fold-and-thrust belt whose foreland basin accumulated sediments that eventually became part of the thrust belt and is presently exposed as the sedimentary rocks of the Siwalik Group. The rocks of the Siwalik Group have been extensively studied in the western and Nepal Himalaya and have been divided into the Lower, Middle and Upper Subgroups. In the Darjiling–Sikkim Himalaya, the Upper Siwalik sequence is not exposed and the Middle Siwalik Subgroup exposed in the Tista river valley of Darjiling Himalaya preserves a ∼325 m thick sequence of sandstone, conglomerate and shale. The Middle Siwalik section has been repeated by a number of north dipping thrusts. The sedimentary facies and facies associations within the lithostratigraphic column of the Middle Siwalik rocks show temporal repetition of sedimentary facies associations suggesting oscillation between proximal-, mid- and distal fan setups within a palaeo-alluvial fan depositional environment similar to the depositional setup of the Siwalik sediments in other parts of the Himalaya. These oscillations are probably due to a combination of foreland-ward movement of Himalayan thrusts, climatic variations and mountain-ward shift of fanapex due to erosion. The Middle Siwalik sediments were derived from Higher- and Lesser Himalayan rocks. Mineral characteristics and modal analysis suggest that sedimentation occurred in humid climatic conditions similar to the moist humid climate of the present day Eastern Himalaya.

  18. Precipitation and snow cover in the Himalaya: from reanalysis to regional climate simulations

    M. Mngoz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We applied a Regional Climate Model (RCM to simulate precipitation and snow cover over the Himalaya, between March 2000 and December 2002. Due to its higher resolution, our model simulates a more realistic spatial variability of wind and precipitation than those of the reanalysis of the European Centre of Medium range Weather Forecast (ECMWF used as lateral boundaries. In this region, we found very large discrepancies between the estimations of precipitation provided by reanalysis, rain gauges networks, satellite observations, and our RCM simulation. Our model clearly underestimates precipitation at the foothills of the Himalaya and in its eastern part. However, our simulation provides a first estimation of liquid and solid precipitation in high altitude areas, where satellite and rain gauge networks are not very reliable. During the two years of simulation, our model resembles the snow cover extent and duration quite accurately in these areas. Both snow accumulation and snow cover duration differ widely along the Himalaya: snowfall can occur during the whole year in western Himalaya, due to both summer monsoon and mid-latitude low pressure systems bringing moisture into this region. In Central Himalaya and on the Tibetan Plateau, a much more marked dry season occurs from October to March. Snow cover does not have a pronounced seasonal cycle in these regions, since it depends both on the quite variable duration of the monsoon and on the rare but possible occurrence of snowfall during the extra-monsoon period.

  19. Saving the Cryosphere in the Arctic and the Himalayas: Mitigation of Short Lived Climate Pollutants

    Ramanathan, V.

    2012-12-01

    Observations reveal that the polar warming is hastened by the pole ward retreat of the extra-tropical storm track clouds and the sea-ice albedo feedback. The cloud systems associated with the storm tracks are the dominant radiative cooling cloud systems in the planet and their retreat adds more solar energy to the extra-tropical oceans. This is further amplified by the observed reduction in the arctic albedo due to the retreat of the sea-ice. Complicating this situation is the darkening of the arctic cryosphere by black carbon deposition. Over the Himalayas on the other hand, the thermo dynamical feedback involving water vapor amplifies surface warming over the elevated regions of Himalayas-Tibet by factors ranging from1 .5 to 2. This elevated warming is further amplified by black carbon in two distinctly different ways: First absorption of solar radiation in the atmosphere by black carbon has been shown to warm the layers above 5 km by as much as the warming due to CO2. Next, long range transport of black carbon, leads to deposition of black carbon over the bright snow and ice darkens them and enhances the absorption of intense tropical solar radiation over the Himalayas. After summarizing recent observations over the arctic and the Himalayas, we will show how mitigation of the four short lived climate pollutants (methane, black carbon, ozone and HFCs) can significantly slow down the arctic warming and the large warming observed over the elevated regions of the Himalayas-Tibet.

  20. Ground state potential energy surfaces around selected atoms from resonant inelastic x-ray scattering.

    Schreck, Simon; Pietzsch, Annette; Kennedy, Brian; Såthe, Conny; Miedema, Piter S; Techert, Simone; Strocov, Vladimir N; Schmitt, Thorsten; Hennies, Franz; Rubensson, Jan-Erik; Föhlisch, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Thermally driven chemistry as well as materials' functionality are determined by the potential energy surface of a systems electronic ground state. This makes the potential energy surface a central and powerful concept in physics, chemistry and materials science. However, direct experimental access to the potential energy surface locally around atomic centers and to its long-range structure are lacking. Here we demonstrate how sub-natural linewidth resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering at vibrational resolution is utilized to determine ground state potential energy surfaces locally and detect long-range changes of the potentials that are driven by local modifications. We show how the general concept is applicable not only to small isolated molecules such as O2 but also to strongly interacting systems such as the hydrogen bond network in liquid water. The weak perturbation to the potential energy surface through hydrogen bonding is observed as a trend towards softening of the ground state potential around the coordinating atom. The instrumental developments in high resolution resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering are currently accelerating and will enable broad application of the presented approach. With this multidimensional potential energy surfaces that characterize collective phenomena such as (bio)molecular function or high-temperature superconductivity will become accessible in near future. PMID:26821751

  1. Ground state potential energy surfaces around selected atoms from resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    Schreck, Simon; Pietzsch, Annette; Kennedy, Brian; Såthe, Conny; Miedema, Piter S.; Techert, Simone; Strocov, Vladimir N.; Schmitt, Thorsten; Hennies, Franz; Rubensson, Jan-Erik; Föhlisch, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Thermally driven chemistry as well as materials’ functionality are determined by the potential energy surface of a systems electronic ground state. This makes the potential energy surface a central and powerful concept in physics, chemistry and materials science. However, direct experimental access to the potential energy surface locally around atomic centers and to its long-range structure are lacking. Here we demonstrate how sub-natural linewidth resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering at vibrational resolution is utilized to determine ground state potential energy surfaces locally and detect long-range changes of the potentials that are driven by local modifications. We show how the general concept is applicable not only to small isolated molecules such as O2 but also to strongly interacting systems such as the hydrogen bond network in liquid water. The weak perturbation to the potential energy surface through hydrogen bonding is observed as a trend towards softening of the ground state potential around the coordinating atom. The instrumental developments in high resolution resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering are currently accelerating and will enable broad application of the presented approach. With this multidimensional potential energy surfaces that characterize collective phenomena such as (bio)molecular function or high-temperature superconductivity will become accessible in near future.

  2. Alteraciones musculares en montaistas que ascendieron a Los Himalayas

    SH, Torres; HJ, Finol; A, Brito; H, Rivera.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El ascenso a los Montes Himalayas de un grupo de escaladores venezolanos permiti la obtencin de muestras de msculo esqueltico dos meses antes y un mes despus de la expedicin, con el objeto de estudiar los cambios producidos por la altura. Se tom biopsia del msculo quadriceps femoris con la a [...] guja de Bergstrm en 5 sujetos dos meses antes, y en 4 sujetos un mes despus de realizada la expedicin. Las muestras fueron procesadas para estudio histoqumico con el objeto de clasificar los tipos de fibras musculares mediante la reaccin de la adenosina trifosfatasa miofibrilar; los capilares se evidenciaron con la reaccin de la a-amilasa-PAS. Adems se estudi la ultraestructura con microscopa electrnica de transmisin. Se encontr que los sujetos cuyo msculo estaba en mejores condiciones alcanzaron la meta de 7.100 metros de altura. Estos sujetos presentaron posteriormente dao muscular segmentario marcado, en forma de atrofia muscular, dao capilar e infiltracin de macrfagos. No hubo modificacin en la proporcin de los tipos de fibras. Se concluye que la actuacin depende del estado previo del msculo y que la hipoxia, el esfuerzo muscular y el fro combinados, producen lesiones musculares segmentarias que persisten al menos por un mes. Abstract in english Skeletal muscle needle biopsies were obtained from quadriceps femoris muscle in five venezuelan climbers, two months before, and in four of the subjects, one month after an expedition to the Himalayas Mountains. In the samples, fibre types were determined by the miofibrillar adenosin triphosphatase [...] reaction, and capillaries were stained with the a-amylase-PAS reaction. Part of each sample was processed for ultrastructural study. The climbers performance was related to the previous state of the muscle. The three subjects that reached the goal of 7100 m altitude were those with normal of slightly altered muscles in the biopsy before the expedition. One month after the descent, muscle showed segmental alterations manifested as atrophy, capillary damage and infiltration of macrophages. No change was found in muscle fibre proportions. It is concluded that performance of the climbers depends on the previous state of skeletal muscle, and that the combined effect of altitude, exercise and cold produced segmental damage in skeletal muscle.

  3. Integration of Classification Tree Analyses and Spatial Metrics to Assess Changes in Supraglacial Lakes in the Karakoram Himalaya

    Bulley, H. N.; Bishop, M. P.; Shroder, J. F.; Haritashya, U. K.

    2007-12-01

    Alpine glacier responses to climate chnage reveal increases in retreat with corresponding increases in production of glacier melt water and development of supraglacial lakes. The rate of occurrence and spatial extent of lakes in the Himalaya are difficult to determine because current spectral-based image analysis of glacier surfaces are limited through anisotropic reflectance and lack of high quality digital elevation models. Additionally, the limitations of multivariate classification algorithms to adequately segregate glacier features in satellite imagery have led to an increased interest in non-parametric methods, such as classification and regression trees. Our objectives are to demonstrate the utility of a semi-automated approach that integrates classification- tree-based image segmentation and object-oriented analysis to differentiate supraglacial lakes from glacier debris, ice cliffs, lateral and medial moraines. The classification-tree process involves a binary, recursive, partitioning non-parametric method that can account for non-linear relationships. We used 2002 and 2004 ASTER VNIR and SWIR imagery to assess the Baltoro Glacier in the Karakoram Himalaya. Other input variables include the normalized difference water index (NDWI), ratio images, Moran's I image, and fractal dimension. The classification tree was used to generate initial image segments and it was particularly effective in differentiating glacier features. The object-oriented analysis included the use of shape and spatial metrics to refine the classification-tree output. Classification-tree results show that NDWI is the most important single variable for characterizing the glacier-surface features, followed by NIR/IR ratio, IR band, and IR/Red ratio variables. Lake features extracted from both images show there were 142 lakes in 2002 as compared to 188 lakes in 2004. In general, there was a significant increase in planimetric area from 2002 to 2004, and we documented the formation of 46 new lakes. It appears that lake-size increments occur mostly in the lower part of the ablation zone, whereas most of the new lakes are formed in the upper part of the ablation zone. The classification-tree outputs are intuitive and the data-derived thresholds eliminate commonly subjective visual determination of threshold values. Semi-automated methods thus have the potential of eliminating laborious visual multi-temporal analysis of glacier-surface change, thereby producing consistent and replicable results needed to assess the trends of alpine-glacier response to climate change in the Himalaya.

  4. Therapeutic potential of functional selectivity in the treatment of heart failure

    Christensen, Gitte Lund; Aplin, Mark; Hansen, Jakob Lerche

    2010-01-01

    Adrenergic and angiotensin receptors are prominent targets in pharmacological alleviation of cardiac remodeling and heart failure, but their use is associated with cardiodepressant side effects. Recent advances in our understanding of seven transmembrane receptor signaling show that it is possible...... to design ligands with "functional selectivity," acting as agonists on certain signaling pathways while antagonizing others. This represents a major pharmaceutical opportunity to separate desired from adverse effects governed by the same receptor. Accordingly, functionally selective ligands are...... currently pursued as next-generation drugs for superior treatment of heart failure....

  5. Forest resource use pattern in Kedarnath wildlife sanctuary and its fringe areas (a case study from Western Himalaya, India)

    The rural population of Himalaya has been strongly dependent on the forest resources for their livelihood for generations. The present study, carried out at three different altitudes of Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary (KWLS), explored forest resource-use patterns to understand rural peoples' dependency on the adjacent forests. A total of six forests were selected and the seven dependent villages were surveyed for the study of forest resource use patterns in relation to their socioeconomic status. Average fuelwood and fodder consumption were found to be 2.42 kg/capita/day and 43.96 kg/household/day respectively which was higher than the earlier reported values. Average fuelwood consumption by temporary dhaba (roadside refreshment establishments) owners (52.5 kg/dhaba/day) is much higher than the permanent villagers. Average cultivated land per family was less than 1 ha (0.56 ha). Inaccessibility of the area and deprived socio-economic status of the locals are largely responsible for the total dependency of the local inhabitants on nearby forests for fuelwood, fodder and other life supporting demands. Extensive farming of fuelwood trees on less used, barren land and establishment of fodder banks could be the alternative to bridge the gap between the demand and supply. Active participation of local people is mandatory for the conservation of these forests. - Highlights: • We studied energy consumption at different altitudes in Western Himalaya of India. • On an average, fuelwood and fodder consumption is 2.42 kg/capita/day and 43.96 kg/household/day respectively. • Maximum fuelwood (3.24 kg/capita/day) at higher and fodder consumption (1800 kg/household/day) at middle altitudes was recorded. • Dhabas (roadside refreshment establishments) consume much more fuelwood as compared to the permanent villagers (P<0.000, t-test). • Fuelwood consumption showed significant negative relationship with LPG (−0.87) and kerosene oil (−0.89)

  6. Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) oviposition site selection stimuli on sugarcane, and potential field applications

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), a key pest of sugarcane and rice in Texas that has recently invaded Louisiana, has not been successfully controlled using chemical insecticides or biological control agents. This greenhouse-based study examined selected sugarcane leaf characteristics,...

  7. Antioxidant potential of selected supplements in vitro and the problem of its extrapolation for in vivo

    Julija Ogrin Papić; Borut Poljšak

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: antioxidants, free radicals and oxidative stress have been studied extensively for quite some time but their role in diseases and their prevention has not been clearly determined. Because commercialantioxidants do not need to pass clinical tests in order to be sold over the counter we have decided to test the antioxidant potential of different commercial preparations with the antioxidative properties.Methods: pH, rH and oxidant-reduction potential of different preparations in aq...

  8. Geodetic and Seismic Investigation of Crustal Deformation in Northwest Himalaya

    Pasari, S.; Dikshit, O., Sr.; Kato, T.

    2014-12-01

    Underthrusting of Indian plate beneath the Eurasian plate results into a persistent compression and strain accumulation along a north-dipping detachment zone in the Himalayan orogen, producing a number of moderate and great interplate earthquakes. In this study, we present the ongoing crustal deformation from our GPS network comprising eight continuously operating permanent stations and three profiles of campaign stations which are lined up perpendicular to the Himalayan mega thrust faults. The campaign stations clearly reveal the ongoing deformation near the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT) and the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) zones. We further combine our geodetic results with the probalistic earthquake hazards of the northwestern Himalaya (280-320N, 740-800E) to provide a comprehensive report on the seismic hazard scenario of the thickly populated Himalayan cities. For this, the earthquake interevent times and conditional probabilities for events exceeding magnitude 6.0 are estimated from thirteen different probability models, namely exponential, gamma, lognormal, Weibull, Levy, Maxwell, Pareto, Rayleigh, inverse Gaussian (Brownian passage time), inverse Weibull (Frechet), exponentiated exponential, exponentiated Rayleigh (Burr type X), and exponentiated Weibull distributions.

  9. Three hitherto unreported macro-fungi from Kashmir Himalaya

    The Himalayan state, Jammu and Kashmir due to its climate ranging from tropical deciduous forests to temperate and coniferous forests provides congenial habitat for the growth of diverse macro fungal species which in turn gives it the status of 'hub' of macro-fungal species. The macro fungal species richness of the state is directly related to its expansive forest communities and diverse weather patterns, but all the regions of the state have not been extensively surveyed till now. In this backdrop, a systematic survey for exploration and inventorization of macro fungal species of Western Kashmir Himalaya was undertaken during the year 2009 and 2010, which in turn resulted identification of the three species viz., Thelephora caryophyllea (Schaeff.) Pers., Coltricia cinnamomea (Pers.) Murr., and Guepinia helvelloides Fr. as new reports from the Kashmir. These species were identified on the basis of macro and microscopic characters and also the aid of taxonomic keys, field manuals, mushroom herbaria and help from expert taxonomists in the related field was taken into account. (author)

  10. Ethnobotanical uses of Biofencing Plants in Himachal Pradesh, Northwest Himalaya

    Pankaj Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to document the traditional knowledge on the utilization of Biofencing plants of Himachal Pradesh, Northwest Himalaya. The study was imperative because of dearth in the data pertaining to Biofencing plants in the study areas. The whole study area was stratified into three zones and a widespread field survey and random sampling method was adopted to assess the live fencing diversity of the region. The region occupies total 61 species. 10 (trees, 45 (shrubs, 4 (herbs and 2 were climbers. These belong to the 25 families. Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Berberidaceae, Elaeagnaceae and Euphorbiaceae are dominant families. Among genera, Berberis and Rosa are dominant. Of the total, 55 species are medicinally important and among these 20% are used for stomach disorders; 17% (skin complaints, 14% (asthma, 11% (fever and joint pains, 3% (aphrodisiac and snake bite, 1% (anticancerous and nerve disorders. Ethnobotanical assessment showed that 33 of the recorded species are used as fuel, 20 (edible, 8 (fodder and 4 (fiber and ornamental. This traditional knowledge of Biofencing plants contributes to the conservation of biodiversity and provides resource of economic and ecological interest and also decreasing the pressure on forests. So there is need to encourage the practice of using plant species for fencing in this region.

  11. The mammalian fauna from the Central Himalaya, Nepal

    Hem Bahadur Katuwal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Nepal harbors unique mammalian fauna, but it is poorly studied at higher elevation. Mammalian fauna were recorded in Manaslu Conservation Area, Dudhkunda and Dudhkoshi valley of Solukhumbu district and Kanchenjunga Conservation Area of Nepal during March 2011 to April 2013 along the trail and the study plots from 700m to 4400m a.s.l. Semi-structured interviews were made with local people to understand their behavior and habitats. Altogether, 29 mammalian fauna were recorded. Five species were recorded new for the areas. Overall, Carnivore species (nine were encountered more, followed by species of the order Cetartiodactyla (seven. The highest number of mammalian fauna (18 was identified from Manaslu Conservation Area whereas the least (11 from Dudhkunda and Dudhkoshi valley. Human wildlife conflict was frequent with Himalayan Goral (Naemorhedus goral, Barking Deer (Muntiacus vaginalis, Himalayan Tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus, Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta, Nepal Grey Langur (Semnopithecus schistaceus and Himalayan Black Bear (Ursus thibetanus for crop depredation in these areas. Although mammalian research started a long time ago, scenario of comprehensive research is not satisfactory in the Central Himalaya, Nepal.

  12. Survey of radon and thoron in homes of Indian Himalaya.

    Ramola, Rakesh Chand

    2011-07-01

    Measurements of radon, thoron and their progeny were carried out in some houses from Garhwal and Kumaun Himalayas of India using a LR-115 plastic track detector. The measurements were made in various residential houses of the area at a height of 2.5 m above the ground level using a twin chamber radon dosemeter, which can record the values of radon, thoron and their progeny separately. The concentrations of radon and thoron in these homes were found to vary from 11 to 191 and 1 to 156 Bq m(-3), respectively. The equilibrium factor between radon and progeny varies from 0.02 to 0.90, with an average of 0.26 for the region. The resulting dose rate due to radon, thoron and their decay products was found to vary from 0.02 to 0.84 ?Sv h(-1) with an arithmetic mean of 0.27 ?Sv h(-1). A detailed analysis of the distribution of radon, thoron and their decay products inside a house is also reported. The observed dose rates due to radon, thoron and progeny were found somewhat higher but well below the international recommendations. PMID:21486831

  13. Deep structure over the eastern syntaxis of the Himalaya

    Complete text of publication follows. Magnetotelluric surveys were conducted over two profiles for mapping the major tectonic features over the eastern syntaxial bend. These studies over the main frontal thrust and Main boundary thrust of the Himalaya and the Mishmi thrust in the Indo Burman range have shown that the signatures of these thrusts at deeper level are not coincident with their corresponding surface expressions. Thus main frontal and the main boundary thrusts are traced about 20 km south of the surface manifestations where as the Mishmi thrust at deeper levels is about 25 km west of the location observed on the surface. The global positioning studies (Gan, W, et al. (2007) J. Geophys. Res. Article No: B08416) are indicative of eastward (transverse to the strike) movements of the sedimentary overburden north of the main frontal thrust, in this region. Another conspicuous feature is the south dipping thrust / reverse fault delineated to the north of the Main frontal thrust earlier observed in the Tawang-Bomdilla region (Gokarn et al, 2008, 19th EM induction workshop, Beijing China). Its signatures at shallow depth in this region are however obscured by the presence of then supracrustal deposits of the Abhor volcanics and Yinkiang formations occurring in small discrete patches in the close vicinity of this feature.

  14. Millenary Mw > 9.0 earthquakes required by geodetic strain in the Himalaya

    Stevens, V. L.; Avouac, J.-P.

    2016-02-01

    The Himalayan arc produced the largest known continental earthquake, the Mw ≈ 8.7 Assam earthquake of 1950, but how frequently and where else in the Himalaya such large-magnitude earthquakes occur is not known. Paleoseismic evidence for coseismic ruptures at the front of the Himalaya with 15 to 30 m of slip suggests even larger events in medieval times, but this inference is debated. Here we estimate the frequency and magnitude of the largest earthquake in the Himalaya needed so that the moment released by seismicity balances the deficit of moment derived from measurements of geodetic strain. Assuming one third of the moment buildup is released aseismically and the earthquakes roughly follow a Gutenberg-Richter distribution, we find that Mw > 9.0 events are needed with a confidence level of at least 60% and must return approximately once per 800 years on average.

  15. Monsoon variability in the Himalayas under the condition of global warming

    An ice core-drilling program was carried out at the accumulation area of Dasuopu glacier (28deg23'N, 85deg43'E, 7100 m a.s.l.) in the central Himalayas in 1997. The ice core was analyzed continuously for stable isotopes (δ18O), and major ions throughout the core. Cycles indicated by δ18O, cations were identified and counted as seasonal fluctuations as annual increment from maximum to maximum values. Reconstructed 300-year annual net accumulation (water equivalent) from the core, with a good correlation to Indian monsoon, reflects a major precipitation trend in the central Himalayas. The accumulation trend, separated from the time series, shows a strong negative correlation to Northern Hemisphere temperature. Generally, as northern hemisphere temperature increases 0.1degC, the accumulation decreases about 80 mm, reflecting monsoon rainfall in the central Himalayas has decreased over the past decades in the condition of global warming. (author)

  16. Host Selection of Potential West Nile Virus Vectors in Puerto Barrios, Guatemala, 2007

    Kading, Rebekah C.; Reiche, Ana Silvia Gonzalez; Morales-Betoulle, Maria Eugenia; Komar, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    The selection of vertebrate hosts by Culex mosquitoes relative to West Nile virus (WNV) transmission in neotropical countries such as Guatemala is not described. This study determined the feeding patterns of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. nigripalpus and estimated the relative contribution of two common and frequently infected wild bird species, Turdus grayi and Quiscalus mexicanus, to WNV transmission. Engorged mosquitoes were collected from rural and urban habitats after the dry and wet seasons in the Department of Izabal in 2007. Host selection by Cx. nigripalpus varied significantly between urban and rural habitats. Both Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. nigripalpus fed predominantly on chickens and other domestic animals. Blood meals from wild birds were rare, accounting for 1.1% of blood meals identified from Cx. quinquefasciatus and 6.5% of blood meals from Cx. nigripalpus. Transmission of WNV by these two mosquito species may be dampened by extensive feeding on reservoir-incompetent hosts. PMID:23208881

  17. Pollination effectiveness of different strawberry floral visitors in Ribatejo, Portugal : selection of potential pollinators : Part 2

    Albano, Sílvia; Salvado, Eva; Duarte, Sónia; Mexia, António; Borges, Paulo A. V.

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out in a strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) field located in Ribatejo, Portugal, and aims to describe the qualitative component of the visits for three strawberry floral visitors, attaining the best results in a previous work. The main objectives were: (1) to assess the pollination rate (PR) resulting from a single visit of Apis mellifera L., Syrphidae and native bees, and (2) to characterize the foraging behaviour of each of these categories in order to select the ...

  18. Potential evapotranspiration and its impact on autumn phenological phases of selected plants

    The work deals with the assessment of the impact of water balance on the timing of phenological phases at two locations (Hips and Bukovina), on the selected tree species (hazel (Corylus avellana L.), hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.), sessile oak (Quercus petraea, Liebl.)). Phenological observations have been held since 2007, and together with measurements of meteorological parameters allow us to evaluate the microclimate in the stands in detail. (authors)

  19. Evaluation of antifungal potential of selected medicinal plants against human pathogenic fungi

    Hayat Sakander; Bhat Akhilesh; A Raveesha Koteshwara

    2015-01-01

    Context: Evaluation of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine lead to novel bioactive compounds with antifungal activity that could be exploited as therapeutic agents. Aims: The aim was to screen selected medicinal plants for antifungal activity against three important human pathogenic fungi and to identify the broad group of phytochemicals responsible for the activity. Materials and Methods: A total of 8 medicinal plants were screened for antifungal activity against three human pathog...

  20. Beyond EICA : understanding post-establishment evolution requires a broader evaluation of potential selection pressures

    Joshua Atwood; Laura Meyerson

    2011-01-01

    Research on post-establishment evolution in nonnative plant populations has focused almost exclusively on testing the Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability (EICA) hypothesis, which posits that the lack of specialized herbivores in the invaded range drives evolution in nonnative plant populations. Fifteen years of conflicting EICA test results suggest that selection pressures other than specialized herbivory are important in driving post-establishment evolution in invasive species. Altern...

  1. Potential Selective Responding in a Parent Questionnaire Study of Post-Institutionalized Children.

    Hawk, Brandi N; Wright, Amanda; Julian, Megan M; Rosas, Johana M; Merz, Emily C; McCall, Robert B

    2013-01-01

    Selective responding bias, though under-researched, is of particular concern in the study of post-institutionalized children because many studies rely on mailed questionnaires and response rates are often low. The current study addresses the impact of selective responding in a single wave of data collection and in a multi-wave study. Participants were 121 parents from a larger four-wave study of post-institutionalized children, identified as Never Responders, Previous Responders (but not to the current wave), or Wave 4 Responders. Parents were telephoned and asked about their adopted child's family, school, peer, and behavioral adjustment. The children (47% male) ranged in age from 2 to 20 years (M = 10.79, SD = 4.59) and had been adopted between 5 and 54 months of age (M = 15.49, SD = 9.94). There were no differences in parent ratings of adjustment for a single wave of data collection; however, participants who never responded reported poorer family and peer adjustment than those who had responded to at least one wave of data collection. Within a single wave of data collection, there was no evidence that selective responding contributes much bias. Over a multi-wave study, however, results may under-represent adjustment difficulties, especially with family and friends. PMID:23710124

  2. Canola Cake as a Potential Substrate for Proteolytic Enzymes Production by a Selected Strain of Aspergillus oryzae: Selection of Process Conditions and Product Characterization

    Freitas, Adriana C.; Castro, Ruann J. S.; Fontenele, Maria A.; Egito, Antonio S.; Farinas, Cristiane S.; Pinto, Gustavo A. S.

    2013-01-01

    Oil cakes have excellent nutritional value and offer considerable potential for use in biotechnological processes that employ solid-state fermentation (SSF) for the production of high value products. This work evaluates the feasibility of using canola cake as a substrate for protease production by a selected strain of Aspergillus oryzae cultivated under SSF. The influences of the following process parameters were considered: initial substrate moisture content, incubation temperature, inoculum size, and pH of the buffer used for protease extraction and activity analysis. Maximum protease activity was obtained after cultivating Aspergillus oryzae CCBP 001 at 20C, using an inoculum size of 107?spores/g in canola cake medium moistened with 40?mL of water to 100?g of cake. Cultivation and extraction under selected conditions increased protease activity 5.8-fold, compared to the initial conditions. Zymogram analysis of the enzymatic extract showed that the protease molecular weights varied between 31 and 200?kDa. The concentrated protease extract induced clotting of casein in 5?min. The results demonstrate the potential application of canola cake for protease production under SSF and contribute to the technological advances needed to increase the efficiency of processes designed to add value to agroindustrial wastes. PMID:24455400

  3. Canola Cake as a Potential Substrate for Proteolytic Enzymes Production by a Selected Strain of Aspergillus oryzae: Selection of Process Conditions and Product Characterization.

    Freitas, Adriana C; Castro, Ruann J S; Fontenele, Maria A; Egito, Antonio S; Farinas, Cristiane S; Pinto, Gustavo A S

    2013-12-25

    Oil cakes have excellent nutritional value and offer considerable potential for use in biotechnological processes that employ solid-state fermentation (SSF) for the production of high value products. This work evaluates the feasibility of using canola cake as a substrate for protease production by a selected strain of Aspergillus oryzae cultivated under SSF. The influences of the following process parameters were considered: initial substrate moisture content, incubation temperature, inoculum size, and pH of the buffer used for protease extraction and activity analysis. Maximum protease activity was obtained after cultivating Aspergillus oryzae CCBP 001 at 20C, using an inoculum size of 10(7)?spores/g in canola cake medium moistened with 40?mL of water to 100?g of cake. Cultivation and extraction under selected conditions increased protease activity 5.8-fold, compared to the initial conditions. Zymogram analysis of the enzymatic extract showed that the protease molecular weights varied between 31 and 200?kDa. The concentrated protease extract induced clotting of casein in 5?min. The results demonstrate the potential application of canola cake for protease production under SSF and contribute to the technological advances needed to increase the efficiency of processes designed to add value to agroindustrial wastes. PMID:24455400

  4. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors Potentiate the Rapid Antidepressant-Like Effects of Serotonin4 Receptor Agonists in the Rat

    Lucas, Guillaume; Du, Jenny; Romeas, Thomas; Mnie-Filali, Ouissame; Haddjeri, Nasser; Piñeyro, Graciela; Debonnel, Guy

    2010-01-01

    Background We have recently reported that serotonin4 (5-HT4) receptor agonists have a promising potential as fast-acting antidepressants. Here, we assess the extent to which this property may be optimized by the concomitant use of conventional antidepressants. Methodology/Principal Findings We found that, in acute conditions, the 5-HT4 agonist prucalopride was able to counteract the inhibitory effect of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) fluvoxamine and citalopram on 5-HT neur...

  5. Bone-sparing and anti-inflammatory potential of the novel selective glucocorticoid receptor modulator, compound A

    Thiele, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common chronic inflammatory disease that affects about 1% of the Western population. Glucocorticoids (GC) are widely used for the treatment of RA and other immune-mediated diseases, such as asthma, but their use is associated with adverse effects on bone metabolism. Because of that, new selective GC receptor (GR) agonists (SEGRAs) with the potential for an improved risk/benefit profile have been developed. Compound A (CpdA) is a novel SEGRA, which showed an impr...

  6. Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors potentiate gene blunting induced by repeated methylphenidate treatment: Zif268 vs. Homer1a

    Van Waes, Vincent; Vandrevala, Malcolm; Beverley, Joel; Steiner, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing use of psychostimulants such as methylphenidate (Ritalin; dopamine reuptake inhibitor) for medical treatments and as cognitive enhancers in the healthy. Methylphenidate is known to produce some addiction-related gene regulation. Recent findings in animal models show that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) including fluoxetine can potentiate acute induction of gene expression by methylphenidate, thus indicating an acute facilitatory role for serotonin in dopamin...

  7. Free ion selective radionuclide extraction (FISRE) and the targeting potential of theranostic radio-complexes

    The present paper briefly discusses molecular targeting, receptors, and distribution, all set in the context of the use of radiolabelled and chelated peptides in peptide receptor scintigraphy (PRS) and peptide radionuclide therapy (PRRT). The discussion further addresses the potential of compartmental modelling as a tool in optimization approaches for targeting complexes. The latter point is illustrated by the use of FISRE-methods and clinical data on 177Lu-DOTA-Tyr3-octreotate in a preliminary modelling trial, to show the principal relevance of various complex properties for targeting characteristics in optimization exercises. The results indicate that improving the complex dynamic stability may mimic improved complex targeting potential. (author)

  8. Status, threats and conservation strategies for orchids of western Himalaya, India

    J.S. Jalal

    2012-01-01

    The present study is an attempt to give an account of the current status of orchids based on recent surveys since 2002 to 2010 in various parts of western Himalaya. Based on rarity Index of species, orchids are categorised in four groups,—very rare, sparse, occasional and common. Results show that 40% of orchid species are very rare, 26% are sparse, 19% are occasional and 15% are common in western Himalaya. For the conservation of orchids, two orchid conservation areas are identified in Go...

  9. Antioxidant potential of selected supplements in vitro and the problem of its extrapolation for in vivo

    Julija Ogrin Papić

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: antioxidants, free radicals and oxidative stress have been studied extensively for quite some time but their role in diseases and their prevention has not been clearly determined. Because commercialantioxidants do not need to pass clinical tests in order to be sold over the counter we have decided to test the antioxidant potential of different commercial preparations with the antioxidative properties.Methods: pH, rH and oxidant-reduction potential of different preparations in aqueous solution was measured. Afterwards antioxidant potential using FormPlus® after adding the preparation to human blood as a morecomplex environment with different homeostasis mechanisms was determined.Results: all the results showed expected change compared to the control but the results in aqueous solution did not match the results obtained from the human blood, as was expected.Conclusion: from the experiments it can be concluded that while the preparations did show antioxidant activity, it is very difficult and even wrong to predict the antioxidant potential of an antioxidant preparationadded to human blood, let alone in a living organism, based just on the results obtained in aqueous solution. Further possibilities for research include more extensive studies of antioxidant preparations in more complex environment and last but not least in test organisms or in human trials.

  10. YIELD POTENTIAL OF SELECTED MEDICINAL HERBS AT THREE PLANT SPACINGS IN NEW MEXICO

    Field studies were conducted to determine the production potential of echinacea (Echinacea purpurea), valerian (Valeriana officinalis), mullein (Verbascum thapsus) and yerba mansa (Anemopsis californica) medicinal herbs at two sites in New Mexico. Las Cruces, N.M. is at an elevation of 1,186 m and h...

  11. Active prey selection in two pelagic copepods feeding on potentially toxic and non-toxic dinoflagellates

    Schultz, Mette; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Grazing on two red tide dinoflagellates, the potentially toxic Karenia mikimotoi and the non-toxic Gyrodinium instriatum, was examined in two species of marine copepods, Pseudocalanus elongatus and Temora longicornis. Both copepods cleared K. mikimotoi at rates that were a little lower but...

  12. FAMACHA: A potential tool for targeted selective treatment of chronic fasciolosis in sheep.

    Olah, Sophie; van Wyk, Jan A; Wall, Richard; Morgan, Eric R

    2015-09-15

    The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica causes considerable damage to the health, welfare and productivity of ruminants in temperate areas, and its control is challenged by anthelmintic resistance. Targeted selective treatment (TST) is an increasingly established strategy for preserving anthelmintic efficacy in grazing livestock, yet no practical indicators are available to target individuals for treatment against fluke infection. This paper evaluates the FAMACHA() system, a colour chart for the non-invasive detection of anaemia in small ruminants, for this purpose. FAMACHA() scores were collected from 288 sheep prior to slaughter during the winter period, when fluke infections were largely mature, and condemned livers were recovered and adult flukes extracted. Average FAMACHA() score was significantly higher (=paler conjunctivae) in animals whose livers were condemned (3.6, n=62) than in those whose livers were not condemned (2.1). The number of adult flukes recovered ranged from 2 to 485, and was positively correlated with FAMACHA() score (r(2)=0.54, p<0.001). Packed cell volume was correlated negatively with both FAMACHA() score (n=240, r=0.23, p<0.001) and fluke number (r=0.24, p<0.001). Nematode faecal egg count (FEC) did not correlate with FAMACHA() score, and selective treatment of individual sheep with FAMACHA() scores above 2 or 3 would have preserved between 27 and 100% of nematodes in refugia on the basis of FEC, depending on group and the threshold used for treatment. FAMACHA() holds promise as a tool for selective treatment of sheep against adult F. hepatica, in support of refugia-based control of fluke and nematode infections, and further field evaluation is warranted. PMID:26223154

  13. Maternal use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and risk of miscarriage - assessing potential biases

    Johansen, Rie Laurine Rosenthal; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Hansen, Anne Vinkel; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during pregnancy has been associated with miscarriage, but the association may be biased by maternal mental illness, lifestyle and exposure misclassification. METHODS: A register study on all pregnancies in Denmark between 1996.......37], respectively. No difference was observed for second trimester miscarriage. SSRI-exposed pregnancies without a maternal depression/anxiety diagnosis from a psychiatric department were less likely to result in first trimester miscarriage than unexposed pregnancies with a diagnosis, HR=0.85 [95% CI 0.76, 0...

  14. Analyzing production potential of selected food and legume crops for food security in Punjab, Pakistan

    The present study was designed to assess growth rate in area, yield and production of selected major food commodities and to project these parameters on the basis of estimated growth co-efficient. Time-series data for area, yield and production were collected for wheat, sugarcane, rice, mung and gram since 1980-81. The semi-log trend function was employed to find out the growth rate of selected commodities. The findings of the study showed the positive growth rates of area, production and yield of all selected food grain and legume crops. The estimated co-efficient for all growth models (area, production and yield) of selected commodities were statistically highly significant at 1 percentage level except yield of gram which was significant at 10 percentage level. The estimated annual growth rate of area for wheat, rice and sugarcane was 0.9 percentage, 2.1 percentage and 0.8 percentage, respectively with the production growth of 3.0 percentage, 3.8 percentage and 2.2 percentage, respectively and yield growth of 2.1 percentage, 1.6 percentage and 1.5 percentage, respectively. The results highlighted that the major contribution for expansion in production for rice and sugarcane was area while it was yield for wheat. In this scenario the wheat production can be enhanced by increasing its area than that of rice and sugarcane. The annual growth rate for gram and mung area was estimated about 1.0 v and 4.9 percentage, respectively, with the production growth rate of 2.3 percentage and 6.4 percentage while yield growth rate of 2.9 percentage and 1.4 percentage, respectively. Keeping in view the higher growth of gram yield the increase in its area may enhance its production more than that of mung. The proportionate higher increase in the area of wheat and gram may enhance the welfare of producers in particular and provide food security to masses in general. (author)

  15. Survey on basic knowledge about exposure and potential environmental and health risks for selected nanomaterials

    Mikkelsen, Sonja Hagen; Hansen, Erik; Christensen, Trine Boe; Baun, Anders; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Binderup, Mona-Lise

    Based on a literature review this report provides a general description as well as an environmental and health profile of 7 nanomaterials. The examined nanomaterials are selected because of expected high use or specific environmental and health properties. Fullerenes, iron, silver, nanoclay and...... titanium-, cerium-, and silicondioxides were studied in the project. Based on current uses, it is concluded that current applications of nano-iron and nanoclay can not cause unexpected “nano-associated” health or environmental problems. Although no specific risk associated with current uses of any of the 7...... other nanomaterials were identified, there are areas where there may be reason for attention and thus need for more knowledge....

  16. Late Pleistocene and Holocene large magnitude earthquakes along Himalayan Frontal Thrust in the Central Seismic Gap in NW Himalaya, Kala Amb, India

    Philip, G.; Bhakuni, S. S.; Suresh, N.

    2012-12-01

    The Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT) forms the southernmost active tectonic mountain front of the Himalaya. To understand the ongoing tectonics further, paleoseismological study has been carried out in the vicinity of the HFT system along the Himalayan Front near Kala Amb, India. The trench excavation survey conducted across an explicit surface exposure of the HFT exhibits two distinct faults considered to be associated with the reactivation of the HFT where the Middle Siwalik rocks (Late Miocene) have repeatedly thrust over the Late Pleistocene and Holocene sediments. Presence of large-sized coseismically induced sand-injection feature and its disposition recognized in the trench also suggest occurrence of large magnitude earthquakes in this region. An uplifted and upwarped strath terrace, 3 to 5 m thick alluvium, resting over the 15 m high Middle Siwaliks, abruptly truncated by the HFT indicates its latest activity. Optically Stimulated Luminescence dating techniques were employed to constrain the chronology of events. The long term slip rate of the abandoned terraces due to the activity of the HFT is estimated to be 3.4 mm/yr or greater since Late Holocene. The paleoseismological investigations have provided unambiguous evidences of at least two large magnitude earthquakes occurred in this region where an earthquake with 12 m or larger surface displacement and magnitude 7.5 or greater hit this region in the period between 29.3 ka and 17 ka in the Late Pleistocene and another great earthquake recurred with 20-22 m or more surface displacement and magnitude of 7.7 or greater between 5.8 ka and 2 ka in the Holocene. The present study is the first time report of multiple large magnitude paleoearthquakes in the northwestern part of the Frontal Himalaya during Late Pleistocene and Holocene. The repeated reactivation of HFT substantiates high seismic potential of the Frontal Himalaya and calls for more extensive study of paleoearthquakes of this vastly populous mountainous region.

  17. Differentiating between rain, snow, and glacier contributions to river discharge in the western Himalaya using remote-sensing data and distributed hydrological modeling

    Wulf, Hendrik; Bookhagen, Bodo; Scherler, Dirk

    2016-02-01

    Rivers draining the southern Himalaya provide most of the water supply for the densely populated Indo-Gangetic plains. Despite the importance of water resources in light of climate change, the relative contributions of rainfall, snow and glacier melt to discharge are not well understood, due to the scarcity of ground-based data in this complex terrain. Here, we quantify discharge sources in the Sutlej Valley, western Himalaya, from 2000 to 2012 with a distributed hydrological model that is based on daily, ground-calibrated remote-sensing observation. Based on the consistently good model performance, we analyzed the spatiotemporal distribution of hydrologic components and quantified their contribution to river discharge. Our results indicate that the Sutlej River's annual discharge at the mountain front is sourced to 55% by effective rainfall (rainfall reduced by evapotranspiration), 35% by snow melt and 10% by glacier melt. In the high-elevation orogenic interior glacial runoff contributes ∼30% to annual river discharge. These glacier melt contributions are especially important during years with substantially reduced rainfall and snowmelt runoff, as during 2004, to compensate for low river discharge and ensure sustained water supply and hydropower generation. In 2004, discharge of the Sutlej River totaled only half the maximum annual discharge; with 17.3% being sourced by glacier melt. Our findings underscore the importance of calibrating remote-sensing data with ground-based data to constrain hydrological models with reasonable accuracy. For instance, we found that TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) product 3B42 V7 systematically overestimates rainfall in arid regions of our study area by a factor of up to 5. By quantifying the spatiotemporal distribution of water resources we provide an important assessment of the potential impact of global warming on river discharge in the western Himalaya. Given the near-global coverage of the utilized remote-sensing datasets this hydrological modeling approach can be readily transferred to other data-sparse regions.

  18. Potential of 109Pd-labeled lymphocytes for selective lymphatic ablation.

    Fawwaz, R A; Oluwole, S; Srivastava, S; Wang, T S; Iga, C; Kuromoto, N; Hardy, M; Alderson, P O

    1984-12-01

    The biodistribution of lymphocytes labeled with 109Pd was investigated in Lewis rats to determine if they might be useful for selective lymphoid ablation. 109Pd-labeled lymphocytes demonstrated significant lymphoid localization. However, there was a fall in the accumulation of radiolabeled lymphocytes in lymphoid tissue when the 108Pd carrier dose or the 109Pd radioactive dose incorporated per 10(8) lymphocytes was increased from 0.12 mg to 0.20 mg and from 21.3 microCi to 54.6 microCi, respectively (P less than 0.001). 109Pd-labeled syngeneic and allogeneic lymphocytes demonstrated similar tissue distribution patterns. These results raise the possibility of using 109Pd-labeled lymphocytes for selective lymphoid ablation, but emphasize the need for using high specific activity 109Pd and large amounts of lymphocytes for labeling. This will minimize cell damage and allow maximum therapeutic results to be obtained. The use of large numbers of cells might best be accomplished by using donor lymphocytes. PMID:6335746

  19. Potential of /sup 109/Pd-labeled lymphocytes for selective lymphatic ablation

    Fawwaz, R.A.; Oluwole, S.; Srivastava, S.; Wang, T.S.T.; Iga, C.; Kuromoto, N.; Hardy, M.; Alderson, P.O.

    1984-12-01

    The biodistribution of lymphocytes labeled with /sup 109/Pd was investigated in Lewis rats to determine if they might be useful for selective lymphoid ablation. /sup 109/Pd-labeled lymphocytes demonstrated significant lymphoid localization. However, there was a fall in the accumulation of radiolabeled lymphocytes in lymphoid tissue when the /sup 108/Pd carrier dose or the /sup 109/Pd radioactive dose incorporated per 10/sup 8/ lymphocytes was increased from 0.12 mg to 0.20 mg and from 21.3 ..mu..Ci to 54.6 ..mu..Ci, respectively (P < 0.001). /sup 109/Pd-labeled syngeneic and allogeneic lymphocytes demonstrated similar tissue distribution patterns. These results raise the possibility of using /sup 109/Pd-labeled lymphocytes for selective lymphoid ablation, but emphasize the need for using high specific activity /sup 109/Pd and large amounts of lymphocytes for labeling. This will minimize cell damage and allow maximum therapeutic results to be obtained. The use of large numbers of cells might best be accomplished by using donor lymphocytes.

  20. Potential biochemical markers for selection of disease resistance in Vigna radiata

    The Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek (Green gram), a major pulse crop is prone to damaging diseases caused by Erysiphe polygoni, Cercospora canescens and Rhizoctonia sp. Therefore, the development of multiple resistance is a major breeding objective in green gram. Resistance to powdery mildew has already been developed, however, there are no reports on the development of resistance to Cercospora in green gram. Owing to limitation of conventional screening methods, the improvement for multiple disease resistance is inadequate, in this crop. It needs an efficient and quick selection method, for screening the plant population at an early stage. It is well established that the resistant interaction, in plants, involves accumulation of antibiotic compound phytoalexin (Genestein in Vigna radiata) and induction of enzymes such as β-1,3 gulcanase and Chitinases. These compounds are not only induced by pathogens but also pathogen-derived elicitors. These biochemical compounds can be used as resistance indicative biochemical markers for screening the natural or mutagen induced genetic diversity in populations of Vigna radiata in non-destructive manner. It, however, needs a systematic study of plant defense response. This paper deals with the response of resistant and susceptible cultivars of vigna radiata to Cercospora elicitor and development of non-destructive selection method for disease resistance. (author)

  1. Potential of Mean Force Calculations for Ion Selectivity in a Cyclic Peptide Nanotube

    Ion selectivity in a simple cyclic peptide nanotube, composed of four cyclo[-(D-Ala-Glu-D-Ala-Gln)2-] units, is investigated by calculating the PMF profiles of Na+, K+, and Cl. ions permeating through the peptide nanotube in water. The final PMF profiles of the ions obtained from the umbrella sampling (US) method show an excellent agreement with those from the thermodynamic integration (TI) method. The PMF profiles of Na+ and K+ display free energy wells while the PMF curve of Cl- features free energy barriers, indicating the selectivity of the cyclic peptide nanotube to cations. Decomposition of the total mean force into the contribution from each component in the system is also accomplished by using the TI method. The mean force decomposition profiles of Na+ and K+ demonstrate that the dehydration free energy barriers by water molecules near the channel entrance and inside the channel are completely compensated for by attractive electrostatic interactions between the cations and carbonyl oxygens in the nanotube. In the case of Cl-, the dehydration free energy barriers are not eliminated by an interaction between the anion and the peptide nanotube, leading to the high free energy barriers in the PMF profile. Calculations of the coordination numbers of the ions with oxygen atoms pertaining to either water molecules or carbonyl groups in the peptide nanotube reveal that the stabilization of the cations in the midplane regions of the nanotube arises from the favorable interaction of the cations with the negatively charged carbonyl oxygens

  2. The first MCL-1-selective BH3 mimetics have therapeutic potential for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Besbes, Samaher; Pocard, Marc; Mirshahi, Massoud; Billard, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Small-molecule BH3 mimetics are designed to mimic the BH3 domain of BH3-only BCL-2 family members which are antagonists of the prosurvival members (such as BCL-2, BCL-XL and MCL-1). The BH3 mimetics are intended to bind with high affinity to prosurvival proteins, in order to inhibit their functional activity and hence to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Both navitoclax (BCL-2/BCL-XL antagonist) and ABT-199/venetoclax (BCL-2-selective inhibitor) have demonstrated therapeutic efficacy especially in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). However, these BH3 mimetics cannot antagonize the prosurvival protein MCL-1 that is overexpressed and involved in therapeutic resistance in CLL. Furthermore, until now, none of the reported small-molecule MCL-1 inhibitors bound to their target with high affinity. The first MCL-1-selective BH3 mimetics capable of high-affinity binding and inducing apoptosis in cancer cells through an on-target mechanism have just been identified. This discovery should advance the translational research to implement novel drugs in treating CLL. PMID:26899021

  3. A regional climate study of aerosol impacts on Indian monsoon and precipitations over the Himalayas

    Solmon, F.; Von Hardenberg, J.; Nair, V.; Palazzi, E.

    2013-12-01

    In the context of the PAPRIKA program we are studying the potential effects of aerosol particle on Indian climate and Himalayan region. Using the RegCM4 regional climate model we performed some experiments including on-line representation of natural and anthropogenic aerosols for present day and future conditions over the CORDEX-India domain. Dynamical boundary forcing is taken for ERAI-Interim over the period 2000-2010, and chemical boundary-conditions are prescribed as a monthly climatology form an ECEARTH/CAM simulation for present day. Different set of anthropogenic emissions (SO2, carbonaceous aerosols) are considered (IPCC RCP4.5 and REAS) whereas natural aerosol (dust and sea-salt) are calculated on line. In order to account for aerosol radiative feedback on surface energy budget over the oceans, we also implemented a 'q-flux' slab ocean model as an alternative to pure SST forcing. After a step of validation of aerosol simulation against observations, we investigate through a series of experiments the dynamical feedback of direct radiative effect of aerosol over this domain, focusing specifically on Indian Monsoon and precipitation over the Himalayas. We discriminate the effect of anthropogenic vs. natural aerosol while outlining the main mechanism of the regional climate response, as well as the sensitivity to emissions inventory. Our results will be discussed notably against previous GCM based studies. Finally we will possibly discuss future projections based on RCP4.5 EC-EARTH forcing and including aerosol effects, as well as the potential radiative effects of absorbing aerosol deposition on the Himalayan snow covers.

  4. Potential of selected lactic acid bacteria to produce food compatible antifungal metabolites.

    De Muynck, Cassandra; Leroy, Annelies I J; De Maeseneire, Sofie; Arnaut, Filip; Soetaert, Wim; Vandamme, Erick J

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential of lactic acid bacteria to inhibit the outgrowth of some common food-spoiling fungi. Culture supernatants of 17 Lactic acid bacterial strains as well as of three commercial probiotic cultures were evaluated for antifungal activity using an agar-diffusion method. The method parameters were chosen in order to reveal compounds for potential use in food (bio)preservation. Thirteen strains showed antifungal activity of which five strains were very promising: Lactobacillus acidophilus LMG 9433, L. amylovorus DSM 20532, L. brevis LMG 6906, L. coryniformis subsp. coryniformis LMG 9196 and L. plantarum LMG 6907. Four of these five strains were further examined; it was found that the produced antifungal metabolites were pH-dependent. The exact chemical nature of these substances has not been revealed yet. PMID:15646380

  5. WOUND HEALING ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL POTENTIALS OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS USED BY MALAYALI TRIBES

    Ramya Subramanian; Gopinath Krishnasamy; Aruna Devaraj; Padmavathy Sethuraman; Ramaraj Jayakumararaj

    2011-01-01

    Healing chronic lower extremity wound is a problem worldwide, especially in developing countries. Aim of the present study is to document the traditional knowledge base / medicinal plants pertinent to healing wound popular among Malayali’s in Vattal Hills, Dharmapuri, Tamilnadu, India. Malayali’s in this area use a large number of plants extracts/ decoctions/ pastes to heal wound/ cut. Further, many of the plants used by Malayali’s have not been validated for their wound healing potential. Th...

  6. Potential of Radiotelescopes for Atmospheric Line Observations: I. Observation Principles and Transmission Curves for Selected Sites

    Schneider, Nicola; Urban, Joachim; Baron, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Existing and planned radiotelescopes working in the millimetre (mm) and sub-millimetre wavelengths range provide the possibility to be used for atmospheric line observations. To scrutinize this potential, we outline the differences and similarities in technical equipment and observing techniques between ground-based aeronomy mm-wave radiometers and radiotelescopes. Comprehensive tables summarizing the technical characteristics of existing and future (sub)-mm radiotelescopes are given. The adv...

  7. Computational Approach Towards Exploring Potential Anti-Chikungunya Activity of Selected Flavonoids.

    Seyedi, Seyedeh Somayeh; Shukri, Munirah; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Oo, Adrian; Muthu, Shankar Esaki; Abubakar, Sazaly; Zandi, Keivan

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes chikungunya infection in humans. Despite the widespread distribution of CHIKV, no antiviral medication or vaccine is available against this virus. Therefore, it is crucial to find an effective compound to combat CHIKV. We aimed to predict the possible interactions between non-structural protein 3 (nsP) of CHIKV as one of the most important viral elements in CHIKV intracellular replication and 3 potential flavonoids using a computational approach. The 3-dimensional structure of nsP3 was retrieved from the Protein Data Bank, prepared and, using AutoDock Vina, docked with baicalin, naringenin and quercetagetin as ligands. The first-rated ligand with the strongest binding affinity towards the targeted protein was determined based on the minimum binding energy. Further analysis was conducted to identify both the active site of the protein that reacts with the tested ligands and all of the existing intermolecular bonds. Compared to the other ligands, baicalin was identified as the most potential inhibitor of viral activity by showing the best binding affinity (-9.8 kcal/mol). Baicalin can be considered a good candidate for further evaluation as a potentially efficient antiviral against CHIKV. PMID:27071308

  8. The method of assessment of solar potential for selected area with use Geographical Information Systems

    Netzel P.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method for analyse the spatial distribution of solar energy potential based on calculated solar irradiation with use of GIS (Geographical Information System. Program GIS GRASS gives opportunity to create spatial distribution of solar radiation which is taking into account such important elements like: terrain, atmosphere, pollutants, water and aerosol in atmosphere, clouds. The use of GIS GRASS module – named r.sun gives opportunity to generate spatial distribution of solar radiation on Lower Silesia (south – west part of Poland. In this work the analyse of solar potential to obtain hot water in the individual household were done. This analyse was based on the amount of total solar radiation monthly sums generated by r.sun module. Spatial distribution of solar potential was used to classify the Lower Silesia region in terms of work efficiency solar installations. It is very usefully because it gives people information about the date of the return of the funds invested in the purchase of the solar collectors.

  9. Comparative Assessment Of Coastal Tourism Potentials Of Selected Areas In Rivers State Nigeria

    Obinwanne

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study examined coastal tourism potentials in Rivers State with emphasis on Opobo Bonny and Port Harcourt to determine the area that has comparative advantage for tourism development to optimally utilize resources. The study was conducted in Bonny Opobo and Port Harcourt of River State Nigeria. The area occupies the land close to the Atlantic Ocean within 60km radius from the coast. A survey design was adopted for the study. The instruments used were observation checklist and interview schedule. The instruments were tested for validity and reliability using five experts drawn from the field. The data collected were analyzed using ethnographic description method of analysis to answer research questions. The natural attractions found include mangrove forest sacred forests sacred rivers lakes beaches fishing rivers natural sources of drinking water and sanctuary. The cultural heritage resources were historical monument shrines museums different cultural festivals cultural materials and slave port. The man-made attractions were recreational park zoological garden and tourism village. It was found that there were more tourism potentials in Port Harcourt study site more than Bonny and Opobo sites and therefore Port Harcourt has comparative advantage over Bonny and Opobo for tourism development. Therefore efforts should be made and scarce resources utilized towards developing those coastal areas with best potentials and comparative advantage over others.

  10. Computational Approach Towards Exploring Potential Anti-Chikungunya Activity of Selected Flavonoids

    Seyedi, Seyedeh Somayeh; Shukri, Munirah; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Oo, Adrian; Muthu, Shankar Esaki; Abubakar, Sazaly; Zandi, Keivan

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes chikungunya infection in humans. Despite the widespread distribution of CHIKV, no antiviral medication or vaccine is available against this virus. Therefore, it is crucial to find an effective compound to combat CHIKV. We aimed to predict the possible interactions between non-structural protein 3 (nsP) of CHIKV as one of the most important viral elements in CHIKV intracellular replication and 3 potential flavonoids using a computational approach. The 3-dimensional structure of nsP3 was retrieved from the Protein Data Bank, prepared and, using AutoDock Vina, docked with baicalin, naringenin and quercetagetin as ligands. The first-rated ligand with the strongest binding affinity towards the targeted protein was determined based on the minimum binding energy. Further analysis was conducted to identify both the active site of the protein that reacts with the tested ligands and all of the existing intermolecular bonds. Compared to the other ligands, baicalin was identified as the most potential inhibitor of viral activity by showing the best binding affinity (−9.8 kcal/mol). Baicalin can be considered a good candidate for further evaluation as a potentially efficient antiviral against CHIKV. PMID:27071308

  11. Potential productivity and yield gap of selected crops in the rainfed regions of India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Piara Singh

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available ICRISAT's intervention in the project improving management of natural resources for sustainable rainfed agriculture funded by the Asian Development Bank aims to increase the productivity and sustainability of the medium and high water-holding capacity soils in the intermediate rainfall ecoregion of India, Thailand, and Vietnam. This study examined the potential yield and yield gap of selected crops predominantly grown in the target regions where the project is operational. We used the CROPGRO-soybean model to determine the potential yield and yield gap of soybean crop for several locations in India. For northeastern Thailand and northern Vietnam we compared the experimental yields with the farmers' current yields in the region to estimate the yield gaps. It has been estimated that for several locations in India the soybean yield gap ranged from 19% to 65% of potential yield. For northeastern Thailand the yield gap for paddy rice, upland rice, maize, and soybean ranged from 11% to 67% of their respective potential yields. In northern Vietnam the farmers' maize yields were two-third of the potential yield; however, groundnut and soybean have a yield gap of 40 to 60% of potential yield. Various constraints limiting crop yields in these regions have been highlighted. It is suggested that location-specific integrated approaches would be needed to bridge the yield gap of the predominant crops grown in the target regions.

  12. Visual encoding and fixation target selection in free viewing: presaccadic brain potentials

    Andrey R Nikolaev

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In scrutinizing a scene, the eyes alternate between fixations and saccades. During a fixation, two component processes can be distinguished: visual encoding and selection of the next fixation target. We aimed to distinguish the neural correlates of these processes in the electrical brain activity prior to a saccade onset. Participants viewed color photographs of natural scenes, in preparation for a change detection task. Then, for each participant and each scene we computed an image heat map, with temperature representing the duration and density of fixations. The temperature difference between the start and end points of saccades was taken as a measure of the expected task-relevance of the information concentrated in specific regions of a scene. Visual encoding was evaluated according to whether subsequent change was correctly detected. Saccades with larger temperature difference were more likely to be followed by correct detection than ones with smaller temperature differences. The amplitude of presaccadic activity over anterior brain areas was larger for correct detection than for detection failure. This difference was observed for short scrutinizing but not for long explorative saccades, suggesting that presaccadic activity reflects top-down saccade guidance. Thus, successful encoding requires local scanning of scene regions which are expected to be task-relevant. Next, we evaluated fixation target selection. Saccades moving up in temperature were preceded by presaccadic activity of higher amplitude than those moving down. This finding suggests that presaccadic activity reflects attention deployed to the following fixation location. Our findings illustrate how presaccadic activity can elucidate concurrent brain processes related to the immediate goal of planning the next saccade and the larger-scale goal of constructing a robust representation of the visual scene.

  13. Unbiased descriptor and parameter selection confirms the potential of proteochemometric modelling

    Wikberg Jarl ES

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteochemometrics is a new methodology that allows prediction of protein function directly from real interaction measurement data without the need of 3D structure information. Several reported proteochemometric models of ligand-receptor interactions have already yielded significant insights into various forms of bio-molecular interactions. The proteochemometric models are multivariate regression models that predict binding affinity for a particular combination of features of the ligand and protein. Although proteochemometric models have already offered interesting results in various studies, no detailed statistical evaluation of their average predictive power has been performed. In particular, variable subset selection performed to date has always relied on using all available examples, a situation also encountered in microarray gene expression data analysis. Results A methodology for an unbiased evaluation of the predictive power of proteochemometric models was implemented and results from applying it to two of the largest proteochemometric data sets yet reported are presented. A double cross-validation loop procedure is used to estimate the expected performance of a given design method. The unbiased performance estimates (P2 obtained for the data sets that we consider confirm that properly designed single proteochemometric models have useful predictive power, but that a standard design based on cross validation may yield models with quite limited performance. The results also show that different commercial software packages employed for the design of proteochemometric models may yield very different and therefore misleading performance estimates. In addition, the differences in the models obtained in the double CV loop indicate that detailed chemical interpretation of a single proteochemometric model is uncertain when data sets are small. Conclusion The double CV loop employed offer unbiased performance estimates about a given proteochemometric modelling procedure, making it possible to identify cases where the proteochemometric design does not result in useful predictive models. Chemical interpretations of single proteochemometric models are uncertain and should instead be based on all the models selected in the double CV loop employed here.

  14. Disease burden of fuelwood combustion pollutants in rural households of the Himalayas, India

    Rajiv Pandey

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: household biomass combustion for cooking purposes produces pollutants. Exposure to these pollutants has various adverse health impacts and is a major contributor to global disease burden. However, a precise estimate of the burden attributable to biomass combustion at the local level is not available in different parts of the world, therefore restricting policymakers ability to develop targeted actions against the health hazards. a study was conducted in the rural Himalayas to generate information about disease burden, with the purpose of aiding the development of strategies to improve public health.
    Methods: exposure level, population exposed and other relevant data regarding fuel-wood use, were collected through questionnaire survey from 102 randomly selected households spread in 46 villages in a two phase cluster random sampling design study during 2008 09. the burden of disease for acute Lower respiratory Infection (aLrI, chronic obstructive Pulmonary disease (coPd and Lung cancer were estimated as per fuel-based approach of WHo guidelines for rural hilly households, using fuel- wood for cooking.
    Results: households, primarily dependent on fuel-wood for fuel, had disability adjusted life years (daLYs lost and deaths that were much higher than the national status. The incidence of disease burden was 2 909 daLYs lost, with a share of 1 987 for aLrI in children "up to" 5 years age, 730 for coPd and 192 for Lung cancer in adults more than 30 years old, respectively.
    This result has implications for policy makers when deciding on an effective exposure reduction strategy and describes the risks connected between these health hazards and the health outcome of inhabitants exposed to them. The paper also discusses the intervention strategies for addressing the issues relevant to fuel-wood generated exposure.

  15. Relation between methanogenic archaea and methane production potential in selected natural wetland ecosystems across China

    D. Y. Liu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Methane (CH4 emissions from natural wetland ecosystems exhibit large spatial variability at regional, national, and global levels related to temperature, water table, plant type and methanogenic archaea etc. To understand the underlying factors that induce spatial differences in CH4 emissions, and the relationship between the population of methanogenic archaea and CH4 production potential in natural wetlands around China, we measured the CH4 production potential and the abundance of methanogenic archaea in vertical soil profiles sampled from the Poyang wetland in the subtropical zone, the Hongze wetland in the warm temperate zone, the Sanjiang marsh in the cold temperate zone, and the Ruoergai peatland in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in the alpine climate zone. The top soil layer had the highest population of methanogens (1.078.29 109 cells g?1 soil in all wetlands except the Ruoergai peatland and exhibited the maximum CH4 production potential measured at the mean in situ summer temperature. There is a significant logarithmic correlation between the abundance of methanogenic archaea and the soil organic carbon (R2 = 0.72, P < 0.001, n = 13 and between the abundance of methanogenic archaea and the total nitrogen concentrations (R2 = 0.76, P < 0.001, n = 13 in wetland soils. This indicates that the amount of soil organic carbon may affect the population of methanogens in wetland ecosystems. While the CH4 production potential is not significantly related to methanogen population (R2 = 0.01, P > 0.05, n = 13, it is related to the dissolved organic carbon concentration (R2 = 0.31, P = 0.05, n = 13. This suggests that the methanogen population might be not an effective index for predicting the CH4 production in wetland ecosystems. The CH4 production rate of the top soil layer increases with increasing latitude, from 273.64 ?g CH4 kg?1 soil d?1 in the Poyang wetland to 664.59 ?g CH4 kg?1 soil d?1 in the Carex lasiocarpa marsh of the Sanjiang Plain. We conclude that CH4 production potential in the freshwater wetlands of Eastern China is mainly affected by the supply of methanogenic substrates rather than temperature; in contrast, low summer temperatures at high elevations in the Ruoergai peatland of the QinghaiTibetan Plateau result in the presence of dominant species of methanogens with low CH4 production potential, which in turn suppresses CH4 production.

  16. Carbon storage and sequestration potential of selected tree species in India

    Kaul, M.; Mohren, G. M. J.; Dadhwal, V.K.

    2010-01-01

    A dynamic growth model (CO2FIX) was used for estimating the carbon sequestration potential of sal (Shorea Robusta Gaertn. f.), Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus Tereticornis Sm.), poplar (Populus Deltoides Marsh), and teak (Tectona Grandis Linn. f.) forests in India. The results indicate that long-term total carbon storage ranges from 101 to 156 Mg C?ha?1, with the largest carbon stock in the living biomass of long rotation sal forests (82 Mg C?ha?1). The net annual carbon sequestration rates were achie...

  17. Antimalarial Activity of Potential Inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum Lactate Dehydrogenase Enzyme Selected by Docking Studies

    Penna-Coutinho, Julia; Cortopassi, Wilian Augusto; Oliveira, Aline Alves; Frana, Tanos Celmar Costa; Krettli, Antoniana Ursine

    2011-01-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase enzyme (PfLDH) has been considered as a potential molecular target for antimalarials due to this parasite's dependence on glycolysis for energy production. Because the LDH enzymes found in P. vivax, P. malariae and P. ovale (pLDH) all exhibit ?90% identity to PfLDH, it would be desirable to have new anti-pLDH drugs, particularly ones that are effective against P. falciparum, the most virulent species of human malaria. Our present work used docki...

  18. Phytochemical diversity of Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. from Western Himalaya.

    Verma, Ram S; Chauhan, Amit; Padalia, Rajendra C; Jat, Sanjeev K; Thul, Sanjog; Sundaresan, Velusamy

    2013-04-01

    Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. (Rutaceae), commonly known as 'curry leaf tree', is a popular spice and condiment of India. To explore the diversity of the essential-oil yield and aroma profile of curry leaf, growing wild in foot and mid hills of north India, 58 populations were collected during spring season. M. koenigii populations were found to grow up to an altitude of 1487 m in north India. Comparative results showed considerable variations in the essential-oil yield and composition. The essential-oil yield varied from 0.14 to 0.80% in shade-dried leaves of different populations of M. koenigii. Analysis of the essential oils by GC and GC/MS, and the subsequent classification by statistical analysis resulted in four clusters with significant variations in their terpenoid composition. Major components of the essential oils of investigated populations were α-pinene (2; 4.5-71.5%), sabinene (3; <0.05-66.1%), (E)-caryophyllene (11; 1.6-18.0%), β-pinene (4; <0.05-13.6%), terpinen-4-ol (9; 0.0-8.4%), γ-terpinene (8; 0.2-7.4%), limonene (7; 1.1-5.5%), α-terpinene (6; 0.0-4.5%), (E)-nerolidol (14; 0.0-4.1%), α-humulene (12; 0.6-3.5%), α-thujene (1; 0.0-2.5%), β-elemene (10; 0.2-2.4%), β-selinene (13; 0.2-2.3%), and myrcene (5; 0.5-2.1%). Comparison of the present results with those in earlier reports revealed new chemotypes of M. koenigii in investigated populations from Western Himalaya. The present study documents M. koenigii populations having higher amounts of sabinene (3; up to 66.1%) for the first time. PMID:23576349

  19. Treeline dynamics with climate change at Central Nepal Himalaya

    Gaire, N. P.; Koirala, M.; Bhuju, D. R.; Borgaonkar, H. P.

    2013-10-01

    Global climate change has multidimensional impacts with several biological fingerprints, and treeline shifting in tandem with climate change is a widely observed phenomenon in various parts of the world. In Nepal several impacts of climate change on physical environments have been observed. However, studies on the biological impacts are lacking. This dendrochronological study was carried out at the treeline ecotone (3750-4003 m a.s.l.) in the Kalchuman Lake (Kal Tal) area of the Manaslu Conservation Area in central Nepal Himalaya with the aim to study the dynamic impact of climate change at the treeline. The study provides an insight into regeneration and treeline dynamics over the past 200 yr. Two belt transect plots (size: 20 m wide, >250 m long) were laid covering forest line, treeline as well as tree species Abies spectabilis and Betula utilis was done and their tree-cores were collected. Stand character and age distribution revealed an occurrence of more matured B. utilis (max. age 198 yr old) compared to A. spectabilis (max. age 160 yr). A. spectabilis contained an overwhelmingly high population (89%) of younger plants (climate change and much wider differences anticipated in their population status as climate continues to cha spectabilis correlated negatively with the mean monthly temperature of May-August of the current year and with September of the previous year. The regeneration of A. spectabilis, on the other hand, was positively related with May-August precipitation and January-April temperature of the current year. The reconstructed average summer temperature (May-August) using tree ring data revealed alternate period of cool and warm period with warming in the 2nd half of the 20th century. Further palynological and geochronological studies of sediments of the Kalchuman Lake would advance our understanding of past climatic trends and dynamics of the associated treeline and vegetation in the area.

  20. Global Warming, Climate Change and Glacier Retreat of Nepal Himalayas

    Shrestha, S.; Hisaki, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Global average air temperature near the earth surface rose 0.740.18C during the twentieth century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concludes that observed increased globally averaged temperatures since mid-twentieth century is very likely due to the observed increment in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations, which leads to warming of the surface and lower atmosphere by increasing the greenhouse effect. Climate models referred by IPCC project that global surface temperature are likely to be increase by 1.1 to 6.4C between 1990 and 2100. An increase in global temperature is expected to cause other changes including glacier retreat, sea level rise, increase intensity of extreme weather events and change in the pattern of precipitation, etc. The Nepal Himalaya revealed 3,252 glaciers and 2,323 lakes, which are 3,500 m above the sea level. They cover an area of 5,323 km2 with an estimated ice reserve of 481 km3. The average temperature in Nepal is rising by 0.5C per decade, and because of this reason, big glacial lakes in the country are at high risk of flooding from glacial lake bursts, which would have an adverse effect, such as huge loss of life and property. Nepal is facing a disturbance in mountain climate, flash floods, cloudbursts, erratic weather patterns and so on. The death of number of people due to floods and landslides is increasing annually. It is reported that more than 164 people already died because of floods and landslides during the current year, 2007 rainy season. Nepal does emit negligible greenhouse gases compare to developed and industrialized countries, however, country and people are facing the consequences of actions of other developed and industrialized countries. Study shows thedisasters in current years and possible hazards in future due to the probable causes of global warming and recommends some suggestions for controlling of green house gases emission.

  1. Treeline dynamics with climate change at the central Nepal Himalaya

    Gaire, N. P.; Koirala, M.; Bhuju, D. R.; Borgaonkar, H. P.

    2014-07-01

    Treeline shifting in tandem with climate change has widely been reported from various parts of the world. In Nepal, several impacts of climate change on the physical environment have been observed, but study on the biological impacts is lacking. This dendrochronological study was carried out at the treeline in the high mountain slope of Kalchuman Lake (3750-4003 m a.s.l.) area of Manaslu Conservation Area in the central Nepal Himalaya to explore the impact of climate change on the treeline dynamic. Two belt transect plots (size: 20 m wide, > 250 m long) were laid which included treeline as well as tree species limit. Ecological mapping of all individuals of dominant trees Abies spectabilis and Betula utilis was done and their tree cores were collected. Stand character and age distribution revealed an occurrence of more matured B. utilis (max. age 198 years) compared to A. spectabilis (max. age 160 years). A. spectabilis contained an overwhelmingly high population (89%) of younger plants (regeneration of A. spectabilis, on the other hand, was positively correlated with August precipitation and monthly maximum temperature of the month of the current year. The growth and regeneration of A. spectabilis was more sensitive to maximum and minimum temperature rather than average temperature. The growth of the B. utilis was mainly limited by moisture stress during the pre-monsoon season. As these two species presented species-specific responses to climate change with differential pattern in regeneration condition, much wider differences are anticipated in their population status as climate continues to change throughout the century.

  2. Potential and limitations of multidecadal satellite soil moisture observations for selected climate model evaluation studies

    A. Loew

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture is an essential climate variable (ECV of major importance for land–atmosphere interactions and global hydrology. An appropriate representation of soil moisture dynamics in global climate models is therefore important. Recently, a first multidecadal, observation-based soil moisture dataset has become available that provides information on soil moisture dynamics from satellite observations (ECVSM, essential climate variable soil moisture. The present study investigates the potential and limitations of this new dataset for several applications in climate model evaluation. We compare soil moisture data from satellite observations, reanalysis and simulations from a state-of-the-art land surface model and analyze relationships between soil moisture and precipitation anomalies in the different dataset. Other potential applications like model parameter optimization or model initialization are not investigated in the present study. In a detailed regional study, we show that ECVSM is capable to capture well the interannual and intraannual soil moisture and precipitation dynamics in the Sahelian region. Current deficits of the new dataset are critically discussed and summarized at the end of the paper to provide guidance for an appropriate usage of the ECVSM dataset for climate studies.

  3. Energy performance contracting - energy saving potential of selected energy conservation measures (ECM)

    Johansson, M. (Dansk Energi Analyse A/S, Frederiksberg (Denmark)); Langkilde, G.; Olesen, Bjarne W. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, ICIEE, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Moerck, O. (Cenergia Energy Consultants, Herlev (Denmark)); Sundman, O. (DONG Energy, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Engelund Thomsen, K. (Aalborg Univ., SBi, Hoersholm (Denmark))

    2008-09-15

    This report has been developed under the research project 'Etablering af grundlag for energitjenester i Danmark' (project number: ENS-33031-0185) under the Danish research programme - EFP. The objective of this project has been to contribute to the utilisation of the large potential for energy conservations in the building sector within the public, industry and service sectors through the development of a better basis for decision making for both the Energy Service Companies (ESCOes) and the building owners. The EU directive on Energy Service Contracting points at the buildings as the area where the biggest potential market for energy services and energy efficiency improvements are. The EFP-project has two parts: (1) A Danish part and (2) participation in the international cooperation project 'Holistic Assesment Tool-Kit on Energy Efficient Retrofit Measures for Government Buildings (EnERGo)', Annex 46 under the IEA R and D program 'Energy Conservation In Buildings And Community Systems' (ECBCS). This report describes the Danish contributions to the IEA projects subtask B, which has a primary objective to develop a database of energy conservation measures (ECM) with descriptions and performance characteristics of these. (au)

  4. Topical capsaicin selectively attenuates heat pain and A delta fiber-mediated laser-evoked potentials.

    Beydoun, A; Dyke, D B; Morrow, T J; Casey, K L

    1996-01-01

    Cutaneous stimulation with CO2 laser pulses activates A delta of nociceptive afferents and evokes late cerebral potentials (LEPs), the amplitude of which correlates parametrically with the perceived magnitude estimation of laser pulses. Capsaicin is known to desensitize the nociceptive terminals of C fibers. In this double-blind, vehicle-controlled experiment, we tested the hypothesis that topical capsaicin would inactivate A delta afferents and lead to an attenuation of the LEPs. Subjects applied capsaicin cream to the dorsum of one hand and vehicle cream to the other 3 times daily for a period of 5 weeks. At weekly intervals before starting, during administration and after discontinuation of capsaicin, LEPs were recorded and psychophysical thresholds and magnitude estimation for several sensory modalities were determined. The results of this study showed that topical capsaicin significantly and reversibly decreased the magnitude estimation of suprathreshold heat pain, laser pulses and amplitude of the LEPs. There was no statistically significant difference in light touch, deep pain and mechanical pain detection thresholds between the capsaicin- and vehicle-treated hands. It indicated that topical capsaicin caused a definite functional and reversible inactivation of A delta nociceptive afferent transmission. The decline in the magnitude estimation of laser pulses concomitantly with the attenuation of LEP amplitudes supports the hypothesis that some A delta afferents mediate noxious heat in humans. These findings demonstrate the usefulness of LEP in the physiological evaluation of nociceptive pathways and its potential usefulness in objectively documenting the effect of pharmacological treatment on pain perception. PMID:8826506

  5. Phytoremediation potential of selected plants for nitrate and phosphorus from ground water.

    Sundaralingam, T; Gnanavelrajah, N

    2014-01-01

    The phytoremediation potential of three aquatic plants namely, water lettuce (Pistia stratioes), water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), and water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) for nitrate N and phosphorus from nutrient treated ground water was assessed. A total of twelve treatment combinations including four levels of nitrate (expressed as nitrate N 0, 20, 40, and 60 mg/l) and three levels of phosphorus (0, 20, and 40 mg/l) were treated for the total volume of 1 and 20 liters of water respectively, for Pistia stratiotes and Eichhornia crassipes. For Ipomoea aquatica ten treatment combinations with five levels of nitrate N (0, 10, 20, 40, and 50 mg/l) and two levels of phosphorus (0 and 5 mg/l) were treated to 3 liters of water. The design used was a two factor factorial with three replicates. Water was analyzed at weekly interval for nitrate N and phosphorus. Pistia stratiotes, Eichhornia crassipes and Ipomoea aquatica had the potential to remove nitrate N between 61.5-91.8%, 40-63.5%, and 29.3-75% during the period of six, three and three and weeks, respectively. In addition, 90-99%, 75-97.2%, and 75-83.3% of phosphorus was removed from water by Pistia stratiotes, Eichhornia crassipes and Ipomoea aquatica respectively, during the same period. PMID:24912224

  6. SOIL CARBON DYNAMICS AND GLOBAL WARMING POTENTIAL OF SELECTED SOIL SERIES AND LANDUSE CATEGORIES

    Feba Merin Chacko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Land use conversion is usually accompanied by a decline in soil organic carbon. This work is aimed to determine the soil organic carbon affected by the multiple land use in a particular soil series. The study was conducted in Ustic Haplohumults soil series of Kottayam district of Kerala including land uses like Cropland, Wetland, Agricultural land, Homestead and Mixed vegetation land. Change in land use induced significant losses of soil and particulate organic carbon. The maximum SOC content (7.39% was observed in abandoned paddy field which is nearly 89% more than the lowest values of 0.76% recorded from the Homestead soil. Soil carbon sequestration potential of different land uses varies on spatial and temporal basis along with the interplay of environmental externalities. Potential for CO2 production and global warming of various soils was in accordance with C mineralization and this explains the role and capacity of various land use under consideration to store and release carbon. In the present study it was found that the soils of coconut plantation serve as a better system in terms of maximum SOC storage and minimum carbon emission. The present study reveals the significance and importance of specific land use category which is optimal for particular soil series towards soil carbon storage.

  7. Genetic responses to seasonal variation in altitudinal stress: whole-genome resequencing of great tit in eastern Himalayas.

    Qu, Yanhua; Tian, Shilin; Han, Naijian; Zhao, Hongwei; Gao, Bin; Fu, Jun; Cheng, Yalin; Song, Gang; Ericson, Per G P; Zhang, Yong E; Wang, Dawei; Quan, Qing; Jiang, Zhi; Li, Ruiqiang; Lei, Fumin

    2015-01-01

    Species that undertake altitudinal migrations are exposed to a considerable seasonal variation in oxygen levels and temperature. How they cope with this was studied in a population of great tit (Parus major) that breeds at high elevations and winters at lower elevations in the eastern Himalayas. Comparison of population genomics of high altitudinal great tits and those living in lowlands revealed an accelerated genetic selection for carbohydrate energy metabolism (amino sugar, nucleotide sugar metabolism and insulin signaling pathways) and hypoxia response (PI3K-akt, mTOR and MAPK signaling pathways) in the high altitudinal population. The PI3K-akt, mTOR and MAPK pathways modulate the hypoxia-inducible factors, HIF-1α and VEGF protein expression thus indirectly regulate hypoxia induced angiogenesis, erythropoiesis and vasodilatation. The strategies observed in high altitudinal great tits differ from those described in a closely related species on the Tibetan Plateau, the sedentary ground tit (Parus humilis). This species has enhanced selection in lipid-specific metabolic pathways and hypoxia-inducible factor pathway (HIF-1). Comparative population genomics also revealed selection for larger body size in high altitudinal great tits. PMID:26404527

  8. Selection and Characterization of Single Chain Antibody Fragments Specific for Hsp90 as a Potential Cancer Targeting Molecule

    Edyta Petters

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins play an essential role in facilitating malignant transformation and they have been recognized as important factors in human cancers. One of the key elements of the molecular chaperones machinery is Hsp90 and it has recently become a target for anticancer therapeutic approaches. The potential and importance of Hsp90-directed agents becomes apparent when one realizes that disruption of Hsp90 function may influence over 200 oncogenic client proteins. Here, we described the selection and characterization of Hsp90-specific antibody fragments from commercially available Tomlinson I and J phage display libraries. The affinities of Hsp90-binding scFv variants were measured using SPR method. Then, based on the best clone selected, we performed the affinity maturation procedure and obtained valuable Hsp90-specific clones. The selected binders were expressed and applied for immunostaining, ELISA and SPR analysis using model cancer cell lines. All performed experiments confirmed the ability of selected antibodies to interact with the Hsp90. Therefore, the presented Hsp90-specific scFv, might be a starting point for the development of a novel antibody-based strategy targeting cancer.

  9. Virulence potential of Enterococcus gallinarum strains isolated from selected Nigerian traditional fermented foods

    IYABO C. OLADIPO

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Five Enterococcus isolates from some Nigerian traditional fermented foods were identified as Enterococcus gallinarum by using phenotypic and genotypic tests. Safety properties such as antibiotic susceptibility, virulence gene detection, haemolysin, gelatinase and bacteriocin production were determined using standard methods. There was no resistance to clinically relevant antibiotics. Virulence gene for collagen binding antigen and aggregation substance were detected in 60% of the E. gallinarum strains; while surface adhesin was detected in 20%, but none of the strains had cytolysin activator and gelatinase. Phenotype characterizations of the E. gallinarum isolates indicated that none of the isolates produced haemolysin and gelatinase. Enterococcus gallinarum C103 and U82 had no antimicrobial activity against all the selected bacteria pathogens while E. gallinarum W184, T71 and W21 were active against some of the indicator bacteria pathogens. Only E. gallinarum T71 and W21 showed broad spectra of antimicrobial activity. Combination of virulence factors did not appear in these food isolates. Therefore, these strains particularly the two strains with high spectra of antimicrobial activity could be exploited as functional starters in foods.

  10. A simple electrochemical method for the rapid estimation of antioxidant potentials of some selected medicinal plants.

    Amidi, Salimeh; Mojab, Faraz; Bayandori Moghaddam, Abdolmajid; Tabib, Kimia; Kobarfard, Farzad

    2012-01-01

    Clinical and Epidemiological studies have shown that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular diseases, cancers and other related disorders. These beneficial health effects have been attributed in part to the presence of antioxidants in dietary plants. Therefore screening for antioxidant properties of plant extracts has been one of the interests of scientists in this field. Different screening methods have been reported for the evaluation of antioxidant properties of plant extracts in the literature. In the present research a rapid screening method has been introduced based on cyclic voltammetry for antioxidant screening of some selected medicinal plant extracts. CYCLIC VOLTAMMETRY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF SEVEN MEDICINAL PLANTS: Buxus hyrcana, Rumex crispus, Achillea millefolium, Zataria multiflora, Ginkgo biloba, Lippia citriodora and Heptaptera anisoptera was carried out at different scan rates. Based on the interpretation of voltammograms, Rumex crispus, Achillea millefolium and Ginkgo biloba showed higher antioxidant capability than the others while Lippia citriodora contained the highest amount of antioxidants. Cyclic voltammetry is expected to be a simple method for screening antioxidants and estimating the antioxidant activity of foods and medicinal plants. PMID:25317192

  11. Selective isolation and differentiation of a stromal population of human embryonic stem cells with osteogenic potential

    Harkness, Linda M; Mahmood, Amer; Ditzel, Nicholas; Abdallah, Basem M; Nygaard, Jens Vinge; Kassem, Moustapha

    2011-01-01

    The derivation of osteogenic cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) has been hampered by the absence of easy and reproducible protocols. hESC grown in feeder-free conditions, often show a sub population of fibroblast-like, stromal cells growing between the colonies. Thus, we examined the...... possibility that these cells represent a population of stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells (hESC-stromal). Two in house derived hES cell lines (Odense3 and KMEB3) as well as an externally derived cell line (Hues8) were transitioned to feeder-free conditions. A sub population of fibroblast-like cells established...... between the hESC colonies were isolated by selective adherence to hyaluronic acid-coated plates (100μg/ml) and were characterized using a combination of FACS analysis and staining. The cells were CD44(+), CD29(+), CD73(+), CD166(+), CD146(+), and CD105(+); and, Oct4(-), CD34(-), CD45(-) and CXCR4(-). When...

  12. WOUND HEALING ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL POTENTIALS OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS USED BY MALAYALI TRIBES

    Ramya Subramanian

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Healing chronic lower extremity wound is a problem worldwide, especially in developing countries. Aim of the present study is to document the traditional knowledge base / medicinal plants pertinent to healing wound popular among Malayali’s in Vattal Hills, Dharmapuri, Tamilnadu, India. Malayali’s in this area use a large number of plants extracts/ decoctions/ pastes to heal wound/ cut. Further, many of the plants used by Malayali’s have not been validated for their wound healing potential. The investigation resulted in the identification of 82 medicinal plants across 39 families to heal wound/cut. Maximum remedies were obtained from herbs (40% followed by trees (31% > shrubs (18% > climbers (10% and straggler (1%. Most of the healing aliments use leaves (30% followed by whole plant (16% > root (15% > seed (11% > fruit (10% > stem (14% > flower (4%. Further, external application of herbal formulations outnumbered oral consumption to promote wound healing.

  13. Investigation of therapeutic potentials of some selected medicinal plants using neutron activation analysis

    Abubakar, Sani; Isa, Nasiru Fage [Bayero University, Kano Nigeria (Nigeria); Usman, Ahmed Rufa’i [University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Umaru Musa Yar’adua University, Katsina Nigeria (Nigeria); Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin [University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Abubakar, Nuraddeen [Center for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria Nigeria (Nigeria)

    2015-04-24

    Series of attempts were made to investigate concentrations of trace elements and their therapeutic properties in various medicinal plants. In this study, samples of some commonly used plants were collected from Bauchi State, Nigeria. They includes leaves of azadirachta indica (neem), Moringa Oleifera (moringa), jatropha curcas (purgin Nut), guiera senegalensis (custard apple) and anogeissus leiocarpus (African birch). These samples were analyzed for their trace elements contents with both short and long irradiation protocols of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) at Nigerian Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1) of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. The level of trace elements found varies from one sample to another, with some reported at hundreds of mg/Kg dry weight. The results have been compared with the available literature data. The presence of these trace elements indicates promising potentials of these plants for relief of certain ailments.

  14. Investigation of therapeutic potentials of some selected medicinal plants using neutron activation analysis

    Series of attempts were made to investigate concentrations of trace elements and their therapeutic properties in various medicinal plants. In this study, samples of some commonly used plants were collected from Bauchi State, Nigeria. They includes leaves of azadirachta indica (neem), Moringa Oleifera (moringa), jatropha curcas (purgin Nut), guiera senegalensis (custard apple) and anogeissus leiocarpus (African birch). These samples were analyzed for their trace elements contents with both short and long irradiation protocols of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) at Nigerian Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1) of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. The level of trace elements found varies from one sample to another, with some reported at hundreds of mg/Kg dry weight. The results have been compared with the available literature data. The presence of these trace elements indicates promising potentials of these plants for relief of certain ailments

  15. Investigation of therapeutic potentials of some selected medicinal plants using neutron activation analysis

    Abubakar, Sani; Usman, Ahmed Rufa'i.; Isa, Nasiru Fage; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Abubakar, Nuraddeen

    2015-04-01

    Series of attempts were made to investigate concentrations of trace elements and their therapeutic properties in various medicinal plants. In this study, samples of some commonly used plants were collected from Bauchi State, Nigeria. They includes leaves of azadirachta indica (neem), Moringa Oleifera (moringa), jatropha curcas (purgin Nut), guiera senegalensis (custard apple) and anogeissus leiocarpus (African birch). These samples were analyzed for their trace elements contents with both short and long irradiation protocols of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) at Nigerian Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1) of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. The level of trace elements found varies from one sample to another, with some reported at hundreds of mg/Kg dry weight. The results have been compared with the available literature data. The presence of these trace elements indicates promising potentials of these plants for relief of certain ailments.

  16. Selection and evaluation of potential burnable absorbers incorporated into modified TRISO particles

    Washington, J., E-mail: jwashing@mines.edu; King, J., E-mail: kingjc@mines.edu; Shayer, Z., E-mail: zshayer@mines.edu

    2014-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: We evaluate possible burnable absorbers for modified TRISO fuels. We model modified TRISO particle performance in MCNPX. Modified particles decrease reactivity swing and increase reactor lifetime. Modified particles generally result in negative thermal feedback. - Abstract: The quadruple isotropic (QUADRISO) particle concept modifies tri-structural-isotropic (TRISO) particles to add a layer of burnable absorber next to the fuel kernel. Previous studies have evaluated QUADRISO fuel particle designs for the transmutation of neptunium and plutonium, as a modification to the plutoniumthorium fuel cycle, and for excess reactivity management. This study screens the available nuclear isotope database to identify potential burnable absorbers for incorporation into modified TRISO fuel particles in a representative Very High-Temperature Reactor (VHTR). Based on this screening, eleven potential burnable absorbers are tested as QUADRISO burnable absorber layers, in either oxide or carbide forms. The addition of a burnable absorber layer to the TRISO fuel resulted in an increase in reactor operational lifetime in all cases considered in the present work when compared to a reactor with the same excess reactivity without burnable absorbers. The B{sub 4}C, CdO and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} cases resulted in the greatest operational lifetime, for the same initial excess reactivity, and the addition of these burnable absorbers to TRISO fuel particles decreased the magnitude of the excess reactivity change over the reactor lifetime when compared to the unmodified TRISO case. Thermal cross-section effects in QUADRISO particles generally result in excess reactivity decreasing with increasing temperature.

  17. An Evaluation of Select Test Variables Potentially Affecting Acute Oil Toxicity.

    Echols, Brandi S; Smith, A; Gardinali, P; Rand, G

    2016-02-01

    In the wake of the Deepwater Horizon incident (2010) in the Gulf of Mexico, an abundance of research studies have been performed, but the methodologies used have varied making comparisons and replication difficult. In this study, acute toxicity tests with mysids and inland silversides were performed to examine the effect of different variables on test results. The toxicity test variables evaluated in this study included (1) open versus closed static test chambers, (2) natural versus artificial diluent, (3) aerated versus nonaerated test solution, and (4) low versus medium energy water-accommodated (WAF) mixing energies. The use of tests using natural or artificial diluent showed no difference in either toxicity test or analytical chemistry results. Based on median lethal concentrations (LC50) of WAFs of unweathered oil (MASS), mysid tests performed in closed chambers were approximately 41 % lower than LC50 values from open-chamber studies, possibly a result of the presence of low-molecular weight volatile aromatics (i.e., naphthalenes). This research also showed that using a medium-energy WAF (with a 20–25 % vortex) increases the number of chemical components compared with low-energy WAF, thus affecting the composition of the exposure media and increasing toxicity. The comparison of toxic units as a measure of the potential toxicity of fresh and weathered oils showed that weathered oils (e.g., Juniper, CTC) are less toxic than the unweathered MASS oil. In the event of future oil spills, these variables should be considered to ensure that data regarding the potential toxicity and environmental risk are of good quality and reproducible. PMID:26467150

  18. Selection and evaluation of potential burnable absorbers incorporated into modified TRISO particles

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We evaluate possible burnable absorbers for modified TRISO fuels. • We model modified TRISO particle performance in MCNPX. • Modified particles decrease reactivity swing and increase reactor lifetime. • Modified particles generally result in negative thermal feedback. - Abstract: The quadruple isotropic (QUADRISO) particle concept modifies tri-structural-isotropic (TRISO) particles to add a layer of burnable absorber next to the fuel kernel. Previous studies have evaluated QUADRISO fuel particle designs for the transmutation of neptunium and plutonium, as a modification to the plutonium–thorium fuel cycle, and for excess reactivity management. This study screens the available nuclear isotope database to identify potential burnable absorbers for incorporation into modified TRISO fuel particles in a representative Very High-Temperature Reactor (VHTR). Based on this screening, eleven potential burnable absorbers are tested as QUADRISO burnable absorber layers, in either oxide or carbide forms. The addition of a burnable absorber layer to the TRISO fuel resulted in an increase in reactor operational lifetime in all cases considered in the present work when compared to a reactor with the same excess reactivity without burnable absorbers. The B4C, CdO and Gd2O3 cases resulted in the greatest operational lifetime, for the same initial excess reactivity, and the addition of these burnable absorbers to TRISO fuel particles decreased the magnitude of the excess reactivity change over the reactor lifetime when compared to the unmodified TRISO case. Thermal cross-section effects in QUADRISO particles generally result in excess reactivity decreasing with increasing temperature

  19. The potential of nano-and microparticles for the selective complexation and separation of metal ions/radionuclides

    Nano- and microparticles for the selective complexation of metal ions and especially radionuclides on their surface are presented. Beside several applications of such magnetic and non-magnetic particles in the fields of bio-medicine, diagnostics, molecular biology, bio-inorganic chemistry and catalysis a high potential exists for the complexation of radionuclides from nuclear wastewater on particle surfaces. The magnetic properties of nano- and microparticles allow the fast magnetic separation of radionuclides from the radioactive liquid waste stream, for example. The removal of radionuclides from strongly acidic wastes requires a high stability of the particles in combination with the protection of the incorporated iron oxide. The covalent binding of selective chelators allows the fractionation of different types of radionuclides regarding the special needs of nuclear waste treatment. (author)

  20. Radon/helium studies for earthquake prediction N-W Himalaya

    The paper presents the preliminary data of radon monitoring stated in the Himalayan orogenic belt. Radon anomalies are correlated with microseismic activity in the N-W Himalaya. The He/Rn ratio will be used as a predictive tool for earthquakes

  1. Strong Coupled and Segmented Nature of the Himalaya and the Adjoining Gangetic Foreland Basin

    Parkash, B.; Rathor, S.; Pati, P.

    2012-04-01

    Our studies in the Gangetic plains and review of the work on the Himalaya suggest that both theses features are marked by abrupt changes across the Rapti River, flowing N-S in the plains and region N to it, instead of a gradual change from E to W as postulated earlier. The Eastern Nepal Himalaya N to the Middle Gangetic Plains (east of the Rapti River) is characterized by a high rate of convergence, which sustains the highest peaks in the world, including the Mount Everest. These lofty peaks cause significant crustal loading leading to high rate of subsidence in the foreland basin and also shed large sediment load, carried by the rivers to the plains to form megafans (e.g. Kosi and Gandak megafans). In the NW and the W Nepal Himalaya, rates of crustal shortening due to movements along the Himalayan Frontal Trust (HFT) are low, which are able to support lower heights of the Himalayan ranges (< 7000 m). These ranges shed small amounts of sediments, which are carried by streams to the plains. The adjoining foreland basin, the Upper Gangetic plain lying W to the Rapti River, is subsiding at a low rate, all major rivers are incised, and form large uplands. Moderately to strongly developed soils occur on the upland plains. These situations indicate the prevalence of separate steady states between the Upper- and Middle Gangetic plains and adjoining Himalaya.

  2. Petrography, geochemistry and regional significance of crystalline klippen in the Garhwal Lesser Himalaya, India

    R Islam; S K Ghosh; S Vyshnavi; Y P Sundriya

    2011-06-01

    Uphalda gneisses (UG) is a crystalline klippe located near Srinagar in Garhwal Himalaya. These gneisses are compared with Debguru porphyroids (DP) (≈ Ramgarh group) of Garhwal–Kumaun Himalaya and Baragaon mylonitic gneisses (BMG) of Himachal Himalaya. Petrographic study reveals that the deformation of UG was initiated at higher temperature (above 350°C) and continued till lowering of temperature and deformation led to the mylonitization. Geochemically, these granitic gneisses (UG, DP and BMG) exhibit similar composition. Features such as high molecular A/CNK value (< 1), presence of normative corundum and absence of normative diopside, enhanced Rb/Sr, Rb/Zr ratios, enrichment of Th and containing rounded zircons support their crustally-derived S-type granitic nature. The linear plot in major oxides is interpreted in terms of fractional crystallization processes. Mantle normalized multi-element spider diagram of UG illustrates depletion of Ba, Nb, Sr, P and Ti and enrichment of Th and show similarities with DP and BMG. Similarities were observed in lithology, petrographic characters and chemical composition of UG, DP, BMG and Ulleri augen gneisses (Nepal). Comparison with the rocks of Higher Himalayan crystallines (≈ Vaikrita), suggests that these rocks (UG) are not transported from Higher Himalaya as understood earlier. This study however proposes that, these gneissic bodies represent an older basement occurring as a tectonic sliver which emplaced within the cover sequence as wedges at different structural levels. This is a regional phenomena observed throughout the Lesser Himalayan region.

  3. Evaluation of antifungal potential of selected medicinal plants against human pathogenic fungi

    Hayat Sakander

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Evaluation of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine lead to novel bioactive compounds with antifungal activity that could be exploited as therapeutic agents. Aims: The aim was to screen selected medicinal plants for antifungal activity against three important human pathogenic fungi and to identify the broad group of phytochemicals responsible for the activity. Materials and Methods: A total of 8 medicinal plants were screened for antifungal activity against three human pathogenic fungi. Aqueous and the solvent extracts of the plant materials were prepared by polarity based solvent extraction. Antifungal activity was tested by well and disc diffusion methods. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the active extract was determined by micro-broth dilution technique. Phytochemical analysis of the active extract was done. Statistical Analysis Used: The results were statistically analysed by One-Way analysis of variance with Post-hoc Tukey′s B test at P < 0.05 using the  Software SPSS version 20 (IBM Corp. Armonk, NY Released 2011. Results: Significant antifungal activity was observed in the aqueous extracts of the fruits of Terminalia chebula (47.75 mm against Microsporum gypseum and the mesocarp of Persea americana (40.5 mm against Microsporum canis. Candida albicans was inhibited by the ethyl acetate (20 mm and aqueous extracts (16 mm of T. chebula fruits and aqueous extract of the seeds of Syzygium jambos (16 mm. The aqueous extract of mesocarp of P. americana showed lowest MIC value (312.5 μg/ml against M. canis and M. gypseum. Phytochemical analysis of the active extracts revealed the presence of phenols, tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids. Conclusions: The study validates the use of the plants in the treatment of fungal infections and has provided important leads for the discovery of new plant-based antifungal agents.

  4. Utilization of the Potentials of Selected Microorganisms as Biocontrol and Biofertilizer for Enhanced Crop Improvement

    E.O. Oyekanmi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Some selected microorganisms isolated from rhizosphere of crops, were screened for their abilities to enhance crop growth and suppress plant parasitic nematodes; in screenhouse experiments. Two promising hybrids of soybean genotypes: TGx 1448-2E (medium duration and TGx 1485-1D (early maturing and a high yielding hybrid of maize genotype Oba Super 1 were used. Microorganisms assessed included the fungi: Trichoderma pseudokoningii, Trichoderma viride, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Aspergillus niger, Glomus mosseae and the rhizobacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida. One thousand juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita were applied to soybean, while five thousand Pratylenchus zeae (juveniles and adults were applied to maize. Fungal spores and rhizobacteria cells approximately 2.5x106 mL-1 concentration were applied per plant, for maize experiment. For soybean experiment, Bradyrhizobium japonicum (106 cells, Trichoderma pseudokoningii (6.8x106 spores and G. mosseae (200 spores were inoculated per plant. The effect of microorganism`s application was compared with a nematicide (carbofuran treatment, untreated control and a nematode only control. The parameters measured were nematode density, root damage due to plant parasitic nematode infection, relative leaf chlorophyll content and plant growth parameters. The inoculated beneficial microorganisms in most cases significantly (p≤0.05 reduced the nematode density across the treatments in test crops by up to 79.6% and improved plant growth by up to 46.0%, when treatments performances were compared across treatments. Most of the beneficial microorganisms assessed have prospects of enhancing nematode management through nematode density reduction and improving crop production.

  5. Volatile organic compounds over Eastern Himalaya, India: temporal variation and source characterization using Positive Matrix Factorization

    C. Sarkar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A first ever study on the characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs has been made over a Himalayan high altitude station in India. A total of 18 VOCs (mono aromatics-BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, non-BTEX substituted aromatics and halocarbon have been measured over Darjeeling (27.01 N, 88.15 E, 2200 m a.s.l. in the eastern Himalaya in India during the period of July 2011June 2012. The annual average concentration of the sum of 18 target VOCs (TVOC was 376.3 857.2 ?g m?3. Monoaromatics had the highest contribution (72% followed by other substituted aromatics (22% and halocarbon (6% compounds. Toluene was the most abundant VOC in the atmosphere of Darjeeling with the contribution of ~37% to TVOC followed by benzene (~21%, ethylbenzene (~9% and xylenes (~6%. TVOC concentrations were highest during the postmonsoon season with minimum solar radiation and lowest during the premonsoon season with maximum solar radiation. Anthropogenic activities related mainly to tourists like diesel and gasoline emissions, biomass and coal burning, use of solvent and solid waste emissions were almost equal in both the seasons. Seasonal variation in TVOCs over Darjeeling was mainly governed by the incoming solar radiation rather than the emission sources. Source apportionment study using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF model indicated that major fraction of (~60% TVOC were contributed by diesel and gasoline exhausts followed by solvent evaporation (18% and other sources. Diesel exhaust was also found to have the maximum potential in tropospheric ozone formation. The atmospheric loading of BTEX over Darjeeling was found to be comparable with several Indian metro cities and much higher than other cities around the world.

  6. Volatile organic compounds over Eastern Himalaya, India: temporal variation and source characterization using Positive Matrix Factorization

    Sarkar, C.; Chatterjee, A.; Majumdar, D.; Ghosh, S. K.; Srivastava, A.; Raha, S.

    2014-12-01

    A first ever study on the characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been made over a Himalayan high altitude station in India. A total of 18 VOCs (mono aromatics-BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene), non-BTEX substituted aromatics and halocarbon) have been measured over Darjeeling (27.01° N, 88.15° E, 2200 m a.s.l.) in the eastern Himalaya in India during the period of July 2011-June 2012. The annual average concentration of the sum of 18 target VOCs (TVOC) was 376.3 ± 857.2 μg m-3. Monoaromatics had the highest contribution (72%) followed by other substituted aromatics (22%) and halocarbon (6%) compounds. Toluene was the most abundant VOC in the atmosphere of Darjeeling with the contribution of ~37% to TVOC followed by benzene (~21%), ethylbenzene (~9%) and xylenes (~6%). TVOC concentrations were highest during the postmonsoon season with minimum solar radiation and lowest during the premonsoon season with maximum solar radiation. Anthropogenic activities related mainly to tourists like diesel and gasoline emissions, biomass and coal burning, use of solvent and solid waste emissions were almost equal in both the seasons. Seasonal variation in TVOCs over Darjeeling was mainly governed by the incoming solar radiation rather than the emission sources. Source apportionment study using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model indicated that major fraction of (~60%) TVOC were contributed by diesel and gasoline exhausts followed by solvent evaporation (18%) and other sources. Diesel exhaust was also found to have the maximum potential in tropospheric ozone formation. The atmospheric loading of BTEX over Darjeeling was found to be comparable with several Indian metro cities and much higher than other cities around the world.

  7. Selection of potential cold water marine species for testing of oil dispersants, and chemically dispersed oil

    A study regarding marine species for toxicity testing for Alaska conditions was presented and the potential adverse impacts of a large marine oil spill in cold water were discussed with the objective to determine if the spill should be treated by the use of oil dispersants. Without dispersion, the oil can pollute marine epifauna and can deposit on beaches. The decision to apply dispersants to a marine oil spill requires knowledge of the toxicity of the undispersed oil to pelagic marine life occurring via natural dispersion as opposed to the toxicity of the oil-dispersant mixture. Most standard toxicity tests apply to warm water species. This paper discussed the need to have a standard test species relevant to Alaska waters for toxicity testing. In this study, toxicity testing was done according to the methods of the Chemical Response to Oil Spills : Ecological Effects Research Forum (CROSERF). The testing included capturing adult species in the winter and holding them until larval hatching. Toxicity testing was completed in a narrow time frame before hatching ceased. Many chemical samples were tested. Topsmelt, urchins, shellfish, mysids, copepods, pink salmon fry, and tidepool sculpin were considered by the author to be the most useful for certain types of toxicity testing. 29 refs

  8. Subject Combination and Electrode Selection in Cooperative Brain-Computer Interface Based on Event Related Potentials

    Hubert Cecotti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available New paradigms are required in Brain-Computer Interface (BCI systems for the needs and expectations of healthy people. To solve this issue, we explore the emerging field of cooperative BCIs, which involves several users in a single BCI system. Contrary to classical BCIs that are dependent on the unique subject’s will, cooperative BCIs are used for problem solving tasks where several people shall be engaged by sharing a common goal. Similarly as combining trials over time improves performance, combining trials across subjects can significantly improve performance compared with when only a single user is involved. Yet, cooperative BCIs may only be used in particular settings, and new paradigms must be proposed to efficiently use this approach. The possible benefits of using several subjects are addressed, and compared with current single-subject BCI paradigms. To show the advantages of a cooperative BCI, we evaluate the performance of combining decisions across subjects with data from an event-related potentials (ERP based experiment where each subject observed the same sequence of visual stimuli. Furthermore, we show that it is possible to achieve a mean AUC superior to 0.95 with 10 subjects and 3 electrodes on each subject, or with 4 subjects and 6 electrodes on each subject. Several emerging challenges and possible applications are proposed to highlight how cooperative BCIs could be efficiently used with current technologies and leverage BCI applications.

  9. MRS site requirements and considerations and the potential influences of specific technology selections

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, which authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to site, construct, and operate a monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility, established two alternative paths for siting the facility. The first is siting by a DOE-directed survey-and-evaluation process. The second is siting through the efforts of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator. Voluntary siting through negotiation is the path preferred by the DOE. The objective of this paper was to develop a means for quickly assessing whether a site nominated by a volunteer host (State of Indian Tribe) would comply with regulatory requirements and would be licensable under the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) regulations. Site requirements are exclusionary criteria. Site considerations, however, identify conditions that are preferable rather than mandatory. The site considerations can be used by the potential host, the Negotiator, and DOE to compare sites that meet the requirements. However, the MRS facility can be designed to compensate for less favorable site attributes and to facilitate the NRC licensing process

  10. Potential Selection of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF Indigenous Ultisols through the Production of Glomalin

    Amrizal Saidi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi ( AMF with plants able to increase the capacity of plants to absorb nutrients and water from the soil. Recently, research was indicated that AMF hyphae containing glomalin as a glycoprotein that serves to unify the dispersed soil particles. The content of glomalin in soil is positively correlated with soil aggre- gate stability. The research potential of AMF species indigenous of Ultisol Darmasraya District of West Sumatra and glomalin production in experimental pots of sterile sand medium has been carried out. The purpose of this study was to determine the diversity of AMF species on Ultisol and to seeking indigenous AMF isolates that had the best glomalin production capability. AMF spores were isolated and identified from the rhizosphere soil of corn in Ultisol. AMF species that had been identified experimentally were tested in culture medium pot of sand and zeolite (w / w 1:1 using corn crops. The results found nine of the AMF species indigenous of Ultisol Darmasraya, namely Acaulospora scrobiculata, Glomus etunicatum, Glomus luteum, Glomus mosseae, Glomus verruculosum, Glomus versiforme, Scutellospora gregaria, Scutellospora heterogama and Gigaspora sp. AMF species that showed better colonization ability in corn was G. luteum, G. verruculosum and G. versiforme. All three species produced glomalin significantly higher than the other species, i.e. 1.29 mg g-1; 1.17 mg g-1; 1.15 mg g-1, respectively.

  11. Phytotoxicity of biosolids and screening of selected plant species with potential for mercury phytoextraction.

    Lomonte, Cristina; Doronila, Augustine I; Gregory, David; Baker, Alan J M; Kolev, Spas D

    2010-01-15

    Mercury contaminated stockpiles of biosolids (3.5-8.4 mg kg(-1) Hg) from Melbourne Water's Western Treatment Plant (MW-WTP) were investigated to evaluate the possibility for their phytoremediation. Nine plant species (Atriplex codonocarpa, Atriplex semibaccata, Austrodanthonia caespitosa, Brassica juncea, Brassica napus, Gypsophila paniculata, Sorghum bicolor, Themeda triandra and Trifolium subterraneum) were screened for phytoextraction potential in Hg-contaminated biosolids from MW-WTP. In addition, the same plant species were germinated and grown in two other substrates (i.e. potting mix and potting mix spiked with mercury(II)). Growth measurements and the mercury uptake for all three substrates were compared. Some plant species grown in potting mix spiked with mercury(II) grew more vigorously than in the other two substrates and showed higher levels of sulphur in their tissues. These results suggested that the mercury stress activated defence mechanisms and it was hypothesised that this was the likely reason for the enhanced production of sulphur compounds in the plant species studied which stimulated their growth. Some species did not grow in biosolids because of the combined effect of high mercury toxicity and high salt content. Atriplex conodocarpa and Australodanthonia caespitose proved to be the most suitable candidates for mercury phytoextraction because of their ability to translocate mercury from roots to the above-ground tissues. PMID:19775810

  12. Selection of potential cold water marine species for testing of oil dispersants, and chemically dispersed oil

    Perkins, R.A. [Alaska Univ., Fairbanks, AK (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2000-07-01

    A study regarding marine species for toxicity testing for Alaska conditions was presented and the potential adverse impacts of a large marine oil spill in cold water were discussed with the objective to determine if the spill should be treated by the use of oil dispersants. Without dispersion, the oil can pollute marine epifauna and can deposit on beaches. The decision to apply dispersants to a marine oil spill requires knowledge of the toxicity of the undispersed oil to pelagic marine life occurring via natural dispersion as opposed to the toxicity of the oil-dispersant mixture. Most standard toxicity tests apply to warm water species. This paper discussed the need to have a standard test species relevant to Alaska waters for toxicity testing. In this study, toxicity testing was done according to the methods of the Chemical Response to Oil Spills : Ecological Effects Research Forum (CROSERF). The testing included capturing adult species in the winter and holding them until larval hatching. Toxicity testing was completed in a narrow time frame before hatching ceased. Many chemical samples were tested. Topsmelt, urchins, shellfish, mysids, copepods, pink salmon fry, and tidepool sculpin were considered by the author to be the most useful for certain types of toxicity testing. 29 refs.

  13. Shale gas potential of selected formations from the WCSB of Western Canada

    Faraj, B. [MGV Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Faraj Consultants Pty Ltd., Wynnum, Brisbane (Australia); Williams, H.; Addison, G.; McKinstry, B.; Donaleshen, R.; Sloan, G.; Lee, J.; Anderson, T.; Leal, R. and others

    2003-07-01

    A preliminary investigation of the gas shale potential of specific sites located in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) was presented. A map depicting the basin and the various belts surrounding it was displayed, followed by a figure showing the sedimentary wedge of the WCSB. Canada is a major supplier of natural gas, exporting mainly to the United States. In the United States, shale production accounts for 3 per cent of the total gas production in the lower 48 states and consumption is expected to increase. The major source rocks in the WCSB were reviewed, with particular focus on the early Cretaceous Wilrich Formation and the Lower and Upper Jurassic Formations. The tasks performed included mapping, geochemical assessment and analysis, core analysis and sampling 66 samples from 22 wells. Major oil/gas source rocks are Kerogen types I and II. Type III are gas source rocks. Gas shale fracture models were also discussed and gas-in-place estimates were provided. Some of the characteristics of shale gas plays are: low production rates, long production life for wells, decline rates normally below 5 per cent, and reservoirs which can be very thick with low recovery rate. The authors recommended structural analysis be performed. They also suggested integration with corporate exploration focus, review of previous exploration efforts, acquisition of geochemical data, determination of an appropriate testing and completion strategy, and exploration at deeper targets. refs., tabs., figs.

  14. Energy regulation in China: Objective selection, potential assessment and responsibility sharing by partial frontier analysis

    To cope with the excessive growth of energy consumption, the Chinese government has been trying to strengthen the energy regulation system by introducing new initiatives that aim at controlling the total amount of energy consumption. A partial frontier analysis is performed in this paper to make a comparative assessment of the combinations of possible energy conservation objectives, new constraints and regulation strategies. According to the characteristics of the coordination of existing regulation structure and the optimality of regulation strategy, four scenarios are constructed and regional responsibilities are reasonably divided by fully considering the production technology in the economy. The relative importance of output objectives and the total amount controlling is compared and the impacts on the regional economy caused by the changes of regulation strategy are also evaluated for updating regulation policy. - Highlights: • New initiatives to control the total amount of energy consumption are evaluated. • Twenty-four regulation strategies and four scenarios are designed and compared. • Crucial regions for each sector and regional potential are identified. • The national goals of energy abatement are decomposed into regional responsibilities. • The changes of regulation strategy are evaluated for updating regulation policy

  15. Probiotic potential of selected lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from Brazilian kefir grains.

    Leite, A M O; Miguel, M A L; Peixoto, R S; Ruas-Madiedo, P; Paschoalin, V M F; Mayo, B; Delgado, S

    2015-06-01

    A total of 34 lactic acid bacteria isolates from 4 different Brazilian kefir grains were identified and characterized among a group of 150 isolates, using the ability to tolerate acidic pH and resistance to bile salts as restrictive criteria for probiotic potential. All isolates were identified by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and 16S rDNA sequencing of representative amplicons. Eighteen isolates belonged to the species Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 11 to Lactococcus lactis (of which 8 belonged to subspecies cremoris and 3 to subspecies lactis), and 5 to Lactobacillus paracasei. To exclude replicates, a molecular typing analysis was performed by combining repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR and random amplification of polymorphic DNA techniques. Considering a threshold of 90% similarity, 32 different strains were considered. All strains showed some antagonistic activity against 4 model food pathogens. In addition, 3 Lc. lactis strains and 1 Lb. paracasei produced bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances against at least 2 indicator organisms. Moreover, 1 Lc. lactis and 2 Lb. paracasei presented good total antioxidative activity. None of these strains showed undesirable enzymatic or hemolytic activities, while proving susceptible or intrinsically resistant to a series of clinically relevant antibiotics. The Lb. paracasei strain MRS59 showed a level of adhesion to human Caco-2 epithelial cells comparable with that observed for Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Taken together, these properties allow the MRS59 strain to be considered a promising probiotic candidate. PMID:25841972

  16. The potential use of an alternative fluid for SFR intermediate loops: selection and first design

    Among the Generation IV systems, Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR) are promising and benefit of considerable technological experience, but improvements are researched on safety approach and capital cost reduction. One of the main problems to be solved by the standard SFR design is the proper management of the risk of leakage between the intermediate circuit filled with sodium and the energy conversion system using a water Rankine cycle. This risk requires notably an early detection of water leakage to prevent a water-sodium reaction. One innovative solution to this problem is the replacement of the sodium in the secondary loops by an alternative liquid fluid, less reactive with water. This alternative fluid might also allow innovative designs, e.g. intermediate heat exchanger and steam generator grouped in the same component. CEA, Areva NP and EdF have formed a working group in order to evaluate different 'alternative fluids' that might replace sodium. A first selection retained seven fluids on the bases of 'required properties' as: large operating range (low melting point, high boiling point ...), fluid cost and availability, acceptable corrosion at SFR working temperature. These are three bismuth alloys, two nitrate salts, one hydroxide melt and sodium with nanoparticles. Then, it was decided to evaluate these fluids through a multi- criteria analysis in order to point advantages and drawbacks of each fluid and to compare them with sodium. Lack of knowledge, impact on materials, design, working conditions and reactor availability should be emphasized by this analysis, in order to provide sound arguments for a research program on one or two most promising fluids. A global note is given to each fluid by evaluating them with respect to 'grand criteria', weighted differently according to their importance. The grand criteria were: thermal properties, reactivity with structures, reactivity with other fluids (air, water, sodium), chemistry control (including tritium management), safety and waste management, inspection maintenance and repair (ISI and R), impact on components and circuits, availability and cost, level of use. The impact on reactor availability and manageability and the level of knowledge on each fluid were estimated through the former criteria and introduced in the final evaluation as main criteria. The aim of this paper is to present the method of evaluation, the results obtained and the choice that have been made. The impact on design and operation are enhanced for the most promising fluids. It was found that sodium remains the most interesting intermediate fluid. However, Lead Bismuth Eutectic and sodium with nanoparticles also presents some interests and should be further evaluated. (author)

  17. Mediatorless N(2) incorporated diamond nanowire electrode for selective detection of NADH at stable low oxidation potential.

    Shalini, Jayakumar; Sankaran, Kamatchi Jothiramalingam; Chen, Huang-Chin; Lee, Chi-Young; Tai, Nyan-Hwa; Lin, I-Nan

    2014-02-21

    The electrocatalytic properties of a N2 incorporated diamond nanowire (N-DNW) unmodified electrode towards the oxidation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) was critically evaluated. The electrochemical behavior of the N-DNW unmodified electrode was examined and compared with that of boron-doped diamond, glassy carbon electrode, and graphite electrodes. The N-DNW electrode had high selectivity and high sensitivity for the differential pulse voltammetric detection of NADH in the presence of ascorbic acid at the lower and stable oxidation potential. Moreover, it exhibited strong stability after prolonged usage. The oxidation peak potential at the N-DNW electrode remained unchanged even after exposure to the solution, followed by washing, drying, and storage in laboratory air for 20 days, with minimization of surface contamination. Therefore, the N-DNW unmodified electrode shows promise for the detection of NADH and is attractive for use in a dehydrogenase based biosensor and other analytical applications. PMID:24352298

  18. Potential Sources for Lipid Soluble Food Colorants from Selected Malaysian Traditional Vegetables

    Colour is one important characteristic to food products as it dictates consumers first perception on the foods flavour and quality. In the current food industry, most of the colorants used were derived from synthetic sources. However, due to negative health impacts of the synthetic colorants, the urgency to find natural colorants and impose it to food products is of great importance. In this study, a group of plant pigments which are potentially introduced as natural food colorants were quantified from 24 species of local traditional vegetables (ulam), characterized as neoxanthin, violaxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthine, α-carotene and β-carotene by using HPLC. It was shown that Sauropus androgynous contained the highest amount of neoxanthin, violaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthine at 142.40±3.57, 28.06±0.65 and 0.07±0.00 mg/ g dry weight (DW), respectively. In contrast, highest content of lutein and α-carotene were observed in Centella asiatica at 16.53±0.97 and 2.14±0.12 mg/ g DW, accordingly. Meanwhile, Piper sarmentosum contained the highest zeaxanthin level (123.45±12.3 mg/ g DW) and Oenanthe javanica has the largest amount of β-carotene (3.09±0.06 mg/ g DW). The extracted yellow-to-red lipid soluble pigments can be further developed into commercial food colorant to replace the synthetic colorants in the market thus improving social awareness towards natural products as well as strengthening the national economy. (author)

  19. Mobility of trace elements from selected Australian fly ashes and its potential impact on aquatic ecosystems

    Jerzy Jankowski; Colin R. Ward; David French; Sarah Groves [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Biological, Co-operative Research Centre for Coal in Sustainable Development, Earth and Environmental Sciences

    2006-01-01

    Batch leaching tests have been performed on fly ashes collected from four Australian power stations fuelled by chemically different coals. Two acidic and two alkaline fly ashes were subjected to long-term (144 h) leaching tests, and the behaviour of As, B, Mo and Se was investigated to obtain data on their potential for mobilisation during fly ash-water interactions. All four elements are mobile under different conditions and over different leaching times. The concentrations of these elements released in leaching solutions with initial pH values of 4, 7 and 10 were used to assess the influence of pH conditions on element mobility from the acidic and alkaline fly ashes. The most mobile of the four elements leached were Mo from alkaline fly ashes and B from acidic fly ashes. Arsenic concentration increased with time in leachate solutions from acidic and alkaline fly ashes; however, in solutions in contact with alkaline fly ashes the As concentration, after reaching a maximum, later decreased with time. Selenium mobility shows a similar pattern to that of As, with similar leaching concentrations. Boron has the highest relative mobility of all four elements. A process possibly responsible for the decrease in concentration of B, As and Se in alkaline leaching solutions is the formation of ettringite. Equilibrium between the solid phase (ash) and the leaching solution was not reached in any of the leaching experiments. The pH of the leaching solution is the key factor affecting the mobility of these trace elements in these fly ashes. 50 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Mountain range specific analog weather forecast model for northwest Himalaya in India

    D Singh; A Ganju

    2008-10-01

    Mountain range speci?c analog weather forecast model is developed utilizing surface weather observations of reference stations in each mountain range in northwest Himalaya (NW-Himalaya).The model searches past similar cases from historical dataset of reference observatory in each mountain range based on current situation.The searched past similar cases of each mountain range are used to draw weather forecast for that mountain range in operational weather forecasting mode, three days in advance.The developed analog weather forecast model is tested with the independent dataset of more than 717 days (542 days for Pir Panjal range in HP)of the past 4 winters (2003 2004 to 2006 2007).Independent test results are reasonably good and suggest that there is some possibility of forecasting weather in operational weather forecasting mode employing analog method over different mountain ranges in NW-Himalaya.Signi?cant difference in overall accuracy of the model is found for prediction of snow day and no-snow day over different mountain ranges, when weather is predicted under snow day and no-snow day weather forecast categories respectively.In the same mountain range,signi ?cant difference is also found in overall accuracy of the model for prediction of snow day and no-snow day for different areas.This can be attributed to their geographical position and topographical differences.The analog weather forecast model performs better than persistence and climatological forecast for day-1 predictions for all the mountain ranges except Karakoram range in NW-Himalaya.The developed analog weather forecast model may help as a guidance tool for forecasting weather in operational weather forecasting mode in different mountain ranges in NW-Himalaya.

  1. 137Cs in recent tsunami deposits - a potential tracer of selective tsunami sediment entrainment?

    Spiske, M.; Bahlburg, H.; Suckow, A.

    2012-12-01

    The tsunami of 27 February, 2010 affected a 600 km long stretch of the central Chilean coastline. We documented the tsunami deposits 4 months after the event in 2010 and two years later in 2012. The broad coastal plain at La Trinchera was inundated ca. 430 m inland and up to 8 m above sea level. A ca. 10 cm thick layer of tsunami sand was deposited on top of marsh sediments. A comparison of this layer in 2010 and 2012 reveals a change in the relative mineral composition and related grain size. In 2010 the layer consisted of 90-93% heavy minerals, 1-4% quartz, 2-3% organics and 1-3% feldspar. In 2012 the relative abundances changed to 63-76% heavy minerals, 10-12% quartz, 16-20% organics and 5-7% feldspar, as a result of the erosion of parts of the finer grained heavy minerals. Furthermore, the thickness decreased to ca. 8 cm. The concentration of the artificial radionuclide 137Cs was recorded using high-resolution gamma-spectrometry. Especially in the northern hemisphere, 137Cs is a tracer for radioactive fallout emitted mainly during nuclear tests in the 1950s to 1960s, peaking around 1963, or nuclear bombing and accidents. In contrast, Cs-concentrations in the southern hemisphere are about four times lower (sediments is higher compared to marine deposits due to Cs-dilution in sea water. For recent (younger than ca. 60 years) onshore tsunami sediments, a mixed Cs-signal is expected because a tsunami can entrain sediments from different depositional environments and different stratigraphic age levels. At La Trinchera, gamma-spectrometry revealed a 137Cs-content of 0.5 Bq/kg for the lower ca. 5 cm of the tsunami layer. The 137Cs-concentration of the upper 5 cm was below the detection limit of 0.1 Bq/kg. Even though the tsunami layer appears to be structureless, the Cs-content may help to distinguish between two distinctive depositional units within the layer. We suggest that the lower part represents reworked onshore deposits with higher Cs-concentrations compared to the upper part that may be composed of material from mainly marine sources. The sediments constituting the upper part of the tsunami deposit may have been stored in shallow marine environments for more than ca. 60 years. Hence, they do not exhibit 137Cs and were not affected by later Cs-fallout because the nuclides were diluted in the sea water. Two transport scenarios for the 2010 Chile tsunami at La Trinchera seem to be possible: 1) The head of an individual onshore flowing wave of the tsunami wave train picked up both beach sand and onshore sediments, whereas the tail entrained shallow marine sediments. As the front of the wave decelerated during its inland flow, these sediments with high Cs-contents were deposited first. Subsequently, marine sediments without a detectable Cs-content reached the shore with some time delay and were then deposited on top. 2) Assuming that a tsunami consists of several waves with different magnitudes, it is possible that an earlier, less energetic wave, entrained sediments onshore, mixed and deposited them. A later, more energetic wave was then able to entrain marine sediments and deposit them on top. Whichever scenario might be more realistic, the Cs-signal may help to document selective, time-dependent erosion and deposition during tsunami inundation.

  2. The Potential Use of an Alternative Fluid for SFR Intermediate Loops: Selection and First Design

    Among the Generation IV systems, Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR) are promising and benefit of considerable technological experience, but improvements are researched on safety approach and capital cost reduction. One of the main problems to be solved by the standard SFR design is the proper management of the risk of leakage between the intermediate circuit filled with sodium and the energy conversion system using a water Rankine cycle. This risk requires notably an early detection of water leakage to prevent a water-sodium reaction, and adequate draining and pressure resistant components to mitigate the reaction consequences. One can think also to suppress this risk by replacing the sodium in the secondary loops by an alternative fluid, less reactive with water. This alternative fluid might also allow innovative designs, e.g. Intermediate Heat eXchanger (IHX) and Steam Generator Unit (SGU) grouped in the same component. CEA, AREVA and EDF have formed a working group in order to evaluate different 'alternative fluids' that might replace sodium. A first selection retained seven fluids on the bases of 'required properties' as: large operating range (low melting point, high boiling point ...), fluid cost and availability, acceptable corrosion at SFR working temperature. These are three bismuth alloys, two nitrate salts, one molten hydroxide and sodium with nanoparticles. Then, it was decided to evaluate these fluids through a multi-criteria analysis in order to point out advantages and drawbacks of each fluid and to compare them with sodium. Lack of knowledge, impact on materials, design, working conditions and reactor availability should be emphasized by this analysis, in order to provide sound arguments for a research program on one or two most promising fluids. A global note is given to each fluid by evaluating them with respect to 'major criteria', weighted differently according to their importance. The major criteria were: thermal properties, reactivity with structures, reactivity with other fluids (air, water, sodium), chemistry control (including tritium management), safety and waste management, In Service Inspection and Repair (ISI and R), impact on components and circuits, availability and cost, level of use. The impact on reactor availability and manageability and the level of knowledge on each fluid were estimated through the former criteria and introduced in the final evaluation as main criteria. The aim of this paper is to present the method of evaluation, the results obtained and the choice that have been made. The impact on design and operation are enhanced for the most promising fluids. It was found that sodium remains the most interesting intermediate fluid regarding all the criteria, and despite its reaction with water. Lead Bismuth Eutectic presents some interests and should be further evaluated. It is however clear that this fluid raises a number of issues, such as corrosion of steel, which would request to lower operating temperature, or to find new materials and then lengthy R and D. (author)

  3. Selecting the optimal method to calculate daily global reference potential evaporation from CFSR reanalysis data

    F. C. Sperna Weiland

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Potential evaporation (PET is one of the main inputs of hydrological models. Yet, there is limited consensus on which PET equation is most applicable in hydrological climate impact assessments. In this study six different methods to derive global scale reference PET time series from CFSR reanalysis data are compared: Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor and original and modified versions of the Hargreaves and Blaney-Criddle method. The calculated PET time series are (1 evaluated against global monthly Penman-Monteith PET time series calculated from CRU data and (2 tested on their usability for modeling of global discharge cycles.

    The lowest root mean squared differences and the least significant deviations (95 % significance level between monthly CFSR derived PET time series and CRU derived PET were obtained for the cell specific modified Blaney-Criddle equation. However, results show that this modified form is likely to be unstable under changing climate conditions and less reliable for the calculation of daily time series. Although often recommended, the Penman-Monteith equation did not outperform the other methods. In arid regions (e.g., Sahara, central Australia, US deserts, the equation resulted in relatively low PET values and, consequently, led to relatively high discharge values for dry basins (e.g., Orange, Murray and Zambezi. Furthermore, the Penman-Monteith equation has a high data demand and the equation is sensitive to input data inaccuracy. Therefore, we preferred the modified form of the Hargreaves equation, which globally gave reference PET values comparable to CRU derived values. Although it is a relative efficient empirical equation, like Blaney-Criddle, the equation considers multiple spatial varying meteorological variables and consequently performs well for different climate conditions. In the modified form of the Hargreaves equation the multiplication factor is uniformly increased from 0.0023 to 0.0031 to overcome the global underestimation of CRU derived PET obtained with the original equation. It should be noted that the bias in PET is not linearly transferred to actual evapotranspiration and runoff, due to limited soil moisture availability and precipitation.

    The resulting gridded daily PET time series provide a new reference dataset that can be used for future hydrological impact assessments or, more specifically, for the statistical downscaling of daily PET derived from raw GCM data.

  4. A method for selecting potential geosites. The case of glacial geosites in the Chablais area (French and Swiss Prealps)

    Perret, Amandine; Reynard, Emmanuel

    2014-05-01

    Since 2009, an Interreg IVA project (123 Chablais), dealing with the promotion of natural and cultural heritage in the Chablais area, has been developed. It is linked to the creation of the Chablais Geopark. In a context of development of smart forms of tourism, the objective was to develop a strategy promoting the glacial heritage to a wide public in an area where the glaciers have almost disappeared. The recognition of specific places as geoheritage is the result of a double process: a scientific one, based on more or less sophisticated methods, and a social one, that is the acknowledgment by the society. One of the first scientific tasks is to produce a list of "potential geosites" that will be assessed in more details. However, this selection is often a weak point of inventories. It often seems like a "black box" without any transparency. In this project (123 Chablais) we carried out an inventory of glacial geosites, using the method developed by Reynard et al. (2007, 2012). However, a method has been created to enlighten the selection process, and to enhance choices in geoheritage management. As it was not possible to consider all sites in the Chablais area, a mixed selection approach was developed, halfway between completeness and specificity (Martin, 2012). The first step was the creation of a list of "points of interest", established using different sources: literature review, fieldwork and use of GIS to cross information. A selection was then performed according to two criteria: correspondence with a glacial stage (time axis) and belonging to a type of forms (spatial axis). Finally, selected sites aimed at providing a representative overview of the regional glacial witnesses. Therefore, representative sites of the regional geology were selected as well as sites presenting regional peculiarities Temporal and spatial attributes were given to the 101 points of interest identified. From a temporal point of view, this inventory aimed at presenting the main stages of the glacial retreat since the Last Glacial Maximum. From a spatial point of view, the objective was to show the different types of glacial remnants, but also some landforms related to deglaciation processes. Finally, 32 glacial and associated geosites were selected. Each geosite was submitted to a full evaluation process, including basis information, description, explanation of morphogenesis and an evaluation of values assigned to geosites. This assessment, first qualitative, provided valuable information concerning their intrinsic interest and their management. A numerical evaluation was also assessed to classify geosites and define an order of priority for their touristic promotion. It is worth to be noted that each selected points of interest can in fact be qualified as a geosite, using a clear method of selection. In this study, the numerical evaluation is not a mean to select geosites but a way to rank one geosite to another. Some geosites can be abandoned if intrinsic values are too low. Despite a well-defined protocol, the subjectivity and authors' choices are part of the selection process and inventory. This fact is certainly not a weakness. It must be considered whenever such inventory is made. Reference Martin, S. (2012). Valoriser le géopatrimoine par la médiation indirecte et la visualisation des objets géomorphologiques (Thèse de doctorat). Université de Lausanne, Lausanne. Reynard E., Fontana G., Kozlik L., Scapozza C. (2007). A method for assessing the scientific and additional values of geomorphosites, Geographica Helvetica, 62(3), 148-158. Reynard, E., Perret, A., Grangier, L., & Kozlik, L. (2012). Methodological approach for the assessment, protection, promotion and management of geoheritage. EGU General Assembly, Vienna.

  5. Marker-assisted selection as a potential tool for genetic improvement in developing countries: debating the issues

    Marker-assisted selection (MAS) is a complementary technology, for use in conjunction with more established conventional methods of genetic selection, for plant and animal improvement. It has generated a good deal of expectations, many of which have yet to be realized. Although documentation is limited, the current impact of MAS on products delivered to farmers seems small. While the future possibilities and potential impacts of MAS are considerable, there are also obstacles to its use, particularly in developing countries. Principal among these are issues relating to current high costs of the technology and its appropriateness, given that publicly funded agricultural research in many developing countries is suboptimal and development priorities do not necessarily include genetic improvement programmes. Other potential obstacles to the uptake of MAS in developing countries include limited infrastructure, the absence of conventional selection and breeding programmes, poor private sector involvement and lack of research on specific crops of importance in developing countries. Intellectual property rights may also be an important constraint to development and uptake of MAS in the developing world. It is hoped that through partnerships between developing and developed country institutions and individuals, including public-private sector collaboration, MAS costs can be reduced, resources pooled and shared and capacity developed. With the assistance of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) and international organizations such as FAO, developing countries can benefit more from MAS. These were some of the outcomes of a moderated e-mail conference, entitled 'Molecular Marker- Assisted Selection as a Potential Tool for Genetic Improvement of Crops, Forest Trees, Livestock and Fish in Developing Countries', that FAO hosted at the end of 2003. During the four-week conference, 627 people subscribed and 85 messages were posted, about 60 percent coming from people living in developing countries. Most messages (88 percent) came from people working in research centres (national or international) or universities. The remainder came from people working as independent consultants or from farmer organizations, government agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) or United Nations (UN) organizations. (author)

  6. Isolation gowns in health care settings: Laboratory studies, regulations and standards, and potential barriers of gown selection and use.

    Kilinc Balci, F Selcen

    2016-01-01

    Although they play an important role in infection prevention and control, textile materials and personal protective equipment (PPE) used in health care settings are known to be one of the sources of cross-infection. Gowns are recommended to prevent transmission of infectious diseases in certain settings; however, laboratory and field studies have produced mixed results of their efficacy. PPE used in health care is regulated as either class I (low risk) or class II (intermediate risk) devices in the United States. Many organizations have published guidelines for the use of PPE, including isolation gowns, in health care settings. In addition, the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation published a guidance document on the selection of gowns and a classification standard on liquid barrier performance for both surgical and isolation gowns. However, there is currently no existing standard specific to isolation gowns that considers not only the barrier resistance but also a wide array of end user desired attributes. As a result, infection preventionists and purchasing agents face several difficulties in the selection process, and end users have limited or no information on the levels of protection provided by isolation gowns. Lack of knowledge about the performance of protective clothing used in health care became more apparent during the 2014 Ebola epidemic. This article reviews laboratory studies, regulations, guidelines and standards pertaining to isolation gowns, characterization problems, and other potential barriers of isolation gown selection and use. PMID:26391468

  7. Discovery of potential and selective COX-1 inhibitory leads using pharmacophore modelling, in silico screening and in vitro evaluation.

    Balaji, Bhaskar; Hariharan, Sivaram; Shah, Darshit B; Ramanathan, Muthiah

    2014-10-30

    Cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) selective inhibitors are anticipated to be potential therapeutic agents for thrombosis, tumorigenesis, atherosclerosis, neuroprotection, and oxidative stress. In this study, a 3D-QSAR pharmacophore model was developed for potent and selective COX-1 inhibition based on 44 compounds from four different scaffolds using Phase, Schrdinger. One (hydrogen-bond) acceptor, one hydrophobic, and two aromatic sites (AHRR) contribute to COX-1 inhibitory activity. Test and decoy sets were used to corroborate the best hypothesis and the validated hypothesis was used to screen the SPECS database. The resultant hits were filtered by standard precision (SP) and extra precision (XP) modes of docking using Glide, Schrdinger which yielded five hits. Free energy calculations were carried out to quantify the affinity differences of the hits towards COX enzymes. These five hits were subjected to invitro COX (ovine) inhibitory activity studies. The hits displayed potent COX-1 inhibitory activity and good selectivity versus COX-2 enzyme. The compounds also protected the nitric oxide (NO) induced cell death mediated by COX-1 in mouse macrophages cell line. Hence, we hypothesize that these compounds could be promising leads for the design of superior COX-1 inhibitors and insights gained from further exploration of the same could provide pertinent clues for the treatment of the conditions mentioned above. PMID:25203777

  8. Violation of the electric dipole selection rules in indirect multiphoton excitation of image potential states on Ag(100)

    Full text: Photoemission from image potential states (IPS) on Ag(100) is investigated using angle resolved multiphoton photoemission induced by 150 fs laser pulses. For the first time we demonstrate that IPS populated by indirect transitions can be observed with light polarized parallel to the plane of incidence and light polarized normal to the plane of incidence. The latter is a process normally forbidden by the dipole transition selection rules. These findings are related to the creation of a hot electron population. This interpretation is supported by the reduction of the IPS electron effective mass, about 6%, when measured by indirect multiphoton population, followed by one- photon photoemission. The change of the effective mass is attributed to the interaction, with momentum exchange, between the non-equilibrium electron population in the bulk and the IPS. As a result of the momentum exchange the electronic excitations are not restricted anymore by the polarization selection rules. In the figure, panel A, photoemission spectra at hv = 4.28 eV in s and p polarization are shown. The inset represents a schematic energy level diagram at k parallel 0 of Ag(100) surface states, showing a direct one-photon population, two-photon photoemission via the n=1 IPS. In panel B, the spectra at hv 3.14 eV in s and p polarization are shown. In this case a direct population would be forbidden by dipole selection rules in s polarization, hence a indirect mechanism must be invoked

  9. Treeline dynamics with climate change at Central Nepal Himalaya

    N. P. Gaire

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change has multidimensional impacts with several biological fingerprints, and treeline shifting in tandem with climate change is a widely observed phenomenon in various parts of the world. In Nepal several impacts of climate change on physical environments have been observed. However, studies on the biological impacts are lacking. This dendrochronological study was carried out at the treeline ecotone (37504003 m a.s.l. in the Kalchuman Lake (Kal Tal area of the Manaslu Conservation Area in central Nepal Himalaya with the aim to study the dynamic impact of climate change at the treeline. The study provides an insight into regeneration and treeline dynamics over the past 200 yr. Two belt transect plots (size: 20 m wide, >250 m long were laid covering forest line, treeline as well as tree species Abies spectabilis and Betula utilis was done and their tree-cores were collected. Stand character and age distribution revealed an occurrence of more matured B. utilis (max. age 198 yr old compared to A. spectabilis (max. age 160 yr. A. spectabilis contained an overwhelmingly high population (89% of younger plants (A. spectabilis at the rate of 2.61 m yr?1 since 1850 AD. The upper distribution limit of B. utilis was found stagnant in the past few decades. An increment in plant density as well as upward shifting in the studied treeline ecotones was observed. Thus, two species presented species-specific responses to climate change and much wider differences anticipated in their population status as climate continues to cha spectabilis correlated negatively with the mean monthly temperature of MayAugust of the current year and with September of the previous year. The regeneration of A. spectabilis, on the other hand, was positively related with MayAugust precipitation and JanuaryApril temperature of the current year. The reconstructed average summer temperature (MayAugust using tree ring data revealed alternate period of cool and warm period with warming in the 2nd half of the 20th century. Further palynological and geochronological studies of sediments of the Kalchuman Lake would advance our understanding of past climatic trends and dynamics of the associated treeline and vegetation in the area.

  10. Evaluation of Phenolic Content Variability along with Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Cytotoxic Potential of Selected Traditional Medicinal Plants from India

    Singh, Garima; Passsari, Ajit K.; Leo, Vincent V.; Mishra, Vineet K.; Subbarayan, Sarathbabu; Singh, Bhim P.; Kumar, Brijesh; Kumar, Sunil; Gupta, Vijai K.; Lalhlenmawia, Hauzel; Nachimuthu, Senthil K.

    2016-01-01

    Plants have been used since ancient times as an important source of biologically active substances. The aim of the present study was to investigate the phytochemical constituents (flavonoids and phenolics), antioxidant potential, cytotoxicity against HepG2 (human hepato carcinoma) cancer cell lines, and the antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract of selected traditional medicinal plants collected from Mizoram, India. A number of phenolic compounds were detected using HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF-MS, mainly Luteolin, Kaempferol, Myricetin, Gallic Acid, Quercetin and Rutin, some of which have been described for the first time in the selected plants. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents showed high variation ranging from 4.44 to 181.91 μg of Gallic Acid equivalent per milligram DW (GAE/mg DW) and 3.17 to 102.2 μg of Quercetin/mg, respectively. The antioxidant capacity was determined by DPPH (IC50 values ranges from 34.22 to 131.4 μg/mL), ABTS (IC50 values ranges from 24.08 to 513.4 μg/mL), and reducing power assays. Antimicrobial activity was assayed against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus), gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and yeast (Candida albicans) demonstrating that the methanol extracts of some plants were efficacious antimicrobial agents. Additionally, cytotoxicity was assessed on human hepato carcinoma (HepG2) cancer cell lines and found that the extracts of Albizia lebbeck, Dillenia indica, and Bombax ceiba significantly decreased the cell viability at low concentrations with IC50 values of 24.03, 25.09, and 29.66 μg/mL, respectively. This is the first report of detection of phenolic compounds along with antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of selected medicinal plants from India, which indicates that these plants might be valuable source for human and animal health. PMID:27066046

  11. Predicting Monsoonal-Driven Stream Discharge and Sediment Yield in Himalaya Mountain Basins with Changing Climate and Deforestation

    Neupane, R. P.; White, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Short and long term effects of site water availability impacts the spectrum of management outcomes including landslide risk, hydropower generation, and sustainable agriculture in mountain systems heavily influenced by climate and land use changes. Climate change and land use may predominantly affect the hydrologic cycle of mountain basins as soil precipitation interception is affected by land cover. Using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool, we estimated stream discharge and sediment yield associated with climate and land use changes for two Himalaya basins located at eastern and western margins of Nepal that included drainages of the Tamor and Seti Rivers. Future climate change was modeled using average output of temperature and precipitation changes derived from Special Report on Emission Scenarios (B1, A1B & A2) of 16 global circulation models for 2080 as meteorological inputs into SWAT. Land use change was modeled spatially and included 1) deforestation, 2) expansion of agricultural land, and 3) increased human settlement that were produced by considering current land use with projected changes associated with viability of elevation and slope characteristics of the basins capable of supporting different land use types. We found higher annual stream discharge in all GCM-derived scenarios compared to the baseline with maximum increases of 13 and 8% in SRES-A2 and SRES-A1B for the Tamor and Seti basins, respectively. With 7% of original forest land removed, sediment yield for Tamor basin was estimated to be 65% higher, but increased to 124% for the SRES-B1 scenario. For the Seti basin, 4% deforestation yielded 33% more sediment for the SRES-A1B scenario. Our results indicated that combined effects of future, intensified monsoon rainfall with deforestation lead to dramatic potential for increased stream discharge and sediment yield as rainfall on steep slopes with thin exposed soils increases surface runoff and soil erosion in the Himalayas. This effect appears to be geographically important with higher influence in the eastern Tamor basin potentially due to longer and stronger monsoonal period of that area. Future slope stability and sediment deposition in downstream reservoirs are important future potential vulnerabilities for these basins of which land management plays an important mediating role.

  12. Thermal supplementing soil nutrients through biocomposting of night-soil in the northwestern Indian Himalaya.

    Oinam, Santaram S; Rawat, Yashwant S; Kuniyal, Jagdish C; Vishvakarma, S C R; Pandey, Dinesh C

    2008-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the prime activities of the hill people residing in the northwestern Indian Himalaya. However, poor soil fertility in these areas is a big hurdle to sustainable farming. The effects of washout of topsoil and its nutrients, year after year, due to the abundance of snowfall, avalanches, landslides and erosion further add to the woes of the farmers. In the cold and harsh climatic conditions of the region, with grass and vegetation cover being scanty, it is not possible to maintain large herds of cattle for the adequate production of farmyard manure. Faced with this situation, the locals have relied heavily on obtaining organic manure derived from composting of human excreta. In earlier times the dire necessity of the farmers helped them overcome the revulsion associated with the practice of handling human excreta, but now with the advent of modernisation and the easy availability of chemical fertilisers, the people are distancing themselves from this age-old practice. More and more people are opting for modern toilets and leaving behind the traditional toilets that made possible the harvesting of manure from night-soil. As a result, this primitive practice is on the verge of extinction. This eco-friendly practice, that has sustained the land for so many generations, needs to be continued and strengthened as the long-term consequences of excessive and indiscriminant use of chemical fertilisers are becoming too obvious to ignore. Traditional knowledge needs to be combined with modern scientific know-how to make this practice safer and more acceptable. If the composting operation is managed properly, the handling will be less loathsome and the concerns of health and hygiene too will stand addressed. The present study attempts a detailed profile of the practice of 'supplementing soil nutrients through biocomposting of night-soil' in the cold desert region of Lahaul Valley. Four villages running from the northwestern part to the southeastern part of the valley were selected. The study is broadly based on a direct interview of heads of the various households in the selected villages of Kuthar (2600m), Hinsa (2700m), Jahlma (3000m) and Khoksar (3200m). PMID:17490873

  13. Sensitive and selective determination of molybdenum by flow injection chemiluminescence method combined with controlled potential electrolysis technique

    Du Jianxiu; Li Jianjun; Yang Lingjuan; Lu Jiuru

    2003-04-03

    A sensitive and selective flow injection chemiluminescence (CL) method combined with controlled potential electrolysis technique was described for the determination of molybdenum. The method is based on the chemiluminescence reaction of luminol with unstable molybdenum(III) in alkaline solution. The molybdenum(III) was on-line reduced from molybdenum(VI) via controlled potential electrolysis technique using a homemade flow-through carbon electrolytic cell at the potential of -0.6 V (versus Ag/AgCl). The method allows the determination of molybdenum in the 5.0x10{sup -10} to 5.0x10{sup -7} g ml{sup -1} range with a limit of detection (3{sigma}) of 5x10{sup -11} g ml{sup -1} molybdenum. The relative standard deviation is 2.6% for the 1.0x10{sup -9} g ml{sup -1} molybdenum solution in 11 repeated measurements. This method was successfully applied to the determination of molybdenum in water samples.

  14. Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors potentiate gene blunting induced by repeated methylphenidate treatment: Zif268 versus Homer1a.

    Van Waes, Vincent; Vandrevala, Malcolm; Beverley, Joel; Steiner, Heinz

    2014-11-01

    There is a growing use of psychostimulants, such as methylphenidate (Ritalin; dopamine re-uptake inhibitor), for medical treatments and as cognitive enhancers in the healthy. Methylphenidate is known to produce some addiction-related gene regulation. Recent findings in animal models show that selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs), including fluoxetine, can potentiate acute induction of gene expression by methylphenidate, thus indicating an acute facilitatory role for serotonin in dopamine-induced gene regulation. We investigated whether repeated exposure to fluoxetine, in conjunction with methylphenidate, in adolescent rats facilitated a gene regulation effect well established for repeated exposure to illicit psychostimulants such as cocaine-blunting (repression) of gene inducibility. We measured, by in situ hybridization histochemistry, the effects of a 5-day repeated treatment with methylphenidate (5 mg/kg), fluoxetine (5 mg/kg) or a combination on the inducibility (by cocaine) of neuroplasticity-related genes (Zif268, Homer1a) in the striatum. Repeated methylphenidate treatment alone produced minimal gene blunting, while fluoxetine alone had no effect. In contrast, fluoxetine added to methylphenidate robustly potentiated methylphenidate-induced blunting for both genes. This potentiation was widespread throughout the striatum, but was most robust in the lateral, sensorimotor striatum, thus mimicking cocaine effects. For illicit psychostimulants, blunting of gene expression is considered part of the molecular basis of addiction. Our results thus suggest that SSRIs, such as fluoxetine, may increase the addiction liability of methylphenidate. PMID:23763573

  15. Tectonics, exhumation, and drainage evolution of the eastern Himalaya since 13 Ma from detrital geochemistry and thermochronology, Kameng River Section, Arunachal Pradesh

    CHIROUZE, François; HUYGHE, Pascale; VAN DER BEEK, Peter; Chauvel, Catherine; DUPONT-NIVET, Guillaume; Bernet, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The exhumation history of the central Himalaya is well documented, but the exhumation history of the eastern Himalaya is not well known. In this study, we identify sediment source areas and examine the late Neogene exhumation history of the eastern Himalaya from the synorogenic sedimentary record of its foreland basin. We present Nd and Hf isotopic data as well as apatite and zircon fission-track analyses from the Miocene-Pliocene Siwalik Group along the recently dated Kameng River section in...

  16. Genetic basis of interindividual susceptibility to cancer cachexia: selection of potential candidate gene polymorphisms for association studies

    N. Johns; B. H. Tan; M. Macmillan; T. S. Solheim; J. A. Ross; V. E. Baracos; S. Damaraju; K. C. H. Fearon

    2014-12-01

    Cancer cachexia is a complex and multifactorial disease. Evolving definitions highlight the fact that a diverse range of biological processes contribute to cancer cachexia. Part of the variation in who will and who will not develop cancer cachexia may be genetically determined. As new definitions, classifications and biological targets continue to evolve, there is a need for reappraisal of the literature for future candidate association studies. This review summarizes genes identified or implicated as well as putative candidate genes contributing to cachexia, identified through diverse technology platforms and model systems to further guide association studies. A systematic search covering 1986–2012 was performed for potential candidate genes / genetic polymorphisms relating to cancer cachexia. All candidate genes were reviewed for functional polymorphisms or clinically significant polymorphisms associated with cachexia using the OMIM and GeneRIF databases. Pathway analysis software was used to reveal possible network associations between genes. Functionality of SNPs/genes was explored based on published literature, algorithms for detecting putative deleterious SNPs and interrogating the database for expression of quantitative trait loci (eQTLs). A total of 154 genes associated with cancer cachexia were identified and explored for functional polymorphisms. Of these 154 genes, 119 had a combined total of 281 polymorphisms with functional and/or clinical significance in terms of cachexia associated with them. Of these, 80 polymorphisms (in 51 genes) were replicated in more than one study with 24 polymorphisms found to influence two or more hallmarks of cachexia (i.e., inflammation, loss of fat mass and/or lean mass and reduced survival). Selection of candidate genes and polymorphisms is a key element of multigene study design. The present study provides a contemporary basis to select genes and/or polymorphisms for further association studies in cancer cachexia, and to develop their potential as susceptibility biomarkers of cachexia.

  17. Distribution and Potential Mobility of Selected Heavy Metals in a Fluvial Environment Under the Influence of Tanneries

    Rodrigues M. L. K.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluated the occurrence of heavy metals in a fluvial environment under the influence of tanneries – the Cadeia and Feitoria rivers basin (RS, south Brazil, highlighting the distribution and potential mobility of the selected elements. Every three months, over one year-period, selected heavy metals and ancillary parameters were analyzed in water and sediment samples taken at ten sites along the rivers. Water analyses followed APHA recommendations, and sediment analyses were based on methods from USEPA (SW846 and European Community (BCR sequential extraction. The determinations were performed by ICP/OES, except for Hg (CV/ETA. Statistical factor analysis was applied to water and sediment data sets, in order to obtain a synthesis of the environmental diagnosis. The results revealed that water quality decreased along the rivers, and mainly on the dry period (January, showing the influence of tannery plants vicinity and flow variations. Except for Fe, Al, and eventually Mn, heavy metal contents in water were in agreement with Brazilian standards. Concerning sediments, Al, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn, Ti, and Zn concentrations appeared to reflect the base levels, while Cr and Hg were enriched in the deposits from the lower part of the basin. The partition of heavy metals among the sediment geochemical phases showed higher mobility of Mn along the sampling sites, followed by Cr in the lower reach of the basin, most affected by tanneries. Since Cr was predominantly associated to the oxidizable fraction, its potential mobilization from contaminated sediments would be associated to redox conditions. The detection of Hg in the tissue of a bottom-fish species indicated that the environmental conditions are apparently favoring the remobilization of this metal from contaminated sediments.

  18. Cytotoxic Potential and Molecular Characterization of Fungal Endophytes from Selected High Value Medicinal Plants of the Kashmir Valley - India.

    Dar, R A; Qazi, P H; Saba, I; Rather, S A; Wani, Z A; Qazi, A K; Shiekh, A A; Manzoor, A; Hamid, A; Modae, D M

    2016-03-01

    The present study explores the fungal endophytes from selected high value medicinal plants to check their activities at in-vitro and in-vivo level. The in-vitro cytotoxicity of selected endophytes revealed potent growth inhibition against human cancer cell lines of leukemia (THP-1), lung (A549), prostate (PC-3), colon (Caco-2), neuroblastoma (IMR-32) and breast (MCF-7) at a concentration of 100 µg/ml. Among them the endophytic strains i. e., IIIM2, IIIM3, IIIM7 and IIIM8 showed most significant growth inhibition against colon (Caco-2), prostate (PC-3), lung (A549) and leukemia (THP-1) cancer cell lines. At the in-vivo level maximum (58.95%) tumor growth inhibition was documented with the extract of IIIM2 against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma mouse modal. All the potent fungal endophytic strains were characterized using ITS 4 and ITS 5 region sequencing and phylogenetic analysis was ascertained among them. This paper confirms the 2 elite endophytic fungal strains, IIIM2 and IIIM8, have the potential to act as a source of new anticancer compounds. PMID:26011814

  19. Potential social, institutional, and environmental impacts of selected energy-conservation measures in two Washington communities. [Seattle and Yakima

    Edelson, E.; Olsen, M.

    1980-03-01

    The likely environmental, social, and institutional impacts of selected energy-conservation measures in two communities in Washington state are reported. The five conservation measures investigated in this study were: (1) retrofitting existing buildings; (2) district heating and Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES); (3) small automobiles and vehicle redesign; (4) land-use and housing modifications; and (5) electric-utility rate reform. Twenty potential impact areas were selected for analysis. These areas were divided into five categories of environmental impacts, economic impacts, community impacts, personal impacts, and overall quality of life in the community. The research was conducted in Seattle and Yakima, Washington. In each location, about two dozen public officials and business, labor, and community leaders were interviewed. Their diverse views are summarized. The Seattle respondents saw energy conservation as a highly desirable policy with a number of temporary, transitional problems arising as energy-conservation measures were implemented. Yakima respondents, in contrast, did not expect to encounter many serious energy problems in the foreseeable future and consequently viewed energy conservation as a relatively minor community concern. Moreover, they anticipated that many conservation measures, if implemented by the government, would encounter either apathy or resistance in their community. Two broad generalizations can bedrawn from these interviews: (1) energy conservation will basically be beneficial for the natural environment and our society; and (2) if energy conservation does become a dominant thrust in our society, it could stimulate and reinforce a much broader process of fundamental social change. (LCL)

  20. Characterizing the impacts of water resources infrastructure, humans, and hydrologic nonstationarity on changes in flood risk across the Himalaya region

    Tullos, D. D.

    2014-12-01

    As flood control infrastructure reaches its design life, and climate change, population growth, and urban migration increase flood risk, the historical paradigm of store-then-release floodwaters behind rigid infrastructure is of decreasing physical and socioeconomic value. Instead, a new paradigm of sustainable flood management is emerging, which can be framed in the context of three elements that can contribute to and/or mitigate flood risk: 1) water resources infrastructure, 2) policies and socioeconomics, and 3) changing climates and land use. In this presentation, I present the results of analysis on the role of these three elements in contributing to flood risk of the Sutlej River (India) and the Koshi River (Nepal) basins for six historical flood events. The Himalaya region was selected based on the a) increasing intensity of monsoonal rains, b) increasing prevalence of glacial lake outburst floods, c) water resources management that achieves short-term development goals but lacks long-term sustainability, and d) other socio-economic, environmental, and geopolitical factors. I develop and apply a flood risk management framework that is based on metrics for characterizing the losses associated with the three elements contributing to major floods in the Himalaya region. Derived from a variety of data sources, results highlight how, across different hydrogeologic settings and various flood magnitudes, the largest influences on high flood losses are associated with inflexible water resources infrastructure and inappropriate development and flood management policies. Particularly for the most destructive events, which are generally associated with landslides and other natural hazards in this region, the effectiveness of some types of traditional and inflexible flood management infrastructure, including large dams and levees, is limited. As opposed to the probability of a particular flood event, findings illustrate the importance of the damages side of the flood risk equation, which is often the most controllable but disregarded element of flood risk management. In addition, results lead to a hypothesized matrix of appropriate flood management strategies for the types of flood events that occur in the hydrogeology and cultural settings of high mountain areas and the lowlands to which they drain.

  1. Geomorphic impacts, age and significance of two giant landslide dams in the Nepal Himalayas: Ringmo-Phoksundo (Dolpo District) and Dhampu-Chhoya (Mustang District).

    Fort, Monique; Braucher, Regis; Bourlès, Didier; Guillou, Valery; Nath Rimal, Lila; Gribenski, Natacha; Cossart, Etienne

    2014-05-01

    Large catastrophic slope failures have recently retained much attention in the northern dry Himalayas (1). They play a prominent role in the denudation history of active orogens at a wide range of spatial and time scales (2), and they impact durably landforms and process evolution in upstream catchments. Their occurrence mostly results from three different potential triggers: earthquakes, post-glacial debuttressing, and permafrost melting. We focus on two examples of giant rock slope failures that occurred across and north of the Higher Himalaya of Nepal and assess their respective influence on the regional, geomorphic evolution. The Ringmo rockslide (4.5 km3) results from the collapse of a mountain wall (5148 m) cut into palaeozoic dolomites of the Tethysian Himalayas. It caused the damming of the Suli Gad River at the origin of the Phoksumdo Lake (3600 m asl). The presence of glacial till at the very base of the sequence suggests the rockslide event is post-glacial, a field assumption confirmed by cosmogenic dating. Two consistent 36Cl ages of 20,885 ±1675 argue for a single, massive event of paraglacial origin that fits well with the last chronologies available on the Last Glacial Maximum in the Nepal Himalaya. The persistence of the Phoksumdo Lake is due to its dam stability (i.e. high lime content of landslide components) and to low sediment flux from the arid, upper Suli Gad catchment. The Dhampu-Chhoya rock avalanche (about 1 km3, area extent 10 km2) was derived from the northward failure of the Kaiku ridge, uphold by north-dipping, upper crystallines of the Higher Himalaya. It dammed the Kali Gandaki River, with complex interactions with the Late Pleistocene ice tongues derived from the Dhaulagiri (8167 m) and Nilgiris (7061 m) peaks. Both the rock avalanche and glaciers controlled the existence and level of the "Marpha Lake" (lacustrine deposits up to Kagbeni). Again, consistent 10Be ages of 29,680 ± 1015 ka obtained from two large blocks (>1000 m3) suggest a single event, in full agreement with other 10Be dates obtained by a different team from the same site (3). This latter event occurred during glaciation, and was likely triggered in connection with the North Himalayan Fault and/or Thakkhola fault activity. Post-landslide dam evolution includes rapid dissection of lacustrine deposits (4), yet the braided pattern of the Kali Gandaki evidence the delay in headward erosion caused by landslide dam persistence. References: (1) Hewitt K., 2009. Catastrophic rock slope failures and late Quaternary developments in the Nanga Parbat-Haramosh Massif, Upper Indus basin, northern Pakistan. Quaternary Science Reviews, 28, 1055-1069; (2) Korup, O., Clague, J.J., 2009. Natural hazards, extreme events, and mountain topography. Quaternary Science Reviews 28, 977-990; (3) Zech R., Zech M, Kubik P.W., Kharki K., Zech W. (2009). Deglaciation and landscape history around Annapurna, Nepal, based on 10Be surface exposure dating, Quaternary Science Reviews, v. 28(11-12), pp.1106-1118; (4) Fort M., Cossart E. (2013) Erosion assessment in the middle Kali Gandaki (Nepal): A sediment budget approach. Journal of Nepal Geological Society, Vol. 46, pp. 25-40.

  2. Land use changes in Himalaya and their impacts on environment, society and economy: A study of the Lake Region in Kumaon Himalaya, India

    Tiwari, Prakash

    2008-11-01

    The traditional resource use structure in Himalaya has transformed considerably during the recent past, mainly owing to the growth of population and the resultant increased demand of natural resources in the region. This transformation in resource use practices is particularly significant in the densely populated tracts of Himalaya. As a result, cultivated land, forests, pastures and rangelands have been deteriorated and depleted steadily and significantly leading to their conversion into degraded and non-productive lands. These rapid land use changes have not only disrupted the fragile ecological equilibrium in the mountains through indiscriminate deforestation, degradation of land resources and disruption of the hydrological cycle, but also have significant and irreversible adverse impacts on the rural economy, society, livelihood and life quality of mountain communities. It has been observed that the agricultural production has declined, water sources are drying up fast due to decreased ground water recharge and a large number of villages are facing enormous deficit of critical resources, such as food, fodder, firewood and water, mainly due to unabated deforestation. As a result, the rural people, particularly the women, have to travel considerably long distances to collect fodder and firewood and to fetching water. It is therefore highly imperative to evolve a comprehensive and integrated land use framework for the conservation of the biophysical environment and sustainable development of natural resources in Himalaya. The land use policy would help local communities in making use of their natural resources scientifically and judiciously, and thus help in the conservation of the biophysical environment and in the increasing of the productivity of natural resources. The study indicates that conservation of forests and other critical natural resources through community participation, generation of alternative means of livelihood, and employment in rural areas can help increase rural income as well as restore ecosystem services.

  3. Large radiative forcing efficiency of atmospheric aerosols over the Himalaya

    Gasbarra, Daniele; di Sarra, Alcide; Meloni, Daniela; Bonasoni, Paolo; Di Biagio, Claudia; Gobbi, Gian Paolo; Marinoni, Angela; Pietro Verza, Gian; Vuillermoz, Elisa

    2014-05-01

    This study is based on measurements made at the Nepal Climate Observatory at Pyramid (NCO-P, 27.95 N, 86.82 E), located at 5079 m altitude in the Sagamartha National Park, Eastern Nepal Himalaya. We analised seasonal variations of solar downward irradiance (SW), columnar water vapour content (wv), aerosol optical depth at 500 nm (τ) and surface albedo (A) in the period between 2007 and 2010, in order to obtain the radiative perturbations produced by aerosols in the SW. SW measurements are carried out by a CMP21 pyranometer, while A is derived from a CNR1 radiometer. Values of wv and τ are retrieved from the measurements by the EVK2-CNR Cimel sunphotometer operating within the AERONET network. τ was found to be lower than 0.1 in 98% of the cases. However, during the pre-monsoon season, especially in the months of April and May, cases with τ reaching 0.27 were recorded. The aerosol surface shortwave radiative effect in cloud-free periods was estimated during the elevated aerosol optical depth cases using different methods. The 'hybrid method' was applied using experimental measurements of solar downward irradiance and simulations made with the MODTRAN (MODerate resolution atmospheric TRANsmission) model. The dependency of SW on A and wv was determined from MODTRAN simulations, and was used to correct experimental measurements for albedo and water vapour changes. The radiative perturbation produced by aerosol was thus obtained as the difference between the measured irradiances and the modelled values for aerosol-free conditions and the same water vapour and albedo values, and at the same solar zenith angle. The aerosol radiative effect was also derived by comparing elevated and low aerosol optical depth cases, at similar values of solar zenith angle, albedo, and column water vapour. In addition the direct method, relating SW to changes in τ, was also used. These three methods produce consistent results. Although the overall aerosol radiative perturbation is small, it becomes relatively large during elevated aerosol cases. The radiative forcing efficiency (radiative effect produced by a unit aerosol optical depth) is significantly larger than at other sites worldwide, reaching values above 360 W/m2 at about 50° solar zenith angle. The maximum radiative effect is about -90±18 Wm-2 (for τ=0.25), corresponding to a reduction by more than 10% of the solar radiation at the surface. During these elevated aerosol events high concentrations of pollutants were measured: PM10 and PM 2.5 showed concentrations higher than 50 ng m-3, while the black carbon concentration reached 3000 ng m-3. The backtrajectory analysis for the elevated aerosol cases shows that the polluted airmasses observed at NCO-P come from Indo-Gangetic plain and Punjab, regions characterized by the highest industrial and demographic concentration of the Indian subcontinent.

  4. Glass and Glass-Ceramic Materials from Simulated Composition of Lunar and Martian Soils: Selected Properties and Potential Applications

    Ray, C. S.; Sen, S.; Reis, S. T.; Kim, C. W.

    2005-01-01

    In-situ resource processing and utilization on planetary bodies is an important and integral part of NASA's space exploration program. Within this scope and context, our general effort is primarily aimed at developing glass and glass-ceramic type materials using lunar and martian soils, and exploring various applications of these materials for planetary surface operations. Our preliminary work to date have demonstrated that glasses can be successfully prepared from melts of the simulated composition of both lunar and martian soils, and the melts have a viscosity-temperature window appropriate for drawing continuous glass fibers. The glasses are shown to have the potential for immobilizing certain types of nuclear wastes without deteriorating their chemical durability and thermal stability. This has a direct impact on successfully and economically disposing nuclear waste generated from a nuclear power plant on a planetary surface. In addition, these materials display characteristics that can be manipulated using appropriate processing protocols to develop glassy or glass-ceramic magnets. Also discussed in this presentation are other potential applications along with a few selected thermal, chemical, and structural properties as evaluated up to this time for these materials.

  5. Optimization of Cat's Whiskers Tea (Orthosiphon stamineus) Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Selective Chemotherapeutic Potential against Prostate Cancer Cells

    Al-Suede, Fouad Saleih R.; Khadeer Ahamed, Mohamed B.; Abdul Majid, Aman S.; Baharetha, Hussin M.; Hassan, Loiy E. A.; Kadir, Mohd Omar A.; Nassar, Zeyad D.; Abdul Majid, Amin M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Cat's whiskers (Orthosiphon stamineus) leaves extracts were prepared using supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) with full factorial design to determine the optimum extraction parameters. Nine extracts were obtained by varying pressure, temperature, and time. The extracts were analysed using FTIR, UV-Vis, and GC-MS. Cytotoxicity of the extracts was evaluated on human (colorectal, breast, and prostate) cancer and normal fibroblast cells. Moderate pressure (31.1 MPa) and temperature (60°C) were recorded as optimum extraction conditions with high yield (1.74%) of the extract (B2) at 60 min extraction time. The optimized extract (B2) displayed selective cytotoxicity against prostate cancer (PC3) cells (IC50 28 µg/mL) and significant antioxidant activity (IC50 42.8 µg/mL). Elevated levels of caspases 3/7 and 9 in B2-treated PC3 cells suggest the induction of apoptosis through nuclear and mitochondrial pathways. Hoechst and rhodamine assays confirmed the nuclear condensation and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential in the cells. B2 also demonstrated inhibitory effects on motility and colonies of PC3 cells at its subcytotoxic concentrations. It is noteworthy that B2 displayed negligible toxicity against the normal cells. Chemometric analysis revealed high content of essential oils, hydrocarbon, fatty acids, esters, and aromatic sesquiterpenes in B2. This study highlights the therapeutic potentials of SC-CO2 extract of cat's whiskers in targeting prostate carcinoma. PMID:25276215

  6. Aldose reductase inhibitory, anti-cataract and antioxidant potential of selected medicinal plants from the Marathwada region, India.

    Gacche, R N; Dhole, N A

    2011-04-01

    The water, ethanol and chloroform extracts of selected plants such as Adhatoda vasica (L.) (Acanthaceae), Caesalpinia bonduc (L.), Cassia fistula (L.) (Caesalpiniaceae) and Biophytum sensitivum (L.) (Oxalidaceae) were evaluated for rat lens aldose reductase inhibitory (RLAR) potential, anti-cataract and antioxidant activities. All the samples inhibited the aldose reductase considerably and exhibited anti-cataract activity, while C. fistula (IC(50), 0.154 mg mL(-1)) showed significant RLAR inhibitory activity as compared to the other tested samples, and was further found to be more effective in maintaining sugar-induced lens opacity in the rat lens model. The antioxidant potential of plant extracts was determined using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazine), hydroxyl (OH), nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) scavenging activities, along with determination of reducing power, ferrous ion chelating ability and inhibition of polyphenol oxidase (PPO). The extracts of the tested plant showed significant free radical scavenging activities and inhibited the activity of enzyme PPO, a model oxidising enzyme. The plant samples were found to possess considerable amounts of vitamin C, total polyphenols and flavonoids. PMID:21462076

  7. Genetic Issues of Some of the Non Metallic Minerals in Lesser Himalaya

    R. Sharma

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A brief account of the representative and workable industrial minerals namely magnesite, talc and barite in Lesser Himalaya, is presented here emphasizing their genesis. Deposits of magnesite and talc are found associated with Neoproterozoic, plateform type, shelf-slope limestone-dolomite host rocks from inner Lesser Himalayan sequences. Field, textural, geochemical signatures and fluid inclusions trapped in dolomite and magnesite reveal within basin processes, in an increased burial- diagenetic environment responsible for formation of magnesite replacing dolomite. Talc is formed at the expense of magnesite and silica, and with limited dolomite involvement at transition conditions from diagenetic to metamorphism. Barite deposit is hosted within Neoproterozoic Nagthat quartzite rocks of outer Lesser Himalaya, wherein its textures, fluid inclusion, sulfur and strontium isotopic studies helped in genetic understanding.

  8. Braving the attitude of altitude: Caragana jubata at work in cold desert of Himalaya.

    Bhardwaj, Pardeep Kumar; Kapoor, Ritu; Mala, Deep; Bhagwat, Geetika; Acharya, Vishal; Singh, Anil Kumar; Vats, Surender Kumar; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh; Kumar, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    The present work was conducted to understand the basis of adaptation in Caragana jubata in its niche environment at high altitude cold desert of Himalaya. Molecular data showed predominance of genes encoding chaperones and those involved in growth and development at low temperature (LT), a major cue operative at high altitude. Importantly, these genes expressed in C. jubata in its natural habitat. Their homologues in Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, and Glycine max did not exhibit similar trend of gene expression at LT. Constitutive expression and a quick up-regulation of the above genes suggested the ability of C. jubata to adjust its cellular machinery to maintain growth and development in its niche. This was reflected in LT(50 )(the temperature at which 50% injury occurred) and LT mediated photosynthetic acclimatory response. Such molecular and physiological plasticity enables C. jubata to thrive in the high altitude cold desert of Himalayas. PMID:23289064

  9. Role of vegetation in modulating denudation and topography across the Himalaya

    Olen, Stephanie; Bookhagen, Bodo; Strecker, Manfred

    2015-04-01

    Studies of Himalayan denudation, to date, have primarily focused on the effects of lithology, tectonic activity, and climate in shaping landscape and controlling denudation rates. Climate can impact denudation not only through increased precipitation, runoff, or glaciation, but also via its role in controlling vegetation cover. Since the classical study of Langbein and Schumm [1958] emphasizing the role of vegetation cover in determining erosional efficiency, theoretical and plot-scale studies have highlighted the role of vegetation on surface processes [Collins et al., 2004; Istanbulluoglu and Bras, 2005; Collins and Bras, 2010; Carretier et al., 2013; Jeffery et al., 2014]. Vegetation cover and density vary considerably in the Himalaya, both across and along strike. Across strike, vegetation transitions from dense forest and agriculturally-used plots in the Lesser Himalaya to sparse alpine and arid, virtually non-vegetated regions at high elevation and in the rain shadow north of the Higher Himalaya peaks. Along-strike vegetation densities also differ significantly and show a pronounced E-W gradient. To quantify the along-strike vegetation gradient, we use 14 years of MODIS 13C1 enhanced vegetation index (EVI) data to calculate mean annual, summer (MJJASO), and winter (NDJFMA) for the entire Himalaya. Additionally, we calculate a differential EVI that compares summer versus winter vegetation density (MJJASO/NDJFMA). A decrease in vegetation density is observed from east to west, with the greatest difference in winter vegetation cover (225% higher in the eastern than western Himalaya). In contrast, differential EVI is higher in the western Himalaya, increasing 170% from east to west. To evaluate the effect of vegetation on denudation and landscape evolution, we combine the 14-year EVI data, topographic analysis, and a compilation of >100 published and unpublished 10-Be terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) catchment-mean denudation rates from across the Himalaya [Godard et al., 2014; Portenga et al., 2014; Scherler et al., 2014; Olen et al., submitted]. We calculate the relationship between various topographic metrics (e.g. mean basin slope, normalized channel steepness [ksn]) and the TCN catchment-mean denudation of non-glaciated fluvial watersheds from previously published and submitted studies. The variation in vegetation density between study sites correlates with the relationship between topography and denudation in each region. In sparsely vegetated areas, denudation increases in a rapid, non-linear fashion as topographic metrics such as the normalized channel steepness (ksn) or mean basin hillslope increase. Where vegetation cover is denser, the relationship between denudation and topography becomes increasingly linear, such that lower denudation rates are maintained as hillslopes and channels steepen. Additionally, more sparsely vegetated regions appear to reach a maximum steepness lower than that observed in densely vegetated regions. We therefore observe a negative correlation between increasing annual, summer, and winter EVI and the power-law exponent p of the relationship denudation ≈ (topographic metric)p; and a positive correlation between p and differential EVI. In contrast to recent studies arguing that Himalayan denudation is primarily forced by tectonics, our study emphasizes how vegetation density, as a climatic agent, modulates erosional style and landscape development along strike across the Himalaya. Carretier, S., et al. (2013), Slope and climate variability control of erosion in the Andes of central Chile, Geology, 41(2), 195-198. Collins, D. B. G., and R. L. Bras (2010), Climatic and ecological controls of equilibrium drainage density, relief, and channel concavity in dry lands, Water Resources Research, 46(4), W04508. Collins, D. B. G., R. L. Bras, and G. E. Tucker (2004), Modeling the effects of vegetation-erosion coupling on landscape evolution, Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface, 109(F3), F03004. Godard, V., D. L. Bourlés, F. Spinabella, D. W. Burbank, B. Bookhagen, G. B. Fishe

  10. Occurrences of damaging earthquakes between the Himachal and Darjeeling Himalayas: Tectonic implications

    Ansari, Md.; Khan, Prosanta

    2014-08-01

    Detailed analysis of intensity for ten damaging historical earthquakes in the central arcuate belt between the Himachal and Darjeeling Himalayas was carried out in the backdrop of isoseismal eccentricity, source depth and Indian plate obliquity. Results indicate that the elongated axes of the isoseismals and strike of ruptures for shallow earthquakes are almost parallel with strike of the Himalayan arc, and clearly conformable with the obliquity. An empirical power law relationship between eccentricity and focal depth established under the present study illustrates that the deeper events are more influenced by the bending of the penetrating Indian lithosphere, whereas the shallower events are principally controlled by the obliquity. A positive correlation between eccentricities and obliquity obviously supports this inference. The present study further reveals that the constant decrease in Indian plate obliquity from Himachal to Nepal-Bihar Himalaya is well compatible with the graben structures and horizontal shearing along this arcuate segment.

  11. NEPHELINE FORMATION POTENTIAL IN SLUDGE BATCH 4 AND ITS IMPACT ON DURABILITY: SELECTING GLASSES FOR A PHASE 3 STUDY

    Savannah River National Laboratory's frit development effort for SB4 is being driven by the most current CBU option for this sludge, referred to as Case 15C Blend 1. Candidate frits have been identified for this option via a paper study approach developed by Peeler and Edwards with the intent of down-selecting to a set of key frits whose operating windows (i.e., WL intervals that meet PCCS MAR criteria) are robust to and/or selectively optimal for this sludge option. The primary frits that appear attractive on paper (i.e., down-selected via the paper study) are now being incorporated into this experimental study. The potential for the formation of a nepheline primary crystalline phase is an important factor in frit development for SB4, due to the high Al2O3 content of this sludge. Based upon earlier work by Li et al., glasses that do not satisfy the constraint: (SiO2/SiO2 + Na2O + Al2O3) > 0.62 where the oxides are expressed as mass fractions in the glass, will precipitate nepheline as their primary crystalline phase, hindering the durability of the glass. Based on the most recent compositional projection from the CBU for SB4 (Case 15C Blend 1), 16 glasses have been selected to complement the earlier work by continuing the investigation into the ability of the above constraint to predict the occurrence of a nepheline primary crystalline phase for SB4 glasses and into the impact of such phases on the durability of the SB4 glasses. Glasses were selected to cover WLs which tightly bound the nepheline discriminator value of 0.62, with the intent of refining this value to a level of confidence where it can be incorporated into offline administrative controls and/or the PCCS to support SME acceptability decisions. In addition, glass specimens at WLs of 35 and 40% will be prepared and analyzed to contribute needed data to the ComPro(trademark) database in anticipation of a variability study for SB4. The glasses in Table 4-3 are to batched and fabricated using standard procedures. Visual observations and other analytical techniques are to be used, as needed, to assess the presence of crystals with specific interest in the nepheline primary phase. The durability of these glasses (for both quenched and centerline canister cooled versions) is to be measured using the ASTM PCT Method A. The results from these efforts are to be documented in a subsequent report. The results of this study will provide valuable input for the frit development efforts and subsequent feedback to the CBU regarding the relative viability of the current SB4 option under consideration. The refined nepheline discriminator value will provide a guideline for the avoidance of nepheline crystallization in SB4 glasses and aid in down-selection of frit compositions. These data will be combined with the results of melt rate studies and a paper study of the frits robustness with regard to variability in the sludge composition to provide an optimized frit recommendation to DWPF for immobilization of SB4

  12. Study of attenuation mechanism for GarwhalKumaun Himalayas from analysis of coda of local earthquakes

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Department of Earth Sciences, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee, Uttaranchal 247667, India; Sharma, J.; 70/11-A, Purvawali Ganesh Chowk, Roorkee-247667, India; Del Pezzo, E.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione OV, Napoli, Italia; Kumar, N.; Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, General Mahadeo Singh Road, Dehradun-248001, India

    2010-01-01

    The relative contribution of intrinsic (Q?1 i ) and scattering (Q?1 s ) attenuation to seismic wave attenuation was estimated for the GarwhalKumaun Himalayas using Multiple Lapse Time Window Analysis (MLTWA) method under the assumption of isotropic scattering. Local earthquake data recorded by an array operated by Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology (WIHG), India was used for this purpose. It is observed that scattering attenuation primarily contributes to seismic wave att...

  13. Seasonal succession of crustacean zooplankton in Wular Lake of the Kashmir Himalaya

    Shah Javaid Ahmad; Pandit Ashok Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The present study was undertaken on Wular Lake, a Ramsar Site in Kashmir Himalaya, to study the seasonal succession of crustacean zooplankton from September 2010 to August 2011. A total of 42 crustacean taxa belonging to Cladocera (23), Copepoda (16) and Ostracoda (3) were identified at five different sampling sites. Among the crustaceans, Cladocera was numerically the most dominant group at sites III, IV and V, followed by Copepoda at sites I and II. On an average basis total crustacea...

  14. Longest time series of glacier mass changes in the Himalaya based on stereo imagery

    Bolch, T.; Pieczonka, T; Benn, D.I.

    2010-01-01

    Mass loss of Himalayan glaciers has wide-ranging consequences such as declining water resources, sea level rise and an increasing risk of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). The assessment of the regional and global impact of glacier changes in the Himalaya is, however, hampered by a lack of mass balance data for most of the range. Multi-temporal digital terrain models (DTMs) allow glacier mass balance to be calculated since the availabi...

  15. Assessment, prevention and mitigation of landslide hazard in the Lesser Himalaya of Himachal Pradesh

    Patra Punyatoya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Landslides are destructive geological processes that have globally caused deaths and destruction to property worth billion dollars. Landslide occurrences are widespread and prolific in India covering more than 15 per cent of the total area. These are mostly concentrated in the Himalayan belt, parts of Meghalaya Plateau, Nilgiri Hills, Western and Eastern Ghats. The slope failure in the hilly terrain is due to geological processes and events. The frequency and magnitude of slope failure also increased due to anthropogenic activities such as road construction, deforestation and urban expansion. Keeping all these problems in mind research focuses on the Lesser Himalaya of Himachal Himalaya as it falls under very high risk zone in case of landslides and comprise of three objectives. They are: a to analyse the spatial pattern of landslides in the Lesser Himalaya, b to assess the causes of landslides vulnerability in the study region and c to suggests some preventive measures to mitigate landslides. In this work an attempt has been made to collect data on landslides incidences and damage from the secondary sources like Geological Survey of India, Building Material and Technology Promotion council from Ministry of Urban Affairs. The methodologies adopted for data analysis are simple tabulations, bar diagrams, statistical and mapping techniques to represent the Landslide vulnerability of the Lesser Himalaya. The analysis of the study reveals that there is increase in the number of landslides. The spatial pattern of landslide shows linear patterns, viz. along roads, rivers or lineaments/ faults. Besides, heavy rainfall, floods and earthquakes enhance the vulnerability condition. The landslides may be part and parcel of the Himalayan landscape, but they can be mitigated by some suitable measures. Few methods of landslide prevention in the study region have been suggested.

  16. Floral Biology of Aconitum heterophyllum Wall.: A Critically Endangered Alpine Medicinal Plant of Himalaya, India

    NAUTIYAL, Bhagwati P.; NAUTIYAL, Mohan C.

    2009-01-01

    Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. is a critically endangered wild medicinal herb of alpine Himalaya and cultivation is recommended owing to its large demand in the herbal market and to ensure the conservation of wild habitats. Therefore, observations on floral biology, pollen germination, pollination, and fruit and seed setting after implying different breeding systems were carried out for its successful domestication and improvement in cultivation practices. The study reveals that the plants grow...

  17. Suillus indicus sp. nov. (Boletales, Basidiomycota), a new boletoid fungus from northwestern Himalayas, India

    Verma, Balwant; Reddy, M Sudhakara

    2014-01-01

    The new species Suillus indicus is described based on the morpho-anatomical description and molecular analysis of basidiomes found in conifer forests of the northwestern Himalayas, India. Morphologically, the key diagnostic characteristics of the new taxon are brownish-orange to reddish-brown pileus with low obtuse umbo, brownish-red to reddish-brown fibrillose squamules over the pileal surface, and absence of fibrillose squamules and glandular dots on the stipe surface. Sequences derived fro...

  18. Biodiversity research trends and gap analysis from a transboundary landscape, Eastern Himalayas

    Pratikshya Kandel; Janita Gurung; Nakul Chettri; Wu Ning; Eklabya Sharma

    2016-01-01

    The Kangchenjunga landscape, a transboundary complex shared by Bhutan, India, and Nepal, is one of the biologically richest regions in the Eastern Himalayas. Owing to the remarkable biodiversity, the three countries came together to enhance regional cooperation in conservation and development in 2012. To start a strategic conservation intervention, the status of our knowledge base on biodiversity of the landscape is the most important stepping stone. In this paper, we traced the history of bi...

  19. Hydrological response to climate change in a glacierized catchment in the Himalayas

    Immerzeel, Walter W.; van Beek, L. P. H.; M. Konz; Shrestha, A. B.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of climate change impact on the hydrology of high altitude glacierized catchments in the Himalayas is complex due to the high variability in climate, lack of data, large uncertainties in climate change projection and uncertainty about the response of glaciers. Therefore a high resolution combined cryospheric hydrological model was developed and calibrated that explicitly simulates glacier evolution and all major hydrological processes. The model was used to assess the future deve...

  20. Braving the attitude of altitude: Caragana jubata at work in cold desert of Himalaya

    Bhardwaj, Pardeep Kumar; Kapoor, Ritu; Mala, Deep; Bhagwat, Geetika; Acharya, Vishal; Singh, Anil Kumar; Vats, Surender Kumar; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh; Kumar, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    The present work was conducted to understand the basis of adaptation in Caragana jubata in its niche environment at high altitude cold desert of Himalaya. Molecular data showed predominance of genes encoding chaperones and those involved in growth and development at low temperature (LT), a major cue operative at high altitude. Importantly, these genes expressed in C. jubata in its natural habitat. Their homologues in Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, and Glycine max did not exhibit similar ...

  1. Seasonal precipitation, river discharge, and sediment flux in the western Himalaya

    Wulf, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Rainfall, snow-, and glacial melt throughout the Himalaya control river discharge, which is vital for maintaining agriculture, drinking water and hydropower generation. However, the spatiotemporal contribution of these discharge components to Himalayan rivers is not well understood, mainly because of the scarcity of ground-based observations. Consequently, there is also little known about the triggers and sources of peak sediment flux events, which account for extensive hydropower reservoir f...

  2. Treeline and vegetation dynamics in response to environmental changes in Nepal, the central Himalaya

    Shrestha, Krishna Babu

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To describe and evaluate patterns of vegetation response to ongoing environmental changes across climate-limited (alpine treeline ecotone) and humanmodified (temperate Himalayan oak forests) ecosystems in Nepal, central Himalaya.

    Methods: I used dendroclimatological techniques to examine spatial and temporal changes in tree growth responses (paper I) and recruitment patterns (paper II) to climatic variability across a dry ...

  3. Region-wide glacier mass balances over the Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya during 1999-2011

    Gardelle, J.; Berthier, E.; Arnaud, Y.; Kääb, A.

    2013-08-01

    The recent evolution of Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya (PKH) glaciers, widely acknowledged as valuable high-altitude as well as mid-latitude climatic indicators, remains poorly known. To estimate the region-wide glacier mass balance for 9 study sites spread from the Pamir to the Hengduan Shan (eastern Himalaya), we compared the 2000 Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM) to recent (2008-2011) DEMs derived from SPOT5 stereo imagery. During the last decade, the region-wide glacier mass balances were contrasted with moderate mass losses in the eastern and central Himalaya (-0.22 ± 0.12 m w.e. yr-1 to -0.33 ± 0.14 m w.e. yr-1) and larger losses in the western Himalaya (-0.45 ± 0.13 m w.e. yr-1). Recently reported slight mass gain or balanced mass budget of glaciers in the central Karakoram is confirmed for a larger area (+0.10 ± 0.16 m w.e. yr-1) and also observed for glaciers in the western Pamir (+0.14 ± 0.13 m w.e. yr-1). Thus, the "Karakoram anomaly" should be renamed the "Pamir-Karakoram anomaly", at least for the last decade. The overall mass balance of PKH glaciers, -0.14 ± 0.08 m w.e. yr-1, is two to three times less negative than the global average for glaciers distinct from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Together with recent studies using ICESat and GRACE data, DEM differencing confirms a contrasted pattern of glacier mass change in the PKH during the first decade of the 21st century.

  4. Origin and radiative forcing of black carbon transported to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau

    M. Kopacz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The remote and high elevation regions of central Asia are influenced by black carbon (BC emissions from a variety of locations. BC deposition contributes to melting of glaciers and questions exist, of both scientific and policy interest, as to the origin of the BC reaching the glaciers. We use the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem model to identify the location from which BC arriving at a variety of locations in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau originates. We then calculate its direct and snow-albedo radiative forcing. We analyze the seasonal variation in the origin of BC using an adjoint sensitivity analysis, which provides a detailed map of the location of emissions that directly contribute to black carbon concentrations at receptor locations. We find that emissions from northern India and central China contribute the majority of BC to the Himalayas, although the precise location varies with season. The Tibetan Plateau receives most BC from western and central China, as well as from India, Nepal, the Middle East, Pakistan and other countries. The magnitude of contribution from each region varies with season and receptor location. We find that sources as varied as African biomass burning and Middle Eastern fossil fuel combustion can significantly contribute to the BC reaching the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. We compute radiative forcing in the snow-covered regions and find the forcing due to the BC induced snow-albedo effect to vary from 5–15 W m−2 within the region, an order of magnitude larger than radiative forcing due to the direct effect, and with significant seasonal variation in the northern Tibetan Plateau. Radiative forcing from reduced snow albedo likely accelerates glacier melting. Our analysis may help inform mitigation efforts to slow the rate of glacial melt by identifying regions that make the largest contributions to BC deposition in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau.

  5. ECOLOGICAL STATUS AND IMPACT OF DISTURBANCE IN AN ALPINE PASTURE OF GARHWAL HIMALAYA, INDIA

    MANOJ DHAULAKHANDI; GOVIND S. RAJWAR; MUNESH KUMAR

    2010-01-01

    The alpine area in Garhwal Himalaya is highly fragile and is known for its beautiful flora and fauna. The study area was located just below the Gangotri glacier which is the origin of Bhagirathi, a holy river of India. Pilgrimage, tourism, adventure activities and mules are the factors responsible for causing disturbance in this area. There is a remarkable variation in the values of diversity, species richness, dominance, density IVI and biomass production at Bhojbasa Protected (BP) and Bhojb...

  6. Responses of Montane Forest to Climate Variability in the Central Himalayas of Nepal

    Janardan Mainali; John All; Pramod Kumar Jha; Dinesh Raj Bhuju

    2015-01-01

    Climate changes are having dramatic ecological impacts in mid- to high-latitude mountain ranges where growth conditions are limited by climatic variables such as duration of growing season, moisture, and ambient temperature. We document patterns of forest vegetative response for 5 major alpine forest communities to current climate variability in the central Himalayas of Nepal to provide a baseline for assessment of future changes, as well as offer some insight into the trajectory of these cha...

  7. Glacial Lake Expansion in the Central Himalayas By Landsat Images, 1990-2010

    Nie, Y.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S.

    2014-12-01

    Glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) is a serious hazard in high, mountainous regions. In the Himalayas, catastrophic risks of GLOFs have increased in recent years because most Himalayan glaciers have experienced remarkable downwasting under a warming climate. However, current knowledge about the distribution and recent changes in glacial lakes within the central Himalaya mountain range is still limited. Here, we conducted a systematic investigation of the glacial lakes within the entire central Himalaya range by using an object-oriented image processing method based on the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) or Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) images from 1990 to 2010. We extracted the lake boundaries for four time points (1990, 2000, 2005 and 2010) and used a time series inspection method combined with a consistent spatial resolution of Landsat images that consistently revealed lake expansion. Our results show that the glacial lakes expanded rapidly by 17.11% from 1990 to 2010. The pre-existing, larger glacial lakes, rather than the newly formed lakes, contributed most to the areal expansion. The greatest expansions occurred at the altitudinal zones between 4800 m and 5600 m at the north side of the main Himalayan range and between 4500 m and 5600 m at the south side, respectively. Based on the expansion rate, area and type of glacial lakes, we identified 67 rapidly expanding glacial lakes in the central Himalayan region that need to be closely monitored in the future. The warming and increasing amounts of light-absorbing constituents of snow and ice could have accelerated the melting that directly affected the glacial lake expansion. Across the main central Himalayas, glacial lakes at the north side show more remarkable expansion than those at the south side. An effective monitoring and warning system for critical glacial lakes is urgently needed.

  8. Origin and radiative forcing of black carbon transported to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau

    M. Kopacz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The remote and high elevation regions of central Asia are influenced by black carbon (BC emissions from a variety of locations. BC deposition contributes to melting of glaciers and questions exist, of both scientific and policy interest, as to the origin of the BC reaching the glaciers. We use the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem model to identify the location from which BC arriving at a variety of locations in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau originates. We then calculate its direct and snow-albedo radiative forcing. We analyze the seasonal variation in the origin of BC using an adjoint sensitivity analysis, which provides a detailed map of the location of emissions that directly contribute to black carbon concentrations at receptor locations. We find that emissions from northern India and central China contribute the majority of BC to the Himalayas, although the precise location varies with season. The Tibetan Plateau receives most BC from western and central China, as well as from India, Nepal, the Middle East, Pakistan and other countries. The magnitude of contribution from each region varies with season and receptor location. We find that sources as varied as African biomass burning and Middle Eastern fossil fuel combustion can significantly contribute to the BC reaching the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. We compute radiative forcing in the snow-covered regions and estimate the forcing due to the BC induced snow-albedo effect at about 515 W m?2 within the region, an order of magnitude larger than radiative forcing due to the direct effect, and with significant seasonal variation in the northern Tibetan Plateau. Radiative forcing from reduced snow albedo accelerates glacier melting. Our analysis can help inform mitigation efforts to slow the rate of glacial melt by identifying regions that make the largest contributions to BC deposition in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau.

  9. Variations of the crustal thickness in Nepal Himalayas based on tomographic inversion of regional earthquake data

    Koulakov, I; Maksotova, G.; S. Mukhopadhyay; Raoof, J.; Kayal, J.R.; A. Jakovlev; A. Vasilevsky

    2015-01-01

    We estimate variations of the crustal thickness beneath the Nepal Himalayas based on tomographic inversion of regional earthquake data. We have obtained a low-velocity anomaly in the upper part of the model down to depths of 40 to 80 km and proposed that the lower limit of this anomaly represents variations of the Moho depth. This statement was supported by results of synthetic modeling. The obtained variations of crustal thickness match fairly well with the free-air gravity...

  10. Pull-apart basin tectonic model is structurally impossible for Kashmir basin, NW Himalaya

    Shah, A A

    2016-01-01

    Kashmir Basin in NW Himalaya is considered a Neogene-Quatermary piggyback basin that was formed as result of the continent-continent collision of Indian and Eurasian plates. This model however is recently challenged by a pull-apart basin model, which argues that a major dextral strike-slip fault through Kashmir basin is responsible for its formation. And here it is demonstrated that the new tectonic model is structurally problematic, and co...

  11. Permutations of Rajput identity in the West Himalayas, c. 1790-1840

    Moran, Arik; Dr David Washbrook

    2010-01-01

    ?The sustained interaction of local elites and British administrators in the West Himalayas over the decades that surrounded the early colonial encounter (c. 1790-1840) saw the emergence of a distinctly new understanding of communal identity among the leaders of the region. This eventful period saw the mountain ('Pahari') kingdoms transform from fragmented, autonomous polities on the fringes of the Indian subcontinent to subjects of indigenous (Nepali, Sikh) and, ultimately,...

  12. Sustainability Perspectives of Development in Leh District (Ladakh, Indian Trans-Himalaya): an Assessment

    PELLICIARDI, VLADIMIRO

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with a human inhabited territory in the Indian Trans-Himalaya: the Leh District, in Ladakh, at a “crossroad of high Asia”, geographically classified “cold desert”. For many centuries the local population has led a self-reliant existence mainly based upon subsistence agriculture, pastoralism and caravan trade. Modernization, due to governmental programs, and the progressive opening to external influence and resources – i.e. globalization – characterize the current development...

  13. EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF TERRESTRIAL ORCHIDS (COLLECTED FROM NORTHERN HIMALAYAS) AGAINST CERTAIN HUMAN PATHOGENS

    Amit Bharal*, Manila Kashyap, Vipan Kumar Sohpal and Jaspreet Kaur Sembi

    2014-01-01

    The four main varieties of orchids, collected from northern Himalayas (Tara devi and Chhrabra forests, Shimla, HP) were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against human pathogenic bacteria. The ethanol and methanol extracts of Cypripedium cordigerum and Malaxis acuminata were found to be highly active against both P.aeruginosa and S.aureus with minimal microbial static concentration (MIC) in the range of 100mg/ml. These plants particularly demonstrated antimicrobial properties against...

  14. Stemflow: A Source of Nutrients in some Naturally Growing Epiphytic Orchids of the Sikkim Himalaya

    Awasthi, O. P.; SHARMA, E.; Palni, L. M. S.

    1995-01-01

    A study on five naturally growing epiphytic orchids viz., Bulbophyllum affine Lindl., Coelogyne ochracea Lindl., Otochilus porrecta Lindl., Cirrhopetalum cornutum Lindl. and C. cornutum (var.) was carried out in the subtropical belt of Sikkim Himalaya. Stemflow leachates formed the main source of ammonium-N and nitrate-N for uptake by these orchids. Phosphorus concentration in the tissues of these orchids was high. Phosphate-P from stemflow does not seem to be a regular source of phosphorus f...

  15. Tree ring inferred summer temperature variations over the last millennium in western Himalaya, India

    Yadav, Ram Ratan [Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow (India); Braeuning, Achim [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Institute of Geography, Erlangen (Germany); Singh, Jayendra [University Greifswald, Ecosystem Dynamics, Institute of Botany and Landscape Ecology, Greifswald (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    We report the first millennium-long reconstruction of mean summer (May-June-July-August) temperature extending back to AD 940 derived from tree-ring width data of Himalayan pencil juniper (Juniperus polycarpos C. Koch) from the monsoon-shadow zone in the western Himalaya, India. Centennial-scale variations in the reconstruction reveal periods of protracted warmth encompassing the 11-15th centuries. A decreasing trend in mean summer temperature occurred since the 15th century with the 18-19th centuries being the coldest interval of the last millennium, coinciding with the expansion of glaciers in the western Himalaya. Since the late 19th century summer temperatures increased again. However, current warming may be underestimated due to a weakening in tree growth-temperature relationship noticeable in the latter part of the 20th century. Mean summer temperature over the western Himalaya shows a positive correlation with summer monsoon intensity over north central India. Low-frequency variations in mean summer temperature anomalies over northwestern India are consistent with tree-ring inferred aridity in western North America. These far-distance linkages reported here for the first time underscore the utility of long-term temperature records from the western Himalayan region in understanding global-scale climatic patterns. (orig.)

  16. Late Pleistocene-Holocene morphosedimentary architecture, Spiti River, arid higher Himalaya

    Srivastava, Pradeep; Ray, Yogesh; Phartiyal, Binita; Sharma, Anupam

    2013-03-01

    The Spiti River drains the rain shadow zone of western Himalaya. In the present study, the fluvial sedimentary record of Spiti valley was studied to understand its responses to tectonics and climate. Geomorphic changes along the river enable to divide the river into two segments: (i) upper valley with a broad, braided channel where relict sedimentary sequences rise 15-50 m high from the riverbed and (ii) lower valley with a narrow, meandering channel that incises into bedrock, and here, the fluvio-lacustrine sediments reside on a bedrock bench located above the riverbed. The transition between these geomorphic segments lies along the river between Seko-Nasung and Lingti villages (within Tethyan Himalaya). Lithofacies analyses of the sedimentary sequences show six different lithofacies. These can be grouped into three facies associations, viz. (A) a glacial outwash; (B) sedimentation in a channel and in an accreting bar under braided conditions; and (C) formation of lake due to channel blockage by landslide activities. Seventeen optically stimulated luminescence ages derived from ten sections bracketed the phases of river valley aggradation between 14-8 and 50-30 ka. These aggradation phases witnessed mass wasting, channel damming and lake formation events. Our record, when compared with SW monsoon archives, suggests that the aggradation occurred during intensified monsoon phase of MIS 3/4 and that proceeded the Last Glacial Maxima. Thus, the study reports monsoon modulated valley aggradation in the NW arid Himalaya.

  17. One Dimensional Reference velocity model and precise locations of earthquake hypocenters in the Central Himalaya

    Rai, S. S.; Perugu, M.; Krishnavajjhala, S.; Paul, A.; Parimi, R.; Gupta, S.; Gaur, V. K.

    2011-12-01

    We report a well constrained velocity model of the Central (Kumaon-Garhwal) Himalaya, based on a rigorous analysis of over 5,000 seismograms generated at 50 digital broadband seismic stations in the region between April 2005 and June 2008. These include data from 385 local earthquakes with azimuth gaps of less than 180, each of which had a minimum of 7P and 5S phase readings. This velocity model was then used to map the locations of 1150 earthquakes of magnitude between 1 and 5, that occurred in the region during the recording period.A majority of these occur in the upper 20 km of the crust and form a 50 km wide band along the surface trace of the Main Central Thrust, as first shown by Gaur et al.(1984). However, we also find another parallel band of earthquakes about 70 km to its southwest, and a significant number both in the Tethys Himalaya and within the flexed crust of the under-thrusting Indian plate beneath the Ganga basin, notably along an arc-normal band through Chamoli which has witnessed two moderate earthquakes (of magnitude more than 5 ) over the past dozen years. Furthermore, unlike the reported absence of seismicity (Monsalve et al. 2006) in the lower crust of Nepal Himalaya, and its reappearance in the shallow mantle, the Central Himalayan crust is found to be seismically active throughout, with no event reliably recorded in the shallow mantle of this region during the epoch of our seismic recording.

  18. Analysis of wind speed data and wind energy potential in three selected locations in south-east Nigeria

    Oyedepo, Sunday O. [Covenant Univ., Ota, Ogun State (Nigeria). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Adaramola, Muyiwa S. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Energy and Process Engineering; Paul, Sunday S. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

    2012-07-01

    In this study, the wind speed characteristics and energy potential in selected three locations in south eastern part of Nigeria were investigated using wind speed data that span between 24 and 37 years measured at 10m height. It was shown that the annual mean wind speed at height of 10 m for Enugu, Owerri, and Onitsha are 5.42 m/s, 3.36 m/s, and 3.59 m/s, respectively, while the annual mean power densities are, respectively, 96.98 W/m2, 23.23 W/m2 and 28.34 W/m{sup 2}. It was further shown that the mean annual value of the most probable wind speed are 5.47m/s, 3.72m/s and 3.50m/s for Enugu, Owerri and Onitsha, respectively, while the respective annual value of the wind speed carrying maximum energy 6.48m/s, 4.33m/s, and 3.90m/s.The performance of selected commercial wind turbine models (with rated power between 50kW and 1000kW) designed for electricity generation and a windmill (rated power of 0.36kW) for water pumping located in these sites were examined.The annual energy output and capacity factor for these turbines as well as the water produced by the windmill were determined. The minimum required design parameters for a wind turbine to be a viable option for electricity generation in each location are also suggested. (orig.)

  19. The impact of supraglacial debris on the mass balance and dynamics of Khumbu Glacier, Nepalese Himalaya

    Rowan, Ann; Quincey, Duncan; Glasser, Neil; Egholm, David; Gibson, Morgan; Irvine-Fynn, Tristram; Porter, Philip

    2015-04-01

    Rapid changes in glacier volumes and dynamics have been observed in the monsoon-influenced Himalaya over recent decades, with marked consequences for the hydrological budgets and glacial hazard potential of catchments such as the Dudh Kosi, a tributary of the Ganges River. For many large glaciers such as Khumbu Glacier in eastern Nepal, supraglacial rock debris modifies the thermal properties of the ice surface and mass balance variations in response to climatic change. Ice flow dynamics vary dramatically with supraglacial debris thickness -- the debris-covered section of Khumbu Glacier appears stagnant, while the clean-ice section reaches velocities exceeding 50 m per year -- resulting in spatial variation in the drivers of mass transfer and loss. However, the relative importance of supraglacial debris in modifying mass balance compared to external forcing by the summer monsoon is poorly understood, and as a result quantifying the sensitivity of this glacier to climatic change is challenging. To calculate ablation across the glacier we need to incorporate the thermal properties of the debris layer and how these vary with altitude and time into a mass balance calculation. We made field observations describing debris thickness and sub-debris melt rates on Khumbu Glacier. At four different sites, we measured vertical temperature profiles through the supraglacial debris and at the ice surface, debris thickness, and 1 m air temperature through the summer monsoon, and calculated ablation rates following the method of Nicholson and Benn (2006, J. Glacio.). These data were used with local meteorological data to calculate the spatial and temporal variability in the surface energy balance of Khumbu Glacier. To investigate the sensitivity of Khumbu Glacier to climatic change, we developed a numerical model of this glacier from our field data. Our higher-order flow model (Egholm et al., 2011; JGR) reproduces accurately the variations in ice velocity observed using feature tracking, which range from less than 10 m per year on debris-covered sections to over 60 m per year on the clean ice immediately below the icefall. This approach of combining field data with numerical modelling will allow us to explore the changes in ice volume resulting from realistic variations in climate, and make predictions of the future variations in ice volume and hydrological budget.

  20. Topographic position of large slope failures revealed by excess topography in the Himalaya-Karakoram Ranges

    Blthe, Jan; Korup, Oliver; Schwanghart, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Large slope failures (defined here as affecting >0.1 km in planform area) substantially contribute to denuding hillslopes, thereby limiting the growth of topographic relief in active mountain belts produced by tectonic uplift and fluvial or glacial incision. The region around Nanga Parbat, situated in the Himalaya-Karakoram ranges (HKR), has been shown to exhibit one of the largest clusters of large scale slope failure known. However, a thorough analysis of the pattern of landslides in the wider region, let alone an inventory of large slope failure is lacking. We take this as a motivation to create a landslide inventory covering the upper Indus catchment located in the HKR of NW India and N Pakistan. Our data set contains 492 large landslides that we compiled from published studies and mapping from remote sensing imagery. Using an empirical volume-area scaling approach we estimate the total landslide volume at >250 km. This is more than thousand times the contemporary annual sediment load in the Indus River. We analyse the distribution of these landslides with respect to the regional hypsometry, contemporary glacier cover, and the distribution of rock glaciers. We further introduce excess topography ZE, which quantifies the vertical column of rock material above a hypothetical failure plane, as a first-order metric of potentially unstable rock slopes. We find that large bedrock landslides in the HKR preferentially detach near or from below the study area's median elevation, while glaciers and rock glaciers occupy higher elevations almost exclusively. This picture is supported by the distribution of excess topography ZE that peaks along major fluvial and glacial inner gorges, which is where the majority of large rock-slope failures occur. Our analysis suggests a hitherto unrecognised vertical layering of denudation processes, with landslides chiefly operating below the median elevation, whereas mass transport in higher elevations seems to be dominated by glaciers and rock glaciers, or high-frequency low-magnitude failure (<<0.1 km2). Whatever causes this pattern, the distinct position of excess topography ZE and large bedrock landsliding challenge the notion of widespread threshold hillslopes in the HKR. We therefore conclude that hillslope adjustment to fluvial and glacial incision along inner gorges through large-scale rock-slope failures is protracted and far from exhausted.

  1. Antioxidant capacities and total polyphenol contents of hydro-ethanolic extract of phytococktail from trans-Himalaya.

    Dhar, P; Tayade, A B; Bajpai, P K; Sharma, V K; Das, S K; Chaurasia, O P; Srivastava, R B; Singh, S B

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant potential of hydro-ethanolic extract of a novel phytococktail comprising of sea buckthorn, apricot, and Rhodiola (SAR) from trans-Himalaya. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity of the extract increased in a dose-dependent manner (upto 0.1 mg/mL), and was found to be about 38% of that of ascorbic acid at 0.1 mg/mL. The hydro-ethanolic extract of SAR also scavenged the ABTS(.+) radical generated by ABTS/potassium persulfate (PPS) system and was found to be about 62% of that of ascorbic acid at 0.1 mg/ mL. The total antioxidant power of the extract was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content was found to be 1.28016 × 10(-3) mol gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract. Total flavonoid and flavonol contents were estimated to be 2.5970 × 10(-4) mol and 4.87 × 10(-4) mol quercetin equivalent/g extract, respectively. The hydro-ethanolic extract of this phytococktail indicated presence of essential phytoconstituents of polyphenols, flavonoids, flavonols, and ascorbic acid, which contributed significantly to its antioxidant capacity. The combination of the 3 plants may well support their use in traditional medicine to combat oxidative stress and high-altitude sickness. PMID:22225422

  2. Geochemical characterization of supraglacial debris via in situ and optical remote sensing methods: a case study in Khumbu Himalaya, Nepal

    K. A. Casey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface glacier debris samples and field spectra were collected from the ablation zones of Nepal Himalaya Ngozumpa and Khumbu glaciers in November and December 2009. Geochemical and mineral compositions of supraglacial debris were determined by X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. This composition data was used as ground truth in evaluating field spectra and satellite supraglacial debris composition and mapping methods. Satellite remote sensing methods for characterizing glacial surface debris include visible to thermal infrared hyper- and multispectral reflectance and emission signature identification, semi-quantitative mineral abundance indicies and spectral image composites. Satellite derived supraglacial debris mineral maps displayed the predominance of layered silicates, hydroxyl-bearing and calcite minerals on Khumbu Himalayan glaciers. Supraglacial mineral maps compared with satellite thermal data revealed correlations between glacier surface composition and glacier surface temperature. Glacier velocity displacement fields and shortwave, thermal infrared false color composites indicated the magnitude of mass flux at glacier confluences. The supraglacial debris mapping methods presented in this study can be used on a broader scale to improve, supplement and potentially reduce errors associated with glacier debris radiative property, composition, areal extent and mass flux quantifications.

  3. Great paleoearthquakes of the central Himalaya and their implications for seismotectonic models and seismic hazard assessment

    Yule, D.; Lave, J.; Kumar, S.; Wesnousky, S.

    2007-12-01

    A growing body of paleoseismic data collected from more than ten sites in Nepal and India has documented large coseismic displacements at the thrust front (Main Frontal thrust (MFT)). Three great earthquakes have been identified: in ~A.D. 1410 centered north of Delhi, in A.D. 1505 centered in far-western Nepal, and in ~A.D. 1100 centered in eastern Nepal. It is noteworthy that wherever exposures of the MFT have been studied estimates of surface slip are consistently large; with a range of 9-26 m. Historic accounts of the 1505 earthquake describe strong shaking across a 600-km-long stretch of the central Himalaya. A magnitude for this event is estimated to be >Mw 8.5 based on the maximum extent of felt strong shaking, the 100 km width of the locked portion of the basal detachment, and an average slip of 10-15 m. Though no historic accounts exist for the ~1410 and ~1100 earthquakes, the similarity between their surface expression and the 1505 rupture suggests that these events may have been equally large. These surface-rupturing earthquakes are distinctly different from a host of blind thrust events (Mw 7.5-8.4) that dominate the historic record since A.D. 1505. Both blind and emergent earthquakes are presumed to rupture the basal detachment and release interseismic strain that accumulates near the base of the High Himalaya and carry it to the thrust front where Holocene shortening occurs at rates of 15-22 mm/yr. Whereas the surface-rupturing earthquakes clearly deform the thrust front, survey data from the region affected by the 1906 Dehra Dun earthquake suggest that blind events contribute negligible, if any, deformation to the frontal structures. The factors controlling whether or not surface rupture occurs on the MFT remain unconstrained, but the current data seem to suggest that >Mw 8.5 surface-rutpuring earthquakes are the primary contributors to the shortening observed at the thrust front. It is sobering to consider that the 'Big One' has not struck the Himalaya in over 500 years and that Mw 7.5-8.4 earthquakes are the 'moderate' earthquakes'. Further study to constrain the lateral extent and recurrence of the great paleoearthquakes of the central Himalaya is critical to answer important questions about the Himalaya earthquake cycle and the seismic hazard facing the rapidly urbanizing population of the region.

  4. Interpretation of observed ground level changes due to the 1905 Kangra earthquake, Northwest Himalaya

    Chander, Ramesh

    1988-06-01

    The Kangra earthquake of 1905 in the Northwest Himalaya was the first Indian earthquake for which coseismic ground elevation changes were measured through repeat precision levelling. The levelling Une from Saharanpur to Mussoorie via Dehra Dun was situated near the southeastern extremity of the NW-SE trending meizoseismal area. Maximum uplift of 14.3 cm was measured at a bench mark in Dehra Dun. Some details of the levelling data having been published recently, data for eight bench marks were considered for interpretation in this study. In principle, these are sufficient for us to estimate eight parameters of a rectangular rupture buried in a homogeneous Poisson solid. But because of some uncertainties regarding the bench mark positions and also the relatively small amounts of uplift measured at the bench marks, we have preferred to use the data as a means to check the reasonableness of rupture models proposed on other grounds rather than to propose a new model independently. The observed elevation changes are not in accord with the view that the Kangra earthquake was caused by a single 100 km long rupture along the Shahpur-Mandi sector of the Northwest Himalaya. However, the data can be explained if, in addition, a second smaller rupture extending on either side of the levelling Une near Dehra Dun is assumed. The data can also be explained if the rupture during the earthquake had (1) a length of 280 km parallel to the general strike of the Himalaya from around Kangra up to a short distance (about 10-15 km) northwest of the levelling Une near Dehra Dun, (2) a breadth of 80 km perpendicular to the strike of the Himalaya, (3) a northeasterly dip of about 5, and (4) a depth of 10-15 km along its SW edge. Finally, the elevation data rule out any role for the Main Boundary Thrust in the occurrence of the Kangra earthquake. This major tectonic feature demarcating the geological boundary between the outer and the lesser Himalaya thus appears to be unimportant in the current seismotectonics of the region and the subduction of the Indian lithospheric plate under the mountains.

  5. Contemporary deformation in the Kashmir-Himachal, Garhwal and Kumaon Himalaya: significant insights from 1995-2008 GPS time series

    Jade, Sridevi; Mukul, Malay; Gaur, V. K.; Kumar, Kireet; Shrungeshwar, T. S.; Satyal, G. S.; Dumka, Rakesh Kumar; Jagannathan, Saigeetha; Ananda, M. B.; Kumar, P. Dileep; Banerjee, Souvik

    2014-06-01

    We present new insights on the time-averaged surface velocities, convergence and extension rates along arc-normal transects in Kumaon, Garhwal and Kashmir-Himachal regions in the Indian Himalaya from 13 years of high-precision Global Positioning System (GPS) time series (1995-2008) derived from GPS data at 14 GPS permanent and 42 campaign stations between and . The GPS surface horizontal velocities vary significantly from the Higher to Lesser Himalaya and are of the order of 30 to 48 mm/year NE in ITRF 2005 reference frame, and 17 to 2 mm/year SW in an India fixed reference frame indicating that this region is accommodating less than 2 cm/year of the India-Eurasia plate motion (). The total arc-normal shortening varies between along the different transects of the northwest Himalayan wedge, between the Indo-Tsangpo suture to the north and the Indo-Gangetic foreland to the south indicating high strain accumulation in the Himalayan wedge. This convergence is being accommodated differentially along the arc-normal transects; in Lesser Himalaya and 3-4 mm/year in Higher Himalaya south of South Tibetan Detachment. Most of the convergence in the Lesser Himalaya of Garhwal and Kumaon is being accommodated just south of the Main Central Thrust fault trace, indicating high strain accumulation in this region which is also consistent with the high seismic activity in this region. In addition, for the first time an arc-normal extension of has also been observed in the Tethyan Himalaya of Kumaon. Inverse modeling of GPS-derived surface deformation rates in Garhwal and Kumaon Himalaya using a single dislocation indicate that the Main Himalayan Thrust is locked from the surface to a depth of over a width of 110 km with associated slip rate of . These results indicate that the arc-normal rates in the Northwest Himalaya have a complex deformation pattern involving both convergence and extension, and rigorous seismo-tectonic models in the Himalaya are necessary to account for this pattern. In addition, the results also gave an estimate of co-seismic and post-seismic motion associated with the 1999 Chamoli earthquake, which is modeled to derive the slip and geometry of the rupture plane.

  6. 12-Chemokine Gene Signature Identifies Lymph Node-like Structures in Melanoma: Potential for Patient Selection for Immunotherapy?

    Messina, Jane L.; Fenstermacher, David A.; Eschrich, Steven; Qu, Xiaotao; Berglund, Anders E.; Lloyd, Mark C.; Schell, Michael J.; Sondak, Vernon K.; Weber, Jeffrey S.; Mulé, James J.

    2012-10-01

    We have interrogated a 12-chemokine gene expression signature (GES) on genomic arrays of 14,492 distinct solid tumors and show broad distribution across different histologies. We hypothesized that this 12-chemokine GES might accurately predict a unique intratumoral immune reaction in stage IV (non-locoregional) melanoma metastases. The 12-chemokine GES predicted the presence of unique, lymph node-like structures, containing CD20+ B cell follicles with prominent areas of CD3+ T cells (both CD4+ and CD8+ subsets). CD86+, but not FoxP3+, cells were present within these unique structures as well. The direct correlation between the 12-chemokine GES score and the presence of unique, lymph nodal structures was also associated with better overall survival of the subset of melanoma patients. The use of this novel 12-chemokine GES may reveal basic information on in situ mechanisms of the anti-tumor immune response, potentially leading to improvements in the identification and selection of melanoma patients most suitable for immunotherapy.

  7. Multilocation trial of potential selected mutant lines of groundnut (arachis hypogaea) at 3 location in Peninsular Malaysia

    Two fixed mutant lines of groundnut derived from cultivar Matjan were selected for their yield potential at M10 generation. Multilocation trial of these mutants (MJ40/42 and MJ20/165-5) was carried out to evaluate genotype stability at different climate and soil types in Peninsular Malaysia. The mutant lines were planted and compared with their parent (Matjan) and control variety (MKT1). The identified locations were in Taiping (Perak), Machang (Kelantan), and Air Hitam (Johor). The soils at the locations were of the Serdang, Bungor and Rengam series, respectively. The trial was carried out simultaneously in the same year at each location. Mutant MJ20/165-5 showed stable performance at all location compared to other genotypes tested. Its yield was higher than the parent in Kelantan and Johor trial and showed similar performance in Perak. This mutant also showed better yield performance than the control varieties in the Kelantan trial. Meanwhile, mutant line MJ40/42 gave better yield in Kelantan and Johor but did not perform well in Perak as compared to its parent and control varieties. (Author)

  8. Informing Selection of Nanomaterial Concentrations for ToxCast In Vitro Testing based on Occupational Exposure Potential

    Little justification is generally provided for selection of in vitro assay testing concentrations for engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Selection of concentration levels for hazard evaluation based on real-world exposure scenarios is desirable. We reviewed published ENM concentr...

  9. West-East Variability in Indian Subduction Geometry: New Seismic Receiver Function Profile Across the Himalaya and Lhasa Terrane Along 92°E

    Klemperer, S. L.; Shi, D.; Wu, Z.; Zhao, W.; Xue, G.; Xu, H.

    2014-12-01

    Most interpretations of the Himalaya and southern Tibet have been made assuming large-scale west-east uniformity of the orogen co-axial with the surface trace of the Yarlung-Zangbo Suture (YZS), and assuming that the main structural elements can be captured with a single south-north cross-section. The HiCLIMB seismic transect is interpreted to show Indian lithospheric mantle attached to Indian lower crust and underthrusting horizontally to the northernmost extent of that crust at ~31°N at ~85°E. The older INDEPTH seismic transect had been interpreted to show Indian lithospheric mantle detaching from Indian crust (at the "mantle suture") beneath the surface trace of the YZS, ~29.5°N at ~90°E. We present P-wave and S-wave receiver-function CCP images along a new seismic transect, with about double the station density of the INDEPTH transect, along 92°E from the High Himalaya across the Tethyan Himalaya and Lhasa terrane, to the Bangong-Nujiang Suture. We image a prominent converter dipping c. 25°N from near-surface to c. 150 km depth that we interpret as the Yarlung-Zangbo Suture in the crust and the Tibetan lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary in the mantle. Sub-parallel and structurally deeper we interpret other converters as top and base of subducting Indian lithospheric mantle, detaching from underhtrusting Indian crust at the mantle suture >50 km south of the surface trace of the YZS. Based on this and the HiCLIMB image, as well as body-wave and surface-wave tomography, and potential-field and geochemical data, we believe the mantle suture is not parallel to the YZS at the surface, but rotated 25°CW. In contrast, Indian crust seems to penetrate a fairly uniform distance beneath Tibet over a large sector of the orogen at least from 85° to 92°E, to the "Indian crustal front" >150 km north of the YZS. Thus underplating of Indian crust beneath the Lhasa Terrane may controlled by the geometry of collision as recorded by the Yarlung-Zangbo Suture at the surface, whereas progressive detachment of Indian mantle lithosphere from Indian crust may be related to stresses at the eastern syntaxis associated with ongoing subduction of the Burma plate. Irrespective of the cause, we infer that the relative geometry of subduction of Indian crust and Indian mantle lithosphere varies dramatically from west to east across Tibet.

  10. Comparative assessment of spatiotemporal snow cover changes and hydrological behavior of the Gilgit, Astore and Hunza River basins (Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalaya region, Pakistan)

    Tahir, Adnan Ahmad; Adamowski, Jan Franklin; Chevallier, Pierre; Haq, Ayaz Ul; Terzago, Silvia

    2016-03-01

    The Upper Indus Basin (UIB), situated in the Himalaya-Karakoram-Hindukush (HKH) mountain ranges, is the major contributor to the supply of water for irrigation in Pakistan. Improved management of downstream water resources requires studying and comparing spatiotemporal changes in the snow cover and hydrological behavior of the river basins located in the HKH region. This study explored in detail the recent changes that have occurred in the Gilgit River basin (12,656 km2; western sub-basin of UIB), which is characterized by a mean catchment elevation of 4250 m above sea level (m ASL). The basin's snow cover was monitored through the snow products provided by the MODIS satellite sensor, while analysis of its hydrological regime was supported by hydrological and climatic data recorded at different altitudes. The Gilgit basin findings were compared to those previously obtained for the lower-altitude Astore basin (mean catchment elevation = 4100 m ASL) and the higher-altitude Hunza basin (mean catchment elevation = 4650 m ASL). These three catchments were selected because of their different glacier coverage, contrasting area distribution at high altitudes and significant impact on the Upper Indus River flow. Almost 7, 5 and 33 % of the area of the Gilgit, Astore and Hunza basins, respectively, are situated above 5000 m ASL, and approximately 8, 6 and 25 %, respectively, are covered by glaciers. The UIB region was found to follow a stable or slightly increasing trend in snow coverage and had a discharge dominated by snow and glacier melt in its western (Hindukush-Karakoram), southern (Western-Himalaya) and northern (Central-Karakoram) sub-basins.

  11. Characterization and Metal Detoxification Potential of Moderately Thermophilic Bacillus cereus from Geothermal Springs of Himalaya

    Aslam Khan Ghalib; Muhammad Yasin; Muhammad Faisal

    2014-01-01

    Two thermophilic Bacillus cereus strains (B. cereus-TA2 and B. cereus-TA4) used in the present study were isolated from the geothermal spring of Hunza valley, Gilgit, Pakistan. They showed the ability to withstand and grow at high temperature (85°C). Both these strains could resist multiple metals (copper, cadmium, mercury, manganese, zinc, arsenic, chromium and selenium). Strain B. cereus-TA4 reduced Cr (VI) at pH 5.0 to 9.0 but maximum reduction (83%) was observed at pH 7.0 after 48 h when ...

  12. Darkening of the mid-Himalaya glaciers since 2000 and the potential causes

    Himalayan glaciers are a vital water source for people in the high regions of Asia. Their complete melting would be a crisis for approximately 1 billion people. Albedo is one of the key parameters that affect the energy balance of the snow and ice surfaces. Since 2000, albedos have been retrieved from satellite data for eleven representative Himalayan glaciers. It was found that most of the glaciers showed declining trends in the albedo of their upper areas, indicating that they have generally become darker in the past decade. A simulation case study in conjunction with in situ measurements showed that light-absorbing constituents (e.g., black carbon and dust) could be partly responsible for this phenomenon during late springtime; the background regional warming could also be responsible. The current surface radiation absorption in Himalayan glaciers could lead to significant melting, causing most of them to be in danger of rapid mass loss. (letter)

  13. Characterization and Metal Detoxification Potential of Moderately Thermophilic Bacillus cereus from Geothermal Springs of Himalaya

    Aslam Khan Ghalib

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Two thermophilic Bacillus cereus strains (B. cereus-TA2 and B. cereus-TA4 used in the present study were isolated from the geothermal spring of Hunza valley, Gilgit, Pakistan. They showed the ability to withstand and grow at high temperature (85°C. Both these strains could resist multiple metals (copper, cadmium, mercury, manganese, zinc, arsenic, chromium and selenium. Strain B. cereus-TA4 reduced Cr (VI at pH 5.0 to 9.0 but maximum reduction (83% was observed at pH 7.0 after 48 h when initially supplied with 200 µg mL-1of K2CrO4. Lower initial concentrations such as 100 µg mL-1 supported higher reduction (90 to 95% than that of high concentration such as 500 µg mL-1 (20 to 30%. Both the strains reduced nearly 70% of Se (IV after 48 h of growth at pH 7.0 when initially supplied with 200 µg mL-1 of Na2SeO3. The optimum temperature for maximum Se (IV reduction was 45°C for both the strains.

  14. Studies of the in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials of selected Yemeni medicinal plants from the island Soqotra

    Bednarski Patrick J

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent years have witnessed that there is a revival of interest in drug discovery from medicinal plants for the maintenance of health in all parts of the world. The aim of this work was to investigate 26 plants belonging to 17 families collected from a unique place in Yemen (Soqotra Island for their in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Methods The 26 plants were extracted with methanol and hot water to yield 52 extracts. Evaluation for in vitro anticancer activity was done against three human cancer cell lines (A-427, 5637 and MCF-7 by using an established microtiter plate assay based on cellular staining with crystal violet. Antimicrobial activity was tested against three Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria, one yeast species and three multiresistant Staphylococcus strains by using an agar diffusion method and the determination of MIC against three Gram-positive bacteria with the broth micro-dilution assay. Antioxidant activity was investigated by measuring the scavenging activity of the DPPH radical. Moreover, a phytochemical screening of the methanolic extracts was done. Results Notable cancer cell growth inhibition was observed for extracts from Ballochia atro-virgata, Eureiandra balfourii and Hypoestes pubescens, with IC50 values ranging between 0.8 and 8.2 ?g/ml. The methanol extracts of Acanthospermum hispidum, Boswellia dioscorides, Boswellia socotrana, Commiphora ornifolia and Euphorbia socotrana also showed noticeable antiproliferative potency with IC50 values Acacia pennivenia, Boswellia dioscorides, Boswellia socotrana, Commiphora ornifolia, Euclea divinorum, Euphorbia socotrana, Leucas samhaensis, Leucas virgata, Rhus thyrsiflora, and Teucrium sokotranum with inhibition zones > 15 mm and MIC values ? 250 ?g/ml. In addition, the methanolic extracts of Acacia pennivenia, Boswellia dioscorides, Boswellia socotrana and Commiphora ornifolia showed good antioxidant potential at low concentrations (more than 80% at 50 ?g/ml. Conclusion Our results show once again that medicinal plants can be promising sources of natural products with potential anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidative activity. The results will guide the selection of some plant species for further pharmacological and phytochemical investigations.

  15. Selection of lactic acid bacteria from Brazilian kefir grains for potential use as starter or probiotic cultures.

    Zanirati, Dbora Ferreira; Abatemarco, Mrio; Sandes, Svio Henrique de Cicco; Nicoli, Jacques Robert; Nunes, lvaro Cantini; Neumann, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    Brazilian kefir is a homemade fermented beverage that is obtained by incubating milk or a brown sugar solution with kefir grains that contribute their different microbiological compositions. It is highly important to isolate and characterize microorganisms from Brazilian kefir grains to obtain starter cultures for the industrial production of a standardized commercial kefir. Thus, the present study aimed to isolate lactic acid bacteria from eight kefir grains that were propagated in milk or sugar solutions from five different locations in Brazil and to select Lactobacillus isolates based on desirable in vitro probiotic properties. One hundred eight isolates from both substrates were identified by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and/or 16S rRNA gene sequencing and were determined to belong to the following 11 species from the genera: Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus (L.), and Oenococcus. Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus kefiri, and Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens were isolated only from milk grains, whereas Lactobacillus perolens, Lactobacillus parafarraginis, Lactobacillus diolivorans, and Oenococcus oeni were isolated exclusively from sugar water grains. When the microbial compositions of four kefir grains were evaluated with culture-independent analyses, L. kefiranofaciens was observed to predominant in milk grains, whereas Lactobacillus hilgardii was most abundant in sugar water kefir. Unfortunately, L. hilgardii was not isolated from any grain, although this bacteria was detected with a culture-independent methodology. Fifty-two isolated Lactobacilli were tested for gastric juice and bile salt tolerance, antagonism against pathogens, antimicrobial resistance, and surface hydrophobicity. Three Lactobacillus strains (L. kefiranofaciens 8U, L. diolivorans 1Z, and Lactobacillus casei 17U) could be classified as potential probiotics. In conclusion, several lactic acid bacteria that could be used in combination with yeasts as starter cultures for both milk kefir and sugar water kefir were characterized, and the functional properties of several of the lactobacilli isolated from the kefir grains were suggestive of their possible use as probiotics in both kefir and other dairy products. PMID:25542841

  16. 3-D velocity structure around tehri region of the garhwal lesser himalaya: constraints on geometry of the underthrusting indian plate

    Kanaujia, Jyotima; Kumar, Ashwani; Gupta, S. C.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the upper crustal velocity structure beneath the Tehri region of the Garhwal Himalaya. The investigated region is situated within the 700-km-long central seismic gap of the Himalaya that has experienced three gap-filling earthquakes since 1991 including the recent 2015 Nepal earthquake (Mw 7.8). The local tomographic inversion is based on a dataset of 1365 events collected from January 2008 to December 2012 by a 12-station local network that covers an area of about 100 × 80 km around Tehri Dam. We perform a simultaneous inversion for P- and S-wave velocity anomalies. Tomograms are interpreted in the backdrop of the regional geological and tectonic framework of the region. The spatial distribution of relocated events from the 3- D velocity model has shed new light on the pattern of seismicity in the vicinity of the Main Central thrust (MCT), and has elucidated the structure of the underthrusting Indian plate. Our model exhibits a significant negative velocity anomaly up to ˜5 per cent beneath the central part of the Garhwal Inner Lesser Himalaya, and a P-wave low velocity anomaly near the Chamoli region. The seismicity zone around the Chamoli region may be attributed to the presence of fluid filled rocks. Furthermore, an area with˜3-4 per cent positive velocity anomaly is delineated to the northwest of the Uttarkashi thrust in the vicinity of the MCT. Significant findings of the study include: a flat-ramp-flat type sub-surface geometry of the underthrusting Indian plate below the Garhwal Himalaya, high velocity images representing the trend and configuration of Delhi-Haridwar-ridge below the Sub Himalaya and Lesser Himalaya, and a seismically active zone representing geometrical asperity on the basement thrust in the vicinity of the MCT.

  17. Contrasting response of glacierized catchments in the Central Himalaya and the Central Andes to climate change

    Ragettli, Silvan; Pellicciotti, Francesca; Immerzeel, Walter

    2015-04-01

    The Andes of South America and the Himalaya in high-mountain Asia are two regions where advanced simulation models are of vital importance to anticipate the impacts of climate change on water resources. The two mountain systems hold the largest ice masses outside the polar regions. Major rivers originate here and downstream regions are densely populated. In the long run, glacier recession generates concerns about the sustainability of summer runoff. This study benefits from recent efforts of carefully planned short-term field experiments in two headwater catchments in the Central Andes of Chile and in the Central Himalaya in Nepal. The two study catchments contrast in terms of their climate and in the characteristics of their glaciers. A systematic approach is developed, built upon the available local data, to reduce the predictive uncertainty of a state-of-the-art glacio-hydrological model used for the projection of 21st century glacier changes and catchment runoff. The in-situ data are used for model development and step-wise, multivariate parameter calibration. Catchment runoff and remotely sensed MODIS and Landsat snow cover are used for model validation. The glacio-hydrological model simulates the water cycle with a high temporal (hourly time steps) and spatial (100 m grid cells) resolution and accounts for processes typical of both regions like glacier melt under debris cover or mass redistribution through avalanching. Future projections are based on the outputs of twelve stochastically downscaled global climate models for two emission scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5). This is one of the first truly intercomparative modeling studies at the catchment scale across mountain regions of the world to assess and compare future changes in glaciers and snow cover and associated impacts on streamflow production. Both catchments will experience significant glacier mass loss throughout the twenty-first century. However, the trajectories of simulated future runoff and total melt from glaciers differ fundamentally. In the Langtang region in the Central Himalaya, the model results indicate increasing catchment runoff until mid-century and then either slowly declining or constant runoff depending on the climate scenario. In the Juncal region in the Central Andes catchment runoff starts to decline sharply after 2031-2040, so that annual river runoff may decrease by up to 60% until the end of the century. While in the Juncal region the seasonality of runoff may change dramatically, due to less snow- and glacier melt during the summer, the seasonality of runoff in the Central Himalaya will be essentially unaffected by climate change. Differences in catchment response are explained by differences in climate change projections (as precipitation is projected to increase in the Central Himalaya but to decrease in the Central Andes), but also by the differences in glacier characteristics and glacier evolution. Meltwater production of glaciers in Juncal is already on a decline under the present climate. In Langtang, in contrast, the rate of glacier area decrease at lower elevations is exceeded by the rate of additional glacier area at high elevations contributing to melt in a warming climate. As a consequence of this, annual icemelt in the Central Himalaya will reach its peak not before mid-century.

  18. ECOLOGICAL FEATURES AND CONSERVATION OF ARNEBIA EUCHROMA. A CRITICALLY ENDANGERED MEDICINAL PLANT IN WESTERN HIMALAYA

    Koushalya Nandan SINGH

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Arnebia euchroma (Royle ex Benth. Johnston, commonly known as ‘Ratanjot’ is an important medicinal plant species and is found distributed in the western Himalaya at elevations ranging between 3200 - 4500 m above sea level. Considering its potent medicinal properties, cultural significance, declining population density and critically endangered status of this taxon, the present investigation was carried out for the assessment of its availability in the natural alpine landscapes of the Spiti cold desert of western Himalaya in Himachal Pradesh (India. We focused our study on its ecological features, population dynamics and performance in natural habitats, so as to formulate conservation plans. In order to achieve the objectives of the present study, a total of 620 areas were set by using a random sampling technique at six different locations where A. euchroma was found distributed naturally. The highest population density was recorded in undulating meadows (5.30 individuals/m2 with a maximum circumference (4.18±1.80cm at an elevation of 4240 m above sea level, with maximum frequency of occurrence (100%. Ecological surveys revealed that distribution was restricted in specific habitats rich in soil nutrients with high pH (8.025 - 8.37. The significance of the role of various ecological variables is explained in detail in the present paper. Habitat specificity, low population, and anthropogenic pressure justify the rarity status of this taxon in the Spiti valley. The authors discussed different implications to develop appropriate strategies for a long-term monitoring and sustainability of A. euchroma in the Spiti cold desert of western Himalaya.

  19. Recent temperature trends at mountain stations on the southern slope of the central Himalayas

    Dambaru Ballab Kattel; Tandong Yao

    2013-02-01

    Insufficient long-term in situ observations and complex topographic conditions pose major problems in quantifying the magnitude of climatic trends in mountainous regions such as Nepal. Presented here is three decades (19802009) of data on annual maximum, minimum and average temperature trends from 13 mountain stations on the southern slope of the central Himalayas. The stations are located at elevations between 1304 and 2566 m above sea level and with varied topography. Spatial analyses of the average temperature trend show warming in most of the stations. The magnitude of warming is higher for maximum temperatures, while minimum temperatures exhibit larger variability such as positive, negative or no change. These results are consistent with patterns reported in some parts of the Indian subcontinent and Upper Indus Basin, but different from conditions on the Tibetan Plateau (China), where the warming of minimum temperatures is more prominent than that of the maximum temperatures. From the temporal variations, a dramatic increase in temperature is observed in the latest decade, particularly in the average and maximum temperatures. The results from the cumulative sum chart analyses suggest that the thermal regime shifted in 1997. The dramatic enhancement of average temperature in the last decade is strongly consistent with the result of contemporary studies of the surrounding regions, where warming is attributed to an increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gases. However, as in the western Himalayas and the Upper Indus Basin, the mountain stations on the southern slope of the central Himalayas show variability in temperature trends, particularly for the minimum temperature. This inhomogeneous trend is likely ascribed to the differences in topography and microclimatic regime of the observed stations.

  20. Medieval pulse of great earthquakes in the central Himalaya: Viewing past activities on the frontal thrust

    Rajendran, C. P.; John, Biju; Rajendran, Kusala

    2015-03-01

    The Himalaya has experienced three great earthquakes during the last century—1934 Nepal-Bihar, 1950 Upper Assam, and arguably the 1905 Kangra. Focus here is on the central Himalayan segment between the 1905 and the 1934 ruptures, where previous studies have identified a great earthquake between thirteenth and sixteenth centuries. Historical data suggest damaging earthquakes in A.D. 1255, 1344, 1505, 1803, and 1833, although their sources and magnitudes remain debated. We present new evidence for a great earthquake from a trench across the base of a 13 m high scarp near Ramnagar at the Himalayan Frontal Thrust. The section exposed four south verging fault strands and a backthrust offsetting a broad spectrum of lithounits, including colluvial deposits. Age data suggest that the last great earthquake in the central Himalaya most likely occurred between A.D. 1259 and 1433. While evidence for this rupture is unmistakable, the stratigraphic clues imply an earlier event, which can most tentatively be placed between A.D. 1050 and 1250. The postulated existence of this earlier event, however, requires further validation. If the two-earthquake scenario is realistic, then the successive ruptures may have occurred in close intervals and were sourced on adjacent segments that overlapped at the trench site. Rupture(s) identified in the trench closely correlate with two damaging earthquakes of 1255 and 1344 reported from Nepal. The present study suggests that the frontal thrust in central Himalaya may have remained seismically inactive during the last ~700 years. Considering this long elapsed time, a great earthquake may be due in the region.

  1. Comparison of EIGEN 6C and EGM 2008 gravity field models via Marussi tensor computed for selected areas of the Earth

    Klokocnik, J.; Kostelecky, J.; Sebera, J.; Bezdek, A.

    2012-04-01

    We compare two modern gravity field models, both combined from satellite and terrestrial data. EIGEN 6C comprises already GOCE data while EGM 2008 has only GRACE data. We compare the models via the gravity disturbances and components of the Marussi tensor of the second derivatives of the disturbing potential, namely Tzz. We selected areas where the differences may be interesting or even critical, e.g., in the arctic and antarctic areas (no terrestrial gravity data in Antarctic and only GRACE in EGM 2008). Other studied areas are Himalaya and similar large mountain belts where quality of the terrestrial data may be lower, and further localities, with the impact craters. The resolution of EIGEN 6C is about half of that of EGM 2008, so it is very interesting to watch what details can be achieved for specific areas with EIGEN 6C.

  2. SERVIR Support to NSDI Efforts in Mesoamerica, Africa and the Himalayas

    Delgado, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    SERVIR is a joint effort between NASA, USAID to build or improve capacities in developing regions to help adaptation to climate change by taking advantage of Earth Observation data for decision making. The project began in 2004, in Mesoamerica, partnering with the Central American Commission for Environment and Development(CCAD), the World Bank and CATHALAC. CATHALAC, located in Panama, serves as the regional hub for Mesoamerica since 2005. Two additional regional hubs have been established (in Easters & Western Africa - at RCMRD, Kenya, and The Himalayas- at ICIMOD, Nepal), and two more regional hubs are soon to be launched.

  3. High Mountain Melt-Down: Local Perceptions of Global Warming in the Andes and Himalayas

    Lamadrid, Armando José

    2008-01-01

    Present scientific knowledge about global warming affirms that ice and snow packs in the high mountains of the world are melting at increasing rates (see IPCC 2007 and UNEP 2007). Melting glaciers and receding snowlines jeopardize seasonal stream and river systems in arid regions of the world and threaten the livelihood of farmers who utilize the meltwater for irrigation. This study contrasts two case studies in the Himalayas of Nepal and the Central Andes of Perú to gauge the impacts of thes...

  4. Medicinal flora and ethnoecological knowledge in the Naran Valley, Western Himalaya, Pakistan

    Khan Shujaul M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mountain ecosystems all over the world support a high biological diversity and provide home and services to some 12% of the global human population, who use their traditional ecological knowledge to utilise local natural resources. The Himalayas are the world's youngest, highest and largest mountain range and support a high plant biodiversity. In this remote mountainous region of the Himalaya, people depend upon local plant resources to supply a range of goods and services, including grazing for livestock and medicinal supplies for themselves. Due to their remote location, harsh climate, rough terrain and topography, many areas within this region still remain poorly known for its floristic diversity, plant species distribution and vegetation ecosystem service. Methods The Naran valley in the north-western Pakistan is among such valleys and occupies a distinctive geographical location on the edge of the Western Himalaya range, close to the Hindu Kush range to the west and the Karakorum Mountains to the north. It is also located on climatic and geological divides, which further add to its botanical interest. In the present project 120 informants were interviewed at 12 main localities along the 60 km long valley. This paper focuses on assessment of medicinal plant species valued by local communities using their traditional knowledge. Results Results revealed that 101 species belonging to 52 families (51.5% of the total plants were used for 97 prominent therapeutic purposes. The largest number of ailments cured with medicinal plants were associated with the digestive system (32.76% responses followed by those associated with the respiratory and urinary systems (13.72% and 9.13% respectively. The ailments associated with the blood circulatory and reproductive systems and the skin were 7.37%, 7.04% and 7.03%, respectively. The results also indicate that whole plants were used in 54% of recipes followed by rhizomes (21%, fruits (9.5% and roots (5.5%. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate the range of ecosystem services that are provided by the vegetation and assess how utilisation of plants will impact on future resource sustainability. The study not only contributes to an improved understanding of traditional ethno-ecological knowledge amongst the peoples of the Western Himalaya but also identifies priorities at species and habitat level for local and regional plant conservation strategies.

  5. Origin and radiative forcing of black carbon transported to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau

    Kopacz, M.; Mauzerall, D. L.; J. Wang(Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing); Leibensperger, E.M.; Henze, D.K; Singh, K.

    2010-01-01

    The remote and high elevation regions of central Asia are influenced by black carbon (BC) emissions from a variety of locations. BC deposition contributes to melting of glaciers and questions exist, of both scientific and policy interest, as to the origin of the BC reaching the glaciers. We use the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem model to identify the location from which BC arriving at a variety of locations in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau originates. We then calculate its direct and snow-albed...

  6. Hinterland tectonics and drainage evolution recorded by foreland basin archives: the Neogene Siwaliks of the Himalaya

    Huyghe, Pascale; van der Beek, Peter; Matthias, Bernet; Catherine, Chauvel; Jean-Louis, Mugnier; Laurent, Husson; François, Chirouze

    2014-05-01

    Provenance analysis and detrital thermochronology of detrital synorogenic sediments, derived from erosion of mountain belts and deposited in surrounding sedimentary basins, are well-established methods to examine the exhumation history of convergent zones, tectonic activity and the associated evolution of the drainage network. We have conducted multidisciplinary studies on magnetostratigraphically dated sections throughout the Neogene Siwalik foreland basin of the Himalayan belt since more than 10 years. Sr, Nd and Hf isotopes are used as provenance indicators, providing information on the nature and size of catchment basins and their evolution through time in response to tectonics. Detrital zircon and apatite thermochronology provides constraints on exhumation rates in the hinterland of the Himalaya and the deformation of the Sub-Himalayan foreland basin. Throughout the Himalaya, detrital zircons from the Siwaliks generally show three age peaks: two static peaks (i.e., displaying constant peak ages through time), and a moving peak. The latter shows a constant lag time of ~4 m.y. corresponding to source-area exhumation rates on the order of 1.8 km/my, while the two static peaks respectively reveal a major 15-20 Ma exhumation event in the belt, the significance of which is still debated, and inheritance of pre-Himalayan ages that indicate recycling of Tethyan sediments. Therefore, our ZFT results suggest that the exhumation dynamics are broadly similar throughout the Himalaya since at least 13 m.y, as also shown by the Bengal Fan detrital sediment record. We relate this switch in tectonic regime to the destabilization of the Himalayan wedge that is rendered overcritical as a response to the transience of dynamic topography caused by the deforming underlying Indian slab. Nonetheless, in detail, the timing of thrusting in the Siwalik domain is delayed by about 1 my eastward as demonstrated by both structural and apatite fission-track data, suggesting overall eastward propagation of the main faults. The evolution of the sedimentary provenance can be explained by overall forward propagation of deformation in the Himalayan fold-thrust belt. In both the eastern and western syntaxes, it also shows stability of the major drainage systems of the Yarlung-Brahmaputra and Indus, respectively, suggesting that hinterland river incision kept pace with uplift of the syntaxes during the Neogene. Drainage reorganization may take place in the foreland basin because of thin-skinned tectonics but did not significantly affect sediment routing and the contribution of different sources of the upper catchment to the overall sediment budget. In contrast, major rivers in the Central Himalaya (such as the Kali Gandaki or the Karnali) could have been affected by changes in their upper catchment.

  7. Metabolic responses during initial days of altitude acclimatization in the Eastern Himalayas

    Basu, C. K.; Gautam, R. K.; Sharma, R. P.; Kumar, H.; Tomar, O. S.; Sawhney, R. C.; Selvamurthy, W.

    1996-09-01

    The study was carried out on 16 men (aged 20 30 years) to evaluate daily metabolic responses during the early phase of altitude acclimatization at moderate altitudes between 3100 and 4200 m in the Eastern Himalayas. Resting (R) and submaximal exercise (E) oxygen consumption (| VO2) at 100 W at sea level (SL) were 3.25 (SEM 0.15) and 20.31 (SEM 0.77) ml/kg per min respectively. On day 1 at 3110 m both R and E | VO2 decreased ( Pacclimatization to a mid-altitude of 3445 m can be safely avoided where rapid ascent to higher altitude is required.

  8. Climate Change in the Eastern Himalayas: Observed Trends and Model Projections

    Devkota, L. P.; Zhang, F.

    2010-12-01

    The Eastern Himalayan region covers a broad spectrum of ecological zones in Eastern Nepal, Northeastern India, Bhutan, Tibetan Region and Yunnan of China and Northern Myanmar. The topography varies significantly over the area, and besides the atmospheric circulation, the climate in this region is influenced by a variety of physiographic features. The region is dominated by a monsoon climate from June to September and by westerly disturbances in the remaining months. Furthermore, the region is the source of many rivers which are the lifeline of downstream provinces and countries. The welfare of approximately 400 million people living downstream is inextricably linked with the natural resources of the Eastern Himalayas. Mountain biodiversity and wetlands are most likely to be affected by climate change. Glacial lake outburst floods, flash floods and landslides are becoming more frequent at the cost of lives, property, and natural resources and these are likely to be exacerbated by climate change. This paper deals with analyses of contemporary trends in key climatic variables. The Climate research Unit’s Time Series (CRU TS 2.0) data were used to analyze temperature and precipitation trends. Further, the study investigates likely future climate scenarios (2071-2100) for A2 and B2 SERS emission scenarios using the results of Region al Climate Model (RCM). The performance of RCM in simulating the climate over the Eastern Himalayas is also assessed. PRECIS (Providing Regional Climate for Impact studies) model simulated data were used for these analyses. The results of the analyses will be useful for impact assessment studies and for planning adaptation and mitigation measures. The analyses show that the major parts of the Eastern Himalayas are undergoing warming trends. Yunnan Province of China, part of the Kachin State of Myanmar, and the northeastern states of India and Assam show relatively less or no warming. However, eastern Nepal and eastern Tibet show relatively greater warming trends of more than 0.02°C per year. Such warming is found highest in winter and lowest in summer. Unlike temperature, precipitation does not demonstrate any consistent trends. Similarly, area-averaged B2 (A2) scenarios of PRECIS over Eastern Himalayas projected increases of 3.5°C (5.3°C), 2.8°C (3.8°C) and 2.9°C (4.3°C) respectively for winter, summer and annual mean temperatures by the 2080s. Likewise, B2 (A2) scenarios of PRECIS projected an increase of summer and annual precipitation by 17% (28%) and 13% (34%) of current precipitation, respectively by the 2080s.

  9. Large-scale organization of carbon dioxide discharge in the Nepal Himalayas

    Girault, Frédéric; Bollinger, Laurent; Bhattarai, Mukunda; Koirala, Bharat Prasad; France-Lanord, Christian; Rajaure, Sudhir; Gaillardet, Jérôme; Fort, Monique; Nath Sapkota, Soma; Perrier, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Gaseous carbon dioxide (CO 2) and radon-222 release from the ground was investigated along the Main Central Thrust zone in the Nepal Himalayas. From 2200 CO 2 and 900 radon-222 flux measurements near 13 hot springs from western to central Nepal, we obtained total CO 2 and radon discharges varying from 10 À3 to 1.6 mol s À1 and 20 to 1600 Bq s À1 , respectively. We observed a coherent organization at spatial scales of ≈ 10 km in a given region: low CO 2 and radon discharges around Pokhara (mid...

  10. Village Level Disaster Risk Management through Participatory Learning and Action (PLA) at Uttarakhand Himalaya, India

    Abhinav Walia and Indrajit Pal

    2013-01-01

    Participatory Leaning and Action (PLA) approach was exercised in the village Jardhar situated on the foot hills of Himalaya above 1550 meters above the sea level, lying between Latitude 30° 32:25’ -30 ° 34.08′N and Longitude 78°34.’-78°36′E. The total population of this village is around 1484. Rationale behind this study is to empower the rural communities and to follow the bottom up approach for the development of a village level disaster management plan. As w...

  11. Tibetan garnet records early Eocene initiation of thickening in the Himalaya

    Smit, Matthijs Arjen; Hacker, Bradley; Lee, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    -Hf ages of 54–52 Ma in Mabja and 51–49 Ma in Kangmar samples. On the basis of microstructural and major element and rare earth element zoning observations, the Lu-Hf ages are interpreted as recording garnet growth during contractional deformation in the middle crust at 54.3 ± 0.6 Ma, followed by variable...... recrystallization during subsequent high-temperature ductile extension. The new Lu-Hf ages are the first to confirm that crustal thickening and contraction in the Tibetan Himalaya was broadly synchronous with the early Eocene collision between Greater India and the Eurasian plate...

  12. Catalytic Destruction of a Surrogate Organic Hazardous Air Polutant as a Potential Co-benefit for Coal-fired Selective Catalyst Reduction Systems

    Catalytic destruction of benzene (C6H6), a surrogate for organic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) produced from coal combustion, was investigated using a commercial selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst for evaluating the potential co-benefit of the SCR technology for reduc...

  13. Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) in Second Language Research: A Brief Introduction to the Technique, a Selected Review, and an Invitation to Reconsider Critical Periods in L2

    Steinhauer, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a selective overview of recent event-related brain potential (ERP) studies in L2 morpho-syntax, demonstrating that the ERP evidence supporting the critical period hypothesis (CPH) may be less compelling than previously thought. The article starts with a general introduction to ERP methodology and language-related ERP profiles

  14. Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) in Second Language Research: A Brief Introduction to the Technique, a Selected Review, and an Invitation to Reconsider Critical Periods in L2

    Steinhauer, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a selective overview of recent event-related brain potential (ERP) studies in L2 morpho-syntax, demonstrating that the ERP evidence supporting the critical period hypothesis (CPH) may be less compelling than previously thought. The article starts with a general introduction to ERP methodology and language-related ERP profiles…

  15. The Discovery of Potentially Selective Human Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase (nNOS Inhibitors: A Combination of Pharmacophore Modelling, CoMFA, Virtual Screening and Molecular Docking Studies

    Guanhong Xu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS plays an important role in neurotransmission and smooth muscle relaxation. Selective inhibition of nNOS over its other isozymes is highly desirable for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases to avoid undesirable effects. In this study, we present a workflow for the identification and prioritization of compounds as potentially selective human nNOS inhibitors. Three-dimensional pharmacophore models were constructed based on a set of known nNOS inhibitors. The pharmacophore models were evaluated by Pareto surface and CoMFA (Comparative Molecular Field Analysis analyses. The best pharmacophore model, which included 7 pharmacophore features, was used as a search query in the SPECS database (SPECS, Delft, The Netherlands. The hit compounds were further filtered by scoring and docking. Ten hits were identified as potential selective nNOS inhibitors.

  16. Impact of Different Land Use Management on Soil Enzyme Activities and Bacterial Genetic Fingerprints of North-Western Himalayas

    Raj Deo Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Land uses has significant impact on soil biological properties that incessantly intimates the soil quality change and are assessed by soil microbial and biochemical indicators, as they are highly sensitive to change in environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of land use on soil enzyme activities and gene diversity in selected location of Northwestern Himalayas, India. Nine different land use system of similar soil type at depth 0-15 cm were analyzed for soil enzymes (Dehydrogenase, Acid Phosphatase, Alkaline Phosphatase, Nitrate Reductase, Arylsulphatase, and Phytase and genetic fingerprints (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA analysis. The land use systems investigated are Oak (Quercus incana, Deodar (Cedrus deodara, Pine (Pinus roxburghii trees, Apple orchids and crop based systems in uplands and valleys. All the soil enzymes were significantly higher in forest ecosystem followed by organic farm and conventional maize-wheat farm soil. The principal component analysis (PCA of nine different land use systems based on soil enzymes shows significant variation in data and all the long-term agricultural lands were segregated together. However maize-wheat and organic farm are group together in the PCA plot. Hierarchical clustering by wards method of soil enzymes clusters the deodar forest soil, oak forest soil and organic farming in one cluster and segregates remaining land use system in another. RAPD analysis showed high polymorphism between samples and similarity indexing using unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages resulted in four clusters. Land use showed significantly negative impact on soil enzymes and genetic fingerprints in long-term agricultural lands as compared to natural forest ecosystem and organic farming as reveal by RAPD assisted marker.

  17. Comparison of multiple glacier inventories with a new inventory derived from high-resolution ALOS imagery in the Bhutan Himalaya

    Nagai, H.; Fujita, K.; Sakai, A.; Nuimura, T.; Tadono, T.

    2016-01-01

    Digital glacier inventories are invaluable data sets for revealing the characteristics of glacier distribution and for upscaling measurements from selected locations to entire mountain ranges. Here, we present a new inventory of Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) imagery and compare it with existing inventories for the Bhutan Himalaya. The new inventory contains 1583 glaciers (1487 ± 235 km2), thereof 219 debris-covered glaciers (951 ± 193 km2) and 1364 debris-free glaciers (536 ± 42 km2). Moreover, we propose an index for quantifying consistency between two glacier outlines. Comparison of the overlap ratio demonstrates that the ALOS-derived glacier inventory contains delineation uncertainties of 10-20 % which depend on glacier size, that the shapes and geographical locations of glacier outlines derived from the fourth version of the Randolph Glacier Inventory have been improved in the fifth version, and that the latter is consistent with other inventories. In terms of whole glacier distribution, each data set is dominated by glaciers of 1.0-5.0 km2 area (31-34 % of the total area), situated at approximately 5400 m elevation (nearly 10 % in 100 m bin) with either north or south aspects (22 and 15 %). However, individual glacier outlines and their area exhibit clear differences among inventories. Furthermore, consistent separation of glaciers with inconspicuous termini remains difficult, which, in some cases, results in different values for glacier number. High-resolution imagery from Google Earth can be used to improve the interpretation of glacier outlines, particularly for debris-covered areas and steep adjacent slopes.

  18. Improvement of sexual destination in Atropa acuminata Royle (Solanaceae)--a critically endangered medicinal plant of Northwestern Himalaya.

    Wani, Parvaiz A; Nawchoo, Irshad A; Wafai, B A

    2007-03-01

    Good seed set is no guarantee of absolute sexual destination in plants. Seed viability and seed vigour are crucial phases in the life cycle of every sexually reproducing plant. The present study was an attempt to improve the sexual destination-the germination and seedling survival of Atropa acuminata Royle (Solanaceae), an endemic and extremely restricted sub-alpine medicinal plant of North West Himalayas under ex situ conditions at (1580 m) with an aim to develop a successful germination protocol and agrotechnique in order to revegetate disturbed areas. Among various treatments given to the seeds, GA3, Scarification, warm water treatment and chilling at 4 degrees C for 90 days were found to be most effective with percentage germination of 73.3 +/- 18.80, 79.95 +/- 9.40, 66.6 +/- 6.6, 45 +/- 7.07 (X +/- SE), respectively. The results reveal that the seeds do not germinate unless specific environmental signals or events occur which trigger the genetic and hormonal response of the seeds thereby facilitating their germination. The diversity and the extent of the dormancy mechanisms encountered here suggest that under harsh conditions, natural selection may favour seeds with a genetic system for dormancy and delayed germination. A relation was observed between seed size/weight, % age germination and subsequent seedling survival. Seedling survival is also effected by specific habitat requirement and stiff intra and inter-specific competition particularly the whimsical behaviour of Sambucus wigthiana (an alien species which grows in the vicinity of Atropa) is beyond the ken of Atropa, adding fuel to the already burning candle apart from habitat fragmentation and herbivory. PMID:19069863

  19. Selected constants oxydo-reduction potentials tables of constants and numerical data affiliated to the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, v.8

    Charlot, G

    2013-01-01

    Selected Constants: Oxydo-Reduction Potentials contains Tables of the most probable value of the normal oxidation-reduction potential, or of the formal or apparent potential, of a given oxidation-reduction system. This book is prepared under the sponsorship of the Commission on Electrochemical Data of the Section of Analytical Chemistry of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. It is included in a general program of the Section of Analytical Chemistry. Entry items are classified in alphabetical order. This book will be of value to specialized and non-specialized chemists, teach

  20. CD5 is A potential selecting ligand for B-cell surface immunoglobulin: a possible role in maintenance and selective expansion of normal and malignant B cells.

    Pospisil, R; Silverman, G J; Marti, G E; Aruffo, A; Bowen, M A; Mage, R G

    2000-01-01

    Although the function of CD5 on B cells is unknown, previous studies suggested that CD5 interaction with V(H) framework regions of surface immunoglobulins (Igs) may contribute to survival and expansion of B cells. Here we used B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) cells and transformed B-cell lines from normal and B-CLL patients to study CD5-Ig interactions. Immobilized Ig binds and permits isolation of CD5 from lysates of CD5-expressing cell lines. Immunoglobulins or Fab fragments of different V(H) families varied in their effectiveness as inhibitors of anti-CD5 staining of CLL cells, appendix and tonsil tissue sections. Human Ig also binds to purified recombinant CD5. We show here for the first time that the unconventional Ig-CD5 interaction maps to the extracellular CD5-D2 domain whereas conventional epitopes recognized by anti-CD5 antibodies are localized in the D1 domain of CD5. We propose that interactions of VH framework regions with CD5 as a ligand may maintain, select or expand normal, autoimmune or transformed B cells and also contribute to skewing of the normal V(H) repertoire. PMID:10674908

  1. A retinoid X receptor (RXR)-selective retinoid reveals that RXR-α is potentially a therapeutic target in breast cancer cell lines, and that it potentiates antiproliferative and apoptotic responses to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ligands

    Certain lipids have been shown to be ligands for a subgroup of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily known as the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). Ligands for these transcription factors have been used in experimental cancer therapies. PPARs heterodimerize and bind DNA with retinoid X receptors (RXRs), which have homology to other members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Retinoids have been found to be effective in treating many types of cancer. However, many breast cancers become resistant to the chemotherapeutic effects of these drugs. Recently, RXR-selective ligands were discovered that inhibited proliferation of all-trans retinoic acid resistant breast cancer cells in vitro and caused regression of the disease in animal models. There are few published studies on the efficacy of combined therapy using PPAR and RXR ligands for breast cancer prevention or treatment. We determined the effects of selective PPAR and RXR ligands on established human breast cancer cell lines in vitro. PPAR-α and PPAR-γ ligands induced apoptotic and antiproliferative responses in human breast cancer cell lines, respectively, which were associated with specific changes in gene expression. These responses were potentiated by the RXR-selective ligand AGN194204. Interestingly, RXR-α-overexpressing retinoic acid resistant breast cancer cell lines were more sensitive to the effects of the RXR-selective compound. RXR-selective retinoids can potentiate the antiproliferative and apoptotic responses of breast cancer cell lines to PPAR ligands

  2. Identification and conservation of important plant areas (IPAS) for the distribution of medicinal, aromatic and economic plants in the Hindukush-Himalaya mountain range

    Study on the identification of Important Plant Areas (IPAs) was conducted in seven valleys of Hindukush-Himalayas mountainous ranges of Pakistan during 2005 and 2006. The principal aim of the study is to search new avenues for the conservation and sustainable utilization of threatened medicinal and economic plants and their habitats in IPAs. IPAs are sites of tremendous ecological and economic values that still exist in the world and are being managed on specific sites to study wild plant diversity. Several of such plants are used in the traditional medicines that are being used since the dawn of history to provide basic healthcare to people the world over. According to WHO, 80% of the human population of Africa still use medicinal plants in their primary healthcare. The popularity of herbal drugs is on the constant rise in many developed countries of the world, while in developing countries like Pakistan; medicinal plants contribute significantly to the income sources of people living in remote areas. Keeping such importance in view, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched a global vision in the form of 'Global Strategy for Plant Conservation' having various targets and mile stones. Target 5 of the strategy required for the global integration of the herbal medicine in health care system with proper identification of medicinal plants and the conservation of sites where such plants are found naturally, as its basic elements. In order to contribute to the specified target, WHO advised the relevant institutions to develop research plans and conservation programmes that are focused on the Global strategy in general and target 5 in specific. While complementing the appeal and contributing to its vision, a study was conducted in various eco-systems of the Pakistan's Hindukush-Himalayas region, identifying Important Plant Areas (IPAs) for their subsequent conservation and uses for scientific purposes. Site selection for the study was based on: 1). Exceptional vegetation richness for the representative bio-geographic zone; 2). Presence of naturally occurring medicinal herbs with species of global or regional concern, and (3). Threatened habitats that are supporting plant species of medicinal and economic values. Apart from various values of the selected sites such as their scientific and economic importance, the selected sites had a treasure of indigenous knowledge related to the wise uses and conservation of medicinal plants. The study also focused on exploring the complex natural interactions between plants and other organisms; their dependence under various environmental parameters; traditional knowledge of the local inhabitants; and the significance of the landscape to Conserve such plants on long-term basis. (author)

  3. Some Like it High! Phylogenetic Diversity of High-Elevation Cyanobacterial Community from Biological Soil Crusts of Western Himalaya

    Čapková, Kateřina; Hauer, Tomáš; Řeháková, Klára; Doležal, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 1 (2016), s. 113-123. ISSN 0095-3628 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13368S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Soil crusts * Cyanobacterial diversity * Western Himalayas Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.973, year: 2014

  4. Reorientation of lineation in the Central Crystalline Zone, MunsiariMilam area of the Kumaun Greater Himalaya

    A K Verma; A R Bhattacharya

    2015-03-01

    During large scale ductile shear deformation, linear features of the rocks tend to be reoriented towards the direction of bulk shear. This is demonstrated in a crustal scale shear zone of the Himalaya, the Main Central Thrust (MCT), typically exposed in the MunsiariMilam area of eastern Kumaun Greater Himalaya. Along the MCT, the crystalline rocks of the Greater Himalaya are thrust over the younger sedimentary belt of the Lesser Himalaya. In the study area, the scatter of lineation orientation in the vicinity of the MCT has been observed to drastically reduce within 27 in a zone of about 18 km (about 13 km in the crystalline rocks and about 5 km in the sedimentary rocks). Beyond this zone, the scatter is very high, up to 70 or more. The low scatter of lineation orientation around the MCT could be related to the strong ductile shear deformation associated with the movement along this thrust due to which the linear features got reoriented towards the direction of bulk shear. Away from this zone, ductile shearing had negligible or no effect on the rocks and, therefore, the scatter of lineation remains very high.

  5. Chemical composition and biological effects of Artemisia maritima and Artemisia nilagirica essential oils from wild plant of Western Himalaya

    Artemisia species possess pharmacological properties that are used for medical purposes worldwide. In this paper, the essential oils from the aerial parts of A. nilagirica and A. maritima from the western Indian Himalaya region are described. The main compounds analyzed by simultaneous GC/MS and GC/...

  6. The Internal and External Dimensions of Security in the Himalayas -From non-alignment to multi-alignment

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk; Thapa, Manish

    This contribution offers a critical perspective of the internal and external dimensions of security and conflicts in the Himalayas. The two main actors are India and China while Pakistan plays a role in the Kashmir conflict. With the recent rapprochement between the BJP-government led by Narendra...

  7. GENETIC DIVERSITY RESOURCES, DISTRIBUTION AND PRESENT ECOLOGICAL STATUS OF FIFTEEN NEW RECORDS OF ORCHID SPECIES TO ASSAM OF EASTERN HIMALAYA

    Khyanjeet Gogoi¹, R. L. Borah², G. C. Sharma³ and Rajendra Yonzone4

    2012-01-01

    Present paper deals 15 Orchid species with 12 genera viz., Bryobium pudicum, Bulbophyllum apodum, Chrysoglossum ornatum, Cleisostoma linearilobatum, C. simondii, Collabium chinense, Diploprora championii, Eria connate, E. ferruginea, Taeniophyllum crepidiforme, Tainia wrayana, Thelasis pygmaea, Thrixspermum acuminatissimum, T. pygmaeum, and Z. glandulosa were recorded from Dibrugarh district of Assam of Eastern Himalaya for the first time and reported as new distributional records to the stat...

  8. Mapping regional distribution of land surface heat fluxes on the southern side of the central Himalayas using TESEBS

    Amatya, Pukar Man; Ma, Yaoming; Han, Cunbo; Wang, Binbin; Devkota, Lochan Prasad

    2016-05-01

    Recent scientific studies based on large-scale climate model have highlighted the importance of the heat release from the southern side of the Himalayas for the development of South Asian Summer Monsoon. However, studies related to land surface heat fluxes are nonexistent on the southern side. In this study, we test the feasibility of deriving land surface heat fluxes on the central Himalayan region using Topographically Enhanced Surface Energy Balance System (TESEBS), which is forced by MODIS land surface products and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) meteorological data. The model results were validated using the first eddy covariance measurement system established in the southern side of the central Himalayas. The derived land surface heat fluxes were close to the field measurements with mean bias of 15.97, -19.89, 8.79, and -20.39 W m-2 for net radiation flux, ground heat flux, sensible heat flux, and latent heat flux respectively. Land surface heat fluxes show strong contrast in pre monsoon, summer monsoon, post monsoon, and winter seasons and different land surface states among the different physiographic regions. In the central Himalayas, the latent heat flux is the dominant consumer of available energy for all physiographic regions except for the High Himalaya where the sensible heat flux is high.

  9. Longest time series of glacier mass changes in the Himalaya based on stereo imagery

    T. Bolch

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mass loss of Himalayan glaciers has wide-ranging consequences such as declining water resources, sea level rise and an increasing risk of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs. The assessment of the regional and global impact of glacier changes in the Himalaya is, however, hampered by a lack of mass balance data for most of the range. Multi-temporal digital terrain models (DTMs allow glacier mass balance to be calculated since the availability of stereo imagery. Here we present the longest time series of mass changes in the Himalaya and show the high value of early stereo spy imagery such as Corona (years 1962 and 1970 aerial images and recent high resolution satellite data (Cartosat-1 to calculate a time series of glacier changes south of Mt. Everest, Nepal. We reveal that the glaciers are significantly losing mass with an increasing rate since at least ~1970, despite thick debris cover. The specific mass loss is 0.32 0.08 m w.e. a?1, however, not higher than the global average. The spatial patterns of surface lowering can be explained by variations in debris-cover thickness, glacier velocity, and ice melt due to exposed ice cliffs and ponds.

  10. Longest time series of glacier mass changes in the Himalaya based on stereo imagery

    Bolch, T.; Pieczonka, T.; Benn, D. I.

    2010-12-01

    Mass loss of Himalayan glaciers has wide-ranging consequences such as declining water resources, sea level rise and an increasing risk of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). The assessment of the regional and global impact of glacier changes in the Himalaya is, however, hampered by a lack of mass balance data for most of the range. Multi-temporal digital terrain models (DTMs) allow glacier mass balance to be calculated since the availability of stereo imagery. Here we present the longest time series of mass changes in the Himalaya and show the high value of early stereo spy imagery such as Corona (years 1962 and 1970) aerial images and recent high resolution satellite data (Cartosat-1) to calculate a time series of glacier changes south of Mt. Everest, Nepal. We reveal that the glaciers are significantly losing mass with an increasing rate since at least ~1970, despite thick debris cover. The specific mass loss is 0.32 0.08 m w.e. a-1, however, not higher than the global average. The spatial patterns of surface lowering can be explained by variations in debris-cover thickness, glacier velocity, and ice melt due to exposed ice cliffs and ponds.

  11. Use of objective analysis to estimate winter temperature and precipitation at different stations over western Himalaya

    Jagdish Chandra Joshi; Ashwagosha Ganju

    2010-10-01

    Temperature and fresh snow are essential inputs in an avalanche forecasting model.Without these parameters,prediction of avalanche occurrence for a region would be very difficult.In the complex terrain of Himalaya,nonavailability of snow and meteorological data of the remote locations during snow storms in the winter is a common occurrence.In view of this persistent problem present study estimates maximum temperature,minimum temperature,ambient temperature and precipitation intensity on different regions of Indian western Himalaya by using similar parameters of the neighbouring regions.The location at which parameters are required and its neighbouring locations should all fall in the same snow climatic zone.Initial step to estimate the parameters at a location,is to shift the parameters of neighbouring regions at a reference height corresponding to the altitude of the location at which parameters are to be estimated.The parameters at this reference height are then spatially interpolated by using Barnes objective analysis.The parameters estimated on different locations are compared with the observed one and the Root Mean Square Errors (RMSE)of the observed and estimated values of the parameters are discussed for the winters of 2007 2008.

  12. Observed linear trend in few surface weather elements over the Northwest Himalayas (NWH) during winter season

    Dan Singh; Vikas Sharma; Vikas Juyal

    2015-04-01

    Linear trends in few surface weather variables such as air temperatures (maximum temperature, minimum temperature), snow and rainy days, snowfall and rainfall amounts, rainfall contribution to seasonal total precipitation amount, seasonal snow cover depth and snow cover days (duration) are examined from winter-time observations at 11 stations located over the Northwest Himalayas (NWH). This study indicates that snowfall tends to show a decline in this region, while the rainfall tends to increase during the winter months. Seasonal snow cover depth and seasonal snow cover days also tend to show a decline over the NWH. Decrease in seasonal snow cover depth and duration have reduced the winter period in terms of availability of seasonal snow cover over the NWH during the last 23 decades. Other surface weather variables also exhibited significant temporal changes in recent decades. Observed trends in temperature and precipitation over the NWH in recent decades are also supported by long data series of temperature over the western Himalayas (WH), north mountain India (NMI) rainfall data and reanalysis products.

  13. Diet of Threatened Pheasant Species in Himalayas, India – A Faecal Analysis Approach

    Mohammad Shah Hussain

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine diet composition of threatened pheasant species i.e. Satyr Tragopan Tragopan satyra, Himalayan Monal Lophophorus impejanus, Kaleej Lophura leucomelana and Koklass Pucrasia macrolopha in their native forest which was never studied earlier. A study was conducted in the Kumaon region of western Himalaya for two years by collecting dropping material. Faeces were identified through direct sighting of defecating species. The diet items of each pheasant species mainly comprised plant materials followed by invertebrates and grit. A significant difference was observed in consuming food items by all pheasant species. Monal emerged as a specialist feeder on plants which were not eaten by other species. The Satyr and Koklass were more similar in terms of diet composition in both seasons while Kaleej and Monal were least similar, only invertebrates and grit were common in the diet of these species. No significant difference was observed in diet composition in different seasons of all pheasant species. The results expected to provide valuable information for the management of these pheasants in Himalayas.

  14. Seismic properties of naturally deformed quartzites of the Alaknanda valley, Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Ruchika Sharma Tandon; Vikram Gupta; Koushik Sen

    2015-08-01

    The present contribution summarizes the results of a study focusing on the influence of quartz microstructures on the seismic wave velocities in the quartzites of the Garhwal Himalaya. Quartzites being monomineralic were chosen for the present study so as to nullify the effect of other mineral constituents on the seismic velocity. Samples were collected from different tectonic settings of the Higher and Lesser Himalayas which are separated from one another by the major tectonic zone Main Central Thrust (MCT). These are mainly Pandukeshwar quartzite, Tapovan quartzite and Berinag quartzite. The samples of Berinag quartzite were collected from near the klippen and the thrust, termed as Alaknanda Thrust. The vast differences in microstructures and associated seismic wave velocities have been noted in different quartzites. It has also been observed that quartzites of the MCT zone and Alaknanda Thrust have higher seismic velocities. This is because of their coarse-grained nature of the rocks as evidenced by the strong positive relation between seismic velocities and grain area. The coarsening is either due to the operation of grain boundary migration and grain area reduction process or high aspect ratio/shape preferred orientation. The quartzites located around Nandprayag Klippen have undergone static recrystallization and exhibit the lowest seismic wave velocities.

  15. Phenotypic differentiation of Barilius bendelisis (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae in four rivers from Central Indian Himalaya

    Javaid Iqbal Mir

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Barilius bendelisis, commonly known as Indian Hill Trout is an upland water fish of South East Asia. It belongs to the family Cyprinidae and dwells in shallow, clear and cold water. In this study, the intraspecific variation of Barilius bendelisis, on the basis of morphometric characters, was investigated. Altogether, 402 specimens were collected from four rivers in the Central Indian Himalaya. A truss network was constructed by interconnecting 12 landmarks to yield 30 distance variables that were extracted from digital images of specimens using tpsDig2 and PAST software. Allometric transformed truss measurements were subjected to univariate analysis of variance, factor analysis and discriminant analysis. All variables exhibited significant differences between the populations. Altogether 88% of the specimens were classified into their original populations (81.98% under a leave-one-out procedure. With factor analysis measurements of the head region, the middle portion and the caudal region had high loadings on the first and second axis. The results indicated that B. bendelisis has significant phenotypic heterogeneity between the geographically isolated regions of Central Indian Himalaya. We hypothesize that the marked interspecific variation in B. bendelisis is the result of local ecological conditions.

  16. Recent atmospheric dust deposition in an ombrotrophic peat bog from the Himalaya

    Ombrotrophic peat bogs, are important natural archives for records of atmospheric pollution by heavy metals. As continental geochemical archives in exclusively recording past atmospheric deposition, they have the unique advantage of a wide global distribution relative to ice cores. Mean annual depositional fluxes of these elements across the peat bog surface are mainly controlled by the atmospheric concentration and total rainfall. To characterize historical trends in the extent and sources of environmental pollution, a peat core from the Pinder Valley (30.05°N, 79.93°E) in the Himalaya was collected. 210Pb and 137Cs radionuclides, with well-define fallout records are used for dating the past 150 years of peat accumulation. Beyond this, 14C AMS dating was used for dating the core. The activities of radionuclides were measured using High Purity Germanium Gamma detector and the concentrations of refractory lithogenic (AI, Ca, Fe, Mn, V and Ti) and trace elements (Pb, Cu, Zn, Co, Ni, Mo, Cr, Sr and Ba) using ICP-MS. In this study, the historical records obtained from the peat bog from the Himalaya extending up to 5000 years show evidence for rising anthropogenic inputs of trace metals to the remote high altitude atmosphere since 1970s, resulting largely from fossil fuel consumption, non-ferrous metal production, coal-powered electricity generation and fertilizer use. Geochemistry of peat and the analysis of past environmental changes will be presented. (author)

  17. Vegetation dynamics at the upper elevational limit of vascular plants in Himalaya.

    Dolezal, Jiri; Dvorsky, Miroslav; Kopecky, Martin; Liancourt, Pierre; Hiiesalu, Inga; Macek, Martin; Altman, Jan; Chlumska, Zuzana; Rehakova, Klara; Capkova, Katerina; Borovec, Jakub; Mudrak, Ondrej; Wild, Jan; Schweingruber, Fritz

    2016-01-01

    A rapid warming in Himalayas is predicted to increase plant upper distributional limits, vegetation cover and abundance of species adapted to warmer climate. We explored these predictions in NW Himalayas, by revisiting uppermost plant populations after ten years (2003-2013), detailed monitoring of vegetation changes in permanent plots (2009-2012), and age analysis of plants growing from 5500 to 6150 m. Plant traits and microclimate variables were recorded to explain observed vegetation changes. The elevation limits of several species shifted up to 6150 m, about 150 vertical meters above the limit of continuous plant distribution. The plant age analysis corroborated the hypothesis of warming-driven uphill migration. However, the impact of warming interacts with increasing precipitation and physical disturbance. The extreme summer snowfall event in 2010 is likely responsible for substantial decrease in plant cover in both alpine and subnival vegetation and compositional shift towards species preferring wetter habitats. Simultaneous increase in summer temperature and precipitation caused rapid snow melt and, coupled with frequent night frosts, generated multiple freeze-thaw cycles detrimental to subnival plants. Our results suggest that plant species responses to ongoing climate change will not be unidirectional upward range shifts but rather multi-dimensional, species-specific and spatially variable. PMID:27143226

  18. The melting Himalayas: cascading effects of climate change on water, biodiversity, and livelihoods.

    Xu, Jianchu; Grumbine, R Edward; Shrestha, Arun; Eriksson, Mats; Yang, Xuefei; Wang, Yun; Wilkes, Andreas

    2009-06-01

    The Greater Himalayas hold the largest mass of ice outside polar regions and are the source of the 10 largest rivers in Asia. Rapid reduction in the volume of Himalayan glaciers due to climate change is occurring. The cascading effects of rising temperatures and loss of ice and snow in the region are affecting, for example, water availability (amounts, seasonality), biodiversity (endemic species, predator-prey relations), ecosystem boundary shifts (tree-line movements, high-elevation ecosystem changes), and global feedbacks (monsoonal shifts, loss of soil carbon). Climate change will also have environmental and social impacts that will likely increase uncertainty in water supplies and agricultural production for human populations across Asia. A common understanding of climate change needs to be developed through regional and local-scale research so that mitigation and adaptation strategies can be identified and implemented. The challenges brought about by climate change in the Greater Himalayas can only be addressed through increased regional collaboration in scientific research and policy making. PMID:22748090

  19. Southern limits of major earthquake ruptures along the Himalaya between longitudes 75 and 90E

    Chander, Ramesh

    1989-12-01

    The ruptures responsible for major earthquakes along the Himalayan Convergent Plate Margin (HCPM) occur in a strikewise oriented zone of frictional failure and relative slip in a buried detachment along the upper surface of the Indian Shield rocks subducting under the Himalaya. The southern limit of the rupture zone is a geotectonic lineament whose geographic location is important in assessing risk due to earthquakes. A major part of this article is taken up in arguing that the available macroseismic and instrumental evidence for the 1934 Bihar-Nepal earthquake is consistent with the view that the rupture which caused it occurred in the detachment mostly under the Lesser Himalaya northward from the vicinity of the surface trace of the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT). Since a similar location has been inferred by others for the 1905 Kangra earthquake rupture, a basis arises for postulating that, over more than half of the length of the HCPM between 75% and 90 E longitudes, the ruptures responsible for major earthquakes lie in the detachment with their southern limits geographically similarly close to the surface trace of the MBT. This includes the nearly 700 km long seismic gap between the 1905 and 1934 ruptures.

  20. Radon and thoron monitoring in the environment of Kumaun Himalayas: survey and outcomes

    Ramola, R.C. E-mail: rcramola@sancharnet.in; Negi, M.S.; Choubey, V.M

    2005-07-01

    Monitoring of radon, thoron and their daughter products was carried out in houses of Kumaun Himalaya, India using LR-115 plastic track detectors. The measurements were made in residential houses from June 1999 to May 2000 at a height of 2.5 m from ground level using a twin chamber radon dosimeter. The twin chamber radon dosimeter can record the values of radon, thoron and their decay products separately. Maximum and minimum indoor radon and thoron concentrations were evaluated and activity concentrations of radon and thoron daughters were estimated. The resulting dose rates due to radon, thoron and their decay products varied from 0.04 to 1.89 {mu}Sv/h. A detailed analysis of the distribution of radon, thoron and their decay products inside the house is also reported. The observed dose rates inside the houses of Kumaun Himalaya were found to be lower than the ICRP recommended value of 200 Bq/m{sup 3} and thus are within safe limits.

  1. Radon and thoron monitoring in the environment of Kumaun Himalayas: survey and outcomes.

    Ramola, R C; Negi, M S; Choubey, V M

    2005-01-01

    Monitoring of radon, thoron and their daughter products was carried out in houses of Kumaun Himalaya, India using LR-115 plastic track detectors. The measurements were made in residential houses from June 1999 to May 2000 at a height of 2.5 m from ground level using a twin chamber radon dosimeter. The twin chamber radon dosimeter can record the values of radon, thoron and their decay products separately. Maximum and minimum indoor radon and thoron concentrations were evaluated and activity concentrations of radon and thoron daughters were estimated. The resulting dose rates due to radon, thoron and their decay products varied from 0.04 to 1.89 microSv/h. A detailed analysis of the distribution of radon, thoron and their decay products inside the house is also reported. The observed dose rates inside the houses of Kumaun Himalaya were found to be lower than the ICRP recommended value of 200 Bq/m3 and thus are within safe limits. PMID:15571877

  2. Wintertime land surface characteristics in climatic simulations over the western Himalayas

    A P Dimri

    2012-04-01

    Wintertime regional climate studies over the western Himalayas with ICTP-RegCM3 simulations through 22 years has shown systematic biases in precipitation and temperature fields. The model simulated precipitation shows systematically wet bias. In surface temperature simulations, positive and negative biases of 2°–4°C occurred. Experiment without (CONT) and with subBATS (SUB) shows that later scheme performs better, especially for precipitation. Apart from the role of topography and model internal variability, land surface characteristics also have profound impact on these climatic variables. Therefore, in the present study, impacts of land surface characteristics are investigated through cool/wet and warm/dry winter climate by CONT and SUB simulations to assess systematic biases. Since SUB experiment uses detailed land-use classification, systematic positive biases in temperature over higher elevation peaks are markedly reduced. The change has shown reduced excessive precipitation as well. Most of the surface characteristics show that major interplay between topography and western disturbances (WDs) takes place along the foothills rather than over the higher peaks of the western Himalayas.

  3. Kashmir Basin Fault and its tectonic significance in NW Himalaya, Jammu and Kashmir, India

    Shah, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    The Kashmir Basin Fault is located in the Jammu and Kashmir region of Kashmir Basin in NW Himalaya, India. It is a classic example of an out-of-sequence thrust faulting and is tectonically active as observed from multiple geological evidences. Its geomorphology, structure and lateral extent indicate significant accommodation of stress since long, which is further supported by the absence of a large earthquake in this region. It seems this fault is actively accommodating some portion of the total India-Eurasia convergence, apart from two well-recognised active structures the Medlicott-Wadia Thrust and the Main Frontal Thrust, which are referred in Vassallo et al. (Earth Planet Sci Lett 411:241-252, 2015). This requires its quantification and inclusion into slip distribution scheme of NW Himalaya. Therefore, it should be explored extensively because this internal out-of-sequence thrust could serve major seismic hazard in KB, repeating a situation similar to Muzaffarabad earthquake of Northern Pakistan in 2005.

  4. Radon and thoron monitoring in the environment of Kumaun Himalayas: survey and outcomes

    Monitoring of radon, thoron and their daughter products was carried out in houses of Kumaun Himalaya, India using LR-115 plastic track detectors. The measurements were made in residential houses from June 1999 to May 2000 at a height of 2.5 m from ground level using a twin chamber radon dosimeter. The twin chamber radon dosimeter can record the values of radon, thoron and their decay products separately. Maximum and minimum indoor radon and thoron concentrations were evaluated and activity concentrations of radon and thoron daughters were estimated. The resulting dose rates due to radon, thoron and their decay products varied from 0.04 to 1.89 μSv/h. A detailed analysis of the distribution of radon, thoron and their decay products inside the house is also reported. The observed dose rates inside the houses of Kumaun Himalaya were found to be lower than the ICRP recommended value of 200 Bq/m3 and thus are within safe limits

  5. A CERN flag is set to wave up in the Himalayas

    Roberto Cantoni

    2010-01-01

    On 18 October, Hubert Reymond, from the Industrial Controls and Engineering group of the EN Department, will be leaving to Nepal with a CERN flag in his backpack. He will place it at the highest point of his trek across the Annapurna mountains in the Himalayas, Thorong La pass, at 5,416 m above sea level.   A view of the Annapurna mountains (source: www.flickr.com/minutesalone) “Is there any official CERN flag I can carry with me during my trek through Nepal?” Some days ago, the Press Office was confronted with this unusual (but see box) question from Hubert Reymond. From 18 October to 10 November, Reymond, who works as an industrial computing engineer in the EN Department, will be trekking across the 55 km-long Annapurna massif in the Himalayas, whose highest point lies at 8,091 m (making it the 10th-highest summit in the world). The area is well-known to trekkers from around the world, as it includes several world-class circuits, including the Annapurna circuit which Reym...

  6. Role of snow-albedo feedback in higher elevation warming over the Himalayas, Tibetan Plateau and Central Asia

    Recent literature has shown that surface air temperature (SAT) in many high elevation regions, including the Tibetan Plateau (TP) has been increasing at a faster rate than at their lower elevation counterparts. We investigate projected future changes in SAT in the TP and the surrounding high elevation regions (between 25°–45°N and 50°–120°E) and the potential role snow-albedo feedback may have on amplified warming there. We use the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) model which have different spatial resolutions as well as different climate sensitivities. We find that surface albedo (SA) decreases more at higher elevations than at lower elevations owing to the retreat of the 0 °C isotherm and the associated retreat of the snow line. Both models clearly show amplified warming over Central Asian mountains, the Himalayas, the Karakoram and Pamir during spring. Our results suggest that the decrease of SA and the associated increase in absorbed solar radiation (ASR) owing to the loss of snowpack play a significant role in triggering the warming over the same regions. Decreasing cloud cover in spring also contributes to an increase in ASR over some of these regions in CCSM4. Although the increase in SAT and the decrease in SA are greater in GFDL than CCSM4, the sensitivity of SAT to changes in SA is the same at the highest elevations for both models during spring; this suggests that the climate sensitivity between models may differ, in part, owing to their corresponding treatments of snow cover, snow melt and the associated snow/albedo feedback. (letter)

  7. Role of snow-albedo feedback in higher elevation warming over the Himalayas, Tibetan Plateau and Central Asia

    Ghatak, Debjani; Sinsky, Eric; Miller, James

    2014-11-01

    Recent literature has shown that surface air temperature (SAT) in many high elevation regions, including the Tibetan Plateau (TP) has been increasing at a faster rate than at their lower elevation counterparts. We investigate projected future changes in SAT in the TP and the surrounding high elevation regions (between 25°-45°N and 50°-120°E) and the potential role snow-albedo feedback may have on amplified warming there. We use the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) model which have different spatial resolutions as well as different climate sensitivities. We find that surface albedo (SA) decreases more at higher elevations than at lower elevations owing to the retreat of the 0 °C isotherm and the associated retreat of the snow line. Both models clearly show amplified warming over Central Asian mountains, the Himalayas, the Karakoram and Pamir during spring. Our results suggest that the decrease of SA and the associated increase in absorbed solar radiation (ASR) owing to the loss of snowpack play a significant role in triggering the warming over the same regions. Decreasing cloud cover in spring also contributes to an increase in ASR over some of these regions in CCSM4. Although the increase in SAT and the decrease in SA are greater in GFDL than CCSM4, the sensitivity of SAT to changes in SA is the same at the highest elevations for both models during spring; this suggests that the climate sensitivity between models may differ, in part, owing to their corresponding treatments of snow cover, snow melt and the associated snow/albedo feedback.

  8. Heterogeneous Status of Glacial Terminal-Contacted Lakes in Himalayas Due to Different Geomorphology and Glacier Characters

    Liu, Q.; Nie, Y.; Liu, S.

    2014-12-01

    Widespread expanding of glacial lakes around the Himalayas, which has led (or will lead) to hazard risks in their downstream valleys due to the potential glacial outburst flood (GLOF), has been widely reported during the past decades. Among all type of glacial lakes, those lakes contacted with the terminals of modern glaciers are generally found experienced most remarkable area increases. That is mostly due to the coupled processes, such as calving, between the lake growths and ice tongue retreats. Thermal absorption and convection of lake water are important for calving at the ice cliff or sub-marine melting under the supra-ponded water bodies. Currently, many larger moraine dammed lakes, e. g., Imja Tsho (Nepal) and Longbasaba Lake (China), are observed undergoing remarkable growths and synchronically with the rapid ice margin collapses due to calving. Some newly formed and rapidly growing supraglacial lakes are also identified on the debris-covered region of Himalayan glaciers, e. g., the Rongbuk Glacier (China), Ngozumpa Glacier (Nepal) and Thorthormi Glacier (Butan), which are speculated to experience accelerated expanding in the near future and finally developing as bigger terminal-calving lakes. However, not all such lake-glacier systems present the same scenes. After experienced the phases of rapid lake growth and terminal retreat, despite the contacting and calving still existing, the positions of the calving lines may be balanced by the positive advances of the ice tongue. We have observed several lakes with stagnation of growth or even shrinkage in lake area as the advance of the calving ice margin. The heterogeneous status of these ice-contacted glacial lakes are mainly due to the different local geomorphology (e. g., slope, lake-basin shape and valley aspect) and glacier characters (e. g., debris cover, velocity and mass balance). These related factors are important for both the prediction of lake and glacier changes and the evaluation of GLOF hazards in the future.

  9. Selection of candidate container materials for the conceptual waste package design for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Halsey, W.G.; McCright, R.D.; Clarke, W.L. Jr. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Gdowski, G.E. [KMI, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-02-01

    Preliminary selection criteria have been developed, peer-reviewed, and applied to a field of 41 candidate materials to choose three alloys for further consideration during the advanced conceptual design phase of waste package development for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These three alloys are titanium grade 12, Alloy C-4, and Alloy 825. These selections are specific to the particular conceptual design outlined in the Site Characterization Plan. Other design concepts that may be considered in the advanced conceptual design phase may favor other materials choices.

  10. Selection of candidate container materials for the conceptual waste package design for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    Preliminary selection criteria have been developed, peer-reviewed, and applied to a field of 41 candidate materials to choose three alloys for further consideration during the advanced conceptual design phase of waste package development for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These three alloys are titanium grade 12, Alloy C-4, and Alloy 825. These selections are specific to the particular conceptual design outlined in the Site Characterization Plan. Other design concepts that may be considered in the advanced conceptual design phase may favor other materials choices

  11. AN ANALYSIS OF MARKET POTENTIAL ANALYSIS TOWARDS SMALL CAR SEGMENT WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO SELECTED CITIES IN TAMILNADU

    V.SUBRAMANIAN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years small segment cars became more popular due to its low price and its attractive features. In Indian market the small segment cars have more welcome from all the parts of India. This research was carried to found the market potential to the small car industry in India For this study the structured questionnaire was carried and the study concluded with the 600 respondents. It shows that market potential for the small car segment in Indian consumers overwhelm and Indian customers are the potential buyers to the small car segment.

  12. Fluoxetine potentiation of methylphenidate-induced neuropeptide expression in the striatum occurs selectively in direct pathway (striatonigral) neurons

    Van Waes, Vincent; Carr, Betsy; Beverley, Joel A.; Steiner, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Concomitant therapies combining psychostimulants such as methylphenidate and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are used to treat several mental disorders, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder/depression comorbidity. The neurobiological consequences of these drug combinations are poorly understood. Methylphenidate alone induces gene regulation that mimics partly effects of cocaine, consistent with some addiction liability. We previously showed that the SSRI fluoxeti...

  13. Effect of the Phase Volume Ratio on the Potential of a Liquid-Membrane Ion-Selective Electrode

    Samec, Zdeněk; Girault, H. H.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 14 (2004), s. 4150-4155. ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : liquit-membrane * ion-selective electrode * two.phase liquid system Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 5.450, year: 2004

  14. Potential Impact of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Exposure to the Seedling Stage of Selected Plant Species

    Parvin Begum; Refi Ikhtiari; Bunshi Fugetsu

    2014-01-01

    Phytotoxicity is a significant consideration in understanding the potential environmental impact of nanoparticles. Abundant experimental data have shown that multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are toxic to plants, but the potential impacts of exposure remain unclear. The objective of the present study was to evaluate possible phytotoxicity of MWNTs at 0, 20, 200, 1000, and 2000 mg/L with red spinach, lettuce, rice, cucumber, chili, lady’s finger, and soybean, based on root and shoot growt...

  15. Transport of sediments in Himalaya-Karakorum and its influence on hydropower plants; Sedimenttransportprozesse im Himalaya-Karakorum und ihre Bedeutung fuer Wasserkraftanlagen

    Palt, S.M.

    2001-07-01

    In the present study the sediment transport processes in alpine mountain areas and their impact on hydropower development projects are investigated. The aim of the present work is to contribute to the understanding of the transport process system, which is characterized by high magnitude-low frequency - events, to ensure an appropriate layout of high head hydropower projects in mountain regions. The sediment transport in large areas in the macro scale is triggered by natural hazards, such as earthquakes, rock slides, earth movements, debris flows, glacial lake outbursts and floods. The basic principle of complex transport processes in this scale is described and explained on the example of the Himalaya-Karakorum-region. The sediment transport process in the smaller scale, so called meso scale, is investigated by means of extensive field measurements at river reaches of 16 different mountain rivers of a 80000 km{sup 2} large project area. The measurements include topographic survey works and measurements of discharge, bed load and suspended load. Since the conditions of mountain rivers in terms of size of bed material as well as available flow velocities can be considered as extreme, an appropriate bed load sampler named B-69 was developed, constructed and used in the field. Moreover the hydraulic as well as the sedimentological efficiency of the sampler was tested in the laboratory tests. Due to the nice performance of the bed load sampler B-69 at high flow velocities it might be useful for flood conditions in gravel-bed rivers in other parts of the world as well. Based on the results of the study the parameter of the river slope can be considered as the most important one for the characteristics of the morphology, the flow conditions, the bed stability as well as the bed load transport in steep mountain rivers. With increasing slope morphological structures in the longitudinal direction will develop from flat bed conditions. The so called step-pool-systems consist of a cascade of staircase local falls. Their distance in-between the falls as well as their height difference at the steps is strongly depending on the river slope. (orig.) [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit beschaeftigt sich mit den Sedimenttransportprozessen in alpinen Gebirgsregionen und deren Auswirkungen auf Wasserkraftanlagen. Ziel der Arbeit ist es, zum Verstaendnis des natuerlichen Sedimenttransportes mit der fuer Gebirgsregionen typischen Charakteristik von 'High Magnitude-Low Frequency - Prozessen' beizutragen, um eine den Transportverhaeltnissen geeignete Auslegung von geplanten Wasserkraftanlagen zu finden. Am Beispiel der Gebirgsregion des Himalaya-Karakorums werden die komplexen Transportvorgaenge im grossraeumigen Raum des Makromassstabes erlaeutert. Dabei wird auf die Massentransporte eingegangen, die durch Naturgefahren wie Erdbeben, Felsgleitungen, Erdrutsche, Muren, Gletscherbrueche und Hochwaesser ausgeloest werden. Der Schwerpunkt der Arbeit liegt in der Durchfuehrung von umfangreichen Naturmessungen im untergeordneten Raum des Mesomassstabes im Bereich von einzelnen Flussabschnitten. Die Naturmessungen umfassen morphologische und topographische Aufnahmen, Abfliessmessungen, Geschiebe- sowie Schwebstoffmessungen an 16 Gebirgsfluessen eines insgesamt 80000 km{sup 2} grossen Projektgebietes im Himalaya-Karakorum. Aufgrund der extremen Verhaeltnisse der Gebirgsfluesse der Region hinsichtlich vorhandener Korngroesse des Bettmaterials sowie die Groessenordnung der Fliessgeschwindigkeiten wurde fuer die Untersuchungen eigens der mobile Geschiebesammler B-69 entwickelt, gebaut und auf seine hydraulische und sedimentologische Effizienz hin geprueft. Der Einsatz des B-69 hat sich im Feld bewaehrt und ist fuer weitere Anwendungen bei Hochwasserereignissen in kiesfuehrenden Fluessen geeignet. Als massgebender Parameter zur Beschreibung der Morphologie, der Stroemung, der Sohlenstabilitaet und des Geschiebetransportes von Gebirgsfluessen im Mesomassstab konnte das Gefaelle I festgestellt werden. Das Gefaelle ist bestimmend fuer die Ausbildung der morphologischen Strukturen im Laengsprofil, die sich mit zunehmendem Gefaelle von der ebenen Sohle (I<1%) als eine Sequenz von lokalen Abstuerzen, auch als Step-Pool-Systeme bezeichnet, ausbildet. Je steiler die Neigung des Gerinnes desto geringer wird der Abstand der Step-Pools in Laengsrichtung und desto groesser wird der Hoehenunterschied an der einzelnen Struktur. (orig.)

  16. Antioxidant Properties of Honey from Different Altitudes of Nepal Himalayas

    Neupane Bishnu Prasad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty two multifloral honey samples representing central western parts of Nepal were examined spectrophotometrically for their antioxidant properties and total phenol content. The modified Folin-Ciocalteu method was used to determine total phenol content and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH• assay for antiradical activity. In all samples, physicochemical parameters like moisture, reducing sugar, sucrose, ash, free acidity and water insoluble matter were also measured according to harmonized methods of the International Honey Commission (IHC. The results of physicochemical analysis showed that all the values, except for moisture of a small number of high altitude honey samples, are in good agreement with the current Nepalese standard. The total phenolic contents of honey, collected from high and low altitude, ranged from 154.87 to 41.90 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/100 g respectively, at corresponding antiradical activity using DPPH• expressed as percent inhibition of 76.66% and 25.69%. The IC50 values of selected high altitude honey samples ranged from 56 to 72 mg/mL. The total antioxidant properties were correlated (P<0.01 between total phenol content and antiradical activity (r=0.992. The obtained results demonstrate that the Nepalese honey collected from high altitude region contained more antioxidants than honey of low altitude region.

  17. Identification of potential nuclear reprogramming and differentiation factors by a novel selection method for cloning chromatin-binding proteins

    Nuclear reprogramming is critical for animal cloning and stem cell creation through nuclear transfer, which requires extensive remodeling of chromosomal architecture involving dramatic changes in chromatin-binding proteins. To understand the mechanism of nuclear reprogramming, it is critical to identify chromatin-binding factors specify the reprogramming process. In this report, we have developed a high-throughput selection method, based on T7 phage display and chromatin immunoprecipitation, to isolate chromatin-binding factors expressed in mouse embryonic stem cells using primary mouse embryonic fibroblast chromatin. Seven chromatin-binding proteins have been isolated by this method. We have also isolated several chromatin-binding proteins involved in hepatocyte differentiation. Our method provides a powerful tool to rapidly and selectively identify chromatin-binding proteins. The method can be used to study epigenetic modification of chromatin during nuclear reprogramming, cell differentiation, and transdifferentiation

  18. Early Auditory Evoked Potential Is Modulated by Selective Attention and Related to Individual Differences in Visual Working Memory Capacity

    Giuliano, Ryan J.; Christina M Karns; Neville, Helen J.; Hillyard, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests that the predictive power of working memory (WM) capacity for measures of intellectual aptitude is due to the ability to control attention and select relevant information. Crucially, attentional mechanisms implicated in controlling access to WM are assumed to be domain-general, yet reports of enhanced attentional abilities in individuals with larger WM capacities are primarily within the visual domain. Here, we directly test the link between WM capacity and...

  19. Circulating Tumor Cells as a Potential Biomarker in Selecting Patients for Pulmonary Metastasectomy from Colorectal Cancer: Report of a Case

    Hashimoto, M.; Tanaka, F; Yoneda, K.; Kondo, N.; Takuwa, T.; Matsumoto, S; Kuroda, A.; Noda, M.; Tomita, N; Hasegawa, S.

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary metastasectomy is indicated for selected patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. A 43-year-old woman presented with solitary pulmonary metastasis from descending colon cancer and pulmonary metastasectomy was performed because of absence of any other active metastasis as well as normal serum carcinoembryonic antigen value. However, she died due to early development of nodal and bone metastases within 6 months after thoracotomy. The presence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in th...

  20. Vertebrate Hosts as Islands: Dynamics of Selection, Immigration, Loss, Persistence, and Potential Function of Bacteria on Salamander Skin.

    Loudon, Andrew H; Venkataraman, Arvind; Van Treuren, William; Woodhams, Douglas C; Parfrey, Laura Wegener; McKenzie, Valerie J; Knight, Rob; Schmidt, Thomas M; Harris, Reid N

    2016-01-01

    Skin bacterial communities can protect amphibians from a fungal pathogen; however, little is known about how these communities are maintained. We used a neutral model of community ecology to identify bacteria that are maintained on salamanders by selection or by dispersal from a bacterial reservoir (soil) and ecological drift. We found that 75% (9/12) of bacteria that were consistent with positive selection, competition is important for structuring the community. Bacteria closely related to antifungal isolates were more likely to persist on salamanders with or without a bacterial reservoir, suggesting they had a competitive advantage. Furthermore, over-represented and under-represented operational taxonomic units (OTUs) had similar persistence on salamanders when a bacterial reservoir was present. However, under-represented OTUs were less likely to persist in the absence of a bacterial reservoir, suggesting that the over-represented and under-represented bacteria were selected against or for on salamanders through time. Our findings from the neutral model, migration and persistence analyses show that bacteria that exhibit a high similarity to antifungal isolates persist on salamanders, which likely protect hosts against pathogens and improve fitness. This research is one of the first to apply ecological theory to investigate assembly of host associated-bacterial communities, which can provide insights for probiotic bioaugmentation as a conservation strategy against disease. PMID:27014249

  1. Bio-active glass air-abrasion has the potential to remove resin composite restorative material selectively

    The aims of this study were to assess: (a) the chemistry, morphology and bioactivity of bio-active glass (BAG) air-abrasive powder, (b) the effect of three air-abrasion operating parameters: air pressure, powder flow rate (PFR) and the abrasive powder itself, on the selective removal of resin composite and (c) the required “time taken”. BAG abrasive particles were characterised using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Standardised resin composite restorations created within an enamel analogue block (Macor™) in vitro, were removed using air-abrasion undersimulated clinical conditions. 90 standardised cavities were scanned before and after resin composite removal using laser profilometry and the volume of the resulting 3D images calculated. Multilevel linear model was used to identify the significant factors affecting Macor™ removal. BAG powder removed resin composite more selectively than conventional air-abrasion alumina powder using the same operating parameters (p < 0.001) and the effect of altering the unit's operating parameters was significant (p < 0.001). In conclusion, BAG powder is more efficient than alumina in the selective removal of resin composite particularly under specific operating parameters, and therefore may be recommended clinically as a method of preserving sound enamel structure when repairing and removing defective resin composite restorations.

  2. Detection of leukocyte filtration and potential selective migration during use of cardiopulmonary bypass in cardiac surgery by flow cytometry

    Hambsch, Joerg; Schlykow, Veronika; Bocsi, Jozsef; Schneider, Peter; Pipek, Michal; Tarnok, Attila

    1999-06-01

    Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) can induce severe post-operative immune responses. During CPB loss of activated lymphocytes from the peripheral blood (PBL) was observed. We investigated if PBL get lost by binding to the CPB or by migration into the peripheral tissue and if the cells adhere selectively to different filter types. PBL were collected before, during and after surgery of pediatric patients and from the filters of the CPB by washing. Immunophenotype was determined by four color flow cytometry (FCM). In addition, PBL adhesion to CPB was analyzed in vitro. During surgery, B-cell counts decreased by greater than 50% due to the loss of CD69+ cells. The fraction of CD25+ and CD54+ T-lymphocytes decreased by 70%, that of CD69+ natural killer cells by 40%. In vivo in the CPB the proportion of CD69+ cells increased by up to 50%. These findings were supported by in vitro filtration studies. In contrast, the proportion of T-lymphocytes CD25+ or CD54+ were lower in the CPB. CD69+ cells adhere selectively to CPB filters. Loss of activated CD25+ or CD54+ T-lymphocytes could be due to their selective migration into the peripheral tissue. This FCM technique could be applied to test various filter types used in CPB in order to test their biocompatibility.

  3. Bio-active glass air-abrasion has the potential to remove resin composite restorative material selectively

    Milly, Hussam [Biomaterials, Biomimetics and Biophotonics Research Group, Kings College London Dental Institute at Guy' s Hospital, King' s Health Partners, London (United Kingdom); Andiappan, Manoharan [Unit of Dental Public Health, Kings College London Dental Institute at Guy' s Hospital, King' s Health Partners, London (United Kingdom); Thompson, Ian [Biomaterials, Biomimetics and Biophotonics Research Group, Kings College London Dental Institute at Guy' s Hospital, King' s Health Partners, London (United Kingdom); Banerjee, Avijit, E-mail: avijit.banerjee@kcl.ac.uk [Biomaterials, Biomimetics and Biophotonics Research Group, Kings College London Dental Institute at Guy' s Hospital, King' s Health Partners, London (United Kingdom); Unit of Conservative Dentistry, King' s College London Dental Institute at Guy' s Hospital, King' s Health Partners, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-01

    The aims of this study were to assess: (a) the chemistry, morphology and bioactivity of bio-active glass (BAG) air-abrasive powder, (b) the effect of three air-abrasion operating parameters: air pressure, powder flow rate (PFR) and the abrasive powder itself, on the selective removal of resin composite and (c) the required “time taken”. BAG abrasive particles were characterised using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Standardised resin composite restorations created within an enamel analogue block (Macor™) in vitro, were removed using air-abrasion undersimulated clinical conditions. 90 standardised cavities were scanned before and after resin composite removal using laser profilometry and the volume of the resulting 3D images calculated. Multilevel linear model was used to identify the significant factors affecting Macor™ removal. BAG powder removed resin composite more selectively than conventional air-abrasion alumina powder using the same operating parameters (p < 0.001) and the effect of altering the unit's operating parameters was significant (p < 0.001). In conclusion, BAG powder is more efficient than alumina in the selective removal of resin composite particularly under specific operating parameters, and therefore may be recommended clinically as a method of preserving sound enamel structure when repairing and removing defective resin composite restorations.

  4. Vertebrate Hosts as Islands: Dynamics of Selection, Immigration, Loss, Persistence, and Potential Function of Bacteria on Salamander Skin

    Loudon, Andrew H.; Venkataraman, Arvind; Van Treuren, William; Woodhams, Douglas C.; Parfrey, Laura Wegener; McKenzie, Valerie J.; Knight, Rob; Schmidt, Thomas M.; Harris, Reid N.

    2016-01-01

    Skin bacterial communities can protect amphibians from a fungal pathogen; however, little is known about how these communities are maintained. We used a neutral model of community ecology to identify bacteria that are maintained on salamanders by selection or by dispersal from a bacterial reservoir (soil) and ecological drift. We found that 75% (9/12) of bacteria that were consistent with positive selection, important for structuring the community. Bacteria closely related to antifungal isolates were more likely to persist on salamanders with or without a bacterial reservoir, suggesting they had a competitive advantage. Furthermore, over-represented and under-represented operational taxonomic units (OTUs) had similar persistence on salamanders when a bacterial reservoir was present. However, under-represented OTUs were less likely to persist in the absence of a bacterial reservoir, suggesting that the over-represented and under-represented bacteria were selected against or for on salamanders through time. Our findings from the neutral model, migration and persistence analyses show that bacteria that exhibit a high similarity to antifungal isolates persist on salamanders, which likely protect hosts against pathogens and improve fitness. This research is one of the first to apply ecological theory to investigate assembly of host associated-bacterial communities, which can provide insights for probiotic bioaugmentation as a conservation strategy against disease. PMID:27014249

  5. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 1. Data, maps, models and methods used for selection of potential areas

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-07-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings plus different types of material from the research periods) and radioactive waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The Minister for Health and Prevention presented the background and decision plan for the Danish Parliament in January 2009. All political parties agreed on the plan. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. In the present study, the salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included. The present report briefly describes the existing data collections (including databases, maps and models), that are used during the work of selection of ca. 20 potentially suitable areas. Most of the information is stored in GEUS databases: Location of boreholes, borehole data, rock sediment and ground water compounds, maps, geophysical data and much more, but information is also collected from other institutions. The methods are described in more details (chapter 6) and this description is the direct background for the selection process, the characterisation of the 20 areas and for the final selection of the 2 or 3 most potential sites. (LN)

  6. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 1. Data, maps, models and methods used for selection of potential areas

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings plus different types of material from the research periods) and radioactive waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The Minister for Health and Prevention presented the background and decision plan for the Danish Parliament in January 2009. All political parties agreed on the plan. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. In the present study, the salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included. The present report briefly describes the existing data collections (including databases, maps and models), that are used during the work of selection of ca. 20 potentially suitable areas. Most of the information is stored in GEUS databases: Location of boreholes, borehole data, rock sediment and ground water compounds, maps, geophysical data and much more, but information is also collected from other institutions. The methods are described in more details (chapter 6) and this description is the direct background for the selection process, the characterisation of the 20 areas and for the final selection of the 2 or 3 most potential sites. (LN)

  7. The relevance of corporate social responsibility for a sustainable human resource management: An analysis of organizational attractiveness as a determinant in employees' selection of a (potential) employer

    Lis, Bettina

    2012-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has become a central issue of business management in recent years. This study aims to add to the literature by pointing out the relevance of CSR for a Sustainable Human Resource Management (HRM). In particular this research investigates job seekers’ perceptions of CSR. The paper focuses on the importance of CSR with in the process of selecting potential employers by analyzing the impact of four different CSR-dimensions upon organizational attractiveness. ...

  8. Selective determination of dimenhydrinate in presence of six of its related substances and potential impurities using a direct GC/MS method

    Belal, Tarek S.; Abdel-Hay, Karim M.; C. Randall Clark

    2015-01-01

    A novel simple, direct and selective gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS) procedure was developed for the determination of the antihistamine drug dimenhydrinate (DMH) in presence of six of its related substances and potential impurities, namely, diphenylmethane, diphenylmethanol, benzophenone, orphenadrine, caffeine and 8-chlorocaffeine. The method involved resolution of the underivatized compounds using a trifluoropropylmethyl polysiloxane (Rtx-200) capillary column and the mass spec...

  9. Looking for pre-selected multiword units in an untagged corpus of written Italian: maximizing the potential of the search program DBT

    Cignoni, Laura; Coffey, S

    1995-01-01

    In the course of research being carried out in the field of bilingual phraseology, the Italian Reference Corpus (IRC) was used as a potential source of contextualized examples for previously selected multiword units. In all, about 2000 items were looked for. These included both multiword lexical units and complete utterances. Before discussing the search program used and search techniques employed, it should be pointed out that the IRC is an untagged corpus. The user has no automatic help of ...

  10. Macro Invertebrate Community from Sonamarg Streams of Kashmir Himalaya

    A.R. Yousuf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses a macroinvertebrate community survey for River Sindh and its tributary including Baltal, Yashmarg, Sonamarg and Thajwas Grar considering the extreme hydrological conditions linked with the seasonal low-flow period typical for some streams in this area. This study attempts to provide an overview of the macro invertebrate assemblages and physico-chemical variables of the River Sindh and its important tributary. Four study sites were selected from the River Sindh and its tributary including Baltal, Yashmarg, Sonamarg and Thajwas Grar for studying the ecological distribution of Macroinvertebrate assemblages. Totally, 33 taxa of macroinvertebrates were recorded from the two streams belonging to Mollusca-3 (Gastropoda-2 and Bivalvia-1, Annelida-1 and Arthropoda-29 (Insecta-29. Among insects Ephemeroptera (7, Trichoptera (6 and Diptera (13 dominated. Except Yashmrag all sites were found devoid of annelids while as the mollusks were found absent at Sonamarg. Highest values of Shannon Weiner Index were found at Yashmarg (2.42 and lowest at Sonamarg (1.99 while as highest and lowest Sorensen?s similarity coefficient were found between Baltal/Thajwas Grar (0.68 and Yashmarg/Thajwas Grar (0.39, respectively. A perusal of the data on physico-chemical characteristics showed that these streams were hard water type with high dissolved oxygen content. The ionic composition of the stream waters revealed the predominance of bicarbonate and calcium. Insecta dominated both qualitatively as well as quantitatively and the study revealed that the substrate compositions dominated by gravel, pebble and leaf litters are primary determinants of the invertebrate community structure recording maximum species diversity and abundance. Sample locations impacted by Amarnath yatris pilgrimage comparatively reflected slightly higher increase in nutrients than Thajwas Grar almost devoid of pilgrimage effect.

  11. Modelling glacier change in the Everest region, Nepal Himalaya

    J. M. Shea

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we apply a glacier mass balance and ice redistribution model to simulate historical and future glacier change in the Everest region of Nepal. High-resolution temperature and precipitation fields derived from gridded APHRODITE data, and validated against independent station observations from the EVK2CNR network, are used to drive the historical model from 1961 to 2007. The model is calibrated against geodetically derived estimates of net glacier mass change from 1992 to 2008, termini position of four large glaciers at the end of the calibration period, average velocities observed on selected debris-covered glaciers, and total glacierized area. We integrate field-based observations of glacier mass balance and ice thickness with remotely-sensed observations of decadal glacier change to validate the model. Between 1961 and 2007, the mean modelled volume change over the Dudh Kosi basin is −6.4 ± 1.5 km3, a decrease of 15.6% from the original estimated ice volume in 1961. Modelled glacier area change between 1961 and 2007 is −101.0 ± 11.4 km2, a decrease of approximately 20% from the initial extent. Scenarios of future climate change, based on CMIP5 RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 end members, suggest that glaciers in the Everest region will continue to lose mass through the 21st century. Glaciers in the basin are concentrated between 5000 and 6000 m of elevation, and are thus expected to be sensitive to changes in temperature and equilibrium line altitude (ELA. Glacier volume reductions between −35 to −62% are possible by 2050, and sustained temperature increases to 2100 may result in total glacier volume losses of between −73 and −96%.

  12. SELECTIVE POTENTIATION OF THE METABOTROPIC GLUTAMATE RECEPTOR SUBTYPE 2 BLOCKS PHENCYCLIDINE-INDUCED HYPERLOCOMOTION AND BRAIN ACTIVATION

    HACKLER, E. A.; Byun, N.E.; JONES, C. K.; Williams, J.M.; BAHEZA, R.; Sengupta, S; GRIER, M. D.; Avison, M; Conn, P J; Gore, J. C.

    2010-01-01

    Previous preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of group II metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) agonists as potential antipsychotics. Recent studies utilizing mGluR2-, mGluR3-, and double knockout mice support that the antipsychotic effects of those compounds are mediated by mGluR2. Indeed, biphenyl indanone-A (BINA), an allosteric potentiator of mGluR2, is effective in experimental models of psychosis, blocking phencyclidine (PCP)-induced hyperlocomotion and prep...

  13. Anti-trypanosomal Activity of Potential Inhibitors of Trypanosoma brucei Glycolytic Pathway Enzymes Selected by Docking Studies

    Clarisse Musanabaganwa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, a potentially fatal protozoan infection caused by tsetse-fl mediated transmission of Trypanosoma brucei (T. Brucei, is largely recognized as a neglected disease. The repertoire of drugs that is effective against the infection is limited and all drugs have several drawbacks including high level of toxicity, diffiult administration regimens, and the resurgence of resistance. At present the biology of the parasite is well studied and a number of technologies are now available which can aid in the identifiation of potential drug targets. This review identifies putative inhibitors of trypanosomal glycolytic enzymes.

  14. An analyis on the distribution of the Indian taxa of the genus Primula Linn., in the eastern Himalaya with remarks on the species of Assam

    Ghosh, R. B.

    1981-01-01

    [EN] In the present communication, 99 species, 4 sub-species and 10 varieties are recordded in the Eastern Himalaya totalling the number of taxa as 113. The table appended shows the names of taxa with original citation, synonyms where necessary and there occurrence in the specified areas of the Eastern Himalaya thereby indicating Indian elements. 14 taxa recorder for the first time in the respective State.

  15. Surrogate species selection for assessing potential adverse environmental impacts of genetically engineered plants on non-target organisms

    Most regulatory authorities require that developers of genetically engineered insect-resistant (GEIR) crops evaluate the potential for these crops to have adverse impacts on valued non-target organisms (NTOs), i.e., organisms not intended to be controlled by the trait. In many cases, impacts to NTOs...

  16. Selectable markers with potential activity against insects, plus other insect-oriented strategies for mycotoxin reduction in Midwest corn

    Reduction of insect damage has the potential to greatly reduce the levels of mycotoxins in corn, as studies with Bt corn have shown. However, the large number of insect species involved necessitates the development of comprehensive insect control to most effectively utilize this strategy. One stra...

  17. Folate Conjugated Cellulose Nanocrystals Potentiate Irreversible Electroporation-induced Cytotoxicity for the Selective Treatment of Cancer Cells.

    Colacino, Katelyn R; Arena, Christopher B; Dong, Shuping; Roman, Maren; Davalos, Rafael V; Lee, Yong W

    2015-12-01

    Cellulose nanocrystals are rod-shaped, crystalline nanoparticles that have shown prom-ise in a number of industrial applications for their unique chemical and physical properties. However, investigations of their abilities in the biomedical field are limited. The goal of this study is to show the potential use of folic acid-conjugated cellulose nanocrystals in the potentiation of irreversible electroporation-induced cell death in folate receptor (FR)-positive cancers. We optimized key pulse parameters including pulse duration, intensity, and incubation time with nanoparticles prior to electroporation. FR-positive cancer cells, KB and MDA-MB-468, were preincubated with cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) conjugated with the targeting molecule folic acid (FA), 10 and 20 min respectively, prior to application of the optimized pulse electric field (PEF), 600 and 500 V/cm respectively. We have shown cellulose nanocrystals' ability to potentiate a new technique for tumor ablation, irreversible electroporation. Pre-incubation with FA-conjugated CNCs (CNC-FA) has shown a significant increase in cytotoxicity induced by irreversible electroporation in FR-positive cancer cells, KB and MDA-MB-468. Non-targeted CNCs (CNC-COOH) did not potentiate IRE when preincubated at the same parameters as previously stated in these cell types. In addition, CNC-FA did not potentiate irreversible electroporation-induced cytotoxicity in a FR-negative cancer cell type, A549. Without changing irreversible electroporation parameters it is possible to increase the cytotoxic effect on FR-positive cancer cells by exploiting the specific binding of FA to the FR, while not causing further damage to FR-negative tissue. PMID:24750004

  18. Potential Impact of Preoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Breast on Patient Selection for Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    Kuehr, Marietta, E-mail: marietta.kuehr@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Center of Integrated Oncology, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Wolfgarten, Matthias; Stoelzle, Marco [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Center of Integrated Oncology, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Leutner, Claudia [Department of Radiology, Center of Integrated Oncology, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Hoeller, Tobias [Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Schrading, Simone; Kuhl, Christiane; Schild, Hans [Department of Radiology, Center of Integrated Oncology, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Kuhn, Walther; Braun, Michael [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Center of Integrated Oncology, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) after breast-conserving therapy is currently under investigation in prospective randomized studies. Multifocality and multicentricity are exclusion criteria for APBI. Preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can detect ipsilateral and contralateral invasive tumor foci or ductal carcinoma in situ in addition to conventional diagnostic methods (clinical examination, mammography, and ultrasonography). The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the impact of preoperative MRI on patient selection for APBI. Methods and Materials: From 2002 to 2007, a total of 579 consecutive, nonselected patients with newly diagnosed early-stage breast cancer received preoperative breast MRI in addition to conventional imaging studies at the Bonn University Breast Cancer Center. In retrospect, 113 patients would have met the criteria for APBI using conventional imaging workup (clinical tumor size {<=}3 cm; negative axillary lymph node status; unifocal disease; no evidence of distant metastases; no invasive lobular carcinoma, ductal and lobular carcinoma in situ, or Paget's disease). We analyzed the amount of additional ipsilateral and contralateral tumor foci detected by MRI. Results: MRI detected additional tumor foci in 8.8% of patients eligible for APBI (11 tumor foci in 10 of 113 patients), either ipsilateral (n = 7, 6.2%) or contralateral (n = 4, 3.5%). In 1 patient, MRI helped detect additional tumor focus both ipsilaterally and contralaterally. Conclusions: Preoperative breast MRI is able to identify additional tumor foci in a clinically relevant number of cases in this highly selected group of patients with low-risk disease and may be useful in selecting patients for APBI.

  19. Historical Perspective on How and Why Switchgrass was Selected as a "Model" High-Potential Energy Crop

    Wright, Lynn L [ORNL

    2007-11-01

    A review of several publications of the Biofuels Feedstock Development Program, and final reports from the herbaceous crop screening trials suggests that there were several technical and non-technical factors that influenced the decision to focus on one herbaceous "model" crop species. The screening trials funded by the U.S. Department of Energy in the late 1980's to early 1990's assessed a wide range of about 34 species with trials being conducted on a wide range of soil types in 31 different sites spread over seven states in crop producing regions of the U.S. While several species, including sorghums, reed canarygrass and other crops, were identified as having merit for further development, the majority of institutions involved in the herbaceous species screening studies identified switchgrass as having high priority for further development. Six of the seven institutions included switchgrass among the species recommended for further development in their region and all institutions recommended that perennial grasses be given high research priority. Reasons for the selection of switchgrass included the demonstration of relatively high, reliable productivity across a wide geographical range, suitability for marginal quality land, low water and nutrient requirements, and positive environmental attributes. Economic and environmental assessments by Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Biofuels Feedstock Development Program staff together with the screening project results, and funding limitations lead to making the decision to further develop only switchgrass as a "model" or "prototype" species in about 1990. This paper describes the conditions under which the herbaceous species were screened, summarizes results from those trials, discusses the various factors which influenced the selection of switchgrass, and provides a brief evaluation of switchgrass with respect to criteria that should be considered when selecting and developing a crop for biofuels and bioproducts.

  20. Glacier dynamics of the Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya region over the last 40 years

    Gourmelen, N.; Dehecq, A.; Trouvé, E.

    2014-12-01

    Climate warming over the 20th century has caused drastic changes in mountain glaciers globally, and of the Himalayan glaciers in particular. The stakes are high; glaciers and ice caps are the largest contributor to the increase in the mass of the world's oceans, and the Himalayas play a key role in the hydrology of the region, impacting on the economy, food safety and flood risk. Partial monitoring of the Himalayan glaciers has revealed a mixed picture; while many of the Himalayan glaciers are retreating, in some cases locally stable or advancing glaciers in this region have also been observed. But recent controversies have highlighted the need to understand the glaciers dynamic and its relationship with climate change in the region. Earth Observation provides a mean for global and long-term monitoring of mountain glaciers' dynamics. In the frame of the Dragon program, a partnership between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Chinese Center for Earth Observation (NRSCC), we begun a monitoring program aimed at quantifying multidecadal changes in glaciers' flow at the scale of the entire Himalayas and Karakoram from a 40 years' archive of Earth Observation. Ultimately, the provision of a global and time-sensitive glaciers velocity product will help to understand the evolution of the Himalayan glaciers in lights of glaciological (e.g. presence of debris-cover, surges, proglacial lakes) and climatic conditions. Here we present a region-wide analysis of annual and seasonnal glacier flow velocity covering the Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya region obtained from the analysis of the entire archive of Landsat data. Over 90% of the ice-covered regions, as defined by the Randolph Glacier Inventory, are measured, with precision on the retrieved velocity of the order of 2 m/yr. We show that the first order temporal evolution of glacier flow mirrors the pattern of glacier mass balance. We observe a general decrease of ice velocity in regions of known ice mass loss, and a more complex patterns consisting of mixed acceleration and decrease of ice velocity in regions that are known to be affected by stable mass balance and surge-like behavior.

  1. High resolution maping of the crustal architecture by ambient noise tomography in the North Western Himalaya

    Kumar, N.; Aoudia, A.; Hazarika, D.; Yadav, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    A sizeable mid-crustal low velocity layer is mapped beneath the North-Western (NW) Himalaya and clear evidence for a decollement plane is reported. We performed ambient noise tomography for the NW Himalaya region using data of 31 broadband seismic stations. The ray paths sample the Himalayan region, the south Tibetan detachment zone and the Indo-Tsangpo suture zone, therefore covering the boundary regions of Indian and Eurasian plates to the South of the Karakoram fault. This part of the Himalayan region has witnessed devastating earthquakes such as Kashmir earthquake of 2005 and Kangra earthquake of 1905 along with many strong events. Rayleigh and Love waves data is utilized to extract dispersion curves for more than 500 paths for each wave. The spatial regional difference for group velocities are mapped for the periods in the range 4-40 sec, however most of the data are for period lower than 30 sec. The 2D tomography maps of fundamental mode highlight high lateral variations that may account for sub-surface tectonic deformation and variable crustal thicknesses. Larger variations are depicted for high period Rayleigh waves rather than Love waves and this mainly for the paths passing close to India-Tibet tectonic boundary. This study based on latest data gives new detail of sub-surface structural setup of the western part of Himalaya highlighting a low velocity mid-crustal layer characterized by an absence of lower crustal seismicity below decollment plane . A clear discontinuity within the physical properties mimics a possible decollement plane that could transfer sizeable earthquakes. Specifically a minimum value of Rayleigh wave velocity close to the decollement zone is reported and may likely correspond to mineral anisotropy while its existence to the lower part can be due to partial melting as per previous finding. The influence of Moho on the dispersion data suggests that this discontinuity is dipping towards north. However in the northern part close to India-Tibet plate tectonic boundary the Moho should be deeper than the efficiency of available data.

  2. The real cause of the suspended sediment transport - river discharge hysteresis loop, in the Nepal Himalayas

    Andermann, C.; Bonnet, S.; Crave, A.; Davy, P.; Gloaguen, R.; Longuevergne, L.

    2011-12-01

    Suspended sediment- river discharge hysteresis effects are observed over a wide range of different environments and time scales. This effect is generally interpreted as the result of variations in sediment supply which is directly coupled to sudden slope failure linked to storms, earthquakes and/or to glacial melt processes. In the Nepal Himalayas sediment fluxes are closely associated with the monsoon season. The distinct wet and dry season in Nepal controls the hydrological cycle and exerts a strong influence on the availability of water, river discharge and vegetation cover. The repartition of precipitated water in to direct surface runoff and temporally stored water is of major importance for physical and chemical erosion processes. Additional, the extreme high relief energy provides a landscape constantly close to failure. In this contribution we discuss for the case of the Nepal Himalayas, (1) the occurrence of sediment flux events, (2) how suspended sediments are mobilized and transported and (3) denudation rates derived from these fluxes. We present ~30 years of daily data of precipitation and discharge for the major drainage basins of Nepal. Relating discharge with suspended sediment concentrations reveals a very well defined annual clockwise hysteresis effect, which we observe for both glaciated and unglaciated basins. Probability density distribution of the specific storm runoff sediment fluxes (normalized by the mean flux), reveals that all rivers have the same magnitude distribution behavior with respect to their means, independent from their size and location. The density function describes a power law with a slope ~1, but high fluxes describe a different behavior with a slope of ~2. Hence, mathematically the mean transport depends not on the extreme events, simply because the probability of large events has only little impact with respect to the moderate events. Through the separation of the daily hydrographs into direct storm discharge and baseflow (applying the local minimum method) we show that the hysteresis is rather an effect of dilution than limit of supply. These suspended sediment fluxes are linearly related with storm runoff, which implies that annual sediment fluxes and consequently the mobilization of material, is primarily controlled by the quantity and intensity of storm events. From this observation we derive a new suspended sediment rating model, allowing us to calculate denudation rates from the river discharge hydrograph. Calculated denudation rates in the Nepal Himalayas range from 0.1 -5.9 mm/year. Spatially, denudation seems to be controlled by precipitation intensity and to a lesser degree by relief or other catchment characteristics. Last we propose a new conceptual model of mobilization and transportation of material within the monsoonal discharge cycle.

  3. Potential transducers based man-tailored biomimetic sensors for selective recognition of dextromethorphan as an antitussive drug.

    El-Naby, Eman H; Kamel, Ayman H

    2015-09-01

    A biomimetic potentiometric sensor for specific recognition of dextromethorphan (DXM), a drug classified according to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) as a "drug of concern", is designed and characterized. A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP), with special molecular recognition properties of DXM, was prepared by thermal polymerization in which DXM acted as template molecule, methacrylic acid (MAA) and acrylonitrile (AN) acted as functional monomers in the presence of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as crosslinker. The sensors showed a high selectivity and a sensitive response to the template in aqueous system. Electrochemical evaluation of these sensors revealed near-Nernstian response with slopes of 49.6±0.5 and 53.4±0.5 mV decade(-1) with a detection limit of 1.9×10(-6), and 1.0×10(-6) mol L(-1) DXM with MIP/MAA and MIP/AN membrane based sensors, respectively. Significantly improved accuracy, precision, response time, stability, selectivity and sensitivity were offered by these simple and cost-effective potentiometric sensors compared with other standard techniques. The method has the requisite accuracy, sensitivity and precision to assay DXM in pharmaceutical products. PMID:26046285

  4. Extended reviewing or the role of potential siting cantons in the ongoing Swiss site selection procedure ('Sectoral Plan')

    The disposition of nuclear waste in Switzerland has a long-standing and sinuous history reflecting its complex socio-technical nature (Flueeler, 2006). Upon the twofold failure to site a repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste at Wellenberg during the 1990's and 2000's, it was recognised that the respective site selections had not been fully transparent. The Swiss government, the Federal Council, accepted the lesson and, after an extensive nationwide consultation at that, established a new site selection process 'from scratch': a systematic, stepwise, traceable, fair and binding procedure with a safety-first approach, yet extensively participatory. The so-called Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Repositories guarantees the inclusion of the affected and concerned cantons and communities, as well as the relevant authorities in neighbouring countries from an early stage (Swiss Nuclear Energy Act, 2003; BFE, 2008). This contribution shares experience and insights in the ongoing procedure from a cantonal point of view that is an intermediate position between national needs and regional concerns, and with technical regulatory expertise between highly specialised experts and involved publics. (authors)

  5. Ethnomedicinal and ecological status of plants in Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Sheikh Mehraj A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The northern part of India harbours a great diversity of medicinal plants due to its distinct geography and ecological marginal conditions. The traditional medical systems of northern India are part of a time tested culture and honored still by people today. These traditional systems have been curing complex disease for more than 3,000 years. With rapidly growing demand for these medicinal plants, most of the plant populations have been depleted, indicating a lack of ecological knowledge among communities using the plants. Thus, an attempt was made in this study to focus on the ecological status of ethnomedicinal plants, to determine their availability in the growing sites, and to inform the communities about the sustainable exploitation of medicinal plants in the wild. Methods The ecological information regarding ethnomedicinal plants was collected in three different climatic regions (tropical, sub-tropical and temperate for species composition in different forest layers. The ecological information was assessed using the quadrate sampling method. A total of 25 quadrats, 10 × 10 m were laid out at random in order to sample trees and shrubs, and 40 quadrats of 1 × 1 m for herbaceous plants. In each climatic region, three vegetation sites were selected for ecological information; the mean values of density, basal cover, and the importance value index from all sites of each region were used to interpret the final data. Ethnomedicinal uses were collected from informants of adjacent villages. About 10% of inhabitants (older, experienced men and women were interviewed about their use of medicinal plants. A consensus analysis of medicinal plant use between the different populations was conducted. Results Across the different climatic regions a total of 57 species of plants were reported: 14 tree species, 10 shrub species, and 33 herb species. In the tropical and sub-tropical regions, Acacia catechu was the dominant tree while Ougeinia oojeinensis in the tropical region and Terminalia belerica in the sub-tropical region were least dominant reported. In the temperate region, Quercus leucotrichophora was the dominant tree and Pyrus pashia the least dominant tree. A total of 10 shrubs were recorded in all three regions: Adhatoda vasica was common species in the tropical and sub-tropical regions however, Rhus parviflora was common species in the sub-tropical and temperate regions. Among the 33 herbs, Sida cordifolia was dominant in the tropical and sub-tropical regions, while Barleria prionitis the least dominant in tropical and Phyllanthus amarus in the sub-tropical region. In temperate region, Vernonia anthelmintica was dominant and Imperata cylindrica least dominant. The consensus survey indicated that the inhabitants have a high level of agreement regarding the usages of single plant. The index value was high (1.0 for warts, vomiting, carminative, pain, boils and antiseptic uses, and lowest index value (0.33 was found for bronchitis. Conclusion The medicinal plants treated various ailments. These included diarrhea, dysentery, bronchitis, menstrual disorders, gonorrhea, pulmonary affections, migraines, leprosy. The ecological studies showed that the tree density and total basal cover increased from the tropical region to sub-tropical and temperate regions. The species composition changed with climatic conditions. Among the localities used for data collection in each climatic region, many had very poor vegetation cover. The herbaceous layer decreased with increasing altitude, which might be an indication that communities at higher elevations were harvesting more herbaceous medicinal plants, due to the lack of basic health care facilities. Therefore, special attention needs to be given to the conservation of medicinal plants in order to ensure their long-term availability to the local inhabitants. Data on the use of individual species of medicinal plants is needed to provide an in-depth assessment of the plants availability in order to design conservation strategies to protect individual species.

  6. Evaluation of physicochemical and biodegradability properties of selected nigerian non-edible oilseeds as potential cutting fluids

    This paper reports evaluation of physicochemical and biodegradability properties of selectednon edible Nigerian oilseeds as a potential cutting fluid. Oil extraction process was carried on the oilseeds, with physicochemical parameters and biodegradability of the extracts were equally assessed. The established physicochemical parameters were percentage oil yield (5.58-61.8%), specific gravity (0.86-0.94), acid value (2.89-18.2 mgKOH/g), iodine value (15.7-104 mg iodine/g), peroxide value (1.35-10.9 mg/g oil), saponification value (173-286 mg KOH/g) and viscosity (37.9-53.1centipoises), while biodegradability ranged between (50.0-63.8%) in comparison with the mineral oil with values less than 20%. Based on this study, the oil extracts of Caesalpinia bonduc and Calophyllum inophyllum appeared to be the most suitable as potential cutting fluids for further formulation studies and machining trials. (author)

  7. On the potential and economic feasibility of solar industrial process-heat applications in selected Turkish industries

    We discuss the potential and economic feasibility of solar, industrial process-heat applications in the Turkish food, textile and chemical industries. The study covers 18 sites and end-use temperatures up to 120 and 150oC. A solar system composed of parabolic troughs without thermal storage is chosen. The system size investigated is 500 to 20,000m2. (author)

  8. Sol-gel derived ionic copper-doped microstructured optical fiber: a potential selective ultraviolet radiation dosimeter

    El Hamzaoui, Hicham; Ouerdane, Youcef; Bigot, Laurent; Bouwmans, Géraud; Capoen, Bruno; Boukenter, Aziz; Girard, Sylvain; Bouazaoui, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    We report the fabrication and characterization of a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) having a sol-gel core doped with ionic copper. Optical measurements demonstrate that the ionic copper is preserved in the silica glass all along the preparation steps up to fiber drawing. The photoluminescence results clearly show that such an ionic copper-doped fiber constitutes a potential candidate for UV-C (200-280 nm) radiation dosimetry. Indeed, the Cu+-related visible photoluminescence of the fiber shows a...

  9. Feature selectivity of the gamma-band of the local field potential in primate primary visual cortex

    Alexander S Ecker

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Extra-cellular voltage fluctuations (local field potentials; LFPs reflecting neural mass action are ubiquitous across species and brain regions. Numerous studies have characterized the properties of LFP signals in the cortex to study sensory and motor computations as well as cognitive processes like attention, perception and memory. In addition, its extracranial counterpart – the electroencelphalogram (EEG – is widely used in clinical applications. However, the link between LFP signals and the underlying activity of local populations of neurons remains largely elusive. Here, we review recent work elucidating the relationship between spiking activity of local neural populations and LFP signals. We focus on oscillations in the gamma-band (30-90Hz of the local field potential in the primary visual cortex (V1 of the macaque that dominate during visual stimulation. Given that in area V1 much is known about the properties of single neurons and the cortical architecture, it provides an excellent opportunity to study the mechanisms underlying the generation of the local field potential.

  10. Late Cenozoic exhumation and timing of the deformation front of the Kashmir Himalayas from U-Th/(He) thermochronometry

    Gavillot, Y. G.; Meigs, A.; Stockli, D. F.; Malik, M. M.

    2013-12-01

    Apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He cooling ages are used to quantify the recent exhumation pattern associated with fault activity across the Kashmir Himalayas. Here we present data from thirty samples, totaling of 74 individual single-grain apatite and zircon dated aliquots. Cooling age data were collected from (1) molasse sediments of the Murree and Siwalik Formations from structures in the Sub-Himalayan belt (deformed foreland) and from (2) metasediments and plutonic rocks exhumed in the 'hinterland'. Structures of the Sub-Himalayan belt include the Suruin-Mastgarh anticline (SMA) at the deformation front, equivalent to the Himalayan Frontal thrust (HFT), and emergent local faults to the north (e.g. the Riasi thrust (RT)). In the hinterland, the Main Boundary (MBT) and Main Central (MCT) thrust sheets bound the Sub-Himalayan belt to the north. Apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) cooling ages for the molasses sediments are consistently younger than the sediment age indicating that Sub-Himalayan belt samples are reset. Mean cooling age data based on the single grain populations from each sample ranges from ~1-10 Ma. Single grain and mean age probability density plots reveal a period of rapid cooling and exhumation between 1.8-2.75 Ma throughout the Sub-Himalaya. Distributed deformation associated with northward underthrusting along the MHT, and the onset of folding related to the SMA explains the regional exhumation of the Sub-Himalaya after ~2.75 Ma. Four samples from the hinterland MBT and MCT thrust sheets yield AHe cooling ages between ~5-21 Ma. Three of the samples have cooling ages between 4.7-7.2 Ma, likely coeval with activity of the MBT. Zircon (U-Th)/He (ZHe) samples from the hinterland are younger than the ages of the metasedimentary or plutonic source rocks. Most sample ages from the Sub-Himalaya are older or the same to the depositional age and are therefore detrital. Probability density plots of hinterland ZHe data show a pronounced spike in cooling between 16-21 Ma, with the same age cluster from the Sub-Himalayan samples, a period where MCT motion is well documented throughout the Himalaya. Cooling patterns across the Kashmir Himalayas thus suggest that distributed rather than localized break-forward deformation characterizes fault related exhumation for the Himalayan orogenic wedge development after ~20 Ma.

  11. Earthquake Risk Analysis and Science for Peace in Western/ Kashmir Himalayas - A Road Map for Transnational Subsurface Earth Imaging

    Tandon, K.

    2006-12-01

    In light of immense human tragedy caused by the Kashmir earthquake of October 8, 2005, there is a need for transnational science for the assessment of future earthquake risks and understanding continental dynamics within the Western and Kashmir Himalayas. One can approach such a test to our society through understanding what causes these earthquakes in Kashmir in the first place in a rigorous manner and also try to determine how often do they happen in Western/ Kashmir Himalayas. Geophysical measurements (passive source, active source seismology, magnetotelluric measurements, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)) are imaging techniques for earth's deeper as well as shallow structure. When such imaging techniques are used on scales of earth's crust and beyond (~30 km to 100 km) and also on near the surface (~10 to100 meters) of the earth, it helps us understand both the processes for the origin and frequency of the earthquakes. Here, I will only concentrate on a road map for planning regional reflection seismology (active source seismology) surveys within the context of National Science Foundation (NSF) led Science for Peace Initiative primarily involving USA, India, and Pakistan. The proposal here is to initiate shallow and deep active source surveys in mega-population cities in Punjab and adjoining areas in Western Himalayas on either side of the political boundaries of India and Pakistan as separate ventures for first few years but a start for future collaboration. Once the core scientific teams are formed involving Indian, Pakistani, American, and scientists from other nations too, then the Indus Kohistan Seismic Zone in the Kashmir Himalayas should be the target for detailed geophysical and geological investigations. The idea presented here was first formed for the NSF sponsored International Karakoram-Kashmir Workshop that was supposed to be held in Islamabad (Pakistan), May 2006 with around 100 invitees from 10 nations for forming joint scientific initiatives. However, due to security concerns by the Government of Pakistan, the meeting was postponed at the 11th hour. Such political constraints invariably become the most dominant factor whether such bold endeavors can even be initiated, and the first order business is to convince the policy makers and scientists from India, Pakistan, USA, and other countries at all possible forums including AGU, the need and urgency for such transnational initiatives. The broader impacts are science and earthquake risk analysis in Western/ Kashmir Himalayas, lay framework for long-term policy decisions for earthquake hazards in Himalayas, and instrument for peace initiative.

  12. Gravity anomalies, flexure, and deformation of the converging Indian lithosphere in Nepal and Sikkim-Darjeeling Himalayas

    Ansari, Md. Afroz; Khan, Prosanta K.; Tiwari, Virendra M.; Banerjee, Jayashree

    2014-09-01

    Researchers ubiquitously noted that the common processes of partitioning oblique convergence in response to drag from the trench-hanging plate simultaneously produce radial slips, along-strike translation, and extension parallel to the deformation front. Here, we focus on the area between Nepal and Sikkim-Darjeeling Himalayas, and carry out gravity and finite-element stress modeling of the strike-orthogonal converging Indian lithosphere. We delineate the geometries of different layers and their interfaces through gravity modeling. The optimum model parameters along with rheological parameters of different layers are used for finite-element modeling. Finite-element modeling is done with boundary conditions of keeping the upper surface free and rigidly fixing the section of the northern boundary below the Main Himalayan Thrust. We impart on its frontal section an amount of 6 × 1012 N/m force, equivalent to resistive force of the Himalayan-Tibet system, and analyze the maximum and minimum compressive stress fields evolved in the lithosphere. We testify our observations with earthquake database and other geophysical and geological studies. We note that an increasing flexing of the Indian lithosphere beyond the Main Boundary Thrust becomes maxima between the Main Central Thrust and South Tibetan Detachment in both the areas; however, more steepening of the Moho boundary is identified in the Sikkim-Darjeeling Himalaya. This abrupt change in lithospheric geometry beneath the Greater Himalaya is likely correlated with the sharp elevation changes in the topography. Although the highest seismicity concentration is dominant in this zone, the Lesser and the Tethys Himalayas in Sikkim-Darjeeling area also record relatively fair seismic activity. More compressive stress field in different layers right within the sharp bending zone supports this observation. We thus propose that the sharp bending zone beneath the Greater Himalaya is suffering maximum deformation, and the deformation is continued in the mantle too. We also identify both right-lateral shear and radial vergence slip, which are presumably associated with the general dynamics and kinematics of the Himalaya.

  13. Synthesis of pyrazolylbisindoles over mesoporous Lewis acidic ZrTUD-1: Potential application in selective Cu(2+) colorimetric detection.

    Kandasamy, Karthikeyan; Ganesabaskaran, Sivaprasad; Pachamuthu, Muthusamy Poomalai; Maheswari, Rajamanickam; Ramanathan, Anand

    2015-11-01

    A series of pyrazolylbisindole (PBI) derivatives were prepared by simple condensation of indole and pyrazole aldehyde utilizing amorphous mesoporous ZrTUD-1 having predominant Lewis acid sites. The applicability of pyrazolylbisindolyl derivate as a colorimetric chemosensor with high selectivity toward Cu(2+) over other cations were tested. Among heavy and transition metal (HTM) ions in CH3CN solution, the probe only sensed Cu(2+) detectable by naked eye. The sensor exhibited a new absorption band at 488 nm (a red shift of 206 nm from 282 nm) with a large colorimetric response and affinity to Cu(2+) over other cations tested (Al(3+), Pb(2+), Cd(2+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Zn(2+), K(+), Fe(2+), Ca(2+), Cu(2+) and Hg(2+)). PMID:26023054

  14. Theoretical Explanations of Increasing Childlessness – Divergent Approaches and the Integrating Potential of the Frame Selection Theory

    Dr. Jan Eckhard

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to explain the increasing childlessness in numerous European countries since the 1960s, research points to sociocultural changes on the one hand and rising costs of family formation on the other hand. Yet, there is no comprehensive theory capable of integrating both causes and their interaction. This paper discusses the possibilities of an integrative model which is based on frame selection theory. The model refers to decisions in relationships and discusses the interaction between sociocultural orientations and structural incentives. The resulting hypothesis that the effects of incentives on family formation depend on the situational compatibility of a family-framed relationship perception is subsequently empirically tested using the German family survey panel (Familiensurvey.

  15. Marker-assisted selection in maize: current status, potential, limitations and perspectives from the private and public sectors

    More than twenty-five years after the advent of DNA markers, marker-assisted selection (MAS) has become a routine component of some private maize breeding programmes. Line conversion has been one of the most productive applications of MAS in maize breeding, reducing time to market and resulting in countless numbers of commercial products. Recently, applications of MAS for forward breeding have been shown to increase significantly the rate of genetic gain when compared with conventional breeding. Costs associated with MAS are still very high. Further improvements in marker technologies, data handling and analysis, phenotyping and nursery operations are needed to realize the full benefits of MAS for private maize breeding programmes and to allow the transfer of proven approaches and protocols to public breeding programmes in developing countries. (author)

  16. Constituents of Artemisia gmelinii Weber ex Stechm. from Uttarakhand Himalaya: A source of artemisia ketone

    S Z Haider

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils isolated from the aerial parts of two different populations of Artemisia gmelinii growing in Uttarakhand Himalaya region were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS in order to determine the variation of concentration in their constituents. Artemisia ketone was detected as a major constituent in both the populations i.e., Niti valley and Jhelum samples. Niti oil was found to have considerably greater amounts of artemesia ketone (53.34% followed by α-thujone (9.91% and 1,8-cineole (6.57%, Similarly, the first major compound in Jhelum oil was artemesia ketone (40.87%, whereas ar-curcumene (8.54% was identified as a second major compound followed by α-thujone (4.04%. Artemisia ketone can be useful for perfumery and fragrance to introduce new and interesting herbaceous notes.

  17. Repeated catastrophic valley infill following medieval earthquakes in the Nepal Himalaya

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Bernhardt, Anne; Stolle, Amelie; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Adhikari, Basanta R.; Andermann, Christoff; Tofelde, Stefanie; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Geomorphic footprints of past large Himalayan earthquakes are elusive, although they are urgently needed for gauging and predicting recovery times of seismically perturbed mountain landscapes. We present evidence of catastrophic valley infill following at least three medieval earthquakes in the Nepal Himalaya. Radiocarbon dates from peat beds, plant macrofossils, and humic silts in fine-grained tributary sediments near Pokhara, Nepal’s second-largest city, match the timing of nearby M > 8 earthquakes in ~1100, 1255, and 1344 C.E. The upstream dip of tributary valley fills and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry of their provenance rule out local sources. Instead, geomorphic and sedimentary evidence is consistent with catastrophic fluvial aggradation and debris flows that had plugged several tributaries with tens of meters of calcareous sediment from a Higher Himalayan source >60 kilometers away.

  18. Relative importance of fluvial and glacial erosion in shaping the Chandra Valley, western Himalaya, India

    Eugster, P.; Scherler, D.; Thiede, R. C.; Codilean, A.; Strecker, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    In deeply incised, high-elevation orogens, such as the Himalaya, it is challenging to quantify the contribution of glaciers to long-term erosion and exhumation due to vigorous fluvial erosion and mass wasting. This is especially true for the humid sectors of the orogen. In the Himalaya, the majority of studies has been conducted in internal arid sectors of the orogen, where present-day ice coverage is low and glacial landforms and deposits are well preserved. The Chandra Valley of the greater Lahul area (NW-Himalaya), situated between the southern front of the range (bulk precipitation during summer) and the more arid Trans-Himalaya to the north (most precipitation during winter) is sensitive to fluctuations of the Indian Summer Monsoon and the Westerlies. In this region we intend to determine spatial and temporal variations in valley incision through fluvial and glacial erosion on different timescales by combining information obtained from cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN) dating of glacially-carved and striated surfaces, low-temperature thermochronometers, field mapping and morphometric analysis. A prominent feature in the upper Chandra Valley, also the headwater region of the Chenab River, is a large knickpoint in the present-day channel profile of the Chandra/Chenab River at an elevation of ~3900 m asl. This knickpoint spatially coincides with (1) a pronounced change in AFT ages along the course of the valley; (2) the joining of a tributary where one of the largest glaciers in the entire area is found; (3) a significant lithological break; and (4) a steep climatic gradient that accompanies the northward turn of the valley. Further knickpoints were found in tributary valleys of the Chandra Valley at approximately the same elevation of ~3900 m asl. Our field observations and preliminary CRN data suggest extensive glacial coverage of the upper Chandra Valley. Based on field evidence the minimum ice thicknesses for the main trunk glacier in the Chandra Valley must have been at least 700 m above the present-day valley bottom until ~15 ka. Our data confirm previous glacial chronological work in this area that also proposed that deglaciation of the Chandra Valley must have been rapid and accomplished within 15 ka, but additionally shows that the late glacial ice cover in the upper Chandra was more extensive than previously thought and also reached the Spiti Valley. Combining all preliminary results and observations, we hypothesize that glacial carving has been the first-order erosional agent during the Quaternary of all regions in Lahul above an elevation of 4100 m asl. Apatite fission-track ages suggest slower erosional exhumation in the more arid upper Chandra Valley. In this context a former blocking of the valley by the Bara Shigri glacier is possible and glacial processes may have outpaced fluvial erosion in the upper part of the Chandra Valley.

  19. Seasonal succession of crustacean zooplankton in Wular Lake of the Kashmir Himalaya

    Shah Javaid Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken on Wular Lake, a Ramsar Site in Kashmir Himalaya, to study the seasonal succession of crustacean zooplankton from September 2010 to August 2011. A total of 42 crustacean taxa belonging to Cladocera (23, Copepoda (16 and Ostracoda (3 were identified at five different sampling sites. Among the crustaceans, Cladocera was numerically the most dominant group at sites III, IV and V, followed by Copepoda at sites I and II. On an average basis total crustacean density ranged from 416 ind./l in winter to 1567.6 ind./l in summer. On the basis of Sorensens similarity index, study sites IV and V showed close similarity (88.13%.

  20. Meiotic studies in some species of tribe Cichorieae (Asteraceae) from Western Himalayas.

    Gupta, Raghbir Chand; Goyal, Henna; Singh, Vijay; Goel, Rajesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The present paper deals with meiotic studies in 15 species belonging to 6 genera of the tribe Cichorieae from various localities of Western Himalayas. The chromosome number has been reported for the first time in Hieracium crocatum (2n = 10) and Lactuca lessertiana (2n = 2x = 16). Further, intraspecific variability has been reported for the first time in H. umbellatum (2n = 2x = 10 and 2n = 6x = 54), Tragopogon dubius (2n = 2x = 14 and 2n = 4x = 28), and T. gracilis (2n = 2x = 14). The chromosome report of 2n = 2x = 10 in Youngia tenuifolia is made for the first time in India. Maximum numbers of the populations show laggards, chromosome stickiness, and cytomixis from early prophase to telophase-II, leading to the formation of aneuploid cells or meiocytes with double chromosome number. Such meiotic abnormalities produce unreduced pollen grains and the reduced pollen viability. PMID:25489603

  1. Similarities and differences of aerosol optical properties between southern and northern slopes of the Himalayas

    C. Xu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Himalayas is located at the southern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, and it acts as a natural barrier for the transport of atmospheric aerosols, e.g. from the polluted regions of South Asia to the main body of the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we investigate the seasonal and diurnal variations of aerosol optical properties measured at the three Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET sites over the southern (Pokhara station and EVK2-CNR station in Nepal and northern (Qomolangma (Mt. Everest station for Atmospheric and Environmental Observation and Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (QOMS_CAS in Tibet, China slopes of the Himalayas. While observations at QOMS_CAS and EVK2-CNR can generally be representative of a remote background atmosphere, Pokhara is an urban site with much higher aerosol load due to the influence of local anthropogenic activities. The annual mean of aerosol optical depth (AOD during the investigated period was 0.06 at QOMS_CAS, 0.04 at EVK2-CNR and 0.51 at Pokhara, respectively. Seasonal variations of aerosols are profoundly affected by large scale atmospheric circulation. Vegetation fires, peaking during April in the Himalayan region and northern India, contribute to a growing fine mode AOD at 500 nm at the three stations. Dust transported to these sites results in an increase of coarse mode AOD during the monsoon season at the three sites. Meanwhile, coarse mode AOD at EVK2-CNR is higher than QOMS_CAS from July to September, indicating the Himalayas blocks the coarse particles carried by the southwest winds. The precipitation scavenging effect is obvious at Pokhara, which can significantly reduce the aerosol load during the monsoon season. Unlike the seasonal variations, diurnal variations are mainly influenced by meso-scale systems and local topography. In general, precipitation can lead to a decrease of the aerosol load and the average particle size at each station. AOD changes in a short time with the emission rate near the emission source at Pokhara, while does not at the other two stations in remote regions. AOD increases during daytime due to the valley winds at EVK2-CNR, while this diurnal variation of AOD is absent at the other two stations. The surface heating influences the local convection, which further controls the vertical aerosol exchange and the diffusion rate of pollutions to the surrounding areas. The Himalayas blocks most of the coarse particles across the mountains. Fine and coarse mode particles are mixed to make atmospheric composition more complex on the southern slope in spring, which leads to the greater inter-annual difference in diurnal cycles of ngstrm exponent (AE at EVK2-CNR than that at QOMS_CAS.

  2. Variations of the crustal thickness in Nepal Himalayas based on tomographic inversion of regional earthquake data

    I. Koulakov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We estimate variations of the crustal thickness beneath the Nepal Himalayas based on tomographic inversion of regional earthquake data. We have obtained a low-velocity anomaly in the upper part of the model down to depths of 40 to 80 km and proposed that the lower limit of this anomaly represents variations of the Moho depth. This statement was supported by results of synthetic modeling. The obtained variations of crustal thickness match fairly well with the free-air gravity anomalies: thinner crust patterns correspond to lower gravity values and vice versa. There is also some correlation with magnetic field: higher magnetic values correspond to the major areas of thicker crust. We propose that elevated magnetic values can be associated with more rigid segments of the incoming Indian crust which cause more compression in the thrust zone and leads to stronger crustal thickening.

  3. The hydrology of three high-altitude forests in Central Himalaya, India: a reconnaissance study

    Negi, G. C. S.; Rikhari, H. C.; Garkoti, S. C.

    1998-02-01

    In this preliminary study the partitioning of rain-water into various components of the hydrological cycle in three high-altitude forests of contrasting tree physiognomies (namely, Aesculus indica, Quercus semecarpifolia and Abies pindrow) were studied in the Nandadevi Biosphere Reserve, Central Himalaya, India. The results are compared with the hydrological characteristics of low-altitude forests of this region. The study has indicated a significant role of tree physiognomy with regard to rainfall partitioning into the various components of the hydrological cycle. It is suggested that A. pindrow (an evergreen tree) should be considered superior to A. indica (a deciduous tree) with regard to soil and water conservation in this region. This work is of relevance to land management programmes pertaining to afforestation, logging and regeneration.

  4. Radon variations in an active landslide zone from Himalaya: A preliminary study

    The radon concentration was measured in soil and water samples from an active landslide zone in the Garhwal Himalaya. The landslide is compound in nature i.e. slump in the crown portion and debris slide in the lower part. The measured radon concentration varies from 3.1 to 18.3 Bq/l in water whereas in soil/debris samples it varies from 2.3 to 12.2 kBq/m3. The crown portion (upper portion) show higher radon values in comparison to distal portion. The higher radon concentration in crown portion may be because of the failure plane of landslide associated with high fracturing and crushing whereas, increased porosity of debris of slide does not allow radon to accumulate in soil and water in the lower portion. (author)

  5. Repeated catastrophic valley infill following medieval earthquakes in the Nepal Himalaya.

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Bernhardt, Anne; Stolle, Amelie; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Adhikari, Basanta R; Andermann, Christoff; Tofelde, Stefanie; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Geomorphic footprints of past large Himalayan earthquakes are elusive, although they are urgently needed for gauging and predicting recovery times of seismically perturbed mountain landscapes. We present evidence of catastrophic valley infill following at least three medieval earthquakes in the Nepal Himalaya. Radiocarbon dates from peat beds, plant macrofossils, and humic silts in fine-grained tributary sediments near Pokhara, Nepal's second-largest city, match the timing of nearby M > 8 earthquakes in ~1100, 1255, and 1344 C.E. The upstream dip of tributary valley fills and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry of their provenance rule out local sources. Instead, geomorphic and sedimentary evidence is consistent with catastrophic fluvial aggradation and debris flows that had plugged several tributaries with tens of meters of calcareous sediment from a Higher Himalayan source >60 kilometers away. PMID:26676354

  6. Pictorial keys for predominant Bactrocera and Dacus fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae of north western Himalaya

    C. S. Prabhakar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A pictorial key for 13 species of fruit flies under 2 genera namely Bactrocera and Dacus of subfamily Dacinae (Diptera: Tephritidae is presented in this paper based on actual photographs of fruit flies collected from north western Himalaya of India during 2009-2010. Among these, Bactrocera diversa (Coquillett, Bactrocera scutellaris (Bezzi, Bactrocera tau (Walker, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders, Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel, Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel and Dacus ciliatus Loew are the pests of agricultural and horticultural ecosystems. Bactrocera latifrons, Bactrocera nigrofemoralis White and Tsuruta, Dacus longicornis Wiedemann and Dacus sphaeroidalis (Bezzi are the new records from the region of which host range has yet to be investigated. The pictorial keysdeveloped for these species will help the researchers for their easy and accurate identification.

  7. Seismicity of Doon Valley, North West Himalaya, India: A Fractal Approach

    Dimri, V. P.; Prakash, M. Ravi; Chamoli, A.

    2009-04-01

    Doon valley experienced severe tremors of Kangra earthquake (1905), the Uttarkashi earthquake (1991) and Chamoli earthquake (1999). The area falls in a tectonically active zone of the western sub-Himalaya with a complex geotectonic set up. In the present study, fractal analysis is carried out to understand the seismicity of the region using spatial distribution of earthquakes of the region and LANDSAT imageries of active lineament and drainage pattern of the area. The fractal dimension values for the lineament and drainage systems of the area are estimated as 1.63 and 1.82 respectively, which are close to the fractal Dimension (D2=1.73) of the epicentral distribution of earthquakes of the area. The analysis is described in terms of seismicity (b=1.19) for a tectonically active region.

  8. Radon anomalies and their correlation with microseismicity in N-W Himalaya

    Evidence for radon anomalies in soil-gas and groundwater as earthquake precursor phenomenon is recorded in Kangra and Chamba valleys of Himachal Pradesh, India based on micro-seismicity trends in N-W Himalaya. Radon monitoring is being carried out at Palampur, Jawalamukhi, Dalhousie and Chamba stations using emanometry for discrete measurements and alpha-logger technique for continuous recording of time-series radon data from June 1996 to September 1997. Radon anomalies in both type of data are correlated with some of the micro-earthquakes recorded during the time-window by the seismographic network of Indian Meteorological Department (IMD). A critical analysis is made of radon data to find confidence level and sensitivity of each recording station

  9. Evidence of Right Lateral Strike-slip Active Fault in Kangra Valley, NW Himalaya, India

    Malik, J. N.; Sahoo, S.; Okumura, K.; Mohanty, A.; Naik, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    Kangra valley located in Himachal Pradesh, NW Himalaya falls under meizoseismal zone of 1905 Kangra earthquake (Mw=7.8). Till date no surface rupture has been reported, however few studies suggest that probable rupture along Jawalamukhi Thrust (JMT) located at south of Kangra valley. In present study we report newly identified right lateral strike-slip active fault trace striking WNW-ESE, named as 'Kangra Valley Fault'. The fault has displaced young alluvial fan surface and fluvial terrace in Kangra Valley. High resolution CARTOSAT - 1 data and CORONA photo interpretation revealed prominent offset of streams, alluvial fan surfaces and fluvial terraces. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey and trenches excavated across 1 m high fault scarp also revealed occurrence of paleo-earthquake during recent historic period. We have been able to trace this fault for a distance of ~40 km. Further result will play a vital role towards seismic hazard evaluation of this area.

  10. Rb-Sr geochronology of the rocks of the Himalayas, Eastern Nepal, (2)

    Rb-Sr isotopic measurements are made on the Makalu granite, which is one of leucocratic granite occurring sporadically in the high range of the Himalayas. The granite is intruded between the Himalayan gneiss and the Tethyan sediments. In this study, Rb-Sr analyses have been made on both whole rock and small sliced rock. The Rb-Sr isotopic analytical results on whole rock of the Makalu granite define the age of 92.7 +- 9.4 m.y. The analytical results on small slabs suggest that Sr isotopic redistribution occurred after the intrusion of the granite. The initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio of the Makalu granite is 0.7433 +- 0.0019 and is remarkably high. Such high ratio indicates that the