WorldWideScience

Sample records for himalayas selection potential

  1. Identification and bioactive potential of endophytic fungi isolated from selected plants of the Western Himalayas

    OpenAIRE

    Qadri, Masroor; Johri, Sarojini; Bhahwal A. Shah; Khajuria, Anamika; Sidiq, Tabasum; Lattoo, Surrinder K; Abdin, Malik Z.; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to characterize and explore the endophytic fungi of selected plants from the Western Himalayas for their bioactive potential. A total of 72 strains of endophytic fungi were isolated and characterized morphologically as well as on the basis of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 ribosomal gene sequence acquisition and analyses. The fungi represented 27 genera of which two belonged to Basidiomycota, each representing a single isolate, while the rest of the isolates comprised of Ascomycetous...

  2. Identification and bioactive potential of endophytic fungi isolated from selected plants of the Western Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadri, Masroor; Johri, Sarojini; Shah, Bhahwal A; Khajuria, Anamika; Sidiq, Tabasum; Lattoo, Surrinder K; Abdin, Malik Z; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted to characterize and explore the endophytic fungi of selected plants from the Western Himalayas for their bioactive potential. A total of 72 strains of endophytic fungi were isolated and characterized morphologically as well as on the basis of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 ribosomal gene sequence acquisition and analyses. The fungi represented 27 genera of which two belonged to Basidiomycota, each representing a single isolate, while the rest of the isolates comprised of Ascomycetous fungi. Among the isolated strains, ten isolates could not be assigned to a genus as they displayed a maximum sequence similarity of 95% or less with taxonomically characterized organisms. Among the host plants, the conifers, Cedrus deodara, Pinus roxburgii and Abies pindrow harbored the most diverse fungi, belonging to 13 different genera, which represented almost half of the total genera isolated. Several extracts prepared from the fermented broth of these fungi demonstrated strong bioactivity against E. coli and S. aureus with the lowest IC(50) of 18??g/ml obtained with the extract of Trichophaea abundans inhabiting Pinus sp. In comparison, extracts from only three endophytes were significantly inhibitory to Candida albicans, an important fungal pathogen. Further, 24 endophytes inhibited three or more phytopathogens by at least 50% in co-culture, among a panel of seven test organisms. Extracts from 17 fungi possessed immuno-modulatory activities with five of them showing significant immune suppression as demonstrated by the in vitro lymphocyte proliferation assay. This study is an important step towards tapping the endophytic fungal diversity from the Western Himalayas and assessing their bioactive potential. Further studies on the selected endophytes may lead to the isolation of novel natural products for use in medicine, industry and agriculture. PMID:23420270

  3. Permafrost in the Himalayas: specific characteristics, evolution vs. climate change and impacts on potential natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Monique

    2015-04-01

    Mountain environments are very sensitive to climate change, yet assessing the potential impacts of these changes is not easy because of the complexity and diversity of mountain systems. The Himalayan permafrost belt presents three main specificities: (1) it develops in a geodynamically active mountain, which means that the controlling factors are not only temperature but also seismo-tectonic activity; (2) due to the steepness of the southern flank of the Greater Himalaya and potential large scale rock failures, permafrost evidence manifests itself best in the inner valleys and on the northern, arid side of the Himalayas (elevations >4000m); (3) the east-west strike of the mountain range creates large spatial discontinuity in the "cold" belt, mostly related to precipitation nature and availability. Only limited studies have been carried to date, and there is no permanent "field laboratory", nor continuous records but a few local studies. Based on preliminary observations in the Nepal Himalayas (mostly in Mustang and Dolpo districts), and Indian Ladakh, we present the main features indicating the existence of permafrost (either continuous or discontinuous). Rock-glaciers are quite well represented, though their presence may be interpreted as a combined result from both ground ice and large rock collapse. The precise altitudinal zonation of permafrost belt (specifying potential permafrost, probable permafrost, observed permafrost belts) still requires careful investigations in selected areas. Several questions arise when considering the evolution of permafrost in a context of climate change, with its impacts on the development of potential natural hazards that may affect the mountain population. Firstly, permafrost degradation (ground ice melting) is a cause of mountain slope destabilization. When the steep catchments are developed in frost/water sensitive bedrock (shales and marls) and extend to high elevations (as observed in Mustang or Dolpo), it would supply more mass-wasting and debris-flow events and may directly threat the infrastructures recently built to unlock these remote areas. Secondly, acceleration of permafrost degradation might also affect the steepest rock walls (as in Khumbu, Manang and Mustang Himals) and cause rock avalanches that could impact nearby settlements, as suggested by relicts of past events. Lastly, ground ice is a hidden source of water in areas without permanent glacial ice. In a context of global warming this non-renewable resource would be depleted and no longer available for the population living in these areas, all the more as growing tourism activities are increasing the demand for water consumption that may conflicts with irrigated agricultural uses down valley. More in-situ observations and long-term monitoring studies should certainly be useful to understand climate trends hence permafrost evolution and their consequences in order to help mountain populations of the cold, arid Himalayas to adjust to progressive changes in their environmental conditions and resources.

  4. Carbon Stock Potential of Oak and Pine Forests in Garhwal Region in Indian Central Himalayas

    OpenAIRE

    Nanda Nautiyal; Vir Singh

    2013-01-01

    Oak (Quercus leucotichophora) and pine (Pinus roxburghii) are the two most dominant forest types occurring in Indian Central Himalayas. CO2 mitigation potential of these two forest types was observed in the present study. Carbon stock densities for AGTB, BB, LHG, DWS, AGSB and SOC were estimated and higher values were recorded in oak forest stands. Total carbon density estimated was 2420.54 Mg/ha for oak forest of Gopeshwar and 986.93 Mg/ha for pine forest of Nandprayag. CO2 mitigation potent...

  5. Carbon Stock Potential of Oak and Pine Forests in Garhwal Region in Indian Central Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanda Nautiyal

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Oak (Quercus leucotichophora and pine (Pinus roxburghii are the two most dominant forest types occurring in Indian Central Himalayas. CO2 mitigation potential of these two forest types was observed in the present study. Carbon stock densities for AGTB, BB, LHG, DWS, AGSB and SOC were estimated and higher values were recorded in oak forest stands. Total carbon density estimated was 2420.54 Mg/ha for oak forest of Gopeshwar and 986.93 Mg/ha for pine forest of Nandprayag. CO2 mitigation potential of oak forest of Gopeshwar was recorded to be 8,713.94 CO2e and of pine forests 3552.95 CO2e.

  6. Selection of suitable lichen bioindicator species for monitoring climatic variability in the Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Rajesh; Shukla, Vertika; Upreti, D K; Semwal, Manoj

    2014-10-01

    Interspecific comparison in metals and PAHs profile in three lichen species, Flavoparmelia caperata, Phaeophyscia hispidula and Pyxine sorediata, were studied in different altitudinal gradients of the Western Himalayas. The species collected from 14 sites, enroute from Dehradun to Morinda (243 Km) including the trekking route 42 Km from Taluka to Morinda having an altitudinal gradient between 850-3,750 m, were analysed for their metals and PAHs. The species showed similar metal as well as PAHs profile under similar altitudinal gradients in the sequence of F. caperata > P. hispidula > P. sorediata. The difference in pollutant concentrations within each lichen species may be related to intrinsic attributes of the species, such as thallus morphology and the presence of lichen substances which are responsible for the sensitivity and accumulation potential of a particular species. Novelty of the present study lies on the fact that all the species show a similar efficiency of reflecting the environmental condition of the area, albeit the coefficient values of individual species for individual pollutant obtained by three-factor ANOVA revealed that the bioaccumulation affinity of F. caperata is significantly higher than P. hispidula and P. sorediata. For individual metals, F. caperata has a higher affinity for Al, Cr, Fe, Pb and Zn while P. hispidula has a significant positive affinity for Fe and Pb. PCA analysis of sites with respect to pollutant revealed the segregation of sites based on source and distance. Combining the bioaccumulation potential parameters along with geostatistical (GIS) techniques establishes that F. caperata species is a better accumulator of metals and PAHs in comparison to P. hispidula and P. sorediata in the temperate regions of the Himalaya. PMID:24888615

  7. Impact of climate change on potential distribution of Chinese caterpillar fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) in Nepal Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Uttam Babu; Bawa, Kamaljit S

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has already impacted ecosystems and species and substantial impacts of climate change in the future are expected. Species distribution modeling is widely used to map the current potential distribution of species as well as to model the impact of future climate change on distribution of species. Mapping current distribution is useful for conservation planning and understanding the change in distribution impacted by climate change is important for mitigation of future biodiversity losses. However, the current distribution of Chinese caterpillar fungus, a flagship species of the Himalaya with very high economic value, is unknown. Nor do we know the potential changes in suitable habitat of Chinese caterpillar fungus caused by future climate change. We used MaxEnt modeling to predict current distribution and changes in the future distributions of Chinese caterpillar fungus in three future climate change trajectories based on representative concentration pathways (RCPs: RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, and RCP 6.0) in three different time periods (2030, 2050, and 2070) using species occurrence points, bioclimatic variables, and altitude. About 6.02% (8,989 km2) area of the Nepal Himalaya is suitable for Chinese caterpillar fungus habitat. Our model showed that across all future climate change trajectories over three different time periods, the area of predicted suitable habitat of Chinese caterpillar fungus would expand, with 0.11-4.87% expansion over current suitable habitat. Depending upon the representative concentration pathways, we observed both increase and decrease in average elevation of the suitable habitat range of the species. PMID:25180515

  8. In vitro antibacterial activity of selected medicinal plants from lower Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulqarnain; Rahim, Abdur; Ahmad, Khalid; Ullah, Faizan; Ullah, Hamid; Nishan, Umar

    2015-03-01

    The present studies cover antibacterial activity of the crude methanolic extracts of 11 medicinal plants viz. Adhatoda vasica, Bauhenia variegate, Bombax ceiba, Carrisa opaca, Caryopteris grata, Debregeasia salicifolia, Lantana camara, Melia azedarach, Phyllanthus emblica, Pinus roxburghii and Olea ferruginea collected from lower Himalayas against two Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus) and two Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aureginosa) bacterial strains. The extracts were applied at four different concentrations (120 mg/mL, 90mg/mL, 60mg/mL and 30mg/mL) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) by using agar well diffusion method. Antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus were observed formethanolic extracts of all the above mentioned plants. Greater antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa was only exhibited by Phyllanthus emblica, Pinus roxburghii, Debregeasia salicifolia and Lantana camara. Escherichia coli was highly resistant to all the plant extracts at all concentrations. It is inferred that methanolic crude extracts of the above mentioned plantsexhibitantibacterial activities against pathogenic bacteria, which proved the ethnobotanical importance of the selected plants that indigenous people use for cure against various diseases. PMID:25730791

  9. Forage selection by Royle's pika (Ochotona roylei) in the western Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sabuj; Adhikari, Bhupendra S; Rawat, Gopal S

    2013-10-01

    Forage selection decisions of herbivores are often complex and dynamic; they are modulated by multiple cues, such as quality, accessibility and abundance of forage plants. To advance the understanding of plant-herbivore interactions, we explored foraging behavior of the alpine lagomorph Royle's pika (Ochotona roylei) in Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary, India. Pika bite counts on food plants were recorded through focal sampling in three permanently marked plots. Food plant abundance was recorded by traditional quadrat procedures; forage selection was estimated with Jacob's selection index. Multiple food-choice experiments were conducted to determine whether forage selection criteria would change with variation in food plant composition. We also analyzed leaf morphology and nutrient content in both major food plants and abundantly available non-food plants. Linear regression models were used to test competing hypotheses in order to identify factors governing forage selection. Royle's pika fed primarily on 17 plant species and each forage selection decision was positively modulated by leaf area and negatively modulated by contents of avoided substances (neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, acid detergent lignin and tannin) in food plants. Furthermore, significance of the interaction term "leaf size × avoided substance" indicates that plants with large leaves were selected only when they had low avoided substance content. The forage selection criteria did not differ between field and laboratory experiments. The parameter estimates of best fit models indicate that the influence of leaf size or amount of avoided substance on pika forage selection was modulated by the magnitude of predation risk. PMID:23932023

  10. Birth of the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    NOVA online

    A Shockwave-based slideshow featuring text and animations explaining the past development of the Himalayas, and how the Himalayas will develop in years to come. A simple, but information-rich visualization of orogeny.

  11. Impact of Climate Change on Potential Distribution of Chinese Caterpillar Fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) in Nepal Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Uttam Babu; Bawa, Kamaljit S.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has already impacted ecosystems and species and substantial impacts of climate change in the future are expected. Species distribution modeling is widely used to map the current potential distribution of species as well as to model the impact of future climate change on distribution of species. Mapping current distribution is useful for conservation planning and understanding the change in distribution impacted by climate change is important for mitigation of future biodiversit...

  12. Exotic Lolium perenne Varieties: Their Forage Value and Soil Cover Potential in Himalayas Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Ahmad

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Rawalakot lies under humid temperate region at the height of 5500 ft from the sea level. The area is hilly and soils are prone to heavy erosion due to the loss of vegetative cover. Winter frost and snow often kills the local forages and thus depriving the livestock from green herbage altogether. Seven varieties of Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass from European and American germplasm were evaluated for their forage value and soil cover potential under Rawalakot conditions. All varieties compared were diploid (2n = 14. The comparison was based on plant height, fresh and dry matter yield, number of cuttings/ year and tillers plant-1. The variety VA88002 was found to be the best one in plant height and dry and fresh herbage yield followed by SERVO and APUS. When tiller number was compared, the variety APUS was found to be at the top followed by VA88001 and others. All varieties were of spreading nature with increasing persistence in following years and found to be suitable for cutting, grazing and soil conservation

  13. The Himalayas revisited

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Mukhopadhyay, R.

    2000-01-01

    that those conducive conditions must exist for metallogenesis in the Himalayas. D. Kumar reviewed the occurrence of a variety of minerals in the Himalayan region ? atomic (U, Rb, Zr, Th), metall ic (Fe, Co, Cr), non - metallic (clay, kaolin...

  14. Methanogens at the top of the world: occurrence and potential activity of methanogens in newly deglaciated soils in high-altitude cold deserts in the Western Himalayas

    OpenAIRE

    RoeyAngel; Klára?eháková; Kate?inaJanatková

    2013-01-01

    Methanogens typically occur in reduced anoxic environments. However, in recent studies it has been shown that many aerated upland soils, including desert soils also host active methanogens. Here we show that soil samples from high–altitude cold deserts in the western Himalayas (Ladakh, India) produce CH4 after incubation as slurry under anoxic conditions at rates comparable to those of hot desert soils. Samples of matured soil from three different vegetation belts (arid, steppe, and subnival)...

  15. Electrode potential and selective ionic adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple description of the electrode potential based on the selective ionic adsorption is proposed. It is shown that if the adsorption-desorption coefficients entering in the Langmuir kinetic equation for the adsorption at the limiting surfaces are not identical, a difference of potential between the electrode and the bulk of the solution exists. In the case where the thickness of the sample is large with respect to the length of Debye, this difference of potential depends only on the adsorption-desorption coefficients and on the length of Debye of the ionic solution.

  16. Inheritance of earthquake hazard from suturing: the Himalayas as an analogue for the structural architecture and seismic potential of the Greater Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, C.; Cowgill, E.; Forte, A. M.; Mumladze, T.; Sokhadze, G.; Elashvili, M.; Niemi, N. A.

    2013-12-01

    The nascent collision between the Arabian and Eurasian continents has created the second-largest active collisional orogen on Earth and provides a rare opportunity to investigate how structures formed during initial suturing influence and even control the subsequent first-order structural architecture of the evolving orogen. Between the Caspian and Black Seas, the Greater Caucasus Mountains form both the northern margin of the Arabia-Eurasia collision and the main locus of orogen-perpendicular shortening, despite being located some 700 km north of the Bitlis suture. A better understanding of active structures in the range is critical for understanding the mechanics and evolution of this collisional orogen. Developing such a structural model of the Greater Caucasus is also essential for assessing earthquake hazards. Here we begin to address these problems by using geologic maps, digital topographic data, and structural measurements to create preliminary geologic cross sections across the southern flank of the central and western Greater Caucasus. These sections span both a low-elevation foreland fold-thrust belt in the south and the main topographic front of the range ~15-40 km to the north. In addition, we investigate active deformation using topographic surveys of river terraces in the foreland south of the western Greater Caucasus range front near the city of Zugdidi. Based on these observations, we suggest that the neotectonic architecture of the range is broadly analogous to that of the Himalayas, where active deformation is not focused along a range-front-defining fault but instead is localized tens of kilometers to the south, along the south edge of a low-elevation, low-relief foreland fold-thrust belt. We infer that active faults within the fold-thrust belt sole into a shallow (~5-10 km deep), north-dipping basal decollement that roots into a crustal-scale ramp which lies beneath the main topography of the Greater Caucasus. Based on prior work on the regional geology of the range, we hypothesize that this geometry results from the Cenozoic closure of a relict Mesozoic ocean basin within the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone, broadly similar to the eastern Black Sea and South Caspian Basins to which it was connected. A new compilation of earthquake records from local seismic networks shows that the central and eastern Greater Caucasus Mountains are underlain by a northeast-dipping subducted slab, likely resulting from closure of this relict back-arc basin. Himalayan-style tectonism along the northern edge of the Arabia-Eurasia collision could potentially dictate the location, magnitude, and recurrence of seismicity in the Caucasus region, and as such has significant potential for seismic hazard assessment here. Rather than solely occurring on the main thrust within the range, this model suggests that significant earthquakes may occur within the fold-thrust belt and on a basal decollement that connects them to structures within the main range. Much of the region's population, including the Georgian capital city of Tbilisi, is found within or near the foreland fold-thrust belt.

  17. Height of the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barb Tewksbury

    Question Let's think about the highest peak in the world, Mt. Everest. If we stand in India on the Ganges Plain at the foothills of the Himalayas, we are standing at about 180 m (590') above sea level. It's only 195 km (121 miles) map distance from where we're standing to the summit of Everest at over 8,848 m (29,028') above sea level. If we were to stretch a nice straight wire for a cable car from the Ganges Plain to the summit of Everest, at what angle would the cable rise? Choose from 3Â, 5Â, 10Â, 20Â, or 30Â.

  18. An approach for estimating the breach probabilities of moraine-dammed lakes in the Chinese Himalayas using remote-sensing data

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, X; Liu, S; Ding, Y.; Guo, W; Jiang, Z; LIN, J; Han, Y (Yi)

    2012-01-01

    To make first-order estimates of the probability of moraine-dammed lake outburst flood (MDLOF) and prioritize the probabilities of breaching posed by potentially dangerous moraine-dammed lakes (PDMDLs) in the Chinese Himalayas, an objective approach is presented. We first select five indicators to identify PDMDLs according to four predesigned criteria. The climatic background was regarded as the climatic precondition of the moraine-dam failure, and under different climatic preconditions, we d...

  19. Copycats of the Central Himalayas

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, P.A.

    2009-01-01

    This case study highlights practices of a rarely documented group of neo-users of the Internet or newbies from Central Himalayas, serving as a catalyst for delving deeply into the act of ‘plagiarism’ in online learning By looking at such ‘learning’ practices away from schools, namely at cybercafés in Almora, a ‘rur-town’ in the Himalayas, much is revealed of its educational system and learning in the broadest sense. There is an urgent need in educational environments to move be...

  20. Metabolic Characterization of cold active Pseudomonas, Arthrobacter, Bacillus, and Flavobacterium spp. from Western Himalayas

    OpenAIRE

    Gangwar, Pooja; Alam, Syed Imteyaz; Singh, Lokendra

    2011-01-01

    Himalayan soils undergo dramatic temporal changes in their microclimatic properties. The soil habitats in the high altitude cold habitats of Himalayas are little explored with respect to bacterial diversity and metabolic potentials of the bacterial species. Soil habitat in Western Himalayas is dominated by the genera of Pseudomonas, Arthrobacter, Bacillus, and Flavobacterium. Strains were found to be diverse in their metabolic potentials to utilize different carbon sources by growing them on ...

  1. Methanogens at the top of the world: occurrence and potential activity of methanogens in newly deglaciated soils in high-altitude cold deserts in the Western Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RoeyAngel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Methanogens typically occur in reduced anoxic environments. However, in recent studies it has been shown that many aerated upland soils, including desert soils also host active methanogens. Here we show that soil samples from high–altitude cold deserts in the western Himalayas (Ladakh, India produce CH4 after incubation as slurry under anoxic conditions at rates comparable to those of hot desert soils. Samples of matured soil from three different vegetation belts (arid, steppe, and subnival were compared with younger soils originating from frontal and lateral moraines of receding glaciers. While methanogenic rates were higher in the samples from matured soils, CH4 was also produced in the samples from the recently deglaciated moraines. In both young and matured soils, those covered by a biological soil crust (biocrust were more active than their bare counterparts. Isotopic analysis showed that in both cases CH4 was initially produced from H2/CO2 but later mostly from acetate. Analysis of the archaeal community in the in situ soil samples revealed a clear dominance of sequences related to Thaumarchaeota, while the methanogenic community comprised only a minor fraction of the archaeal community. Similar to other aerated soils, the methanogenic community was comprised almost solely of the genera Methanosarcina and Methanocella, and possibly also Methanobacterium in some cases. Nevertheless, approximately 103 gdw-1 soil methanogens were already present in the young moraine soil together with cyanobacteria. Our results demonstrate that Methanosarcina and Methanocella not only tolerate atmospheric oxygen but are also able to survive in these harsh cold environments. Their occurrence in newly deglaciated soils shows that they are early colonisers of desert soils, similar to cyanobacteria, and may play a role in the development of desert biocrusts.

  2. The Himalayas: Two continents collide

    Science.gov (United States)

    USGS

    This article from the USGS publication This Dynamic Earth explains the India-Eurasian collision, featuring a helpful map that charts India's movement from 71 Ma until today. The article explains the rate of motion of India, the rate of growth of the Himalayas, and how scientists have been able to study this historic tectonic motion.

  3. High frequency new particle formation in the Himalayas

    OpenAIRE

    Venzac, Hervé; Sellegri, Karine; Laj, Paolo; Villani, Paolo; Bonasoni, Paolo; Marinoni, Angela; Cristofanelli, Paolo; Calzolari, Francescopiero; Fuzzi, Sandro; Decesari, Stefano; Facchini, Maria-Cristina; Vuillermoz, Elisa; Verza, Gian Pietro

    2008-01-01

    Rising air pollution levels in South Asia will have worldwide environmental consequences. Transport of pollutants from the densely populated regions of India, Pakistan, China, and Nepal to the Himalayas may lead to substantial radiative forcing in South Asia with potential effects on the monsoon circulation and, hence, on regional climate and hydrological cycles, as well as to dramatic impacts on glacier retreat. An improved description of particulate sources is needed to constrain the simula...

  4. Radiometric geochronology of the Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiometric age data obtained by different dating methods have been interpreted in terms of possible orogenic activities prevailing in the Himalaya. In general, the age data confirm four main events, the Precambrian, the Late Precambrian-Cambrian Assyntian (Caledonian), the Late Palaeozoic-Hercynian and the Late Cretaceous-Tertiary Himalayan orogeny. The mineral dates are particularly significant in delineating different phases of the last i.e. the Himalayan orogeny which indicates main activity of the young Himalayan metamorphism around 70 to 50 Ma and followed by a momentous phase of major uplift during 25 to 10 Ma, which was responsible for the rise of the deeper part of the Himalaya into great folds and thrust slices and the formation of nappe structures. (author)

  5. Observe an animation of the Himalayas forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Loomis

    A Flash-based movie of Himalayan formation, demonstrating how the Indian plate originally subducted beneath Eurasia before the two continents collided, creating the Himalayas. This well-done visualization is captioned, to help explain the images, and it also provides overhead and side views of the Himalayas, making it possible to see the results of orogeny from more than one angle.

  6. Potential selection for female choice in Viola tricolor

    OpenAIRE

    Skogsmyr, Io; Lankinen, A?sa

    2000-01-01

    That sexual selection can be an active force in plant evolution is still under debate. When the number of pollen grains deposited onto a stigma exceeds the number of available ovules, competition among pollen grains for fertilizations will result in selection on traits that increase siring ability (e.g. pollen tube growth rate). The pistil can be regarded as an arena for pollen competition, where pistil size and shape have the potential to intensify competition and thereby increase the possib...

  7. Potential Selectable Marker for Genetic Transformation in Banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sreeramanan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful genetic transformation of banana requires effective selection systems. The effectiveness of kanamycin, neomycin, genetic in G-418, paromomycin, basta and hygromycin as selection agents to inhibit the growth of single meristematic buds of Pisang Rastali (AAB were evaluated. Due to the potential generation of chimeric plants containing both transformed and non-transformed in meristematic buds, the presence of an efficient refined selection system is essential in transformation studies. Single buds were cultured on solid and liquid MS media supplemented with 5 mg L-1 of BAP for a period of four weeks. Six selection agents tested each at 0, 25, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 mg L-1. In preliminary experiment, basta and hygromycin were required at lower concentrations. Therefore, experiment was carried out at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 mg L-1. Of six compounds tested, basta and hygromycin was suitable selection agent since it inhibits the growth of single buds at lower concentrations. However, hygromycin selection makes it the preferred selection over basta for easily scoreable phenotype and faster inhibition response of explants. Genetic in G-418 is effective than kanamycin, neomycin and paromomycin for selecting transformed plants conferring resistance to npt11 gene. The use of liquid medium containing selection agents showed effective in banana due lower concentrations required and good contact between explants and medium.

  8. Estimation of Crustal Thickness in Nepal Himalayas Using Local and Regional Earthquake Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Koulakov, I.; Maksotova, G.; Raoof, J.; Kayal, J. R.; Jakovlev, A.; Vasilevsky, A.

    2014-12-01

    Variation of crustal thickness beneath Nepal Himalayas is estimated by tomographic inversion of regional earthquake data. The Nepal Himalayas is fairly well distributed with denser network and earthquakes. Some 10864 P- and 5293 S-arrival times from 821 selected events Mw > 4.0 recorded during 2004-2014 are used for this study; on average, almost 20 phases per event have been available. The tomographic results shed a new light on crustal thickness variation along and across the Nepal Himalayas. The crustal thickness varies between 40 and 80 km from foothills to high Himalayas, which is verified by synthetic modeling. The crustal thickness also widely varies along the strike of the Himalayas. The zones of higher and lower crustal thicknesses may be correlated with some hidden transverse structures in the foothills region, which are well reflected in gravity and magnetic maps. The estimated crustal thickness matches fairly well with the free air gravity anomaly; thinner crust corresponds to lower gravity anomaly and vice versa. Some correlation with the magnetic field anomaly is also observed. Higher magnetic anomaly corresponds to thicker crust. We propose that the more rigid segments of incoming Indian crust comprising of igneous and metamorphic rocks cause more compression in the Himalayan thrust zone and leads to stronger crustal thickening. Under thrusting of weaker crust / sediments, on the other hand, is associated with less shortening, and thus cause the thinner crust in the collision zone.

  9. A Cryosphere Monitoring Project in the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumm, D.; Mool, P. K.; Shresta, A. B.; Joshi, S. P.; Bajracharya, S. R.; Kayastha, R. B.; Devkota, L. P.; Bajracharya, O. R.

    2011-12-01

    The Cryosphere Monitoring Project (CMP) has been initiated by ICIMOD (International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development) with the aim to gain more knowledge about the cryosphere in the Himalayas and to build capacities in Nepalese organisations. The CMP is carried out in collaboration with the Kathmandu University, Tribhuvan University, the Department of Hydrology and Meteorology and the Water and Energy Commission Secretariat, and is sponsored by the Royal Norwegian Embassy. The CMP has a multilevel and integrative approach and consists of the following five components: (1) glacier monitoring, (2) assessment of current and future water resources at catchment and sub-basin scale, (3) multi-level remote sensing based observations for glacier and snow monitoring, (4) strengthening ICIMOD as regional knowledge hub for cryospheric information, (5) capacity building of Nepalese organisations. The glacier monitoring component includes field-based mass balance, geometry and glacier flow measurements on two clean and one debris-covered glacier and their analysis, as well as snow cover measurements. The in-situ glacier measurements promote process understanding, provide a refined temporal resolution of mass balance data and data for calibration of glacio-hydrological models. To assess current water resources, meteorological and hydrological measurements are initiated and the run-off is calculated with glacio-hydrological and snow-melt models for the catchments of the selected glaciers. Future water availability will be assessed by down-scaling regional climate model (RCM) data that is applied to the glacio-hydrological model. Remote sensing data is used to improve spatial information about the glacier distribution by refining glacier inventories, and to calculate the geodetic mass balance for the selected glaciers to complement the directly measured glacier mass balance. Additionally, the operation of a MODIS satellite receiving station is planned to obtain near real time snow cover data for the entire Hindu Kush-Himalayas. The Cryosphere Knowledge Hub will be realised with a interactive web-based platform, regular bulletin board services and workshops to ensure knowledge sharing especially within the Hindu Kush-Himalayan region. Capacity building of Nepalese organisations is implemented by the setup of a MSc programme for Research in Glaciology at Kathmandu University for twenty students, which are trained together with staff from governmental organisations in field measurements, glacio-hydrological modelling and remote sensing techniques. The integrative approach of the project ensures a long-term and sustainable monitoring of the cryosphere on several strategic levels.

  10. Potential probiotic attributes and antagonistic activity of an indigenous isolate Lactobacillus plantarum DM5 from an ethnic fermented beverage "Marcha" of north eastern Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Deeplina; Goyal, Arun

    2014-05-01

    A novel isolate DM5 identified as Lactobacillus plantarum displayed in vitro probiotic properties as well as antimicrobial activity. It showed adequate level of survival to the harsh conditions of the gastrointestinal tract and survived low acidic pH 2.5 for 5?h. Artificial gastric juice and intestinal fluidic environment decreased the initial viable cell population of isolate DM5 only by 7% and 13%, respectively, while lysozyme (200?µg/ml) and bile salt (0.5%) enhanced its growth. It was found to deconjugate taurodeoxycholic acid, indicating its potential to reduce hypercholesterolemia. Isolate DM5 demonstrated cell surface hydrophobicity of 53% and autoaggregation of 54% which are the prerequisite for adhesion to epithelial cells and colonization to host. Bacteriocin activity of isolate was found to be 6400?AU/ml as it inhibited the growth of food borne pathogens Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Alcaligenes faecalis. The bactericidal action of bacteriocin from isolate was analyzed by flow cytometry, rendering its use as prospective probiotic and starter culture in food industry. PMID:24393040

  11. Determination of Half-wave Potentials of Selected Chlorophenols

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.O., Iwunze; B., Abel.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic voltammetry was used in cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) micellar solution to determine the half-wave potentials of selected chlorophenols, CPs. It is observed that all the electrochemical parameters of the studied CPs decrease with an increase in the number of chlorine atom(s) attached [...] to the parent compound. The mathematical relationship between the obtained E1/2 and the number of chlorine atoms in the parent compound is given. The formal potentials, E0', of the CPs are approximated from the obtained half-wave potentials.

  12. Wind energy potential in selected areas in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? This paper investigates the potential of producing wind power. ? Four locations are selected for wind power generation. ? The payback period is calculated and found reasonable. ? This study reveals that the total rated wind power that can be generated from the four selected wind farms is 136 MW. ? On the other hand, the expected total energy that can be produced from the four selected wind farms is 18.9 × 103 GW h. - Abstract: The present paper investigates the potential of wind energy in selected areas in Jordan. The aim of this work is to set up promising wind farms that are able to feed electricity to the Jordanian distribution authority with excellent percentage of clean energy. There are some particular locations in Jordan where the wind potential is very promising for economical electrical power generation. Four of these promising locations are investigated in this paper for the possibility of building and investing 100 MW wind turbine in each of these four locations. The environmental data needed to perform the present study are obtained from the local Meteorological department. The suggested wind turbines to be implemented in each of the four locations are selected from the international rating and specification catalogues of wind turbine manufacturers. This study reveals that the total rated wind power that can be generated from the four selected wind farms is 136 MW. On the other hand, the expected total energy that can bepected total energy that can be produced from the four selected wind farms is 18.9 × 103 GW h.

  13. Microwave-dressed state-selective potentials for atom interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Guarrera, V; Reichel, J; Rosenbusch, P

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel and robust technique to realize a beam splitter for trapped Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). The scheme relies on the possibility of producing different potentials simultaneously for two internal atomic states. The atoms are coherently transferred, via a Rabi coupling between the two long-lived internal states, from a single well potential to a double-well. We present numerical simulations supporting our proposal and confirming excellent efficiency and fidelity of the transfer process with realistic numbers for a BEC of $^{87}$Rb. We discuss the experimental implementation by suggesting state-selective microwave potentials as an ideal tool to be exploited for magnetically trapped atoms. The working principles of this technique are tested on our atom chip device which features an integrated coplanar micro-wave guide. In particular, the first realization of a double-well potential by using a microwave dressing field is reported. Experimental results are presented together with numerical simu...

  14. Deprivation selectively modulates brain potentials to food pictures

    OpenAIRE

    Stockburger, Jessica; Weike, Almut I.; Hamm, Alfons O.; Schupp, Harald Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were used to examine whether the processing of food pictures is selectively modulated by changes in the motivational state of the observer. Sixteen healthy male volunteers were tested twice 1 week apart, either after 24 hr of food deprivation or after normal food intake. ERPs were measured while participants viewed appetitive food pictures as well as standard emotional and neutral control pictures. Results show that the ERPs to food pictures in a hungry, ...

  15. Brief Communication: Contending estimates of 2003-2008 glacier mass balance over the Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kääb, A.; Treichler, D.; Nuth, C.; Berthier, E.

    2015-03-01

    We present glacier thickness changes over the entire Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya arc based on ICESat satellite altimetry data for 2003-2008. We highlight the importance of C-band penetration for studies based on the SRTM elevation model. This penetration seems to be of potentially larger magnitude and variability than previously assumed. The most negative rate of region-wide glacier elevation change (<-1 m yr-1) is observed for the eastern Nyainqêntanglha Shan. Conversely, glaciers of the western Kunlun Shan are slightly gaining volume, and Pamir and Karakoram seem to be on the western edge of this mass-gain anomaly rather than its centre. For the Ganges, Indus and Brahmaputra basins, the glacier mass change reaches -24 ± 2 Gt yr-1, about 10% of the current glacier contribution to sea-level rise. For selected catchments, we estimate glacier imbalance contributions to river run-off from a few percent to greater than 10%.

  16. The role of glaciers in stream flow from the Nepal Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Alford

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent concerns related to the potential impacts of the retreat of Himalayan glaciers on the hydrology of rivers originating in the catchment basins of the Himalaya have been accompanied by few analyses describing the role of glaciers in the hydrologic regime of these mountains. This is, at least in part, a result of the relative inaccessibility of the glaciers of the Himalaya, at altitudes generally between 4000–7000 m, and the extreme logistical difficulties of: 1 reaching the glaciers, and 2 conducting meaningful research once they have been reached. It is apparent that an alternative to traditional "Alpine" glaciology is required in the mountains of the Hindu Kush-Himalaya region. The objectives of the study discussed here have been to develop methodologies that will begin to quantify the role of complete glacier systems in the hydrologic regime of the Nepal Himalaya, and to develop estimates of the potential impact of a continued retreat of these glacier, based on the use of disaggregated low-altitude data bases, topography derived from satellite imagery, and simple process models of water and energy exchange in mountain regions.

    While the extent of mesoscale variability has not been established by studies to date, it is clear that the dominant control on the hydrologic regime of the tributaries to the Ganges Basin from the eastern Himalaya is the interaction between the summer monsoon and the 8000 m of topographic relief represented by the Himalayan wall. All the available evidence indicates that the gradient of specific runoff with altitude resulting from this interaction is moderately to strongly curvilinear, with maximum runoff occurring at mid-altitudes, and minima at the altitudinal extremes. At the upper minimum of this gradient, Himalayan glaciers exist in what has been characterized as an "arctic desert".

    The methodologies developed for this study involve the relationship between area-altitude distributions of catchment basins and glaciers, based on Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM3 data and water and energy exchange gradients. Based on these methodologies, it is estimated that the contribution of glacier annual melt water to annual stream flow into the Ganges Basin from the glacierized catchments of the Nepal Himalaya represents approximately 4% of the total annual stream flow volume of the rivers of Nepal, and thus, is a minor component of the annual flow of the Ganges River. The models developed for this study indicate that neither stream flow timing nor volume of the rivers flowing into the Ganges Basin from Nepal will be affected materially by a continued retreat of the glaciers of the Nepal Himalaya.

  17. Geology and uranium occurrences of the Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Himalayan terrain constitutes one of the important uranium provinces of India. Mineral economics in the conventional sense will always be against any mineral deposit in the Himalaya until a very advanced stage of development in areas of transport and communication is achieved

  18. Uranium and radon surveys in Siwalik Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integrated measurements of radon in subsurface soil and groundwater are being used for uranium exploration and earthquake prediction. It is well established that large scale mobilization of uranium and radium is carried out by Himalayan rivers which are major sources of radioactivity on the Indian ocean. Our laboratory has been engaged in uranium/thorium estimation and radon studies in the Siwalik Himalaya since 1980, using scintillometry, track-etch technique, surface barrier silicon-junction detectors and pulse ionisation counters (alpha-loggers). Fission track technique and alpha autoradiography is also used to reveal uranium anomalies in geological samples of the area. Siwalik vertebrate fossil bones from Saharanpur (U.P.), Naraiangarh (Haryana) and Nalagarh (H.P.) show anomalously high uranium content variation from 93.8 to 418 ppm which is a riddle for geochemists. The daily and long term variation of radon was monitored in Siwalik Himalaya since 1989 under a Department of Science and Technology (DST) sponsored project. The effect of meteorological parameters on radon emanation is also studied. Radon results are correlated by the gamma activity and in situ uranium content in the soil of the area. The maximum values of radon are recorded in Chhinjra, Rameda, Kasol and Samurkalan areas of Himachal Pradesh. Results indicate that there is a need to undertake epidemiological study correlating cancer risk with high radon values in the Siwalik Himalaya. (author)s in the Siwalik Himalaya. (author)

  19. BotEC: Scale of the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barb Tewksbury

    Question Let's imagine a scale model of the Earth, and let's imagine that the Earth is the size of a basketball. Suppose that you wanted to build the Himalayas to scale on the surface of the basketball. How tall would you make your scale mountains?

  20. Visual evoked potentials and selective attention to points in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Voorhis, S.; Hillyard, S. A.

    1977-01-01

    Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded to sequences of flashes delivered to the right and left visual fields while subjects responded promptly to designated stimuli in one field at a time (focused attention), in both fields at once (divided attention), or to neither field (passive). Three stimulus schedules were used: the first was a replication of a previous study (Eason, Harter, and White, 1969) where left- and right-field flashes were delivered quasi-independently, while in the other two the flashes were delivered to the two fields in random order (Bernoulli sequence). VEPs to attended-field stimuli were enhanced at both occipital (O2) and central (Cz) recording sites under all stimulus sequences, but different components were affected at the two scalp sites. It was suggested that the VEP at O2 may reflect modality-specific processing events, while the response at Cz, like its auditory homologue, may index more general aspects of selective attention.

  1. Evolution of earthquake-triggered landslides in the Kashmir Himalaya, northern Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattak, G.A.; Owen, L.A.; Kamp, U.; Harp, E.L.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of the 08 October 2005 Kashmir earthquake and subsequent snow melt and monsoon rainfall on slope stability was evaluated using repeat photography in the Kashmir Himalaya of northern Pakistan. Sixty-eight landslide-affected locations were selected and photographed in November 2005, May/June 2006, June 2007, and August 2007 to evaluate all potential geomorphic changes. Eighty percent of the locations showed no or very little change, 11% of the locations showed a partial vegetation recovery on the slopes, while 9% showed an increase in the landslide area. All those locations that showed an increase in landsliding were located along rivers and/or roads. The small change in landslide extent is remarkable given that the region experienced one of the heaviest monsoon seasons in the last decade and is counter to earlier predictions of accelerated slope erosion by landsliding in the immediate years following the earthquake. Extensive fissures and ground cracks at many localities, however, still present a potential of future landsliding under wetter conditions. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Selection of potential microorganism for sago starch fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUTH MELLIAWATI

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation process of sago starch for the production of bioproduct requires potential microorganism that have ability to hydrolyze sago starch. The purpose of this research was to get the potential of amylolytic microorganisms for their capability of amyloglucosidase activity and to know the sugar strains of the fermentation result. Eleven amylolytic microorganisms (9 strains of mold and 2 strains of yeast were obtained from the collection Research Centre for Biotechnology – Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI, Cibinong-Bogor were used. The selection step was carried out based on their capability of starch hydrolysis to reducing sugar. The best result indicates that the production of reducing sugar reached the highest 18.485 ppm and amyloglucosidase activities was 3.583 units by KTU-1 strain. The highest total acid obtained was 5.85 mg/mL by Rhizopus IFO.R5442. The cell biomass was obtained between 0.5 to 1.74 g dry weight/100 mL and pH of the final fermentation (72 h were 3.57 to 8.38.

  3. THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF PANGI REGION OF WESTERN HIMALAYAS

    OpenAIRE

    Pallavi Sharma,

    2014-01-01

    Pangi valley probably the most remote area of Himachal Pradesh, lying in between Pir Panjal ranges of Himachal Pradesh and Zanskar ranges of J&K. This rugged, semiarid subdivision of Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh is a transition zone between Himalayas and Trans-Himalayas , thus a home to the most diverse flora of the western Himalayas. So a preliminary study was planned to document the medicinal plants and their local uses.

  4. THE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF PANGI REGION OF WESTERN HIMALAYAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Sharma

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Pangi valley probably the most remote area of Himachal Pradesh, lying in between Pir Panjal ranges of Himachal Pradesh and Zanskar ranges of J&K. This rugged, semiarid subdivision of Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh is a transition zone between Himalayas and Trans-Himalayas , thus a home to the most diverse flora of the western Himalayas. So a preliminary study was planned to document the medicinal plants and their local uses.

  5. Atmospheric carbonaceous aerosols from Indo-Gangetic Plain and Central Himalaya: impact of anthropogenic sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Kirpa; Sarin, M M

    2015-01-15

    In the present-day scenario of growing anthropogenic activities, carbonaceous aerosols contribute significantly (?20-70%) to the total atmospheric particulate matter mass and, thus, have immense potential to influence the Earth's radiation budget and climate on a regional to global scale. In addition, formation of secondary organic aerosols is being increasingly recognized as an important process in contributing to the air-pollution and poor visibility over urban regions. It is, thus, essential to study atmospheric concentrations of carbonaceous species (EC, OC and WSOC), their mixing state and absorption properties on a regional scale. This paper presents the comprehensive data on emission sources, chemical characteristics and optical properties of carbonaceous aerosols from selected urban sites in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) and from a high-altitude location in the central Himalaya. The mass concentrations of OC, EC and WSOC exhibit large spatio-temporal variability in the IGP. This is attributed to seasonally varying emissions from post-harvest agricultural-waste burning, their source strength, boundary layer dynamics and secondary aerosol formation. The high concentrations of OC and SO4(2-), and their characteristic high mass scattering efficiency, contribute significantly to the aerosol optical depth and scattering coefficient. This has implications to the assessment of single scattering albedo and aerosol radiative forcing on a regional scale. PMID:25199599

  6. Thermal characteristics of the Main Himalaya Thrust and the Indian lower crust with implications for crustal rheology and partial melting in the Himalaya orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Náb?lek, Peter I.; Náb?lek, John L.

    2014-06-01

    The Main Himalaya Thrust (MHT) is the current tectonic boundary between the subducting Indian lithosphere and the overlying Himalayan orogenic prism and the Tibetan crust. We present thermo-kinematic calculations and metamorphic P-T-t paths of the Indian lower crust (ILC) that constrain the thermal structure of the MHT and the southern Tibetan crust (Lhasa Block) and explain the origin of a thin, seismic low velocity zone that was revealed by the recent Hi-CLIMB experiment from receiver functions of teleseismic waves. Northward of the Himalayas, the low velocity zone occurs within the ductile regime of the crust and is thought to extend along the MHT into the Lhasa Block. In the Lhasa Block, the low velocity zone occurs directly above the ILC. Predicted evolution of mineralogy of the ILC along its subduction P-T-t path shows that its dehydration can potentially induce wet melting within the orogenic prism above the inclined portion of the MHT. However, north of the Yarlung Tsangpo Suture (YTS) below the southern Lhasa Block, where subduction of the ILC is flat, the ILC is predicted to be anhydrous eclogite and therefore, it cannot supply H2O to the overlying crust. The seismic low velocity zone above this portion of the ILC is best explained by dehydration melting due to strain heating. The MHT there appears to be localized by the rheological contrast between the ductile lower Lhasa Block and the strong eclogitic ILC. Southward thrusting of the Himalaya orogenic prism, which contains accreted Indian upper crust, causes advection of hot middle-crustal rocks to shallower levels, thereby producing a shallow ductile regime between the Himalayas and the YTS. The shallow ductile regime is evident in the limit of upper crustal earthquake foci to shallow depths in this region.

  7. Carbon allocation, sequestration and carbon dioxide mitigation under plantation forests of north western Himalaya, India

    OpenAIRE

    Bandana Devi; D.R. Bhardwaj; Pankaj Panwar; Sharmistha Pal; Gupta, N. K.; C.L.Thakur

    2013-01-01

    The organic carbon and soils of the world comprise bulk of the terrestrial carbon and serve as amajorsink and source of atmospheric carbon. Increasing atmospheric concentrations of green house gases may be mitigated by increasing carbon sequestration in vegetation and soil. The study attempted to estimate biomass production and carbon sequestration potential of different plantation ecosystems in north western Himalaya, India. Biomass, carbon density of biomass, soil, detritus, carbon sequestr...

  8. Atmospheric brown clouds reach the Tibetan Plateau by crossing the Himalayas

    OpenAIRE

    Z. L. Lüthi; B. Škerlak; S.-W. Kim; Lauer, A.; A. Mues; Rupakheti, M.; Kang, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau region (HTP), despite being a remote and sparsely populated area, is regularly exposed to polluted air masses with significant amounts of aerosols including black carbon. These dark, light-absorbing particles are known to exert a great melting potential on mountain cryospheric reservoirs through albedo reduction and radiative forcing. This study combines the available yet sparse ground-based and satellite data to identify ...

  9. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS)-geological perspective and a case study from Ladakh Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is a recent addition to the conventional mass spectrometry and is based on measurement of cosmogenic radionuclides. It is a highly potential technique to understand a variety of geological problems particularly in geomorphology, paleoclimatology and ocean research and is in fact the only technique to precisely measure erosion rates, river incision rates, sedimentation rates and surface exposure ages. The paper briefly presents the geological perspectives of the AMS technique and some preliminary results from Ladakh Himalaya

  10. Miocene dextral shearing between Himalaya and Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pécher, Arnaud; Bouchez, Jean-Luc; Le Fort, Patrick

    1991-07-01

    The Main Central thrust zone is the major structural feature of the Himalayas. It was active during Miocene time and accommodated at least 100 km, and possibly as much as 300 km, of convergence between India and Tibet. We present evidence that late in the tectonic history, another large shear zone, located north of the High Himalayas (the North Himalayan shear zone), underwent a phase of dextral strike-slip motion. The most plausible explanation for this phase of motion is that it reflects the onset of extension in Tibet. It is usually thought that extension began about 2.5 Ma. The phase of dextral shear we report occurred between 25 and 15 Ma. If our explanation for this movement is correct, it places the onset of extension at least 12 m.y. earlier than previously thought.

  11. A novel selective metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 agonist reveals new possibilities for developing subtype selective ligands with therapeutic potential.

    OpenAIRE

    Goudet, C.; Vilar, B.; Courtiol, T.; Deltheil, T.; Bessiron, T.; Brabet, I.; Oueslati, N.; Rigault, D.; Bertrand, Ho; Mclean, H.; Daniel, H.; Amalric, M.; Acher, F.; Pin, Jp

    2012-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors are promising targets to treat numerous brain disorders. So far, allosteric modulators are the only subtype selective ligands, but pure agonists still have strong therapeutic potential. Here, we aimed at investigating the possibility of developing subtype-selective agonists by extending the glutamate-like structure to hit a nonconsensus binding area. We report the properties of the first mGlu4-selective orthosteric agonist, derived from a virtual screen...

  12. Low potential for sexual selection in simultaneously hermaphroditic animals

    OpenAIRE

    Greeff, J. M.; Michiels, N. K.

    1999-01-01

    Hermaphroditic animals are poorly represented in the sexual selection literature. This deficiency may reflect our inability to come to grips with hermaphroditism or, alternatively, it could be due to an inherent difference between hermaphrodites and gonochorists. Here we provide a number of reasons why sexual selection on traits related to mate acquisition can be expected to be intrinsically weaker in hermaphrodites. We show that the 'male' fitness component, which can be increased by sexual ...

  13. Deformed river basins of the Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, R.; Sinclair, H.

    2009-04-01

    Identification of the controls on basin morphology in mountain belts is needed to understand how landscapes evolve under changing conditions. Although river basins vary enormously in area, many of their morphological relationships, such as Hack's law, are scale invariant irrespective of mountain type. This suggests that, in most mountain belts, the fundamental process(es) that control basin morphology are also scale invariant and therefore largely insensitive to variations in tectonic activity. However, river basins in the Himalaya are anomalously wide when compared with basins developed on the flanks of other semi-linear ranges. We present a detailed study of Himalayan river basin morphology to determine how the evolution of this orogen may have influenced the shape of these unusual basins. We investigate, in particular, the statistical geometric properties of basins, such as the length, width and area of basins, with respect to the scale and the location of the basin within the mountain belt. Our results show that the anomalously wide basins found over much of the Himalaya have a limited scale range and distribution. These data therefore provide an indication of the significant control that the evolution of this mountain range has had on basin morphology at the local scale. The fact that these catchments have departed from what is perceived as a stable scaling relationship implies that, while their rivers can incise at a rate broadly comparable to the rate of rock uplift, their drainage divides can not migrate fast enough to reconfigure in response to tectonic shortening. As a result, long-term crustal shortening has significantly deformed the river network within the central and western Himalaya.

  14. Potential of Air-Propelled Abrasives for Selective Weed Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novel forms of selective weed control are needed by many types of growers, but especially organic growers who are restricted from using synthetic herbicides. Abrasive grit made from corn cobs was expelled from a sand blaster at 517 kPa pressure and aimed at seedlings of common lambsquarters and corn...

  15. Black carbon aerosols over the Himalayas: direct and surface albedo forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayakumar S. Nair

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Absorbing aerosols such as black carbon (BC or dust over high-altitude Himalayan regions have potential implications on the regional climate and hydrological cycle over South Asia. Making use of extensive measurements of atmospheric BC from several Himalayan stations, an assessment of radiative forcing due to direct and snow-albedo darkening is examined. Generally, BC concentration in the atmosphere peaks during pre-monsoon season over the Himalayas and the climatological mean of atmospheric BC over Hanle (western Himalayas, 4.5?km msl and Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (central Himalayas, 5?km msl are 106±27?ng m?3 and 190±95?ng m?3, respectively. Based on the optical and physical properties of composite aerosols measured at Hanle, clear sky direct radiative forcing (DRF at the top of the atmosphere is estimated as 1.69?W m?2 over snow surface and ?1.54?W m?2 over sandy surface during pre-monsoon season. The estimated amount of BC in the snow varied from 117 to 1.7?µg kg?1 for wide range of dry deposition velocities (0.01–0.054?cm s?1 of BC, snow depth (2–10?cm and snow densities (195–512?kg m?3. Using a size-resolved wet scavenging parametrisation, the amount of BC on snow due to wet scavenging is estimated as 29?µg kg?1 for an accumulated snow depth of 27?cm. For the range of 10–200?µg kg?1 of BC in snow, the diurnally averaged forcing due to snow darkening has been found to vary from 0.87 to 10.2?W m?2 for fresh snow and from 2.6 to 28.1?W m?2 for the aged snow, which is significantly higher than the DRF. The direct and surface albedo radiative forcing could lead to significant warming over the Himalayas during pre-monsoon.

  16. Microwave-dressed state-selective potentials for atom interferometry

    OpenAIRE

    Guarrera, V.; Szmuk, R.; Reichel, J.; Rosenbusch, P.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel and robust technique to realize a beam splitter for trapped Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). The scheme relies on the possibility of producing different potentials simultaneously for two internal atomic states. The atoms are coherently transferred, via a Rabi coupling between the two long-lived internal states, from a single well potential to a double-well. We present numerical simulations supporting our proposal and confirming excellent efficiency and fi...

  17. A novel approach for the potential parameters selection of Peyrard-Bishop model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The selection of the potential parameters is a very difficult question because the potentials entering the model are effective potentials. In this Letter, an approach for selecting potential parameters of the Peyrard-Bishop model by mean Lyapunov exponent is presented. Using the theory introduced by Shibata [H. Shibata, Physica A 264 (1999) 226] on the Peyrard-Bishop model shows that, the system is very sensitive to the parameters selection. The obtained results demonstrate that the best range for parameters are where the mean Lyapunov exponent has low values. Furthermore, there is a good correspondence between our results and other reports.

  18. A study of algal biomass potential in selected Canadian regions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard David; Roach, Jesse Dillon; Klise, Geoffrey T.

    2011-11-01

    A dynamic assessment model has been developed for evaluating the potential algal biomass and extracted biocrude productivity and costs, using nutrient and water resources available from waste streams in four regions of Canada (western British Columbia, Alberta oil fields, southern Ontario, and Nova Scotia). The purpose of this model is to help identify optimal locations in Canada for algae cultivation and biofuel production. The model uses spatially referenced data across the four regions for nitrogen and phosphorous loads in municipal wastewaters, and CO{sub 2} in exhaust streams from a variety of large industrial sources. Other data inputs include land cover, and solar insolation. Model users can develop estimates of resource potential by manipulating model assumptions in a graphic user interface, and updated results are viewed in real time. Resource potential by location can be viewed in terms of biomass production potential, potential CO{sub 2} fixed, biocrude production potential, and area required. The cost of producing algal biomass can be estimated using an approximation of the distance to move CO{sub 2} and water to the desired land parcel and an estimation of capital and operating costs for a theoretical open pond facility. Preliminary results suggest that in most cases, the CO{sub 2} resource is plentiful compared to other necessary nutrients (especially nitrogen), and that siting and prospects for successful large-scale algae cultivation efforts in Canada will be driven by availability of those other nutrients and the efficiency with which they can be used and re-used. Cost curves based on optimal possible siting of an open pond system are shown. The cost of energy for maintaining optimal growth temperatures is not considered in this effort, and additional research in this area, which has not been well studied at these latitudes, will be important in refining the costs of algal biomass production. The model will be used by NRC-IMB Canada to identify promising locations for both demonstration and pilot-scale algal cultivation projects, including the production potential of using wastewater, and potential land use considerations.

  19. Selective Mycobacterium tuberculosis Shikimate Kinase Inhibitors as Potential Antibacterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Sara; Simithy, Johayra; Goodwin, Douglas C; Calderón, Angela I

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the persistence of tuberculosis (TB) as well as the emergence of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) forms of the disease, the development of new antitubercular drugs is crucial. Developing inhibitors of shikimate kinase (SK) in the shikimate pathway will provide a selective target for antitubercular agents. Many studies have used in silico technology to identify compounds that are anticipated to interact with and inhibit SK. To a much more limited extent, SK inhibition has been evaluated by in vitro methods with purified enzyme. Currently, there are no data on in vivo activity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis shikimate kinase (MtSK) inhibitors available in the literature. In this review, we present a summary of the progress of SK inhibitor discovery and evaluation with particular attention toward development of new antitubercular agents. PMID:25861218

  20. Selective Mycobacterium tuberculosis Shikimate Kinase Inhibitors as Potential Antibacterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Sara; Simithy, Johayra; Goodwin, Douglas C; Calderón, Angela I

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the persistence of tuberculosis (TB) as well as the emergence of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) forms of the disease, the development of new antitubercular drugs is crucial. Developing inhibitors of shikimate kinase (SK) in the shikimate pathway will provide a selective target for antitubercular agents. Many studies have used in silico technology to identify compounds that are anticipated to interact with and inhibit SK. To a much more limited extent, SK inhibition has been evaluated by in vitro methods with purified enzyme. Currently, there are no data on in vivo activity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis shikimate kinase (MtSK) inhibitors available in the literature. In this review, we present a summary of the progress of SK inhibitor discovery and evaluation with particular attention toward development of new antitubercular agents. PMID:25861218

  1. Distribution pattern of orchids in Uttarakhand, Western Himalayas, India

    OpenAIRE

    Jeewan Singh Jalal

    2012-01-01

    Orchids are widely distributed in tropics, subtropics and temperate regions. Within the tropics, orchids form an important feature of the vegetation, chiefly as epiphytes. India’s epiphytic orchid is to be found primarily in the Eastern Himalayas and Western Ghats, while the terrestrial species flourishes in the Western Himalayas. In the state of Uttarakhand, India, orchid distribution is not homogeneous. Orchids are typically concentrated along the riverine areas and in pockets of moist fore...

  2. Status of Stephensoniella brevipedunculata in Jammu (NW Himalayas) - India

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Anil; Paul, Yash; Langer, Anima

    2011-01-01

    Stephensoniella brevipedunculata Kash., monotypic Indian liverwort, belonging to Division Marchantiophyta, Class Marchantiopsida, Order Marchantiales and Family Exormothecaceae was initially instituted by Kashyap in 1914, when he collected it for the first time from Mussorrie and later on collected it from other parts of Western Himalayas, such as Kulu and Dulchi pass at an altitude of 2,000 to 2,400m (Kashyap, 1929). Later collections were made from different parts of Western Himalaya by var...

  3. Moss flora of Western Himalayas, India - An updated Checklist

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Afroz

    2013-01-01

    The present study is a compilation of moss flora of Western Himalayas (India). This compilation listed 745 species of mosses, belonging to 19 orders; 55 families and 230 genera. Out of these 17 species have been reported endemic from Western Himalayas. 196 species have been synonymized and status of 86 species is still doubtful i.e. unresolved name. At present out of 745 only 463 species are validly known from this mountain range of India

  4. Antioxidant and DNA damage protection potentials of selected phenolic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevgi, Kemal; Tepe, Bektas; Sarikurkcu, Cengiz

    2015-03-01

    In this study, ten different phenolic acids (caffeic, chlorogenic, cinnamic, ferulic, gallic, p-hydroxybenzoic, protocatechuic, rosmarinic, syringic, and vanillic acids) were evaluated for their antioxidant and DNA damage protection potentials. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by using four different test systems named as ?-carotene bleaching, DPPH free radical scavenging, reducing power and chelating effect. In all test systems, rosmarinic acid showed the maximum activity potential, while protocatechuic acid was determined as the weakest antioxidant in ?-carotene bleaching, DPPH free radical scavenging, and chelating effect assays. Phenolic acids were also screened for their protective effects on pBR322 plasmid DNA against the mutagenic and toxic effects of UV and H2O2. Ferulic acid was found as the most active phytochemical among the others. Even at the lowest concentration value (0.002?mg/ml), ferulic acid protected all of the bands in the presence of H2O2 and UV. It is followed by caffeic, rosmarinic, and vanillic acids. On the other hand, cinnamic acid (at 0.002?mg/ml), gallic acid (at 0.002?mg/ml), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (at 0.002 and 0.004?mg/ml), and protocatechuic acid (at 0.002 and 0.004?mg/ml) could not protect plasmid DNA. PMID:25542528

  5. Pyrometallurgical slags as a potential source of selected metals recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nowi?ska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Complex analysis of concentration and form of occurrence such metals as Zn, Pb, Fe and Cu in slags formed during a current zinc production in the Imperial Smelting Process (ISP is a possible basis for development of optimal recovery technology. For this purpose studies of slags from the current production of the Shaft Furnace Unit and of the Lead Refining of the “Miasteczko ?l?skie” Zinc Smelting Plant were carried out. The studies results show that slags includes high concentrations of: Zn from 0,064 % to 1,680 %, Pb from 10,56 % to 50,71 %, Fe from 0,015 % to 2,576 %, Cu from 7,48 % to 64,95 %, and change in a broad range. This slags show significant heterogeneity, caused by intermetallic phases (Zn - Pb, Cu - Zn, Cu - Pb formed on the surface thereof. It is so possible that slag can be a potential source of this metals recovery.

  6. EVALUATION OF GARHWAL HIMALAYA WILD EDIBLE TUBER DIOSCOREA DELTOIDEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Subhash

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Uttarakhand is highly enriched with edible wild tubers. Such tubers are highly potential with medicinal value and nutritional value due to the presence of bio-actives. These tubers are consumed by local inhabitants to play a significant role as supplementary food. The present study is aimed at evaluating the nutritional value, successive extraction, thin layer chromatography of medicinal plant, Dioscorea deltoidea. It is a popular wild edible tubers bearing plant of Indian Himalaya having good nutritional and medicinal potential. These will be the best source of the nutraceuticals. Since tubers are richer in micronutrients and bioactive secondary metabolites, The medicinal plant tuber contain ash value, (total ash 3.34 ± 0.15%, moisture 58.92±0.10%, crude fat 0.60±0.20% and crude fiber 7.50±0.14%, the successive extractive values were studied fresh part weight. The preliminary phytochemical analysis test showed the presence of carbohydrates and glycosides, alkaloid, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, unsaturated triterpenoids and sterol, resin.

  7. Are northeast and western Himalayas earthquake dynamics better “organized” than Central Himalayas: An artificial neural network approach

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, R K; S.Sri Lakshmi

    2007-01-01

    The Himalaya covering 20-38° N latitude and 70-98° E longitude, is one of the most seismo-tectonically active and vulnerable regions of the world. Visual inspection of the temporal earthquake frequency pattern of the Himalayas indicates the nature of the tectonic activity prevailing in this region. However, the quantification of this dynamical pattern is essential for constraining a model and characterizing the nature of earthquake dynamics in this region. We examine the temporal evolution of...

  8. Measurement of radon concentration in groundwater of Kumaon Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, radon concentration in springs and hand pumps of Kumaon Himalaya, India was measured using radon emanometry technique. The radon measurements were made in springs and groundwater from the hand pumps being used as drinking water sources by general population. The hand pumps and springs were selected near the dwellings and workplaces, where the general public utilizes these water sources for their daily needs. The water samples from springs were collected in an air-tight bottle from the original discharge point (outlet) of the spring having distinct geological unit and geohydrological regime. The water was transferred from discharge point of the spring to the bottom of the bottle using PVC tubing. For hand pumps, the water was pumped out for some time and the samples were collected in 1 L bottle directly from the pump outlet. After allowing the sample bottle to over flow for a while and when no bubbles were visually observed, the sample volume was reduced to a pre-marked position leaving 250 ml of air in the bottle above the water surface. The sample bottle was then connected in a close circuit with Lucas cell, hand operated rubber pump and a glass tube containing CaCl2 to absorb the moisture. The air was then circulated in close circuit for a period of 15 mm till the radon formed a uniform mixture with the air and the resulting alpha activity was recorded. The resulting numbers of the alpha counts were then converted into Bq/l by using the cal then converted into Bq/l by using the calibration factor 1 cpm = 0.0663 Bq/l. The results of radon measurements in springs and hand pumps from the study area are given. Field measurements were taken in different geological units of Kumaun region in Himalaya. The radon concentration in spring water varies from 1 Bq/l to 76 Bq/l with geometric mean 10 Bq/l, whereas in hand pumps it varies from 3 Bq/l to 392 Bq/l with geometric mean of 40 Bq/l. The higher values of radon in the water samples of hand pumps are possibly because of its greater depth, which allows water to interact with a greater thickness of aquifer and thus more radon is expected in hand pumps and tube wells. Radon level was found higher in the area consisting of granite, quartz porphyry, schist, phyllites states and lowest in the area having sedimentary rocks, predominantly dominated by quartzite rocks

  9. Perspectives and industrial potential of PGA selectivity and promiscuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grulich, Michal; Št?pánek, Václav; Kyslík, Pavel

    2013-12-01

    Penicillin G acylases (PGAs) are robust industrial catalysts used for biotransformation of ?-lactams into key intermediates for chemical production of semi-synthetic ?-lactam antibiotics by hydrolysis of natural penicillins. They are used also in reverse, kinetically controlled synthetic reactions for large-scale productions of these antibiotics from corresponding beta-lactam nuclei and activated acyl donors. Further biocatalytic applications of PGAs have recently been described: catalysis of peptide syntheses and the resolutions of racemic mixtures for the production of enantiopure active pharmaceutical ingredients that are based on enantioselective acylation or chiral hydrolysis. Moreover, PGAs rank among promiscuous enzymes because they also catalyze reactions such as trans-esterification, Markovnikov addition or Henry reaction. This particular biocatalytic versatility represents a driving force for the discovery of novel members of this enzyme family and further research into the catalytic potential of PGAs. This review deals with biocatalytic applications exploiting enantioselectivity and promiscuity of prokaryotic PGAs that have been recently reported. Biocatalytic applications are discussed and presented with reaction substrates converted into active compounds useful for the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:23863475

  10. Geographic Information System (GIS) as a Decision Support Tool for Selecting Potential Landfill Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Amakihe, Emeka

    2011-01-01

    One of the growing potential problems of increased consumption is an escalation in the quantities of municipal solid wastes produced. Landfilling is now accepted as the most widely used method for environmentally safe disposal of solid waste. However, appropriate site selection for waste disposal is one of the major problems in waste management. Selection of suitable landfills can be extremely complex mainly due to the fact that the selection process involves many factors, criteria and regula...

  11. Trypanosomosis: potential driver of selection in African cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetko, Anamarija; Soudre, Albert; Silbermayr, Katja; Müller, Simone; Brem, Gottfried; Hanotte, Olivier; Boettcher, Paul J.; Stella, Alessandra; Mészáros, Gábor; Wurzinger, Maria; Curik, Ino; Müller, Mathias; Burgstaller, Jörg; Sölkner, Johann

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosomosis is a serious cause of reduction in productivity of cattle in tsetse-fly infested areas. Baoule and other local Taurine cattle breeds in Burkina Faso are trypanotolerant. Zebuine cattle, which are also kept there are susceptible to trypanosomosis but bigger in body size. Farmers have continuously been intercrossing Baoule and Zebu animals to increase production and disease tolerance. The aim of this study was to compare levels of zebuine and taurine admixture in genomic regions potentially involved in trypanotolerance with background admixture of composites to identify differences in allelic frequencies of tolerant and non-tolerant animals. The study was conducted on 214 animals (90 Baoule, 90 Zebu, and 34 composites), genotyped with 25 microsatellites across the genome and with 155 SNPs in 23 candidate regions. Degrees of admixture of composites were analyzed for microsatellite and SNP data separately. Average Baoule admixture based on microsatellites across the genomes of the Baoule- Zebu composites was 0.31, which was smaller than the average Baoule admixture in the trypanosomosis candidate regions of 0.37 (P = 0.15). Fixation index FST measured in the overall genome based on microsatellites or with SNPs from candidate regions indicates strong differentiation between breeds. Nine out of 23 regions had FST ? 0.20 calculated from haplotypes or individual SNPs. The levels of admixture were significantly different from background admixture, as revealed by microsatellite data, for six out of the nine regions. Five out of the six regions showed an excess of Baoule ancestry. Information about best levels of breed composition would be useful for future breeding ctivities, aiming at trypanotolerant animals with higher productive capacity. PMID:25964796

  12. Uranium and radon surveys in western Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water samples from mountain springs, streams and river systems in the western Himalaya were collected and analysed in the laboratory for uranium and radon contents. It is observed that the Himalayan river system is conspicuous by its high dissolved uranium and radium concentration. The water samples contain from 0.89 ppb to 63.4 ppb of uranium and from 34 Bq/I to 364 Bq/I of radon. The radon emanation in soil is measured by the track-etch method, emanometry and alpha-logger technique. The daily and long-term variation of radon was monitored in some mineralized zones of Himachal Pradesh (HP) state with high uranium content in the soil. The maximum values of radon are recorded in Chhinjra, Rameda, Samurkala and Kasol areas of HP. (author)

  13. Environmental radioactivity surveys in Western Himalayas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water samples from mountain springs, streams and river systems in the Western Himalaya were collected and analysed in the laboratory for uranium and radon contents. It was observed that Himalayan river system is conspicuous by its high dissolved uranium and radium concentrations. Water samples contained from 0.89 to 63.40 ppb of uranium and from 34 to 364 Bq/1 of radon. The radon emanation in soil was measured by track-etch method, emanometry, and alpha-logger techniques. Daily and long-term variation of radon was monitored in some U-mineralised zones of Himachal Pradesh and Uttranchal States with high uranium content in soil. There is a need to undertake epidemiological study correlating cancer risk with high uranium and radon values in the environment. (author)

  14. An approach for estimating the breach probabilities of moraine-dammed lakes in the Chinese Himalayas using remote-sensing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Wang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available To make first-order estimates of the probability of moraine-dammed lake outburst flood (MDLOF and prioritize the probabilities of breaching posed by potentially dangerous moraine-dammed lakes (PDMDLs in the Chinese Himalayas, an objective approach is presented. We first select five indicators to identify PDMDLs according to four predesigned criteria. The climatic background was regarded as the climatic precondition of the moraine-dam failure, and under different climatic preconditions, we distinguish the trigger mechanisms of MDLOFs and subdivide them into 17 possible breach modes, with each mode having three or four components; we combined the precondition, modes and components to construct a decision-making tree of moraine-dam failure. Conversion guidelines were established so as to quantify the probabilities of components of a breach mode employing the historic performance method combined with expert knowledge and experience. The region of the Chinese Himalayas was chosen as a study area where there have been frequent MDLOFs in recent decades. The results show that the breaching probabilities (P of 142 PDMDLs range from 0.037 to 0.345, and they can be further categorized as 43 lakes with very high breach probabilities (P ? 0.24, 47 lakes with high breach probabilities (0.18 ? P < 0.24, 24 lakes with mid-level breach probabilities (0.12 ? P < 0.18, 24 lakes with low breach probabilities (0.06 ? P < 0.12, and four lakes with very low breach probabilities (p < 0.06.

  15. Southwest-facing slopes control the formation of debris-covered glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    Nagai, H.; Fujita, K.; Nuimura, T.; Sakai, A.

    2013-01-01

    To understand the formation conditions of debris-covered glaciers, we examined the dimension and shape of debris-covered areas and potential debris-supply (PDS) slopes of 208 glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya. This was undertaken using satellite images with 2.5 m spatial resolution for manual delineation of debris-covered areas and PDS slopes. The most significant correlation exists between surface area of southwest-facing PDS slopes and debris-covered area. This result suggests that the southw...

  16. Global warming may lead to catastrophic floods in the Himalayas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Nepal, data from 49 surveillance stations show that there has been a distinct temperature increase since the middle of the 1970s, the greatest changes being on the highest summits. When lakes overfill and beaches threaten to break down, this is a result of the global warming that melts the glaciers. The glaciers in Bhutan are observed to decrease by 30 - 40 metres per year, in some years as much as 100 metres. In the village of Tribeni an advanced warning system has been established to warn the 10 000 inhabitants of a potential flood from Lake Tsho Rolpa 108 km upstream. Research from the Himalayas also point to another serious threat. The melting threatens not only human lives, tourism, foot paths, roads, bridges and power stations. Since the mountains are the water towers of the world, filling rivers and lakes with water upon which all life depends, continued shrinking of the world's glaciers as is now observed will cause many rivers and fresh-water systems to dry out. Researchers from the UN Unep programme and International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development have registered at least 44 glacier lakes that are increasing so fast that they may cause outburst floods within five years. Similar investigations are being planned in India, Pakistan and China

  17. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology of the Siwalik Group of the Nepal Himalaya: implications for provenance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Upendra; Lin, Ding; Chamlagain, Deepak

    2015-05-01

    This paper deals with the provenance analysis of the Neogene foreland basin sediments of the Siwalik Group in the Nepal Himalaya. This study adopts the techniques of the optical petrography and detrital zircon U-Pb ages from two river sections: the Koshi Nadi in eastern Nepal and the Surai Khola in western Nepal Himalaya. The optical petrography data and resulting QFL plot show a "recycled orogeny" field for the studied sandstone samples, indicating northern lithotectonic units; Tethys Himalaya, Higher Himalaya and Lesser Himalaya as the source of the foreland basin sediments. The detrital zircon geochronological data set has clearly revealed that the cluster ages are younger than ~1000 Ma; however, the older grains (>1000 Ma) are significantly fewer. The obtained age spectrum is similar to the Tethys Himalaya and the upper Lesser Himalaya, but the lower Lesser Himalayan rocks were not distinct, which indicates that sediments in the Neogene foreland basin of the Nepal Himalaya were primarily sourced from the Tethys Himalaya and upper Lesser Himalaya. The minor subordinate scattered peaks that roughly correspond to the age of the Higher Himalaya and lower Lesser Himalaya may indicate that a lower proportion of the sediments might have a link with the Higher Himalaya and lower Lesser Himalaya. Therefore, the provenance of the Siwalik Group in the Nepal Himalaya might have witnessed a mixed type of provenance similar to the northwestern Himalaya.

  18. Growth Characteristics, Biomass and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Variation of Garhwal Himalaya’s Fodder and Fuel Wood Tree Species at the Nursery Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azamal Husen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fodder and fuel wood deficiency in the Himalayan region is well recognized. Rural inhabitants are exploiting these forest resources for their livelihood for generations which leads to severe deforestation. The aim of this study was to identify the fast growing fodder and fuel wood tree species of Garhwal Himalayas at nursery stage with wider relevance and great potential for extensive afforestation programmes. Seed of Bauhinia purpurea L., Bauhinia retusa Roxb., Bauhinia variegate L., Celtis australis L., Ficus nemoralis Wall., Ficus roxburghii Wall., Grewia optiva Drummond, Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit, Melia azedarach L., Ougeinia oojeinensis (Roxb. Hochr., Quercus leucotrichophora A. Camus, Terminalia alata Heyne ex Roth. and Toona ciliate M. Roem. were collected from the superior trees and seedlings were raised. After one year and one month of establishment at the nursery, the growth characteristics, biomass and chlorophyll fluorescence (dark-adopted Fv/Fm of each species were also recorded. G. optiva had shown the highest growth in terms of height, basal diameter increment and number of branches, while production of leaves was more on O. oojeinensis. Biomass and chlorophyll fluorescence (maximum quantum yield or photochemical efficiency of PSII was found highest in Q. leucotrichophora which indicates photosynthetically this species was most active among the studied fodder and fuel wood tree species. The information in this communication could be utilized for developing various conservation and sustainable strategies in the Garhwal Himalayas to mitigate the<

  19. Selecting anode-respiring bacteria based on anode potential: phylogenetic, electrochemical, and microscopic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, César I; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa; Parameswaran, Prathap; Marcus, Andrew Kato; Wanger, Greg; Gorby, Yuri A; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2009-12-15

    Anode-respiring bacteria (ARB) are able to transfer electrons contained in organic substrates to a solid electrode. The selection of ARB should depend on the anode potential, which determines the amount of energy available for bacterial growth and maintenance. In our study, we investigated how anode potential affected the microbial diversity of the biofilm community. We used a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) containing four graphite electrodes, each at a different anode potential (E(anode) = -0.15, -0.09, +0.02, and +0.37 V vs SHE). We used wastewater-activated sludge as inoculum, acetate as substrate, and continuous-flow operation. The two electrodes at the lowest potentials showed a faster biofilm growth and produced the highest current densities, reaching up to 10.3 A/m(2) at the saturation of an amperometric curve; the electrode at the highest potential produced a maximum of 0.6 A/m(2). At low anode potentials, clone libraries showed a strong selection (92-99% of total clones) of an ARB that is 97% similar to G. sulfurreducens. At the highest anode potential, the ARB community was diverse. Cyclic voltammograms performed on each electrode suggest that the ARB grown at the lowest potentials carried out extracellular electron transport exclusively by conducting electrons through the extracellular biofilm matrix. This is supported by scanning electron micrographs showing putative bacterial nanowires and copious EPS at the lowest potentials. Non-ARB and ARB using electron shuttles in the diverse community for the highest anode potential may have insulated the ARB using a solid conductive matrix from the anode. Continuous-flow operation and the selective pressure due to low anode potentials selected for G. sulfurreducens, which are known to consume acetate efficiently and use a solid conductive matrix for electron transport. PMID:20000550

  20. Constraints and prospects of uranium exploration in Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exploration for uranium in the Himalaya over the last thirty years has brought to light five distinct types of mineralisation, namely, vein-type, hydrothermal shear controlled-type, disseminated-type, syngenetic-type, and sandstone-type. The first three are associated with lower to middle proterozoic metasedimentary rocks, metabasic rocks, and granitoids of the lesser Himalaya in close proximity to the main central thrust (MCT). The carbonaceous slates of Haimanta group (late proterozoic to eocambrian) and the Mussoorie phosphorites (eocambrian) represent the syngenetic types. The sandstone-type is associated with the late tertiary Siwaliks of the northwestern Himalaya. The constraints in geology and uranium exploration in the Himalaya have been briefly discussed and principal uranium occurrences in relation to their tectonic environment and genesis listed. The need for geochemical characterization of the Himalayan granitoids and the metabasics related to known uranium mineralisation and new areas have been suggested. Integrated application of radiometric, geochemical and geophysical methods of prospecting and remote sensing techniques in regional geological correlation, identification of subtle rock alterations associated with mineralized zones, geologic structures, and deep crustal lineaments have been advocated. A case for the exploration of the areas of lesser Himalaya outside the MCT has been made out so as to locate hitherto unknown types of uranium deposits incerto unknown types of uranium deposits including, strata bound, metamorphic, and intra granitic types, possibly with better depth persistence. (author). 57 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  1. Changing glacial lakes and associated outburst floods risks in Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, Indian Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mal, S.; Singh, R. B.

    2014-09-01

    Glacial lakes and associated outburst floods (GLOFs) have increased in the Himalayan region due to climate change during the last century that has led to huge losses to society. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to map glacial lakes, their increasing extent, and associated damage potential in Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (NDBR), Indian Himalaya. The glacial lakes were mapped on Landsat TM (3 November, 2009 and 6 November 2010) and Landsat MSS satellite images (15 November 1976 and 26 October 1979) to assess their changing area. Potential GLOFs sites have been identified and studied for their damage potentials using site characteristics and past occurrence of GLOFs. A total of 35 lakes were mapped, of which 14 lakes are located at more than 4500 m. The size and damage potentials of lakes have increased. Some lakes grew so much that they merged to form a big lake. All of these are potential GLOFs and can cause severe damage to society.

  2. Potential site selection for radioactive waste repository using GIS (Study area: Negeri Sembilan) - Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose in this paper is to create the Geographic Information System (GIS) based analysis on the potential site area for near-surface radioactive waste repository in the state of Negeri Sembilan. There are several parameters should be considered related to the safety assessment in selecting the potential site. These parameters such as land-use, urban area, soil, rainfall, lithology, lineament, geomorphology, landslide potential, slope, elevation, hydrogeology and protected land need to be considered before choosing the site. In this phase, we only consider ten parameters for determining the potential suitable site. (author)

  3. Are northeast and western Himalayas earthquake dynamics better “organized” than Central Himalayas: An artificial neural network approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Tiwari

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The Himalaya covering 20-38° N latitude and 70-98° E longitude, is one of the most seismo-tectonically active and vulnerable regions of the world. Visual inspection of the temporal earthquake frequency pattern of the Himalayas indicates the nature of the tectonic activity prevailing in this region. However, the quantification of this dynamical pattern is essential for constraining a model and characterizing the nature of earthquake dynamics in this region. We examine the temporal evolution of seismicity (M ? 4 of the Central Himalaya (CH, Western Himalaya (WH and Northeast Himalaya (NEH, for the period of 1960-2003 using artificial neural network (ANN technique. We use a multilayer feedforward artificial neural network (ANN model to simulate monthly resolution earthquake frequency time series for all three regions. The ANN is trained using a standard back-propagation algorithm with gradient decent optimization technique and then generalized through cross-validation. The results suggest that earthquake processes in all three regions evolved on a high dimensional chaotic plane akin to “self-organized” dynamical pattern. Earthquake processes of NEH and WH show a higher predictive correlation coefficient (50-55% compared to the CH (30%, implying that the earthquake dynamics in the NEH and WH are better “organized” than in the CH region. The available tectono-geological observations support the model predictions.

  4. A novel selective metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 agonist reveals new possibilities for developing subtype selective ligands with therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudet, Cyril; Vilar, Bruno; Courtiol, Tiphanie; Deltheil, Thierry; Bessiron, Thomas; Brabet, Isabelle; Oueslati, Nadia; Rigault, Delphine; Bertrand, Hugues-Olivier; McLean, Heather; Daniel, Hervé; Amalric, Marianne; Acher, Francine; Pin, Jean-Philippe

    2012-04-01

    Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors are promising targets to treat numerous brain disorders. So far, allosteric modulators are the only subtype selective ligands, but pure agonists still have strong therapeutic potential. Here, we aimed at investigating the possibility of developing subtype-selective agonists by extending the glutamate-like structure to hit a nonconsensus binding area. We report the properties of the first mGlu4-selective orthosteric agonist, derived from a virtual screening hit, LSP4-2022 using cell-based assays with recombinant mGlu receptors [EC(50): 0.11 ± 0.02, 11.6 ± 1.9, 29.2 ± 4.2 ?M (n>19) in calcium assays on mGlu4, mGlu7, and mGlu8 receptors, respectively, with no activity at the group I and -II mGlu receptors at 100 ?M]. LSP4-2022 inhibits neurotransmission in cerebellar slices from wild-type but not mGlu4 receptor-knockout mice. In vivo, it possesses antiparkinsonian properties after central or systemic administration in a haloperidol-induced catalepsy test, revealing its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. Site-directed mutagenesis and molecular modeling was used to identify the LSP4-2022 binding site, revealing interaction with both the glutamate binding site and a variable pocket responsible for selectivity. These data reveal new approaches for developing selective, hydrophilic, and brain-penetrant mGlu receptor agonists, offering new possibilities to design original bioactive compounds with therapeutic potential. PMID:22223752

  5. Atmospheric brown clouds reach the Tibetan Plateau by crossing the Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. L. Lüthi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau region (HTP, despite being a remote and sparsely populated area, is regularly exposed to polluted air masses with significant amounts of aerosols including black carbon. These dark, light-absorbing particles are known to exert a great melting potential on mountain cryospheric reservoirs through albedo reduction and radiative forcing. This study combines the available yet sparse ground-based and satellite data to identify a severe aerosol pollution episode observed simultaneously in central Tibet and on the southern side of the Himalayas during 13–19 March 2009. We detail how polluted air masses such as an atmospheric brown cloud (ABC over South Asia reached the Tibetan Plateau during this pre-monsoon case study. In order to address the mechanisms of pollution transport in the complex topography of the HTP, air-mass trajectories are calculated using hourly outputs from the high-resolution numerical weather prediction model COSMO. Cross-mountain pollution transport is found to occur to a large extent at elevated tropospheric levels other than just through major river valleys. Lifting and advection of polluted air masses over the great mountain range is enabled by a combination of synoptic and local meteorological settings. Winds over the Indo Gangetic Plain (IGP are generally weak at lower levels during the event, allowing for accumulation of pollutants. The passing of synoptic-scale troughs leads to south-westerly flow in the middle troposphere over northern and central India. Thus, ABC can build up south of the Himalayas and get carried northwards across the mountain range and onto the Tibetan Plateau as the winds obtain a southerly component. Air masses from the ABC hot-spot of the IGP can reach the high glaciers, which may have serious implications for the cryosphere in the HTP region and for climate on regional to global scales.

  6. Atmospheric brown clouds reach the Tibetan Plateau by crossing the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüthi, Z. L.; Škerlak, B.; Kim, S.-W.; Lauer, A.; Mues, A.; Rupakheti, M.; Kang, S.

    2014-11-01

    The Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau region (HTP), despite being a remote and sparsely populated area, is regularly exposed to polluted air masses with significant amounts of aerosols including black carbon. These dark, light-absorbing particles are known to exert a great melting potential on mountain cryospheric reservoirs through albedo reduction and radiative forcing. This study combines the available yet sparse ground-based and satellite data to identify a severe aerosol pollution episode observed simultaneously in central Tibet and on the southern side of the Himalayas during 13-19 March 2009. We detail how polluted air masses such as an atmospheric brown cloud (ABC) over South Asia reached the Tibetan Plateau during this pre-monsoon case study. In order to address the mechanisms of pollution transport in the complex topography of the HTP, air-mass trajectories are calculated using hourly outputs from the high-resolution numerical weather prediction model COSMO. Cross-mountain pollution transport is found to occur to a large extent at elevated tropospheric levels other than just through major river valleys. Lifting and advection of polluted air masses over the great mountain range is enabled by a combination of synoptic and local meteorological settings. Winds over the Indo Gangetic Plain (IGP) are generally weak at lower levels during the event, allowing for accumulation of pollutants. The passing of synoptic-scale troughs leads to south-westerly flow in the middle troposphere over northern and central India. Thus, ABC can build up south of the Himalayas and get carried northwards across the mountain range and onto the Tibetan Plateau as the winds obtain a southerly component. Air masses from the ABC hot-spot of the IGP can reach the high glaciers, which may have serious implications for the cryosphere in the HTP region and for climate on regional to global scales.

  7. Atmospheric brown clouds reach the Tibetan Plateau by crossing the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüthi, Z. L.; Škerlak, B.; Kim, S.-W.; Lauer, A.; Mues, A.; Rupakheti, M.; Kang, S.

    2015-06-01

    The Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau region (HTP), despite being a remote and sparsely populated area, is regularly exposed to polluted air masses with significant amounts of aerosols including black carbon. These dark, light-absorbing particles are known to exert a great melting potential on mountain cryospheric reservoirs through albedo reduction and radiative forcing. This study combines ground-based and satellite remote sensing data to identify a severe aerosol pollution episode observed simultaneously in central Tibet and on the southern side of the Himalayas during 13-19 March 2009 (pre-monsoon). Trajectory calculations based on the high-resolution numerical weather prediction model COSMO are used to locate the source regions and study the mechanisms of pollution transport in the complex topography of the HTP. We detail how polluted air masses from an atmospheric brown cloud (ABC) over South Asia reach the Tibetan Plateau within a few days. Lifting and advection of polluted air masses over the great mountain range is enabled by a combination of synoptic-scale and local meteorological processes. During the days prior to the event, winds over the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) are generally weak at lower levels, allowing for accumulation of pollutants and thus the formation of ABCs. The subsequent passing of synoptic-scale troughs leads to southwesterly flow in the middle troposphere over northern and central India, carrying the polluted air masses across the Himalayas. As the IGP is known to be a hotspot of ABCs, the cross-Himalayan transport of polluted air masses may have serious implications for the cryosphere in the HTP and impact climate on regional to global scales. Since the current study focuses on one particularly strong pollution episode, quantifying the frequency and magnitude of similar events in a climatological study is required to assess the total impact.

  8. Atmospheric brown clouds reach the Tibetan Plateau by crossing the Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. L. Lüthi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau region (HTP, despite being a remote and sparsely populated area, is regularly exposed to polluted air masses with significant amounts of aerosols including black carbon. These dark, light-absorbing particles are known to exert a great melting potential on mountain cryospheric reservoirs through albedo reduction and radiative forcing. This study combines ground-based and satellite remote sensing data to identify a severe aerosol pollution episode observed simultaneously in central Tibet and on the southern side of the Himalayas during 13–19 March 2009 (pre-monsoon. Trajectory calculations based on the high-resolution numerical weather prediction model COSMO are used to locate the source regions and study the mechanisms of pollution transport in the complex topography of the HTP. We detail how polluted air masses from an atmospheric brown cloud (ABC over South Asia reach the Tibetan Plateau within a few days. Lifting and advection of polluted air masses over the great mountain range is enabled by a combination of synoptic-scale and local meteorological processes. During the days prior to the event, winds over the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP are generally weak at lower levels, allowing for accumulation of pollutants and thus the formation of ABCs. The subsequent passing of synoptic-scale troughs leads to southwesterly flow in the middle troposphere over northern and central India, carrying the polluted air masses across the Himalayas. As the IGP is known to be a hotspot of ABCs, the cross-Himalayan transport of polluted air masses may have serious implications for the cryosphere in the HTP and impact climate on regional to global scales. Since the current study focuses on one particularly strong pollution episode, quantifying the frequency and magnitude of similar events in a climatological study is required to assess the total impact.

  9. Spring-recharging in the Himalayas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    in the settlement of mountain villages in the Himalayas. In fact, in many places, it was the single factor that determined the location of the villages and naturally rainwater has been the source which recharge the catchments of the springs. Forest cover keeps these catchment areas alive for the slow and constant recharging of the springs. In the recent past due to continuous deforestation, the catchment areas have been drastically reduced. Eventually, these denuded lands were unable to conserve water, which has resulted in the drying-up and dying of many mountain springs. Certainly, this became a major threat to both the natural habitats of the springs, as well as to the survival of the communities. In order to meet the water needs of the villages, the government-development agencies devised a distribution system in which water was diverted from regions with an adequate supply to those deprived of water. This approach to remedy the water shortage brought about significant water conflicts, as the rights to water resources were not well defined. This system also did not adequately address water-management and distribution lines for the water resources

  10. Energy Planning in Selected European Regions - Methods for Evaluating the Potential of Renewable Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Sliz-szkliniarz, Beata

    2012-01-01

    Given their potentially positive impact on climate protection and the preservation of fossil resources, alternative energy sources have become increasingly important for the energy supply over the past years. However, the questions arises what economic and ecological impacts and potential conflicts over land use resources are associated with the promotion of renewable energy production. Using the examples of three selected European Regions in Poland, France and German, the dissertation discus...

  11. Selection of potential pollinizers for ‘Hass’ avocado based on flowering time and male-female overlapping

    OpenAIRE

    Alcaraz, M.L.; Hormaza, José Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    Avocado production is dependent on the singular synchronous protogynous dichogamy of the species that promotes outcrossing. With the objective of selecting potential pollinizer avocado genotypes for ‘Hass’, the most important avocado cultivar worldwide, we have monitored during two consecutive years the flowering phenology of 27 avocado genotypes in Southeastern Spain.

  12. In Vitro and Ex Vivo Selection Procedures for Identifying Potentially Therapeutic DNA and RNA Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Marton

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It was only relatively recently discovered that nucleic acids participate in a variety of biological functions, besides the storage and transmission of genetic information. Quite apart from the nucleotide sequence, it is now clear that the structure of a nucleic acid plays an essential role in its functionality, enabling catalysis and specific binding reactions. In vitro selection and evolution strategies have been extremely useful in the analysis of functional RNA and DNA molecules, helping to expand our knowledge of their functional repertoire and to identify and optimize DNA and RNA molecules with potential therapeutic and diagnostic applications. The great progress made in this field has prompted the development of ex vivo methods for selecting functional nucleic acids in the cellular environment. This review summarizes the most important and most recent applications of in vitro and ex vivo selection strategies aimed at exploring the therapeutic potential of nucleic acids.

  13. The potential for using cognitive styles as selection predictors for allied health education administration programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagg, J D

    1984-05-01

    Institutions of higher education appear to be using inappropriate measures to select students who aspire to become allied health education administrators. Therefore, new selection predictors need to be developed and validated. This article reports the results of a survey investigation conducted to determine the feasibility of using two cognitive styles, dogmatism and integrative complexity, as selection predictors for allied health graduate leadership programs. The findings indicate that current allied health education administrators are similar in cognitive style, low in dogmatism and high in integrative complexity. The findings support the premise that cognitive styles are related to both occupational choice and performance and, thus, provide a potentially powerful basis for selecting appropriate individuals for allied health graduate leadership programs. PMID:6735897

  14. Selection of optimal recording sites for limited lead body surface potential mapping: A sequential selection based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCullagh Paul J

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study we propose the development of a new algorithm for selecting optimal recording sites for limited lead body surface potential mapping. The proposed algorithm differs from previously reported methods in that it is based upon a simple and intuitive data driven technique that does not make any presumptions about deterministic characteristics of the data. It uses a forward selection based search technique to find the best combination of electrocardiographic leads. Methods The study was conducted using a dataset consisting of body surface potential maps (BSPM recorded from 116 subjects which included 59 normals and 57 subjects exhibiting evidence of old Myocardial Infarction (MI. The performance of the algorithm was evaluated using spatial RMS voltage error and correlation coefficient to compare original and reconstructed map frames. Results In all, three configurations of the algorithm were evaluated and it was concluded that there was little difference in the performance of the various configurations. In addition to observing the performance of the selection algorithm, several lead subsets of 32 electrodes as chosen by the various configurations of the algorithm were evaluated. The rationale for choosing this number of recording sites was to allow comparison with a previous study that used a different algorithm, where 32 leads were deemed to provide an acceptable level of reconstruction performance. Conclusion It was observed that although the lead configurations suggested in this study were not identical to that suggested in the previous work, the systems did bear similar characteristics in that recording sites were chosen with greatest density in the precordial region.

  15. Agricultural Diversification in the Garhwal Himalaya: A Spatio-Temporal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwambhar Prasad Sati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Garhwal Himalaya represents a traditional agricultural society where more than 74% population largely depends on the cultivation of subsistence cereal crops to run their livelihood. Over the time, with the increase in human population and decrease in per capita land, the traditional subsistence agriculture could not fulfill food requirement. This was resulted in food insecurity and thus agricultural diversification began with the cultivation of cash crops - fruits, off-season vegetables and also of medicinal plants. Although, agro-ecological condition favours diversification of crops and agro-biodiversity is very high in the Garhwal region, the pace of diversifying cash crops for commercialization is tremendously low. Diversity in crops varies spatially - horizontal and vertical and temporally - rabi and kharif seasons. The highlands characterize high agro-biodiversity in comparison to the mid-slopes and the valley regions. Crop diversification index (CDI of cereals and cash crops was calculated separately from the secondary dada. A case study of six villages was done to calculate cost-benefit analysis of cereals and cash crops. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential of diversification – cereals as well as cash crops for livelihood sustainability in the Garhwal Himalaya

  16. Are northeast and western Himalayas earthquake dynamics better "organized" than Central Himalayas: An artificial neural network approach

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S., Sri Lakshmi; R. K., Tiwari.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Los Himalayas entre los 20 y 38 grados de latitud N y los 70 a 98 grados de longitud E están entre las regiones más activas y vulnerables a los temblores en el mundo. Se examina la evolución de la sismicidad en el tiempo (M > 4) en los Himalayas centrales, occidentales y del Noreste para el interval [...] o de 1960-2003 utilizando el método de redes neuronales artificiales (ANN). El modelo de capas múltiples sirve para simular la frecuencia de sismos con una resolución mensual. Para el entrenamiento del ANN se utiliza un algoritmo de propagación en reversa con optimización de gradiente, y se generaliza el resultado con validación cruzada. Se concluye que las tres regiones se caracterizan por procesos que evolucionan en un plano multidimensional caótico similar a una dinámica auto-organizada. El sector central posee un coeficiente de correlación más bajo que las otras dos regiones, que parecen estar mejor "organizadas", lo que es consistente con la información geológica y tectónica disponible. Abstract in english The Himalaya covering 20-38° N latitude and 70-98° E longitude, is one of the most seismo-tectonically active and vulnerable regions of the world. Visual inspection of the temporal earthquake frequency pattern of the Himalayas indicates the nature of the tectonic activity prevailing in this region. [...] However, the quantification of this dynamical pattern is essential for constraining a model and characterizing the nature of earthquake dynamics in this region. We examine the temporal evolution of seismicity (M > 4) of the Central Himalaya (CH), Western Himalaya (WH) and Northeast Himalaya (NEH), for the period of 1960-2003 using artificial neural network (ANN) technique. We use a multilayer feedforward artificial neural network (ANN) model to simulate monthly resolution earthquake frequency time series for all three regions. The ANN is trained using a standard back-propagation algorithm with gradient decent optimization technique and then generalized through cross-validation. The results suggest that earthquake processes in all three regions evolved on a high dimensional chaotic plane akin to "self-organized" dynamical pattern. Earthquake processes of NEH and WH show a higher predictive correlation coefficient (50-55%) compared to the CH (30%), implying that the earthquake dynamics in the NEH and WH are better "organized" than in the CH region. The available tectonogeological observations support the model predictions.

  17. Morphometric analysis of Suketi river basin, Himachal Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pophare, Anil M.; Balpande, Umesh S.

    2014-10-01

    Suketi river basin is located in the Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh, India. It encompasses a central inter-montane valley and surrounding mountainous terrain in the Lower Himachal Himalaya. Morphometric analysis of the Suketi river basin was carried out to study its drainage characteristics and overall groundwater resource potential. The entire Suketi river basin has been divided into five sub-basins based on the catchment areas of Suketi trunk stream and its major tributaries. Quantitative assessment of each sub-basin was carried out for its linear, areal, and relief aspects. The analysis reveals that the drainage network of the entire Suketi river basin constitutes a 7th order basin. Out of five sub-basins, Kansa khad sub-basin (KKSB), Gangli khad sub-basin (GKSB) and Ratti khad sub-basin (RKSB) are 5th order sub-basins. The Dadour khad sub-basin (DKSB) is 6th order sub-basin, while Suketi trunk stream sub-basin (STSSB) is a 7th order sub-basin. The entire drainage basin area reflects late youth to early mature stage of development of the fluvial geomorphic cycle, which is dominated by rain and snow fed lower order streams. It has low stream frequency (Fs) and moderate drainage density (Dd) of 2.69 km/km 2. Bifurcation ratios (Rb) of various stream orders indicate that streams up to 3rd order are surging through highly dissected mountainous terrain, which facilitates high overland flow and less recharge into the sub-surface resulting in low groundwater potential in the zones of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order streams of the Suketi river basin. The circulatory ratio (Rc) of 0.65 and elongation ratio (Re) of 0.80 show elongated nature of the Suketi river basin, while infiltration number (If) of 10.66 indicates dominance of relief features and low groundwater potential in the high altitude mountainous terrain. The asymmetry factor (Af) of Suketi river basin indicates that the palaeo-tectonic tilting, at drainage basin scale, was towards the downstream right side of the drainage basin. The slope map of Suketi river basin has been classified into three main zones, which delineate the runoff zone in the mountains, recharge zone in the transition zone between mountains and valley plane, and discharge zone in the plane areas of Balh valley.

  18. Crossmodal effects of Guqin and piano music on selective attention: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weina; Zhang, Junjun; Ding, Xiaojun; Zhou, Changle; Ma, Yuanye; Xu, Dan

    2009-11-27

    To compare the effects of music from different cultural environments (Guqin: Chinese music; piano: Western music) on crossmodal selective attention, behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) data in a standard two-stimulus visual oddball task were recorded from Chinese subjects in three conditions: silence, Guqin music or piano music background. Visual task data were then compared with auditory task data collected previously. In contrast with the results of the auditory task, the early (N1) and late (P300) stages exhibited no differences between Guqin and piano backgrounds during the visual task. Taking our previous study and this study together, we can conclude that: although the cultural-familiar music influenced selective attention both in the early and late stages, these effects appeared only within a sensory modality (auditory) but not in cross-sensory modalities (visual). Thus, the musical cultural factor is more obvious in intramodal than in crossmodal selective attention. PMID:19766172

  19. On the hyperKaehler potential and the selection rule of the hyperKaehler geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We build a new class of D=4, N=2 supersymmetric non-linear ?-model completely specified by a neutral hyperKaehler potential. The corresponding hyperKaehler metric is obtained and its hyperKaehler symmetries are discussed. The fundamental hyperKaehler form is derived and its properties are established. Finally, a selection rule of hyperKaehler manifolds from the Kaehler ones is obtained. (author). 17 refs

  20. Potential and Structural Variation of Some Selected Cultivated Bamboo Species in Peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Razak Wahab; Mohd Tamizi Mustafa; Mohammed Abdus Salam; Tabert, Tamer A.; Othman Sulaiman,; Mahmud Sudin

    2012-01-01

    Screening of different cultivated bamboo species to find out potential variety of bamboo is most important. Structural variations in term of anatomy, physical and strength properties of 3 year-old cultivated Gigantochloa brang, G. levis, G. scotechinii and G. wrayi were investigated for screening purposes. The culms of these bamboos were selected, harvested and processed for subsequent studies. The results show that each species exhibited differences in the anatomy, physical and strength prop...

  1. A Sexual selection approach to women's pupil size preferences in a potential mate

    OpenAIRE

    Smallwood, Eleanor

    2006-01-01

    Dilated pupils represent a display of sexual interest. The attraction value of this display in a potential mate varies between women. While some females find a clear demonstration of sexual interest attractive, others prefer less overt sexual attentions. This study aims to account for these differences using a sexual selection approach. Male faces were manipulated to have three different pupil sizes to determine which size women find the most attractive. Individuals’ with unr...

  2. Selection of potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria from fermented olives by in vitro tests

    OpenAIRE

    Argyri, Anthoula; Zoumpopoulou, Georgia; Karatzas, Kimon Andreas; Tsakalidou, Effie; Nychas, George John; Panagou, Efstathios; Tassou, Chrysoula

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from naturally fermented olives and select candidates to be used as probiotic starters for the improvement of the traditional fermentation process and the production of newly added value functional foods. Seventy one (71) lactic acid bacterial strains (17 Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 1 Ln. pseudomesenteroides, 13 Lactobacillus plantarum, 37 Lb. pentosus, 1 Lb. paraplantarum, and 2 Lb. paracasei sub...

  3. Selection of potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria from fermented olives by in vitro tests

    OpenAIRE

    Argyri, Anthoula; Zoumpopoulou, Georgia; Karatzas, Kimon Andreas; Tsakalidou, Effie; Nychas, George John; Panagou, Efstathios; Tassou, Chrysoula

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from naturally fermented olives and select candidates to be used as probiotic starters for the improvement of the traditional fermentation process and the production of newly added value functional foods. Seventy one (71) lactic acid bacterial strains (17 Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 1 Ln. pseudomesenteroides, 13 Lactobacillus plantarum, 37 Lb. pentosus, 1 Lb. paraplantarum, and 2 Lb. paracasei sub...

  4. Evaluation of mitochondrial membrane potential using a computerized device with a tetraphenylphosphonium-selective electrode.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Labajová, A.; Vojtíšková, Alena; K?iváková, P.; Kofránek, J.; Drahota, Zden?k; Houšt?k, Josef

    2006-01-01

    Ro?. 353, ?. 1 (2006), s. 37-42. ISSN 0003-2697 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GD303/03/H065; GA ?R(CZ) GA303/06/1261 Grant ostatní: GA UK(CZ) 126/04/C; IGA MŠk(CZ) RP 394 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : membrane potential * TPP-selective electrode Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.948, year: 2006

  5. Adenosine selectively blocks parallel-fiber-mediated synaptic potentials in rat cerebellar cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Kocsis, J. D.; Eng, D. L.; Bhisitkul, R. B.

    1985-01-01

    Electrophysiological techniques were used to study the efficacy of adenosine in modulating synaptic transmission mediated from convergent parallel- and climbing-fiber inputs to Purkinje cells. Our results indicate that adenosine application leads to selective blocking of parallel fiber-mediated synaptic activity but not of climbing fiber activity. Adenosine does not alter the action-potential excitability properties of the parallel fibers. However, application of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA...

  6. Unbound Protein-Protein Docking Selections by the DFIRE-based Statistical Pair Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Song; ZHANG Chi; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2004-01-01

    A newly developed statistical pair potential based on Distance-scaled Finite Ideal-gas REference (DFIRE) state is applied to unbound protein-protein docking structure selections. The performance of the DFIRE energy function is compared to those of the well-established ZDOCK energy scores and RosettaDock energy function using the comprehensive decoy sets generated by ZDOCK and RosettaDock. Despite significant difference in the functional forms and complexities of the three en...

  7. Selection and evolutionary potential of spring arrival phenology in males and females of a migratory songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarka, M; Hansson, B; Hasselquist, D

    2015-05-01

    The timing of annual life-history events affects survival and reproduction of all organisms. A changing environment can perturb phenological adaptations and an important question is if populations can evolve fast enough to track the environmental changes. Yet, little is known about selection and evolutionary potential of traits determining the timing of crucial annual events. Migratory species, which travel between different climatic regions, are particularly affected by global environmental changes. To increase our understanding of evolutionary potential and selection of timing traits, we investigated the quantitative genetics of arrival date at the breeding ground using a multigenerational pedigree of a natural great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) population. We found significant heritability of 16.4% for arrival date and directional selection for earlier arrival in both sexes acting through reproductive success, but not through lifespan. Mean arrival date advanced with 6 days over 20 years, which is in exact accordance with our predicted evolutionary response based on the breeder's equation. However, this phenotypic change is unlikely to be caused by microevolution, because selection seems mainly to act on the nongenetic component of the trait. Furthermore, demographical changes could also not account for the advancing arrival date. Instead, a strong correlation between spring temperatures and population mean arrival date suggests that phenotypic plasticity best explains the advancement of arrival date in our study population. Our study dissects the evolutionary and environmental forces that shape timing traits and thereby increases knowledge of how populations cope with rapidly changing environments. PMID:25847825

  8. Fault delineation study using soil-gas method in the Dharamsala area, NW Himalayas, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil-gas activity in the vicinity of neotectonic fault zones within the Dharamsala area in the region of the NW Himalayas, India, has been investigated by determining enhanced concentration values of radon and helium in the soil, using an ionization chamber and an ASM 100 HDS (Alcatel), respectively. A geological map of the area was used for site selection and to locate the predicted courses of faults. Elevated levels of radon and helium in the soil gas were found along a profile of a major fault (MBT-2). Radon shows variation not only due to the tectonic structures but also due to change in lithology. Helium and radon anomalies together show that apart from conspicuous thrust MBT-2, the area under study is cut across by the N-S transverse faults/lineaments

  9. Mining for diagnostic information in body surface potential maps: A comparison of feature selection techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCullagh Paul J

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In body surface potential mapping, increased spatial sampling is used to allow more accurate detection of a cardiac abnormality. Although diagnostically superior to more conventional electrocardiographic techniques, the perceived complexity of the Body Surface Potential Map (BSPM acquisition process has prohibited its acceptance in clinical practice. For this reason there is an interest in striking a compromise between the minimum number of electrocardiographic recording sites required to sample the maximum electrocardiographic information. Methods In the current study, several techniques widely used in the domains of data mining and knowledge discovery have been employed to mine for diagnostic information in 192 lead BSPMs. In particular, the Single Variable Classifier (SVC based filter and Sequential Forward Selection (SFS based wrapper approaches to feature selection have been implemented and evaluated. Using a set of recordings from 116 subjects, the diagnostic ability of subsets of 3, 6, 9, 12, 24 and 32 electrocardiographic recording sites have been evaluated based on their ability to correctly asses the presence or absence of Myocardial Infarction (MI. Results It was observed that the wrapper approach, using sequential forward selection and a 5 nearest neighbour classifier, was capable of choosing a set of 24 recording sites that could correctly classify 82.8% of BSPMs. Although the filter method performed slightly less favourably, the performance was comparable with a classification accuracy of 79.3%. In addition, experiments were conducted to show how (a features chosen using the wrapper approach were specific to the classifier used in the selection model, and (b lead subsets chosen were not necessarily unique. Conclusion It was concluded that both the filter and wrapper approaches adopted were suitable for guiding the choice of recording sites useful for determining the presence of MI. It should be noted however that in this study recording sites have been suggested on their ability to detect disease and such sites may not be optimal for estimating body surface potential distributions.

  10. Projected hydrologic changes in monsoon-dominated Himalaya Mountain basins with changing climate and deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Ram P.; White, Joseph D.; Alexander, Sara E.

    2015-06-01

    In mountain headwaters, climate and land use changes affect short and long term site water budgets with resultant impacts on landslide risk, hydropower generation, and sustainable agriculture. To project hydrologic change associated with climate and land use changes in the Himalaya Mountains, we used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) calibrated for the Tamor and Seti River basins located at eastern and western margins of Nepal. Future climate change was modeled using averaged temperature and precipitation for 2080 derived from Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) (B1, A1B and A2) of 16 global circulation models (GCMs). Land use change was modeled spatially and included expansion of (1) agricultural land, (2) grassland, and (3) human settlement area that were produced by considering existing land use with projected changes associated with viability of elevation and slope characteristics of the basins capable of supporting different land use type. From these simulations, higher annual stream discharge was found for all GCM-derived scenarios compared to a baseline simulation with maximum increases of 13 and 8% in SRES-A2 and SRES-A1B for the Tamor and Seti basins, respectively. On seasonal basis, we assessed higher precipitation during monsoon season in all scenarios that corresponded with higher stream discharge of 72 and 68% for Tamor and Seti basins, respectively. This effect appears to be geographically important with higher influence in the eastern Tamor basin potentially due to longer and stronger monsoonal period of that region. However, we projected minimal changes in stream discharge for the land use scenarios potentially due to higher water transmission to groundwater reservoirs associated with fractures of the Himalaya Mountains rather than changes in surface runoff. However, when combined the effects of climate and land use changes, discharge was moderately increased indicating counteracting mechanisms of hydrologic yield in these mountains. Better understanding of potential hydrologic response to climate and land use changes in these basins might be crucial for national and transnational water management.

  11. Satellite Remote Sensing of Snow/Ice Albedo over the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, N. Christina; Gautam, Ritesh

    2012-01-01

    The Himalayan glaciers and snowpacks play an important role in the hydrological cycle over Asia. The seasonal snow melt from the Himalayan glaciers and snowpacks is one of the key elements to the livelihood of the downstream densely populated regions of South Asia. During the pre-monsoon season (April-May-June), South Asia not only experiences the reversal of the regional meridional tropospheric temperature gradient (i.e., the onset of the summer monsoon), but also is being bombarded by dry westerly airmass that transports mineral dust from various Southwest Asian desert and arid regions into the Indo-Gangetic Plains in northern India. Mixed with heavy anthropogenic pollution, mineral dust constitutes the bulk of regional aerosol loading and forms an extensive and vertically extended brown haze lapping against the southern slopes of the Himalayas. Episodic dust plumes are advected over the Himalayas, and are discernible in satellite imagery, resulting in dust-capped snow surface. Motivated by the potential implications of accelerated snowmelt, we examine the changes in radiative energetics induced by aerosol transport over the Himalayan snow cover by utilizing space borne observations. Our objective lies in the investigation of potential impacts of aerosol solar absorption on the Top-of-Atmosphere (TOA) spectral reflectivity and the broadband albedo, and hence the accelerated snowmelt, particularly in the western Himalayas. Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity (LER) in the visible and near-infrared wavelengths, derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer radiances, is used to generate statistics for determining perturbation caused due to dust layer over snow surface in over ten years of continuous observations. Case studies indicate significant reduction of LER ranging from 5 to 8% in the 412-860nm spectra. Broadband flux observations, from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System, are also used to investigate changes in shortwave TOA flux over dust-laden and dust-free snow covered regions. Additionally, spatio-temporal and intra-seasonal variations of LER, along with snow cover information, are used to characterize the seasonal melt pattern and thus to distinguish the outstanding aerosol-induced snowmelt signal. Results from this observational work are expected to provide better understanding of the radiative impact of aerosols over snow surface, especially its role in the Himalayan hydro-glacialogical variability.

  12. Integrated Natural Resource Management: Approaches and Lessons from the Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Maikhuri

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Losses of forest cover, biodiversity, agricultural productivity, and ecosystem services in the Himalayan mountain region are interlinked problems and threats to the sustainable livelihoods of 115 x 106 mountain people as well as the inhabitants of the adjoining Indo-gangetic plains. Until the 1970s, environmental conservation, food security, and rural economic development were treated as independent sectors. The poor outcomes of sector-oriented approaches catalyzed efforts to address environmental and socioeconomic problems concurrently. The identification of "key" natural resource management interventions is an important dimension of integrated management. Projects to rehabilitate the degraded lands that cover 40% of the Indian Himalaya could be key interventions provided that they address both socioeconomic and environmental concerns across spatial and temporal scales. However, projects of this type, e.g., investments in conifer plantations on degraded forest lands, have failed because their designs did not take into account the needs of local residents. This study illustrates a case of land rehabilitation in a small isolated village close to the alpine zone. Vital elements of this project strategy included identifying local perceptions and knowledge and involving the local people in the selection and implementation of the interventions needed to restore the land. Communities were found to be more concerned with the immediate economic benefits from bamboo and medicinal species than the long-term benefits of tree planting. The villagers eventually reached a consensus to plant broadleaved multipurpose trees in association with bamboo and medicinal species. Despite assurances that all the economic benefits from rehabilitation would go to the community, the people would not agree to voluntary labor, although they did absorb significant costs by providing social fencing, farmyard manure, and propagules from community forests. Households shared costs and benefits according to traditional norms. The economic benefits to the local people exceeded the rehabilitation cost over the 7-yr life of the project. There were significant on-site environmental benefits in terms of improvements in soil fertility, biodiversity, protective cover, and carbon sequestration, and off-site benefits from more productive use of labor, reduced pressure on protected areas, and the introduction of rare and threatened medicinal species onto private farmland.

  13. Screening, evaluation and selection ofphosphate-solubilising fungi as potential biofertiliser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Morales

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate-solubilising saprophytic fungi have a potential application in plant nutrition; therefore, the aim of this study was 1 to perform a screening and isolation of native phosphofungi from volcanic soils of southern Chile, 2 to select a liquid medium for the evaluation of these phosphofungi and 3 to test a selected phospho fungus as a biofertiliser in a volcanic soil. The phosphofungi were screened using Martin medium (rose bengal-streptomycin agar with calcium phosphate (Ca3(PO42 or calcium phytate as the phosphorus source. Six promising strains (Penicillium sp., Penicillium albidum, Penicillium thomii, Penicillium restrictum, Penicillium frequentans and Gliocladium roseum were evaluated in the liquid media of Agnihotri, Asea-Wakelin, Pikovskaya and Nahas. The soluble phosphorus, acid phosphatase activity, pH and fungal biomass were determined. In most soils, the greatest proportion of phosphofungi solubilised organic P. The Asea-Wakelin medium appears to be the medium of choice for the quantitative evaluation of phosphofungi isolated from the volcanic soils tested. Penicillium albidum was selected as a potential biofertiliser due to its capacity to solubilise both inorganic and organic P via its specific solubilising activity (64 mg P/g fungus, phosphatase secretion and enhancement of the growth and mineral nutrition of lettuce plants growing in a volcanic soil.

  14. Screening, evaluation and selection ofphosphate-solubilising fungi as potential biofertiliser

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A, Morales; M, Alvear; E, Valenzuela; C.E, Castillo; F, Borie.

    Full Text Available Phosphate-solubilising saprophytic fungi have a potential application in plant nutrition; therefore, the aim of this study was 1) to perform a screening and isolation of native phosphofungi from volcanic soils of southern Chile, 2) to select a liquid medium for the evaluation of these phosphofungi a [...] nd 3) to test a selected phospho fungus as a biofertiliser in a volcanic soil. The phosphofungi were screened using Martin medium (rose bengal-streptomycin agar) with calcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2) or calcium phytate as the phosphorus source. Six promising strains (Penicillium sp., Penicillium albidum, Penicillium thomii, Penicillium restrictum, Penicillium frequentans and Gliocladium roseum) were evaluated in the liquid media of Agnihotri, Asea-Wakelin, Pikovskaya and Nahas. The soluble phosphorus, acid phosphatase activity, pH and fungal biomass were determined. In most soils, the greatest proportion of phosphofungi solubilised organic P. The Asea-Wakelin medium appears to be the medium of choice for the quantitative evaluation of phosphofungi isolated from the volcanic soils tested. Penicillium albidum was selected as a potential biofertiliser due to its capacity to solubilise both inorganic and organic P via its specific solubilising activity (64 mg P/g fungus), phosphatase secretion and enhancement of the growth and mineral nutrition of lettuce plants growing in a volcanic soil.

  15. Crustal structure and dynamics under Himalaya and Pamir ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, D. C.

    1982-02-01

    Gravity profiles across the Himalayas and the Karakorum and Pamir ranges are analysed using the information available from deep seismic sounding studies. Generalized inversion of a profile along with conventional modelling using multiple bodies has provided several details of the subsurface crustal structure. The depth of the Moho varies from 58 km under the Himalayas to 71 km under the Karakorum, and rises to 55 km under the Pamir and the Trans-Alai. Beyond this, a depression of the order of 10-12 km is depicted under the Alai ranges. About 14-15 km above the Moho there is an interface which runs almost parallel to it through the entire section. The material between this interface and the Moho has a density which is higher (?0.13 g/cm 3) than the density of a typical continental lower crust and appears to represent the material underthrust from the Indian and the Eurasian plates.

  16. Six hitherto unreported Basidiomycetic macrofungi from Kashmir Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHMAD YAQUB BHAT

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Pala SA, Wani AH, Bhat MY. 2011. Six hitherto unreported Basidiomycetic macrofungi from Kashmir Himalayas. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 92-97. The Kashmir valley located in the north extreme of the India lies between 33020’ and 34054’ N latitude and 730 55’ and 75035’ E longitude. The forests constituting more than 20% of the geographical area harbors diverse macrofungal species due to their wide variability in climate altitude and nature of species constituting them. The mushroom flora of the Kashmir Valley has not been documented completely until now. In this backdrop, a systematic survey for exploration and inventorization of macrofungal species of Western Kashmir Himalaya was undertaken during the year 2009-2010. During the study six species viz. Agrocybe molesta, Coprinus plicatilis, Inonotus hispidus, Paxillus involutus, Psathyrella candolleana and Russula fragilis were identified first time from the Kashmir.

  17. Acoustic Noise Alters Selective Attention Processes as Indicated by Direct Current (DC Brain Potential Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Trimmel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic environmental noise, even of low to moderate intensity, is known to adversely affect information processing in animals and humans via attention mechanisms. In particular, facilitation and inhibition of information processing are basic functions of selective attention. Such mechanisms can be investigated by analyzing brain potentials under conditions of externally directed attention (intake of environmental information versus internally directed attention (rejection of environmental stimuli and focusing on memory/planning processes. This study investigated brain direct current (DC potential shifts—which are discussed to represent different states of cortical activation—of tasks that require intake and rejection of environmental information under noise. It was hypothesized that without background noise rejection tasks would show more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks and that under noise both kinds of tasks would show positive DC shifts as an expression of cortical inhibition caused by noise. DC potential shifts during intake and rejection tasks were analyzed at 16 standard locations in 45 persons during irrelevant speech or white noise vs. control condition. Without noise, rejection tasks were associated with more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks. During background noise, however, this difference disappeared and both kinds of tasks led to positive DC shifts. Results suggest—besides some limitations—that noise modulates selective attention mechanisms by switching to an environmental information processing and noise rejection mode, which could represent a suggested “attention shift”. Implications for fMRI studies as well as for public health in learning and performance environments including susceptible persons are discussed.

  18. Potentiation of tumor response to radiation or chemoradiation by selective cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an enzyme expressed primarily in pathologic states, such as inflammatory disorders and cancer, where it mediates prostaglandin production. Its overexpression is associated with more aggressive biologic tumor behavior and adverse patient outcome. Increasing evidence shows that agents that selectively inhibit COX-2 enhance tumor response to radiation or chemotherapeutic agents. This article gives an overview of some of this evidence. In addition, we describe new results showing that celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, enhanced response of A431 human tumor xenografts in nude mice to radiation by an enhancement factor (EF) of 1.43 and to the chemotherapeutic agent docetaxel by an EF of 2.07. Celecoxib also enhanced tumor response when added to the combined docetaxel plus radiation treatment (EF = 2.13). Further experiments showed that selective COX-2 inhibitors enhanced tumor cell sensitivity to ionizing radiation, involving inhibition of cellular repair from radiation damage and cell cycle redistribution as mechanisms for some cell types. The results show that selective COX-2 inhibitors have the potential to improve tumor radiotherapy or radiochemotherapy, and this therapeutic strategy is currently under clinical testing

  19. Radon variation in drinking water with different lithotectonic units of Uttaranchal Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water samples from Kumaun and Garhwal Himalayas were taken from the sources used directly for the drinking purpose. In all 81 measurements of radon (222Rn) in drinking water were made. Some of the values were found higher than the maximum contamination level (MCL) of 11.1 Bq.1-1 set by US environmental radiation protection. The data were collected from different lithotectonic units along and across the various regional thrust planes, faults, shears etc. The observed values were than correlated with the geological formations and structure of the area. An effort was made for the mathematical interrelationship among the mean radon values from different lithological group. This study is also helpful for identifying regions having a strong potential of radon exposure. (author)

  20. EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF TERRESTRIAL ORCHIDS (COLLECTED FROM NORTHERN HIMALAYAS AGAINST CERTAIN HUMAN PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Bharal*, Manila Kashyap, Vipan Kumar Sohpal and Jaspreet Kaur Sembi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The four main varieties of orchids, collected from northern Himalayas (Tara devi and Chhrabra forests, Shimla, HP were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against human pathogenic bacteria. The ethanol and methanol extracts of Cypripedium cordigerum and Malaxis acuminata were found to be highly active against both P.aeruginosa and S.aureus with minimal microbial static concentration (MIC in the range of 100mg/ml. These plants particularly demonstrated antimicrobial properties against Gram negative bacterial strains, which are responsible for severe opportunistic bacterial infection and are resistant to hospitalized infections. These orchid species may thus, be considered important tools in antibacterial strategies. It can be concluded that orchid family represent an untapped source of potentially useful antibacterial products and are worthy of further study.

  1. Treeline dynamics with climate change at the central Nepal Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    Gaire, N. P.; Koirala, M.; Bhuju, D. R.; Borgaonkar, H. P.

    2014-01-01

    Treeline shifting in tandem with climate change has widely been reported from various parts of the world. In Nepal, several impacts of climate change on the physical environment have been observed, but study on the biological impacts is lacking. This dendrochronological study was carried out at the treeline in the high mountain slope of Kalchuman Lake (3750–4003 m a.s.l.) area of Manaslu Conservation Area in the central Nepal Himalaya to explore the impact of climate chang...

  2. Representative rainfall thresholds for landslides in the Nepal Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Ranjan Kumar; Hasegawa, Shuichi

    2008-08-01

    Measuring some 2400 km in length, the Himalaya accommodate millions of people in northern India and Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, and parts of other Asian nations. Every year, especially during monsoon rains, landslides and related natural events in these mountains cause tremendous damage to lives, property, infrastructure, and environment. In the context of the Himalaya, however, the rainfall thresholds for landslide initiation are not well understood. This paper describes regional aspects of rainfall thresholds for landslides in the Himalaya. Some 677 landslides occurring from 1951 to 2006 were studied to analyze rainfall thresholds. Out of the 677 landslides, however, only 193 associated with rainfall data were analyzed to yield a threshold relationship between rainfall intensity, rainfall duration, and landslide initiation. The threshold relationship fitted to the lower boundary of the field defined by landslide-triggering rainfall events is I = 73.90 D- 0.79 ( I = rainfall intensity in mm h - 1 and D = duration in hours), revealing that when the daily precipitation exceeds 144 mm, the risk of landslides on Himalayan mountain slopes is high. Normalized rainfall intensity-duration relationships and landslide initiation thresholds were established from the data after normalizing rainfall-intensity data with respect to mean annual precipitation ( MAP) as an index in which NI = 1.10 D- 0.59 ( NI = normalized intensity in h - 1 ). Finally, the role of antecedent rainfall in causing landslides was also investigated by considering daily rainfall during failure and the cumulative rainfall to discover at what point antecedent rainfall plays an important role in Himalayan landslide processes. Rainfall thresholds presented in this paper are generalized so they can be used in landslide warning systems in the Nepal Himalaya.

  3. Rural Nonfarm Employment and Incomes in the Eastern Himalayas

    OpenAIRE

    Rahut, Dil Bahadur; Micevska, Maja B.

    2007-01-01

    Nonfarm activities generate on average about 60 percent of rural households? incomes in the eastern Himalayan region of India. This paper analyzes the determinants of participation in nonfarm activities and of nonfarm incomes across rural households. We present and explore an analytical framework that yields different activity choices as optimal solutions to a simple utility maximization problem. A unique data set collected in the eastern Himalayas allows us to closely examine the implication...

  4. Electrical resistivity imaging of seismically active frontal Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Given the sensitivity of resistivity to rheology, magnetotelluric measurement are undertaken to study deep crustal electrical structures and their possible linkage to the space-depth distribution of seismicity. Magnetotelluric investigations at Thirty three sites along Bijnaur-Mallari profile cutting across major litho tectonic units of Himalaya starting from Indo Ganges plain, Siwalik, Lesser, Higher Himalaya to Tethys Himalaya. Observing the low solar activity during the survey period each site was occupied for five days. Longer occupancy allowed estimation of impedance tensor at periods greater than 500 sec at most of the stations. However at few stations electric field recordings were very noisy perhaps due to unbalanced power network of the region. This is reflected in larger error bars in estimated impedance tensors. Skewness and other dimensionality parameter indicate the validity of 2-D regional model. Robust impedance decomposition for the period band of 10 Hz- 1000 sec of eleven stations reveal that EM strike coincides with the geologic fabric. Considering regional strike EM field were decoupled in TE, TM mode and then inverted for frequency dependent conductivity distribution along the profile. The most conspicuous feature of the inverted resistivity section is the low resistivity zone at a shallow depth of 10 km beneath the Indo-Gangetic Plains that dips down at a low-angle and extends as a continuous plane right up to extends as a continuous plane right up to the northern limit of the profile. The geometry of this layer is correlated with the basement thrust separating the top of the under thrusting Indian Plate from the over-riding sedimentary wedge of lesser Himalaya. The paper will discuss the tectonic and rheological significance of the results of resistivity imaging using magnetotelluric method along the profile from Bijnaur to Mallari.

  5. Genetic aspects of uranium mineralization in the Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Himalayan Uranium Province hosts five major types of uranium mineralization: (1) stratiform remobilized (Proterozoic), (2) structurally controlled hydrothermal (Proterozoic), (3) black shale-phosphorite (Palaeozoic-Mesozoic), (4) sandstone (Siwalik belt, Tertiary), and (5) primary disseminations in granitoids (Tertiary). Evaluation of the genetic aspects of these types has led to the identification of distinct spatial (lithostratigraphic and tectonic units) and temporal relations among them. The sandstone types are confined to the Tertiary (Middle Miocene to Pleistocene) molasse formations found south of th Main Boundary Thrust (MBT). Between the MBT and the Main Central Thrust, in the Lesser Himalaya, mineralization hosted in the Chail quartzite-phyllite ± metabasic sequences is of stratiform remobilized type. The structurally controlled hydrothermal type is confined to Dalings and gneisses. Syngenetic uranium in black shale-phosphorite sequences of Palaeozoic-Mesozoic age is found on the southern fringes of the Lesser Himalaya, bordering the MBT. Disseminated uranium occurs in the Tertiary and Proterozoic(?) granitoids of the Greater Himalaya and Ladakh. Rb-Sr geochronological data on host rocks and U-Pb dates on uraninites from some areas indicate that uranium mineralization in stratiform remobilized and structurally controlled types hosted by the Chails, Dalings and gneisses is essentially Precambrian and thus existed much before the Himalayan Orogeny. The Himuch before the Himalayan Orogeny. The Himalayan Orogeny, however, appears to have aided in further remobilization. The sandstone type mineralization in the Siwalik, on the other hand, is directly related to the process of formation of the foredeep and molasse sedimentation and subsequent uplift and epigenesis of the uranium mineralization, all of which are directly relatable to the evolution of the Himalaya. The relevance of deep seated lineament structures to mineralization, particularly of uranium, needs to be evaluated critically, as most of the uranium mineralization of the Proterozoic occurs in close proximity to the thrust sheets. (author). 36 refs, 8 figs, 3 tabs

  6. Fuelwood consumption pattern at different altitudes in Garhwal Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyse firewood consumption along altitudinal gradient by households according to their socio-economic conditions in Garhwal Himalaya. Consumption of fuelwood was 789, 664, 518, and 544 kg/cap-yr and energy consumption for fuelwood collection was 41, 53, 52 and 80 x 103 kg/cap-yr, respectively, above 2000, for 1500-2000, 1000-1500, and 500-1000 m. Commercial fuel consumption constituted 0.6-4.5%. (author)

  7. Dot Com Mantra: Social computing in the Central Himalayas

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    Billions of dollars are being spent nationally and globally on providing computing access to digitally disadvantaged groups and cultures with an expectation that computers and the Internet can lead to higher socio-economic mobility. This ethnographic study of social computing in the Central Himalayas, India, investigates alternative social practices with new technologies and media amongst a population that is for the most part undocumented. In doing so, this book offers fresh and critical per...

  8. Altitude-related deaths in seven trekkers in the Himalayas.

    OpenAIRE

    Dickinson, J.; Heath, D; Gosney, J; WILLIAMS, D

    1983-01-01

    The clinical features and necropsy findings are described for seven trekkers in the Himalayas whose deaths were related to high altitude. The fatal outcome was due to serious pulmonary and cerebral disease. Oedema of the lungs and brain was prominent but so was thrombosis and haemorrhage, features of acute mountain sickness that have received insufficient recognition in the past. Most of the men were middle aged. Some began their trekking soon after flying to high altitude before becoming acc...

  9. Moss flora of Munsiyari (Uttarakhand), Western Himalayas, India

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Afroz

    2013-01-01

    The present contribution is an enumerated account of mosses of Munsyari (Pithoragarh), Western Himalayas. The study revealed the presence 8 orders, 20 families, 32 genera and 44 species in the area. Moss species viz. Anoectangium walkeri Broth., Actinothuidium hookeri (Mitt.) Broth. Stereophyllum ligulatum Jaeg., Anomodon minor (Hedw.) F?rnr., Hageniells assamica Dixon, Schoenobryum cocavifolia (Griff.) Gang., Entodon luteonitens Ren. et Card. and Physcomitrium pulchellum (Grif.) Mitt. are re...

  10. How bar-headed geese fly over the Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Graham R; Hawkes, Lucy A; Frappell, Peter B; Butler, Patrick J; Bishop, Charles M; Milsom, William K

    2015-03-01

    Bar-headed geese cross the Himalayas on one of the most iconic high-altitude migrations in the world. Heart rates and metabolic costs of flight increase with elevation and can be near maximal during steep climbs. Their ability to sustain the high oxygen demands of flight in air that is exceedingly oxygen-thin depends on the unique cardiorespiratory physiology of birds in general along with several evolved specializations across the O2 transport cascade. PMID:25729056

  11. Body Wave Crustal Attenuation Characteristics in the Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Sanjay S.; Paul, Ajay; Joshi, Anand; Kamal

    2015-06-01

    We estimate frequency-dependent attenuation of P and S waves in Garhwal Himalaya using the extended coda normalization method for the central frequencies 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 16 Hz, with earthquake hypocentral distance ranging from 27 to 200 km. Forty well-located local earthquake waveforms were used to study the seismic attenuation characteristics of the Garhwal Himalaya, India, as recorded by eight stations operated by Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun, India, from 2007 to 2012. We find frequency-dependent P and S wave quality factors as defined by the relations Q P = 56 ± 8 f 0.91±0.002 and Q S = 151 ± 8 f 0.84±0.002 by fitting a power-law frequency dependence model for the estimated values over the whole region. Both the Q P and Q S values indicate strong attenuation in the crust of Garhwal Himalaya. The ratio of Q S/ Q P > 1 obtained for the entire analyzed frequency range suggests that the scattering loss is due to a random and high degree of heterogeneities in the earth medium, playing an important role in seismic wave attenuation in the Himalayan crust.

  12. Hypnum plumaeforme Wilson - New addition to the Bryoflora of Western Himalayas, India

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Afroz; sharma, Vinay; Sharma, Shiv Charan; Yadav, Sonu

    2013-01-01

    The present contribution revealed the occurrence of Hypnum plumaeforme Wilson belonging to family Hypnaceae (Bryopsida) for the first time in Munsiyari region of Uttarakhand state, which is a new addition to the bryoflora of Western Himalayas. Earlier this species was known only from eastern Himalayas (Nepal).

  13. Two Species of Bryoria (Lichenized Ascomycota, Parmeliaceae) from the Sino-Himalayas

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Li-song; Harada, Hiroshi; Koh, Young Jin; Hur, Jae-seoun

    2005-01-01

    We performed a taxonomic study on two species of the genus Bryoria from the Sino-Himalayas, SW-China. B. nadvornikiana is new to China and B. furcellata is new to Yunnan and Sichuan provinces in the Sino-Himalayas. Morphology, habitat, distributions and chemistry of the two species are discussed.

  14. Characterization of silver nanoparticles in selected consumer products and its relevance for predicting children's potential exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulve, Nicolle S; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Vance, Marina E; Rogers, Kim; Mwilu, Samuel; LeBouf, Ryan F; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Willis, Robert; Thomas, Treye A; Marr, Linsey C

    2015-05-01

    Due to their antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, and antimicrobial properties, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are used in consumer products intended for use by children or in the home. Children may be especially affected by the normal use of consumer products because of their physiological functions, developmental stage, and activities and behaviors. Despite much research to date, children's potential exposures to AgNPs are not well characterized. Our objectives were to characterize selected consumer products containing AgNPs and to use the data to estimate a child's potential non-dietary ingestion exposure. We identified and cataloged 165 consumer products claiming to contain AgNPs that may be used by or near children or found in the home. Nineteen products (textile, liquid, plastic) were selected for further analysis. We developed a tiered analytical approach to determine silver content, form (particulate or ionic), size, morphology, agglomeration state, and composition. Silver was detected in all products except one sippy cup body. Among products in a given category, silver mass contributions were highly variable and not always uniformly distributed within products, highlighting the need to sample multiple areas of a product. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of AgNPs. Using this data, a child's potential non-dietary ingestion exposure to AgNPs when drinking milk formula from a sippy cup is 1.53?g Ag/kg. Additional research is needed to understand the number and types of consumer products containing silver and the concentrations of silver in these products in order to more accurately predict children's potential aggregate and cumulative exposures to AgNPs. PMID:25747543

  15. Environmental Asthma Reduction Potential Estimates for Selected Mitigation Actions in Finland Using a Life Table Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabell Katharina Rumrich

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To quantify the reduction potential of asthma in Finland achievable by adjusting exposures to selected environmental factors. Methods: A life table model for the Finnish population for 1986–2040 was developed and Years Lived with Disability caused by asthma and attributable to the following selected exposures were estimated: tobacco smoke (smoking and second hand tobacco smoke, ambient fine particles, indoor dampness and mould, and pets. Results: At baseline (2011 about 25% of the total asthma burden was attributable to the selected exposures. Banning tobacco was the most efficient mitigation action, leading to 6% reduction of the asthma burden. A 50% reduction in exposure to dampness and mould as well as a doubling in exposure to pets lead each to a 2% reduction. Ban of urban small scale wood combustion, chosen as a mitigation action to reduce exposure to fine particles, leads to a reduction of less than 1% of the total asthma burden. Combination of the most efficient mitigation actions reduces the total asthma burden by 10%. A more feasible combination of mitigation actions leads to 6% reduction of the asthma burden. Conclusions: The adjustment of environmental exposures can reduce the asthma burden in Finland by up to 10%.

  16. Hierarchical virtual screening: identification of potential high-affinity and selective ?(3)-adrenergic receptor agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, A K; Roy, K K

    2012-07-01

    The hierarchical virtual screening (HVS) study, consisting of pharmacophore modelling, docking and VS of the generated focussed virtual library, has been carried out to identify novel high-affinity and selective ?(3)-adrenergic receptor (?-AR) agonists. The best pharmacophore model, comprising one H-bond donor, two hydrophobes, one positive ionizable and one negative ionizable feature, was developed based on a training set of 51 ?(3)-AR agonists using the pharmacophore generation protocol implemented in Discovery Studio. The model was further validated with the test set, external set and ability of the pharmacophoric features to complement the active site amino acids of the homology modelled ?(3)-AR developed using MODELLER software. The focussed virtual library was generated using the structure-based insights gained from our earlier reported comprehensive study focussing on the structural basis of ?-AR subtype selectivity of representative agonists and antagonists. The HVS with the sequential use of the best pharmacophore model and homology modelled ?(3)-AR in the screening of the generated focussed library has led to the identification of potential virtual leads as novel high-affinity and selective ?(3)-AR agonists. PMID:22452658

  17. Framing hydropower as green energy: assessing drivers, risks and tensions in the Eastern Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, R.; Budds, J.; Joshi, D.; Merme, V.; Zwarteveen, M.

    2015-04-01

    The culturally and ecologically diverse region of the Eastern Himalayas is the target of ambitious hydropower development plans. Policy discourses at national and international levels position this development as synergistically positive: it combines the production of clean energy to fuel economic growth at regional and national levels with initiatives to lift poor mountain communities out of poverty. Different from hydropower development in the 20th century in which development agencies and banks were important players, contemporary initiatives importantly rely on the involvement of private actors, with a prominent role of the private finance sector. This implies that hydropower development is not only financially viable but also understood as highly profitable. This paper examines the new development of hydropower in the Eastern Himalayas of Nepal and India. It questions its framing as green energy, interrogates its links with climate change, and examines its potential for investment and capital accumulation. To do this, we also review the evidence on the extent to which its construction and operation may modify existing hydrogeological processes and ecosystems, as well as its impacts on the livelihoods of diverse groups of people that depend on these. The paper concludes that hydropower development in the region is characterized by inherent contentions and uncertainties, refuting the idea that dams constitute development projects whose impacts can be simply predicted, controlled and mitigated. Indeed, in a highly complex geological, ecological, cultural and political context that is widely regarded to be especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change, hydropower as a development strategy makes for a toxic cocktail.

  18. Altitudinal variation of soil organic carbon stocks in temperate forests of Kashmir Himalayas, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Dar, Javid; Somaiah, Sundarapandian

    2015-02-01

    Soil organic carbon stocks were measured at three depths (0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm) in seven altitudes dominated by different forest types viz. Populus deltoides, 1550-1800 m; Juglans regia, 1800-2000 m; Cedrus deodara, 2050-2300 m; Pinus wallichiana, 2000-2300 m; mixed type, 2200-2400 m; Abies pindrow, 2300-2800 m; and Betula utilis, 2800-3200 m in temperate mountains of Kashmir Himalayas. The mean range of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks varied from 39.07 to 91.39 Mg C ha(-1) in J. regia and B. utilis forests at 0-30 cm depth, respectively. Among the forest types, the lowest mean range of SOC at three depths (0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm) was observed in J. regia (18.55, 11.31, and 8.91 Mg C ha(-1), respectively) forest type, and the highest was observed in B. utilis (54.10, 21.68, and 15.60 Mg C ha(-1), respectively) forest type. SOC stocks showed significantly (R (2)?=?0.67, P?=?0.001) an increasing trend with increase in altitude. On average, the percentages of SOC at 0-10-, 10-20-, and 20-30-cm depths were 53.2, 26.5, and 20.3 %, respectively. Bulk density increased significantly with increase in soil depth and decreased with increase in altitude. Our results suggest that SOC stocks in temperate forests of Kashmir Himalaya vary greatly with forest type and altitude. The present study reveals that SOC stocks increased with increase in altitude at high mountainous regions. Climate change in these high mountainous regions will alter the carbon sequestration potential, which would affect the global carbon cycle. PMID:25619695

  19. Thermal developmental plasticity affects body size and water conservation of Drosophila nepalensis from the Western Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkash, R; Lambhod, C; Singh, D

    2014-08-01

    In the Western Himalayas, Drosophila nepalensis is more abundant during the colder and drier winter than the warmer rainy season but the mechanistic bases of such adaptations are largely unknown. We tested effects of developmental plasticity on desiccation-related traits (body size, body melanization and water balance traits) that may be consistent with changes in seasonal abundance of this species. D. nepalensis grown at 15°C has shown twofold higher body size, greater melanization (?15-fold), higher desiccation resistance (?55 h), hemolymph as well as carbohydrate content (twofold higher) as compared with corresponding values at 25°C. Water loss before succumbing to death was much higher (?16%) at 15°C than 25°C. Developmental plastic effects on body size are associated with changes in water balance-related traits (bulk water, hemolymph and dehydration tolerance). The role of body melanization was evident from the analysis of assorted darker and lighter flies (from a mass culture of D. nepalensis reared at 21°C) which lacked differences in dry mass but showed differences in desiccation survival hours and rate of water loss. For adult acclimation, we found a slight increase in desiccation resistance of flies reared at lower growth temperature, whereas in flies reared at 25°C such a response was lacking. In D. nepalensis, greater developmental plasticity is consistent with its contrasting levels of seasonal abundance. Finally, in the context of global climate change in the Western Himalayas, D. nepalensis seems vulnerable in the warmer season due to lower adult as well as developmental acclimation potential at higher growth temperature (25°C). PMID:24923309

  20. Framing hydropower as green energy: assessing drivers, risks and tensions in the Eastern Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ahlers

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The culturally and ecologically diverse region of the Eastern Himalayas is the target of ambitious hydropower development plans. Policy discourses at national and international levels position this development as synergistically positive: it combines the production of clean energy to fuel economic growth at regional and national levels with initiatives to lift poor mountain communities out of poverty. Different from hydropower development in the 20th century in which development agencies and banks were important players, contemporary initiatives importantly rely on the involvement of private actors, with a prominent role of the private finance sector. This implies that hydropower development is not only financially viable but also understood as highly profitable. This paper examines the new development of hydropower in the Eastern Himalaya of Nepal and India. It questions its framing as green energy, interrogates its links with climate change, and examines its potential for investment and capital accumulation. To do this, we also review the evidence on the extent to which its construction and operation may modify existing hydrogeological processes and ecosystems, as well as its impacts on the livelihoods of diverse groups of people that depend on these. The paper concludes that hydropower development in the region is characterised by inherent contentions and uncertainties, refuting the idea that dams constitute development projects whose impacts can be simply predicted, controlled and mitigated. Indeed, in a highly complex geological, ecological, cultural and political context that is widely regarded to be especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change, hydropower as a development strategy makes for a toxic cocktail.

  1. Framing hydropower as green energy: assessing drivers, risks and tensions in the Eastern Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, R.; Budds, J.; Joshi, D.; Merme, V.; Zwarteveen, M.

    2014-11-01

    The culturally and ecologically diverse region of the Eastern Himalayas is the target of ambitious hydropower development plans. Policy discourses at national and international levels position this development as synergistically positive: it combines the production of clean energy to fuel economic growth at regional and national levels with initiatives to lift poor mountain communities out of poverty. Different from hydropower development in the 20th century in which development agencies and banks were important players, contemporary initiatives importantly rely on the involvement of private actors, with a prominent role of the private finance sector. This implies that hydropower development is not only financially viable but also understood as highly profitable. This paper examines the new development of hydropower in the Eastern Himalaya of Nepal and India. It questions its framing as green energy, interrogates its links with climate change, and examines its potential for investment and capital accumulation. To do this, we also review the evidence on the extent to which its construction and operation may modify existing hydrogeological processes and ecosystems, as well as its impacts on the livelihoods of diverse groups of people that depend on these. The paper concludes that hydropower development in the region is characterised by inherent contentions and uncertainties, refuting the idea that dams constitute development projects whose impacts can be simply predicted, controlled and mitigated. Indeed, in a highly complex geological, ecological, cultural and political context that is widely regarded to be especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change, hydropower as a development strategy makes for a toxic cocktail.

  2. Selective uptake of porphyrins within experimental atheromatous plaques: Potential for laser photodynamic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors investigated the selective uptake of various porphyrins atheromatous plaques. Grass and microscopic examination of atherosclorotic rabbit aortas under ultraviolet light 48 hours after porphyrin administration disclosed porphyrin fluorescence exclusively on the plaques. As judged from the fluorescence emission, the order of affinity of the porphyrins for plaque is as follows: photofrin II (PF II) > hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) > tetrasulfonatophenyl porphyrin (TPPS) ? hydroxyethylvinyldeuteroporphyrin (HVD), hematoporphyrin (HP). The potential application of intravascular irradiation of plaques labeled with porphyrins in the treatment of atheroma can be investigated using the animal model. Matching the irradiation light wave length to the porphyrin absorption peak allows specific effects to be directed to the plaque without damaging the normal vessel wall

  3. Potential of vetiver (vetiveria zizanioides l.) grass in removing selected pahs from diesel contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytoremediation has been renowned as an encouraging technology for the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soils, little is known about how plant species behave during the process of PAH phytoremediation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) plant in PAH phytoremediation and extraction potential of Vetiveria zizanioides for selected PAHs from the diesel contaminated soil. The field soil samples were spiked with varying concentrations (0.5% and 1%) of diesel and used for pot experiment which was conducted in greenhouse. Vetiver grass was used as experimental plant. Physico-chemical analysis of soil was performed before and after the experiment. Concentration of selected PAHs i.e. phenanthrene, pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene in soil was determined using HPLC. Plant parameters such as root/shoot length and dry mass were compared after harvest. Concentrations of PAHs were also determined in plant material and in soils after harvesting. Result showed that initial concentration of phenanthrene was significantly different from final concentration in treatments in which soil was spiked with diesel. Initial and final concentration of pyrene in soil was also significantly different from each other in two treatments in which soil was spiked with 1% diesel. Pyrene concentration was significantly different in roots and shoots of plants while benzo(a)pyrene concentration in treatments in which soil was spiked with diesel was also significantly different from roots and shoots. Phenanthrene was less extracted by the plant in all the treatments and it was present in higher concentration in soil as compared to plant. Our results indicate that vetiver grass has effectively removed PAHs from soil consequently a significantly higher root and shoot uptake of PAHs was observed than control treatments. Study concludes Vetiveria zizanioides as potentially promising plant specie for the removal of PAHs from diesel contaminated soil. (author)

  4. High-magnification selection of spermatozoa prior to oocyte injection: confirmed and potential indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitrelle, F; Guthauser, B; Alter, L; Bailly, M; Bergere, M; Wainer, R; Vialard, F; Albert, M; Selva, J

    2014-01-01

    Intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) involves the use of differential interference contrast microscopy at high magnification (at least ·6300) to improve the observation of live human spermatozoa (particularly by showing sperm head vacuoles that are not necessarily seen at lower magnifications) prior to intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) into the oocyte. However, a decade after IMSI’s introduction, the technique’s indications and ability to increase pregnancy and/or birth rates (relative to conventional ICSI) are subject to debate. In an attempt to clarify this debate, this work performed a systematic literature review according to the PRISMA guidelines. The PubMed database was searched from 2001 onwards with the terms ‘IMSI’, ‘MSOME’ and ‘high-magnification, sperm’. Out of 168 search results, 22 relevant studies reporting IMSI outcomes in terms of blastocyst, pregnancy, delivery and/or birth rates were selected and reviewed. The studies’ methodologies and results are described and discussed herein. In view of the scarcity of head-to-head IMSI versus ICSI studies, the only confirmed indication for IMSI is recurrent implantation failure following ICSI. All other potential indications of IMSI require further investigation. PMID:24268730

  5. Indirect purification method provides high yield and quality ssDNA sublibrary for potential aptamer selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinze; Xu, Hua; Zhou, Huayou; Wu, Fan; Su, Yuqin; Liang, Yanlian; Zhou, Dan

    2015-05-01

    The quality and yield of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) play key roles in ssDNA aptamer selection. However, current methods for generating and purifying ssDNA provides either low yield due to ssDNA loss during the gel purification process or low specificity due to tertiary structural damage of ssDNA by alkaline or exonuclease treatment in removing dsDNA and by-products. This study developed an indirect purification method that provides a high yield and quality ssDNA sublibrary. Symmetric PCR was applied to generate a sufficient template, while asymmetric PCR using an excessive nonbiotinylated forward primer and an insufficient biotinylated reverse primer combined with a biotin-strepavidin system was applied to eliminate dsDNA, hence, leading to ssDNA purification. However, no alkaline or exonuclease were involved in treating dsDNA, so as to warrant the tertiary structure of ssDNA for potential aptamer SELEX selection. Agarose gel imaging indicated that no dsDNA or by-product contamination was detected in the ssDNA sublibrary generated by the indirect purification method. Purified ssDNA concentration reached 1020±210nM, which was much greater than previous methods. In conclusion, this novel method provided a simple and fast tool for generating and purifying a high yield and quality ssDNA sublibrary. PMID:25747350

  6. The crustal structure of the western Himalayas and Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, Amy; Priestley, Keith F.; Roecker, Steven W.; Levin, Vadim; Rai, S. S.

    2015-05-01

    We present new, high-resolution, shear velocity models for the western Himalayas and West Tibet from the joint inversion of P receiver functions recorded using seismic stations from four arrays in this region and fundamental mode Rayleigh wave group velocity maps from 5-70 s covering Central and Southern Asia. The Tibetan Plateau is a key locality in understanding large-scale continental dynamics. A large number of investigations has examined the structure and processes in eastern Tibet; however, western Tibet remains relatively understudied. Previous studies in this region indicate that the western part of the Tibetan Plateau is not a simple extension of the eastern part. The areas covered by these arrays include the Karakoram and Altan-Tagh faults, and major terrane boundaries in West Tibet and the Himalayas. The arrays used include broadband data collected by the West Tibet Array, a U.S.-China deployment on the western side of the Tibetan Plateau between 2007 and 2011. We use the shear wave velocity models to obtain estimates of Moho depth. The Moho is deep (68-84 km) throughout West Tibet. We do not observe significant steps within the Moho beneath West Tibet. A large step in Moho depth is observed at the Altyn-Tagh fault, where Moho depths are 20-30 km shallower to the north of the fault compared to those to the south. Beneath the Lhasa Terrane and Tethyan Himalayas, we observe a low-velocity zone in the midcrust. This feature is not interrupted by the Karakoram Fault, suggesting that the Karakoram Fault does not cut through the entire crust.

  7. Phenological attributes of Angelica glauca and A. archangelica expressed at two different climatic zones in Western Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv K. Vashistha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Angelica glauca Edgew. and A. archangelica Linn., are high value medicinal and aromatic plants of the Himalaya. The present study examined phenological attributes of these species under cultivation at two different climatic zones in Western Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India. Plants of both species were cultivated in Tungnath (TN, an alpine zone (3600 m asl and in Pothivasa (PV, a temperate zone (2200 m asl. The results showed that the commencement and completion periods of phenophases, viz., growth initiation, vegetative phase, flowering, fruiting and senescence in both species varied greatly between the climatic zones. However, this variation was negligible between the species. It indicates that there is a need to develop location specific strategy for cultivation and management of the selected species. Further, the information will be highly helpful in determining appropriate time of cultivation practices, viz., seed sowing to harvesting of these species. Based on the corresponding life cycle of these species, it was also concluded that both the species can be cultivated in similar climatic conditions. Overall, the study will help in understanding adaptation features and planning strategies for successful cultivation and effective conservation management of these species.

  8. The Large-Bodied hominoids of the Himalayas

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Trachtengerts

    2012-01-01

    The review of available data concerning to large-bodied hominoids detected in the Himalayas is presented. They are mainly footprints (photographs by E.Shipton and M.Ward, P.Bordet, F.Smythe, and A.Woodridge) and also narration of one remote observation. It is shown that on the whole these data reveal basic features of the undefined creature, most probably humanlike primate, and allow describing it as a separate species. One of its features is unusual four-toed foot with two strong toes and tw...

  9. Climate, topography and erosion in the Nepal Himalayas

    OpenAIRE

    Andermann, Christoff

    2011-01-01

    Cette thèse porte sur le rôle des précipitations sur l’érosion et la formation des reliefs dans l’Himalaya Népalais. J’étudie chaque étape du processus d’érosion : 1) Evaluation des bases de données de précipitations, 2) Transfert des précipitations au débit fluvial, 3) Mobilisation et transport du matériel dans le bassin versant, et enfin 4) Mécanismes d’érosion sur de longues échelles de temps. Je montre que la base de données de précipitations obtenue par interpolation de données pluviomét...

  10. The Large-Bodied hominoids of the Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Trachtengerts

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The review of available data concerning to large-bodied hominoids detected in the Himalayas is presented. They are mainly footprints (photographs by E.Shipton and M.Ward, P.Bordet, F.Smythe, and A.Woodridge and also narration of one remote observation. It is shown that on the whole these data reveal basic features of the undefined creature, most probably humanlike primate, and allow describing it as a separate species. One of its features is unusual four-toed foot with two strong toes and two small toes. A taxonomic name for this hominoid is proposed ¾ Homo pardigitatus sp. nov. ("That has paired toes".

  11. Objective selection of EEG late potentials through residual dependence estimation of independent components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a novel method to objectively select electroencephalographic (EEG) cortical sources estimated by independent component analysis (ICA) in event-related potential (ERP) studies. A proximity measure based on mutual information is employed to estimate residual dependences of the components that are then hierarchically clustered based on these residual dependences. Next, the properties of each group of components are evaluated at each level of the hierarchical tree by two indices that aim to assess both cluster tightness and physiological reliability through a template matching process. These two indices are combined in three different approaches to bring to light the hierarchical structure of the cluster organizations. Our method is tested on a set of experiments with the purpose of enhancing late positive ERPs elicited by emotional picture stimuli. Results suggest that the best way to look for physiologically plausible late positive potential (LPP) sources is to explore in depth the tightness of those clusters that, taken together, best resemble the template. According to our results, after brain sources clustering, LPPs are always identified more accurately than from ensemble-averaged raw data. Since the late components of an ERP involve the same associative areas, regardless of the modality of stimulation or specific tasks administered, the proposed method can be simply adapted to other ERP studies, and extended from psychophysiological studies to pathological or sport training evaluation support

  12. Selection of Potential Pharmacological Targets in ALS Based on Whole- Genome Expression Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Giovanna; Conforti, Francesca Luisa; Parenti, Rosalba; D'Agata, Velia; Cavallaro, Sebastiano

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal disease caused by the gradual degeneration and death of upper and lower motor neurons. Despite continue efforts, the etiology and pathogenesis of ALS are not well understood yet. The lack of knowledge about molecular and cellular players involved in the neurodegenerative progression of ALS hinders effective therapy development. Several genomicbased studies have been conducted to identify genetic contributors to sporadic ALS (SALS) and new potential pharmacological targets, but these have resulted in short and non-overlapping lists of candidates. In the last few years, our research group has developed the largest whole-genome expression profile database of SALS human samples. We have identified several genes deregulated in the motor cortex of SALS patients and analyzed the role of these genes within deregulated pathways, providing a full molecular portrait of ALS pathogenesis. Some of deregulated genes encode for proteins that are direct or indirect targets of experimental or therapeutic drugs already applied to unrelated diseases. In this review, we focus on the potential role of candidate targets in ALS pathophysiology, highlighting their possible contribution to ALS therapy. The rational selection of the most promising drug targets and related modulatory drugs may provide a starting point for their preclinical or clinical validation and, hopefully, the development of more effective treatments for ALS patients. PMID:25850769

  13. Selection of potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria from fermented olives by in vitro tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyri, Anthoula A; Zoumpopoulou, Georgia; Karatzas, Kimon-Andreas G; Tsakalidou, Effie; Nychas, George-John E; Panagou, Efstathios Z; Tassou, Chrysoula C

    2013-04-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from naturally fermented olives and select candidates to be used as probiotic starters for the improvement of the traditional fermentation process and the production of newly added value functional foods. Seventy one (71) lactic acid bacterial strains (17 Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 1 Ln. pseudomesenteroides, 13 Lactobacillus plantarum, 37 Lb. pentosus, 1 Lb. paraplantarum, and 2 Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei) isolated from table olives were screened for their probiotic potential. Lb. rhamnosus GG and Lb. casei Shirota were used as reference strains. The in vitro tests included survival in simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions, antimicrobial activity (against Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli O157:H7), Caco-2 surface adhesion, resistance to 9 antibiotics and haemolytic activity. Three (3) Lb. pentosus, 4 Lb. plantarum and 2 Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei strains demonstrated the highest final population (>8 log cfu/ml) after 3 h of exposure at low pH. The majority of the tested strains were resistant to bile salts even after 4 h of exposure, while 5 Lb. plantarum and 7 Lb. pentosus strains exhibited partial bile salt hydrolase activity. None of the strains inhibited the growth of the pathogens tested. Variable efficiency to adhere to Caco-2 cells was observed. This was the same regarding strains' susceptibility towards different antibiotics. None of the strains exhibited ?-haemolytic activity. As a whole, 4 strains of Lb. pentosus, 3 strains of Lb. plantarum and 2 strains of Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei were found to possess desirable in vitro probiotic properties similar to or even better than the reference probiotic strains Lb. casei Shirota and Lb. rhamnosus GG. These strains are good candidates for further investigation both with in vivo studies to elucidate their potential health benefits and in olive fermentation processes to assess their technological performance as novel probiotic starters. PMID:23200662

  14. Implications of recent levelling observations for Tehri and other high dams in the Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seismic hazards around the Tehri and other existing and proposed high dams in the Himalaya are a matter of concern to many people. The magnitude and dimensions of the problem appear to increase with every new set of geophysical and geological data gathered from the Himalaya. But the flexibility and readiness of the people involved to improve their designs for the dams transparently in the light of the evolving perceptions about seismic hazards is not evident to us at least. In this article the evidence for an aspect of seismic hazards in the Himalaya is buttressed. (author). 44 refs., 3 figs

  15. Environmental change and challenge in the Himalaya. A historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ives, Jack D.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This overview, or retrospective, has two objectives. The first is to demonstrate how the principles of ‘mountain geoecology’ were applied in an attempt to counteract the political and socio-economic impacts of a major and misguided environmental orthodoxy-the Theory of Himalayan Environmental Degradation (henceforth to be referred to as the ‘Theory’. The second is to explore the difficulties of transferring the results of on-going scholarly mountain research into the public and political decision-making process. In this sense the paper should be regarded as a case study of the potentially serious effects of exaggerated and emotionally based responses to orthodoxies founded on assumptions and latter-day myths. A third objective, reserved for the companion paper in this issue, outlines the origins of mountain geoecology and explores how academic research influenced the inclusion of high level concern for mountain problems within AGENDA 21, one of the principal results of the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development (popularly known as the Rio Earth Summit and declaration of 2002 as the International Year of Mountains. The original environmental orthodoxy (the Theory has been eclipsed since the turn of the Millennium by a new populist alarm proposing that the current climate warming will cause all the Himalayan glaciers to disappear in the near future. From this it would follow that, as the glacier melt progresses, numerous large glacial lakes, forming as a consequence, would burst and the ensuing floods would annihilate many millions of people. Eventually, as the glaciers disappeared vital rivers, such as the Ganges and Brahmaputra, would wither to seasonal streams heralding further massive loss of life due to desertification and starvation. This current environmental alarm could be regarded as a present day parallel to the original Theory and will be examined in the final section of the paper. Between 1970 and about 1985 it was almost universal wisdom amongst scholars and development specialists, as well as conservationists, that the Himalaya were on the brink of environmental, and hence socio-economic and political collapse. This theme of gloom and doom was taken up avidly by journalists, politicians, and diplomats; it influenced the expenditure of large sums of aid and development money, and augmented periodic international confrontations. In concise terms, in the early 1970s an assumed approaching environmental disaster was perceived to be driven by relentless growth in the population of subsistence hill communities and their dependence on mountain forests for fuel, fodder, building materials, and conversion to agricultural land. The assumption of rapid and catastrophic deforestation of steep hillslopes under a monsoon climate (the World Bank predicted that there would be no accessible forest remaining in Nepal by the year 2000 led inexorably to a series of dependent assumptions: increasing soil erosion and worsening landslide incidence; accelerated flooding and siltation on the plains of Gangetic India and Bangladesh; social and political unrest, if not serious armed conflict – the notion of a world super-crisis, considering that the region in question contained about ten percent of the world’s entire human population and about thirty percent of its poorest. As will be emphasized later, none of this all-embracing construct was based on reliable evidence, but it was accepted world-wide as a given. It represents a prime example of the dangers associated with convenient adoption of environmental myths, or environmental orthodoxies, especially where the myth is a Western ‘scientific’ construct. I characterized it as The Theory of Himalayan Environmental Degradation (Ives, 1985.Esta perspectiva global, o retrospectiva, tiene dos objetivos. El primero es demostrar cómo se aplicaron los principios de la “geoecología de montaña” en un intento por contrarrestar los impactos políticos y socioeconómicos de una errónea ortodoxia ambiental, la Teoría de la Degr

  16. Conflicting selection on diaspore traits limits the evolutionary potential of seed dispersal by ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzaneda, Antonio J; Rey, P J; Alcántara, J M

    2009-07-01

    Conflicts of selection on diaspore traits throughout the dispersal cycle can limit the evolutionary consequences of seed dispersal. However, these conflicts have never been investigated in directed dispersal systems. We explored conflicts of selection through life stages of dispersal in the myrmecochorous herb Helleborus foetidus. Seeds are subject to two contrasting partial selective scenarios. Undispersed seeds are subject to positive directional selection on seed size characters, whereas seeds dispersed are subject to stabilizing selection for size. In both scenarios, seedling establishment determined the magnitude and direction of selection. This does not reflect ant preferences for seed size. However, total selection still depends largely on ant activity, as ants control the relative importance of each selective scenario. We advocate the use of analytical approaches combining multiplicative fitness and microenvironment-specific selection to more realistically estimate the realized selection on traits functional during several life stages. This approach may be extended to any organism dispersing offspring to different environments. PMID:19460082

  17. Soil-gas radon as seismotectonic indicator in Garhwal Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on earthquake-related radon monitoring has received enormous attention recently. Anomalous behaviour of radon in soil and groundwater can be used as a reliable precursor for an impending earthquake. While earthquake prediction may not yet be possible, earthquake prediction research has greatly increased our understanding of earthquake source mechanisms, the structural complexities of fault zones, and the earthquake recurrence interval, expected at a given location. This paper presents some results of continuous monitoring of radon in soil-gas in Garhwal Himalaya, India. Daily soil-gas radon monitoring with seismic activity and meteorological parameters were performed in the same laboratory system, located at H.N.B. Garhwal University Campus, Tehri Garhwal, India. Radon anomalies along with meteorological parameters were found to be statistically significant for the seismic events within the magnitudes M2.0-M6.0 and epicentral distances of 16-250 km from the monitoring station. The frequent positive and negative anomalies with constant environmental perturbation indicate the opening and closing of micro cracks within the volume of dilatancy by strain energy. The spike-like and sharp peak anomalies were recorded before, during and after earthquakes occurred in the area. The variations in radon concentrations in soil-gas are found to be correlated with seismic activities in the Garhwal Himalaya. The correlation between radon level and meteorological parameters iadon level and meteorological parameters is also discussed

  18. A Probabilistic Estimate of the Most Perceptible Earthquake Magnitudes in the NW Himalaya and Adjoining Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, R. B. S.; Koravos, G. Ch.; Tsapanos, T. M.; Vougiouka, G. E.

    2015-02-01

    NW Himalaya and its neighboring region (25°-40°N and 65°-85°E) is one of the most seismically hazardous regions in the Indian subcontinent, a region that has historically experienced large to great damaging earthquakes. In the present study, the most perceptible earthquake magnitudes, M p, are estimated for intensity I = VII, horizontal peak ground acceleration a = 300 cm/s2 and horizontal peak ground velocity v = 10 cm/s in 28 seismogenic zones using the two earthquake recurrence models of Kijko and Sellevoll (Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 82(1):120-134 1992 ) and Gumbel's third asymptotic distribution of extremes (GIII). Both methods deal with maximum magnitudes. The earthquake perceptibility is calculated by combining earthquake recurrence models with ground motion attenuation relations at a particular level of intensity, acceleration and velocity. The estimated results reveal that the values of M p for velocity v = 10 cm/s show higher estimates than corresponding values for intensity I = VII and acceleration a = 300 cm/s2. It is also observed that differences in perceptible magnitudes calculated by the Kijko-Sellevoll method and GIII statistics show significantly high values, up to 0.7, 0.6 and 1.7 for intensity, acceleration and velocity, respectively, revealing the importance of earthquake recurrence model selection. The estimated most perceptible earthquake magnitudes, M p, in the present study vary from M W 5.1 to 7.7 in the entire zone of the study area. Results of perceptible magnitudes are also represented in the form of spatial maps in 28 seismogenic zones for the aforementioned threshold levels of intensity, acceleration and velocity, estimated from two recurrence models. The spatial maps show that the Quetta of Pakistan, the Hindukush-Pamir Himalaya, the Caucasus mountain belt and the Himalayan frontal thrust belt (Kashmir-Kangra-Uttarkashi-Chamoli regions) exhibit higher values of the most perceptible earthquake magnitudes ( M W > 6.0). These spatially-distributed values indicate good agreement with high seismic hazard zones in previously published hazard maps based on seismicity, maximum expected earthquake magnitudes during specific time intervals and maximum expected acceleration. These maps have useful implications in preparing earthquake selection criteria for the anti-seismic design of non-critical structures in the study region.

  19. Screening of different Fusarium species to select potential species for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Swapnil C., Gaikwad; Sonal S., Birla; Avinash P., Ingle; Aniket K., Gade; Priscyla D., Marcato; Mahendra, Rai; Nelson, Duran.

    1974-19-01

    Full Text Available Onze diferentes espécies de Fusarium foram isoladas a partir de vários materiais vegetais infectados e selecionados para escolher uma espécie potencialmente importante para a síntese de nanopartículas de prata. Todos os isolados foram identificados com base nas características de cultivo e microscóp [...] icas usando as chaves de identificação de Fusarium. Para a confirmação e identificação preliminar dos isolados de espécies de Fusarium, a análise BLAST on-line foi utilizada. Das espécies isoladas onze mostraram a capacidade para a síntese de nanopartículas de prata. A síntese de nanopartículas de prata foi confirmada por espectroscopia de UV-Vis que monstrou um pico característico em torno de 420 nm. Além disso, a confirmação da síntese de nanopartículas de prata foi realizada utilizando a análise de rastreamento de nanoparticulas (nanoparticle tracking analysis-NTA), medidas de potencial zeta, espectroscopia de correlação de fótons (PCS), difratometria de raios X de pó (XRD), e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (TEM). As menores nanopartículas de prata foram sintetizadas por F. oxysporum (3-25 nm), enquanto as maiores foram obtidas com F. solani (3-50 nm). Abstract in english Eleven different Fusarium species were isolated from various infected plant materials and screened to select a potential species for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. All the isolates were identified on the basis of cultural and microscopic characteristics using Fusarium identification keys. Fo [...] r the confirmation of preliminary identified isolates of Fusarium species, online BLAST analysis was carried out. All the eleven species demonstrated the ability for synthesis of silver nanoparticles. This was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy, which gave characteristic peak around 420 nm. Further confirmation of silver nanoparticles was carried out using nanoparticles tracking analysis (NTA), zeta potential, photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), powder X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The smallest size of silver nanoparticles was synthesized by F. oxysporum (3-25 nm) and largest size silver nanoparticles were synthesized by F. solani (3-50 nm).

  20. Characteristics of potential gasifier fuels in selected regions of the Lake Victoria Basin

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Geoffrey O., Mosiori; Charles O., Onindo; Paul, Mugabi; Susan B., Tumwebaze; Samuel, Bagabo; Rukundo B., Johnson.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available All countries in the Lake Victoria Basin depend mostly on hydroelectric power for the provision of energy. Gasification technology has a high potential for reducing biomass energy consumption whilst increasing access to modern energy services. The key aspect for the failure of gasification operation [...] s in the Lake Victoria Basin is inadequate adaptation of gasification equipment to fuel characteristics, lack of fuel specification and inappropriate material choice. We therefore investigated the thermo-chemical characterisation of six biomass fuels, namely Pinus caribaea, Calitris robusta, Cupressus lusitanica, Eucalyptus grandis, Pinus patula and sugarcane bagasse from selected regions of the Lake Victoria Basin. Ultimate analysis was done using a Flash 2000 elemental analyser. Moisture content, ash content and volatile matter were determined in oven and muffle furnaces while heating values were determined using a Gallenkamp calorimeter. The mean percentage levels obtained indicate that all six biomass fuels had a mean range for nitrogen of 0.07±0.2-0.25±0.07%, for carbon of 40.45±0.61-48.88±0.29%, for hydrogen of 4.32±0.13-5.59±0.18% and for oxygen of 43.41±1.58-51.1±0.64%. Moisture content ranged between 25.74±1.54% and 56.69±0.52%, ash content between 0.38±0.02% and 2.94±0.14%, volatile matter between 74.68±0.49% and 82.71±0.19% and fixed carbon between 14.35±0.33% and 24.74±0.27%. Heating values ranged between 16.95±0.10 MJ/kg and 19.48±0.42 MJ/kg. The results suggest that all six biomass fuels are potential biomass gasification materials.

  1. Interactions of biotic and abiotic environmental factors in an ectomycorrhizal symbiosis, and the potential for selection mosaics

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeksema Jason D; Piculell Bridget J; Thompson John N

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Geographic selection mosaics, in which species exert different evolutionary impacts on each other in different environments, may drive diversification in coevolving species. We studied the potential for geographic selection mosaics in plant-mycorrhizal interactions by testing whether the interaction between bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don) and one of its common ectomycorrhizal fungi (Rhizopogon occidentalis Zeller and Dodge) varies in outcome, when different combination...

  2. Intrinsic Immunomodulatory Effects of Low-Digestible Carbohydrates Selectively Extend Their Anti-Inflammatory Prebiotic Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plé, Coline; Guerin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Pot, Bruno; Lefranc-Millot, Catherine; Wils, Daniel; Foligné, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    The beneficial effects of carbohydrate-derived fibers are mainly attributed to modulation of the microbiota, increased colonic fermentation, and the production of short-chain fatty acids. We studied the direct immune responses to alimentary fibers in in vitro and in vivo models. Firstly, we evaluated the immunomodulation induced by nine different types of low-digestible fibers on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. None of the fibers tested induced cytokine production in baseline conditions. However, only one from all fibers almost completely inhibited the production of anti- and proinflammatory cytokines induced by bacteria. Secondly, the impact of short- (five days) and long-term (three weeks) oral treatments with selected fibers was assessed in the trinitrobenzene-sulfonic acid colitis model in mice. The immunosuppressive fiber significantly reduced levels of inflammatory markers over both treatment periods, whereas a nonimmunomodulatory fiber had no effect. The two fibers did not differ in terms of the observed fermentation products and colonic microbiota after three weeks of treatment, suggesting that the anti-inflammatory action was not related to prebiotic properties. Hence, we observed a direct effect of a specific fiber on the murine immune system. This intrinsic, fiber-dependent immunomodulatory potential may extend prebiotic-mediated protection in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:25977916

  3. Selection of a mineral binder with potentialities for the stabilization/solidification of aluminum metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cau Dit Coumes, C.; Lambertin, D.; Lahalle, H.; Antonucci, P.; Cannes, C.; Delpech, S.

    2014-10-01

    In a strongly alkaline medium, such as that encountered in conventional cementitious materials based on Portland cement, aluminum metal is corroded, with continued production of hydrogen. In order to develop a mineral matrix having enhanced compatibility with aluminum, a literature review was first undertaken to identify binders capable of reducing the pore solution pH compared with Portland cement. An experimental study was then carried out to measure the hydrogen production resulting from corrosion of aluminum metal rods encapsulated in the different selected cement pastes. The best results were achieved with magnesium phosphate cement, which released very little hydrogen over the duration of the study. This production could be reduced still further by adding a corrosion inhibitor (lithium nitrate) to the mixing solution. Open circuit potential measurement and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy of aluminum electrode encapsulated in two pastes based on Portland cement and magnesium phosphate cement showed different redox behaviors. In the Portland cement paste, the electrochemical data confirmed the corrosion of aluminum whereas this latter tended to a passive state in the magnesium phosphate binder.

  4. Application of an artificial neural network model for selection of potential lung cancer biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligor, Tomasz; Pater, ?ukasz; Buszewski, Bogus?aw

    2015-01-01

    Determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the exhaled breath samples of lung cancer patients and healthy controls was carried out by SPME-GC/MS (solid phase microextraction- gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry) analyses. In order to compensate for the volatile exogenous contaminants, ambient air blank samples were also collected and analyzed. We recruited a total of 123 patients with biopsy-confirmed lung cancer and 361 healthy controls to find the potential lung cancer biomarkers. Automatic peak deconvolution and identification were performed using chromatographic data processing software (AMDIS with NIST database). All of the VOCs sample data operation, storage and management were performed using the SQL (structured query language) relational database. The selected eight VOCs could be possible biomarker candidates. In cross-validation on test data sensitivity was 63.5% and specificity 72.4% AUC 0.65. The low performance of the model has been mainly due to overfitting and the exogenous VOCs that exist in breath. The dedicated software implementing a multilayer neural network using a genetic algorithm for training was built. Further work is needed to confirm the performance of the created experimental model. PMID:25944812

  5. Dispersal syndrome differentiation of Pinus armandii in Southwest China: Key elements of a potential selection mosaic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fan; Chen, Jin

    2011-11-01

    Pinus armandii is a species of pine native to China with a wide geographical distribution and large-wingless seeds (about 300 mg). The study is to determine the variation in seed dispersal traits among populations within a relative small geographic scale and furthermore to explore if the trait differentiation results in the differences in dispersers, in particular nutcrackers ( Nucifraga caryocatactes) and scatter-hoarding rodents. We conducted studies at five sites at different elevations in northwest Yunnan Province. The study sites are separated by 10-200 km and divided into populations partly isolated by mountains and rivers. The cone and seed traits diverged significantly among the five study sites while the traits among individual trees at each site did not differ significantly. Nutcrackers and scatter-hoarding rodents presented conflicting preference in cone and seed traits: nutcrackers preferred smaller cones with smaller seeds, which increased the foraging efficiency of nutcrackers; while scatter-hoarding rodents tended to cache larger seeds. Consistent with variation in preferences by nutcrackers and scatter-hoarding rodents, in nutcracker-dominated sites, pines were characterized by smaller cones, smaller seeds, and thinner seed coats; while in sites where nutcrackers were not abundant, pines had relatively larger cones with larger seeds, which could enhance caching activities by scatter-hoarding rodents. The study provided some key elements for potential selection mosaic on cone and seed traits of a long-lived perennial tree among populations with limited geographical range.

  6. Breeding potential of selected crosses for genetic improvement of finger millet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayarame Gowda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Often, a plant breeder/researcher is confronted with thetask of handling segregating populations derived from alarge number of crosses. Early elimination of poor crosseshelps in efficient utilization of land, time and humanresources and allows handling of reasonably largesegregating populations derived from a few promisingcrosses. Under this premise, an investigation was carriedout at the experimental fields of University of AgriculturalSciences (UAS, GKVK campus, Bangalore, India during1998–2000 to assess the utility of general combiningability (gca of selected parents for making crosses thatare likely to result in superior recombinant inbred lines(RILs in advanced generations. Two crosses whoseparents differed for their combining ability were comparedwith the cross whose parents were similar for theircombining ability for their likely productivity in isolatingsuperior recombinant lines. The results revealed that thecrosses involving at least one of their parents with highgca effects are productive for deriving RILs with desiredtraits and desired mean expression. The mean andvariance of early segregating generation serve as usefulguidelines for predicting the breeding potential of crosses.

  7. Microscopic origin of stereochemically active lone pair formation from orbital selective external potential calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nature of the stereochemically active lone pair has long been a matter for debate. Here, by application of our recently developed orbital selective external potential (OSEP) method, we have studied the microscopic mechanism of stereochemically active lone pairs in various compounds. The OSEP method allows us to shift the energy level of a specific atomic orbital, therefore is helpful to identify unambiguously the role of this orbital in the chemical and physical properties of the system we are interested in. Our numerical results, with compelling proofs, demonstrate that the on-site mixing of the cation valence s orbital with the nominally empty p orbitals of the same subshell is crucial to the formation of a lone pair, whereas the anion p orbital has only a small effect. Our detailed investigation of Sn and Pb monochalcogenides shows that structures of these systems have significant effects on lone pairs. In return, the formation of lone pairs, which can be controlled by our OSEP method, could result in structural instabilities of Sn and Pb monochalcogenides. (paper)

  8. Improvement of selected strains through gamma irradiation for enhanced lipolytic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the present investigation was to enhance the production of industrially important enzyme lipase by subjecting the wild lipase producing fungal strains i.e. Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus microsporus and Penicillium atrovenetum to various doses of gamma irradiation (20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140 and 160 Gy). The isolation and lipolytic activity of selected mutant derived strains is described in this paper. Among all the mutants tested, MBL-5 obtained at 140Gy of Aspergillus niger strain showed highest extracellular lipase activity (13.75 +- 0.15 U mL/sup -1/) while MBL-1 Rhizopus microsporus at the rate 20Gy showed the lowest activity i.e., 1.06 +- 0.11 U mL/sup -1/. A range of pH 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 was used to check the lipolytic potential of various mutants along with their wild type. It was observed that MBL-5 (Aspergillus niger) and MBL-2 (Rhizopus microsporus) showed enhanced extracellular lipase activity at pH 11 while MBL-3 (Penicillium atrovenetum) showed the highest extracellular lipase activity 22.53 +- 0.21 U mL/sup -1/ at pH 9. It indicates a possible role for the MBL-2, MBL-3 and MBL-5 mutant strains in the detergent industry for the development of eco-friendly technologies. (author)

  9. Atmospheric transport and accumulation of organochlorine compounds on the southern slopes of the Himalayas, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ping; Wang, Xiao-ping; Li, Sheng-hai; Yu, Wu-sheng; Li, Jiu-le; Kattel, Dambaru Ballab; Wang, Wei-cai; Devkota, Lochan Prasad; Yao, Tan-dong; Joswiak, Daniel R

    2014-09-01

    Studies have been devoted to the transport and accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in mountain environments. The Himalayas have the widest altitude gradient of any mountain range, but few studies examining the environmental behavior of POPs have been performed in the Himalayas. In this study, air, soil, and leaf samples were collected along a transect on the southern slope of the Himalayas, Nepal (altitude: 135-5100 m). Local emission occurred in the lowlands, and POPs were transported by uplift along the slope. During the atmospheric transport, the HCB proportion increased from the lowlands (20%) to high elevation (>50%), whereas the proportions of DDTs decreased. The largest residue of soil POPs appeared at an altitude of approximately 2500 m, and may be related to absorption by vegetation and precipitation. The net deposition tendencies at the air-soil surface indicated that the Himalayas may be a 'sink' for DDTs and PCBs. PMID:24880535

  10. Carbon and oxygen isotope changes in Siwalik soils from Nepal Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siwalik sediments of lower Himalayas are derived from the erosion of the rocks from higher reaches and deposited in the foreland basin. These group of sediments are formed over the time span of last ?20 Ma

  11. Changes in Imja Lake and Karda Lake in the Everest Region of Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    Wenbo Chen; Tomoko Doko; Hiromichi Fukui; Wanglin Yan

    2013-01-01

    The Himalaya is a region sensitive to climate change. Changes in the glacial regime are one indicator of global climate changes. There are several studies focusing on analysis of temporal changes of these glacial lakes in the Himalaya region. However, the researches on addressing these trends in relation with surrounding topographical conditions are quite limited. In this study, we analyzed spatio-temporal changes in Imja Lake, located on the southern slope, and Karda Lake, located on th...

  12. High altitude survival: conflicts between pastoralism and wildlife in the Trans-Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, C.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords : Pastoralism, agriculture, wildlife, Himalaya, competition, bharal, yak, livestock, snow leopard, wolf, herbivore, ungulate, resource, rangeland, steppe, mountainHow harmonious is the coexistence between pastoralism and wildlife? This thesis is a response to repeated calls for a better understanding of pastoralism and its impacts on wildlife in India. Based on studies in the high altitude rangelands of the Trans-Himalaya that have a grazing history of over three millennia, I attempt...

  13. Glacial Lake Expansion in the Central Himalayas by Landsat Images, 1990–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Nie, Yong; Liu, Qiao; Liu, Shiyin

    2013-01-01

    Glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) is a serious hazard in high, mountainous regions. In the Himalayas, catastrophic risks of GLOFs have increased in recent years because most Himalayan glaciers have experienced remarkable downwasting under a warming climate. However, current knowledge about the distribution and recent changes in glacial lakes within the central Himalaya mountain range is still limited. Here, we conducted a systematic investigation of the glacial lakes within the entire centra...

  14. Aerosol Characteristics at a High Altitude Location in Central Himalayas: Optical Properties and Radiative Forcing

    OpenAIRE

    P. Pant; Hegde, P.; Dumka, U. C.; Sagar, Ram; Satheesh, S. K.; Moorthy, K. Krishna

    2006-01-01

    Collocated measurements of the mass concentrations of aerosol black carbon (BC) and composite aerosols near the surface were carried out along with spectral aerosol optical depths (AODs) from a high altitude station, Manora Peak in Central Himalayas, during a comprehensive aerosol field campaign in December 2004. Despite being a pristine location in the Shivalik Ranges of Central Himalayas, and having a monthly mean AOD (at 500 nm) of 0.059 $\\pm$ 0.033 (typical to this site)...

  15. Widespread Climate Change in the Himalayas and Associated Changes in Local Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Kamaljit S Bawa; Shrestha, Uttam Babu; Gautam, Shiva Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Background: Climate change in the Himalayas, a biodiversity hotspot, home of many sacred landscapes, and the source of eight largest rivers of Asia, is likely to impact the well-being of \\(\\sim\\)20% of humanity. However, despite the extraordinary environmental, cultural, and socio-economic importance of the Himalayas, and despite their rapidly increasing ecological degradation, not much is known about actual changes in the two most critical climatic variables: temperature and rainfall. Nor do...

  16. The genus Chaerilus Simon, 1877 (Scorpiones, Chaerilidae) in the Himalayas and description of a new species

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Lourenço; Bernard Duhem

    2010-01-01

    A new species is described belonging to the genus Chaerilus Simon, 1877. Chaerilus annapurna sp. n. was discovered in the high plateaux of the Himalayas in Central-Western Nepal. For comparative purposes a precise re-diagnosis is proposed for Chaerilus truncatus Karsch, 1879, originally described from an imprecise locality in Himalaya. This species has recently been discussed by several authors: nevertheless, it has sometimes been the subject of misidentification.

  17. Selected Extracellular microRNA as Potential Biomarkers of Multiple Sclerosis Activity-Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacperska, Magdalena Justyna; Jastrzebski, Karol; Tomasik, Bartlomiej; Walenczak, Jakub; Konarska-Krol, Maria; Glabinski, Andrzej

    2015-05-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Four distinct disease courses are known, although approximately 90 % of patients are diagnosed with the relapsing-remitting form (RRMS). The name "multiple sclerosis" pertains to the underlying pathology: the presence of demyelinating plaques in the CNS, in particular in the periventricular region, corpus callosum, cervical spine, and the cerebellum. There are ongoing efforts to discover biomarkers that would allow for an unequivocal diagnosis, assess the activity of inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes, or warn of disease progression. At present, small noncoding RNA particles-microRNA (miRNA, miR) seem to be particularly noteworthy, as they take part in posttranscriptional regulation of expression of various genes. Changes in composition as well as function of miRNA found in body fluids of MS patients are subjects of research, in the hope they prove accurate markers of MS activity. This preliminary study aims to evaluate the expression of selected extracellular microRNA particles (miRNA-let-7a, miRNA-92a, miRNA-684a) in patients experiencing MS relapse and remission, with healthy volunteers serving as a control group and to evaluate the correlation between miRNA expression and selected clinical parameters of those patients. Thirty-seven patients suffering from MS formed two examined groups: 20 patients undergoing relapse and 17 in remission. Thirty healthy volunteers formed the control group. All patients who were subjects to peripheral blood sampling had been hospitalized in the Department of Neurology and Stroke(1). Four milliliters of venous whole blood had been collected into EDTA tubes. The basis for the selection of the three particular miRNA investigated in this study (miRNA-let-7a, miRNA-92a, miRNA-684a) was a preliminary bioinformatic analysis of data compiled from several medical databases, including Ovid MEDLINE®, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), miRWalk, and miRBase. The isolation of extracellular microRNA from plasma was carried out using miRNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen) reagents. The reverse transcription was carried out with TaqMan® MicroRNA Reverse Transcription Kit (Applied Biosystems), as per manufacturers' instructions. Standard microRNA TaqMan® tests (Applied Biosystems) were used for miRNA quantification. The qPCR were performed on a 7900 HT Fast Real-Time PCR System (Applied Biosystems) and analyzed using Sequence Detection System 2.3 software. In addition, all patients at the Department of Neurology and Stroke undergo a routine complete blood count with differential. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the expression of selected microRNA (has-miR-let-7a, miR-92a, and miR-648a) in the plasma of patients with MS during a relapse as well as in remission and attempt to correlate the acquired data with clinically relevant parameters of the disease. Finding such correlations may potentially lead to the use of miRNA as a biomarker of MS, which could help diagnose the disease and assess its severity and the efficacy of treatment. The difference in the expression of has-miR-let-7a in the remission group and the control group was statistically significant (p?=?0.002). Similarly, the expression of miRNA-648a in patients in remission was significantly different from the expression in the control group (p?=?0.02). Analysis of the correlation between the expression of miRNA-92a and the severity of the disease as measured by the EDSS scale in patients undergoing relapse showed significant negative linear correlation (r?=?-0.54, p?=?0.01). Higher miR-648a expression correlated with more frequent flare-ups in the joint group of patients in remission and relapse (p?=?0.03). This study is one of the few that demonstrate significantly changed expression of selected extracellular miRNA in plasma of MS patients and correlate those findings with clinical parameters. These observations may suggest that some miRNA subsets may be potential biomarkers for

  18. Quantifying sources, transport, deposition, and radiative forcing of black carbon over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R.; Wang, H.; Qian, Y.; Rasch, P. J.; Easter, R. C.; Ma, P.-L.; Singh, B.; Huang, J.; Fu, Q.

    2015-06-01

    Black carbon (BC) particles over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau (HTP), both airborne and those deposited on snow, have been shown to affect snowmelt and glacier retreat. Since BC over the HTP may originate from a variety of geographical regions and emission sectors, it is essential to quantify the source-receptor relationships of BC in order to understand the contributions of natural and anthropogenic emissions and provide guidance for potential mitigation actions. In this study, we use the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) with a newly developed source-tagging technique, nudged towards the MERRA meteorological reanalysis, to characterize the fate of BC particles emitted from various geographical regions and sectors. Evaluated against observations over the HTP and surrounding regions, the model simulation shows a good agreement in the seasonal variation in the near-surface airborne BC concentrations, providing confidence to use this modeling framework for characterizing BC source-receptor relationships. Our analysis shows that the relative contributions from different geographical regions and source sectors depend on season and location in the HTP. The largest contribution to annual mean BC burden and surface deposition in the entire HTP region is from biofuel and biomass (BB) emissions in South Asia, followed by fossil fuel (FF) emissions from South Asia, then FF from East Asia. The same roles hold for all the seasonal means except for the summer, when East Asia FF becomes more important. For finer receptor regions of interest, South Asia BB and FF have the largest impact on BC in the Himalayas and central Tibetan Plateau, while East Asia FF and BB contribute the most to the northeast plateau in all seasons and southeast plateau in the summer. Central Asia and Middle East FF emissions have relatively more important contributions to BC reaching the northwest plateau, especially in the summer. Although local emissions only contribute about 10% of BC in the HTP, this contribution is extremely sensitive to local emission changes. Lastly, we show that the annual mean radiative forcing (0.42 W m-2) due to BC in snow outweighs the BC dimming effect (-0.3 W m-2) at the surface over the HTP. We also find strong seasonal and spatial variation with a peak value of 5 W m-2 in the spring over the northwest plateau. Such a large forcing of BC in snow is sufficient to cause earlier snow melting and potentially contribute to the acceleration of glacier retreat.

  19. Selective isolation and differentiation of a stromal population of human embryonic stem cells with osteogenic potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harkness, Linda M; Mahmood, Amer

    2011-01-01

    The derivation of osteogenic cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) has been hampered by the absence of easy and reproducible protocols. hESC grown in feeder-free conditions, often show a sub population of fibroblast-like, stromal cells growing between the colonies. Thus, we examined the possibility that these cells represent a population of stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells (hESC-stromal). Two in house derived hES cell lines (Odense3 and KMEB3) as well as an externally derived cell line (Hues8) were transitioned to feeder-free conditions. A sub population of fibroblast-like cells established between the hESC colonies were isolated by selective adherence to hyaluronic acid-coated plates (100?g/ml) and were characterized using a combination of FACS analysis and staining. The cells were CD44(+), CD29(+), CD73(+), CD166(+), CD146(+), and CD105(+); and, Oct4(-), CD34(-), CD45(-) and CXCR4(-). When cultured in osteogenic differentiation media, up regulation of osteoblastic lineage markers (DLX5, MSX2, RUNX2, SPARC, ALP, COL1a1, BGLAP, IBSP, DCN, LOX-L4) and production of in vitro mineralized matrix was detected. hESC-stromal cells loaded on a carrier and implanted either subcutaneously or in a critical size calvarial defect in immune deficient mice for 10weeks, resulted in new bone formation and partial repair of the calvarial defect. In conclusion, hESC-stromal can be isolated from hESC cultures and represent a good source for obtaining cells with osteogenic differentiation potential suitable for regenerative medicine protocols.

  20. The ?1- and ?2-adrenoceptor selectivity of drugs with potential effects on blood pressure - a radioligand-binding study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In screening compounds with potential antihypertensive properties, the determination of their relative selectivities for ?1- and ?2-adrenoceptors is important not only for the elucidation of their mechanisms of action but also, possibly, for the assessment of their potential side-effects. The relative selectivity of a number of drugs for ?1- and ?2-adrenoceptors was determined by means of radioligand-binding studies. The ?-adrenoceptor antagonists prazosin and indoramin display selectivities for ?1-adrenoceptors of about factors 1 000 and 4 000 respectively. The ?-adrenoceptor agonists clonidine and 2-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenylimino)-imidazoline (DPI) display selectivities for ?2-adrenoceptors of about factors 200 and 300 respectively. The ?-adrenoceptor antagonist mianserin displays approximately equal, albeit relatively low, affinities for ?1- and ?2-adrenoceptors. In view of the distribution of ?1- and ?2-adrenoceptors in vascular smooth muscle and in the reflex arcs controllig blood pressure, the low incidence of reflex tachycardia associated with the use of prazosin and indoramin can be explained on the basis of their ?1-adrenoceptor selectivity. Similarly, the hypertensive crisis which may follow the withdrawal of clonidine can be explained on the basis of a selective ?2-adrenoceptor agonistic action. The finding that miantion. The finding that mianserin has such low affinities for both ?1- and ?2-adrenoceptors may explain why, at therapeutically effective antidepressant dosages, it is usually devoid of adverse haemodynamic effects

  1. Plant operator selection system for evaluating employment candidates' potential for success in electric power plant operations positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Plant Operator Selection System is a battery of tests and questionnaires that can be administered to job candidates in less than three hours. Various components of the battery measure what a job candidate has accomplished in previous educational and work situations, how well a candidate compares with others on a number of important aptitudes or abilities, and whether or not a candidate possesses the kind of personal stability required in power plant operations positions. A job candidate's answers to the tests and questionnaires of the Plant Operator Selection System are scored and converted to an OVERALL POTENTIAL INDEX. Values of the OVERALL POTENTIAL INDEX [OPI] range between 0 and 15. Candidates with high OPI values are much more likely to become effective and successful plant operators than candidates with low OPI values. It is possible to estimate the financial advantages to a company of using the Plant Operator Selection System in evaluating candidates for plant operations jobs

  2. Narcissus and Leadership Potential:The measurement and implications of narcissism in leadership selection processes

    OpenAIRE

    Gimsø, Christian Enger

    2014-01-01

    Incorporating theoretical and empirical work from the literature on narcissism, it is postulated that narcissism poses a particular risk in leader selection settings. By appearing confident, charismatic, intelligent, and with a high self-esteem and authority, narcissists will slip through normal selection processes by resembling an implicit image of a prototypical leader for those that select and hire them. In three independent, yet connected studies, the role played by trait narcissism i...

  3. Dating of movements along thrusts and faults in the Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiometric dating of movements along the MCT (Vaikrita Thrust), two local but deep seated thrust and the Sumdoh Fault Zone bordering the Kinnar Kailas Granite in the Baspa and Satluj valleys, NE Himachal Himalaya, has been attempted for the first time by fission track method. Garnet and apatite fission track ages suggest the age of the latest phase of movements around 14 and 7 m.y. respectively along the MCT and Sumdoh Fault. The vertical uplift rates along them were 1.1mm/year from 14 to 7 m.y. and 0.6 mm/year from 7 m.y. to recent geologic past respectively, as against the value 0.036 mm/year during the period from 210 to 17 m.y. in the undisturbed area. (author)

  4. Uranium and radon estimation in some water samples from Himalayas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium content of water samples collected from Kumaun (Uttar Pradesh) and Siwalik (Himachal Pradesh) Himalayas has been estimated using the technique of fission track registration in lexan plastic. The uranium content has been found varying from 1.08 ± 0.02 to 35.83 ± 0.09 ppb. Radon estimation has also been made in the same water samples using LR-115, type II plastic track detectors. The radon content has been found to vary from 2.68 ± 0.23 to 12.55 ± 0.93 pCi/l. No direct correlation has been found between uranium and radon contents. However, the high values of uranium in the mineralized areas confirm that the fission track method can successfully be employed for uranium exploration. (author)

  5. Indoor radon measurements in dwellings of Garhwal Himalaya, Northern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of indoor radon and daughters concentration were performed in several houses in Garhwal Himalaya during 1993-95 with solid state nuclear track detector films (LR-115 Type II). The detector films were exposed for a period of three month to one year. The films basically measured total airborne alpha activity but may be calibrated in unite of EECRN (equilibrium equivalent concentration of radon with equilibrium factor F=0.45) in an environment with known radon and daughters concentrations. A numbers of dwelling in the area exhibited radon daughters concentrations (EECRN) exceeding the recommended level. The abnormal values are due to typical house construction (mud house) in the area. The houses are constructed with soil and local stone with a thin paste of mud. Behaviour and abnormality of radon in mud houses are discussed in details the corresponding annual effective dose has been calculated. (author)

  6. Variability of volatile constituents in Artemisia maritima in western Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaitak, Vikas; Singh, Bikram; Kaul, V K

    2008-05-10

    Chemical composition of the essential oil of Artemisia maritima, collected from three different high altitude locations in western Himalaya was studied by gas-chromatography mass spectrometry. Twenty-five constituents were identified in the oil distilled from the sample from Pooh, of which 1,8-cineole (23.8%) and chrysanthenone (17.54%) were the major constituents. Twenty volatile constituents were identified from the sample collected from Rhongtong pass, of which chrysanthenone (38.1%) and 1,8-cineole (37.3%) were the major constituents. In the oil distilled from the sample collected from Lahaul-Spiti 28 constituents were identified, of which 1,8-cineole (44.22%), camphor (9.16%) and borneol (10.94%) were the major constituents. In this sample chrysanthenone was present in very low percentage. PMID:18569692

  7. Looking at the roots of the highest mountains: the lithospheric structure of the Himalaya-Tibet and the Zagros orogens. Results from a geophysical-petrological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunini, L.; Jimenez-Munt, I.; Fernandez, M.; Villasenor, A.; Afonso, J. C.; Verges, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Himalaya-Tibet and Zagros orogens are the two most prominent mountain belts built by continental collision. They are part of a huge belt of Cenozoic age which runs from the Pyrenees to Burma. In its central sector, the collision with the southern margin of the Eurasian plate has resulted not only in the building of mountain ranges over the north-eastern edges of the Arabian and Indian plates but also in widespread deformation 1000-3000 km from the suture zones. Zagros and Himalaya-Tibet orogens share many geodynamic processes but at different rates, amount of convergence and stage of development. The study of their present-day structures provides new insights into their quasi coeval collisional event pointing out differences and similarities in the mountain building processes. We present 2D crust and upper mantle cross-sections down to 400 km depth, along four SW-NE trending profiles. Two profiles cross the Zagros Mountains, running from the Mesopotamian Foreland Basin up to the Alborz and Central Iran. Two other profiles run through the Himalaya-Tibetan orogen: the western transect crosses the western Himalaya, Tarim Basin, Tian Shan Mountains and Junggar Basin; the eastern transect runs from the Indian shield to the Beishan Basin, crossing the eastern Himalaya, Tibetan Plateau, Qaidam Basin and Qilian Mountains. We apply the LitMod-2D code which integrates potential fields (gravity and geoid), isostasy (elevation) and thermal (heat flow and temperature distribution) equations, and mantle petrology. The resulting crust and upper mantle structure is constrained by available data on elevation, Bouguer anomaly, geoid height, surface heat flow and seismic data including P- and S-wave tomography models. Our results show distinct deformation patterns between the crust and the lithospheric mantle beneath the Zagros and Himalaya-Tibetan orogens, indicating a strong strain partitioning in both areas. At crustal level, we found a thickening beneath the Zagros and the Alborz ranges, more pronounced in the southern profile. At sub-crustal level, a lithospheric mantle thinning affects the whole area beneath the Zagros range extending to the north through the zone below the Alborz and the central Iran. In the Himalaya-Tibet region our results show stronger strain partitioning in the horizontal (east-west) direction than in the vertical (depth) direction. At crustal level, the Tibetan Plateau extends more than 1000 km in the eastern profile, whereas it is squeezed between the Himalayan Mountains and the Tarim Basin along the western profile (~600 km). At sub-crustal level, the lithospheric mantle is more homogeneous in thickness and mineral composition along the western profile than the eastern one. Finally, our results on mineral composition show that both collisional regions are characterised by a predominant lherzolitic lithospheric mantle, whereas we observe compositional variations around the suture zones, probably related to subduction and mantle delamination processes.

  8. Penalized regression procedures for variable selection in the potential outcomes framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debashis; Zhu, Yeying; Coffman, Donna L

    2015-05-10

    A recent topic of much interest in causal inference is model selection. In this article, we describe a framework in which to consider penalized regression approaches to variable selection for causal effects. The framework leads to a simple 'impute, then select' class of procedures that is agnostic to the type of imputation algorithm as well as penalized regression used. It also clarifies how model selection involves a multivariate regression model for causal inference problems and that these methods can be applied for identifying subgroups in which treatment effects are homogeneous. Analogies and links with the literature on machine learning methods, missing data, and imputation are drawn. A difference least absolute shrinkage and selection operator algorithm is defined, along with its multiple imputation analogs. The procedures are illustrated using a well-known right-heart catheterization dataset. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25628185

  9. Determination of heavy metal pollution in soils from selected potentially contaminated sites in Tema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the study was to assess the concentration and determine the level of pollution by harmful heavy metals in soils from selected potentially contaminated sites in Tema. The metals of interest include; mercury, lead, cadmium, cobalt zinc, arsenic, nickel, copper and chromium. A total of forty seven (47) samples comprising thirty eight sub-samples (38) and nine (9) composite samples were collected from nine (9) different locations. These included playgrounds, steel processing factories, used Lead Acid Battery (ULAB) recycling plant, mechanic workshops and the municipal waste disposal site. The samples were prepared after which the elemental concentrations were determined using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) with a secondary target excitation arrangement (5.9 keV). The analysis of the samples yielded the following mean heavy metal concentrations in mg/kg: 424.38 (Cr); 408.68 (Ni); 14427 (Cu); 4129.87 (Zn); 1580.68 (As); 647.48 (Hg); 73361.51 (Pb) and 1176.16 (Co). The mean concentrations of heavy metals in the soils were in the following order Pb>Zn>As>Co>Cu>Hg>Cr>Ni. Mercury was detected at only two of the sites. The average heavy metals in the soils from the sites were generally high since most of them exceeded the optimum and action values of the New Dutch List. The Enrichment Factor (EF) ratios show that the enrichment of the elements in the soils ranged from deficiently to extremely highly enriched. The contamination factor show that the d. The contamination factor show that the contamination by the heavy metals were low at some of the sites and very high at others. The geoaccumulation indices indicated that the playground (PG) has not been contaminated by any of the metals, C8 is contaminated strongly by mercury only and the contamination at the remaining sites varied from moderately contaminated to extremely contaminated by the metals. The Igeo also indicated that the elements accounting for extreme contamination are lead, arsenic, copper, zinc mercury and chromium. Lead accounted for the most contamination. The Pollution Load Index (PLI) rated Gravita as the mot contaminated of the sites and the Play ground the least contaminated. The pollution load indices indicated that two (2) out of the nine sites in the study were uncontaminated by the heavy metals (PLISS>WD>AFL>TS>L19>C8>PG. (au)

  10. Spatial prediction of landslide susceptibility in parts of Garhwal Himalaya, India, using the weight of evidence modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guri, Pardeep Kumar; Champati Ray, P K; Patel, Ramesh Chandra

    2015-06-01

    Garhwal Himalaya in northern India has emerged as one of the most prominent hot spots of landslide occurrences in the Himalaya mainly due to geological causes related to mountain building processes, steep topography and frequent occurrences of extreme precipitation events. As this region has many pilgrimage and tourist centres, it is visited by hundreds of thousands of people every year, and in the recent past, there has been rapid development to provide adequate roads and building infrastructure. Additionally, attempts are also made to harness hydropower by constructing tunnels, dams and reservoirs and thus altering vulnerable slopes at many places. As a result, the overall risk due to landslide hazards has increased many folds and, therefore, an attempt was made to assess landslide susceptibility using 'Weights of Evidence (WofE)', a well-known bivariate statistical modelling technique implemented in a much improved way using remote sensing and Geographic Information System. This methodology has dual advantage as it demonstrates how to derive critical parameters related to geology, geomorphology, slope, land use and most importantly temporal landslide distribution in one of the data scarce region of the world. Secondly, it allows to experiment with various combination of parameters to assess their cumulative effect on landslides. In total, 15 parameters related to geology, geomorphology, terrain, hydrology and anthropogenic factors and 2 different landslide inventories (prior to 2007 and 2008-2011) were prepared from high-resolution Indian remote sensing satellite data (Cartosat-1 and Resourcesat-1) and were validated by field investigation. Several combinations of parameters were carried out using WofE modelling, and finally using best combination of eight parameters, 76.5 % of overall landslides were predicted in 24 % of the total area susceptible to landslide occurrences. The study has highlighted that using such methodology landslide susceptibility assessment can be carried out in vast stretches of Himalaya in short time in order to assess the impact of development as well as climate change/variability. The resultant map can play a critical role in selecting areas for remedial measures for slope stabilisation as well planning for future development of the region. PMID:25944750

  11. Evolution and outburst risk analysis of moraine-dammed lakes in the central Chinese Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shijin, Wang; Shitai, Jiao

    2015-04-01

    The recent evolution and outburst risk of two typical moraine-dammed lakes, Galong and Gangxi, central Chinese Himalaya, are analyzed using topographic maps from 1974 and Landsat satellite imagery acquired in 1988, 2000 and 2014. The datasets show the areas of Galong and Gangxi lakes increasing at rates of 0.45 and 0.34 km2/year during the period 1974-2014, an expansion of 501% and 107%, respectively, in the past 41 years, while the areas of the parent glaciers, Reqiang and Jipucong decreased by 44.22% and 37.76%, respectively. The accelerating retreat of the glaciers not only reflects their generally negative mass balance but is consistent with the rapid expansion of the moraine-dammed lakes. When acted upon by external forces such as earthquakes, heavy rainfall, rapid melting of glaciers and dead ice, and snow/ice/rock avalanches, these lakes can become extremely dangerous, easily forming outburst mudslides, which can potentially spread to the Poiqu river basin and develop into cross-border (China and Nepal) GLOF disasters. Therefore, there is an urgent need to strengthen integrated risk management of glacial lake outburst disasters with multiple objectives and modes.

  12. Early recognition of glacial lake hazards in the Himalaya using remote sensing datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quincey, D. J.; Richardson, S. D.; Luckman, A.; Lucas, R. M.; Reynolds, J. M.; Hambrey, M. J.; Glasser, N. F.

    2007-03-01

    Glacier recession in high-Himalayan catchments leads to the formation of moraine-dammed lakes on many debris-covered glacier tongues. Such lakes are hazardous to communities and infrastructure downstream because of their potential to breach catastrophically, and their early recognition is required if remedial efforts are to be timely and cost-effective. Whilst the development of supraglacial lakes is known to begin as a series of ponds that subsequently coalesce into a larger lake, the relationship between glacier dynamics and lake formation is not well understood. Using ERS-1 and ERS-2 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data, SPOT-5 optical imagery and historical aerial photography, information is presented on the dynamics and structure of glaciers in Tibet (China) and Nepal that drain the southern side of the Himalaya. Glacier velocity data derived from interferometry show that where lakes are developing on debris-covered tongues the ice is virtually stagnant (displacements analysis highlights those glaciers that are particularly vulnerable to lake development over an expected decadal timescale. The wider application of these techniques, based on remote sensing data, is particularly suitable for 'first-pass' hazard assessments and for regions where field access is difficult due to severe terrain, political sensitivity or financial constraints.

  13. Spatial Coupling Among Landslides, Geological Structures, Cataclinal Slopes, and Fluvial Knick Zones in Nepal Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, T. P.; DeCelles, P. G.

    2014-12-01

    This work aims to identify potential landslide hazard zones in the event of heavy precipitation and seismic activity by examining spatial relationships among existing landslides, earthquake epicenters, fault zones, cataclinal (dip) slopes, anaclinal (escarp) slopes, and river steepness index in the Nepal Himalaya. In order to understand this relationship we have mapped existing landslides on Google Earth images and ESRI base maps, assembled high-resolution digital topographic data by digitizing Nepal Government published topographic maps, and gathered geological data from detailed field mapping and compilation of published geological maps. Slope angle and aspect, and dip direction and angle were extracted from GIS-based digital topographical and geological datasets to develop the new slope maps with cataclinal (dip) and anaclinal (escarp) slope distributions. Longitudinal river profiles were also extracted from high resolution DEM's derived from manually digitized contours. The slope maps with cataclinal and anaclinal slope distributions, earthquake epicenters, major geological structures, longitudinal river profiles, and landslide inventories were visualized in ESRI ArcMap 10.2 to examine the spatial correlation among landslides, fault zones, cataclinal slopes and river steepness index. We have found that landslides are spatially correlated with cataclinal slopes and fluvial knick zones with high steepness index in certain thrust boundaries. The main finding of this work is that the topographic slope threshold alone is a crude measure of landslide susceptibility. The analysis of slope using the geometric relationship among topography and geological bedding is crucial for determining landslide susceptibility in the Himalayan region.

  14. Environmental impact assessment of mountain tourism in developing regions: A study in Ladakh, Indian Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountain tourism in developing countries is becoming a growing environmental concern due to extreme seasonality, lack of suitable infrastructures and planning, and interference with fragile ecosystems and protected areas. This paper presents a study devoted to assess the adverse environmental impacts of tourism, and in particular of trekking-related activities, in Ladakh, Indian Himalaya. The proposed approach is based on the use of Geographical Information System (GIS) modeling and remote sensing imageries to cope with the lack of data that affect the region. First, stressors associated with trekking, and environmental receptors potentially affected were identified. Subsequently, a baseline study on stressors (trail use, waste dumping, camping, pack animal grazing and off-road driving) and receptors (soil, water, wildlife, vegetation) was conducted through field work, data collection, and data processing supported by GIS. Finally, impacts were modeled by considering the intensity of the stressors, and the vulnerability and the value of the receptors. The results were spatially aggregated into watershed units, and combined to generate composite impact maps. The study concluded that the most affected watersheds are located in the central and southeastern part of Ladakh, along some of the most visited trails and within the Hemis and the Tsokar Tsomoriri National parks. The main objective of the study was to understand patterns of tourism-induced environmental degradatiof tourism-induced environmental degradation, so as to support mitigation interventions, as well as the development of suitable tourism policies.

  15. Carbon allocation, sequestration and carbon dioxide mitigation under plantation forests of north western Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandana Devi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The organic carbon and soils of the world comprise bulk of the terrestrial carbon and serve as a major sink and source of atmospheric carbon. Increasing atmospheric concentrations of green house gases may be mitigated by increasing carbon sequestration in vegetation and soil. The study attempted to estimate biomass production and carbon sequestration potential of different plantation ecosystems in north western Himalaya, India. Biomass, carbon density of biomass, soil, detritus, carbon sequestration and CO2 mitigation potential were studied under different plantation forest ecosystems comprising of eight different tree species: Quercus leucotrichophora, Pinus roxburghii, Acacia catechu, Acacia mollissima, Albizia procera, Alnusnitida, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Ulmus villosa. Above (185.57±48.99tha-1 and below ground (42.47±10.38 tha-1 biomass was maximum in Ulmus villosa. The vegetation carbon density was maxium in Albizia procera(118.37±1.49 tha-1 and minimum (36.50±9.87 tha-1 in Acacia catechu. Soil carbon density was maximum (219.86±10.34 tha-1 in Alnus nitida, and minimum (170.83±20.60 tha-1 in Pinus roxburghii. Detritus was higher in Pinus roxburghii (6.79±2.0 tha-1. Carbon sequestration (7.91±3.4 tha-1 and CO2 mitigation potential (29.09±12.78 tha-1 was maximum in Ulmus villosa. Pearson correlation matrix revealed significant positive relationship of ecosystem carbon with plantation biomass, soil carbon and CO2 mitigation potential. With the emerging threat of climate change, such assessment of forest and soil carbon inventory would allow to devise best land management and policy decisions for sustainable management of fragile hilly ecosystem.

  16. Carbon allocation, sequestration and carbon dioxide mitigation under plantation forests of north western Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandana Devi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The organic carbon and soils of the world comprise bulk of the terrestrial carbon and serve as amajorsink and source of atmospheric carbon. Increasing atmospheric concentrations of green house gases may be mitigated by increasing carbon sequestration in vegetation and soil. The study attempted to estimate biomass production and carbon sequestration potential of different plantation ecosystems in north western Himalaya, India. Biomass, carbon density of biomass, soil, detritus, carbon sequestration and CO2 mitigation potential were studied underdifferent plantation forest ecosystems comprising of eight different tree species viz. Quercus leucotrichophora, Pinus roxburghii, Acacia catechu, Acacia mollissima, Albizia procera, Alnus nitida, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Ulmus villosa. Above (185.57 ? 48.99 tha-1 and below ground (42.47 ? 10.38 tha-1 biomass was maximum in Ulmus villosa. The vegetation carbon density was maxium in Albizia procera (118.37 ? 1.49 tha-1 and minimum (36.50 ? 9.87 tha-1 in Acacia catechu. Soil carbon density was maximum (219.86? 10.34 tha-1 in Alnus nitida, and minimum (170.83? 20.60 tha-1in Pinus roxburghii. Detritus was higher in Pinus roxburghii (6.79 ? 2.0 tha-1. Carbon sequestration (7.91? 3.4 tha-1 and CO2 mitigation potential (29.09 ? 12.78 tha-1 was maximum in Ulmus villosa. Pearson correlation matrix revealed significant positive relationship of ecosystem carbon with plantation biomass, soil carbon and CO2 mitigation potential. With the emerging threat of climate change, such assessment of forest and soil carbon inventory would allow to devise best land management and policy decisions forsustainable management of fragile hilly ecosystem. 

  17. Assessing potential: the development of selection procedures for the Oxford medical course

    OpenAIRE

    James, W.; Hawkins, C.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the methods by which candidates are selected for the Oxford Medical School in the light of the literature on assessment in general and candidate selection in particular. We review changes in the process that attempt to capture the best of evidence-supported practice while preserving or enhancing the features identified as being peculiar strengths of the Oxford learning environment. These changes aim to improve fairness, reliability and validity, while permitting cand...

  18. Integration of Classification Tree Analyses and Spatial Metrics to Assess Changes in Supraglacial Lakes in the Karakoram Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulley, H. N.; Bishop, M. P.; Shroder, J. F.; Haritashya, U. K.

    2007-12-01

    Alpine glacier responses to climate chnage reveal increases in retreat with corresponding increases in production of glacier melt water and development of supraglacial lakes. The rate of occurrence and spatial extent of lakes in the Himalaya are difficult to determine because current spectral-based image analysis of glacier surfaces are limited through anisotropic reflectance and lack of high quality digital elevation models. Additionally, the limitations of multivariate classification algorithms to adequately segregate glacier features in satellite imagery have led to an increased interest in non-parametric methods, such as classification and regression trees. Our objectives are to demonstrate the utility of a semi-automated approach that integrates classification- tree-based image segmentation and object-oriented analysis to differentiate supraglacial lakes from glacier debris, ice cliffs, lateral and medial moraines. The classification-tree process involves a binary, recursive, partitioning non-parametric method that can account for non-linear relationships. We used 2002 and 2004 ASTER VNIR and SWIR imagery to assess the Baltoro Glacier in the Karakoram Himalaya. Other input variables include the normalized difference water index (NDWI), ratio images, Moran's I image, and fractal dimension. The classification tree was used to generate initial image segments and it was particularly effective in differentiating glacier features. The object-oriented analysis included the use of shape and spatial metrics to refine the classification-tree output. Classification-tree results show that NDWI is the most important single variable for characterizing the glacier-surface features, followed by NIR/IR ratio, IR band, and IR/Red ratio variables. Lake features extracted from both images show there were 142 lakes in 2002 as compared to 188 lakes in 2004. In general, there was a significant increase in planimetric area from 2002 to 2004, and we documented the formation of 46 new lakes. It appears that lake-size increments occur mostly in the lower part of the ablation zone, whereas most of the new lakes are formed in the upper part of the ablation zone. The classification-tree outputs are intuitive and the data-derived thresholds eliminate commonly subjective visual determination of threshold values. Semi-automated methods thus have the potential of eliminating laborious visual multi-temporal analysis of glacier-surface change, thereby producing consistent and replicable results needed to assess the trends of alpine-glacier response to climate change in the Himalaya.

  19. Forest resource use pattern in Kedarnath wildlife sanctuary and its fringe areas (a case study from Western Himalaya, India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rural population of Himalaya has been strongly dependent on the forest resources for their livelihood for generations. The present study, carried out at three different altitudes of Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary (KWLS), explored forest resource-use patterns to understand rural peoples' dependency on the adjacent forests. A total of six forests were selected and the seven dependent villages were surveyed for the study of forest resource use patterns in relation to their socioeconomic status. Average fuelwood and fodder consumption were found to be 2.42 kg/capita/day and 43.96 kg/household/day respectively which was higher than the earlier reported values. Average fuelwood consumption by temporary dhaba (roadside refreshment establishments) owners (52.5 kg/dhaba/day) is much higher than the permanent villagers. Average cultivated land per family was less than 1 ha (0.56 ha). Inaccessibility of the area and deprived socio-economic status of the locals are largely responsible for the total dependency of the local inhabitants on nearby forests for fuelwood, fodder and other life supporting demands. Extensive farming of fuelwood trees on less used, barren land and establishment of fodder banks could be the alternative to bridge the gap between the demand and supply. Active participation of local people is mandatory for the conservation of these forests. - Highlights: • We studied energy consumption at different altitudes in Western Himalaya of India. • On an average, fuelwood and fodder consumption is 2.42 kg/capita/day and 43.96 kg/household/day respectively. • Maximum fuelwood (3.24 kg/capita/day) at higher and fodder consumption (1800 kg/household/day) at middle altitudes was recorded. • Dhabas (roadside refreshment establishments) consume much more fuelwood as compared to the permanent villagers (P<0.000, t-test). • Fuelwood consumption showed significant negative relationship with LPG (?0.87) and kerosene oil (?0.89)

  20. GIS development to monitor climate change and its geohydrological consequences on non-monsoon crop pattern in Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Pradeep K.

    2014-09-01

    The main objective of the study was to assess climate change and its geohydrological impacts on non-monsoon crop pattern at watershed level through GIS development on climate informatics, land use informatics, hydro-informatics and agro-informatics. The Dabka watershed constitutes a part of the Kosi Basin in densely populated Lesser Himalaya, India in district Nainital has been selected for the case illustration. This reconnaissance study analyzed the climatic database for last three decades (1982-2012) and estimates that the average temperature and evaporation loss have been rising with the rate of 0.07 °C/yr and 4.03 mm/yr respectively whereas the average rainfall has been decreasing with the rate of 0.60 mm/yr. These rates of climate change increasing with mounting elevations. Consequently the existing microclimatic zones (sub-tropical, temperate and moist temperate) shifting towards higher altitudes and affecting the favorable conditions of the land use pattern and decreased the eco-friendly forest and vegetation cover. The land use degradation and high rate of deforestation (0.22 km2 or 1.5%/yr) leads to accelerate several hydrological problems during non-monsoon period (i.e. decreasing infiltration capacity of land surface, declining underground water level, drying up natural perennial springs and streams, decreasing irrigation water availability etc.). In order to that the non-monsoon crops yield has been decreasing with the rate of 0.60% each year as the results suggest that the average crop yield is just about 58 q/ha whereas twenty five to thirty year back it was recorded about 66 q/ha which is about 12% higher (8 q/ha) than existing yield. On the other hand the population increasing with the growth rate of 2% each year. Therefore, decreasing crop yield and increasing population raised food deficiency problem and the people adopting other occupations which ultimately affecting rural livelihood of the Himalaya.

  1. Dopamine D3 receptor antagonists: the quest for a potentially selective PET ligand. Part 3: Radiosynthesis and in vivo studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennacef, Idriss; Salinas, Cristian A

    2009-01-01

    Compound 1 is a potent and selective antagonist of the dopamine D(3) receptor. With the aim of developing a carbon-11 labeled ligand for the dopamine D(3) receptor, 1 was selected as a potential PET probe. [(11)C]1 was obtained by palladium catalyzed cross coupling using [(11)C]cyanide and 4 with a specific activity of 55.5+/-25.9GBq/micromol (1.5+/-0.7Ci/micromol). [(11)C]1 was tested in porcine and non-human primate models to assess its potential as a radioligand for PET imaging of the dopamine D(3) receptor. We conclude that in both species and despite appropriate in vitro properties, [(11)C]1 does not show any specific signal for the dopamine D(3) receptor.

  2. Selective mixed potential based ammonia exhaust gas sensor; Selektiver Ammoniakabgassensor auf Mischpotentialbasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenauer, D.; Moos, R. [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Funktionsmaterialien; Wiesner, K.; Fleischer, M. [Siemens AG, CT PS 6, Muenchen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Mixed potential sensors with additional catalytic deposits on one of two electrodes show a high potential for NH{sub 3} detection. With defined reactions at the covered electrode it is possible to derive a temperature dependent correlation between the gas concentration/composition and the sensor signal which is characteristic for the used electrode material and the catalyst.

  3. Precipitation and snow cover in the Himalaya: from reanalysis to regional climate simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ménégoz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We applied a Regional Climate Model (RCM to simulate precipitation and snow cover over the Himalaya, between March 2000 and December 2002. Due to its higher resolution, our model simulates a more realistic spatial variability of wind and precipitation than those of the reanalysis of the European Centre of Medium range Weather Forecast (ECMWF used as lateral boundaries. In this region, we found very large discrepancies between the estimations of precipitation provided by reanalysis, rain gauges networks, satellite observations, and our RCM simulation. Our model clearly underestimates precipitation at the foothills of the Himalaya and in its eastern part. However, our simulation provides a first estimation of liquid and solid precipitation in high altitude areas, where satellite and rain gauge networks are not very reliable. During the two years of simulation, our model resembles the snow cover extent and duration quite accurately in these areas. Both snow accumulation and snow cover duration differ widely along the Himalaya: snowfall can occur during the whole year in western Himalaya, due to both summer monsoon and mid-latitude low pressure systems bringing moisture into this region. In Central Himalaya and on the Tibetan Plateau, a much more marked dry season occurs from October to March. Snow cover does not have a pronounced seasonal cycle in these regions, since it depends both on the quite variable duration of the monsoon and on the rare but possible occurrence of snowfall during the extra-monsoon period.

  4. Event-related potentials during a selective attention task with short interstimulus intervals in patients with schizophrenia.

    OpenAIRE

    Iwanami, A.; Isono, H.; Okajima, Y.; Noda, Y.; Kamijima, K.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study selective attention in schizophrenia by examining event-related potentials during a dichotic listening task with short interstimulus intervals (ISIs). DESIGN: Prospective study. PARTICIPANTS: Twelve patients with schizophrenia in remission and 12 age-matched controls with no history of psychiatric or neurological illness. INTERVENTIONS: Participants were asked to push a button in response to target stimuli in either ear. OUTCOME MEASURES: Reaction time, correct response ra...

  5. Interactions of biotic and abiotic environmental factors in an ectomycorrhizal symbiosis, and the potential for selection mosaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoeksema Jason D

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geographic selection mosaics, in which species exert different evolutionary impacts on each other in different environments, may drive diversification in coevolving species. We studied the potential for geographic selection mosaics in plant-mycorrhizal interactions by testing whether the interaction between bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don and one of its common ectomycorrhizal fungi (Rhizopogon occidentalis Zeller and Dodge varies in outcome, when different combinations of plant and fungal genotypes are tested under a range of different abiotic and biotic conditions. Results We used a 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment to test the main and interactive effects of plant lineage (two maternal seed families, fungal lineage (two spore collections, soil type (lab mix or field soil, and non-mycorrhizal microbes (with or without on the performance of plants and fungi. Ecological outcomes, as assessed by plant and fungal performance, varied widely across experimental environments, including interactions between plant or fungal lineages and soil environmental factors. Conclusion These results show the potential for selection mosaics in plant-mycorrhizal interactions, and indicate that these interactions are likely to coevolve in different ways in different environments, even when initially the genotypes of the interacting species are the same across all environments. Hence, selection mosaics may be equally as effective as genetic differences among populations in driving divergent coevolution among populations of interacting species.

  6. Therapeutic potential of functional selectivity in the treatment of heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Gitte Lund; Aplin, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Adrenergic and angiotensin receptors are prominent targets in pharmacological alleviation of cardiac remodeling and heart failure, but their use is associated with cardiodepressant side effects. Recent advances in our understanding of seven transmembrane receptor signaling show that it is possible to design ligands with "functional selectivity," acting as agonists on certain signaling pathways while antagonizing others. This represents a major pharmaceutical opportunity to separate desired from adverse effects governed by the same receptor. Accordingly, functionally selective ligands are currently pursued as next-generation drugs for superior treatment of heart failure.

  7. Selection and characterization of potential sites for a spent nuclear fuel repository in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geological, geochemical, geophysical, rock mechanical, hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological investigations are included in the site selection studies for a spent nuclear fuel repository in Sweden. The investigations started in 1977 and are carried out in crystalline rock. The final site will be selected around the year 2000 through a screening process of investigated sites. The field studies generate numerous data that are compiled into a descriptive model for each site. The descriptive model forms the basis for the numerical calculation of the groundwater flow within the site. This paper presents the major instruments and methods that are used in the ongoing program as well as some of the obtained results

  8. Alteraciones musculares en montañistas que ascendieron a Los Himalayas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    SH, Torres; HJ, Finol; A, Brito; H, Rivera.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El ascenso a los Montes Himalayas de un grupo de escaladores venezolanos permitió la obtención de muestras de músculo esquelético dos meses antes y un mes después de la expedición, con el objeto de estudiar los cambios producidos por la altura. Se tomó biopsia del músculo quadriceps femoris con la a [...] guja de Bergström en 5 sujetos dos meses antes, y en 4 sujetos un mes después de realizada la expedición. Las muestras fueron procesadas para estudio histoquímico con el objeto de clasificar los tipos de fibras musculares mediante la reacción de la adenosina trifosfatasa miofibrilar; los capilares se evidenciaron con la reacción de la a-amilasa-PAS. Además se estudió la ultraestructura con microscopía electrónica de transmisión. Se encontró que los sujetos cuyo músculo estaba en mejores condiciones alcanzaron la meta de 7.100 metros de altura. Estos sujetos presentaron posteriormente daño muscular segmentario marcado, en forma de atrofia muscular, daño capilar e infiltración de macrófagos. No hubo modificación en la proporción de los tipos de fibras. Se concluye que la actuación depende del estado previo del músculo y que la hipoxia, el esfuerzo muscular y el frío combinados, producen lesiones musculares segmentarias que persisten al menos por un mes. Abstract in english Skeletal muscle needle biopsies were obtained from quadriceps femoris muscle in five venezuelan climbers, two months before, and in four of the subjects, one month after an expedition to the Himalayas Mountains. In the samples, fibre types were determined by the miofibrillar adenosin triphosphatase [...] reaction, and capillaries were stained with the a-amylase-PAS reaction. Part of each sample was processed for ultrastructural study. The climbers performance was related to the previous state of the muscle. The three subjects that reached the goal of 7100 m altitude were those with normal of slightly altered muscles in the biopsy before the expedition. One month after the descent, muscle showed segmental alterations manifested as atrophy, capillary damage and infiltration of macrophages. No change was found in muscle fibre proportions. It is concluded that performance of the climbers depends on the previous state of skeletal muscle, and that the combined effect of altitude, exercise and cold produced segmental damage in skeletal muscle.

  9. Evaluation of oenological potential on clonal selections of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceppi de Lecco C.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 13 clonal selections of cv Cabernet Sauvignon, established in Nancagua VI Region, Chile (34.39?°S?71.17?°W. The genetic identity of the vines was confirmed by ampelography and microsatellite markers (SSR. Evaluations in the 2012–2013 season include: performance, analytical and sensorial parameters on the wines made by microvinification. The results were statistically analyzed with the Statgraphics Plus program and multiple comparison test of Tukey at 95% confidence level. Sensorially, the wines were evaluated by a panel of 12 experts. The results were likewise analyzed by testing principal components (PCA with covariance matrix without rotation. In the season studied the selection 108 highlighted with a high yield (kg/plant, in the composition of the wine selections generally highlighted for contents of total polyphenols and anthocyanins over average. The results show typical sensory characteristics of wines from that grape variety, and it was possible to group the selections by their attributes (PCA with cherry red wines at different intensities, but without significant differences, with fruity and vegetal aromas, interesting complex flavors and with structured tannins.

  10. Glycosaminoglycan-Mediated Selective Changes in the Aggregation States, Zeta Potentials, and Intrinsic Stability of Liposomes

    OpenAIRE

    Nyren-Erickson, Erin K.; Manas K. Haldar; Totzauer, Jessica R.; Ceglowski, Riley; Patel, Dilipkumar S.; Friesner, Daniel L.; Srivastava, D. K.; Mallik, Sanku

    2012-01-01

    Though the aggregation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the presence of liposomes and divalent cations has been previously reported, the effect of different GAG species, as well as minor changes in GAG composition on the aggregates formed is yet unknown. If minor changes in GAG composition produce observable changes in liposome aggregate diameter or zeta potential, such a phenomenon may be used to detect potentially dangerous over-sulfated contaminants in heparin. We studied the mechanism of t...

  11. Potential influence of selection criteria on the demographic composition of students in an Australian medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puddey Ian B

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior to 1999 students entering our MBBS course were selected on academic performance alone. We have now evaluated the impact on the demographics of subsequent cohorts of our standard entry students (those entering directly from high school of the addition to the selection process of an aptitude test (UMAT, a highly structured interview and a rural incentive program. Methods Students entering from 1985 to 1998, selected on academic performance alone (N = 1402, were compared to those from 1999 to 2011, selected on the basis of a combination of academic performance, interview score, and UMAT score together with the progressive introduction of a rural special entry pathway (N = 1437. Results Males decreased from 57% to 45% of the cohort, students of NE or SE Asian origin decreased from 30% to 13%, students born in Oceania increased from 52% to 69%, students of rural origin from 5% to 21% and those from independent high schools from 56% to 66%. The proportion of students from high schools with relative socio-educational disadvantage remained unchanged at approximately 10%. The changes reflect in part increasing numbers of female and independent high school applicants and the increasing rural quota. However, they were also associated with higher interview scores in females vs males and lower interview scores in those of NE and SE Asian origin compared to those born in Oceania or the UK. Total UMAT scores were unrelated to gender or region of origin. Conclusions The revised selection processes had no impact on student representation from schools with relative socio-educational disadvantage. However, the introduction of special entry quotas for students of rural origin and a structured interview, but not an aptitude test, were associated with a change in gender balance and ethnicity of students in an Australian undergraduate MBBS course.

  12. Monsoon variability in the Himalayas under the condition of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ice core-drilling program was carried out at the accumulation area of Dasuopu glacier (28deg23'N, 85deg43'E, 7100 m a.s.l.) in the central Himalayas in 1997. The ice core was analyzed continuously for stable isotopes (?18O), and major ions throughout the core. Cycles indicated by ?18O, cations were identified and counted as seasonal fluctuations as annual increment from maximum to maximum values. Reconstructed 300-year annual net accumulation (water equivalent) from the core, with a good correlation to Indian monsoon, reflects a major precipitation trend in the central Himalayas. The accumulation trend, separated from the time series, shows a strong negative correlation to Northern Hemisphere temperature. Generally, as northern hemisphere temperature increases 0.1degC, the accumulation decreases about 80 mm, reflecting monsoon rainfall in the central Himalayas has decreased over the past decades in the condition of global warming. (author)

  13. Potential evapotranspiration and its impact on autumn phenological phases of selected plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work deals with the assessment of the impact of water balance on the timing of phenological phases at two locations (Hips and Bukovina), on the selected tree species (hazel (Corylus avellana L.), hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.), sessile oak (Quercus petraea, Liebl.)). Phenological observations have been held since 2007, and together with measurements of meteorological parameters allow us to evaluate the microclimate in the stands in detail. (authors)

  14. Evolutionary study of a potential selection target region in the pig

    OpenAIRE

    Ojeda, A.; Ramos-onsins, S. E.; Marletta, D.; Huang, L. S.; Folch, J. M.; Pe?rez-enciso, M.

    2010-01-01

    Domestication, modern breeding and artificial selection have shaped dramatically the genomic variability of domestic animals. In livestock, the so-called FAT1 quantitative trait locus (QTL) in porcine chromosome 4 was the first QTL uncovered although, to date, its precise molecular nature has remained elusive. Here, we characterize the nucleotide variability of 13 fragments of ?500?bp equally spaced in a 2?Mb region in the vicinity of the FAT1 region in a wide-diversity panel of 32 pigs...

  15. Anthocyanin production as a potential visual selection marker during plant transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortstee, A J; Khan, S A; Helderman, C; Trindade, L M; Wu, Y; Visser, R G F; Brendolise, C; Allan, A; Schouten, H J; Jacobsen, E

    2011-12-01

    A mutant allele of the transcription factor gene MYB10 from apple induces anthocyanin production throughout the plant. This gene, including its upstream promoter, gene coding region and terminator sequence, was introduced into apple, strawberry and potato plants to determine whether it could be used as a visible selectable marker for plant transformation as an alternative to chemically selectable markers, such as kanamycin resistance. After transformation, red coloured calli, red shoots and red well-growing plants were scored. Red and green shoots were harvested from apple explants and examined for the presence of the MYB10 gene by PCR analysis. Red shoots of apple explants always contained the MYB10 gene but not all MYB10 containing shoots were red. Strawberry plants transformed with the MYB10 gene showed anthocyanin accumulation in leaves and roots. No visible accumulation of anthocyanin could be observed in potato plants grown in vitro, even the ones carrying the MYB10 gene. However, acid methanol extracts of potato shoots or roots carrying the MYB10 gene contained up to four times higher anthocyanin content than control plants. Therefore anthocyanin production as result of the apple MYB10 gene can be used as a selectable marker for apple, strawberry and potato transformation, replacing kanamycin resistance. PMID:21340526

  16. Potential Selective Responding in a Parent Questionnaire Study of Post-Institutionalized Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Brandi N; Wright, Amanda; Julian, Megan M; Rosas, Johana M; Merz, Emily C; McCall, Robert B

    2013-01-01

    Selective responding bias, though under-researched, is of particular concern in the study of post-institutionalized children because many studies rely on mailed questionnaires and response rates are often low. The current study addresses the impact of selective responding in a single wave of data collection and in a multi-wave study. Participants were 121 parents from a larger four-wave study of post-institutionalized children, identified as Never Responders, Previous Responders (but not to the current wave), or Wave 4 Responders. Parents were telephoned and asked about their adopted child's family, school, peer, and behavioral adjustment. The children (47% male) ranged in age from 2 to 20 years (M = 10.79, SD = 4.59) and had been adopted between 5 and 54 months of age (M = 15.49, SD = 9.94). There were no differences in parent ratings of adjustment for a single wave of data collection; however, participants who never responded reported poorer family and peer adjustment than those who had responded to at least one wave of data collection. Within a single wave of data collection, there was no evidence that selective responding contributes much bias. Over a multi-wave study, however, results may under-represent adjustment difficulties, especially with family and friends. PMID:23710124

  17. Potential Selective Responding in a Parent Questionnaire Study of Post-Institutionalized Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Brandi N.; Wright, Amanda; Julian, Megan M.; Rosas, Johana M.; Merz, Emily C.; McCall, Robert B.

    2013-01-01

    Selective responding bias, though under-researched, is of particular concern in the study of post-institutionalized children because many studies rely on mailed questionnaires and response rates are often low. The current study addresses the impact of selective responding in a single wave of data collection and in a multi-wave study. Participants were 121 parents from a larger four-wave study of post-institutionalized children, identified as Never Responders, Previous Responders (but not to the current wave), or Wave 4 Responders. Parents were telephoned and asked about their adopted child's family, school, peer, and behavioral adjustment. The children (47% male) ranged in age from 2 to 20 years (M = 10.79, SD = 4.59) and had been adopted between 5 and 54 months of age (M = 15.49, SD = 9.94). There were no differences in parent ratings of adjustment for a single wave of data collection; however, participants who never responded reported poorer family and peer adjustment than those who had responded to at least one wave of data collection. Within a single wave of data collection, there was no evidence that selective responding contributes much bias. Over a multi-wave study, however, results may under-represent adjustment difficulties, especially with family and friends. PMID:23710124

  18. Quantifying BTEX in aqueous solutions with potentially interfering hydrocarbons using a partially selective sensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J S; Kiiveri, H; Hubble, L J; Chow, E; Webster, M S; Müller, K-H; Sosa-Pintos, A; Bendavid, A; Raguse, B; Wieczorek, L

    2015-05-01

    Partially selective gold nanoparticle sensors have the sensitivity and selectivity to discriminate and quantify benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p-xylene and naphthalene (BTEXN) at concentrations relevant to the US Environmental Protection Agency. In this paper we demonstrate that gold nanoparticle chemiresistors can do so in the presence of 16 other hydrocarbons and that they did not reduce the discriminating power of the array. A two-level full factorial designed experiment was performed on unary, binary, ternary, quaternary, quinary combinations of BTEXN analytes with and without the possibly interfering hydrocarbons. The nominal component concentration of the mixtures was 100 ?g L(-1), equivalent to approximately 100 parts per billion (ppb). Concentrations predicted with the random forests method had an average root mean square error of 10-20% of the component concentrations. This level of accuracy was achieved regardless of whether or not the 16 possibly interfering hydrocarbons were present. This work shows that the sensitivity and selectivity of gold nanoparticles chemiresistor sensors towards BTEXN analytes are not unduly affected by the other hydrocarbons that are expected to be present at a petroleum remediation site. PMID:25768651

  19. Geodetic and Seismic Investigation of Crustal Deformation in Northwest Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasari, S.; Dikshit, O., Sr.; Kato, T.

    2014-12-01

    Underthrusting of Indian plate beneath the Eurasian plate results into a persistent compression and strain accumulation along a north-dipping detachment zone in the Himalayan orogen, producing a number of moderate and great interplate earthquakes. In this study, we present the ongoing crustal deformation from our GPS network comprising eight continuously operating permanent stations and three profiles of campaign stations which are lined up perpendicular to the Himalayan mega thrust faults. The campaign stations clearly reveal the ongoing deformation near the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT) and the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) zones. We further combine our geodetic results with the probalistic earthquake hazards of the northwestern Himalaya (280-320N, 740-800E) to provide a comprehensive report on the seismic hazard scenario of the thickly populated Himalayan cities. For this, the earthquake interevent times and conditional probabilities for events exceeding magnitude 6.0 are estimated from thirteen different probability models, namely exponential, gamma, lognormal, Weibull, Levy, Maxwell, Pareto, Rayleigh, inverse Gaussian (Brownian passage time), inverse Weibull (Frechet), exponentiated exponential, exponentiated Rayleigh (Burr type X), and exponentiated Weibull distributions.

  20. Ethnobotanical uses of biofencing plants in Himachal Pradesh, Northwest Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Devi, Usha

    2013-12-15

    The aim of this study is to document the traditional knowledge on the utilization of Biofencing plants of Himachal Pradesh, Northwest Himalaya. The study was imperative because of dearth in the data pertaining to Biofencing plants in the study areas. The whole study area was stratified into three zones and a widespread field survey and random sampling method was adopted to assess the live fencing diversity of the region. The region occupies total 61 species. 10 (trees), 45 (shrubs), 4 (herbs) and 2 were climbers. These belong to the 25 families. Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Berberidaceae, Elaeagnaceae and Euphorbiaceae are dominant families. Among genera, Berberis and Rosa are dominant. Of the total, 55 species are medicinally important and among these 20% are used for stomach disorders; 17% (skin complaints), 14% (asthma), 11% (fever and joint pains), 3% (aphrodisiac and snake bite), 1% (anticancerous and nerve disorders). Ethnobotanical assessment showed that 33 of the recorded species are used as fuel, 20 (edible), 8 (fodder) and 4 (fiber and ornamental). This traditional knowledge of Biofencing plants contributes to the conservation of biodiversity and provides resource of economic and ecological interest and also decreasing the pressure on forests. So there is need to encourage the practice of using plant species for fencing in this region. PMID:24517012

  1. Ethnobotanical uses of Biofencing Plants in Himachal Pradesh, Northwest Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to document the traditional knowledge on the utilization of Biofencing plants of Himachal Pradesh, Northwest Himalaya. The study was imperative because of dearth in the data pertaining to Biofencing plants in the study areas. The whole study area was stratified into three zones and a widespread field survey and random sampling method was adopted to assess the live fencing diversity of the region. The region occupies total 61 species. 10 (trees, 45 (shrubs, 4 (herbs and 2 were climbers. These belong to the 25 families. Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Berberidaceae, Elaeagnaceae and Euphorbiaceae are dominant families. Among genera, Berberis and Rosa are dominant. Of the total, 55 species are medicinally important and among these 20% are used for stomach disorders; 17% (skin complaints, 14% (asthma, 11% (fever and joint pains, 3% (aphrodisiac and snake bite, 1% (anticancerous and nerve disorders. Ethnobotanical assessment showed that 33 of the recorded species are used as fuel, 20 (edible, 8 (fodder and 4 (fiber and ornamental. This traditional knowledge of Biofencing plants contributes to the conservation of biodiversity and provides resource of economic and ecological interest and also decreasing the pressure on forests. So there is need to encourage the practice of using plant species for fencing in this region.

  2. Decoupling of erosion and precipitation in the Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbank, D W; Blythe, A E; Putkonen, J; Pratt-Sitaula, B; Gabet, E; Oskin, M; Barros, A; Ojha, T P

    2003-12-11

    The hypothesis that abrupt spatial gradients in erosion can cause high strain rates in active orogens has been supported by numerical models that couple erosional processes with lithospheric deformation via gravitational feedbacks. Most such models invoke a 'stream-power' rule, in which either increased discharge or steeper channel slopes cause higher erosion rates. Spatial variations in precipitation and slopes are therefore predicted to correlate with gradients in both erosion rates and crustal strain. Here we combine observations from a meteorological network across the Greater Himalaya, Nepal, along with estimates of erosion rates at geologic timescales (greater than 100,000 yr) from low-temperature thermochronometry. Across a zone of about 20 km length spanning the Himalayan crest and encompassing a more than fivefold difference in monsoon precipitation, significant spatial variations in geologic erosion rates are not detectable. Decreased rainfall is not balanced by steeper channels. Instead, additional factors that influence river incision rates, such as channel width and sediment concentrations, must compensate for decreasing precipitation. Overall, spatially constant erosion is a response to uniform, upward tectonic transport of Greater Himalayan rock above a crustal ramp. PMID:14668861

  3. The mammalian fauna from the Central Himalaya, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hem Bahadur Katuwal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Nepal harbors unique mammalian fauna, but it is poorly studied at higher elevation. Mammalian fauna were recorded in Manaslu Conservation Area, Dudhkunda and Dudhkoshi valley of Solukhumbu district and Kanchenjunga Conservation Area of Nepal during March 2011 to April 2013 along the trail and the study plots from 700m to 4400m a.s.l. Semi-structured interviews were made with local people to understand their behavior and habitats. Altogether, 29 mammalian fauna were recorded. Five species were recorded new for the areas. Overall, Carnivore species (nine were encountered more, followed by species of the order Cetartiodactyla (seven. The highest number of mammalian fauna (18 was identified from Manaslu Conservation Area whereas the least (11 from Dudhkunda and Dudhkoshi valley. Human wildlife conflict was frequent with Himalayan Goral (Naemorhedus goral, Barking Deer (Muntiacus vaginalis, Himalayan Tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus, Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta, Nepal Grey Langur (Semnopithecus schistaceus and Himalayan Black Bear (Ursus thibetanus for crop depredation in these areas. Although mammalian research started a long time ago, scenario of comprehensive research is not satisfactory in the Central Himalaya, Nepal.

  4. Tectonic evolution of Kashmir basin in northwest Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Akhtar; Ahmad, Shabir; Bhat, M. Sultan; Ahmad, Bashir

    2015-06-01

    Geomorphology has long been recognised as a key to evaluate the interplay between tectonics and landscape geometry in the regions of active deformation. We use geomorphic signatures at varied spatial scales interpreted from SRTM-DEM/Landsat-ETM data, supplemented with field observations to review the tectonic evolution of Kashmir basin in northwest Himalayas. Geomorphic evidence is persuasive of a credible NNW-SSE trending dextral strike-slip structure (central Kashmir Fault - CKF), with the strike length of ~ 165 km, stretched centrally over the NNW-SSE length of the Kashmir basin. As a result of the strike-slip motion and subsequent erosion, significant deformation has taken place along the CKF. In addition, broad geomorphic architecture of the basin reveals typical pull-apart characteristics. Hence, we deduce that the Kashmir basin has evolved as a pull-apart Quaternary sediment depression owing to the deformation along the central Kashmir Fault. The spatial distribution pattern of seismic events (NEIC-catalogue, 1973-2013) and GPS measurements (published), collectively substantiate our geomorphic interpretations.

  5. Three hitherto unreported macro-fungi from Kashmir Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Himalayan state, Jammu and Kashmir due to its climate ranging from tropical deciduous forests to temperate and coniferous forests provides congenial habitat for the growth of diverse macro fungal species which in turn gives it the status of 'hub' of macro-fungal species. The macro fungal species richness of the state is directly related to its expansive forest communities and diverse weather patterns, but all the regions of the state have not been extensively surveyed till now. In this backdrop, a systematic survey for exploration and inventorization of macro fungal species of Western Kashmir Himalaya was undertaken during the year 2009 and 2010, which in turn resulted identification of the three species viz., Thelephora caryophyllea (Schaeff.) Pers., Coltricia cinnamomea (Pers.) Murr., and Guepinia helvelloides Fr. as new reports from the Kashmir. These species were identified on the basis of macro and microscopic characters and also the aid of taxonomic keys, field manuals, mushroom herbaria and help from expert taxonomists in the related field was taken into account. (author)

  6. Study of natural radionuclide in soil samples of Garhwal Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural radioactivity and the associated external exposure due to gamma radiation depends on the geological and geographical conditions, and appear at different levels in the soil of each region in world. The natural radionuclide are widely distributed in various geological formations and ecosystems such as rocks, soil groundwater and food stuffs. In present study the distribution of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K contents were measured in the soil samples collected from different litho logical unit of Garhwal Himalayas. The analysis of soil sample was carried out using gamma ray spectrometer. The activity concentration of naturally occurring radio nuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in these soil samples were found to vary from BDL to 131.48 Bq/kg, 8.84 Bq/kg to 384.42 Bq/kg and 471.22 to 1406.25 Bq/kg, respectively. The distribution of radionuclide widely depends upon the rock formation and chemical properties with in earth. The activity concentration varied widely depending on sample origin. The external absorbed gamma dose due 226Ra, 232Th and 40K was also calculated which vary from 49.06 nGy/h to 306.11 nGy/h. The radium equivalent activity from these soil sample were found from 99.59 Bq/kg to 694.04 Bq/kg. (author)

  7. Deep structure over the eastern syntaxis of the Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Magnetotelluric surveys were conducted over two profiles for mapping the major tectonic features over the eastern syntaxial bend. These studies over the main frontal thrust and Main boundary thrust of the Himalaya and the Mishmi thrust in the Indo Burman range have shown that the signatures of these thrusts at deeper level are not coincident with their corresponding surface expressions. Thus main frontal and the main boundary thrusts are traced about 20 km south of the surface manifestations where as the Mishmi thrust at deeper levels is about 25 km west of the location observed on the surface. The global positioning studies (Gan, W, et al. (2007) J. Geophys. Res. Article No: B08416) are indicative of eastward (transverse to the strike) movements of the sedimentary overburden north of the main frontal thrust, in this region. Another conspicuous feature is the south dipping thrust / reverse fault delineated to the north of the Main frontal thrust earlier observed in the Tawang-Bomdilla region (Gokarn et al, 2008, 19th EM induction workshop, Beijing China). Its signatures at shallow depth in this region are however obscured by the presence of then supracrustal deposits of the Abhor volcanics and Yinkiang formations occurring in small discrete patches in the close vicinity of this feature.

  8. Cytological evaluation of Apiaceae Lindl. from Western Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S; Jeelani, S M; Rani, S; Kumari, S; Gupta, R C

    2014-01-01

    The present paper deals with cytological studies on 31 populations covering 17 species belonging to 10 genera of Apiaceae from Western Himalayas. The chromosome numbers in the two species as Chaerophyllum capnoides (n = 11) and Heracleum brunonis (n = 11), along with additional cytotypes for Pimpinella acuminata (n = 9) and Sium latijugum (n = 12) have been reported for the first time on world-wide basis. The genus Pleurospermum, although cytologically worked out earlier from outside India, its species densiflorum (n = 11) makes first representation of the genus from India. Besides, the chromosome number in Chaerophyllum aromaticum (n = 11) have been worked out for the first time from India. The course of meiosis varies from normal to abnormal in different populations of Chaerophyllum villosum, Pimpinella achilleifolia and Sium latijugum while abnormal meiotic course has been observed in all the studied populations of Chaerophyllum acuminatum, C. aromaticum, C. capnoides, Pimpinella acuminata, P. diversifolia, Pleurospermum densiflorum and Vicatia coniifolia. Such taxa are marked with meiotic abnormalities in the form of cytomixis, chromatin stickiness, formation of laggards and bridges resulting into abnormal microsporogenesis. The occurrence of structural heterozygosity has been recorded in the Chaerophyllum acuminatum and C. aromaticum. The effect of these abnormalities is clearly seen on the pollen size and fertility. PMID:25181856

  9. Radon in groundwater of eastern Doon valley, Outer Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radon content in water may serve as a useful tracer for several geohydrological processes. The hydrodynamic factor, presence of radium in host rocks, as well as the soil porosity and permeability control its concentration in groundwater. In order to understand the factors that control the occurrence of radon in groundwater of Doon valley in Outer Himalaya, a total of 34 groundwater samples were collected from handpumps and tubewells covering three hydrogeological units/areas in the eastern part of Doon valley. Radon variation in tubewells and handpumps varies from 25.4±1.8 to 92.5±3.4 Bq/l with an average of 53.5±2.6 Bq/l. A significant positive correlation between radon concentration and depth of the wells was observed in the Doiwala-Dudhli and Jolleygrant areas suggesting that radon concentration increases with drilling depth in areas consisting of sediments of younger Doon gravels, whereas samples of the Ganga catchment show negative correlation. The high radon levels at shallower depths in the Ganga catchment (consisting of fluvial terraces of Ganga basin) indicate uranium-rich sediments at shallower depth

  10. BotEC: The Himalayas and Continental Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Kresan

    Queston: The story of the Himalayas can be traced back to the breakup of the supercontinent, called Pangaea, about 200 million years ago, when India began its rapid movement northward towards Asia. Asia was a much smaller continent then. Then, between 45 and 55 million years ago, India and Asia collided. Before collision, India moved northward at about 7-10 centimeters per year. Remarkably, India's northward movement was slowed only a little after the collisionâit continues to plow into Asia at a rate of 5-6 centimeters per year. We can measure the present northward movement of India into Asia using GPS measurements over a period of time. So, there is little doubt of the continued movement of India. There is much debate about how the northward march of India into Asia is being accommodated. Of course, the high Himalayan Plateau is a manifestation of this collision between two continents. Let's assume that India began to plow into the Asian continent 55 million years ago and that, since then, it has continued to uniformly move northward into the Asian continent at 6 centimeters per year (for 55 million years). Calculate the total distance (in kilometers) that India has plowed into Asia.

  11. Survey of radon and thoron in homes of Indian Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of radon, thoron and their progeny were carried out in some houses from Garhwal and Kumaun Himalayas of India using a LR-115 plastic track detector. The measurements were made in various residential houses of the area at a height of 2.5 m above the ground level using a twin chamber radon dosemeter, which can record the values of radon, thoron and their progeny separately. The concentrations of radon and thoron in these homes were found to vary from 11 to 191 and 1 to 156 Bq m-3, respectively. The equilibrium factor between radon and progeny varies from 0.02 to 0.90, with an average of 0.26 for the region. The resulting dose rate due to radon, thoron and their decay products was found to vary from 0.02 to 0.84 ?Sv h-1 with an arithmetic mean of 0.27 ?Sv h-1. A detailed analysis of the distribution of radon, thoron and their decay products inside a house is also reported. The observed dose rates due to radon, thoron and progeny were found somewhat higher but well below the international recommendations. (authors)

  12. Free ion selective radionuclide extraction (FISRE) and the targeting potential of theranostic radio-complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper briefly discusses molecular targeting, receptors, and distribution, all set in the context of the use of radiolabelled and chelated peptides in peptide receptor scintigraphy (PRS) and peptide radionuclide therapy (PRRT). The discussion further addresses the potential of compartmental modelling as a tool in optimization approaches for targeting complexes. The latter point is illustrated by the use of FISRE-methods and clinical data on 177Lu-DOTA-Tyr3-octreotate in a preliminary modelling trial, to show the principal relevance of various complex properties for targeting characteristics in optimization exercises. The results indicate that improving the complex dynamic stability may mimic improved complex targeting potential. (author)

  13. On spectral properties of the resonances for selected potential scattering systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The resonances (poles of the scattering matrix) of quantum mechanical scattering by central-symmetric potentials with compact support and zero angular momentum are spectrally characterized directly in terms of the Hamiltonian by a (generalized) eigenvalue problem distinguished by an additional condition (called boundary condition). The connection between the (generalized) eigenspace of a resonance and corresponding Gamov vectors is pointed out. A condition is presented such that a relation between special transition probabilities and infinite sums of residual terms for all complex-conjugated pairs of resonances can be proved. In the case of the square well potential the condition is satisfied

  14. Patterns of paternity skew among polyandrous social insects : what can they tell us about the potential for sexual selection?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaffé, Rodolfo; Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Monogamy results in high genetic relatedness among offspring and thus it is generally assumed to be favored by kin selection. Female multiple mating (polyandry) has nevertheless evolved several times in the social Hymenoptera (ants, bees, and wasps), and a substantial amount of work has been conducted to understand its costs and benefits. Relatedness and inclusive fitness benefits are, however, not only influenced by queen mating frequency but also by paternity skew, which is a quantitative measure of paternity biases among the offspring of polyandrous females. We performed a large-scale phylogenetic analysis of paternity skew across polyandrous social Hymenoptera. We found a general and significant negative association between paternity frequency and paternity skew. High paternity skew, which increases relatedness among colony members and thus maximizes inclusive fitness gains, characterized species with low paternity frequency. However, species with highly polyandrous queens had low paternity skew, with paternity equalized among potential sires. Equal paternity shares among fathers are expected to maximize fitness benefits derived from genetic diversity among offspring. We discuss the potential for postcopulatory sexual selection to influence patterns of paternity in social insects, and suggest that sexual selection may have played a key, yet overlooked role in social evolution.

  15. YIELD POTENTIAL OF SELECTED MEDICINAL HERBS AT THREE PLANT SPACINGS IN NEW MEXICO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field studies were conducted to determine the production potential of echinacea (Echinacea purpurea), valerian (Valeriana officinalis), mullein (Verbascum thapsus) and yerba mansa (Anemopsis californica) medicinal herbs at two sites in New Mexico. Las Cruces, N.M. is at an elevation of 1,186 m and h...

  16. Development of live attenuated Streptococcus agalactiae as potential vaccines by selecting for resistance to sparfloxacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    To develop attenuated bacteria as potential live vaccines, sparfloxacin was used in this study to modify 40 isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae. Majority of S. agalactiae used in this study were able to develop at least 80-fold resistance to sparfloxacin. When the virulence of the sparfloxacin-resi...

  17. Prediction of Bacillus weihenstephanensis acid resistance: the use of gene expression patterns to select potential biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desriac, N; Postollec, F; Coroller, L; Sohier, D; Abee, T; den Besten, H M W

    2013-10-01

    Exposure to mild stress conditions can activate stress adaptation mechanisms and provide cross-resistance towards otherwise lethal stresses. In this study, an approach was followed to select molecular biomarkers (quantitative gene expressions) to predict induced acid resistance after exposure to various mild stresses, i.e. exposure to sublethal concentrations of salt, acid and hydrogen peroxide during 5 min to 60 min. Gene expression patterns of unstressed and mildly stressed cells of Bacillus weihenstephanensis were correlated to their acid resistance (3D value) which was estimated after exposure to lethal acid conditions. Among the twenty-nine candidate biomarkers, 12 genes showed expression patterns that were correlated either linearly or non-linearly to acid resistance, while for the 17 other genes the correlation remains to be determined. The selected genes represented two types of biomarkers, (i) four direct biomarker genes (lexA, spxA, narL, bkdR) for which expression patterns upon mild stress treatment were linearly correlated to induced acid resistance; and (ii) nine long-acting biomarker genes (spxA, BcerKBAB4_0325, katA, trxB, codY, lacI, BcerKBAB4_1716, BcerKBAB4_2108, relA) which were transiently up-regulated during mild stress exposure and correlated to increased acid resistance over time. Our results highlight that mild stress induced transcripts can be linearly or non-linearly correlated to induced acid resistance and both approaches can be used to find relevant biomarkers. This quantitative and systematic approach opens avenues to select cellular biomarkers that could be incremented in mathematical models to predict microbial behaviour. PMID:23582520

  18. Survey on basic knowledge about exposure and potential environmental and health risks for selected nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Sonja Hagen; Hansen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Based on a literature review this report provides a general description as well as an environmental and health profile of 7 nanomaterials. The examined nanomaterials are selected because of expected high use or specific environmental and health properties. Fullerenes, iron, silver, nanoclay and titanium-, cerium-, and silicondioxides were studied in the project. Based on current uses, it is concluded that current applications of nano-iron and nanoclay can not cause unexpected “nano-associated” health or environmental problems. Although no specific risk associated with current uses of any of the 7 other nanomaterials were identified, there are areas where there may be reason for attention and thus need for more knowledge.

  19. Identification and Characterization of Genes Involved in Leishmania Pathogenesis: The Potential for Drug Target Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Robert; Gannavaram, Sreenivas; Dey, Ranadhir; Debrabant, Alain; Lakhal-Naouar, Ines; Nakhasi, Hira L.

    2011-01-01

    Identifying and characterizing Leishmania donovani genes and the proteins they encode for their role in pathogenesis can reveal the value of this approach for finding new drug targets. Effective drug targets are likely to be proteins differentially expressed or required in the amastigote life cycle stage found in the patient. Several examples and their potential for chemotherapeutic disruption are presented. A pathway nearly ubiquitous in living cells targeted by anticancer drugs, the ubiquitin system, is examined. New findings in ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like modifiers in Leishmania show how disruption of those pathways could point to additional drug targets. The programmed cell death pathway, now recognized among protozoan parasites, is reviewed for some of its components and evidence that suggests they could be targeted for antiparasitic drug therapy. Finally, the endoplasmic reticulum quality control system is involved in secretion of many virulence factors. How disruptions in this pathway reduce virulence as evidence for potential drug targets is presented. PMID:22091403

  20. Potential of 109Pd-labeled lymphocytes for selective lymphatic ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biodistribution of lymphocytes labeled with 109Pd was investigated in Lewis rats to determine if they might be useful for selective lymphoid ablation. 109Pd-labeled lymphocytes demonstrated significant lymphoid localization. However, there was a fall in the accumulation of radiolabeled lymphocytes in lymphoid tissue when the 108Pd carrier dose or the 109Pd radioactive dose incorporated per 108 lymphocytes was increased from 0.12 mg to 0.20 mg and from 21.3 ?Ci to 54.6 ?Ci, respectively (P 109Pd-labeled syngeneic and allogeneic lymphocytes demonstrated similar tissue distribution patterns. These results raise the possibility of using 109Pd-labeled lymphocytes for selective lymphoid ablation, but emphasize the need for using high specific activity 109Pd and large amounts of lymphocytes for labeling. This will minimize cell damage and allow maximum therapeutic results to be obtained. The use of large numbers of cells might best be accomplished by using donor lymphocytes. (orig.)

  1. Genetic diversity of selected genes that are potentially economically important in feral sheep of New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedcole J Richard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feral sheep are considered to be a source of genetic variation that has been lost from their domestic counterparts through selection. Methods This study investigates variation in the genes KRTAP1-1, KRT33, ADRB3 and DQA2 in Merino-like feral sheep populations from New Zealand and its offshore islands. These genes have previously been shown to influence wool, lamb survival and animal health. Results All the genes were polymorphic, but no new allele was identified in the feral populations. In some of these populations, allele frequencies differed from those observed in commercial Merino sheep and other breeds found in New Zealand. Heterozygosity levels were comparable to those observed in other studies on feral sheep. Our results suggest that some of the feral populations may have been either inbred or outbred over the duration of their apparent isolation. Conclusion The variation described here allows us to draw some conclusions about the likely genetic origin of the populations and selective pressures that may have acted upon them, but they do not appear to be a source of new genetic material, at least for these four genes.

  2. Potential biochemical markers for selection of disease resistance in Vigna radiata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek (Green gram), a major pulse crop is prone to damaging diseases caused by Erysiphe polygoni, Cercospora canescens and Rhizoctonia sp. Therefore, the development of multiple resistance is a major breeding objective in green gram. Resistance to powdery mildew has already been developed, however, there are no reports on the development of resistance to Cercospora in green gram. Owing to limitation of conventional screening methods, the improvement for multiple disease resistance is inadequate, in this crop. It needs an efficient and quick selection method, for screening the plant population at an early stage. It is well established that the resistant interaction, in plants, involves accumulation of antibiotic compound phytoalexin (Genestein in Vigna radiata) and induction of enzymes such as ?-1,3 gulcanase and Chitinases. These compounds are not only induced by pathogens but also pathogen-derived elicitors. These biochemical compounds can be used as resistance indicative biochemical markers for screening the natural or mutagen induced genetic diversity in populations of Vigna radiata in non-destructive manner. It, however, needs a systematic study of plant defense response. This paper deals with the response of resistant and susceptible cultivars of vigna radiata to Cercospora elicitor and development of non-destructive selection method for disease resistance. (author)

  3. Assessment of Potential for Biodiesel Feedstock of Selected Wild Plant Oils Indigenous to Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Jerekias Gandure; Clever Ketlogetswe

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel is attracting increasing attention worldwide as a blending component or a direct replacement of petroleum diesel fuel in transport sector.The challenge to scientists and engineers is to identify appropriate feedstocks for biodiesel production. The majority of potential feedstocks are edible species which are at the centre of the “fuel versus food” debate. It is therefore imperative for scientists and engineers to continue the search for biodiesel feedstocks that do not compete w...

  4. Identification and Characterization of Genes Involved in Leishmania Pathogenesis: The Potential for Drug Target Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Nakhasi, Hira L.; Ines Lakhal-Naouar; Alain Debrabant; Ranadhir Dey; Sreenivas Gannavaram; Robert Duncan

    2011-01-01

    Identifying and characterizing Leishmania donovani genes and the proteins they encode for their role in pathogenesis can reveal the value of this approach for finding new drug targets. Effective drug targets are likely to be proteins differentially expressed or required in the amastigote life cycle stage found in the patient. Several examples and their potential for chemotherapeutic disruption are presented. A pathway nearly ubiquitous in living cells targeted by anticancer drugs, the ubiquit...

  5. Enterocin P Selectively Dissipates the Membrane Potential of Enterococcus faecium T136

    OpenAIRE

    Herranz, C.; Chen, Y.; Chung, H.-J.; Cintas, L. M.; Hernández, P E; Montville, T J; Chikindas, M L

    2001-01-01

    Enterocin P is a pediocin-like, broad-spectrum bacteriocin which displays a strong inhibitory activity against Listeria monocytogenes. The bacteriocin was purified from the culture supernatant of Enterococcus faecium P13, and its molecular mechanism of action against the sensitive strain E. faecium T136 was evaluated. Although enterocin P caused significant reduction of the membrane potential (??) and the intracellular ATP pool of the indicator organism, the pH gradient (?pH) component of ...

  6. Selecting the optimal method to calculate daily global reference potential evaporation from CFSR reanalysis data

    OpenAIRE

    Sperna Weiland, F. C.; Tisseuil, C.; Du?rr, H. H.; Vrac, M.; Beek, L. P. H.

    2011-01-01

    Potential evaporation (PET) is one of the main inputs of hydrological models. Yet, there is limited consensus on which PET equation is most applicable in hydrological climate impact assessments. In this study six different methods to derive global scale reference PET time series from CFSR reanalysis data are compared: Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor and original and modified versions of the Hargreaves and Blaney-Criddle method. The calculated PET time series are (1) evaluated against global...

  7. The method of assessment of solar potential for selected area with use Geographical Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netzel P.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method for analyse the spatial distribution of solar energy potential based on calculated solar irradiation with use of GIS (Geographical Information System. Program GIS GRASS gives opportunity to create spatial distribution of solar radiation which is taking into account such important elements like: terrain, atmosphere, pollutants, water and aerosol in atmosphere, clouds. The use of GIS GRASS module – named r.sun gives opportunity to generate spatial distribution of solar radiation on Lower Silesia (south – west part of Poland. In this work the analyse of solar potential to obtain hot water in the individual household were done. This analyse was based on the amount of total solar radiation monthly sums generated by r.sun module. Spatial distribution of solar potential was used to classify the Lower Silesia region in terms of work efficiency solar installations. It is very usefully because it gives people information about the date of the return of the funds invested in the purchase of the solar collectors.

  8. Simple, Single Step Potential Measurement for the Determination of the Ultimate Detection Limit of Ion Selective Electrodes.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bereczki, R.; Takács, B.; Gyurcsányi, R. E.; Tóth, K.; Nagy, G.; Langmaier, Jan; Lindner, E.

    2006-01-01

    Ro?. 18, 13-14 (2006), s. 1245-1253. ISSN 1040-0397 Grant ostatní: National Science Foundation Grants (XE) 0202207; National Science Foundation Grants (XE) 0335228; Hungarian Scientific Foundation(HU) F037977; Hungarian Scientific Foundation(HU) M041969; Hungarian Scientific Foundation(HU) T46403; Hungarian Scientific Foundation(HU) OM/PAL-112/2003; Hungarian Scientific Foundation(HU) OTKA-NSF 46146 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : carrier based ion-selective electrodes * potential difference measurement * response range * detection limit Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.444, year: 2006

  9. Unbiased descriptor and parameter selection confirms the potential of proteochemometric modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wikberg Jarl ES

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteochemometrics is a new methodology that allows prediction of protein function directly from real interaction measurement data without the need of 3D structure information. Several reported proteochemometric models of ligand-receptor interactions have already yielded significant insights into various forms of bio-molecular interactions. The proteochemometric models are multivariate regression models that predict binding affinity for a particular combination of features of the ligand and protein. Although proteochemometric models have already offered interesting results in various studies, no detailed statistical evaluation of their average predictive power has been performed. In particular, variable subset selection performed to date has always relied on using all available examples, a situation also encountered in microarray gene expression data analysis. Results A methodology for an unbiased evaluation of the predictive power of proteochemometric models was implemented and results from applying it to two of the largest proteochemometric data sets yet reported are presented. A double cross-validation loop procedure is used to estimate the expected performance of a given design method. The unbiased performance estimates (P2 obtained for the data sets that we consider confirm that properly designed single proteochemometric models have useful predictive power, but that a standard design based on cross validation may yield models with quite limited performance. The results also show that different commercial software packages employed for the design of proteochemometric models may yield very different and therefore misleading performance estimates. In addition, the differences in the models obtained in the double CV loop indicate that detailed chemical interpretation of a single proteochemometric model is uncertain when data sets are small. Conclusion The double CV loop employed offer unbiased performance estimates about a given proteochemometric modelling procedure, making it possible to identify cases where the proteochemometric design does not result in useful predictive models. Chemical interpretations of single proteochemometric models are uncertain and should instead be based on all the models selected in the double CV loop employed here.

  10. Visual encoding and fixation target selection in free viewing: presaccadic brain potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AndreyRNikolaev

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In scrutinizing a scene, the eyes alternate between fixations and saccades. During a fixation, two component processes can be distinguished: visual encoding and selection of the next fixation target. We aimed to distinguish the neural correlates of these processes in the electrical brain activity prior to a saccade onset. Participants viewed color photographs of natural scenes, in preparation for a change detection task. Then, for each participant and each scene we computed an image heat map, with temperature representing the duration and density of fixations. The temperature difference between the start and end points of saccades was taken as a measure of the expected task-relevance of the information concentrated in specific regions of a scene. Visual encoding was evaluated according to whether subsequent change was correctly detected. Saccades with larger temperature difference were more likely to be followed by correct detection than ones with smaller temperature differences. The amplitude of presaccadic activity over anterior brain areas was larger for correct detection than for detection failure. This difference was observed for short “scrutinizing” but not for long “explorative” saccades, suggesting that presaccadic activity reflects top-down saccade guidance. Thus, successful encoding requires local scanning of scene regions which are expected to be task-relevant. Next, we evaluated fixation target selection. Saccades “moving up” in temperature were preceded by presaccadic activity of higher amplitude than those “moving down”. This finding suggests that presaccadic activity reflects attention deployed to the following fixation location. Our findings illustrate how presaccadic activity can elucidate concurrent brain processes related to the immediate goal of planning the next saccade and the larger-scale goal of constructing a robust representation of the visual scene.

  11. Relation between methanogenic archaea and methane production potential in selected natural wetland ecosystems across China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Y. Liu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Methane (CH4 emissions from natural wetland ecosystems exhibit large spatial variability at regional, national, and global levels related to temperature, water table, plant type and methanogenic archaea etc. To understand the underlying factors that induce spatial differences in CH4 emissions, and the relationship between the population of methanogenic archaea and CH4 production potential in natural wetlands around China, we measured the CH4 production potential and the abundance of methanogenic archaea in vertical soil profiles sampled from the Poyang wetland in the subtropical zone, the Hongze wetland in the warm temperate zone, the Sanjiang marsh in the cold temperate zone, and the Ruoergai peatland in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in the alpine climate zone. The top soil layer had the highest population of methanogens (1.07–8.29 × 109 cells g?1 soil in all wetlands except the Ruoergai peatland and exhibited the maximum CH4 production potential measured at the mean in situ summer temperature. There is a significant logarithmic correlation between the abundance of methanogenic archaea and the soil organic carbon (R2 = 0.72, P < 0.001, n = 13 and between the abundance of methanogenic archaea and the total nitrogen concentrations (R2 = 0.76, P < 0.001, n = 13 in wetland soils. This indicates that the amount of soil organic carbon may affect the population of methanogens in wetland ecosystems. While the CH4 production potential is not significantly related to methanogen population (R2 = 0.01, P > 0.05, n = 13, it is related to the dissolved organic carbon concentration (R2 = 0.31, P = 0.05, n = 13. This suggests that the methanogen population might be not an effective index for predicting the CH4 production in wetland ecosystems. The CH4 production rate of the top soil layer increases with increasing latitude, from 273.64 ?g CH4 kg?1 soil d?1 in the Poyang wetland to 664.59 ?g CH4 kg?1 soil d?1 in the Carex lasiocarpa marsh of the Sanjiang Plain. We conclude that CH4 production potential in the freshwater wetlands of Eastern China is mainly affected by the supply of methanogenic substrates rather than temperature; in contrast, low summer temperatures at high elevations in the Ruoergai peatland of the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau result in the presence of dominant species of methanogens with low CH4 production potential, which in turn suppresses CH4 production.

  12. Selection of potential probiotic Enterococcus faecium isolated from Portuguese fermented food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Joana; Borges, Sandra; Teixeira, Paula

    2014-11-17

    Four Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from fermented products were evaluated for potential use as probiotic strains. In addition to efaAfm gene, commonly found in E. faecium food isolates, none of the isolates possessed virulence genes and none had positive reactions for the production of tyramine, histamine, putrescine and cadaverine in the screening medium used. All of these four isolates proved to be resistant to 65 °C. E. faecium 119 did not show antimicrobial activity against any of the target bacteria investigated. E. faecium 85 and 101 inhibited Listeria innocua and E. faecium DSMZ 13590. The strain E. faecium 120 inhibited seven target bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes 7946, L. monocytogenes 7947, L. innocua 2030c, L. innocua NCTC 11286, E. faecium DSMZ 13590, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213) and was chosen as the representative to assess the ability to survive gastrointestinal tract passage simulation, as well as the protective role of two food matrices (skim milk and Alheira) during its passage. For both matrices used, no significant differences (p<0.05) were obtained between the types of digestion - quick and slow passage simulation. In the skim milk matrix the isolate was reduced to values below the detection limit of the enumeration technique by the end of the two digestions, in contrast to the Alheira matrix, for which isolate 120 showed a reduction of only ca. 1 log CFU/ml. The E. faecium strain 120 was shown to be a potential candidate for further investigations as a potential probiotic culture. PMID:25268323

  13. Carbon storage and sequestration potential of selected tree species in India

    OpenAIRE

    Kaul, M; Mohren, G.M.J.; Dadhwal, V.K.

    2010-01-01

    A dynamic growth model (CO2FIX) was used for estimating the carbon sequestration potential of sal (Shorea Robusta Gaertn. f.), Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus Tereticornis Sm.), poplar (Populus Deltoides Marsh), and teak (Tectona Grandis Linn. f.) forests in India. The results indicate that long-term total carbon storage ranges from 101 to 156 Mg C?ha?1, with the largest carbon stock in the living biomass of long rotation sal forests (82 Mg C?ha?1). The net annual carbon sequestration rates were achie...

  14. Volatile organic compounds over Eastern Himalaya, India: temporal variation and source characterization using Positive Matrix Factorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sarkar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A first ever study on the characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs has been made over a Himalayan high altitude station in India. A total of 18 VOCs (mono aromatics-BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, non-BTEX substituted aromatics and halocarbon have been measured over Darjeeling (27.01° N, 88.15° E, 2200 m a.s.l. in the eastern Himalaya in India during the period of July 2011–June 2012. The annual average concentration of the sum of 18 target VOCs (TVOC was 376.3 ± 857.2 ?g m?3. Monoaromatics had the highest contribution (72% followed by other substituted aromatics (22% and halocarbon (6% compounds. Toluene was the most abundant VOC in the atmosphere of Darjeeling with the contribution of ~37% to TVOC followed by benzene (~21%, ethylbenzene (~9% and xylenes (~6%. TVOC concentrations were highest during the postmonsoon season with minimum solar radiation and lowest during the premonsoon season with maximum solar radiation. Anthropogenic activities related mainly to tourists like diesel and gasoline emissions, biomass and coal burning, use of solvent and solid waste emissions were almost equal in both the seasons. Seasonal variation in TVOCs over Darjeeling was mainly governed by the incoming solar radiation rather than the emission sources. Source apportionment study using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF model indicated that major fraction of (~60% TVOC were contributed by diesel and gasoline exhausts followed by solvent evaporation (18% and other sources. Diesel exhaust was also found to have the maximum potential in tropospheric ozone formation. The atmospheric loading of BTEX over Darjeeling was found to be comparable with several Indian metro cities and much higher than other cities around the world.

  15. Volatile organic compounds over Eastern Himalaya, India: temporal variation and source characterization using Positive Matrix Factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, C.; Chatterjee, A.; Majumdar, D.; Ghosh, S. K.; Srivastava, A.; Raha, S.

    2014-12-01

    A first ever study on the characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been made over a Himalayan high altitude station in India. A total of 18 VOCs (mono aromatics-BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene), non-BTEX substituted aromatics and halocarbon) have been measured over Darjeeling (27.01° N, 88.15° E, 2200 m a.s.l.) in the eastern Himalaya in India during the period of July 2011-June 2012. The annual average concentration of the sum of 18 target VOCs (TVOC) was 376.3 ± 857.2 ?g m-3. Monoaromatics had the highest contribution (72%) followed by other substituted aromatics (22%) and halocarbon (6%) compounds. Toluene was the most abundant VOC in the atmosphere of Darjeeling with the contribution of ~37% to TVOC followed by benzene (~21%), ethylbenzene (~9%) and xylenes (~6%). TVOC concentrations were highest during the postmonsoon season with minimum solar radiation and lowest during the premonsoon season with maximum solar radiation. Anthropogenic activities related mainly to tourists like diesel and gasoline emissions, biomass and coal burning, use of solvent and solid waste emissions were almost equal in both the seasons. Seasonal variation in TVOCs over Darjeeling was mainly governed by the incoming solar radiation rather than the emission sources. Source apportionment study using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model indicated that major fraction of (~60%) TVOC were contributed by diesel and gasoline exhausts followed by solvent evaporation (18%) and other sources. Diesel exhaust was also found to have the maximum potential in tropospheric ozone formation. The atmospheric loading of BTEX over Darjeeling was found to be comparable with several Indian metro cities and much higher than other cities around the world.

  16. Unbiased cut selection for optimal upper limits in neutrino detectors the model rejection potential technique

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, G C; Hill, Gary C.; Rawlins, Katherine

    2003-01-01

    We present a method for optimising experimental cuts in order to place the strongest constraints (upper limits) on theoretical signal models. The method relies only on signal and background expectations derived from Monte-Carlo simulations, so no bias is introduced by looking at actual data, for instance by setting a limit based on expected signal above the ``last remaining data event.'' After discussing the concept of the ``average upper limit,'' based on the expectation from an ensemble of repeated experiments with no true signal, we show how the best model rejection potential is achieved by optimising the cuts to minimise the ratio of this ``average upper limit'' to the expected signal from the model. As an example, we use this technique to determine the limit sensitivity of kilometre scale neutrino detectors to extra-terrestrial neutrino fluxes from a variety of models, e.g. active galaxies and gamma-ray bursts. We suggest that these model rejection potential optimised limits be used as a standard method ...

  17. SOIL CARBON DYNAMICS AND GLOBAL WARMING POTENTIAL OF SELECTED SOIL SERIES AND LANDUSE CATEGORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feba Merin Chacko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Land use conversion is usually accompanied by a decline in soil organic carbon. This work is aimed to determine the soil organic carbon affected by the multiple land use in a particular soil series. The study was conducted in Ustic Haplohumults soil series of Kottayam district of Kerala including land uses like Cropland, Wetland, Agricultural land, Homestead and Mixed vegetation land. Change in land use induced significant losses of soil and particulate organic carbon. The maximum SOC content (7.39% was observed in abandoned paddy field which is nearly 89% more than the lowest values of 0.76% recorded from the Homestead soil. Soil carbon sequestration potential of different land uses varies on spatial and temporal basis along with the interplay of environmental externalities. Potential for CO2 production and global warming of various soils was in accordance with C mineralization and this explains the role and capacity of various land use under consideration to store and release carbon. In the present study it was found that the soils of coconut plantation serve as a better system in terms of maximum SOC storage and minimum carbon emission. The present study reveals the significance and importance of specific land use category which is optimal for particular soil series towards soil carbon storage.

  18. Production of genetically and developmentally modified seaweeds: exploiting the potential of artificial selection techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, Bénédicte; Rolland, Elodie; Gupta, Vishal; Reddy, C. R. K.

    2015-01-01

    Plant feedstock with specific, modified developmental features has been a quest for centuries. Since the development and spread of agriculture, there has been a desire for plants producing disproportionate—or more abundant and more nutritional—biomass that meet human needs better than their native counterparts. Seaweed aquaculture, targeted for human consumption and the production of various raw materials, is a rapidly expanding field and its stakeholders have increasing vested interest for cost-effective and lucrative seaweed cultivation processes. Thus, scientific research on seaweed development is particularly timely: the potential for expansion of seaweed cultivation depends on the sector's capacity to produce seaweeds with modified morphological features (e.g., thicker blades), higher growth rates or delayed (or even no) fertility. Here, we review the various technical approaches used to modify development in macroalgae, which have attracted little attention from developmental biologists to date. Because seaweed (or marine macroalgae) anatomy is much less complex than that of land plants and because seaweeds belong to three different eukaryotic phyla, the mechanisms controlling their morphogenesis are key to understanding their development. Here, we present efficient sources of developmentally and genetically modified seaweeds—somatic variants, artificial hybrids and mutants—as well as the future potential of these techniques. PMID:25852700

  19. Potential and limitations of multidecadal satellite soil moisture observations for selected climate model evaluation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Loew

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture is an essential climate variable (ECV of major importance for land–atmosphere interactions and global hydrology. An appropriate representation of soil moisture dynamics in global climate models is therefore important. Recently, a first multidecadal, observation-based soil moisture dataset has become available that provides information on soil moisture dynamics from satellite observations (ECVSM, essential climate variable soil moisture. The present study investigates the potential and limitations of this new dataset for several applications in climate model evaluation. We compare soil moisture data from satellite observations, reanalysis and simulations from a state-of-the-art land surface model and analyze relationships between soil moisture and precipitation anomalies in the different dataset. Other potential applications like model parameter optimization or model initialization are not investigated in the present study. In a detailed regional study, we show that ECVSM is capable to capture well the interannual and intraannual soil moisture and precipitation dynamics in the Sahelian region. Current deficits of the new dataset are critically discussed and summarized at the end of the paper to provide guidance for an appropriate usage of the ECVSM dataset for climate studies.

  20. Production of genetically and developmentally modified seaweeds: exploiting the potential of artificial selection techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, Bénédicte; Rolland, Elodie; Gupta, Vishal; Reddy, C R K

    2015-01-01

    Plant feedstock with specific, modified developmental features has been a quest for centuries. Since the development and spread of agriculture, there has been a desire for plants producing disproportionate-or more abundant and more nutritional-biomass that meet human needs better than their native counterparts. Seaweed aquaculture, targeted for human consumption and the production of various raw materials, is a rapidly expanding field and its stakeholders have increasing vested interest for cost-effective and lucrative seaweed cultivation processes. Thus, scientific research on seaweed development is particularly timely: the potential for expansion of seaweed cultivation depends on the sector's capacity to produce seaweeds with modified morphological features (e.g., thicker blades), higher growth rates or delayed (or even no) fertility. Here, we review the various technical approaches used to modify development in macroalgae, which have attracted little attention from developmental biologists to date. Because seaweed (or marine macroalgae) anatomy is much less complex than that of land plants and because seaweeds belong to three different eukaryotic phyla, the mechanisms controlling their morphogenesis are key to understanding their development. Here, we present efficient sources of developmentally and genetically modified seaweeds-somatic variants, artificial hybrids and mutants-as well as the future potential of these techniques. PMID:25852700

  1. Neutralization potential determination of siderite (FeCO3) using selected oxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, E B; Haney, R L; Hossner, L R; White, G N

    2006-01-01

    Siderite (FeCO3) is commonly found in coal overburden and, when present, can cause interference in the determination of neutralization potential (NP). Under acidic testing conditions, FeCO3 reacts to neutralize acid, which contributes to the NP. However, continued weathering of FeCO3 (oxidation of Fe2+ and hydrolysis of Fe3+) produces a neutral to slightly acidic solution. The effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), potassium permanganate (KMnO4), and O2 on the laboratory measurement of NP of siderite samples taken from overburden were examined. All oxidation treatments lowered the NP values of the siderite samples as compared with the standard USEPA method. However, oxidation with H2O2 produced variable results depending on the amount of H2O2 added. Neutralization potential values obtained after oxidation treatments were highly correlated with Mn concentration. Reaction products (i.e., 2-line ferrihydrite) of siderite samples with H2O2 and KMnO4 were not representative of natural siderite weathering. Oxidation with O2 produced the lowest NP values for siderite samples. The reaction products produced by oxidation with O2 most closely represent those intermediate products formed when siderite is exposed to atmospheric weathering conditions. Oxidation with O2 also proved to be the most reproducible method for accurately assessing NP when siderite is present in overburden samples. PMID:16641324

  2. Energy performance contracting - energy saving potential of selected energy conservation measures (ECM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, M. (Dansk Energi Analyse A/S, Frederiksberg (Denmark)); Langkilde, G.; Olesen, Bjarne W. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, ICIEE, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Moerck, O. (Cenergia Energy Consultants, Herlev (Denmark)); Sundman, O. (DONG Energy, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Engelund Thomsen, K. (Aalborg Univ., SBi, Hoersholm (Denmark))

    2008-09-15

    This report has been developed under the research project 'Etablering af grundlag for energitjenester i Danmark' (project number: ENS-33031-0185) under the Danish research programme - EFP. The objective of this project has been to contribute to the utilisation of the large potential for energy conservations in the building sector within the public, industry and service sectors through the development of a better basis for decision making for both the Energy Service Companies (ESCOes) and the building owners. The EU directive on Energy Service Contracting points at the buildings as the area where the biggest potential market for energy services and energy efficiency improvements are. The EFP-project has two parts: (1) A Danish part and (2) participation in the international cooperation project 'Holistic Assesment Tool-Kit on Energy Efficient Retrofit Measures for Government Buildings (EnERGo)', Annex 46 under the IEA R and D program 'Energy Conservation In Buildings And Community Systems' (ECBCS). This report describes the Danish contributions to the IEA projects subtask B, which has a primary objective to develop a database of energy conservation measures (ECM) with descriptions and performance characteristics of these. (au)

  3. A method for selecting potential geosites. The case of glacial geosites in the Chablais area (French and Swiss Prealps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perret, Amandine; Reynard, Emmanuel

    2014-05-01

    Since 2009, an Interreg IVA project (123 Chablais), dealing with the promotion of natural and cultural heritage in the Chablais area, has been developed. It is linked to the creation of the Chablais Geopark. In a context of development of smart forms of tourism, the objective was to develop a strategy promoting the glacial heritage to a wide public in an area where the glaciers have almost disappeared. The recognition of specific places as geoheritage is the result of a double process: a scientific one, based on more or less sophisticated methods, and a social one, that is the acknowledgment by the society. One of the first scientific tasks is to produce a list of "potential geosites" that will be assessed in more details. However, this selection is often a weak point of inventories. It often seems like a "black box" without any transparency. In this project (123 Chablais) we carried out an inventory of glacial geosites, using the method developed by Reynard et al. (2007, 2012). However, a method has been created to enlighten the selection process, and to enhance choices in geoheritage management. As it was not possible to consider all sites in the Chablais area, a mixed selection approach was developed, halfway between completeness and specificity (Martin, 2012). The first step was the creation of a list of "points of interest", established using different sources: literature review, fieldwork and use of GIS to cross information. A selection was then performed according to two criteria: correspondence with a glacial stage (time axis) and belonging to a type of forms (spatial axis). Finally, selected sites aimed at providing a representative overview of the regional glacial witnesses. Therefore, representative sites of the regional geology were selected as well as sites presenting regional peculiarities Temporal and spatial attributes were given to the 101 points of interest identified. From a temporal point of view, this inventory aimed at presenting the main stages of the glacial retreat since the Last Glacial Maximum. From a spatial point of view, the objective was to show the different types of glacial remnants, but also some landforms related to deglaciation processes. Finally, 32 glacial and associated geosites were selected. Each geosite was submitted to a full evaluation process, including basis information, description, explanation of morphogenesis and an evaluation of values assigned to geosites. This assessment, first qualitative, provided valuable information concerning their intrinsic interest and their management. A numerical evaluation was also assessed to classify geosites and define an order of priority for their touristic promotion. It is worth to be noted that each selected points of interest can in fact be qualified as a geosite, using a clear method of selection. In this study, the numerical evaluation is not a mean to select geosites but a way to rank one geosite to another. Some geosites can be abandoned if intrinsic values are too low. Despite a well-defined protocol, the subjectivity and authors' choices are part of the selection process and inventory. This fact is certainly not a weakness. It must be considered whenever such inventory is made. Reference Martin, S. (2012). Valoriser le géopatrimoine par la médiation indirecte et la visualisation des objets géomorphologiques (Thèse de doctorat). Université de Lausanne, Lausanne. Reynard E., Fontana G., Kozlik L., Scapozza C. (2007). A method for assessing the scientific and additional values of geomorphosites, Geographica Helvetica, 62(3), 148-158. Reynard, E., Perret, A., Grangier, L., & Kozlik, L. (2012). Methodological approach for the assessment, protection, promotion and management of geoheritage. EGU General Assembly, Vienna.

  4. Region-wide glacier mass balances over the Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya during 1999–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gardelle

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent evolution of Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya (PKH glaciers, widely acknowledged as valuable high-altitude as well as mid-latitude climatic indicators, remains poorly known. To overcome the lack of region-wide mass balance data, we compared the 2000 Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM digital elevation model (DEM to recent (2008–2011 DEMs derived from SPOT5 stereo-imagery for 8 sites spread from Pamir to eastern Himalaya. The region-wide glacier mass balances were contrasted during the last decade, with moderate mass losses in eastern and central Himalaya (?0.21 ± 0.10 m yr?1 w.e. to ?0.29 ± 0.09 m yr?1 w.e. and larger losses in western Himalaya (?0.41 ± 0.11 m yr?1 w.e.. Recently reported slight mass gain of glaciers in central Karakoram is confirmed for a larger area (+0.10 ± 0.19 m yr?1 w.e. and, new, also observed for glaciers in western Pamir (+0.14 ± 0.10 m yr?1 w.e.. We propose that the "Karakoram anomaly" should be renamed the "Pamir-Karakoram anomaly", at least for the last decade. The overall mass balance of PKH glaciers is estimated at ?0.12 ± 0.06 m yr?1 w.e. In contrast to Indus, the relative glacier imbalance contribution to Brahmaputra and Ganges discharges is higher than previously modeled glacier seasonal contribution.

  5. AMS exposure dating: evolution of river valley profiles across Himalayas during late Quaternary-Holocene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    River valley profile is one geomorphic feature, which contain relict landforms inherited from past periods with changing intensities of tectonic and climatic parameters. This aspect has been a subject of current research interest, using exposure dating technique. The results of some recent studies from major river valleys across Himalayas are being discussed

  6. Use of Indigenous Knowledge in Environmental Decision-Making by Communities in the Kumaon Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honwad, Sameer

    2010-01-01

    This study is designed to find out how people in rural communities residing in the middle Himalayas use indigenous knowledge to support environmental decisions while addressing water and land use related concerns. The study not only serves to enrich our understanding of community decision-making, especially as connected to land use and ecological…

  7. Radon/helium studies for earthquake prediction N-W Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the preliminary data of radon monitoring stated in the Himalayan orogenic belt. Radon anomalies are correlated with microseismic activity in the N-W Himalaya. The He/Rn ratio will be used as a predictive tool for earthquakes

  8. Diversity and development of soil microfauna assemblages in two contrasting altitudinal gradients in Himalayas.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Devetter, Miloslav; Hán?l, Ladislav; ?eháková, Klára; Doležal, Ji?í

    ?eské Bud?jovice : Institute of Soil Biology, BC ASCR, 2013. s. 20. ISBN 978-80-86525-23-5. [Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology /12./. 08.04.2013-11.04.2013, ?eské Bud?jovice] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:67985939 Keywords : diversity * development of soil microfauna * Himalayas Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  9. Uranium estimation in plants of the Siwalik Himalayas, Himachal Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fission track technique has been used to estimate uranium content in plants, water and rock samples collected from Siwalik Himalayas of Himachal Pradesh. The present study aims to propose a correlation hypothesis for uranium exploration based on uranium content anomalies. (author)

  10. Geologic mapping of the Ladakh Himalaya by computer processing of Landsat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francica, J. R.; Birnie, R. W.; Johnson, G. D.

    1980-01-01

    Computer processed Landsat digital data and field studies have been integrated to make a geologic map of the Indus Suture in the Ladakh Himalaya. This coordinated approach has been successful at locating and identifying the areal extent of the major rock bodies in a 2500 square kilometer area, much of which is inaccessable for conventional field geologic studies.

  11. Marker-assisted selection as a potential tool for genetic improvement in developing countries: debating the issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marker-assisted selection (MAS) is a complementary technology, for use in conjunction with more established conventional methods of genetic selection, for plant and animal improvement. It has generated a good deal of expectations, many of which have yet to be realized. Although documentation is limited, the current impact of MAS on products delivered to farmers seems small. While the future possibilities and potential impacts of MAS are considerable, there are also obstacles to its use, particularly in developing countries. Principal among these are issues relating to current high costs of the technology and its appropriateness, given that publicly funded agricultural research in many developing countries is suboptimal and development priorities do not necessarily include genetic improvement programmes. Other potential obstacles to the uptake of MAS in developing countries include limited infrastructure, the absence of conventional selection and breeding programmes, poor private sector involvement and lack of research on specific crops of importance in developing countries. Intellectual property rights may also be an important constraint to development and uptake of MAS in the developing world. It is hoped that through partnerships between developing and developed country institutions and individuals, including public-private sector collaboration, MAS costs can be reduced, resources pooled and shared and capacity developed. With the assistance of the Consultative Grouth the assistance of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) and international organizations such as FAO, developing countries can benefit more from MAS. These were some of the outcomes of a moderated e-mail conference, entitled 'Molecular Marker- Assisted Selection as a Potential Tool for Genetic Improvement of Crops, Forest Trees, Livestock and Fish in Developing Countries', that FAO hosted at the end of 2003. During the four-week conference, 627 people subscribed and 85 messages were posted, about 60 percent coming from people living in developing countries. Most messages (88 percent) came from people working in research centres (national or international) or universities. The remainder came from people working as independent consultants or from farmer organizations, government agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) or United Nations (UN) organizations. (author)

  12. Investigation of therapeutic potentials of some selected medicinal plants using neutron activation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, Sani; Usman, Ahmed Rufa'i.; Isa, Nasiru Fage; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Abubakar, Nuraddeen

    2015-04-01

    Series of attempts were made to investigate concentrations of trace elements and their therapeutic properties in various medicinal plants. In this study, samples of some commonly used plants were collected from Bauchi State, Nigeria. They includes leaves of azadirachta indica (neem), Moringa Oleifera (moringa), jatropha curcas (purgin Nut), guiera senegalensis (custard apple) and anogeissus leiocarpus (African birch). These samples were analyzed for their trace elements contents with both short and long irradiation protocols of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) at Nigerian Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1) of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. The level of trace elements found varies from one sample to another, with some reported at hundreds of mg/Kg dry weight. The results have been compared with the available literature data. The presence of these trace elements indicates promising potentials of these plants for relief of certain ailments.

  13. A novel caspase 8 selective small molecule potentiates TRAIL-induced cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucur, Octavian; Gaidos, Gabriel; Yatawara, Achani; Pennarun, Bodvael; Rupasinghe, Chamila; Roux, Jérémie; Andrei, Stefan; Guo, Bingqian; Panaitiu, Alexandra; Pellegrini, Maria; Mierke, Dale F.; Khosravi-Far, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant soluble TRAIL and agonistic antibodies against TRAIL receptors (DR4 and DR5) are currently being created for clinical cancer therapy, due to their selective killing of cancer cells and high safety characteristics. However, resistance to TRAIL and other targeted therapies is an important issue facing current cancer research field. An attractive strategy to sensitize resistant malignancies to TRAIL-induced cell death is the design of small molecules that target and promote caspase 8 activation. For the first time, we describe the discovery and characterization of a small molecule that directly binds caspase 8 and enhances its activation when combined with TRAIL, but not alone. The molecule was identified through an in silico chemical screen for compounds with affinity for the caspase 8 homodimer’s interface. The compound was experimentally validated to directly bind caspase 8, and to promote caspase 8 activation and cell death in single living cells or population of cells, upon TRAIL stimulation. Our approach is a proof-of-concept strategy leading to the discovery of a novel small molecule that not only stimulates TRAIL-induced apoptosis in cancer cells, but may also provide insights into the structure-function relationship of caspase 8 homodimers as putative targets in cancer. PMID:25962125

  14. Cultivar variation and selection potential relevant to the production of cellulosic ethanol from wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindedam, Jane; Andersen, Sven Bode

    2012-01-01

    Optimizing cellulosic ethanol yield depends strongly on understanding the biological variation of feedstocks. Our objective was to study variation in capacity for producing fermentable sugars from straw of winter wheat cultivars with a high-throughput pretreatment and hydrolysis well-plate technique. This technique enabled us to estimate cultivar-related and environmental correlations between sugar yield, chemical composition, agronomic qualities, and distribution of botanical plant parts of wheat straw cultivars. Straws from 20 cultivars were collected in duplicates on two sites in Denmark. Following hydrothermal pretreatment (180 °C for 17.6 min) and co-hydrolysis, sugar release and sugar conversion were measured. Up to 26% difference in sugar release between cultivars was observed. Sugar release showed negative cultivar correlation with lignin and ash content, whereas sugar release showed positive cultivar correlation with content of carbohydrates and plant height. Accessibility to cellulose can impede thesugar conversion rate, and convertibility of each botanical fraction might be more important to overall sugar conversion than the relative proportions of botanical fractions. Our results suggest that selection of cultivars for improved biofuel feedstock of wheat straw is possible, because heritability of sugar release is 57% and there are few adverse correlations to other agronomic traits.

  15. Antiplasmodial potential of selected medicinal plants from eastern Ghats of South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Naveen Kumar; Bagavan, Asokan; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Mohanakrishnan, Dinesh; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Elango, Gandhi; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Sahal, Dinkar

    2013-05-01

    Malaria caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is a major health problem of the developing world. In the present study medicinal plants from Eastern Ghats of South India have been extracted with ethyl acetate and assayed for growth inhibition of asexual erythrocytic stages of chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive (3D7) and (CQ)-resistant (INDO) strains of P. falciparum in culture using the fluorescence-based SYBR Green I assay. Studied extracts showed a spectrum of antiplasmodial activities ranging from (a) very good (IC(50)10-15 ?g/mL: Ficus religiosa and Murraya koenigii); (c) moderate (IC(50)>15-25 ?g/mL: Ficus benghalensis); (d) poor activity (IC(50)>25-60 ?g/mL) and (e) inactive (IC(50)>60 ?g/mL). Resistance indices ranging from 0.78 to 1.28 suggest that some of these extracts had equal promise against the CQ resistant INDO strain of P. falciparum. Cytotoxicity assessment of the extracts against HeLa cell line using MTT assay revealed that the selectivity indices in the range of 3-15 suggesting a good margin of safety. PMID:23399920

  16. Potential aluminium(III)- and gallium(III)-selective optical sensors based on porphyrazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goslinski, Tomasz; Tykarska, Ewa; Kryjewski, Michal; Osmalek, Tomasz; Sobiak, Stanislaw; Gdaniec, Maria; Dutkiewicz, Zbigniew; Mielcarek, Jadwiga

    2011-01-01

    Porphyrazines possessing non-coordinating alkyl (propyl) and aralkyl (4-tert-butylphenyl) groups in the periphery were studied as optical sensors for a set of mono-, di- and trivalent cations. Investigated porphyrazines in the UV-Vis monitored titrations revealed significant responses towards aluminium and gallium cations, unlike other metal ions studied. Additionally, porphyrazine possessing 4-tert-butylphenyl peripheral substituents showed sensor property towards ruthenium cation and was chosen for further investigation. The presence of isosbestic points in absorption spectra for its titration with aluminium, gallium and ruthenium cations, accompanied by a linear Benesi-Hildebrand plot, proved complex formation. The continuous variation method was used to determine binding stoichiometry in 1:1 porphyrazine-metal ratio. X-Ray studies and density functional theory calculations were employed to investigate octa(4-tert-butylphenyl)porphyrazine structure. The results helped to explain the observed selectivity towards certain ions. Interaction between ion and porphyrazine meso nitrogen in a Lewis acid-Lewis base manner is proposed. PMID:21558658

  17. Structural differences of matrix metalloproteinases with potential implications for inhibitor selectivity examined by the GRID/CPCA approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terp, Gitte Elgaard; Cruciani, Gabriele

    2002-01-01

    The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of proteolytic enzymes, which have been the focus of a lot of research in recent years because of their involvement in various disease conditions. In this study, structures of 10 enzymes (MMP1, MMP2, MMP3, MMP7, MMP8, MMP9, MMP12, MMP13, MMP14, and MMP20) were examined with the intention of highlighting regions that could be potential sites for obtaining selectivity. For this purpose, the GRID/CPCA approach as implemented in GOLPE was used. Counterions were included to take into account the different electrostatic properties of the proteins, and the GRID calculations were performed, allowing the protein side chains to move in response to interaction with the probes. In the search for selectivity, the MMPs are known to be a very difficult case because the enzymes of this family are very similar. The well-known differences in the S1' pocket were observed, but in addition, the pockets S3 and S2 called for attention. This is an observation that emphasizes the needfor design of inhibitors exploiting the unprimed side of the active site, if possible, in combination with the S1' site. Despite small differences, a rational usage of the findings described in this work should make it possible to use a combination of the features of the individual enzyme pockets, making most of the MMP enzymes possible targets for selective inhibition. The results suggest the possibility of distinguishing between 8 of the 10 enzymes by this approach.

  18. Neutralization potential determination of siderite (FeCO{sub 3}) using selected oxidants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haney, E.B.; Haney, R.L.; Hossner, L.R.; White, G.N. [Texas A& amp; M University, College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Soil & Crop Science

    2006-05-15

    Siderite (FeCO{sub 3}) is commonly found in coal overburden and, when present, can cause interference in the determination of neutralization potential (NP). Under acidic testing conditions, FeCO{sub 3} reacts to neutralize acid, which contributes to the NP. However, continued weathering of FeCO{sub 3} (oxidation of Fe{sup 2+} and hydrolysis of Fe{sup 3+}) produces a neutral to slightly acidic solution. The effects of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), potassium permanganate (KMnO{sub 4}), and O{sub 2} on the laboratory measurement of NP of siderite samples taken from overburden were examined. All oxidation treatments lowered the NP values of the siderite samples as compared with the standard USEPA method. However, oxidation with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} produced variable results depending on the amount of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} added. Neutralization potential values obtained after oxidation treatments were highly correlated with Mn concentration. Reaction products (i.e., 2-line ferrihydrite) of siderite samples with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and KMnO{sub 4} were not representative of natural siderite weathering. Oxidation with O{sub 2} produced the lowest NP values for siderite samples. The reaction products produced by oxidation with O{sub 2} most closely represent those intermediate products formed when siderite is exposed to atmospheric weathering conditions. Oxidation with O{sub 2} also proved to be the most reproducible method for accurately assessing NP when siderite is present in overburden samples.

  19. Maternal use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and risk of miscarriage - assessing potential biases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Rie Laurine Rosenthal; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during pregnancy has been associated with miscarriage, but the association may be biased by maternal mental illness, lifestyle and exposure misclassification. METHODS: A register study on all pregnancies in Denmark between 1996 and 2009 was conducted using individualised data from the Danish National Patient Register, the Medical Birth Register, the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, the Danish National Prescription database and the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). RESULTS: A total of 1?191164 pregnancies were included in the study, of which 98275 also participated in the DNBC. Pregnancies exposed to SSRIs during or before pregnancy were more likely than unexposed pregnancies to result in first trimester miscarriage, hazard rate (HR)=1.08 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04, 1.13] and HR=1.26 [95% CI 1.16, 1.37], respectively. No difference was observed for second trimester miscarriage. SSRI-exposed pregnancies without a maternal depression/anxiety diagnosis from a psychiatric department were less likely to result in first trimester miscarriage than unexposed pregnancies with a diagnosis, HR=0.85 [95% CI 0.76, 0.95]. SSRI-exposed pregnancies were characterised by an unhealthier maternal lifestyle and mental health profile than unexposed pregnancies, whereas no convincing differences were observed between pregnancies exposed to SSRIs during versus before pregnancy. Substantial disagreement was found between prescriptions and self-reported use of SSRIs, but it did not affect the estimated hazard ratios. CONCLUSION: Confounding by indication and lifestyle in pregnancy may explain the association between SSRI use and miscarriage.

  20. Utilization of the Potentials of Selected Microorganisms as Biocontrol and Biofertilizer for Enhanced Crop Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O. Oyekanmi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Some selected microorganisms isolated from rhizosphere of crops, were screened for their abilities to enhance crop growth and suppress plant parasitic nematodes; in screenhouse experiments. Two promising hybrids of soybean genotypes: TGx 1448-2E (medium duration and TGx 1485-1D (early maturing and a high yielding hybrid of maize genotype Oba Super 1 were used. Microorganisms assessed included the fungi: Trichoderma pseudokoningii, Trichoderma viride, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Aspergillus niger, Glomus mosseae and the rhizobacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida. One thousand juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita were applied to soybean, while five thousand Pratylenchus zeae (juveniles and adults were applied to maize. Fungal spores and rhizobacteria cells approximately 2.5x106 mL-1 concentration were applied per plant, for maize experiment. For soybean experiment, Bradyrhizobium japonicum (106 cells, Trichoderma pseudokoningii (6.8x106 spores and G. mosseae (200 spores were inoculated per plant. The effect of microorganism`s application was compared with a nematicide (carbofuran treatment, untreated control and a nematode only control. The parameters measured were nematode density, root damage due to plant parasitic nematode infection, relative leaf chlorophyll content and plant growth parameters. The inoculated beneficial microorganisms in most cases significantly (p?0.05 reduced the nematode density across the treatments in test crops by up to 79.6% and improved plant growth by up to 46.0%, when treatments performances were compared across treatments. Most of the beneficial microorganisms assessed have prospects of enhancing nematode management through nematode density reduction and improving crop production.

  1. Subtractive phage display selection from canine visceral leishmaniasis identifies novel epitopes that mimic Leishmania infantum antigens with potential serodiagnosis applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Lourena E; Lima, Mayara I S; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Martins, Vivian T; Duarte, Mariana C; Lage, Paula S; Lopes, Eliane G P; Lage, Daniela P; Ribeiro, Tatiana G; Andrade, Pedro H R; de Magalhães-Soares, Danielle F; Soto, Manuel; Tavares, Carlos A P; Goulart, Luiz R; Coelho, Eduardo A F

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonotic disease that is endemic to Brazil, where dogs are the main domestic parasite reservoirs, and the percentages of infected dogs living in regions where canine VL (CVL) is endemic have ranged from 10% to 62%. Despite technological advances, some problems have been reported with CVL serodiagnosis. The present study describes a sequential subtractive selection through phage display technology from polyclonal antibodies of negative and positive sera that resulted in the identification of potential bacteriophage-fused peptides that were highly sensitive and specific to antibodies of CVL. A negative selection was performed in which phage clones were adhered to purified IgGs from healthy and Trypanosoma cruzi-infected dogs to eliminate cross-reactive phages. The remaining supernatant nonadhered phages were submitted to positive selection against IgG from the blood serum of dogs that were infected with Leishmania infantum. Phage clones that adhered to purified IgGs from the CVL-infected serum samples were selected. Eighteen clones were identified and their reactivities tested by a phage enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (phage-ELISA) against the serum samples from infected dogs (n = 31) compared to those from vaccinated dogs (n = 21), experimentally infected dogs with cross-reactive parasites (n = 23), and healthy controls (n = 17). Eight clones presented sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 100%, and they showed no cross-reactivity with T. cruzi- or Ehrlichia canis-infected dogs or with dogs vaccinated with two different commercial CVL vaccines in Brazil. Our study identified eight mimotopes of L. infantum antigens with 100% accuracy for CVL serodiagnosis. The use of these mimotopes by phage-ELISA proved to be an excellent assay that was reproducible, simple, fast, and inexpensive, and it can be applied in CVL-monitoring programs. PMID:24256622

  2. Subtractive Phage Display Selection from Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis Identifies Novel Epitopes That Mimic Leishmania infantum Antigens with Potential Serodiagnosis Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Lourena E.; Lima, Mayara I. S.; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A.; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Martins, Vivian T.; Duarte, Mariana C.; Lage, Paula S.; Lopes, Eliane G. P.; Lage, Daniela P.; Ribeiro, Tatiana G.; Andrade, Pedro H. R.; de Magalhães-Soares, Danielle F.; Soto, Manuel; Tavares, Carlos A. P.; Goulart, Luiz R.

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonotic disease that is endemic to Brazil, where dogs are the main domestic parasite reservoirs, and the percentages of infected dogs living in regions where canine VL (CVL) is endemic have ranged from 10% to 62%. Despite technological advances, some problems have been reported with CVL serodiagnosis. The present study describes a sequential subtractive selection through phage display technology from polyclonal antibodies of negative and positive sera that resulted in the identification of potential bacteriophage-fused peptides that were highly sensitive and specific to antibodies of CVL. A negative selection was performed in which phage clones were adhered to purified IgGs from healthy and Trypanosoma cruzi-infected dogs to eliminate cross-reactive phages. The remaining supernatant nonadhered phages were submitted to positive selection against IgG from the blood serum of dogs that were infected with Leishmania infantum. Phage clones that adhered to purified IgGs from the CVL-infected serum samples were selected. Eighteen clones were identified and their reactivities tested by a phage enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (phage-ELISA) against the serum samples from infected dogs (n = 31) compared to those from vaccinated dogs (n = 21), experimentally infected dogs with cross-reactive parasites (n = 23), and healthy controls (n = 17). Eight clones presented sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 100%, and they showed no cross-reactivity with T. cruzi- or Ehrlichia canis-infected dogs or with dogs vaccinated with two different commercial CVL vaccines in Brazil. Our study identified eight mimotopes of L. infantum antigens with 100% accuracy for CVL serodiagnosis. The use of these mimotopes by phage-ELISA proved to be an excellent assay that was reproducible, simple, fast, and inexpensive, and it can be applied in CVL-monitoring programs. PMID:24256622

  3. Predicting Monsoonal-Driven Stream Discharge and Sediment Yield in Himalaya Mountain Basins with Changing Climate and Deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, R. P.; White, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Short and long term effects of site water availability impacts the spectrum of management outcomes including landslide risk, hydropower generation, and sustainable agriculture in mountain systems heavily influenced by climate and land use changes. Climate change and land use may predominantly affect the hydrologic cycle of mountain basins as soil precipitation interception is affected by land cover. Using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool, we estimated stream discharge and sediment yield associated with climate and land use changes for two Himalaya basins located at eastern and western margins of Nepal that included drainages of the Tamor and Seti Rivers. Future climate change was modeled using average output of temperature and precipitation changes derived from Special Report on Emission Scenarios (B1, A1B & A2) of 16 global circulation models for 2080 as meteorological inputs into SWAT. Land use change was modeled spatially and included 1) deforestation, 2) expansion of agricultural land, and 3) increased human settlement that were produced by considering current land use with projected changes associated with viability of elevation and slope characteristics of the basins capable of supporting different land use types. We found higher annual stream discharge in all GCM-derived scenarios compared to the baseline with maximum increases of 13 and 8% in SRES-A2 and SRES-A1B for the Tamor and Seti basins, respectively. With 7% of original forest land removed, sediment yield for Tamor basin was estimated to be 65% higher, but increased to 124% for the SRES-B1 scenario. For the Seti basin, 4% deforestation yielded 33% more sediment for the SRES-A1B scenario. Our results indicated that combined effects of future, intensified monsoon rainfall with deforestation lead to dramatic potential for increased stream discharge and sediment yield as rainfall on steep slopes with thin exposed soils increases surface runoff and soil erosion in the Himalayas. This effect appears to be geographically important with higher influence in the eastern Tamor basin potentially due to longer and stronger monsoonal period of that area. Future slope stability and sediment deposition in downstream reservoirs are important future potential vulnerabilities for these basins of which land management plays an important mediating role.

  4. Selection of potential cold water marine species for testing of oil dispersants, and chemically dispersed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study regarding marine species for toxicity testing for Alaska conditions was presented and the potential adverse impacts of a large marine oil spill in cold water were discussed with the objective to determine if the spill should be treated by the use of oil dispersants. Without dispersion, the oil can pollute marine epifauna and can deposit on beaches. The decision to apply dispersants to a marine oil spill requires knowledge of the toxicity of the undispersed oil to pelagic marine life occurring via natural dispersion as opposed to the toxicity of the oil-dispersant mixture. Most standard toxicity tests apply to warm water species. This paper discussed the need to have a standard test species relevant to Alaska waters for toxicity testing. In this study, toxicity testing was done according to the methods of the Chemical Response to Oil Spills : Ecological Effects Research Forum (CROSERF). The testing included capturing adult species in the winter and holding them until larval hatching. Toxicity testing was completed in a narrow time frame before hatching ceased. Many chemical samples were tested. Topsmelt, urchins, shellfish, mysids, copepods, pink salmon fry, and tidepool sculpin were considered by the author to be the most useful for certain types of toxicity testing. 29 refs

  5. Energy regulation in China: Objective selection, potential assessment and responsibility sharing by partial frontier analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To cope with the excessive growth of energy consumption, the Chinese government has been trying to strengthen the energy regulation system by introducing new initiatives that aim at controlling the total amount of energy consumption. A partial frontier analysis is performed in this paper to make a comparative assessment of the combinations of possible energy conservation objectives, new constraints and regulation strategies. According to the characteristics of the coordination of existing regulation structure and the optimality of regulation strategy, four scenarios are constructed and regional responsibilities are reasonably divided by fully considering the production technology in the economy. The relative importance of output objectives and the total amount controlling is compared and the impacts on the regional economy caused by the changes of regulation strategy are also evaluated for updating regulation policy. - Highlights: • New initiatives to control the total amount of energy consumption are evaluated. • Twenty-four regulation strategies and four scenarios are designed and compared. • Crucial regions for each sector and regional potential are identified. • The national goals of energy abatement are decomposed into regional responsibilities. • The changes of regulation strategy are evaluated for updating regulation policy

  6. Antioxidant activity of selected plant species; potential new sources of natural antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni?iforovi?, N; Mihailovi?, V; Maskovi?, P; Soluji?, S; Stojkovi?, A; Pavlovi? Muratspahi?, D

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine six plants from Serbia for their potential antioxidant activity. Therefore, six antioxidant activity assays were carried out, including: total antioxidant capacity, DPPH free-radical scavenging, the inhibitory activity toward lipid peroxidation, Fe(3+)- reducing power, Fe(2+)- chelating ability and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also determined for each alcoholic extract. Cotinus coggygria extract contained the highest amount of total phenols (413mg GAE /g dry extract), while the highest proportion of flavonoids was found in the Echium vulgare methanol extract (105 mg RU/g). Cotinus coggygria and Halacsya sendtneri alcoholic extracts showed the highest total antioxidant capacity (313 and 231 mg AA/g dry extract), as well as DPPH free-radical scavenging (IC(50)=9 and 99 ?g/ml), inhibitory activity toward lipid peroxidation (IC(50)=3 and 17 ?g/ml) and reducing power. Whereas, the greatest hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, as well as ferrous ion chelating ability showed Echium vulgare, Echium rubrum and Halacsya sendtneri. PMID:20728497

  7. Subject Combination and Electrode Selection in Cooperative Brain-Computer Interface Based on Event Related Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Cecotti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available New paradigms are required in Brain-Computer Interface (BCI systems for the needs and expectations of healthy people. To solve this issue, we explore the emerging field of cooperative BCIs, which involves several users in a single BCI system. Contrary to classical BCIs that are dependent on the unique subject’s will, cooperative BCIs are used for problem solving tasks where several people shall be engaged by sharing a common goal. Similarly as combining trials over time improves performance, combining trials across subjects can significantly improve performance compared with when only a single user is involved. Yet, cooperative BCIs may only be used in particular settings, and new paradigms must be proposed to efficiently use this approach. The possible benefits of using several subjects are addressed, and compared with current single-subject BCI paradigms. To show the advantages of a cooperative BCI, we evaluate the performance of combining decisions across subjects with data from an event-related potentials (ERP based experiment where each subject observed the same sequence of visual stimuli. Furthermore, we show that it is possible to achieve a mean AUC superior to 0.95 with 10 subjects and 3 electrodes on each subject, or with 4 subjects and 6 electrodes on each subject. Several emerging challenges and possible applications are proposed to highlight how cooperative BCIs could be efficiently used with current technologies and leverage BCI applications.

  8. Investigation of greenhouse gas reduction potential and change in technological selection in Indian power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the growing energy needs along with increasing concerns towards control of greenhouse gas emissions, most developing countries are under pressure to find alternative methods for energy conversion and policies to make these technologies economically viable. One of the instruments that have been adopted by many industrial countries is that of the carbon tax. The rate of introducing carbon taxes however, depends upon the local economic conditions and market forces. The case of Indian power sector has been examined by using MARKAL model for introduction of carbon taxes at four different trajectories. Their implications on the power generation choices have been investigated for a time span of 25 years from the year 2000. In general large hydropower plants have emerged as the first choice followed by wind energy systems. However, cheaper availability of coal in India keeps scope of use of coal based technologies for which pressurised fluidised bed combustion technology has been found to be the balanced choice among fossil technologies. There exists a potential of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by about 25% as compared to the 'business-as-usual' case in presence of high carbon tax rates

  9. Probiotic potential of selected lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from Brazilian kefir grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, A M O; Miguel, M A L; Peixoto, R S; Ruas-Madiedo, P; Paschoalin, V M F; Mayo, B; Delgado, S

    2015-06-01

    A total of 34 lactic acid bacteria isolates from 4 different Brazilian kefir grains were identified and characterized among a group of 150 isolates, using the ability to tolerate acidic pH and resistance to bile salts as restrictive criteria for probiotic potential. All isolates were identified by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and 16S rDNA sequencing of representative amplicons. Eighteen isolates belonged to the species Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 11 to Lactococcus lactis (of which 8 belonged to subspecies cremoris and 3 to subspecies lactis), and 5 to Lactobacillus paracasei. To exclude replicates, a molecular typing analysis was performed by combining repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR and random amplification of polymorphic DNA techniques. Considering a threshold of 90% similarity, 32 different strains were considered. All strains showed some antagonistic activity against 4 model food pathogens. In addition, 3 Lc. lactis strains and 1 Lb. paracasei produced bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances against at least 2 indicator organisms. Moreover, 1 Lc. lactis and 2 Lb. paracasei presented good total antioxidative activity. None of these strains showed undesirable enzymatic or hemolytic activities, while proving susceptible or intrinsically resistant to a series of clinically relevant antibiotics. The Lb. paracasei strain MRS59 showed a level of adhesion to human Caco-2 epithelial cells comparable with that observed for Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Taken together, these properties allow the MRS59 strain to be considered a promising probiotic candidate. PMID:25841972

  10. Electrochemical control of the standard potential of solid-contact ion-selective electrodes having a conducting polymer as ion-to-electron transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The standard potential of solid-contact ion-selective electrodes was adjusted electrochemically. • The standard potential was shifted by applying a potential that deviates from the open-circuit potential. • The standard potential was shifted by applying current pulses in the nA range. - Abstract: This work addresses the well-known problem of variations in the standard potential (E°) of solid-contact ion-selective electrodes (SC-ISEs) that have a conducting polymer (CP) as ion-to-electron transducer covered by a polymeric ion-selective membrane. Poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) doped with poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate), i.e. PEDOT(PSS), was electrodeposited on glassy carbon (GC) disk electrodes and used as the solid contact for three different types of PVC-based membranes in order to elucidate the possibility to electrochemically control E° for this type of SC-ISE. The GC/PEDOT(PSS) electrode was thus coated with potassium-selective membranes with and without the lipophilic salt tetradocedylammonium tetrakis(4-clorophenyl)borate (ETH-500) and by a cation-sensitive membrane without ionophore. The results show that the standard potential of the studied types of SC-ISEs can be shifted by applying a potential that deviates from the open-circuit potential of the electrode in the chosen electrolyte solution or by applying current pulses in the nA range

  11. Toxicity, sublethal effects, and potential modes of action of select fungicides on freshwater fish and invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elskus, Adria A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite decades of agricultural and urban use of fungicides and widespread detection of these pesticides in surface waters, relatively few data are available on the effects of fungicides on fish and invertebrates in the aquatic environment. Nine fungicides are reviewed in this report: azoxystrobin, boscalid, chlorothalonil, fludioxonil, myclobutanil, fenarimol, pyraclostrobin, pyrimethanil, and zoxamide. These fungicides were identified as emerging chemicals of concern because of their high or increasing global use rates, detection frequency in surface waters, or likely persistence in the environment. A review of the literature revealed significant sublethal effects of fungicides on fish, aquatic invertebrates, and ecosystems, including zooplankton and fish reproduction, fish immune function, zooplankton community composition, metabolic enzymes, and ecosystem processes, such as leaf decomposition in streams, among other biological effects. Some of these effects can occur at fungicide concentrations well below single-species acute lethality values (48- or 96-hour concentration that effects a response in 50 percent of the organisms, that is, effective concentration killing 50 percent of the organisms in 48 or 96 hours) and chronic sublethal values (for example, 21-day no observed adverse effects concentration), indicating that single-species toxicity values may dramatically underestimate the toxic potency of some fungicides. Fungicide modes of toxic action in fungi can sometimes reflect the biochemical and (or) physiological effects of fungicides observed in vertebrates and invertebrates; however, far more studies are needed to explore the potential to predict effects in nontarget organisms based on specific fungicide modes of toxic action. Fungicides can also have additive and (or) synergistic effects when used with other fungicides and insecticides, highlighting the need to study pesticide mixtures that occur in surface waters. For fungicides that partition to organic matter in sediment and soils, it is particularly important to determine their effects on freshwater mussels and other freshwater benthic invertebrates in contact with sediments, as available toxicity studies with pelagic species, mainly Daphnia magna, may not be representative of these benthic organisms. Finally, there is a critical need for studies of the chronic effects of fungicides on reproduction, immunocompetence, and ecosystem function; sublethal endpoints with population and community-level relevance.

  12. Selecting the optimal method to calculate daily global reference potential evaporation from CFSR reanalysis data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Sperna Weiland

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Potential evaporation (PET is one of the main inputs of hydrological models. Yet, there is limited consensus on which PET equation is most applicable in hydrological climate impact assessments. In this study six different methods to derive global scale reference PET time series from CFSR reanalysis data are compared: Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor and original and modified versions of the Hargreaves and Blaney-Criddle method. The calculated PET time series are (1 evaluated against global monthly Penman-Monteith PET time series calculated from CRU data and (2 tested on their usability for modeling of global discharge cycles.

    The lowest root mean squared differences and the least significant deviations (95 % significance level between monthly CFSR derived PET time series and CRU derived PET were obtained for the cell specific modified Blaney-Criddle equation. However, results show that this modified form is likely to be unstable under changing climate conditions and less reliable for the calculation of daily time series. Although often recommended, the Penman-Monteith equation did not outperform the other methods. In arid regions (e.g., Sahara, central Australia, US deserts, the equation resulted in relatively low PET values and, consequently, led to relatively high discharge values for dry basins (e.g., Orange, Murray and Zambezi. Furthermore, the Penman-Monteith equation has a high data demand and the equation is sensitive to input data inaccuracy. Therefore, we preferred the modified form of the Hargreaves equation, which globally gave reference PET values comparable to CRU derived values. Although it is a relative efficient empirical equation, like Blaney-Criddle, the equation considers multiple spatial varying meteorological variables and consequently performs well for different climate conditions. In the modified form of the Hargreaves equation the multiplication factor is uniformly increased from 0.0023 to 0.0031 to overcome the global underestimation of CRU derived PET obtained with the original equation. It should be noted that the bias in PET is not linearly transferred to actual evapotranspiration and runoff, due to limited soil moisture availability and precipitation.

    The resulting gridded daily PET time series provide a new reference dataset that can be used for future hydrological impact assessments or, more specifically, for the statistical downscaling of daily PET derived from raw GCM data.

  13. Thermal supplementing soil nutrients through biocomposting of night-soil in the northwestern Indian Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oinam, Santaram S; Rawat, Yashwant S; Kuniyal, Jagdish C; Vishvakarma, S C R; Pandey, Dinesh C

    2008-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the prime activities of the hill people residing in the northwestern Indian Himalaya. However, poor soil fertility in these areas is a big hurdle to sustainable farming. The effects of washout of topsoil and its nutrients, year after year, due to the abundance of snowfall, avalanches, landslides and erosion further add to the woes of the farmers. In the cold and harsh climatic conditions of the region, with grass and vegetation cover being scanty, it is not possible to maintain large herds of cattle for the adequate production of farmyard manure. Faced with this situation, the locals have relied heavily on obtaining organic manure derived from composting of human excreta. In earlier times the dire necessity of the farmers helped them overcome the revulsion associated with the practice of handling human excreta, but now with the advent of modernisation and the easy availability of chemical fertilisers, the people are distancing themselves from this age-old practice. More and more people are opting for modern toilets and leaving behind the traditional toilets that made possible the harvesting of manure from night-soil. As a result, this primitive practice is on the verge of extinction. This eco-friendly practice, that has sustained the land for so many generations, needs to be continued and strengthened as the long-term consequences of excessive and indiscriminant use of chemical fertilisers are becoming too obvious to ignore. Traditional knowledge needs to be combined with modern scientific know-how to make this practice safer and more acceptable. If the composting operation is managed properly, the handling will be less loathsome and the concerns of health and hygiene too will stand addressed. The present study attempts a detailed profile of the practice of 'supplementing soil nutrients through biocomposting of night-soil' in the cold desert region of Lahaul Valley. Four villages running from the northwestern part to the southeastern part of the valley were selected. The study is broadly based on a direct interview of heads of the various households in the selected villages of Kuthar (2600m), Hinsa (2700m), Jahlma (3000m) and Khoksar (3200m). PMID:17490873

  14. Treeline dynamics with climate change at Central Nepal Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Gaire

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change has multidimensional impacts with several biological fingerprints, and treeline shifting in tandem with climate change is a widely observed phenomenon in various parts of the world. In Nepal several impacts of climate change on physical environments have been observed. However, studies on the biological impacts are lacking. This dendrochronological study was carried out at the treeline ecotone (3750–4003 m a.s.l. in the Kalchuman Lake (Kal Tal area of the Manaslu Conservation Area in central Nepal Himalaya with the aim to study the dynamic impact of climate change at the treeline. The study provides an insight into regeneration and treeline dynamics over the past 200 yr. Two belt transect plots (size: 20 m wide, >250 m long were laid covering forest line, treeline as well as tree species Abies spectabilis and Betula utilis was done and their tree-cores were collected. Stand character and age distribution revealed an occurrence of more matured B. utilis (max. age 198 yr old compared to A. spectabilis (max. age 160 yr. A. spectabilis contained an overwhelmingly high population (89% of younger plants (A. spectabilis at the rate of 2.61 m yr?1 since 1850 AD. The upper distribution limit of B. utilis was found stagnant in the past few decades. An increment in plant density as well as upward shifting in the studied treeline ecotones was observed. Thus, two species presented species-specific responses to climate change and much wider differences anticipated in their population status as climate continues to cha spectabilis correlated negatively with the mean monthly temperature of May–August of the current year and with September of the previous year. The regeneration of A. spectabilis, on the other hand, was positively related with May–August precipitation and January–April temperature of the current year. The reconstructed average summer temperature (May–August using tree ring data revealed alternate period of cool and warm period with warming in the 2nd half of the 20th century. Further palynological and geochronological studies of sediments of the Kalchuman Lake would advance our understanding of past climatic trends and dynamics of the associated treeline and vegetation in the area.

  15. Collision Tectonics of the Ladakh--Zanskar Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, M. P.; Cooper, D. J. W.; Rex, A. J.

    1988-09-01

    The collision of the Indian Plate with the Karakoram--Lhasa Blocks and the closing of Neo-Tethys along the Indus Suture Zone (ISZ) is well constrained by sedimentologic, structural and palaeomagnetic data at ca. 50 Ma. Pre-collision high P--low T blueschist facies metamorphism in the ISZ is related to subduction of Tethyan oceanic crust northwards beneath the Jurassic--early Cretaceous Dras island arc. The Spontang ophiolite was obducted southwestwards onto the Zanskar shelf before the Eocene closure (D1). The youngest marine sediments on the Zanskar shelf and along the ISZ are Lower Eocene, after which continental molasse deposition occurred. After ocean closure, thrusting followed a SW-directed piggy-back sequence (D2). This has been modified by late-stage breakback thrusts, overturned thrusts and extensional normal faulting associated with culmination collapse and underplating. The ISZ and northern Zanskar shelf sequence are affected by late Tertiary N-directed backthrusting (D3), which also affects the Indus molasse. A 50 km wide `pop-up' zone with divergent thrust vergence was developed across the Zanskar Range. Balanced and restored cross sections indicate a minimum of 150 km of shortening across the Zanskar shelf and ISZ. Post-collision crustal thickening by thrust stacking resulted in widespread Barrovian metamorphism in the High Himalaya that reached a thermal climax during Oligocene--Miocene times. Garnet--biotite--muscovite ± tourmaline granites were generated by intracrustal partial melting during the Miocene within the Central Crystalline Complex. Their emplacement on the hangingwall of localized ductile shear zones was associated with SW-directed thrusting along the Main Central Thrust (MCT) zone and concomitant culmination collapse normal faulting along the Zanskar Shear Zone (ZSZ) at the top of the slab. Metamorphic isograds have become inverted by post-metamorphic SW-verging recumbent folding and thrusting along the base of the High Himalayan slab. Along the top of the slab, isograds are the right way up but are structurally and thermally telescoped by normal faulting along the ZSZ.

  16. Attenuation of coda waves in the Garhwal Lesser Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, S. K.; Gupta, S. C.; Kumar, Ashwani

    2015-04-01

    Qc estimates for the Uttarkashi and the Chamoli regions of the Garhwal Lesser Himalaya have been obtained by analyzing the coda waves of 159 local earthquakes recorded during 2008 and 2009 employing a 12-station seismological network. Earthquakes around the Uttarkashi region are located in the epicentral distance range of 5.0 to 93.9 km, focal depth range of 1.63 to 42.13 km, and coda magnitude range of 0.2 to 2.9, whereas earthquakes around Chamoli region are located in the epicentral distance range of 19.8-109.2 km, focal depth range of 1.36 to 40.72 km, and coda magnitude range of 1.0 to 3.0. The coda waves of 30 s duration, recorded on 982 seismograms, have been analyzed in seven frequencies range centered at 1.5, 3.0, 6.0, 9.0, 12.0, 18.0, and 24.0 Hz for four to five lapse time windows (LTW) using the single backscattering model given by Aki and Chouet (J Geophys Res 80:3322-3342, 1975). Mean value of Qc estimates vary from 76 at 1.5 Hz to 2201 at 24.0 Hz for LTW range of 10-40 s and from 216 at 1.5 Hz to 3243 at 24.0 Hz for LTW range of 50-80 s (for the Uttarkashi region) and from 147 at 1.5 Hz to 2273 at 24.0 Hz for LTW range of 20-50 s and from 188 at 1.5 Hz to 2826 at 24.0 Hz for LTW range of 50-80 s (for Chamoli region). The Qc values thus obtained showed a clear dependence on frequency and LTW and frequency dependence Qc relationships, Qc = Q0f?, for LTWs that have been obtained as Qc = 57f1.20 (10-40 s), Qc = 97f1.07 (20-50 s), Qc = 116f1.03 (30-60 s), Qc = 130f1.03 (40-70 s), and Qc = 162f0.95 (50-80 s) for Uttarkashi region and Qc = 107f0.95 (20-50 s), Qc = 115f0.96 (30-60 s), Qc = 128f0.95 (40-70 s), and Qc = 145f0.95 (50-80 s) for Chamoli region.

  17. Selection of Potential Antagonistic Bacillus and Trichoderma Isolates from Tomato Rhizospheric Soil Against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycoperscisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Thajuddin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to obtain a potential indigenous biocontrol agent against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici on tomato from different agroclimatic zones in India. Wide collection of Trichoderma and Bacillus was conducted from tomato rhizospheric soil in IIVR farm (Varanasi, IIHR farm (Bangalore, IARI farm (Rajendra Nagar and farm of APHU (T.P. Gudem by using Trichoderma Specific Media (TSM and Nutrient Agar (NA. As a result, total 65 strains were cultured and maintained in which 28 were Bacillus and 37 were Trichoderma, respectively. On the basis of in vitro bioassays viz., dual culture and poisoned food technique it was concluded that 3 most prominent Trichoderma isolates viz., DPNST-4, -8 and -29 and four most prominent of DPNSB-2, -11, -18 and -28 from Bacillus were selected.

  18. Immunological traits have the potential to improve selection of pigs for resistance to clinical and subclinical disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henryon, M.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2006-01-01

    It was reasoned that, if we used a large sample of pigs, we could demonstrate that total and differential numbers of leukocytes, expression levels of swine leukocyte antigens (SLA) I and II, and serum concentrations of IgG and haptoglobin show additive genetic variation and are, therefore, potentially useful as criteria to improve selection of pigs for resistance to clinical and subclinical disease. We tested this premise by assessing 4204 male pigs from the Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire breeds for total and differential numbers of leukocytes and serum concentrations of IgG and haptoglobin; 1217 of the Duroc and Landrace pigs were also assessed for expression levels of SLA I and II. We estimated the amount of additive genetic variation by fitting linear animal models to the total and differential numbers of leukocytes and serum concentrations of IgG and haptoglobin. We fitted linear sire models to the expression levels of SLA I and II. We detected additive genetic variation for each group of traits. Total and differential numbers of leukocytes were moderately heritable (h(2) = 0.22 to 0.30), expression levels of SLA I and II were moderate-to-highly heritable (h(2) = 0.46 to 1.23), while serum concentrations of IgG and haptoglobin were lowly heritable (h(2) = 0.14 to 0.16). The additive genetic variation shown for the immunological traits is encouraging for pig breeders. It indicates that these traits are potentially useful as criteria to improve selection of pigs for resistance to clinical and subclinical disease.

  19. Distribution and Potential Mobility of Selected Heavy Metals in a Fluvial Environment Under the Influence of Tanneries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues M. L. K.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluated the occurrence of heavy metals in a fluvial environment under the influence of tanneries – the Cadeia and Feitoria rivers basin (RS, south Brazil, highlighting the distribution and potential mobility of the selected elements. Every three months, over one year-period, selected heavy metals and ancillary parameters were analyzed in water and sediment samples taken at ten sites along the rivers. Water analyses followed APHA recommendations, and sediment analyses were based on methods from USEPA (SW846 and European Community (BCR sequential extraction. The determinations were performed by ICP/OES, except for Hg (CV/ETA. Statistical factor analysis was applied to water and sediment data sets, in order to obtain a synthesis of the environmental diagnosis. The results revealed that water quality decreased along the rivers, and mainly on the dry period (January, showing the influence of tannery plants vicinity and flow variations. Except for Fe, Al, and eventually Mn, heavy metal contents in water were in agreement with Brazilian standards. Concerning sediments, Al, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn, Ti, and Zn concentrations appeared to reflect the base levels, while Cr and Hg were enriched in the deposits from the lower part of the basin. The partition of heavy metals among the sediment geochemical phases showed higher mobility of Mn along the sampling sites, followed by Cr in the lower reach of the basin, most affected by tanneries. Since Cr was predominantly associated to the oxidizable fraction, its potential mobilization from contaminated sediments would be associated to redox conditions. The detection of Hg in the tissue of a bottom-fish species indicated that the environmental conditions are apparently favoring the remobilization of this metal from contaminated sediments.

  20. Selection against glycosylation sites in potential target proteins of the general HMWC N-glycosyltransferase in Haemophilus influenzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawthorne, Jayde A; Tan, Nikki Y; Bailey, Ulla-Maja; Davis, Margaret R; Wong, Linette W; Naidu, Ranjitha; Fox, Kate L; Jennings, Michael P; Schulz, Benjamin L

    2014-03-14

    The HMWABC system of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) encodes the HMWA adhesin glycoprotein, which is glycosylated by the HMWC glycosyltransferase. HMWC is a cytoplasmic N-glycosyltransferase, homologues of which are widespread in the Pasteurellaceae. We developed an assay for nonbiased detection of glycoproteins in NTHi based on metabolic engineering of the Leloir pathway and growth in media containing radiolabelled monosaccharides. The only glycoprotein identified in NTHi by this assay was HMWA. However, glycoproteomic analyses ex vivo in Escherichia coli showed that HMWC of NTHi was a general glycosyltransferase capable of glycosylating selected asparagines in proteins other than its HMWA substrate, including Asn78 in E. coli 30S ribosomal protein S5. The equivalent residue in S5 homologues in H. influenzae or other sequenced Pasteurellaceae genomes is not asparagine, and these organisms also showed significantly fewer than expected potential sites of glycosylation in general. Expression of active HMWC in E. coli resulted in growth inhibition compared with expression of inactive enzyme, consistent with glycosylation by HMWC detrimentally affecting the function of some E. coli proteins. Together, this supports the presence of a selective pressure in the Pasteurellaceae against glycosylation sites that would be modified by the general N-glycosyltransferase activity of HMWC. PMID:24565833

  1. Potential social, institutional, and environmental impacts of selected energy-conservation measures in two Washington communities. [Seattle and Yakima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelson, E.; Olsen, M.

    1980-03-01

    The likely environmental, social, and institutional impacts of selected energy-conservation measures in two communities in Washington state are reported. The five conservation measures investigated in this study were: (1) retrofitting existing buildings; (2) district heating and Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES); (3) small automobiles and vehicle redesign; (4) land-use and housing modifications; and (5) electric-utility rate reform. Twenty potential impact areas were selected for analysis. These areas were divided into five categories of environmental impacts, economic impacts, community impacts, personal impacts, and overall quality of life in the community. The research was conducted in Seattle and Yakima, Washington. In each location, about two dozen public officials and business, labor, and community leaders were interviewed. Their diverse views are summarized. The Seattle respondents saw energy conservation as a highly desirable policy with a number of temporary, transitional problems arising as energy-conservation measures were implemented. Yakima respondents, in contrast, did not expect to encounter many serious energy problems in the foreseeable future and consequently viewed energy conservation as a relatively minor community concern. Moreover, they anticipated that many conservation measures, if implemented by the government, would encounter either apathy or resistance in their community. Two broad generalizations can bedrawn from these interviews: (1) energy conservation will basically be beneficial for the natural environment and our society; and (2) if energy conservation does become a dominant thrust in our society, it could stimulate and reinforce a much broader process of fundamental social change. (LCL)

  2. Characterizing the impacts of water resources infrastructure, humans, and hydrologic nonstationarity on changes in flood risk across the Himalaya region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullos, D. D.

    2014-12-01

    As flood control infrastructure reaches its design life, and climate change, population growth, and urban migration increase flood risk, the historical paradigm of store-then-release floodwaters behind rigid infrastructure is of decreasing physical and socioeconomic value. Instead, a new paradigm of sustainable flood management is emerging, which can be framed in the context of three elements that can contribute to and/or mitigate flood risk: 1) water resources infrastructure, 2) policies and socioeconomics, and 3) changing climates and land use. In this presentation, I present the results of analysis on the role of these three elements in contributing to flood risk of the Sutlej River (India) and the Koshi River (Nepal) basins for six historical flood events. The Himalaya region was selected based on the a) increasing intensity of monsoonal rains, b) increasing prevalence of glacial lake outburst floods, c) water resources management that achieves short-term development goals but lacks long-term sustainability, and d) other socio-economic, environmental, and geopolitical factors. I develop and apply a flood risk management framework that is based on metrics for characterizing the losses associated with the three elements contributing to major floods in the Himalaya region. Derived from a variety of data sources, results highlight how, across different hydrogeologic settings and various flood magnitudes, the largest influences on high flood losses are associated with inflexible water resources infrastructure and inappropriate development and flood management policies. Particularly for the most destructive events, which are generally associated with landslides and other natural hazards in this region, the effectiveness of some types of traditional and inflexible flood management infrastructure, including large dams and levees, is limited. As opposed to the probability of a particular flood event, findings illustrate the importance of the damages side of the flood risk equation, which is often the most controllable but disregarded element of flood risk management. In addition, results lead to a hypothesized matrix of appropriate flood management strategies for the types of flood events that occur in the hydrogeology and cultural settings of high mountain areas and the lowlands to which they drain.

  3. Glass and Glass-Ceramic Materials from Simulated Composition of Lunar and Martian Soils: Selected Properties and Potential Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, C. S.; Sen, S.; Reis, S. T.; Kim, C. W.

    2005-01-01

    In-situ resource processing and utilization on planetary bodies is an important and integral part of NASA's space exploration program. Within this scope and context, our general effort is primarily aimed at developing glass and glass-ceramic type materials using lunar and martian soils, and exploring various applications of these materials for planetary surface operations. Our preliminary work to date have demonstrated that glasses can be successfully prepared from melts of the simulated composition of both lunar and martian soils, and the melts have a viscosity-temperature window appropriate for drawing continuous glass fibers. The glasses are shown to have the potential for immobilizing certain types of nuclear wastes without deteriorating their chemical durability and thermal stability. This has a direct impact on successfully and economically disposing nuclear waste generated from a nuclear power plant on a planetary surface. In addition, these materials display characteristics that can be manipulated using appropriate processing protocols to develop glassy or glass-ceramic magnets. Also discussed in this presentation are other potential applications along with a few selected thermal, chemical, and structural properties as evaluated up to this time for these materials.

  4. Aldose reductase inhibitory, anti-cataract and antioxidant potential of selected medicinal plants from the Marathwada region, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacche, R N; Dhole, N A

    2011-04-01

    The water, ethanol and chloroform extracts of selected plants such as Adhatoda vasica (L.) (Acanthaceae), Caesalpinia bonduc (L.), Cassia fistula (L.) (Caesalpiniaceae) and Biophytum sensitivum (L.) (Oxalidaceae) were evaluated for rat lens aldose reductase inhibitory (RLAR) potential, anti-cataract and antioxidant activities. All the samples inhibited the aldose reductase considerably and exhibited anti-cataract activity, while C. fistula (IC(50), 0.154 mg mL(-1)) showed significant RLAR inhibitory activity as compared to the other tested samples, and was further found to be more effective in maintaining sugar-induced lens opacity in the rat lens model. The antioxidant potential of plant extracts was determined using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazine), hydroxyl (OH), nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) scavenging activities, along with determination of reducing power, ferrous ion chelating ability and inhibition of polyphenol oxidase (PPO). The extracts of the tested plant showed significant free radical scavenging activities and inhibited the activity of enzyme PPO, a model oxidising enzyme. The plant samples were found to possess considerable amounts of vitamin C, total polyphenols and flavonoids. PMID:21462076

  5. Optimization of Cat's Whiskers Tea (Orthosiphon stamineus) Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Selective Chemotherapeutic Potential against Prostate Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Suede, Fouad Saleih R; Khadeer Ahamed, Mohamed B; Abdul Majid, Aman S; Baharetha, Hussin M; Hassan, Loiy E A; Kadir, Mohd Omar A; Nassar, Zeyad D; Abdul Majid, Amin M S

    2014-01-01

    Cat's whiskers (Orthosiphon stamineus) leaves extracts were prepared using supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) with full factorial design to determine the optimum extraction parameters. Nine extracts were obtained by varying pressure, temperature, and time. The extracts were analysed using FTIR, UV-Vis, and GC-MS. Cytotoxicity of the extracts was evaluated on human (colorectal, breast, and prostate) cancer and normal fibroblast cells. Moderate pressure (31.1?MPa) and temperature (60°C) were recorded as optimum extraction conditions with high yield (1.74%) of the extract (B2) at 60?min extraction time. The optimized extract (B2) displayed selective cytotoxicity against prostate cancer (PC3) cells (IC50 28?µg/mL) and significant antioxidant activity (IC50 42.8?µg/mL). Elevated levels of caspases 3/7 and 9 in B2-treated PC3 cells suggest the induction of apoptosis through nuclear and mitochondrial pathways. Hoechst and rhodamine assays confirmed the nuclear condensation and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential in the cells. B2 also demonstrated inhibitory effects on motility and colonies of PC3 cells at its subcytotoxic concentrations. It is noteworthy that B2 displayed negligible toxicity against the normal cells. Chemometric analysis revealed high content of essential oils, hydrocarbon, fatty acids, esters, and aromatic sesquiterpenes in B2. This study highlights the therapeutic potentials of SC-CO2 extract of cat's whiskers in targeting prostate carcinoma. PMID:25276215

  6. Responses to drought stress among sex morphs of Oxyria sinensis (Polygonaceae), a subdioecious perennial herb native to the East Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Hu, Lijuan; Wang, Zhengkun; Zhu, Wanlong; Meng, Lihua

    2014-11-01

    It is generally accepted that dioecious plants occur more frequently in dry and nutrient-poor habitats, suggesting that abiotic stress factors could contribute to evolution of dioecy from hermaphrodite. Therefore, experimental investigations on the responses of subdioecious species, a special sexual system comprising male, female, and hermaphrodite plants, to abiotic stress factors could quantify the contribution of selective pressure on the evolution of dioecy. In this study, we evaluated the physiological responses of different sex morphs of Oxyria sinensis Hemsley, a perennial herb native to the East Himalayas, to drought stress. Male, female, and hermaphrodite plants of O. sinensis were subjected to low, moderate, and high drought stress conditions in a glasshouse. Generally, with increasing water stress, the values of most measured variables slightly decreased, whereas water-use efficiency slightly increased. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in most of the measured parameters among the sex morphs under each drought stress treatment, indicating that O. sinensis might be well-adapted to drought stress conditions as its typical habitat is the dry and hot habitats of xerothermic river valleys. However, nitrogen-use efficiency was significantly higher in male and female plants than in hermaphrodite plants under high drought stress conditions, suggesting that that nitrogen-use efficiency under conditions of drought stress might have contributed to the evolution of dioecy from the hermaphrodite to some degree. PMID:25505531

  7. Assessment of Phytoplankton Diversity in Relation to Abiotic Factors of Nainital Lake of Kumaon Himalayas of Uttarakhand State, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Negi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to assess the phytoplankton diversity in relation to abiotic factors of Nainital lake of Kumaon Himalayas of Uttarakhand State, India. The samples were collected from the three selected study sites for the period from May, 2007 to April, 2009. A total of 25 genera of phytoplankton were reported belonging to 3 groups viz., bacillariophyceae (13 species, chlorophyceae (8 genera and cyanophyceae with 4 genera. Members of bacillariophyceae and chlorophyceae were found to dominant during winter and monsoon months at all the sites. Site II has the maximum number of phytoplankton followed by Site III and Site I. Bacillariophyceae were positively correlated with GPP, chlorophyceae and with zooplankton while negatively correlated with alkalinity and dissolved solids and with chlorides at all the sites. Chlorophyceae was found to be positively correlated with hardness, GPP, bacillariophyceae and zooplankton while chlorophyceae was negatively correlated with alkalinity, total dissolved solids and chlorides. Cyanophyceae was positively correlated with GPP, NPP while negatively correlated with free CO2 and total dissolved solids. Maximum species richness was recorded as 0.458 for cyanophyceae at Site-I followed by bacillariophyceae (0.366 and minimum was observed in chlorophyceae (0.182 at Site-III. As far as species diversity is concerned, maximum diversity was observed in bacillariophyceae (2.329 and minimum in cyanophyceae (1.335. Abundance percentage was recorded maximum (56.91% in chlorophyceae at Site-III and minimum as 2.52% in case of cyanophyceae.

  8. An evaluation of the allelopathic potential of selected perennial groundcovers: foliar volatiles of catmint (Nepeta x faassenii) inhibit seedling growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Seok Hyun; Yang, Hyun Seuk; Weston, Leslie A

    2006-08-01

    Six perennial groundcovers including Alchemilla mollis, Nepeta x faassenii, Phlox subulata, Sedum acre, Solidago cutleri, and Thymus praecox were investigated for the allelopathic potential of their respective foliar tissues via evaluation of volatile constituents produced by foliage. These groundcovers were selected for further laboratory evaluation because of superior performance as weed-suppressive groundcovers in previous field experiments. Foliar volatile components of N. x faassenii exhibited the strongest inhibitory effects on seedling growth of curly cress (Lepidium sativum), but S. cutleri also showed allelopathic potential by reducing shoot growth of curly cress seedlings with extracted volatiles. Although A. mollis and P. subulata exhibited strong weed-suppressive traits in past field experiments, weed suppression is apparently associated with either competition for resources or other allelopathic mechanisms rather than an allelopathic effect caused by volatiles. Volatiles of N. x faassenii were further evaluated with gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 21 chemical constituents were identified in the volatile cocktail; 17 components were identified from a direct crude leaf sample extraction, including sabinene, beta-pinene, beta-myrcene, 2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)-ethanol, 1,8-cineole, ocimene, neryl Acetate, 4aalpha,7alpha,7aalpha-nepetalactone, alpha-copaene, trans-caryophyllene, alloaromadendrene, 4abeta,7alpha,7abeta-nepetalactone, germacrene D, beta-farnesene, chi-cadinene, germacrene B, and beta-sesquiphellandrene. Five additional constituents were identified in a methanolic extract of dried of N. x faassenii foliage, but not the volatile cocktail collected from N. x faassenii foliage. These included methyl benzoate, 2,4-decadienal, neryl acetate, isodihydronepetalactone, and caryophyllene oxide. Three components, 2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)-ethanol, alloaromadendrene, and chi-cadinene, were not only detected in both the volatile mixture and the methanolic extract, but also in an aqueous foliar extract that exhibited potential allelopathic activity. PMID:16900434

  9. An application of zeta potential method for the selection of nano-fluids to enhance IVR capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-vessel Retention (IVR) is one of the key severe accident management strategies that have been applied currently for advanced light water reactors such as APR1000 or APR1400. The concept of IVR consists of external cooling of the reactor vessel by flooding the reactor cavity to remove the decay heat from the molten core through the lower head of the vessel. However, the heat removal process is limited by the occurrence of critical heat flux (CHF) at the reactor vessel outer surface that may lead to a sharp increase of local temperature, damaging the integrity of the reactor vessel. In order to obtain higher power of nuclear reactors and to assure the achievement of the IVR capability during accident conditions, an enhancement of CHF at the outer surface of the vessel is required. The potential use of nano-fluids to increase the CHF is among the main IVR enhancing approaches. In this study, Al2O3 and CNT nano-fluids with different concentrations have been used as the potential coolant to enhance IVR capabilities. The dispersion stability of the nano-fluids was verified by zeta potential measurements. The results showed effects of time, concentration and pH on the stability of nanofluids. Three types of nano-fluids were selected as the candidates to apply for the IVR. A series of experiments have been performed in this study to understand the pool-boiling critical heat flux behavior on downward facing surfaces submerged in a pool of nano-fluids afaces submerged in a pool of nano-fluids at very low concentration. The inclination angle was changed from horizontal to vertical to investigate the effect of orientation on CHF enhancement which is needed for the application in IVR

  10. NEPHELINE FORMATION POTENTIAL IN SLUDGE BATCH 4 AND ITS IMPACT ON DURABILITY: SELECTING GLASSES FOR A PHASE 3 STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savannah River National Laboratory's frit development effort for SB4 is being driven by the most current CBU option for this sludge, referred to as Case 15C Blend 1. Candidate frits have been identified for this option via a paper study approach developed by Peeler and Edwards with the intent of down-selecting to a set of key frits whose operating windows (i.e., WL intervals that meet PCCS MAR criteria) are robust to and/or selectively optimal for this sludge option. The primary frits that appear attractive on paper (i.e., down-selected via the paper study) are now being incorporated into this experimental study. The potential for the formation of a nepheline primary crystalline phase is an important factor in frit development for SB4, due to the high Al2O3 content of this sludge. Based upon earlier work by Li et al., glasses that do not satisfy the constraint: (SiO2/SiO2 + Na2O + Al2O3) > 0.62 where the oxides are expressed as mass fractions in the glass, will precipitate nepheline as their primary crystalline phase, hindering the durability of the glass. Based on the most recent compositional projection from the CBU for SB4 (Case 15C Blend 1), 16 glasses have been selected to complement the earlier work by continuing the investigation into the ability of the above constraint to predict the occurrence of a nepheline primary crystalline phase for SB4 glasses and into the impact of such phasesglasses and into the impact of such phases on the durability of the SB4 glasses. Glasses were selected to cover WLs which tightly bound the nepheline discriminator value of 0.62, with the intent of refining this value to a level of confidence where it can be incorporated into offline administrative controls and/or the PCCS to support SME acceptability decisions. In addition, glass specimens at WLs of 35 and 40% will be prepared and analyzed to contribute needed data to the ComPro(trademark) database in anticipation of a variability study for SB4. The glasses in Table 4-3 are to batched and fabricated using standard procedures. Visual observations and other analytical techniques are to be used, as needed, to assess the presence of crystals with specific interest in the nepheline primary phase. The durability of these glasses (for both quenched and centerline canister cooled versions) is to be measured using the ASTM PCT Method A. The results from these efforts are to be documented in a subsequent report. The results of this study will provide valuable input for the frit development efforts and subsequent feedback to the CBU regarding the relative viability of the current SB4 option under consideration. The refined nepheline discriminator value will provide a guideline for the avoidance of nepheline crystallization in SB4 glasses and aid in down-selection of frit compositions. These data will be combined with the results of melt rate studies and a paper study of the frits robustness with regard to variability in the sludge composition to provide an optimized frit recommendation to DWPF for immobilization of SB4

  11. Monitoring of High Mountain Glaciers in the Vicinity of Everest (Himalaya) using Remote Sensing Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakuri, S.; Salerno, F.; Bolch, T.; Smiraglia, C.; Tartari, G.

    2014-12-01

    Himalayan glaciers are of crucial interest due to their role in the cryospheric system and hydrology. This contribution examines glacier changes between 1960s and 2013 using satellite data. The study is focused in 3 basins in Nepal: Upper Sun Koshi (USKB; 2850 km2), Dudh Koshi (DKB; 3720 km2), and Tamor (TB; 5875 km2). We observed an overall glacier surface loss of 0.19 ± 0.26 % a-1 (146.1 to 136.9 km2) in SKB for 1975-2013 period; 0.27 ± 0.06 % a-1 (404.6 to 351.8 km2) in the DKB for 1962-2011, and 8.4% (0.25 ± 0.29 % a-1; 610.9 to 559.3 km2) in the TB for 1975-2009 period. In the DKB, we observed an upward shift of snow-line altitude (?SLA) by more than 180 m, a terminus retreat of on average ~ 400 m, and an increase of 17.6 ± 3.1% in debris coverage between 1962 and 2011. Moreover, we observed that (i) glaciers with increased debris cover have experienced a reduced termini retreat; (ii) negative mass balances (i.e., ?SLA) induce increases of debris coverage; (iii) slight, but statistically insignificant acceleration of the surface area loss since early 1990s; but a significant loss for the largest glaciers (>10 km2) that have accumulation zones at higher elevations and along the preferable south-north direction of the monsoon; (iv) a significant ?SLA; moreover, the largest glaciers present median ?SLA that are nearly double than that of the smallest; this finding leads to a hypothesis that these glaciers are shrinking, not only due to warming temperatures, but also as a result of decreasing precipitation due to a weakening Asian monsoons registered over the last few decades. Furthermore, we present first results on the geodetic glacier mass and velocity changes of selected glaciers, and climatic trends. In fact, less accumulation due to the observed decrease of precipitation should cause lower glacier flow velocity until to the ice stagnation of tongues as observed by other previous studies in the region. Finally, we compared our findings with other studies in the high mountain Asia and conclude that the shrinkage of these glaciers are less than that of western and eastern Himalaya, and southern and eastern Tibetan Plateau. The location in higher elevations have likely reduced the impact of warming on these glaciers, but have not been excluded from a relentlessly continuous and slow recession process over the past 50 yrs.

  12. Land use changes in Himalaya and their impacts on environment, society and economy: A study of the Lake Region in Kumaon Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Prakash

    2008-11-01

    The traditional resource use structure in Himalaya has transformed considerably during the recent past, mainly owing to the growth of population and the resultant increased demand of natural resources in the region. This transformation in resource use practices is particularly significant in the densely populated tracts of Himalaya. As a result, cultivated land, forests, pastures and rangelands have been deteriorated and depleted steadily and significantly leading to their conversion into degraded and non-productive lands. These rapid land use changes have not only disrupted the fragile ecological equilibrium in the mountains through indiscriminate deforestation, degradation of land resources and disruption of the hydrological cycle, but also have significant and irreversible adverse impacts on the rural economy, society, livelihood and life quality of mountain communities. It has been observed that the agricultural production has declined, water sources are drying up fast due to decreased ground water recharge and a large number of villages are facing enormous deficit of critical resources, such as food, fodder, firewood and water, mainly due to unabated deforestation. As a result, the rural people, particularly the women, have to travel considerably long distances to collect fodder and firewood and to fetching water. It is therefore highly imperative to evolve a comprehensive and integrated land use framework for the conservation of the biophysical environment and sustainable development of natural resources in Himalaya. The land use policy would help local communities in making use of their natural resources scientifically and judiciously, and thus help in the conservation of the biophysical environment and in the increasing of the productivity of natural resources. The study indicates that conservation of forests and other critical natural resources through community participation, generation of alternative means of livelihood, and employment in rural areas can help increase rural income as well as restore ecosystem services.

  13. Genetic Issues of Some of the Non Metallic Minerals in Lesser Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sharma

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A brief account of the representative and workable industrial minerals namely magnesite, talc and barite in Lesser Himalaya, is presented here emphasizing their genesis. Deposits of magnesite and talc are found associated with Neoproterozoic, plateform type, shelf-slope limestone-dolomite host rocks from inner Lesser Himalayan sequences. Field, textural, geochemical signatures and fluid inclusions trapped in dolomite and magnesite reveal within basin processes, in an increased burial- diagenetic environment responsible for formation of magnesite replacing dolomite. Talc is formed at the expense of magnesite and silica, and with limited dolomite involvement at transition conditions from diagenetic to metamorphism. Barite deposit is hosted within Neoproterozoic Nagthat quartzite rocks of outer Lesser Himalaya, wherein its textures, fluid inclusion, sulfur and strontium isotopic studies helped in genetic understanding.

  14. Six hundred thirty-eight years of summer temperature variability over the Bhutanese Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krusic, P. J.; Cook, E. R.; Dukpa, D.; Putnam, A. E.; Rupper, S.; Schaefer, J.

    2015-04-01

    High-resolution tree ring reconstructions from the Himalaya provide essential context for assessing impacts of future climate change on regional water reserves and downstream agriculture. Here we evaluate a small network of tree ring chronologies from Bhutan to produce a 638 year summer temperature reconstruction, from 1376-2013 (Common Era) C.E. Relative to the 1950-2013 C.E. average summer temperature three prominent cold periods stand out, two in the midfifteenth century, and one in the late seventeenth century. The warmest period began in the first decade of the 21st century coinciding with the timing of general glacier recession in the eastern Himalaya that continues to the present. The Bhutan temperature reconstruction exhibits a significant correlation to known volcanic eruptions (p = 97%) and anomalously cold periods appear to align with solar irradiance minima in the fifteenth, late seventeenth, and early nineteenth centuries, implying a link between solar variability and decadal-scale temperature variability.

  15. Role of vegetation in modulating denudation and topography across the Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olen, Stephanie; Bookhagen, Bodo; Strecker, Manfred

    2015-04-01

    Studies of Himalayan denudation, to date, have primarily focused on the effects of lithology, tectonic activity, and climate in shaping landscape and controlling denudation rates. Climate can impact denudation not only through increased precipitation, runoff, or glaciation, but also via its role in controlling vegetation cover. Since the classical study of Langbein and Schumm [1958] emphasizing the role of vegetation cover in determining erosional efficiency, theoretical and plot-scale studies have highlighted the role of vegetation on surface processes [Collins et al., 2004; Istanbulluoglu and Bras, 2005; Collins and Bras, 2010; Carretier et al., 2013; Jeffery et al., 2014]. Vegetation cover and density vary considerably in the Himalaya, both across and along strike. Across strike, vegetation transitions from dense forest and agriculturally-used plots in the Lesser Himalaya to sparse alpine and arid, virtually non-vegetated regions at high elevation and in the rain shadow north of the Higher Himalaya peaks. Along-strike vegetation densities also differ significantly and show a pronounced E-W gradient. To quantify the along-strike vegetation gradient, we use 14 years of MODIS 13C1 enhanced vegetation index (EVI) data to calculate mean annual, summer (MJJASO), and winter (NDJFMA) for the entire Himalaya. Additionally, we calculate a differential EVI that compares summer versus winter vegetation density (MJJASO/NDJFMA). A decrease in vegetation density is observed from east to west, with the greatest difference in winter vegetation cover (225% higher in the eastern than western Himalaya). In contrast, differential EVI is higher in the western Himalaya, increasing 170% from east to west. To evaluate the effect of vegetation on denudation and landscape evolution, we combine the 14-year EVI data, topographic analysis, and a compilation of >100 published and unpublished 10-Be terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) catchment-mean denudation rates from across the Himalaya [Godard et al., 2014; Portenga et al., 2014; Scherler et al., 2014; Olen et al., submitted]. We calculate the relationship between various topographic metrics (e.g. mean basin slope, normalized channel steepness [ksn]) and the TCN catchment-mean denudation of non-glaciated fluvial watersheds from previously published and submitted studies. The variation in vegetation density between study sites correlates with the relationship between topography and denudation in each region. In sparsely vegetated areas, denudation increases in a rapid, non-linear fashion as topographic metrics such as the normalized channel steepness (ksn) or mean basin hillslope increase. Where vegetation cover is denser, the relationship between denudation and topography becomes increasingly linear, such that lower denudation rates are maintained as hillslopes and channels steepen. Additionally, more sparsely vegetated regions appear to reach a maximum steepness lower than that observed in densely vegetated regions. We therefore observe a negative correlation between increasing annual, summer, and winter EVI and the power-law exponent p of the relationship denudation ? (topographic metric)p; and a positive correlation between p and differential EVI. In contrast to recent studies arguing that Himalayan denudation is primarily forced by tectonics, our study emphasizes how vegetation density, as a climatic agent, modulates erosional style and landscape development along strike across the Himalaya. Carretier, S., et al. (2013), Slope and climate variability control of erosion in the Andes of central Chile, Geology, 41(2), 195-198. Collins, D. B. G., and R. L. Bras (2010), Climatic and ecological controls of equilibrium drainage density, relief, and channel concavity in dry lands, Water Resources Research, 46(4), W04508. Collins, D. B. G., R. L. Bras, and G. E. Tucker (2004), Modeling the effects of vegetation-erosion coupling on landscape evolution, Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface, 109(F3), F03004. Godard, V., D. L. Bourlés, F. Spinabella, D. W. Burbank, B. Bookhagen, G. B. F

  16. Miocene faulting at plate tectonic velocity in the Himalaya of central Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Matthew J.; Wieland, Mark S.; Parkinson, Christopher D.; Upreti, Bishal N.

    2004-12-01

    Combination of geochemical zoning in metamorphic garnet and monazite plus in situ Th-Pb isotopic dating of monazite yields P- T conditions, ages and convergence rates for the Main Central Thrust (MCT) and affiliated faults in central Nepal. Inferred rates were 1.5±0.9 cm/yr (Langtang Thrust, ˜19 Ma), 2.2±0.7 cm/yr (Main Central Thrust, ˜15 Ma) and 7±3 cm/yr (Ramgarh Thrust, ˜10 Ma). The lower values are similar to modern convergence rates across the Himalaya, but the Ramgarh Thrust may have briefly absorbed all Indo-Asian convergence at ˜10 Ma, when foreland and marine sedimentation rates markedly increased, and at least one major strike slip fault in Tibet experienced a hiatus in movement. Variable rates of convergence across the Himalaya on Myr timescales imply Myr variations in strain rates throughout all components of the Indo-Asian orogen.

  17. Characterization of the Apoptotic Response Induced by the Cyanine Dye D112: A Potentially Selective Anti-Cancer Compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ning; Gilman, Paul; Mirzayans, Razmik; Sun, Xuejun; Touret, Nicolas; Weinfeld, Michael; Goping, Ing Swie

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapeutic drugs that are used in anti-cancer treatments often cause the death of both cancerous and noncancerous cells. This non-selective toxicity is the root cause of untoward side effects that limits the effectiveness of therapy. In order to improve chemotherapeutic options for cancer patients, there is a need to identify novel compounds with higher discrimination for cancer cells. In the past, methine dyes that increase the sensitivity of photographic emulsions have been investigated for anti-cancer properties. In the 1970's, Kodak Laboratories initiated a screen of approximately 7000 dye structural variants for selective toxicity. Among these, D112 was identified as a promising compound with elevated toxicity against a colon cancer cell line in comparison to a non-transformed cell line. Despite these results changing industry priorities led to a halt in further studies on D112. We decided to revive investigations on D112 and have further characterized D112-induced cellular toxicity. We identified that in response to D112 treatment, the T-cell leukemia cell line Jurkat showed caspase activation, mitochondrial depolarization, and phosphatidylserine externalization, all of which are hallmarks of apoptosis. Chemical inhibition of caspase enzymatic activity and blockade of the mitochondrial pathway through Bcl-2 expression inhibited D112-induced apoptosis. At lower concentrations, D112 induced growth arrest. To gain insight into the molecular mechanism of D112 induced mitochondrial dysfunction, we analyzed the intracellular localization of D112, and found that D112 associated with mitochondria. Interestingly, in the cell lines that we tested, D112 showed increased toxicity toward transformed versus non-transformed cells. Results from this work identify D112 as a potentially interesting molecule warranting further investigation. PMID:25927702

  18. Selection for high muscle fat in rainbow trout induces potentially higher chylomicron synthesis and PUFA biosynthesis in the intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalam, Biju Sam; Panserat, Stephane; Aguirre, Peyo; Geurden, Inge; Fontagné-Dicharry, Stéphanie; Médale, Françoise

    2013-02-01

    Two lines of rainbow trout divergently selected for muscle fat content, fat line (F) and lean line (L) were used to investigate the effect of genetic selection on digestion, intestinal nutrient transport and fatty acid bioconversion, in relation to dietary starch intake. This study involved a digestibility trial for 2 weeks using Cr(2)O(3) as inert marker, followed by a feeding trial for 4 weeks. For the entire duration, juvenile trout from the two lines were fed diets with or without gelatinized starch. Blood, pyloric ceca, midgut and hindgut were sampled at 24 h after the last meal. Transcripts of the proteins involved in nutrient transport and fatty acid bioconversion were abundant in the proximal intestine. GLUT2 transcripts were slightly higher in the F line ceca than in the L line. Dietary starch intake did not enhance the transcription of intestinal glucose transporters, SGLT1 and GLUT2; but it was associated with the higher expression of ApoA1 and PepT1 in the midgut. Significantly, the F line exhibited higher intestinal mRNA levels of MTP, ApoA4, Elovl2, Elovl5 and D6D than the L line, linked to chylomicron assembly and fatty acid bioconversion. Apparent digestibility coefficients of protein, lipid and starch were high in both lines, but not significantly different between them. In conclusion, we found a higher potential of chylomicron synthesis and fatty acid bioconversion in the intestine of F line, but no adaptive transcriptional response of glucose transporters to dietary starch and no genotypic differences in nutrient digestibility. PMID:23238590

  19. Large radiative forcing efficiency of atmospheric aerosols over the Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasbarra, Daniele; di Sarra, Alcide; Meloni, Daniela; Bonasoni, Paolo; Di Biagio, Claudia; Gobbi, Gian Paolo; Marinoni, Angela; Pietro Verza, Gian; Vuillermoz, Elisa

    2014-05-01

    This study is based on measurements made at the Nepal Climate Observatory at Pyramid (NCO-P, 27.95 N, 86.82 E), located at 5079 m altitude in the Sagamartha National Park, Eastern Nepal Himalaya. We analised seasonal variations of solar downward irradiance (SW), columnar water vapour content (wv), aerosol optical depth at 500 nm (?) and surface albedo (A) in the period between 2007 and 2010, in order to obtain the radiative perturbations produced by aerosols in the SW. SW measurements are carried out by a CMP21 pyranometer, while A is derived from a CNR1 radiometer. Values of wv and ? are retrieved from the measurements by the EVK2-CNR Cimel sunphotometer operating within the AERONET network. ? was found to be lower than 0.1 in 98% of the cases. However, during the pre-monsoon season, especially in the months of April and May, cases with ? reaching 0.27 were recorded. The aerosol surface shortwave radiative effect in cloud-free periods was estimated during the elevated aerosol optical depth cases using different methods. The 'hybrid method' was applied using experimental measurements of solar downward irradiance and simulations made with the MODTRAN (MODerate resolution atmospheric TRANsmission) model. The dependency of SW on A and wv was determined from MODTRAN simulations, and was used to correct experimental measurements for albedo and water vapour changes. The radiative perturbation produced by aerosol was thus obtained as the difference between the measured irradiances and the modelled values for aerosol-free conditions and the same water vapour and albedo values, and at the same solar zenith angle. The aerosol radiative effect was also derived by comparing elevated and low aerosol optical depth cases, at similar values of solar zenith angle, albedo, and column water vapour. In addition the direct method, relating SW to changes in ?, was also used. These three methods produce consistent results. Although the overall aerosol radiative perturbation is small, it becomes relatively large during elevated aerosol cases. The radiative forcing efficiency (radiative effect produced by a unit aerosol optical depth) is significantly larger than at other sites worldwide, reaching values above 360 W/m2 at about 50° solar zenith angle. The maximum radiative effect is about -90±18 Wm-2 (for ?=0.25), corresponding to a reduction by more than 10% of the solar radiation at the surface. During these elevated aerosol events high concentrations of pollutants were measured: PM10 and PM 2.5 showed concentrations higher than 50 ng m-3, while the black carbon concentration reached 3000 ng m-3. The backtrajectory analysis for the elevated aerosol cases shows that the polluted airmasses observed at NCO-P come from Indo-Gangetic plain and Punjab, regions characterized by the highest industrial and demographic concentration of the Indian subcontinent.

  20. Stemflow: A Source of Nutrients in some Naturally Growing Epiphytic Orchids of the Sikkim Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    Awasthi, O. P.; Sharma, E.; Palni, L. M. S.

    1995-01-01

    A study on five naturally growing epiphytic orchids viz., Bulbophyllum affine Lindl., Coelogyne ochracea Lindl., Otochilus porrecta Lindl., Cirrhopetalum cornutum Lindl. and C. cornutum (var.) was carried out in the subtropical belt of Sikkim Himalaya. Stemflow leachates formed the main source of ammonium-N and nitrate-N for uptake by these orchids. Phosphorus concentration in the tissues of these orchids was high. Phosphate-P from stemflow does not seem to be a regular source of phosphorus f...

  1. EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF TERRESTRIAL ORCHIDS (COLLECTED FROM NORTHERN HIMALAYAS) AGAINST CERTAIN HUMAN PATHOGENS

    OpenAIRE

    Amit Bharal, Manila Kashyap

    2014-01-01

    The four main varieties of orchids, collected from northern Himalayas (Tara devi and Chhrabra forests, Shimla, HP) were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against human pathogenic bacteria. The ethanol and methanol extracts of Cypripedium cordigerum and Malaxis acuminata were found to be highly active against both P.aeruginosa and S.aureus with minimal microbial static concentration (MIC) in the range of 100mg/ml. These plants particularly demonstrated antimicrobial properties against...

  2. Origin and radiative forcing of black carbon transported to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kopacz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The remote and high elevation regions of central Asia are influenced by black carbon (BC emissions from a variety of locations. BC deposition contributes to melting of glaciers and questions exist, of both scientific and policy interest, as to the origin of the BC reaching the glaciers. We use the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem model to identify the location from which BC arriving at a variety of locations in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau originates. We then calculate its direct and snow-albedo radiative forcing. We analyze the seasonal variation in the origin of BC using an adjoint sensitivity analysis, which provides a detailed map of the location of emissions that directly contribute to black carbon concentrations at receptor locations. We find that emissions from northern India and central China contribute the majority of BC to the Himalayas, although the precise location varies with season. The Tibetan Plateau receives most BC from western and central China, as well as from India, Nepal, the Middle East, Pakistan and other countries. The magnitude of contribution from each region varies with season and receptor location. We find that sources as varied as African biomass burning and Middle Eastern fossil fuel combustion can significantly contribute to the BC reaching the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. We compute radiative forcing in the snow-covered regions and find the forcing due to the BC induced snow-albedo effect to vary from 5–15 W m?2 within the region, an order of magnitude larger than radiative forcing due to the direct effect, and with significant seasonal variation in the northern Tibetan Plateau. Radiative forcing from reduced snow albedo likely accelerates glacier melting. Our analysis may help inform mitigation efforts to slow the rate of glacial melt by identifying regions that make the largest contributions to BC deposition in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau.

  3. Volatile-assisted intrusion and autometasomatism of leucogranites in the Khumbu Himalaya, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Weinberg, RF; Searle, MP

    1999-01-01

    Leucogranite crops out in the upper Imja Khola, Khumbu Himalaya, Nepal, where it makes up approximately 50% of the exposed bedrock. Leucogranites and their associated aplite-pegmatites typically intruded as concordant sills, millimeters- to kilometers-wide. The exceptional Nuptse granite is an ellipsoidal pluton of nearly 1-km radius, which probably resulted from the ballooning of a sill and is wrapped in concordant country rock foliation. Small-scale structures and mineral paragenesis indica...

  4. Sustainability Perspectives of Development in Leh District (Ladakh, Indian Trans-Himalaya): an Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    PELLICIARDI, VLADIMIRO

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with a human inhabited territory in the Indian Trans-Himalaya: the Leh District, in Ladakh, at a “crossroad of high Asia”, geographically classified “cold desert”. For many centuries the local population has led a self-reliant existence mainly based upon subsistence agriculture, pastoralism and caravan trade. Modernization, due to governmental programs, and the progressive opening to external influence and resources – i.e. globalization – characterize the current...

  5. Constituents of Artemisia gmelinii Weber ex Stechm. from Uttarakhand Himalaya: A Source of Artemisia Ketone

    OpenAIRE

    Haider, S. Z.; Andola, H. C.; Mohan, M.

    2012-01-01

    The essential oils isolated from the aerial parts of two different populations of Artemisia gmelinii growing in Uttarakhand Himalaya region were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in order to determine the variation of concentration in their constituents. Artemisia ketone was detected as a major constituent in both the populations i.e., Niti valley and Jhelum samples. Niti oil was found to have considerably greater amounts of artemesia ketone (53.3...

  6. Region-wide glacier mass balances over the Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya during 1999–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gardelle

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The recent evolution of Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya (PKH glaciers, widely acknowledged as valuable high-altitude as well as mid-latitude climatic indicators, remains poorly known. To estimate the region-wide glacier mass balance for 9 study sites spread from the Pamir to the Hengduan Shan (eastern Himalaya, we compared the 2000 Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM digital elevation model (DEM to recent (2008–2011 DEMs derived from SPOT5 stereo imagery. During the last decade, the region-wide glacier mass balances were contrasted with moderate mass losses in the eastern and central Himalaya (?0.22 ± 0.12 m w.e. yr?1 to ?0.33 ± 0.14 m w.e. yr?1 and larger losses in the western Himalaya (?0.45 ± 0.13 m w.e. yr?1. Recently reported slight mass gain or balanced mass budget of glaciers in the central Karakoram is confirmed for a larger area (+0.10 ± 0.16 m w.e. yr?1 and also observed for glaciers in the western Pamir (+0.14 ± 0.13 m w.e. yr?1. Thus, the "Karakoram anomaly" should be renamed the "Pamir-Karakoram anomaly", at least for the last decade. The overall mass balance of PKH glaciers, ?0.14 ± 0.08 m w.e. yr?1, is two to three times less negative than the global average for glaciers distinct from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Together with recent studies using ICESat and GRACE data, DEM differencing confirms a contrasted pattern of glacier mass change in the PKH during the first decade of the 21st century.

  7. Influence of regional precipitation patterns on stable isotopes in ice cores from the central Himalayas

    OpenAIRE

    Pang, H; S. Hou; Kaspari, S.; Mayewski, P. A.

    2013-01-01

    Several ice cores have been recovered from the Dasuopu Glacier and the East Rongbuk (ER) Glacier in the central Himalayas since the 1990s. Although the distance between the ER and the Dasuopu ice core drilling sites is only ?125 km, the stable isotopic record (?18O or ?D) of the ER core is interpreted as a precipitation proxy while the Dasuopu core as a temperature proxy. Thus, the climatological significance of the stable isotopic records of these Himalayan ice cores remains a...

  8. Probing orographic controls in the Himalayas during the monsoon using satellite imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, A. P.; Kim, G; Williams, E.; Nesbitt, S. W.

    2004-01-01

    The linkages between the space-time variability of observed clouds, rainfall, large-circulation patterns and topography in northern India and the Himalayas were investigated using remote sensing data. The research purpose was to test the hypothesis that cloudiness patterns are dynamic tracers of rainstorms, and therefore their temporal and spatial evolution can be used as a proxy of the spatial and temporal organization of precipitation and precipitation processes in the Himalayan range duri...

  9. Local perceptions of climate change validated by scientific evidence in the Himalayas

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhary, Pashupati; Bawa, Kamaljit S.

    2011-01-01

    The Himalayas are assumed to be undergoing rapid climate change, with serious environmental, social and economic consequences for more than two billion people. However, data on the extent of climate change or its impact on the region are meagre. Based on local knowledge, we report perceived changes in climate and consequences of such changes for biodiversity and agriculture. Our analyses are based on 250 household interviews administered in 18 villages, and focused group discussions conducted...

  10. Taxonomic status of Bupleurum (Apiaceae) in outer hills of Kashmir Himalayas, India

    OpenAIRE

    B. L. Bhellum

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The genus Bupleurum is perennial rhizomatous herbs, recognized by simple leaves,conspicuous bracts and bractlets, often shows a great deal of variation in morphological characteristics. The genus is well developed in temperate and alpine zones of Kashmir Himalayas and other lesser Himalayan ranges of Jammu and Kashmir State. A key to the species, brief description, flowering and fruiting periods are given. The approximate elevation, distribution of species in the region andillus...

  11. Permutations of Rajput identity in the West Himalayas, c. 1790-1840

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Arik; Dr David Washbrook

    2010-01-01

    ?The sustained interaction of local elites and British administrators in the West Himalayas over the decades that surrounded the early colonial encounter (c. 1790-1840) saw the emergence of a distinctly new understanding of communal identity among the leaders of the region. This eventful period saw the mountain ('Pahari') kingdoms transform from fragmented, autonomous polities on the fringes of the Indian subcontinent to subjects of indigenous (Nepali, Sikh) and, ultimately,...

  12. New records of Cantharellus species from the northwestern Himalayas of India

    OpenAIRE

    Deepika, Kumari; Reddy, M Sudhakara; Upadhyay, Ramesh C.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated several collections of the genus Cantharellus (Cantharellaceae) from the northwestern Himalayas, India, on the basis of morphology and molecular data. Phylogenetic relationships and species limits were investigated by using nuclear ribosomal large subunit sequences (LSU). We recognized 13 species: Cantharellus appalachiensis Petersen, C. cibarius Fries, C. lateritius (Berk) Singer, C. miniatescens Heinem, C. minor Peck, C. pseudoformosus and seven species, C. applanatu...

  13. Studies on the impact of local folk on forests of Garhwal Himalaya: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    People in the Himalayas have been using fuelwood as the only source of energy for generations. Increasing population and declining forest resources have led to strict environmental laws in the area. The human impact on forests of the region was studied. The present biomass consumption of approximate 442 kg person-1 yr-1 along with cowdung are contributing factors for the present state of forest deforestation in the region. (author)

  14. Origin and radiative forcing of black carbon transported to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kopacz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The remote and high elevation regions of central Asia are influenced by black carbon (BC emissions from a variety of locations. BC deposition contributes to melting of glaciers and questions exist, of both scientific and policy interest, as to the origin of the BC reaching the glaciers. We use the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem model to identify the location from which BC arriving at a variety of locations in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau originates. We then calculate its direct and snow-albedo radiative forcing. We analyze the seasonal variation in the origin of BC using an adjoint sensitivity analysis, which provides a detailed map of the location of emissions that directly contribute to black carbon concentrations at receptor locations. We find that emissions from northern India and central China contribute the majority of BC to the Himalayas, although the precise location varies with season. The Tibetan Plateau receives most BC from western and central China, as well as from India, Nepal, the Middle East, Pakistan and other countries. The magnitude of contribution from each region varies with season and receptor location. We find that sources as varied as African biomass burning and Middle Eastern fossil fuel combustion can significantly contribute to the BC reaching the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. We compute radiative forcing in the snow-covered regions and estimate the forcing due to the BC induced snow-albedo effect at about 5–15 W m?2 within the region, an order of magnitude larger than radiative forcing due to the direct effect, and with significant seasonal variation in the northern Tibetan Plateau. Radiative forcing from reduced snow albedo accelerates glacier melting. Our analysis can help inform mitigation efforts to slow the rate of glacial melt by identifying regions that make the largest contributions to BC deposition in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau.

  15. Is the doctor on? In search of users for medical software in rural Himalayas

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    The Indian healthcare sector provides ripe ground for development as access to high-quality and timely medical diagnosis remains unrequited among its vast rural populace. With an acute shortage of doctors in rural areas, medical diagnostic software has been created as a surrogate, propelling non-physician workers to step in. For diagnostic software to function effectively, it is paramount to identify the user. Using an intended pilot programme of RightChoice software in the central Himalayas,...

  16. Suillus indicus sp. nov. (Boletales, Basidiomycota), a new boletoid fungus from northwestern Himalayas, India

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, Balwant; Reddy, M Sudhakara

    2014-01-01

    The new species Suillus indicus is described based on the morpho-anatomical description and molecular analysis of basidiomes found in conifer forests of the northwestern Himalayas, India. Morphologically, the key diagnostic characteristics of the new taxon are brownish-orange to reddish-brown pileus with low obtuse umbo, brownish-red to reddish-brown fibrillose squamules over the pileal surface, and absence of fibrillose squamules and glandular dots on the stipe surface. Sequences derived fro...

  17. Bayesian neural network modeling of tree-ring temperature variability record from the Western Himalayas

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, R K; Maiti, S.

    2011-01-01

    A novel technique based on the Bayesian neural network (BNN) theory is developed and employed to model the temperature variation record from the Western Himalayas. In order to estimate an a posteriori probability function, the BNN is trained with the Hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC)/Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulations algorithm. The efficacy of the new algorithm is tested on the well known chaotic, first order autoregressive (AR) and random models and then applied to model the temperature var...

  18. Radon variations in soil and groundwater of Bhilagana valley, Garhwal Himalaya, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon measurements were made in the soil-gas and groundwater present in various lithological units and across the major tectonic zone (Munsiari and Bhatwari-Ramgarh Thrust) located between Ghansali and Ghuttu area in Bhilangana valley of the Garhwal Himalaya, India. High concentrations of radon were observed both in soil-gas and groundwater samples located close to the tectonic planes. Overall radon concentration in this area was found to be controlled by lithology, structure and associated uranium mineralization. (author)

  19. Phylogeography of microbial phototrophs in the dry valleys of the high Himalayas and Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, S. K.; Lynch, R. C.; King, A. J.; Karki, D.; Robeson, M. S.; Nagy, L; M. W. Williams; Mitter, M. S.; Freeman, K R

    2010-01-01

    High-elevation valleys in dry areas of the Himalayas are among the most extreme, yet least explored environments on Earth. These barren, rocky valleys are subjected to year-round temperature fluctuations across the freezing point and very low availability of water and nutrients, causing previous workers to hypothesize that no photoautotrophic life (primary producers) exists in these locations. However, there has been no work using modern biogeochemical or culture-independent molecular methods...

  20. Biomass and diversity of dry alpine plant communities along altitudinal gradients in the Himalayas

    OpenAIRE

    Namgail, T.; G. S. Rawat; Mishra, C.; Wieren, S.E., van; Prins, H.H.T

    2011-01-01

    A non-linear relationship between phytodiversity and altitude has widely been reported, but the relationship between phytomass and altitude remains little understood. We examined the phytomass and diversity of vascular plants along altitudinal gradients on the dry alpine rangelands of Ladakh, western Himalaya. We used generalized linear and generalized additive models to assess the relationship between these vegetation parameters and altitude. We found a hump-shaped relationship between above...

  1. Mechanical analysis of controls on strain partitioning in the Himalayas of central Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Godard, Vincent; Burbank, Douglas W.

    2011-01-01

    We present a mechanical analysis of the problem of slip partitioning between the major thrust systems in a collisional range. We focus on two structures in the Himalayas of central Nepal: the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT) and the Main Central Thrust (MCT). We use finite element modeling to test the influence of various parameters, such as friction coefficients and surface processes, and we investigate how they affect the distribution of deformation between these two faults. We observe that repr...

  2. High Mountain Melt-Down:Local Perceptions of Global Warming in the Andes and Himalayas

    OpenAIRE

    Lamadrid, Armando José

    2008-01-01

    Present scientific knowledge about global warming affirms that ice and snow packs in the high mountains of the world are melting at increasing rates (see IPCC 2007 and UNEP 2007). Melting glaciers and receding snowlines jeopardize seasonal stream and river systems in arid regions of the world and threaten the livelihood of farmers who utilize the meltwater for irrigation. This study contrasts two case studies in the Himalayas of Nepal and the Central Andes of Perú to gauge the impacts of thes...

  3. Framing hydropower as green energy: assessing drivers, risks and tensions in the Eastern Himalayas

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlers, R.; Budds, J.; Joshi, D.; Verme, V.; Zwarteveen, M.Z.

    2015-01-01

    The culturally and ecologically diverse region of the Eastern Himalayas is the target of ambitious hydropower development plans. Policy discourses at national and international levels position this development as synergistically positive: it ombines the production of clean energy to fuel economic growth at regional and national levels with initiatives to lift poor mountain communities out of poverty. Different from hydropower development in the 20th century in which development agencies and b...

  4. Landslide Hazard Zonation in NH-1A in Kashmir Himalaya, India

    OpenAIRE

    R. K. Chingkhei; A. Shiroyleima; L. Robert Singh; Arun Kumar De,

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a methodology for landslide hazard zonation mapping using GIS and remote sensing data. The study has been carried out along NH-1A-Udhampur to Banihal in Kashmir Himalaya as this terrain is prone to the landslide hazards. The present study has been made to derive and identify the important terrain factors contributing to landslide occurrences in the region and corresponding thematic data layers are generated in GIS domain. These terrain data are collected from the topog...

  5. Origin and radiative forcing of black carbon transported to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopacz, M.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Wang, J.; Leibensperger, E. M.; Henze, D. K.; Singh, K.

    2011-03-01

    The remote and high elevation regions of central Asia are influenced by black carbon (BC) emissions from a variety of locations. BC deposition contributes to melting of glaciers and questions exist, of both scientific and policy interest, as to the origin of the BC reaching the glaciers. We use the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem model to identify the location from which BC arriving at a variety of locations in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau originates. We then calculate its direct and snow-albedo radiative forcing. We analyze the seasonal variation in the origin of BC using an adjoint sensitivity analysis, which provides a detailed map of the location of emissions that directly contribute to black carbon concentrations at receptor locations. We find that emissions from northern India and central China contribute the majority of BC to the Himalayas, although the precise location varies with season. The Tibetan Plateau receives most BC from western and central China, as well as from India, Nepal, the Middle East, Pakistan and other countries. The magnitude of contribution from each region varies with season and receptor location. We find that sources as varied as African biomass burning and Middle Eastern fossil fuel combustion can significantly contribute to the BC reaching the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. We compute radiative forcing in the snow-covered regions and find the forcing due to the BC induced snow-albedo effect to vary from 5-15 W m-2 within the region, an order of magnitude larger than radiative forcing due to the direct effect, and with significant seasonal variation in the northern Tibetan Plateau. Radiative forcing from reduced snow albedo likely accelerates glacier melting. Our analysis may help inform mitigation efforts to slow the rate of glacial melt by identifying regions that make the largest contributions to BC deposition in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau.

  6. Agricultural Diversification in the Garhwal Himalaya: A Spatio-Temporal Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vishwambhar Prasad Sati

    2012-01-01

    The Garhwal Himalaya represents a traditional agricultural society where more than 74% population largely depends on the cultivation of subsistence cereal crops to run their livelihood. Over the time, with the increase in human population and decrease in per capita land, the traditional subsistence agriculture could not fulfill food requirement. This was resulted in food insecurity and thus agricultural diversification began with the cultivation of cash crops - fruits, off-season vegetables a...

  7. ECOLOGICAL FEATURES AND CONSERVATION OF ARNEBIA EUCHROMA. A CRITICALLY ENDANGERED MEDICINAL PLANT IN WESTERN HIMALAYA

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Koushalya Nandan; Lal, Brij; Chand, Gopi; Todaria, Nagendra P.

    2012-01-01

    Arnebia euchroma (Royle ex Benth.) Johnston, commonly known as ‘Ratanjot’ is an important medicinal plant species and is found distributed in the western Himalaya at elevations ranging between 3200 - 4500 m above sea level. Considering its potent medicinal properties, cultural significance, declining population density and critically endangered status of this taxon, the present investigation was carried out for the assessment of its availability in the natural alpine landscapes of the Spi...

  8. Threatened medicinal plants of Menwarsar Pahalgam, Kashmir Himalayas: Distribution pattern and current conservation status

    OpenAIRE

    Bilal Ahmad Baig; Duraisamy Ramamoorthy; Tariq Ahmad Bhat

    2013-01-01

    It is imperative to understand the distribution and conservation status of medicinal plants in their natural habitats, owing to their increased demand and value. We studied the distribution pattern and current conservation status of six threatened medicinal plants in Pahalgam valley, Kashmir Himalayas, by random quadrate sampling (n=216) in different habitat types. The different uses of medicinal plants were obtained by informal interviews and group discussions with family elders. Recent re-e...

  9. Antioxidant capacities and total polyphenol contents of hydro-ethanolic extract of phytococktail from trans-Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, P; Tayade, A B; Bajpai, P K; Sharma, V K; Das, S K; Chaurasia, O P; Srivastava, R B; Singh, S B

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant potential of hydro-ethanolic extract of a novel phytococktail comprising of sea buckthorn, apricot, and Rhodiola (SAR) from trans-Himalaya. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity of the extract increased in a dose-dependent manner (upto 0.1 mg/mL), and was found to be about 38% of that of ascorbic acid at 0.1 mg/mL. The hydro-ethanolic extract of SAR also scavenged the ABTS(.+) radical generated by ABTS/potassium persulfate (PPS) system and was found to be about 62% of that of ascorbic acid at 0.1 mg/ mL. The total antioxidant power of the extract was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content was found to be 1.28016 × 10(-3) mol gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract. Total flavonoid and flavonol contents were estimated to be 2.5970 × 10(-4) mol and 4.87 × 10(-4) mol quercetin equivalent/g extract, respectively. The hydro-ethanolic extract of this phytococktail indicated presence of essential phytoconstituents of polyphenols, flavonoids, flavonols, and ascorbic acid, which contributed significantly to its antioxidant capacity. The combination of the 3 plants may well support their use in traditional medicine to combat oxidative stress and high-altitude sickness. PMID:22225422

  10. Geochemical characterization of supraglacial debris via in situ and optical remote sensing methods: a case study in Khumbu Himalaya, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Casey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface glacier debris samples and field spectra were collected from the ablation zones of Nepal Himalaya Ngozumpa and Khumbu glaciers in November and December 2009. Geochemical and mineral compositions of supraglacial debris were determined by X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. This composition data was used as ground truth in evaluating field spectra and satellite supraglacial debris composition and mapping methods. Satellite remote sensing methods for characterizing glacial surface debris include visible to thermal infrared hyper- and multispectral reflectance and emission signature identification, semi-quantitative mineral abundance indicies and spectral image composites. Satellite derived supraglacial debris mineral maps displayed the predominance of layered silicates, hydroxyl-bearing and calcite minerals on Khumbu Himalayan glaciers. Supraglacial mineral maps compared with satellite thermal data revealed correlations between glacier surface composition and glacier surface temperature. Glacier velocity displacement fields and shortwave, thermal infrared false color composites indicated the magnitude of mass flux at glacier confluences. The supraglacial debris mapping methods presented in this study can be used on a broader scale to improve, supplement and potentially reduce errors associated with glacier debris radiative property, composition, areal extent and mass flux quantifications.

  11. Topographic position of large slope failures revealed by excess topography in the Himalaya-Karakoram Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blöthe, Jan; Korup, Oliver; Schwanghart, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Large slope failures (defined here as affecting >0.1 km² in planform area) substantially contribute to denuding hillslopes, thereby limiting the growth of topographic relief in active mountain belts produced by tectonic uplift and fluvial or glacial incision. The region around Nanga Parbat, situated in the Himalaya-Karakoram ranges (HKR), has been shown to exhibit one of the largest clusters of large scale slope failure known. However, a thorough analysis of the pattern of landslides in the wider region, let alone an inventory of large slope failure is lacking. We take this as a motivation to create a landslide inventory covering the upper Indus catchment located in the HKR of NW India and N Pakistan. Our data set contains 492 large landslides that we compiled from published studies and mapping from remote sensing imagery. Using an empirical volume-area scaling approach we estimate the total landslide volume at >250 km³. This is more than thousand times the contemporary annual sediment load in the Indus River. We analyse the distribution of these landslides with respect to the regional hypsometry, contemporary glacier cover, and the distribution of rock glaciers. We further introduce excess topography ZE, which quantifies the vertical column of rock material above a hypothetical failure plane, as a first-order metric of potentially unstable rock slopes. We find that large bedrock landslides in the HKR preferentially detach near or from below the study area's median elevation, while glaciers and rock glaciers occupy higher elevations almost exclusively. This picture is supported by the distribution of excess topography ZE that peaks along major fluvial and glacial inner gorges, which is where the majority of large rock-slope failures occur. Our analysis suggests a hitherto unrecognised vertical layering of denudation processes, with landslides chiefly operating below the median elevation, whereas mass transport in higher elevations seems to be dominated by glaciers and rock glaciers, or high-frequency low-magnitude failure (topography ZE and large bedrock landsliding challenge the notion of widespread threshold hillslopes in the HKR. We therefore conclude that hillslope adjustment to fluvial and glacial incision along inner gorges through large-scale rock-slope failures is protracted and far from exhausted.

  12. Testosterone attenuates and the selective estrogen receptor modulator, raloxifene, potentiates amphetamine-induced locomotion in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves-Tyson, Tertia D; Boerrigter, Danny; Allen, Katherine; Zavitsanou, Katerina; Karl, Tim; Djunaidi, Vanezha; Double, Kay L; Desai, Reena; Handelsman, David J; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon

    2015-04-01

    Although sex steroids are known to modulate brain dopamine, it is still unclear how testosterone modifies locomotor behaviour controlled, at least in part, by striatal dopamine in adolescent males. Our previous work suggests that increasing testosterone during adolescence may bias midbrain neurons to synthesise more dopamine. We hypothesised that baseline and amphetamine-induced locomotion would differ in adult males depending on testosterone exposure during adolescence. We hypothesised that concomitant stimulation of estrogen receptor signaling, through a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), raloxifene, can counter testosterone effects on locomotion. Male Sprague-Dawley rats at postnatal day 45 were gonadectomised (G) or sham-operated (S) prior to the typical adolescent testosterone increase. Gonadectomised rats were either given testosterone replacement (T) or blank implants (B) for six weeks and sham-operated (i.e. intact or endogenous testosterone group) were given blank implants. Subgroups of sham-operated, gonadectomised and gonadectomised/testosterone-replaced rats were treated with raloxifene (R, 5mg/kg) or vehicle (V), daily for the final four weeks. There were six groups (SBV, GBV, GTV, SBR, GBR, GTR). Saline and amphetamine-induced (1.25mg/kg) locomotion in the open field was measured at PND85. Gonadectomy increased amphetamine-induced locomotion compared to rats with endogenous or with exogenous testosterone. Raloxifene increased amphetamine-induced locomotion in rats with either endogenous or exogenous testosterone. Amphetamine-induced locomotion was negatively correlated with testosterone and this relationship was abolished by raloxifene. Lack of testosterone during adolescence potentiates and testosterone exposure during adolescence attenuates amphetamine-induced locomotion. Treatment with raloxifene appears to potentiate amphetamine-induced locomotion and to have an opposite effect to that of testosterone in male rats. PMID:25747465

  13. New insights into trace element wet deposition in the Himalayas: amounts, seasonal patterns, and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Zhiyuan; Kang, Shichang; Zhang, Yulan; Gao, Shaopeng; Wang, Zhongyan; Liu, Bin; Wan, Xin

    2015-02-01

    Our research provides the first complete year-long dataset of wet deposition of trace elements in the high Himalayas based on a total of 42 wet deposition events on the northern slope of Mt. Qomolangma (Everest). Except for typical crustal elements (Al, Fe, and Mn), the concentration level of most trace elements (Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Cd, Sn, Cs, Pb, Bi, and U) are generally comparable to those preserved in snow pits and ice cores from the nearby East Rongbuk Glacier. Cadmium was the element most affected by anthropogenic emissions. No pronounced seasonal variations are observed for most trace elements despite different transport pathways. In our study, the composition of wet precipitation reflects a regional background condition and is not clearly related to specific source regions. For the trace element record from ice cores and snow pits in the Himalayas, it could be deduced that the pronounced seasonal patterns were caused by the dry deposition of trace elements (aerosols) during their long exposure to the atmosphere after precipitation events. Our findings are of value for the understanding of the trace element deposition mechanisms in the Himalayas. PMID:25205151

  14. Effects of Absorbing Aerosols on Accelerated Melting of Snowpack in the Tibetan-Himalayas Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K. M.

    2011-01-01

    The impacts of absorbing aerosol on melting of snowpack in the Hindu-Kush-Tibetan-Himalayas (HKTH) region are studied using NASA satellite and GEOS-5 GCM. Results from GCM experiments shows that a 8-10% in the rate of melting of snowpack over the western Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau can be attributed to the aerosol elevated-heat-pump (EHP) feedback effect (Lau et al. 2008), initiated by the absorption of solar radiation by absorbing aerosols accumulated over the Indo-Gangetic Plain and Himalayas foothills. On the other hand, deposition of black carbon on snow surface was estimated to give rise to a reduction in snow surface albedo of 2 - 5%, and an increased annual runoff of 9-24%. From case studies using satellite observations and re-analysis data, we find consistent signals of possible impacts of dust and black carbon aerosol in blackening snow surface, in accelerating spring melting of snowpack in the HKHT, and consequentially in influencing shifts in long-term Asian summer monsoon rainfall pattern.

  15. Influence of regional precipitation patterns on stable isotopes in ice cores from the central Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Pang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Several ice cores have been recovered from the Dasuopu Glacier and the East Rongbuk (ER Glacier in the central Himalayas since the 1990s. Although the distance between the ER and the Dasuopu ice core drilling sites is only ?125 km, the stable isotopic record (?18O or ?D of the ER core is interpreted as a precipitation proxy while the Dasuopu core as a temperature proxy. Thus, the climatological significance of the stable isotopic records of these Himalayan ice cores remains a subject of debate. Based on analysis of regional precipitation patterns over the region, we find that the different interpretations of the Dasuopu and Everest isotopic records may not be contradictive. The north–south and west–east seesaws of the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM precipitation are primarily responsible for precipitation falling at the ER site, which results in a negative correlation between the ER ?18O or ?D record and precipitation amount along the southern slope of the central Himalayas, corresponding to the "amount effect". In addition to the ISM precipitation, non-summer monsoonal precipitation associated with winter westerlies also significantly contributes to precipitation falling at the Dasuopu site, which may cause a positive correlation between the Dasuopu stable isotopic record and temperature, in response to the "temperature effect". Our results have important implications for interpreting the stable isotopic ice core records recovered from different climatological regimes of the Himalayas.

  16. Tree ring inferred summer temperature variations over the last millennium in western Himalaya, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Ram Ratan [Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow (India); Braeuning, Achim [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Institute of Geography, Erlangen (Germany); Singh, Jayendra [University Greifswald, Ecosystem Dynamics, Institute of Botany and Landscape Ecology, Greifswald (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    We report the first millennium-long reconstruction of mean summer (May-June-July-August) temperature extending back to AD 940 derived from tree-ring width data of Himalayan pencil juniper (Juniperus polycarpos C. Koch) from the monsoon-shadow zone in the western Himalaya, India. Centennial-scale variations in the reconstruction reveal periods of protracted warmth encompassing the 11-15th centuries. A decreasing trend in mean summer temperature occurred since the 15th century with the 18-19th centuries being the coldest interval of the last millennium, coinciding with the expansion of glaciers in the western Himalaya. Since the late 19th century summer temperatures increased again. However, current warming may be underestimated due to a weakening in tree growth-temperature relationship noticeable in the latter part of the 20th century. Mean summer temperature over the western Himalaya shows a positive correlation with summer monsoon intensity over north central India. Low-frequency variations in mean summer temperature anomalies over northwestern India are consistent with tree-ring inferred aridity in western North America. These far-distance linkages reported here for the first time underscore the utility of long-term temperature records from the western Himalayan region in understanding global-scale climatic patterns. (orig.)

  17. The potential influence of far-infrared emission lines on the selection of high-redshift galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Smail, Ian; Ivison, R J; Ibar, E

    2011-01-01

    We investigate whether strong molecular and atomic emission lines at far-infrared wavelengths can influence the identification and derived properties of galaxies selected from broad-band, far-infrared or submillimetre observations. Several of these lines, e.g. [CII]158um, have been found to be very bright in some high-redshift galaxies, with fluxes of >0.1-1% of the total far-infrared luminosity, and may be even brighter in certain populations at high redshifts. At redshifts where these lines fall in instrument pass-bands they can significantly increase the broad-band flux measurements. We estimate that the contributions from line emission could boost the apparent broad-band flux by >20-40% in the Herschel and SCUBA-2 bands. Combined with the steep source counts in the submillimetre and far-infrared bands, line contamination has potentially significant consequences for the properties of sources detected in flux-limited continuum surveys, biasing the derived redshift distributions and bolometric luminosities. ...

  18. Multilocation trial of potential selected mutant lines of groundnut (arachis hypogaea) at 3 location in Peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two fixed mutant lines of groundnut derived from cultivar Matjan were selected for their yield potential at M10 generation. Multilocation trial of these mutants (MJ40/42 and MJ20/165-5) was carried out to evaluate genotype stability at different climate and soil types in Peninsular Malaysia. The mutant lines were planted and compared with their parent (Matjan) and control variety (MKT1). The identified locations were in Taiping (Perak), Machang (Kelantan), and Air Hitam (Johor). The soils at the locations were of the Serdang, Bungor and Rengam series, respectively. The trial was carried out simultaneously in the same year at each location. Mutant MJ20/165-5 showed stable performance at all location compared to other genotypes tested. Its yield was higher than the parent in Kelantan and Johor trial and showed similar performance in Perak. This mutant also showed better yield performance than the control varieties in the Kelantan trial. Meanwhile, mutant line MJ40/42 gave better yield in Kelantan and Johor but did not perform well in Perak as compared to its parent and control varieties. (Author)

  19. Informing Selection of Nanomaterial Concentrations for ToxCast in Vitro Testing Based on Occupational Exposure Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Gangwal, Sumit; Brown, James S.; Wang, Amy; Houck, Keith A.; Dix, David J.; Kavlock, Robert J.; Hubal, Elaine A. Cohen

    2011-01-01

    Background: Little justification is generally provided for selection of in vitro assay testing concentrations for engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Selection of concentration levels for hazard evaluation based on real-world exposure scenarios is desirable.

  20. Informing Selection of Nanomaterial Concentrations for ToxCast In Vitro Testing based on Occupational Exposure Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little justification is generally provided for selection of in vitro assay testing concentrations for engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Selection of concentration levels for hazard evaluation based on real-world exposure scenarios is desirable. We reviewed published ENM concentr...

  1. Joint spatial variability of aerosol, clouds and rainfall in the Himalayas from satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Shrestha

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Satellite-based precipitation, Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD, Cloud Optical Depth (COD, and Aerosol Index (AI data were used to characterize the linkages among landform and the intra-annual variability of aerosols, cloudiness and rainfall in the Himalayas using Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF analysis. The first modes of AOD and AI show the presence of two branches of dust aerosol: over the Indus River basin and the Thar Desert with a sharp west-east gradient parallel to the southern slopes of the Himalayas – the southern Branch; and the second against the slopes of the Tian Shan and over the Takla Makan Desert in the Tibetan Plateau – the northern branch. The second EOF mode of AOD accounts for about 10% of overall variance of AOD. It is attached to the foothills of the Himalayas east of the Aravalli range peaking in April-May followed by a sharp decrease between June and July during the first active phase of the monsoon. The first and second EOF modes of COD and precipitation show consistent patterns against the Central and Eastern Himalayas and along the ocean-land boundaries in western India and the Bay of Bengal. The break in cloudiness and rainfall between the winter and the monsoon seasons is captured well by the second EOF mode of COD and rainfall concurrent with the aerosol build up mode (March-April-May over the region depicted by the second mode of AOD. The results show that the Aravalli range separates the two different modes of aerosol variability over northern India with dust aerosols to the west and polluted mixed aerosols to the east consistent with its role in regional circulation and precipitations patterns as per Barros et al. (2004 and Chiao and Barros (2006. The region of spatial overlap of the modes of variability of aerosols, clouds and rainfall is captured by the second EOF of MODIS AOD along the southern slopes of the Himalayas east of the Aravalli. It is proposed that this mode maps the area where the indirect radiative effect of aerosols on cloud properties and rainfall is pronounced.

  2. Studies of the in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials of selected Yemeni medicinal plants from the island Soqotra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bednarski Patrick J

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent years have witnessed that there is a revival of interest in drug discovery from medicinal plants for the maintenance of health in all parts of the world. The aim of this work was to investigate 26 plants belonging to 17 families collected from a unique place in Yemen (Soqotra Island for their in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Methods The 26 plants were extracted with methanol and hot water to yield 52 extracts. Evaluation for in vitro anticancer activity was done against three human cancer cell lines (A-427, 5637 and MCF-7 by using an established microtiter plate assay based on cellular staining with crystal violet. Antimicrobial activity was tested against three Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria, one yeast species and three multiresistant Staphylococcus strains by using an agar diffusion method and the determination of MIC against three Gram-positive bacteria with the broth micro-dilution assay. Antioxidant activity was investigated by measuring the scavenging activity of the DPPH radical. Moreover, a phytochemical screening of the methanolic extracts was done. Results Notable cancer cell growth inhibition was observed for extracts from Ballochia atro-virgata, Eureiandra balfourii and Hypoestes pubescens, with IC50 values ranging between 0.8 and 8.2 ?g/ml. The methanol extracts of Acanthospermum hispidum, Boswellia dioscorides, Boswellia socotrana, Commiphora ornifolia and Euphorbia socotrana also showed noticeable antiproliferative potency with IC50 values Acacia pennivenia, Boswellia dioscorides, Boswellia socotrana, Commiphora ornifolia, Euclea divinorum, Euphorbia socotrana, Leucas samhaensis, Leucas virgata, Rhus thyrsiflora, and Teucrium sokotranum with inhibition zones > 15 mm and MIC values ? 250 ?g/ml. In addition, the methanolic extracts of Acacia pennivenia, Boswellia dioscorides, Boswellia socotrana and Commiphora ornifolia showed good antioxidant potential at low concentrations (more than 80% at 50 ?g/ml. Conclusion Our results show once again that medicinal plants can be promising sources of natural products with potential anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidative activity. The results will guide the selection of some plant species for further pharmacological and phytochemical investigations.

  3. Site selection in global clinical trials in patients hospitalized for heart failure: perceived problems and potential solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghiade, Mihai; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Greene, Stephen J; Mentz, Robert J; Adams, Kirkwood F; Anker, Stefan D; Arnold, Malcolm; Baschiera, Fabio; Cleland, John G F; Cotter, Gadi; Fonarow, Gregg C; Giordano, Christopher; Metra, Marco; Misselwitz, Frank; Mühlhofer, Eva; Nodari, Savina; Frank Peacock, W; Pieske, Burkert M; Sabbah, Hani N; Sato, Naoki; Shah, Monica R; Stockbridge, Norman L; Teerlink, John R; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Zalewski, Andrew; Zannad, Faiez; Butler, Javed

    2014-03-01

    There are over 1 million hospitalizations for heart failure (HF) annually in the United States alone, and a similar number has been reported in Europe. Recent clinical trials investigating novel therapies in patients with hospitalized HF (HHF) have been negative, and the post-discharge event rate remains unacceptably high. The lack of success with HHF trials stem from problems with understanding the study drug, matching the drug to the appropriate HF subgroup, and study execution. Related to the concept of study execution is the importance of including appropriate study sites in HHF trials. Often overlooked issues include consideration of the geographic region and the number of patients enrolled at each study center. Marked differences in baseline patient co-morbidities, serum biomarkers, treatment utilization and outcomes have been demonstrated across geographic regions. Furthermore, patients from sites with low recruitment may have worse outcomes compared to sites with higher enrollment patterns. Consequently, sites with poor trial enrollment may influence key patient end points and likely do not justify the costs of site training and maintenance. Accordingly, there is an unmet need to develop strategies to identify the right study sites that have acceptable patient quantity and quality. Potential approaches include, but are not limited to, establishing a pre-trial registry, developing site performance metrics, identifying a local regionally involved leader and bolstering recruitment incentives. This manuscript summarizes the roundtable discussion hosted by the Food and Drug Administration between members of academia, the National Institutes of Health, industry partners, contract research organizations and academic research organizations on the importance of selecting optimal sites for successful trials in HHF. PMID:23099992

  4. Selection of lactic acid bacteria from Brazilian kefir grains for potential use as starter or probiotic cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanirati, Débora Ferreira; Abatemarco, Mário; Sandes, Sávio Henrique de Cicco; Nicoli, Jacques Robert; Nunes, Álvaro Cantini; Neumann, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    Brazilian kefir is a homemade fermented beverage that is obtained by incubating milk or a brown sugar solution with kefir grains that contribute their different microbiological compositions. It is highly important to isolate and characterize microorganisms from Brazilian kefir grains to obtain starter cultures for the industrial production of a standardized commercial kefir. Thus, the present study aimed to isolate lactic acid bacteria from eight kefir grains that were propagated in milk or sugar solutions from five different locations in Brazil and to select Lactobacillus isolates based on desirable in vitro probiotic properties. One hundred eight isolates from both substrates were identified by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and/or 16S rRNA gene sequencing and were determined to belong to the following 11 species from the genera: Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus (L.), and Oenococcus. Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus kefiri, and Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens were isolated only from milk grains, whereas Lactobacillus perolens, Lactobacillus parafarraginis, Lactobacillus diolivorans, and Oenococcus oeni were isolated exclusively from sugar water grains. When the microbial compositions of four kefir grains were evaluated with culture-independent analyses, L. kefiranofaciens was observed to predominant in milk grains, whereas Lactobacillus hilgardii was most abundant in sugar water kefir. Unfortunately, L. hilgardii was not isolated from any grain, although this bacteria was detected with a culture-independent methodology. Fifty-two isolated Lactobacilli were tested for gastric juice and bile salt tolerance, antagonism against pathogens, antimicrobial resistance, and surface hydrophobicity. Three Lactobacillus strains (L. kefiranofaciens 8U, L. diolivorans 1Z, and Lactobacillus casei 17U) could be classified as potential probiotics. In conclusion, several lactic acid bacteria that could be used in combination with yeasts as starter cultures for both milk kefir and sugar water kefir were characterized, and the functional properties of several of the lactobacilli isolated from the kefir grains were suggestive of their possible use as probiotics in both kefir and other dairy products. PMID:25542841

  5. Neo-Tethyan rifting at the Indian Gondwana margin (NW Himalayas): evidence from conjugate deformation bands in the early Devonian Muth Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganits, E.; Grasemann, B.; Hager, C.

    2003-04-01

    The late Palaeozoic rifting event between northern Gondwana and the Peri-Gondwana blocks (i.e. Cimmerian micro-continents), beginning in the early Carboniferous, was the most drastic tectonic event at the former northern Indian passive margin, before the Himalayan orogeny in Tertiary time. Nevertheless, reports on deformation structures formed by the Neo-Tethys rifting event hardly exist and the event has mainly been deduced from widespread stratigraphic gaps and a prominent angular unconformity formed by the thermal uplift of the rift shoulders. Due to the dominance of deformation structures that formed during the Tertiary Himalayan orogeny, possibly existing older structures of pre-Himalayan deformation events are obscured or only fragmentary preserved. We present conjugate, cataclastic deformation bands and zones of deformation bands, which have been found in the lower Devonian Muth Formation in the Pin Valley, Tethyan Zone, NW Himalayas. As deformation bands generally form in porous sandstone and the spatial orientation of the deformation bands in the Muth Formation is different form the orientation of brittle deformation structures of the Tertiary Himalayan orogeny, a pre-Himalayan origin of these structures is concluded. The older age limit of the deformation bands is obviously constrained by the depositional age of the sediment and the younger age limit by the timing of complete cementation. Palaeostrain analysis of the conjugate deformation bands broadly indicate ESE-WNW shortening, associated with a contemporaneous N-S stretching component. The deformation bands are associated with mafic dykes related to the Neo-Tethys rifting event and they probably formed during the same deformation. Although the palaeostrain of the deformation bands is consistent with structural observations in Upper Lahaul, more data from other locations in the Tethyan NW-Himalaya are needed for a regional interpretation. Due to the peculiarities of deformation band deformation and their microstructural characteristics, they have the potential to be separated from other brittle deformation structures in complex, poly-phase orogens.

  6. Instrument-free control of the standard potential of potentiometric solid-contact ion-selective electrodes by short-circuiting with a conventional reference electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanamo, Ulriika; Bobacka, Johan

    2014-11-01

    A simple, instrument-free method to control the standard potential (E°) of potentiometric solid-contact ion-selective electrodes (SC-ISE) is described. In this method, the electrode potential of a SC-ISE is reset by short-circuiting the electrode with a metallic wire to a conventional Ag/AgCl/3 M KCl reference electrode (RE) in a solution containing primary ions. The method is studied experimentally for SC-ISEs where the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with the bulky anion poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate), PEDOT(PSS), is used as the solid contact. Three different types of ion-selective membranes (ISMs) are studied: two potassium-selective membranes, with and without the lipohilic additive tetradodecylammonium tetrakis(4-chlorophenyl)borate (ETH-500) and a cation-sensitive membrane without an ionophore. When the SC-ISE is short-circuited with the RE, the PEDOT(PSS) layer is oxidized or reduced, thereby shifting the potential of the SC-ISE to the proximity of the potential of the RE so that the potential difference between these two electrodes becomes zero or close to zero. The slope of the calibration curve is preserved after the short-circuit treatment of the SC-ISEs. The short-circuiting method is an important step toward calibration-free potentiometric analysis. PMID:25284311

  7. Implication of the southern Tethyan Himalaya (Sutlej section, India) for the extrusion of the Higher Himalaya and the geometry of the mid-crustal channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Soumyajit

    2013-04-01

    In the last three years, various combinations of channel flow and critical taper mechanisms have been suggested as plausible mechanism for the extrusion of the Higher Himalaya (HH, Beaumont and Jamieson 2010; Chambers et al., 2011; Larson et al., 2011; Corrie et al., 2012; Long et al. 2012; Mukherjee, in press). An alternate and rather less popular model of the HH has been southward droop of the northern boundary of the HH viz. the 'South Tibetan Detachment System-Upper (STDSU)' (Exner et al. 2006). Had the later been true, drag folds with southward vergence would be expected immediately north of the STDSU. In a SW to NE traverse from Morang up to Spillo along the Sutlej river valley (Himachal Pradesh, India), such folds do occur within the southern part of the Tethyan Himalaya. On close observation, the primary shear planes of top-to~S shear are overturned by folds with broad rounded hinges and with ~ NE dipping axial planes and limbs. The shear sense indicated by the sigmoid fabrics matches with the asymmetry of the folds. Northward from Spillo, large-scale folds (antiforms) with down-dip extensional shear in both limbs indicate 'irregular' doming of the Tethyan sediments. One of the best exposures of this shear sense that could be deciphered even from a distance is where the National Highway 22 running along the river valley joins the road to Nasang village. Below the Tethyan sediments, a mid-crustal sub-horizontal channel is widely accepted to allow the Higher Himalayan rock materials to flow from beneath south Tibet. Much north of Spillo, the Leo Pargil granite-gneiss dome has been suggested as an exposure of the channel materials. Thus, this work suggests (i) flap of the STDSU might have triggered the extrusion of the HH; and (ii) doming of a part of the Tethyan Himalaya could be due to the rise of low-density hot, partially molten rocks through the sub-horizontal channel. This would imply that the upper boundary of the sub-horizontal channel was flexible rather than rigid. Following Mancktelow (2008), the viscosity ratio between the mid-crustal material and that of the surrounding Tethyan sediments might be > 10-7.Taking the viscosity of the mid-crustal material as 1018-1019 Pa s, that for the Tethyan schists are loosely constrained as < 1025 to 1026 Pa s. This matches the viscosity values (between 500-700 0C: 1018-1019 Pa s) given for schists by Landholt-Bornstein (1982).

  8. Darkening of the mid-Himalaya glaciers since 2000 and the potential causes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himalayan glaciers are a vital water source for people in the high regions of Asia. Their complete melting would be a crisis for approximately 1 billion people. Albedo is one of the key parameters that affect the energy balance of the snow and ice surfaces. Since 2000, albedos have been retrieved from satellite data for eleven representative Himalayan glaciers. It was found that most of the glaciers showed declining trends in the albedo of their upper areas, indicating that they have generally become darker in the past decade. A simulation case study in conjunction with in situ measurements showed that light-absorbing constituents (e.g., black carbon and dust) could be partly responsible for this phenomenon during late springtime; the background regional warming could also be responsible. The current surface radiation absorption in Himalayan glaciers could lead to significant melting, causing most of them to be in danger of rapid mass loss. (letter)

  9. Characterization and Metal Detoxification Potential of Moderately Thermophilic Bacillus cereus from Geothermal Springs of Himalaya

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aslam Khan, Ghalib; Muhammad, Yasin; Muhammad, Faisal.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Two thermophilic Bacillus cereus strains (B. cereus-TA2 and B. cereus-TA4) used in the present study were isolated from the geothermal spring of Hunza valley, Gilgit, Pakistan. They showed the ability to withstand and grow at high temperature (85°C). Both these strains could resist multiple metals ( [...] copper, cadmium, mercury, manganese, zinc, arsenic, chromium and selenium). Strain B. cereus-TA4 reduced Cr (VI) at pH 5.0 to 9.0 but maximum reduction (83%) was observed at pH 7.0 after 48 h when initially supplied with 200 µg mL-1 of K2CrO4. Lower initial concentrations such as 100 µg mL-1 supported higher reduction (90 to 95%) than that of high concentration such as 500 µg mL-1 (20 to 30%). Both the strains reduced nearly 70% of Se (IV) after 48 h of growth at pH 7.0 when initially supplied with 200 µg mL-1 of Na2SeO3. The optimum temperature for maximum Se (IV) reduction was 45°C for both the strains.

  10. Potential use of fresh weight yield as an indirect selection method for dry matter yield in Lolium perenne L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry matter yield (DMY) is a high-priority trait in breeding perennial forage grasses. Selection for increased DMY involves some form of family selection across replicated plots. Sampling plots for dry matter determination is highly labor intensive, particularly for multiple cuttings within a season....

  11. Impact of Different Land Use Management on Soil Enzyme Activities and Bacterial Genetic Fingerprints of North-Western Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Deo Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Land uses has significant impact on soil biological properties that incessantly intimates the soil quality change and are assessed by soil microbial and biochemical indicators, as they are highly sensitive to change in environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of land use on soil enzyme activities and gene diversity in selected location of Northwestern Himalayas, India. Nine different land use system of similar soil type at depth 0-15 cm were analyzed for soil enzymes (Dehydrogenase, Acid Phosphatase, Alkaline Phosphatase, Nitrate Reductase, Arylsulphatase, and Phytase and genetic fingerprints (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA analysis. The land use systems investigated are Oak (Quercus incana, Deodar (Cedrus deodara, Pine (Pinus roxburghii trees, Apple orchids and crop based systems in uplands and valleys. All the soil enzymes were significantly higher in forest ecosystem followed by organic farm and conventional maize-wheat farm soil. The principal component analysis (PCA of nine different land use systems based on soil enzymes shows significant variation in data and all the long-term agricultural lands were segregated together. However maize-wheat and organic farm are group together in the PCA plot. Hierarchical clustering by wards method of soil enzymes clusters the deodar forest soil, oak forest soil and organic farming in one cluster and segregates remaining land use system in another. RAPD analysis showed high polymorphism between samples and similarity indexing using unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages resulted in four clusters. Land use showed significantly negative impact on soil enzymes and genetic fingerprints in long-term agricultural lands as compared to natural forest ecosystem and organic farming as reveal by RAPD assisted marker.

  12. Medieval pulse of great earthquakes in the central Himalaya: Viewing past activities on the frontal thrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, C. P.; John, Biju; Rajendran, Kusala

    2015-03-01

    The Himalaya has experienced three great earthquakes during the last century—1934 Nepal-Bihar, 1950 Upper Assam, and arguably the 1905 Kangra. Focus here is on the central Himalayan segment between the 1905 and the 1934 ruptures, where previous studies have identified a great earthquake between thirteenth and sixteenth centuries. Historical data suggest damaging earthquakes in A.D. 1255, 1344, 1505, 1803, and 1833, although their sources and magnitudes remain debated. We present new evidence for a great earthquake from a trench across the base of a 13 m high scarp near Ramnagar at the Himalayan Frontal Thrust. The section exposed four south verging fault strands and a backthrust offsetting a broad spectrum of lithounits, including colluvial deposits. Age data suggest that the last great earthquake in the central Himalaya most likely occurred between A.D. 1259 and 1433. While evidence for this rupture is unmistakable, the stratigraphic clues imply an earlier event, which can most tentatively be placed between A.D. 1050 and 1250. The postulated existence of this earlier event, however, requires further validation. If the two-earthquake scenario is realistic, then the successive ruptures may have occurred in close intervals and were sourced on adjacent segments that overlapped at the trench site. Rupture(s) identified in the trench closely correlate with two damaging earthquakes of 1255 and 1344 reported from Nepal. The present study suggests that the frontal thrust in central Himalaya may have remained seismically inactive during the last ~700 years. Considering this long elapsed time, a great earthquake may be due in the region.

  13. Use of indigenous knowledge in environmental decision-making by communities in the Kumaon Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honwad, Sameer

    This study is designed to find out how people in rural communities residing in the middle Himalayas use indigenous knowledge to support environmental decisions while addressing water and land use related concerns. The study not only serves to enrich our understanding of community decision-making, especially as connected to land use and ecological issues, but also helps us understand how youth in village communities in the Himalayan bioregion negotiate a balance between indigenous and exogenous knowledge. Using qualitative methods including interviews, field observations, and focus groups, the research examines discussions and activities leading to decision-making about environmental issues in the communities residing in the Kumaon region of the middle Himalayas of India. The study helps answer the following questions: (1) In the Kumaon region, what is the relevant indigenous knowledge used to make decisions about specific environmental issues such as land management and water management? (2) How much of this indigenous knowledge is used by adult community members while making decisions about the environment? (3) How much of this indigenous knowledge is passed on to the future generation (process of intergenerational knowledge transfer)? (4) How will youth make use of indigenous knowledge in relation to exogenous knowledge while trying to negotiate issues related to their environment? In answering these questions, this study serves to deepen our understanding of how communities in the Himalayas balance the influx of modernization/globalization and engage in decision-making toward environmental sustainability. It supports a better understanding of how to design curriculum and environmental education programs for learning in communities of the Himalayan bioregion, and perhaps also offers some valuable direction for designing environmental conservation and education programs for the developing world.

  14. Variation of radon levels in spring water with meteorological parameters and seismic events in Garhwal Himalayas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon is being measured continuously in spring water at Badshahi Thaul Campus, Tehri Garhwal in Himalayan region by using radon emanometer since December 2002. An effort was made to correlate the variance of radon concentration in spring water with meteorological parameters and seismic events in study area. The positive correlation (coefficient = 0.79, 0.53, 0.60 and 0.70) was observed between measured radon concentration and minimum and maximum temperature, relative humidity and water discharge rate from the spring, respectively. However, no correlation was recorded between radon concentration and rain fall in the study area. Sudden increase in radon concentration in spring water were observed before the earthquakes occurred on 24 January 2003 of magnitude 3.4 on Richter scale having epicenter near Uttarkashi in Garhwal Himalaya and on 31 January 2003 of magnitude 3.1 on Richter scale having epicenter almost in same area. Similar changes in radon concentration were recorded before the earthquakes occurred on 4 April 2003 with magnitude 4.0 having epicenter near Almora in Kumaon Himalaya and on 26 May 2003 having magnitude 3.5 in Chamoli region of Garhwal Himalaya. Regular radon anomaly was recorded with micro seismic events from 5th August to 4th September 2003, which is discussed in detail. The impact of non geophysical and geophysical events on radon concentration in spring water is discussed in details. This type of study will help us to develop earthquake alarm mwill help us to develop earthquake alarm model from radon in near future. (author)

  15. Aerosol optical properties variations over the southern and northern slopes of the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chao; Ma, Yaoming; Yang, Kun; Qin, Jun; Zhu, Zhikun

    2013-04-01

    The Himalayas is the highest mountain on the earth. It blocks off the aerosols obviously, especially during the monsoon seasons. The aerosol optical properties derived from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) dataset over the southern (Pokhara station in Nepal and EVK2-CNR station in Nepal) and northern (Qomolangma(Mt. Everest) station (QOMS_CAS) in Tibet, China) slopes of the Himalayas are analyzed in this study. The low aerosol optical depth (AOD) at QOMS_CAS and EVK2-CNR indicates they are background sites in Himalaya regions. AOD at Pokhara is much higher than the former two sites with a seasonal variation pattern. This is maybe because Pokhara is more influenced by human activities and India summer monsoon. There are both fine and coarse particle mode aerosol in all three sites. Diurnal variation of AOD and Ångström exponent (AE) has a wide range at all three stations. QOMS_CAS mostly influenced by distant sources reveals AOD has no diurnal cycle in all seasons. Simultaneously, there are smaller particles in the morning and late afternoon, however, particles are larger at noon. The diurnal variation at Pokhara shows a higher AOD value in the morning and late afternoon, and reaches its minimum at noon except JJA (June to August). In all seasons, AOD at EVK2-CNR increases continuously during a day, and reaches maximum at late afternoon due to evolution of mountain-valley flows. AE indicating the particle size has no fixed mode at Pokhara and EVK2-CNR. The aerosols in the northern slope are mostly from distinct regions, and transport from the upper troposphere to atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) probably. The changes of ABL make no apparent effect on aerosol daytime variation. Conversely, the aerosols in the southern slope are mostly from local regions, and maybe spread upwards from the ground gradually. Atmospheric mixing layer height changes with the evolution of the ABL, which diffuses aerosols in the troposphere. Therefore, this process leads aerosol daytime variation.

  16. Aerosol Chemistry over a High Altitude Station at Northeastern Himalayas, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Abhijit; Adak, Anandamay; Singh, Ajay K.; Srivastava, Manoj K.; Ghosh, Sanjay K.; Tiwari, Suresh; Devara, Panuganti C. S.; Raha, Sibaji

    2010-01-01

    Background There is an urgent need for an improved understanding of the sources, distributions and properties of atmospheric aerosol in order to control the atmospheric pollution over northeastern Himalayas where rising anthropogenic interferences from rapid urbanization and development is becoming an increasing concern. Methodology/Principal Findings An extensive aerosol sampling program was conducted in Darjeeling (altitude ?2200 meter above sea level (masl), latitude 27°01?N and longitude 88°15?E), a high altitude station in northeastern Himalayas, during January–December 2005. Samples were collected using a respirable dust sampler and a fine dust sampler simultaneously. Ion chromatograph was used to analyze the water soluble ionic species of aerosol. The average concentrations of fine and coarse mode aerosol were found to be 29.5±20.8 µg m?3 and 19.6±11.1 µg m?3 respectively. Fine mode aerosol dominated during dry seasons and coarse mode aerosol dominated during monsoon. Nitrate existed as NH4NO3 in fine mode aerosol during winter and as NaNO3 in coarse mode aerosol during monsoon. Gas phase photochemical oxidation of SO2 during premonsoon and aqueous phase oxidation during winter and postmonsoon were the major pathways for the formation of SO42? in the atmosphere. Long range transport of dust aerosol from arid regions of western India was observed during premonsoon. The acidity of fine mode aerosol was higher in dry seasons compared to monsoon whereas the coarse mode acidity was higher in monsoon compared to dry seasons. Biomass burning, vehicular emissions and dust particles were the major types of aerosol from local and continental regions whereas sea salt particles were the major types of aerosol from marine source regions. Conclusions/Significance The year-long data presented in this paper provide substantial improvements to the heretofore poor knowledge regarding aerosol chemistry over northeastern Himalayas, and should be useful to policy makers in making control strategies. PMID:20585397

  17. ECOLOGICAL FEATURES AND CONSERVATION OF ARNEBIA EUCHROMA. A CRITICALLY ENDANGERED MEDICINAL PLANT IN WESTERN HIMALAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koushalya Nandan SINGH

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Arnebia euchroma (Royle ex Benth. Johnston, commonly known as ‘Ratanjot’ is an important medicinal plant species and is found distributed in the western Himalaya at elevations ranging between 3200 - 4500 m above sea level. Considering its potent medicinal properties, cultural significance, declining population density and critically endangered status of this taxon, the present investigation was carried out for the assessment of its availability in the natural alpine landscapes of the Spiti cold desert of western Himalaya in Himachal Pradesh (India. We focused our study on its ecological features, population dynamics and performance in natural habitats, so as to formulate conservation plans. In order to achieve the objectives of the present study, a total of 620 areas were set by using a random sampling technique at six different locations where A. euchroma was found distributed naturally. The highest population density was recorded in undulating meadows (5.30 individuals/m2 with a maximum circumference (4.18±1.80cm at an elevation of 4240 m above sea level, with maximum frequency of occurrence (100%. Ecological surveys revealed that distribution was restricted in specific habitats rich in soil nutrients with high pH (8.025 - 8.37. The significance of the role of various ecological variables is explained in detail in the present paper. Habitat specificity, low population, and anthropogenic pressure justify the rarity status of this taxon in the Spiti valley. The authors discussed different implications to develop appropriate strategies for a long-term monitoring and sustainability of A. euchroma in the Spiti cold desert of western Himalaya.

  18. Evolution of fluvial style in the Siwalik Group in the foothills of the Nepal Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Katsuhiro; Ulak, Prakash D.

    1999-05-01

    Middle Miocene to Pleistocene fluvial sediments of the Siwalik (Churia) Group are widely distributed in the southern frontal area of the Himalaya. The succession is about 6 km thick, and was derived from denudation of the Himalayan orogen. The Siwalik Group in Nepal is well exposed in the Surai Khola area (western Nepal), and the Hetauda-Bakiya Khola area (central Nepal). The group is separated into northern and southern belts by the Central Churia Thrust (CCT). Eight facies associations (FA1 to FA8) are recognized in the Siwalik Group in these areas. They are interpreted as the deposits of fine-grained meandering, flood-flow-dominated fine-grained meandering, sandy meandering, deep sandy braided, comparatively shallow sandy braided, anastomosed, gravelly braided, and debris-flow-dominated braided systems, respectively. FA6, FA7 and FA8 occur only in the southern belt. In each area, the sedimentary succession generally coarsens upwards. The accumulation of these facies associations, related to the paleomagnetic time frame, indicates that flooding increased dramatically from about 10.5 to 9.5 Ma, and fluvial style changed from meandering to braided between 9.0 and 6.5 Ma. A gravelly fluvial system prevailed after 3.0 to 2.5 Ma. The evolution of these fluvial styles is intimately related to the uplift of the Himalaya and associated thrust movements, and consequent effects on atmospheric circulation and precipitation. By comparison with the characteristics of the submarine Bengal Fan deposits, it is apparent that an increase in flood flow is strongly influenced by increased precipitation due to onset and intensification of monsoon climate. The sandy braided system was mainly induced by regional tectonic uplift, and the gravelly fluvial system may have been formed due to regional thrust movements along the Himalaya frontal area.

  19. Lack of Abuse Potential in a Highly Selective Dopamine D3 Agonist, PF-592,379, in Drug Self-Administration and Drug Discrimination in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Gregory T.; Butler, Paul; Wayman, Chris; Ratcliffe, Sian; Gupta, Paul; Oberhofer, Geoffrey; Caine, S. Barak

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine D3-preferring agonists are commonly used to treat Parkinson’s disease and restless leg syndrome; however, laboratory animal studies suggest that they may possess a moderate abuse potential. These studies aimed to compare the highly-selective, full D3 agonist PF-592,379 to that of the less selective D3 agonist 7-OH-DPAT, and the indirect dopamine agonist cocaine in drug self-administration and discrimination assays. Although rats readily acquired high rates of fixed ratio (FR)1 resp...

  20. Selection of candidate container materials for the conceptual waste package design for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Halsey, W.G.; McCright, R.D.; Clarke, W.L. Jr. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Gdowski, G.E. [KMI, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-02-01

    Preliminary selection criteria have been developed, peer-reviewed, and applied to a field of 41 candidate materials to choose three alloys for further consideration during the advanced conceptual design phase of waste package development for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These three alloys are titanium grade 12, Alloy C-4, and Alloy 825. These selections are specific to the particular conceptual design outlined in the Site Characterization Plan. Other design concepts that may be considered in the advanced conceptual design phase may favor other materials choices.

  1. Selection of candidate container materials for the conceptual waste package design for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary selection criteria have been developed, peer-reviewed, and applied to a field of 41 candidate materials to choose three alloys for further consideration during the advanced conceptual design phase of waste package development for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These three alloys are titanium grade 12, Alloy C-4, and Alloy 825. These selections are specific to the particular conceptual design outlined in the Site Characterization Plan. Other design concepts that may be considered in the advanced conceptual design phase may favor other materials choices

  2. Selective potentiation of crossed vs. uncrossed inputs from lateral geniculate nucleus to visual cortex by the basal forebrain: potential facilitation of rodent binocularity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagolewicz, Peter J; Dringenberg, Hans C

    2009-10-01

    Cholinergic projections originating in the basal forebrain (BF) play important roles in the heterosynaptic facilitation of synaptic strength in various sensory cortices, including the primary visual cortex (V1). Here, using urethane-anesthetized rats, we find that pairing burst stimulation of the BF with single pulse stimulation of the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) does not consistently increase field postsynaptic potentials (fPSPs) in V1 elicited by ipsilateral LGN stimulation. However, longer latency fPSPs recorded in V1 in response to stimulation of the contralateral LGN, reflecting crossed, polysynaptic inputs, show significant potentiation when paired with preceding BF stimulation. This synaptic enhancement requires relatively short time intervals between paired BF burst and LGN pulse stimulation (40 ms) and is abolished by systemic or local V1 muscarinic receptor blockade (scopolamine), while systemic nicotinic receptor blockade (mecamylamine) is ineffective. Together, these data provide evidence for a differential capacity for cholinergic/muscarinic-dependent plasticity induction among different signals in V1, with inputs reaching V1 from the contralateral LGN exhibiting potentiation in the face of stable strength in ipsilateral LGN-V1 projections. This preferential readiness for potentiation in crossed fiber systems could serve to amplify binocular responses in V1 elicited by synchronized excitation of ipsi- and contralateral LGN neurons. PMID:19631720

  3. The role of microphysical processes on the mesoscale simulation over the complex terrain, the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, R. K.; Gallagher, M. W.; Connolly, P.

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of the four different cloud microphysical schemes (WSM3, WSM6, Morrison double moment and Lin scheme) within the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), as part of simulations of mesoscale weather systems across complex terrain in the Nepalese Himalayas. The Himalayas is characterized by a complex and rugged topography, with altitudes varying e.g. 70m in Southeastern Nepal, to the highest peak of the world, 8850m (Mt. Everest), and which extends from West to East covering many South and Central Asian countries: Afghanistan, Pakistan, China, India, Nepal, Bhutan, and Myanmar. Circulation in such a complex environment is complicated due to obstruction of flows by mountain ranges which in turn have wide ranging effects on cloud and rain formation and distribution. Monsoon rain is intrinsically linked to people’s daily life across the South Asia since more than 80% people depend on agriculture and majority of the agricultural systems are rainfall dependent. Modeling of the key microphysical process in this complex terrain provides insight into the general understanding of the processes and their spatial patterns, however there are many uncertainties in general. These uncertainties are even more pronounced when such models are applied to the complex terrain characteristic of the Himalayas. Numerical experiments are designed using the WRF model, with three nested domains (27, 9 and 3 km grid spacing). The performance of the four categories of microphysical schemes is examined in model experiments for (i) monsoon onset, (ii) monsoon decay and (iii) winter rainfall. The simulated results are compared with limited observed meteorological parameters such as rainfall, temperature, wind speed and wind direction, from ground-based meteorological stations situated within the high resolution (3km x 3km) domain. Results show that a) Simulated rainfall is very sensitive to the chosen microphysical scheme with rainfall spatial and temporal characteristics being very different for each scheme. However, the majority of the WRF simulations showed similar general patterns with monsoon onset and subsequent maturation across the Southeast region of Nepal which then gradually moves Northwest over time before dissipating; b) It was found that strong moist convection caused by near surface convergence of wind is responsible for producing significant nocturnal maximum precipitation during the monsoon period. All the WRF simulations revealed that the continuous southerly moist monsoonal flow interacting with the South slope of the Himalayas and associated diurnal variation of ambient atmospheric state is the major cause of the nocturnal maximum rain generally across the region; c) The WSM6 microphysical scheme performed relatively better than the other schemes.

  4. Size Analysis of the Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene Upper Siwalik Sediments, Northwestern Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahavir Singh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Size analysis of the Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene Upper Siwalik sediments comprising the Pinjor Formation in the type area and adjoining regions reveals that the sediments are bimodal to polymodal in nature, medium to fine grained and are moderately sorted. The inclusive graphic standard deviation and moment standard deviation values suggest the deposition of sediments in shallow to moderately deep fluvial agitated water. The log probability plots reveal that saltation mode is the dominant mode of transportation of detritus. The sediments are continental in character and are derived from crystalline, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks of the Himalaya exposed to the North of the type area Pinjor.

  5. Climate Change in the Eastern Himalayas: Observed Trends and Model Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devkota, L. P.; Zhang, F.

    2010-12-01

    The Eastern Himalayan region covers a broad spectrum of ecological zones in Eastern Nepal, Northeastern India, Bhutan, Tibetan Region and Yunnan of China and Northern Myanmar. The topography varies significantly over the area, and besides the atmospheric circulation, the climate in this region is influenced by a variety of physiographic features. The region is dominated by a monsoon climate from June to September and by westerly disturbances in the remaining months. Furthermore, the region is the source of many rivers which are the lifeline of downstream provinces and countries. The welfare of approximately 400 million people living downstream is inextricably linked with the natural resources of the Eastern Himalayas. Mountain biodiversity and wetlands are most likely to be affected by climate change. Glacial lake outburst floods, flash floods and landslides are becoming more frequent at the cost of lives, property, and natural resources and these are likely to be exacerbated by climate change. This paper deals with analyses of contemporary trends in key climatic variables. The Climate research Unit’s Time Series (CRU TS 2.0) data were used to analyze temperature and precipitation trends. Further, the study investigates likely future climate scenarios (2071-2100) for A2 and B2 SERS emission scenarios using the results of Region al Climate Model (RCM). The performance of RCM in simulating the climate over the Eastern Himalayas is also assessed. PRECIS (Providing Regional Climate for Impact studies) model simulated data were used for these analyses. The results of the analyses will be useful for impact assessment studies and for planning adaptation and mitigation measures. The analyses show that the major parts of the Eastern Himalayas are undergoing warming trends. Yunnan Province of China, part of the Kachin State of Myanmar, and the northeastern states of India and Assam show relatively less or no warming. However, eastern Nepal and eastern Tibet show relatively greater warming trends of more than 0.02°C per year. Such warming is found highest in winter and lowest in summer. Unlike temperature, precipitation does not demonstrate any consistent trends. Similarly, area-averaged B2 (A2) scenarios of PRECIS over Eastern Himalayas projected increases of 3.5°C (5.3°C), 2.8°C (3.8°C) and 2.9°C (4.3°C) respectively for winter, summer and annual mean temperatures by the 2080s. Likewise, B2 (A2) scenarios of PRECIS projected an increase of summer and annual precipitation by 17% (28%) and 13% (34%) of current precipitation, respectively by the 2080s.

  6. Phenology of plants in relation to ambient environment in a subalpine forest of Uttarakhand, western Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Vinod K; Kuniyal, Chandra P; Bhandari, Arvind K; Nautiyal, Bhagwati P; Prasad, P

    2014-07-01

    Observations on phenology of some representative trees, shrubs, under-shrubs and herbs in a subalpine forest of Uttarakhand, western Himalaya were recorded. With the commencement of favorable growth season in April, occurrence of leaf fall was indicatory growth phenomenon in Quercus semecarpifolia, Q. floribunda and Abies spectabilis. However, active vegetative growth in herbaceous species starts onward April and fruit maturation and seed dehiscence are completed from mid of September to October. In general, vegetative growth and reproductive stages in majority of the studied species seems to be dependent on adequate moisture content and also flowering and fruiting in subalpine plants correlate ambient temperature. PMID:25049468

  7. Joint spatial variability of aerosol, clouds and rainfall in the Himalayas from satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Shrestha

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Satellite-based precipitation, Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD, Cloud Optical Depth (COD, and Aerosol Index (AI data were used to characterize the linkages among landform and the intra-annual variability of aerosols, cloudiness and rainfall in the Himalayas using empirical orthogonal function (EOF analysis. The first modes of AOD and AI show the presence of two branches of dust aerosol: over the Indus river basin and the Thar desert with a sharp west-east gradient parallel to the southern slopes of the Himalayas – the Southern Branch; and the second against the slopes of the Tian Shan and over the Takla Makan desert in the Tibetan Plateau-the Northern branch. The third EOF mode of AOD accounts for about 7% of overall variance of AOD. It is attached to the foothills of the Himalayas east of the Aravalli range peaking in April-May-June followed by a sharp decrease in July during the first active phase of the monsoon. The first and second EOF modes of COD and precipitation show consistent patterns against the central and eastern Himalayas and along the ocean-land boundaries in western India and the Bay of Bengal. The break in cloudiness and rainfall between the winter and the monsoon seasons is captured well by the second EOF mode of COD and rainfall concurrent with the aerosol build up mode (April–May over the region depicted by the third mode of AOD. The results show that the Aravalli range separates the two different modes of aerosol variability over northern India with dust aerosols to the west and polluted mixed aerosols to the east consistent with its role in regional circulation and precipitations patterns as per Barros et al. (2004 and Chiao and Barros (2007. SVD analysis between rainfall, COD and AOD showed a pattern of aerosol loading (resembling EOF3 of MODIS AOD extending from 80° E~90° E that peaks during the winter and pre-monsoon seasons and decays abruptly during the monsoon: the regions of aerosol buildup during the pre-monsoon season and the areas of high rainfall/cloudiness during the monsoon are collocated and have opposite signs suggesting aerosol-cloud-rainfall interaction. It is proposed that the third EOF of AOD maps the area where aerosol-cloud-rainfall interactions play an important role in the regional hydro-climatology.

  8. SERVIR Support to NSDI Efforts in Mesoamerica, Africa and the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    SERVIR is a joint effort between NASA, USAID to build or improve capacities in developing regions to help adaptation to climate change by taking advantage of Earth Observation data for decision making. The project began in 2004, in Mesoamerica, partnering with the Central American Commission for Environment and Development(CCAD), the World Bank and CATHALAC. CATHALAC, located in Panama, serves as the regional hub for Mesoamerica since 2005. Two additional regional hubs have been established (in Easters & Western Africa - at RCMRD, Kenya, and The Himalayas- at ICIMOD, Nepal), and two more regional hubs are soon to be launched.

  9. Relation between soil-gas radon variation and different lithotectonic units, Garhwal Himalaya, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of radon concentration and uranium content in soil and rocks were made in the regions of the Alaknanda and Bhagirathi valleys in the Garhwal Himalaya by using radon emanometry and X-ray fluorescence method, respectively. The data were collected from different lithotectonic units along and across the various regional thrust planes, faults, shears, etc. The observed values were then correlated with the geological formations and structure of the area. Radon concentrations were found to be controlled by lithology, structure and associated uranium mineralization. A positive linear correlation was also observed between soil-gas radon and in situ uranium in the area

  10. Origin and radiative forcing of black carbon transported to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau

    OpenAIRE

    M. Kopacz; D. L. Mauzerall; Wang, J.; E. M. Leibensperger; Henze, D. K.; Singh, K.

    2010-01-01

    The remote and high elevation regions of central Asia are influenced by black carbon (BC) emissions from a variety of locations. BC deposition contributes to melting of glaciers and questions exist, of both scientific and policy interest, as to the origin of the BC reaching the glaciers. We use the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem model to identify the location from which BC arriving at a variety of locations in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau originates. We then calculate its direct and snow-albed...

  11. Similarities and differences of aerosol optical properties between southern and northern slopes of the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C.; Ma, Y. M.; Yang, K.; Zhu, Z. K.; Wang, J. M.; Amatya, P. M.; Zhao, L.

    2013-08-01

    The Himalayas is located at the southern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, and it acts as a natural barrier for the transport of atmospheric aerosols, e.g. from the polluted regions of South Asia to the main body of the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we investigate the seasonal and diurnal variations of aerosol optical properties measured at the three Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites over the southern (Pokhara station and EVK2-CNR station in Nepal) and northern (Qomolangma (Mt. Everest) station for Atmospheric and Environmental Observation and Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (QOMS_CAS) in Tibet, China) slopes of the Himalayas. While observations at QOMS_CAS and EVK2-CNR can generally be representative of a remote background atmosphere, Pokhara is an urban site with much higher aerosol load due to the influence of local anthropogenic activities. The annual mean of aerosol optical depth (AOD) during the investigated period was 0.06 at QOMS_CAS, 0.04 at EVK2-CNR and 0.51 at Pokhara, respectively. Seasonal variations of aerosols are profoundly affected by large scale atmospheric circulation. Vegetation fires, peaking during April in the Himalayan region and northern India, contribute to a growing fine mode AOD at 500 nm at the three stations. Dust transported to these sites results in an increase of coarse mode AOD during the monsoon season at the three sites. Meanwhile, coarse mode AOD at EVK2-CNR is higher than QOMS_CAS from July to September, indicating the Himalayas blocks the coarse particles carried by the southwest winds. The precipitation scavenging effect is obvious at Pokhara, which can significantly reduce the aerosol load during the monsoon season. Unlike the seasonal variations, diurnal variations are mainly influenced by meso-scale systems and local topography. In general, precipitation can lead to a decrease of the aerosol load and the average particle size at each station. AOD changes in a short time with the emission rate near the emission source at Pokhara, while does not at the other two stations in remote regions. AOD increases during daytime due to the valley winds at EVK2-CNR, while this diurnal variation of AOD is absent at the other two stations. The surface heating influences the local convection, which further controls the vertical aerosol exchange and the diffusion rate of pollutions to the surrounding areas. The Himalayas blocks most of the coarse particles across the mountains. Fine and coarse mode particles are mixed to make atmospheric composition more complex on the southern slope in spring, which leads to the greater inter-annual difference in diurnal cycles of Ångström exponent (AE) at EVK2-CNR than that at QOMS_CAS.

  12. Identification and conservation of important plant areas (IPAS) for the distribution of medicinal, aromatic and economic plants in the Hindukush-Himalaya mountain range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study on the identification of Important Plant Areas (IPAs) was conducted in seven valleys of Hindukush-Himalayas mountainous ranges of Pakistan during 2005 and 2006. The principal aim of the study is to search new avenues for the conservation and sustainable utilization of threatened medicinal and economic plants and their habitats in IPAs. IPAs are sites of tremendous ecological and economic values that still exist in the world and are being managed on specific sites to study wild plant diversity. Several of such plants are used in the traditional medicines that are being used since the dawn of history to provide basic healthcare to people the world over. According to WHO, 80% of the human population of Africa still use medicinal plants in their primary healthcare. The popularity of herbal drugs is on the constant rise in many developed countries of the world, while in developing countries like Pakistan; medicinal plants contribute significantly to the income sources of people living in remote areas. Keeping such importance in view, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched a global vision in the form of 'Global Strategy for Plant Conservation' having various targets and mile stones. Target 5 of the strategy required for the global integration of the herbal medicine in health care system with proper identification of medicinal plants and the conservation of sites where such plants are found naturally, as its basic elements. In order to contribute to the specifieds. In order to contribute to the specified target, WHO advised the relevant institutions to develop research plans and conservation programmes that are focused on the Global strategy in general and target 5 in specific. While complementing the appeal and contributing to its vision, a study was conducted in various eco-systems of the Pakistan's Hindukush-Himalayas region, identifying Important Plant Areas (IPAs) for their subsequent conservation and uses for scientific purposes. Site selection for the study was based on: 1). Exceptional vegetation richness for the representative bio-geographic zone; 2). Presence of naturally occurring medicinal herbs with species of global or regional concern, and (3). Threatened habitats that are supporting plant species of medicinal and economic values. Apart from various values of the selected sites such as their scientific and economic importance, the selected sites had a treasure of indigenous knowledge related to the wise uses and conservation of medicinal plants. The study also focused on exploring the complex natural interactions between plants and other organisms; their dependence under various environmental parameters; traditional knowledge of the local inhabitants; and the significance of the landscape to Conserve such plants on long-term basis. (author)

  13. Spatial variation of radon and helium in soil gas vis-à-vis geology of area, NW Himalayas, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Sandeep; Singh Bajwa, Bikramjit; Singh, Surinder; Kumar, Arvind; Yang, Tsanya Frank; Dhar, Sunil; Walia, Vivek

    2010-05-01

    In an effort to quantify the geological/lithological control on radon, helium soil gas potential and appraise the use of soil gas technique as a geological mapping tool, soil gas measurements were made, in some parts of Himachal Himalayas of NW Himalayan range, using soil gas grab sampling technique. More than 360 soil gas samples were collected from four different geological/lithologic rock units of the area under consideration. The collected soil gas samples were analyzed for radon and helium using RTM-2100 (SARAD) and Helium leak detector (ALCATEL) respectively. The observed values were then correlated with the geology/lithology of the study area. The study area is broadly divided into four different units on the basis of geology/lithology i.e. (A) Upper Shiwaliks (B) Middle & Lower Shiwaliks (C) Lesser Himalayan rocks (D) Higher Himalayan rocks. Significant differences in the soil gas concentrations among the geologic units were observed, where Lesser Himalayan rocks showing maximum concentrations of both radon (254 KBq/m3) and helium (5.46 ppm). Lesser Himalayan zone lies mainly between two major thrusts MBT and MCT running along the Himalayan trend, which still are tectonically active. It can be concluded from the present study that soil gases (radon and helium) can be used as a productive tool for geological mapping. These findings may have very important connation for health risk assessment of the area. It has been shown that soil gas radon found in soils overlying basement rocks are the main source for indoor radon concentrations since the radioactive isotopes attach rapidly to atmospheric aerosols and enter into human body thus constitute significant hazard to human health.

  14. Role of snow-albedo feedback in higher elevation warming over the Himalayas, Tibetan Plateau and Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatak, Debjani; Sinsky, Eric; Miller, James

    2014-11-01

    Recent literature has shown that surface air temperature (SAT) in many high elevation regions, including the Tibetan Plateau (TP) has been increasing at a faster rate than at their lower elevation counterparts. We investigate projected future changes in SAT in the TP and the surrounding high elevation regions (between 25°–45°N and 50°–120°E) and the potential role snow-albedo feedback may have on amplified warming there. We use the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) model which have different spatial resolutions as well as different climate sensitivities. We find that surface albedo (SA) decreases more at higher elevations than at lower elevations owing to the retreat of the 0 °C isotherm and the associated retreat of the snow line. Both models clearly show amplified warming over Central Asian mountains, the Himalayas, the Karakoram and Pamir during spring. Our results suggest that the decrease of SA and the associated increase in absorbed solar radiation (ASR) owing to the loss of snowpack play a significant role in triggering the warming over the same regions. Decreasing cloud cover in spring also contributes to an increase in ASR over some of these regions in CCSM4. Although the increase in SAT and the decrease in SA are greater in GFDL than CCSM4, the sensitivity of SAT to changes in SA is the same at the highest elevations for both models during spring; this suggests that the climate sensitivity between models may differ, in part, owing to their corresponding treatments of snow cover, snow melt and the associated snow/albedo feedback.

  15. Testing the channel flow model in the eastern Himalaya, eastern Bhutan: insights from preliminary thermobarometric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustsson, K. S.; Gordon, S. M.; Long, S. P.; Seward, G. G.; Zeiger, K. J.; Penfold, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    The study of modern continent-continent collision provides insight into the links between the upper and lower crust, including the processes involved in the deep burial and exhumation of crustal rocks. Rocks of the Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS), which were buried to mid- to lower-crustal levels, are exposed throughout the Himalayan orogenic belt, between the top-to-the-south Main Central Thrust and the top-to-the-north South Tibetan Detachment. The GHS consists of orthogneiss, metasedimentary rocks, and large-scale (>100 km2) leucogranite bodies. Within the Bhutan Himalaya, the top-to-the south Kakhtang Thrust (KT) separates the GHS into upper (GHSu) and lower (GHSl) structural levels. Previous studies have mapped the location of the KT by the crossing of the second sillimanite isograd and by a significant increase in the volume of crystallized melt. Previous work in Bhutan has mainly focused on the GHSl, whereas the extrusion of the higher-temperature GHSu has not been well studied, and there is little quantitative data describing the P-T history of these rocks. In order to test between different end-member models for the exhumation of the GHSu, including channel flow and critical taper, new thermobarometry data was collected from a transect of samples across the KT. The channel-flow model predicts that the GHSu would have achieved peak upper-amphibolite facies P-T conditions followed by retrograde, near-isothermal decompression. In contrast, the critical-taper model predicts near-isobaric cooling of the GHSu. The electron microprobe at UC-Santa Barbara was used to measure the composition of and test for zoning within garnet, plagioclase, and biotite. Garnets in all four samples are typically subhedral to euhedral and show relatively weak zonation and flat Mg, Fe, and Ca profiles. A few garnets do exhibit bell-shaped Mn and Ca profiles. In addition, a ca. 100 ?m rim high in Mg, Ca and Mn but low in Fe is present on all garnets and is indicative of diffusional processes. Using the compositions from zoned garnet, biotite, and plagioclase, THERMOCALC P-T calculations, the garnet-biotite exchange thermometer and GASP barometer, we have obtained preliminary P-T conditions. Two kyanite schists below the KT yield similar P-T estimates of ~5.0-8.5 kbar and ~550-800°C for core and rim components. A sillimanite schist above the KT reveals potentially much higher pressures (up to ~23 kbar) at ~550-850°C for cores and ~700-800°C for rims. However, the plagioclase appears heterogeneous, and more analyses are needed to verify the pressures attained by this sample. In contrast, orthogneiss above the KT reveals lower temperature estimates of ~500-650°C for cores and rims. These preliminary P-T estimates constrain the peak P-T conditions across the KT and possibly reveal much higher pressures for the GHSu. Additional thermobarometry data and analyses of possible cordierite replacing garnet will be used to further constrain the P-T history of GHS rocks in Bhutan.

  16. Object Therapy: A Student-selected Component Exploring the Potential of Museum Object Handling as an Enrichment Activity for Patients in Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Helen Jane Chatterjee; Guy Noble

    2009-01-01

    This study involved innovative research in a novel field, namely ‘object therapy’, within the framework of astudent-selected component (SSC) undertaken by second year, Phase 1 Medicine students at University College London.The project had a series of intrinsic aims: to provide medical students with communication skills, methods of assessingwellbeing and research techniques and to evaluate the potential of museum object handling as an enrichment activity inhospitals. Five medical students ...

  17. Differences in the neural mechanisms of selective attention in children from different socioeconomic backgrounds: An event-related brain potential study

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Courtney; Lauinger, Brittni; Neville, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Previous research indicates that children from lower socioeconomic backgrounds show deficits in aspects of attention, including a reduced ability to filter irrelevant information and to suppress prepotent responses. However, less is known about the neural mechanisms of group differences in attention, which could reveal the stages of processing at which attention deficits arise. The present study examined this question using an event-related brain potential (ERP) measure of selective auditory ...

  18. Toxin-based in-vitro selection and its potential application to date palm for resistance to the bayoud Fusarium wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hadrami, Abdelbasset; El Idrissi-Tourane, Abdelmalek; El Hassni, Majida; Daayf, Fouad; El Hadrami, Ismaïl

    2005-08-01

    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is qualified as a 'tree' of great ecological and socio-economical importance in desert oases. Unfortunately, it is being decimated, especially in Morocco and Algeria, by a fusariosis wilt called bayoud and caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (Fao). Controlling this disease requires the implementation of an integrated management program. Breeding for resistance is one of the most promising component strategies of this program. Few naturally resistant cultivars with a mediocre fruit quality (dates) are known. Conventional and non-conventional methods are under development and have to use the simplest and easiest methods to screen for resistant individuals. The use of pathogen toxins as selective agents at the tissue culture step might be a source of variability that can lead to the selection of individuals with suitable levels of resistance to the toxin and/or to the pathogen among the genetic material available. Foa produces toxins such as fusaric, succinic, 3-phenyl lactic acids and their derivatives, marasmins and peptidic toxins. These toxins can be used bulked or separately as selective agents. The aim of this contribution was to give a brief overview on toxins and their use as a mean to select resistant lines and to initiate a discussion about the potential use of this approach for the date palm-Foa pathosystem. This review does not pretend to be comprehensive or exhaustive and was prepared mainly to highlight the potential use of Foa toxins for selecting date palm individuals with a suitable resistance level to bayoud using toxin-based selective media. PMID:16125651

  19. Chemical composition and biological effects of Artemisia maritima and Artemisia nilagirica essential oils from wild plant of Western Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemisia species possess pharmacological properties that are used for medical purposes worldwide. In this paper, the essential oils from the aerial parts of A. nilagirica and A. maritima from the western Indian Himalaya region are described. The main compounds analyzed by simultaneous GC/MS and GC/...

  20. Mapping regional distribution of land surface heat fluxes on the southern side of the central Himalayas using TESEBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatya, Pukar Man; Ma, Yaoming; Han, Cunbo; Wang, Binbin; Devkota, Lochan Prasad

    2015-04-01

    Recent scientific studies based on large-scale climate model have highlighted the importance of the heat release from the southern side of the Himalayas for the development of South Asian Summer Monsoon. However, studies related to land surface heat fluxes are nonexistent on the southern side. In this study, we test the feasibility of deriving land surface heat fluxes on the central Himalayan region using Topographically Enhanced Surface Energy Balance System (TESEBS), which is forced by MODIS land surface products and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) meteorological data. The model results were validated using the first eddy covariance measurement system established in the southern side of the central Himalayas. The derived land surface heat fluxes were close to the field measurements with mean bias of 15.97, -19.89, 8.79, and -20.39 W m-2 for net radiation flux, ground heat flux, sensible heat flux, and latent heat flux respectively. Land surface heat fluxes show strong contrast in pre monsoon, summer monsoon, post monsoon, and winter seasons and different land surface states among the different physiographic regions. In the central Himalayas, the latent heat flux is the dominant consumer of available energy for all physiographic regions except for the High Himalaya where the sensible heat flux is high.

  1. Timing of Late Quaternary glaciations in the Himalayas of northern Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Benedict W.; Owen, Lewis A.; Rhodes, Edward J.

    2000-03-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence dating of Late Quaternary glaciogenic sediments was undertaken in critical areas of the Himalayas of northern Pakistan in order to examine the timing of glaciation. The dates demonstrate that several glaciations occurred during the last glacial cycle. In Swat, the Grabral 2 Stade and the Kalam I Stade were dated at ca. 77 ka and ca. 38 ka, respectively. The error on the former date is large and it is conceivable that the moraines may have formed during the early part of Oxygen Isotope Stage 3 rather than during Oxygen Isotope Stage 4. The Kalam I Stade, however, clearly represents a glaciation during Oxygen Isotope Stage 3. The oldest moraines and those at the lowest altitude in the Indus valley at Shatial have an age of ca. 60 ka. These also relate to a major glacial advance during Oxygen Isotope Stage 3. A younger series of moraines, the Jalipur Tillite, and glaciofluvial sands at Liachar in the Indus valley, and moraines at Rampur-Tarshing have ages of ca. 27 ka, ca. 21-23 ka and ca. 15 ka, respectively. These dates show that glaciers also occupied parts of the Indus valley during Oxygen Isotope Stage 2. These dates and the morphostratigraphy show that glaciation in the Pakistani Himalaya was more extensive during the early part of the last glacial cycle and that the local last glacial maximum in Pakistan was asynchronous with the maximum extent of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets.

  2. Observed linear trend in few surface weather elements over the Northwest Himalayas (NWH) during winter season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dan; Sharma, Vikas; Juyal, Vikas

    2015-04-01

    Linear trends in few surface weather variables such as air temperatures (maximum temperature, minimum temperature), snow and rainy days, snowfall and rainfall amounts, rainfall contribution to seasonal total precipitation amount, seasonal snow cover depth and snow cover days (duration) are examined from winter-time observations at 11 stations located over the Northwest Himalayas (NWH). This study indicates that snowfall tends to show a decline in this region, while the rainfall tends to increase during the winter months. Seasonal snow cover depth and seasonal snow cover days also tend to show a decline over the NWH. Decrease in seasonal snow cover depth and duration have reduced the winter period in terms of availability of seasonal snow cover over the NWH during the last 2-3 decades. Other surface weather variables also exhibited significant temporal changes in recent decades. Observed trends in temperature and precipitation over the NWH in recent decades are also supported by long data series of temperature over the western Himalayas (WH), north mountain India (NMI) rainfall data and reanalysis products.

  3. Analysis of climatic variability and snow cover in the Kaligandaki River Basin, Himalaya, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Bhogendra; Babel, Mukand S.; Tripathi, Nitin K.

    2014-05-01

    Various remote sensing products and observed data sets were used to determine spatial and temporal trends in climatic variables and their relationship with snow cover area in the higher Himalayas, Nepal. The remote sensing techniques can detect spatial as well as temporal patterns in temperature and snow cover across the inaccessible terrain. Non-parametric methods (i.e. the Mann-Kendall method and Sen's slope) were used to identify trends in climatic variables. Increasing trends in temperature, approximately by 0.03 to 0.08 °C year-1 based on the station data in different season, and mixed trends in seasonal precipitation were found for the studied basin. The accuracy of MOD10A1 snow cover and fractional snow cover in the Kaligandaki Basin was assessed with respect to the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer-based snow cover area. With increasing trends in winter and spring temperature and decreasing trends in precipitation, a significant negative trend in snow cover area during these seasons was also identified. Results indicate the possible impact of global warming on precipitation and snow cover area in the higher mountainous area. Similar investigations in other regions of Himalayas are warranted to further strengthen the understanding of impact of climate change on hydrology and water resources and extreme hydrologic events.

  4. Longest time series of glacier mass changes in the Himalaya based on stereo imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bolch

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mass loss of Himalayan glaciers has wide-ranging consequences such as declining water resources, sea level rise and an increasing risk of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs. The assessment of the regional and global impact of glacier changes in the Himalaya is, however, hampered by a lack of mass balance data for most of the range. Multi-temporal digital terrain models (DTMs allow glacier mass balance to be calculated since the availability of stereo imagery. Here we present the longest time series of mass changes in the Himalaya and show the high value of early stereo spy imagery such as Corona (years 1962 and 1970 aerial images and recent high resolution satellite data (Cartosat-1 to calculate a time series of glacier changes south of Mt. Everest, Nepal. We reveal that the glaciers are significantly losing mass with an increasing rate since at least ~1970, despite thick debris cover. The specific mass loss is 0.32 ± 0.08 m w.e. a?1, however, not higher than the global average. The spatial patterns of surface lowering can be explained by variations in debris-cover thickness, glacier velocity, and ice melt due to exposed ice cliffs and ponds.

  5. Changes in Imja Lake and Karda Lake in the Everest Region of Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Chen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Himalaya is a region sensitive to climate change. Changes in the glacial regime are one indicator of global climate changes. There are several studies focusing on analysis of temporal changes of these glacial lakes in the Himalaya region. However, the researches on addressing these trends in relation with surrounding topographical conditions are quite limited. In this study, we analyzed spatio-temporal changes in Imja Lake, located on the southern slope, and Karda Lake, located on the northern slope of the Mt. Everest region, in 1976, 1992, 2000, and 2008. Moreover, we examined whether the topographic conditions differ between the two slopes. Landsat and ASTER GDEM (advanced space borne thermal emission and reflection radiometer, global digital elevation model data were used to identify boundaries of target glacial lakes and to calculate three indices of growth rate compared to year of 1976 (%, GRa, growth rate compared to preceding year (%, GRb, and growth speed (m2/year, GS of the two lakes. The topographic conditions in circular buffer zones from the centroid of the two lakes were analyzed. Although the area of two lakes demonstrated linear increase from 1976 to 2008, growth rate compared to year of 1976 (GRa differed significantly (Kruskal-Wallis test, p squared test for independence on m × n contingency table between 1976, 1992, 2000, and 2008 on growth speed (GS. The two slopes differed in terms of three topographical variables: altitude, aspect, and angle of inclination (Kruskal-Wallis test, p

  6. Radon and thoron monitoring in the environment of Kumaun Himalayas: survey and outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring of radon, thoron and their daughter products was carried out in houses of Kumaun Himalaya, India using LR-115 plastic track detectors. The measurements were made in residential houses from June 1999 to May 2000 at a height of 2.5 m from ground level using a twin chamber radon dosimeter. The twin chamber radon dosimeter can record the values of radon, thoron and their decay products separately. Maximum and minimum indoor radon and thoron concentrations were evaluated and activity concentrations of radon and thoron daughters were estimated. The resulting dose rates due to radon, thoron and their decay products varied from 0.04 to 1.89 ?Sv/h. A detailed analysis of the distribution of radon, thoron and their decay products inside the house is also reported. The observed dose rates inside the houses of Kumaun Himalaya were found to be lower than the ICRP recommended value of 200 Bq/m3 and thus are within safe limits

  7. Diet of Threatened Pheasant Species in Himalayas, India – A Faecal Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shah Hussain

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine diet composition of threatened pheasant species i.e. Satyr Tragopan Tragopan satyra, Himalayan Monal Lophophorus impejanus, Kaleej Lophura leucomelana and Koklass Pucrasia macrolopha in their native forest which was never studied earlier. A study was conducted in the Kumaon region of western Himalaya for two years by collecting dropping material. Faeces were identified through direct sighting of defecating species. The diet items of each pheasant species mainly comprised plant materials followed by invertebrates and grit. A significant difference was observed in consuming food items by all pheasant species. Monal emerged as a specialist feeder on plants which were not eaten by other species. The Satyr and Koklass were more similar in terms of diet composition in both seasons while Kaleej and Monal were least similar, only invertebrates and grit were common in the diet of these species. No significant difference was observed in diet composition in different seasons of all pheasant species. The results expected to provide valuable information for the management of these pheasants in Himalayas.

  8. K-Ar geochronology of the Kulu-Mandi Belt, NW Himalaya, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The K-Ar dates of micas and whole rock amphibolites from the Kulu-Mandi Belt define two distinct groups, (1) 20 to 75 m. y., and (2) 277 to 366 m. y. Our data together with the other available K-Ar and Rb-Sr mineral and whole rock data, enable us to confirm three major events in the Himalaya, the Late Precambrian-Cambrian Assyntian (Cadomian) Orogenic cycle, the Late Palaeozoic Hercynian Magmatic-Epeirogenic cycle and the Late Cretaceous-Teritiary Himalayan Orogenic cycle. The mineral dating is significant for delineating different phases of the last i.e. the Himalayan Oregeny. The radiometric data, so far to hand, indicate that the main activity of the young, Himalayan metamorphism was probably around 50 to 70 m. y. (Late Cretaceous-Eocene) and this was followed by a major uplift during the 10 to 25 m. y. (Mid. Miocene) time, which was responsible for thrusting and formation of nappe structures in the Himalaya. (orig.)

  9. Aerosol Characteristics at a High Altitude Location in Central Himalayas: Optical Properties and Radiative Forcing

    CERN Document Server

    Pant, P; Dumka, U C; Sagar, R; Satheesh, S K; Moorthy, K K; Sagar, Ram

    2006-01-01

    Collocated measurements of the mass concentrations of aerosol black carbon (BC) and composite aerosols near the surface were carried out along with spectral aerosol optical depths (AODs) from a high altitude station, Manora Peak in Central Himalayas, during a comprehensive aerosol field campaign in December 2004. Despite being a pristine location in the Shivalik Ranges of Central Himalayas, and having a monthly mean AOD (at 500 nm) of 0.059 $\\pm$ 0.033 (typical to this site), total suspended particulate (TSP) concentration was in the range 15 - 40 micro g m^(-3) (mean value 27.1 $\\pm$ 8.3 micro g m^(-3)). Interestingly, aerosol BC had a mean concentration of 1.36 $\\pm$ 0.99 micro g m^(-3), contributed to ~5.0 $\\pm$ 1.3 % to the composite aerosol mass. This large abundance of BC is found to have linkages to the human activities in the adjoining valley and to the boundary layer dynamics. Consequently, the inferred single scattering albedo lies in the range of 0.87 to 0.94 (mean value 0.90 $\\pm$ 0.03), indicatin...

  10. A CERN flag is set to wave up in the Himalayas

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberto Cantoni

    2010-01-01

    On 18 October, Hubert Reymond, from the Industrial Controls and Engineering group of the EN Department, will be leaving to Nepal with a CERN flag in his backpack. He will place it at the highest point of his trek across the Annapurna mountains in the Himalayas, Thorong La pass, at 5,416 m above sea level.   A view of the Annapurna mountains (source: www.flickr.com/minutesalone) “Is there any official CERN flag I can carry with me during my trek through Nepal?” Some days ago, the Press Office was confronted with this unusual (but see box) question from Hubert Reymond. From 18 October to 10 November, Reymond, who works as an industrial computing engineer in the EN Department, will be trekking across the 55 km-long Annapurna massif in the Himalayas, whose highest point lies at 8,091 m (making it the 10th-highest summit in the world). The area is well-known to trekkers from around the world, as it includes several world-class circuits, including the Annapurna circuit which Reym...

  11. AN ANALYSIS OF MARKET POTENTIAL ANALYSIS TOWARDS SMALL CAR SEGMENT WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO SELECTED CITIES IN TAMILNADU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.SUBRAMANIAN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years small segment cars became more popular due to its low price and its attractive features. In Indian market the small segment cars have more welcome from all the parts of India. This research was carried to found the market potential to the small car industry in India For this study the structured questionnaire was carried and the study concluded with the 600 respondents. It shows that market potential for the small car segment in Indian consumers overwhelm and Indian customers are the potential buyers to the small car segment.

  12. Divergence with gene flow in a population of thermophilic bacteria: a potential role for spatially varying selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Christopher A; Koniges, Gregory J; Miller, Scott R

    2014-07-01

    A fundamental goal of evolutionary biology is to understand how ecological diversity arises and is maintained in natural populations. We have investigated the contributions of gene flow and divergent selection to the distribution of genetic variation in an ecologically differentiated population of a thermophilic cyanobacterium (Mastigocladus laminosus) found along the temperature gradient of a nitrogen-limited stream in Yellowstone National Park. For most loci sampled, gene flow appears to be sufficient to prevent substantial genetic divergence. However, one locus (rfbC) exhibited a comparatively low migration rate as well as other signatures expected for a gene experiencing spatially varying selection, including an excess of common variants, an elevated level of polymorphism and extreme genetic differentiation along the gradient. rfbC is part of an expression island involved in the production of the polysaccharide component of the protective envelope of the heterocyst, the specialized nitrogen-fixing cell of these bacteria. SNP genotyping in the vicinity of rfbC revealed a ~5-kbp region including a gene content polymorphism that is tightly associated with environmental temperature and therefore likely contains the target of selection. Two genes have been deleted both in the predominant haplotype found in the downstream region of White Creek and in strains from other Yellowstone populations of M. laminosus, which may result in the production of heterocysts with different envelope properties. This study implicates spatially varying selection in the maintenance of variation related to thermal performance at White Creek despite on-going or recent gene flow. PMID:24863904

  13. Modelling bed overdeepenings for the glaciers in the Himalaya-Karakoram region using GlabTop2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsbauer, Andreas; Frey, Holger; Haeberli, Wilfried; Machguth, Horst

    2014-05-01

    Calculating ice thickness distribution and bed topographies for large glacier samples is an essential task to estimate stored ice volumes with their potential for sea level rise and to model possible future retreat scenarios of glacier evolution under conditions of continued warming. Modelling such bed topographies to become exposed in the near future by continued glacier retreat also enables modelling of future landscapes with their landforms, processes and interactions. As the erosive power of glaciers can form numerous and sometimes large closed topographic bed depressions, many overdeepenings are commonly found in formerly glaciated mountain ranges. Where such overdeepend parts are becoming exposed and filled with water rather than sediments new lakes can come into existence. GlabTop (Glacier bed Topography) has been used to model ice thickness distribution and bed topographies of large glacier samples. It is an ice dynamical approach, based on the assumption of perfect plasticity of ice, which relates glacier thickness to its local surface slope via the basal shear stress estimated for each glacier based on an empirical relation between shear stress and elevation range as a governing factor of mass turnover. From comparison with radio-echo soundings in the Swiss Alps, the uncertainty range of local ice thicknesses calculated with GlabTop is estimated at about ±30%. The spatial variability of ice depths, i.e. the glacier-bed topography, primarily depends on surface slope as provided by DEMs and is quite robust. For the entire Swiss Alps, GlabTop revealed a considerable number (more than 500) of (partly large) overdeepenings in the modelled glacier beds with a total area of about 50-60 km2 and a total volume of about 1.5-2.5 km3. A number of lakes have formed in such modelled overdeepenings during the past years and decades. To calculate bed topographies with their overdeepenings for the 28'100 glaciers of the Himalaya-Karakoram region the GlabTop-approach was modified and named GlabTop2. While the original approach relied on so called glacier branch lines that had to be digitized manually, GlabTop2 is fully automated and requires only a DEM and glacier outlines as an input. The result is the same: ice thickness distribution and bed topographies, which can be used for volume calculations and for model simulations concerning glacier retreat scenarios and future landscapes. According to the model output there are about 15'000 overdeepenings covering an area of about 2000 km2 and having a total volume of about 120 km3 (3-4% of the now existing glacier volume) in the Himalaya-Karakoram region. In a statistical analysis concerning the morphological characteristics of these overdeepenings, mean and maximum values of the parameters surface area, length, width, depth, volume, frontal/adverse slope and their statistical interrelations are determined with their corresponding uncertainty ranges and compared with a corresponding analysis for the Swiss Alps. While the modelled overdeepenings based on model runs with different data input differ in shape, the locations of the overdeepenings are robust and the values for the extracted parameters are comparable.

  14. Transport of sediments in Himalaya-Karakorum and its influence on hydropower plants; Sedimenttransportprozesse im Himalaya-Karakorum und ihre Bedeutung fuer Wasserkraftanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palt, S.M.

    2001-07-01

    In the present study the sediment transport processes in alpine mountain areas and their impact on hydropower development projects are investigated. The aim of the present work is to contribute to the understanding of the transport process system, which is characterized by high magnitude-low frequency - events, to ensure an appropriate layout of high head hydropower projects in mountain regions. The sediment transport in large areas in the macro scale is triggered by natural hazards, such as earthquakes, rock slides, earth movements, debris flows, glacial lake outbursts and floods. The basic principle of complex transport processes in this scale is described and explained on the example of the Himalaya-Karakorum-region. The sediment transport process in the smaller scale, so called meso scale, is investigated by means of extensive field measurements at river reaches of 16 different mountain rivers of a 80000 km{sup 2} large project area. The measurements include topographic survey works and measurements of discharge, bed load and suspended load. Since the conditions of mountain rivers in terms of size of bed material as well as available flow velocities can be considered as extreme, an appropriate bed load sampler named B-69 was developed, constructed and used in the field. Moreover the hydraulic as well as the sedimentological efficiency of the sampler was tested in the laboratory tests. Due to the nice performance of the bed load sampler B-69 at high flow velocities it might be useful for flood conditions in gravel-bed rivers in other parts of the world as well. Based on the results of the study the parameter of the river slope can be considered as the most important one for the characteristics of the morphology, the flow conditions, the bed stability as well as the bed load transport in steep mountain rivers. With increasing slope morphological structures in the longitudinal direction will develop from flat bed conditions. The so called step-pool-systems consist of a cascade of staircase local falls. Their distance in-between the falls as well as their height difference at the steps is strongly depending on the river slope. (orig.) [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit beschaeftigt sich mit den Sedimenttransportprozessen in alpinen Gebirgsregionen und deren Auswirkungen auf Wasserkraftanlagen. Ziel der Arbeit ist es, zum Verstaendnis des natuerlichen Sedimenttransportes mit der fuer Gebirgsregionen typischen Charakteristik von 'High Magnitude-Low Frequency - Prozessen' beizutragen, um eine den Transportverhaeltnissen geeignete Auslegung von geplanten Wasserkraftanlagen zu finden. Am Beispiel der Gebirgsregion des Himalaya-Karakorums werden die komplexen Transportvorgaenge im grossraeumigen Raum des Makromassstabes erlaeutert. Dabei wird auf die Massentransporte eingegangen, die durch Naturgefahren wie Erdbeben, Felsgleitungen, Erdrutsche, Muren, Gletscherbrueche und Hochwaesser ausgeloest werden. Der Schwerpunkt der Arbeit liegt in der Durchfuehrung von umfangreichen Naturmessungen im untergeordneten Raum des Mesomassstabes im Bereich von einzelnen Flussabschnitten. Die Naturmessungen umfassen morphologische und topographische Aufnahmen, Abfliessmessungen, Geschiebe- sowie Schwebstoffmessungen an 16 Gebirgsfluessen eines insgesamt 80000 km{sup 2} grossen Projektgebietes im Himalaya-Karakorum. Aufgrund der extremen Verhaeltnisse der Gebirgsfluesse der Region hinsichtlich vorhandener Korngroesse des Bettmaterials sowie die Groessenordnung der Fliessgeschwindigkeiten wurde fuer die Untersuchungen eigens der mobile Geschiebesammler B-69 entwickelt, gebaut und auf seine hydraulische und sedimentologische Effizienz hin geprueft. Der Einsatz des B-69 hat sich im Feld bewaehrt und ist fuer weitere Anwendungen bei Hochwasserereignissen in kiesfuehrenden Fluessen geeignet. Als massgebender Parameter zur Beschreibung der Morphologie, der Stroemung, der Sohlenstabilitaet und des Geschiebetransportes von Gebirgsfluessen im Mesomassstab konnte das Gefaelle I festgestellt werden. Das Gefaelle ist bestimmend fuer die Ausbildung d

  15. Selectivity in the potentiation of antibacterial activity of ?-peptide/?-peptoid peptidomimetics and antimicrobial peptides by human blood plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hein-Kristensen, Line; Knapp, Kolja M

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising leads for novel antibiotics; however, their activity is often compromised under physiological conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the activity of ?-peptide/?-peptoid peptidomimetics and AMPs against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in the presence of human blood-derived matrices and immune effectors. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of two peptidomimetics against E. coli decreased by up to one order of magnitude when determined in 50% blood plasma as compared to MHB media. The MIC of a membrane-active AMP, LL-I/3 also decreased, whereas two intracellularly acting AMPs were not potentiated by plasma. Blood serum had no effect on activity against E. coli and neither matrix had an effect on activity against S. aureus. Unexpectedly, physiological concentrations of human serum albumin did not influence activity. Plasma potentiation was not caused by an LL-37 analogue, lysozyme or hydrogen peroxide; however, plasma potentiation of activity was abolished when the complement system was heat-inactivated. Time-course experiments indicated that potentiation was due to plasma-mediated effects on bacterial cells prior to activities of peptidomimetics. The unexpected enhancement of antibacterial activity of peptidomimetics and AMPs under physiological conditions significantly increases the therapeutic potential of these compounds.

  16. Identification of potential nuclear reprogramming and differentiation factors by a novel selection method for cloning chromatin-binding proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear reprogramming is critical for animal cloning and stem cell creation through nuclear transfer, which requires extensive remodeling of chromosomal architecture involving dramatic changes in chromatin-binding proteins. To understand the mechanism of nuclear reprogramming, it is critical to identify chromatin-binding factors specify the reprogramming process. In this report, we have developed a high-throughput selection method, based on T7 phage display and chromatin immunoprecipitation, to isolate chromatin-binding factors expressed in mouse embryonic stem cells using primary mouse embryonic fibroblast chromatin. Seven chromatin-binding proteins have been isolated by this method. We have also isolated several chromatin-binding proteins involved in hepatocyte differentiation. Our method provides a powerful tool to rapidly and selectively identify chromatin-binding proteins. The method can be used to study epigenetic modification of chromatin during nuclear reprogramming, cell differentiation, and transdifferentiation

  17. Subtractive Phage Display Selection from Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis Identifies Novel Epitopes That Mimic Leishmania infantum Antigens with Potential Serodiagnosis Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Lourena E.; Lima, Mayara I. S.; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Martins, Vivian T.; Duarte, Mariana C.; Lage, Paula S; Lopes, Eliane G. P.; Lage, Daniela P.; Ribeiro, Tatiana G.; Andrade, Pedro H. R.; de Magalhães-Soares, Danielle F.; Soto, Manuel; Carlos A. P. Tavares; Goulart, Luiz R.

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonotic disease that is endemic to Brazil, where dogs are the main domestic parasite reservoirs, and the percentages of infected dogs living in regions where canine VL (CVL) is endemic have ranged from 10% to 62%. Despite technological advances, some problems have been reported with CVL serodiagnosis. The present study describes a sequential subtractive selection through phage display technology from polyclonal antibodies of negative and positive sera that re...

  18. Early Auditory Evoked Potential Is Modulated by Selective Attention and Related to Individual Differences in Visual Working Memory Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Ryan J.; Karns, Christina M.; Neville, Helen J.; Hillyard, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests that the predictive power of working memory (WM) capacity for measures of intellectual aptitude is due to the ability to control attention and select relevant information. Crucially, attentional mechanisms implicated in controlling access to WM are assumed to be domain-general, yet reports of enhanced attentional abilities in individuals with larger WM capacities are primarily within the visual domain. Here, we directly test the link between WM capacity and early attentional gating across sensory domains, hypothesizing that measures of visual WM capacity should predict an individual’s capacity to allocate auditory selective attention. To address this question, auditory ERPs were recorded in a linguistic dichotic listening task, and individual differences in ERP modulations by attention were correlated with estimates of WM capacity obtained in a separate visual change detection task. Auditory selective attention enhanced ERP amplitudes at an early latency (ca. 70–90 msec), with larger P1 components elicited by linguistic probes embedded in an attended narrative. Moreover, this effect was associated with greater individual estimates of visual WM capacity. These findings support the view that domain-general attentional control mechanisms underlie the wide variation of WM capacity across individuals. PMID:25000526

  19. Bio-active glass air-abrasion has the potential to remove resin composite restorative material selectively

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milly, Hussam [Biomaterials, Biomimetics and Biophotonics Research Group, Kings College London Dental Institute at Guy' s Hospital, King' s Health Partners, London (United Kingdom); Andiappan, Manoharan [Unit of Dental Public Health, Kings College London Dental Institute at Guy' s Hospital, King' s Health Partners, London (United Kingdom); Thompson, Ian [Biomaterials, Biomimetics and Biophotonics Research Group, Kings College London Dental Institute at Guy' s Hospital, King' s Health Partners, London (United Kingdom); Banerjee, Avijit, E-mail: avijit.banerjee@kcl.ac.uk [Biomaterials, Biomimetics and Biophotonics Research Group, Kings College London Dental Institute at Guy' s Hospital, King' s Health Partners, London (United Kingdom); Unit of Conservative Dentistry, King' s College London Dental Institute at Guy' s Hospital, King' s Health Partners, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-01

    The aims of this study were to assess: (a) the chemistry, morphology and bioactivity of bio-active glass (BAG) air-abrasive powder, (b) the effect of three air-abrasion operating parameters: air pressure, powder flow rate (PFR) and the abrasive powder itself, on the selective removal of resin composite and (c) the required “time taken”. BAG abrasive particles were characterised using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Standardised resin composite restorations created within an enamel analogue block (Macor™) in vitro, were removed using air-abrasion undersimulated clinical conditions. 90 standardised cavities were scanned before and after resin composite removal using laser profilometry and the volume of the resulting 3D images calculated. Multilevel linear model was used to identify the significant factors affecting Macor™ removal. BAG powder removed resin composite more selectively than conventional air-abrasion alumina powder using the same operating parameters (p < 0.001) and the effect of altering the unit's operating parameters was significant (p < 0.001). In conclusion, BAG powder is more efficient than alumina in the selective removal of resin composite particularly under specific operating parameters, and therefore may be recommended clinically as a method of preserving sound enamel structure when repairing and removing defective resin composite restorations.

  20. Bio-active glass air-abrasion has the potential to remove resin composite restorative material selectively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of this study were to assess: (a) the chemistry, morphology and bioactivity of bio-active glass (BAG) air-abrasive powder, (b) the effect of three air-abrasion operating parameters: air pressure, powder flow rate (PFR) and the abrasive powder itself, on the selective removal of resin composite and (c) the required “time taken”. BAG abrasive particles were characterised using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Standardised resin composite restorations created within an enamel analogue block (Macor™) in vitro, were removed using air-abrasion undersimulated clinical conditions. 90 standardised cavities were scanned before and after resin composite removal using laser profilometry and the volume of the resulting 3D images calculated. Multilevel linear model was used to identify the significant factors affecting Macor™ removal. BAG powder removed resin composite more selectively than conventional air-abrasion alumina powder using the same operating parameters (p < 0.001) and the effect of altering the unit's operating parameters was significant (p < 0.001). In conclusion, BAG powder is more efficient than alumina in the selective removal of resin composite particularly under specific operating parameters, and therefore may be recommended clinically as a method of preserving sound enamel structure when repairing and removing defective resin composite restorations.

  1. Ethnomedicinally selected plants as sources of potential analgesic compounds: indication of in vitro biological activity in receptor binding assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, J H; Phillipson, J D; Bowery, N G; O'Neill, M J; Houston, J G; Lewis, J A

    2000-02-01

    A number of plant species used in traditional medicine for the relief of pain have been selected from the medicinal and scientific literature of China, South America, Asia and West Africa. Extracts were prepared and tested in three in vitro receptor radioligand binding assays to determine whether there was an indication of biological activity, in particular their selectivity to a single receptor implicated in the mediation of pain. The three neuropeptide receptors chosen were Bradykinin (BK II), expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO), neurokinin 1 (NK 1) expressed in astrocytoma cells, and calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) which were all implicated in the mediation of acute pain in the mammaliancentral nervous system. The plant species chosen to investigate were Ageratum conyzoides, Barringtonia edulis, Croton tiglium, Ipomea pes-caprae, Panax ginseng, Physostigma venenosum, Sinomenium acutum, Solidago virgaurea, Symplocos leptophylla and Typhonium giganteum. The results showed that there was a strong indication of biological activity for some of the plants which are used ethnomedicinally to treat pain, in the three in vitro receptor binding assays used, and particular plant extracts exhibited selective action to a single receptor. PMID:10641043

  2. Fixed-Node Diffusion Monte Carlo potential energy curve of the fluorine molecule F2 using selected configuration interaction trial wavefunctions

    CERN Document Server

    Giner, Emmanuel; Caffarel, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The potential energy curve of the F$_2$ molecule is calculated with Fixed-Node Diffusion Monte Carlo (FN-DMC) using Configuration Interaction (CI)-type trial wavefunctions. To keep the number of determinants reasonable (the first and second derivatives of the trial wavefunction need to be calculated at each step of FN-DMC), the CI expansion is restricted to those determinants that contribute the most to the total energy. The selection of the determinants is made using the so-called CIPSI approach (Configuration Interaction using a Perturbative Selection made Iteratively). Quite remarkably, the nodes of CIPSI wavefunctions are found to be systematically improved when increasing the number of selected determinants. To reduce the non-parallelism error of the potential energy curve a scheme based on the use of a $R$-dependent number of determinants is introduced. Numerical results show that improved FN-DMC energy curves for the F$_2$ molecule are obtained when employing CIPSI trial wavefunctions. Using the Dunnin...

  3. Fixed-node diffusion Monte Carlo potential energy curve of the fluorine molecule F2 using selected configuration interaction trial wavefunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner, Emmanuel; Scemama, Anthony; Caffarel, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The potential energy curve of the F2 molecule is calculated with Fixed-Node Diffusion Monte Carlo (FN-DMC) using Configuration Interaction (CI)-type trial wavefunctions. To keep the number of determinants reasonable and thus make FN-DMC calculations feasible in practice, the CI expansion is restricted to those determinants that contribute the most to the total energy. The selection of the determinants is made using the CIPSI approach (Configuration Interaction using a Perturbative Selection made Iteratively). The trial wavefunction used in FN-DMC is directly issued from the deterministic CI program; no Jastrow factor is used and no preliminary multi-parameter stochastic optimization of the trial wavefunction is performed. The nodes of CIPSI wavefunctions are found to reduce significantly the fixed-node error and to be systematically improved upon increasing the number of selected determinants. To reduce the non-parallelism error of the potential energy curve, a scheme based on the use of a R-dependent number of determinants is introduced. Using Dunning's cc-pVDZ basis set, the FN-DMC energy curve of F2 is found to be of a quality similar to that obtained with full configuration interaction/cc-pVQZ.

  4. Selectable markers with potential activity against insects, plus other insect-oriented strategies for mycotoxin reduction in Midwest corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reduction of insect damage has the potential to greatly reduce the levels of mycotoxins in corn, as studies with Bt corn have shown. However, the large number of insect species involved necessitates the development of comprehensive insect control to most effectively utilize this strategy. One stra...

  5. Potential productivity, yield gap, and water balance of soybean-chickpea sequential system at selected benchmark sites in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piara Singh

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Before any improvements to crop management practices are made, it is useful to know the potential yield of crops in the region of interest, and the gap between the potential yield and the actual yield obtained by the growers. This analysis helps to know the major factors causing the difference between the actual and the attainable yield for a given site. Under the Asian Development Bank (ADB-supported project on integrated watershed management we carried out such analysis for soybean-chickpea sequential system for the regions where the project is operational. We used CROPGRO models of soybean and chickpea to determine the yield potential (water-limited yields and yield gap of the two crops for several sites within the soybean production zones of India. The simulation study showed that the average potential productivity of the soybean-chickpea sequential system under rainfed situation ranged from 1390 to 4590 kg ha-1 across sites. The current level of productivity of the system across sites ranges from 970 to 1780 kg ha-1. The yield gap of 200 to 3300 kg ha-1 for the system indicates the potential to increase productivity with improved management under rainfed situation. However, higher increases in yields would be possible in good rainfall years or with supplemental irrigation. Water balance analysis showed that 35 to 70% of rainfall was used by the crop as evapotranspiration, whereas 25 to 40% was lost as surface runoff indicating the need for water harvesting for supplemental irrigation or to recharge the groundwater in the target region. Various constraints limiting crop yields in these regions have been highlighted. It is suggested that location-specific integrated approaches would be needed to bridge the yield gap of the predominant crops grown in the target regions.

  6. Macro Invertebrate Community from Sonamarg Streams of Kashmir Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Yousuf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses a macroinvertebrate community survey for River Sindh and its tributary including Baltal, Yashmarg, Sonamarg and Thajwas Grar considering the extreme hydrological conditions linked with the seasonal low-flow period typical for some streams in this area. This study attempts to provide an overview of the macro invertebrate assemblages and physico-chemical variables of the River Sindh and its important tributary. Four study sites were selected from the River Sindh and its tributary including Baltal, Yashmarg, Sonamarg and Thajwas Grar for studying the ecological distribution of Macroinvertebrate assemblages. Totally, 33 taxa of macroinvertebrates were recorded from the two streams belonging to Mollusca-3 (Gastropoda-2 and Bivalvia-1, Annelida-1 and Arthropoda-29 (Insecta-29. Among insects Ephemeroptera (7, Trichoptera (6 and Diptera (13 dominated. Except Yashmrag all sites were found devoid of annelids while as the mollusks were found absent at Sonamarg. Highest values of Shannon Weiner Index were found at Yashmarg (2.42 and lowest at Sonamarg (1.99 while as highest and lowest Sorensen?s similarity coefficient were found between Baltal/Thajwas Grar (0.68 and Yashmarg/Thajwas Grar (0.39, respectively. A perusal of the data on physico-chemical characteristics showed that these streams were hard water type with high dissolved oxygen content. The ionic composition of the stream waters revealed the predominance of bicarbonate and calcium. Insecta dominated both qualitatively as well as quantitatively and the study revealed that the substrate compositions dominated by gravel, pebble and leaf litters are primary determinants of the invertebrate community structure recording maximum species diversity and abundance. Sample locations impacted by Amarnath yatris pilgrimage comparatively reflected slightly higher increase in nutrients than Thajwas Grar almost devoid of pilgrimage effect.

  7. Modelling glacier change in the Everest region, Nepal Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, J. M.; Immerzeel, W. W.; Wagnon, P.; Vincent, C.; Bajracharya, S.

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we apply a glacier mass balance and ice redistribution model to simulate historical and future glacier change in the Everest region of Nepal. High-resolution temperature and precipitation fields derived from gridded APHRODITE data, and validated against independent station observations from the EVK2CNR network, are used to drive the historical model from 1961 to 2007. The model is calibrated against geodetically derived estimates of net glacier mass change from 1992 to 2008, termini position of four large glaciers at the end of the calibration period, average velocities observed on selected debris-covered glaciers, and total glacierized area. We integrate field-based observations of glacier mass balance and ice thickness with remotely-sensed observations of decadal glacier change to validate the model. Between 1961 and 2007, the mean modelled volume change over the Dudh Kosi basin is -6.4 ± 1.5 km3, a decrease of 15.6% from the original estimated ice volume in 1961. Modelled glacier area change between 1961 and 2007 is -101.0 ± 11.4 km2, a decrease of approximately 20% from the initial extent. Scenarios of future climate change, based on CMIP5 RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 end members, suggest that glaciers in the Everest region will continue to lose mass through the 21st century. Glaciers in the basin are concentrated between 5000 and 6000 m of elevation, and are thus expected to be sensitive to changes in temperature and equilibrium line altitude (ELA). Glacier volume reductions between -35 to -62% are possible by 2050, and sustained temperature increases to 2100 may result in total glacier volume losses of between -73 and -96%.

  8. Modelling glacier change in the Everest region, Nepal Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Shea

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we apply a glacier mass balance and ice redistribution model to simulate historical and future glacier change in the Everest region of Nepal. High-resolution temperature and precipitation fields derived from gridded APHRODITE data, and validated against independent station observations from the EVK2CNR network, are used to drive the historical model from 1961 to 2007. The model is calibrated against geodetically derived estimates of net glacier mass change from 1992 to 2008, termini position of four large glaciers at the end of the calibration period, average velocities observed on selected debris-covered glaciers, and total glacierized area. We integrate field-based observations of glacier mass balance and ice thickness with remotely-sensed observations of decadal glacier change to validate the model. Between 1961 and 2007, the mean modelled volume change over the Dudh Kosi basin is ?6.4 ± 1.5 km3, a decrease of 15.6% from the original estimated ice volume in 1961. Modelled glacier area change between 1961 and 2007 is ?101.0 ± 11.4 km2, a decrease of approximately 20% from the initial extent. Scenarios of future climate change, based on CMIP5 RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 end members, suggest that glaciers in the Everest region will continue to lose mass through the 21st century. Glaciers in the basin are concentrated between 5000 and 6000 m of elevation, and are thus expected to be sensitive to changes in temperature and equilibrium line altitude (ELA. Glacier volume reductions between ?35 to ?62% are possible by 2050, and sustained temperature increases to 2100 may result in total glacier volume losses of between ?73 and ?96%.

  9. A potent and Kv1.3-selective analogue of the scorpion toxin HsTX1 as a potential therapeutic for autoimmune diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, M. Harunur; Huq, Redwan; Tanner, Mark R.; Chhabra, Sandeep; Khoo, Keith K.; Estrada, Rosendo; Dhawan, Vikas; Chauhan, Satendra; Pennington, Michael W.; Beeton, Christine; Kuyucak, Serdar; Norton, Raymond S.

    2014-03-01

    HsTX1 toxin, from the scorpion Heterometrus spinnifer, is a 34-residue, C-terminally amidated peptide cross-linked by four disulfide bridges. Here we describe new HsTX1 analogues with an Ala, Phe, Val or Abu substitution at position 14. Complexes of HsTX1 with the voltage-gated potassium channels Kv1.3 and Kv1.1 were created using docking and molecular dynamics simulations, then umbrella sampling simulations were performed to construct the potential of mean force (PMF) of the ligand and calculate the corresponding binding free energy for the most stable configuration. The PMF method predicted that the R14A mutation in HsTX1 would yield a > 2 kcal/mol gain for the Kv1.3/Kv1.1 selectivity free energy relative to the wild-type peptide. Functional assays confirmed the predicted selectivity gain for HsTX1[R14A] and HsTX1[R14Abu], with an affinity for Kv1.3 in the low picomolar range and a selectivity of more than 2,000-fold for Kv1.3 over Kv1.1. This remarkable potency and selectivity for Kv1.3, which is significantly up-regulated in activated effector memory cells in humans, suggest that these analogues represent valuable leads in the development of therapeutics for autoimmune diseases.

  10. Potential Impact of Preoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Breast on Patient Selection for Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) after breast-conserving therapy is currently under investigation in prospective randomized studies. Multifocality and multicentricity are exclusion criteria for APBI. Preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can detect ipsilateral and contralateral invasive tumor foci or ductal carcinoma in situ in addition to conventional diagnostic methods (clinical examination, mammography, and ultrasonography). The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the impact of preoperative MRI on patient selection for APBI. Methods and Materials: From 2002 to 2007, a total of 579 consecutive, nonselected patients with newly diagnosed early-stage breast cancer received preoperative breast MRI in addition to conventional imaging studies at the Bonn University Breast Cancer Center. In retrospect, 113 patients would have met the criteria for APBI using conventional imaging workup (clinical tumor size ?3 cm; negative axillary lymph node status; unifocal disease; no evidence of distant metastases; no invasive lobular carcinoma, ductal and lobular carcinoma in situ, or Paget’s disease). We analyzed the amount of additional ipsilateral and contralateral tumor foci detected by MRI. Results: MRI detected additional tumor foci in 8.8% of patients eligible for APBI (11 tumor foci in 10 of 113 patients), either ipsilateral (n = 7, 6.2%) or contralateral (n = 4, 3.5%). In 1 patient, MRI helped detect additional tumor fo MRI helped detect additional tumor focus both ipsilaterally and contralaterally. Conclusions: Preoperative breast MRI is able to identify additional tumor foci in a clinically relevant number of cases in this highly selected group of patients with low-risk disease and may be useful in selecting patients for APBI.

  11. Historical Perspective on How and Why Switchgrass was Selected as a "Model" High-Potential Energy Crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Lynn L [ORNL

    2007-11-01

    A review of several publications of the Biofuels Feedstock Development Program, and final reports from the herbaceous crop screening trials suggests that there were several technical and non-technical factors that influenced the decision to focus on one herbaceous "model" crop species. The screening trials funded by the U.S. Department of Energy in the late 1980's to early 1990's assessed a wide range of about 34 species with trials being conducted on a wide range of soil types in 31 different sites spread over seven states in crop producing regions of the U.S. While several species, including sorghums, reed canarygrass and other crops, were identified as having merit for further development, the majority of institutions involved in the herbaceous species screening studies identified switchgrass as having high priority for further development. Six of the seven institutions included switchgrass among the species recommended for further development in their region and all institutions recommended that perennial grasses be given high research priority. Reasons for the selection of switchgrass included the demonstration of relatively high, reliable productivity across a wide geographical range, suitability for marginal quality land, low water and nutrient requirements, and positive environmental attributes. Economic and environmental assessments by Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Biofuels Feedstock Development Program staff together with the screening project results, and funding limitations lead to making the decision to further develop only switchgrass as a "model" or "prototype" species in about 1990. This paper describes the conditions under which the herbaceous species were screened, summarizes results from those trials, discusses the various factors which influenced the selection of switchgrass, and provides a brief evaluation of switchgrass with respect to criteria that should be considered when selecting and developing a crop for biofuels and bioproducts.

  12. Reduced chondrogenic matrix accumulation by 4-methylumbelliferone reveals the potential for selective targeting of UDP-glucose dehydrogenase

    OpenAIRE

    Clarkin, C. E.; Allen, S.; Wheeler-jones, C. P.; Bastow, E. R.; Pitsillides, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    4-Methylumbelliferone (4-MU) is described as a selective inhibitor of hyaluronan (HA) production. It is thought that 4-MU depletes UDP-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcUA) substrate for HA synthesis and also suppresses HA-synthase expression. The possibility that 4-MU exerts at least some of its actions via regulation of UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (UGDH), a key enzyme required for both HA and sulphated-glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) production, remains unexplored. We therefore examined the effects of 4-MU on...

  13. Effect of Potential Amine Prodrugs of Selective Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors on Blood-Brain Barrier Penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, Richard B.; Lawton, Graham R.; Ranaivo, Hantamalala Ralay; Seo, Jiwon; Watterson, D. Martin

    2009-01-01

    Several prodrug approaches were taken to mask amino groups in two potent and selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibitors containing either a primary or secondary amino group to lower the charge and improve blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration. The primary amine was masked as an azide and the secondary amine as an amide or carbamate. The azide was not reduced to the amine under a variety of in vitro and ex vivo conditions. Despite the decrease in charge of the amino group as an...

  14. A Paleoproterozoic paleosol horizon in the Lesser Himalaya and its regional implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, O. N.; Kaur, Gurmeet; Deb, M.

    2011-11-01

    A Paleoproterozoic paleosol horizon in the Himachal Himalaya along a basement-cover contact is identified on the basis of an integrated field-petrographic-geochemical studies. The paleosol horizon is exposed in a road section along the Sutlej River near Karcham. It is represented by a 2-5 m thick sericite schist unit along the contact of the 1866 ± 10 Ma Jeori-Wangtu-Bandal Gneissic Complex (JWBGC) and the overlying sericite quartzite of the Manikaran Formation (Rampur Group), which is interstratified with 1800 ± 13 Ma tholeiitic flows in its basal part. The geochemical studies reveal a sharp drop in the concentration of SiO 2, Fe 2O 3, MgO, CaO, Na 2O and a rise in concentration of Al 2O 3, TiO 2, K 2O and P 2O 5 at the contact of granite gneiss and sericite schist. REE plots of granite gneiss, sericite schist and quartzite samples of the Manikaran Formation display similarity of pattern, fractionation between the LREE and HREE and comparable negative Eu anomaly. The total REE of the sericite schist and sericitic quartzite is lower than those of the granite gneiss. Based on these studies the sericite schist is inferred to be a metamorphosed alumina-rich soil, which appears to have formed in a warm and humid climate in a waterlogged terrain of gentle relief, and is post-1866 Ma and pre-1800 Ma in age. Apparent gradation from the strongly deformed amphibolite facies JWBC to the sericite schist with diffused contact indicates that the JWBGC was already metamorphosed and deformed prior to the development of the paleosol; thereafter both together with the overlying Manikaran Formation were subjected to low-grade metamorphism during the Himalayan orogeny. The JWBC is involved in the crystalline thrust sheet and is present throughout the length of the Himalaya. Thus, it is inferred that the Paleoproterozoic metamorphism was a regional event in the Himalaya at a time when the Indian Plate was part of the Nuna Supercontinent.

  15. Glacier dynamics of the Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya region over the last 40 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourmelen, N.; Dehecq, A.; Trouvé, E.

    2014-12-01

    Climate warming over the 20th century has caused drastic changes in mountain glaciers globally, and of the Himalayan glaciers in particular. The stakes are high; glaciers and ice caps are the largest contributor to the increase in the mass of the world's oceans, and the Himalayas play a key role in the hydrology of the region, impacting on the economy, food safety and flood risk. Partial monitoring of the Himalayan glaciers has revealed a mixed picture; while many of the Himalayan glaciers are retreating, in some cases locally stable or advancing glaciers in this region have also been observed. But recent controversies have highlighted the need to understand the glaciers dynamic and its relationship with climate change in the region. Earth Observation provides a mean for global and long-term monitoring of mountain glaciers' dynamics. In the frame of the Dragon program, a partnership between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Chinese Center for Earth Observation (NRSCC), we begun a monitoring program aimed at quantifying multidecadal changes in glaciers' flow at the scale of the entire Himalayas and Karakoram from a 40 years' archive of Earth Observation. Ultimately, the provision of a global and time-sensitive glaciers velocity product will help to understand the evolution of the Himalayan glaciers in lights of glaciological (e.g. presence of debris-cover, surges, proglacial lakes) and climatic conditions. Here we present a region-wide analysis of annual and seasonnal glacier flow velocity covering the Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya region obtained from the analysis of the entire archive of Landsat data. Over 90% of the ice-covered regions, as defined by the Randolph Glacier Inventory, are measured, with precision on the retrieved velocity of the order of 2 m/yr. We show that the first order temporal evolution of glacier flow mirrors the pattern of glacier mass balance. We observe a general decrease of ice velocity in regions of known ice mass loss, and a more complex patterns consisting of mixed acceleration and decrease of ice velocity in regions that are known to be affected by stable mass balance and surge-like behavior.

  16. Active transverse faulting within underthrust Indian crust beneath the Sikkim Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Himangshu; Mitra, Supriyo; Bhattacharya, S. N.; Suresh, G.

    2015-05-01

    Deep focus earthquakes within the underthrust Indian lower crust beneath the Himalaya occur in very specific regions and have distinct source characteristics. The study of the source mechanisms of these earthquakes provides valuable constraints on the kinematics of deformation of the underthrust Indian Plate, and its influence on the active deformation of the overlying Himalayan wedge. One of the most significant regions of these deep focus earthquakes is beneath the Sikkim and Bhutan Himalaya. We study the source characteristics of the 2011 September 18 (Mw 6.9) deep focus Sikkim main shock and its major aftershocks using global, regional and local waveform data. We determined the focal mechanism of the main shock using moment tensor inversion of global P and SH waveforms, and ascertained the earthquake fault plane using rupture directivity from regional P-wave spectra. The main shock originated at 53 ± 4 km depth and ruptured at least 20 km thickness of the underthrust Indian lower crust. Faulting occurred on a near vertical dextral strike-slip fault oriented NW-SE (strike 127°, dip 81° and rake 167°), oblique to the local strike of the Himalayan arc. The rupture initiated from the SE end of the fault and propagated to the northwest. The main shock was followed by 20 small-to-moderate aftershocks (mb > 3.0), which we relocated using phase arrival times. We computed the focal mechanisms of the larger ones (mb ? 3.5) using local waveform inversion. We find that all aftershocks originated SE of the main shock, between depths of 12 and 50 km, and have dominantly strike-slip mechanisms. Our results, combined with the source mechanisms of earthquakes from previous studies, reveals that the entire underthrust Indian crust is seismogenic and deforms by dextral strike-slip motion on oblique structures beneath the Sikkim and Bhutan Himalaya. These active oblique structures with transverse motion possibly mark the western boundary of the clock-wise rotating `microplates' in northeast India observed from GPS geodesy.

  17. CB2 cannabinoid receptor agonist, JWH-015, triggers apoptosis in immune cells: potential role for CB2-selective ligands as immunosuppressive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Catherine; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash

    2007-03-01

    Cannabinoids are known to interact with CB1 and CB2 receptors expressed in the nervous and immune system, respectively, and mediate a wide range of effects, including anti-inflammatory properties. However, cannabinoids that bind CB1 are also psychoactive thereby limiting their clinical use. In this study, we investigated the immunosuppressive properties of JWH-015, a synthetic CB2-selective agonist. We found that JWH-015 triggered apoptosis in thymocytes in vitro and inhibited the proliferative response of T and B cells to mitogens through induction of apoptosis. JWH-015 induced cross-talk between extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis involving caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3 as well as loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Finally, administration of JWH-015 in vivo caused thymic atrophy, apoptosis, and decreased peripheral T cell response to mitogens. Together, this study suggests that CB2-selective agonists, devoid of psychotropic effect, may serve as novel anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressive agents. PMID:17185040

  18. Potential transducers based man-tailored biomimetic sensors for selective recognition of dextromethorphan as an antitussive drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naby, Eman H; Kamel, Ayman H

    2015-09-01

    A biomimetic potentiometric sensor for specific recognition of dextromethorphan (DXM), a drug classified according to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) as a "drug of concern", is designed and characterized. A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP), with special molecular recognition properties of DXM, was prepared by thermal polymerization in which DXM acted as template molecule, methacrylic acid (MAA) and acrylonitrile (AN) acted as functional monomers in the presence of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as crosslinker. The sensors showed a high selectivity and a sensitive response to the template in aqueous system. Electrochemical evaluation of these sensors revealed near-Nernstian response with slopes of 49.6±0.5 and 53.4±0.5mVdecade(-1) with a detection limit of 1.9×10(-6), and 1.0×10(-6)molL(-1) DXM with MIP/MAA and MIP/AN membrane based sensors, respectively. Significantly improved accuracy, precision, response time, stability, selectivity and sensitivity were offered by these simple and cost-effective potentiometric sensors compared with other standard techniques. The method has the requisite accuracy, sensitivity and precision to assay DXM in pharmaceutical products. PMID:26046285

  19. Extended reviewing or the role of potential siting cantons in the ongoing Swiss site selection procedure ('Sectoral Plan')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disposition of nuclear waste in Switzerland has a long-standing and sinuous history reflecting its complex socio-technical nature (Flueeler, 2006). Upon the twofold failure to site a repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste at Wellenberg during the 1990's and 2000's, it was recognised that the respective site selections had not been fully transparent. The Swiss government, the Federal Council, accepted the lesson and, after an extensive nationwide consultation at that, established a new site selection process 'from scratch': a systematic, stepwise, traceable, fair and binding procedure with a safety-first approach, yet extensively participatory. The so-called Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Repositories guarantees the inclusion of the affected and concerned cantons and communities, as well as the relevant authorities in neighbouring countries from an early stage (Swiss Nuclear Energy Act, 2003; BFE, 2008). This contribution shares experience and insights in the ongoing procedure from a cantonal point of view that is an intermediate position between national needs and regional concerns, and with technical regulatory expertise between highly specialised experts and involved publics. (authors)

  20. Availability of lignocellulosic feedstocks for lactic acid production - Feedstock availability, lactic acid production potential and selection criteria

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, R. R. C.

    2013-01-01

    The overall objective of this study is to assess the worldwide availability and suitability of agricultural residues for lactic acid production, based on fermentation of carbohydrates. The study focuses on lignocellulosic biomass that is produced as a by-product of agricultural production. The results of the study can be used to rank different biomass types on their lactic acid or fermentable sugar production potential. For each residue, both total production (ton of fermentable sugars per ye...

  1. On the potential and economic feasibility of solar industrial process-heat applications in selected Turkish industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the potential and economic feasibility of solar, industrial process-heat applications in the Turkish food, textile and chemical industries. The study covers 18 sites and end-use temperatures up to 120 and 150oC. A solar system composed of parabolic troughs without thermal storage is chosen. The system size investigated is 500 to 20,000m2. (author)

  2. Feature Selectivity of the Gamma-Band of the Local Field Potential in Primate Primary Visual Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    AlexanderSEcker; NikosKLogothetis; AndreasSTolias

    2008-01-01

    Extra-cellular voltage fluctuations (local field potentials; LFPs) reflecting neural mass action are ubiquitous across species and brain regions. Numerous studies have characterized the properties of LFP signals in the cortex to study sensory and motor computations as well as cognitive processes like attention, perception and memory. In addition, its extracranial counterpart – the electroencelphalogram (EEG) – is widely used in clinical applications. However, the link between LFP ...

  3. Determination of Trace Metals, Moisture, pH and Assessment of Potential Toxicity of Selected Smokeless Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, V; Jayakrishnan, G; Nair, S V; Ranganathan, B

    2013-05-01

    The characterization and classification of smokeless tobacco products has been a continuously evolving process. This is based on a number of different parameters like nicotine content, moisture content, amount of heavy metals, pH, and in vitro cytotoxicity assays. Their contexts often vary between countries, research institutions, and legal requirements. The categorisation of these products is quite challenging due to the diffused sample sizes, diverse array of branded products on offer, and the absence of a centralized manufacturing facility. This study aims at a systematic classification of 10 smokeless tobacco product samples from the retail market based on their potential toxicity upon long-term use. The estimation of potential toxicity follows a well-established method that employs the concentration of toxic metals in the different samples. The potential toxicity as well as heavy metal concentrations of the smokeless tobacco products analysed was found to be much higher than acceptable limits. For instance, the levels of lead, cadmium, copper and zinc of 2.5, 1, 4 and 23 ppm, respectively, are well above their recommended limits. The results from the study indicate that chronic use of smokeless tobacco products is a significant health risk, especially in the vulnerable population. Further studies of this nature will help establish a toxicological fingerprint on the diverse class of products that floods the market now. PMID:24082341

  4. Feature selectivity of the gamma-band of the local field potential in primate primary visual cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AlexanderSEcker

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Extra-cellular voltage fluctuations (local field potentials; LFPs reflecting neural mass action are ubiquitous across species and brain regions. Numerous studies have characterized the properties of LFP signals in the cortex to study sensory and motor computations as well as cognitive processes like attention, perception and memory. In addition, its extracranial counterpart – the electroencelphalogram (EEG – is widely used in clinical applications. However, the link between LFP signals and the underlying activity of local populations of neurons remains largely elusive. Here, we review recent work elucidating the relationship between spiking activity of local neural populations and LFP signals. We focus on oscillations in the gamma-band (30-90Hz of the local field potential in the primary visual cortex (V1 of the macaque that dominate during visual stimulation. Given that in area V1 much is known about the properties of single neurons and the cortical architecture, it provides an excellent opportunity to study the mechanisms underlying the generation of the local field potential.

  5. Earthquake Risk Analysis and Science for Peace in Western/ Kashmir Himalayas - A Road Map for Transnational Subsurface Earth Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, K.

    2006-12-01

    In light of immense human tragedy caused by the Kashmir earthquake of October 8, 2005, there is a need for transnational science for the assessment of future earthquake risks and understanding continental dynamics within the Western and Kashmir Himalayas. One can approach such a test to our society through understanding what causes these earthquakes in Kashmir in the first place in a rigorous manner and also try to determine how often do they happen in Western/ Kashmir Himalayas. Geophysical measurements (passive source, active source seismology, magnetotelluric measurements, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)) are imaging techniques for earth's deeper as well as shallow structure. When such imaging techniques are used on scales of earth's crust and beyond (~30 km to 100 km) and also on near the surface (~10 to100 meters) of the earth, it helps us understand both the processes for the origin and frequency of the earthquakes. Here, I will only concentrate on a road map for planning regional reflection seismology (active source seismology) surveys within the context of National Science Foundation (NSF) led Science for Peace Initiative primarily involving USA, India, and Pakistan. The proposal here is to initiate shallow and deep active source surveys in mega-population cities in Punjab and adjoining areas in Western Himalayas on either side of the political boundaries of India and Pakistan as separate ventures for first few years but a start for future collaboration. Once the core scientific teams are formed involving Indian, Pakistani, American, and scientists from other nations too, then the Indus Kohistan Seismic Zone in the Kashmir Himalayas should be the target for detailed geophysical and geological investigations. The idea presented here was first formed for the NSF sponsored International Karakoram-Kashmir Workshop that was supposed to be held in Islamabad (Pakistan), May 2006 with around 100 invitees from 10 nations for forming joint scientific initiatives. However, due to security concerns by the Government of Pakistan, the meeting was postponed at the 11th hour. Such political constraints invariably become the most dominant factor whether such bold endeavors can even be initiated, and the first order business is to convince the policy makers and scientists from India, Pakistan, USA, and other countries at all possible forums including AGU, the need and urgency for such transnational initiatives. The broader impacts are science and earthquake risk analysis in Western/ Kashmir Himalayas, lay framework for long-term policy decisions for earthquake hazards in Himalayas, and instrument for peace initiative.

  6. GIS-based identification of areas with mineral resource potential for six selected deposit groups, Bureau of Land Management Central Yukon Planning Area, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James V., III; Karl, Susan M.; Labay, Keith A.; Shew, Nora B.; Granitto, Matthew; Hayes, Timothy S.; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Todd, Erin; Wang, Bronwen; Werdon, Melanie B.; Yager, Douglas B.

    2015-01-01

    This study, covering the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Central Yukon Planning Area (CYPA), Alaska, was prepared to aid BLM mineral resource management planning. Estimated mineral resource potential and certainty are mapped for six selected mineral deposit groups: (1) rare earth element (REE) deposits associated with peralkaline to carbonatitic intrusive igneous rocks, (2) placer and paleoplacer gold, (3) platinum group element (PGE) deposits associated with mafic and ultramafic intrusive igneous rocks, (4) carbonate-hosted copper deposits, (5) sandstone uranium deposits, and (6) tin-tungsten-molybdenum-fluorspar deposits associated with specialized granites. These six deposit groups include most of the strategic and critical elements of greatest interest in current exploration.

  7. Selective detection of uranium by laser-induced fluorescence: a potential remote-sensing techinque. 1: Optical characteristics of uranyl geologic targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The remote sensing of laser-induced uranyl ion fluorescence is examined as potential indicator of uranium occuring in geologic materials at the earth's surface. The lifetime and brightness of the fluorescence from a wide variety of rocks, minerals, and soils are reported. The distincitve characteristics of uranyl ion absorption and fluorescence were observed in diverse geologic materials such as chalcedonies and opals containing 15--3000 ppm of uranium and in surface coatings of uranyl minerals such as metaautunite, liebigite, and andersonite. The conditions which permit the excitation and selective detection of uranyl ion fluorescence from such targets are described

  8. Identification of potential sites for deep-ocean waste isolation with a geographic site-selection model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Peter; Bowles, Frederick A.; Richardson, Michael D.

    1998-05-01

    Identification of optimal sites for the isolation of waste on the abyssal seafloor was performed with two approaches: by the traditional method of map overlays of relevant attributes, and by a specially developed, automated Site-Selection Model (SSM). Five initial, Surrogate Sites, identified with the map-overlay approach, were then compared with the more rigorously produced scores from the SSM. The SSM, a process for optimization of site locations, accepts subjective, expert-based judgments and transforms them into a quantitative, reproducible, and documented product. The SSM is adaptable to any siting scenario. Forty-one factors relevant to the isolation scenario, including 21 weightable factors having a total of 123 scorable categories, have been entered into the SSM. Factors are grouped under project definition, unique environments, anthropogenic, geologic, biologic, weather, oceanographic and distance criteria. The factor scores are linked to a georeferenced database array of all factors, corresponding to 1°×1° latitude-longitude squares. The SSM includes a total of 2241 one-degree squares within 1000 n.m. of the U.S. coasts, including the western North Atlantic, the Gulf of Mexico, and the eastern North Pacific. Under a carefully weighted and scored scenario of isolation, the most favorable sites identified with the SSM are on the Hatteras and Nares Abyssal Plains in the Atlantic. High-scoring sites are also located in the Pacific abyssal hills province between the Murray and Molokai Fracture Zones. Acceptable 1° squares in the Gulf of Mexico are few and of lower quality, with the optimum location on the northern Sigsbee Abyssal Plain. Two of the five Surrogate Site locations, on the Hatteras and Sigsbee Abyssal Plains, correspond to the best SSM sites in each ocean area. Two Pacific and a second Atlantic Surrogate Site are located in low-scoring regions or excluded by the SSM. Site-selection results from the SSM, although robust, are an initial attempt to quantify the site-selection process. The SSM database exposes a significant lack of high-quality information for many areally mappable attributes on the abyssal seafloor, particularly bottom-current speed and measures of biologic productivity and flux. Terminologies and classifications of some measures, such as sediment types, suffer from parochialism and vary by ocean. Considerable research is needed even for a broad understanding of the environmental measures required to make sound societal decisions about use of the abyssal seafloor for disposal or other purposes.

  9. Ethnomedicinal and ecological status of plants in Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Mehraj A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The northern part of India harbours a great diversity of medicinal plants due to its distinct geography and ecological marginal conditions. The traditional medical systems of northern India are part of a time tested culture and honored still by people today. These traditional systems have been curing complex disease for more than 3,000 years. With rapidly growing demand for these medicinal plants, most of the plant populations have been depleted, indicating a lack of ecological knowledge among communities using the plants. Thus, an attempt was made in this study to focus on the ecological status of ethnomedicinal plants, to determine their availability in the growing sites, and to inform the communities about the sustainable exploitation of medicinal plants in the wild. Methods The ecological information regarding ethnomedicinal plants was collected in three different climatic regions (tropical, sub-tropical and temperate for species composition in different forest layers. The ecological information was assessed using the quadrate sampling method. A total of 25 quadrats, 10 × 10 m were laid out at random in order to sample trees and shrubs, and 40 quadrats of 1 × 1 m for herbaceous plants. In each climatic region, three vegetation sites were selected for ecological information; the mean values of density, basal cover, and the importance value index from all sites of each region were used to interpret the final data. Ethnomedicinal uses were collected from informants of adjacent villages. About 10% of inhabitants (older, experienced men and women were interviewed about their use of medicinal plants. A consensus analysis of medicinal plant use between the different populations was conducted. Results Across the different climatic regions a total of 57 species of plants were reported: 14 tree species, 10 shrub species, and 33 herb species. In the tropical and sub-tropical regions, Acacia catechu was the dominant tree while Ougeinia oojeinensis in the tropical region and Terminalia belerica in the sub-tropical region were least dominant reported. In the temperate region, Quercus leucotrichophora was the dominant tree and Pyrus pashia the least dominant tree. A total of 10 shrubs were recorded in all three regions: Adhatoda vasica was common species in the tropical and sub-tropical regions however, Rhus parviflora was common species in the sub-tropical and temperate regions. Among the 33 herbs, Sida cordifolia was dominant in the tropical and sub-tropical regions, while Barleria prionitis the least dominant in tropical and Phyllanthus amarus in the sub-tropical region. In temperate region, Vernonia anthelmintica was dominant and Imperata cylindrica least dominant. The consensus survey indicated that the inhabitants have a high level of agreement regarding the usages of single plant. The index value was high (1.0 for warts, vomiting, carminative, pain, boils and antiseptic uses, and lowest index value (0.33 was found for bronchitis. Conclusion The medicinal plants treated various ailments. These included diarrhea, dysentery, bronchitis, menstrual disorders, gonorrhea, pulmonary affections, migraines, leprosy. The ecological studies showed that the tree density and total basal cover increased from the tropical region to sub-tropical and temperate regions. The species composition changed with climatic conditions. Among the localities used for data collection in each climatic region, many had very poor vegetation cover. The herbaceous layer decreased with increasing altitude, which might be an indication that communities at higher elevations were harvesting more herbaceous medicinal plants, due to the lack of basic health care facilities. Therefore, special attention needs to be given to the conservation of medicinal plants in order to ensure their long-term availability to the local inhabitants. Data on the use of individual species of medicinal plants is needed to provide an in-depth assessment of the plants availability in order to design conservation strategies to protect individual sp

  10. Enabling area-selective potential-energy engineering in InGaN/GaN quantum wells by post-growth intermixing

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao

    2015-03-19

    We report on a unique area-selective, post-growth approach in engineering the quantum-confined potential-energy profile of InGaN/GaN quantum wells (QWs) utilizing metal/dielectric-coating induced intermixing process. This led to simultaneous realization of adjacent regions with peak emission of 2.74 eV and 2.82 eV with a high spatial resolution (~1 ?m) at the coating boundary. The potential profile softening in the intermixed QW light-emitting diode (LED) was experimentally and numerically correlated, shedding light on the origin of alleviated efficiency droop from 30.5% to 16.6% (at 150 A/cm2). The technique is advantageous for fabricating high efficiency light-emitters, and is amenable to monolithic integration of nitride-based photonic devices.

  11. Unique variation in genetic selection among Black North American women and its potential influence on pregnancy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Shirlee; Normand, Neil; Jayaram, Aswathi; Orfanelli, Theofano; Doulaveris, Georgios; Passos, Mariana; Kanninen, Tomi T; Bongiovanni, Ann Marie; Linhares, Iara M; Witkin, Steven S

    2013-11-01

    We hypothesize that variations in the frequency of genetic polymorphisms, reflecting ancestral differences in living conditions and exposure to microorganisms, increase susceptibility to adverse pregnancy outcome among present day Black North American women. Striking differences were observed in the frequency of genetic variants between Black and White or Hispanic women in 5 genes (IL1RN, MBL2, PPARA, ATG16L1, CIAS1) associated with inflammation and anti-microbial immunity. The CIAS1 and IL1RN polymorphisms were associated with altered interleukin-1? serum levels; the MBL2 polymorphism resulted in a decreased serum mannose-binding lectin concentration. Gene polymorphisms associated with an alteration in innate immunity were most frequent in Black women. This may reflect an evolutionary selection in response to an ancient environment containing a high multitude of microorganisms, and may increase susceptibility of Black women to infection-associated preterm birth in the current North American environment. PMID:24018285

  12. Marker-assisted selection in maize: current status, potential, limitations and perspectives from the private and public sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than twenty-five years after the advent of DNA markers, marker-assisted selection (MAS) has become a routine component of some private maize breeding programmes. Line conversion has been one of the most productive applications of MAS in maize breeding, reducing time to market and resulting in countless numbers of commercial products. Recently, applications of MAS for forward breeding have been shown to increase significantly the rate of genetic gain when compared with conventional breeding. Costs associated with MAS are still very high. Further improvements in marker technologies, data handling and analysis, phenotyping and nursery operations are needed to realize the full benefits of MAS for private maize breeding programmes and to allow the transfer of proven approaches and protocols to public breeding programmes in developing countries. (author)

  13. Population genetic study of Fagopyrum tataricum from Western Himalaya using ISSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Garima; Pandey, Anjana; Dobhal, Rajendra; Gupta, Sanjay

    2013-10-01

    Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were used to analyze genetic diversity and relatedness of 15 germplasms of Fagopyrum tataricum. Samples representing 75 individuals were collected from a range of altitudes in the Western Himalaya. The 13 ISSR primers revealed 98.1% polymorphism among populations, whereas average polymorphism was extremely low (2.18%) within populations. The coefficient of population differentiation was 0.9750, with limited gene flow (N m) of 0.0128. The average PIC value of the ISSR markers was high (0.812), with a marker ratio of 0.65 and marker index of 6.66. The genetic diversity of F. tataricum significantly correlated with altitude and gene diversity, Shannon's index, and the percentage of polymorphic bands. The genetic diversity among populations showed broad genetic base and provided a developmental strategy for crop improvement. PMID:23743875

  14. Multi-Annual Variations in Winter Westerly Disturbance Activity Affecting the Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, F.; Carvalho, L. V.; Jones, C.; Bookhagen, B.

    2013-12-01

    Winter Westerly Disturbances (WWD) are the primary climatic influence within High Mountain Asia (HMA) during the boreal winter. The objective of this research was to investigate the spatiotemporal linkages among regional extreme precipitation and large-scale circulation in High Mountain Asian (HMA). Our analysis relies on remotely sensed and ground interpolated precipitation estimates as well as reanalysis data. We observed differences in circulation between central Himalaya (CH) and western Himalaya/ Karakoram (KH) significant precipitation events, which evidenced that though systems producing extreme precipitation in the two regions are dynamically similar, they are often spatiotemporally independent. Wavelet power spectrum analysis of 200hPa geopotential height (H200) anomalies indicated differing trends in synoptic scale variability across HMA. The zonal track of WWD to the west of the Himalaya experienced an increase in the magnitude of individual events since 1979, as well as the frequency of strong events. Specifically, the synoptic power spectrum for the region corresponding to the center of the WWD trough affecting the KH during day-0 of lag-composite analysis experienced an intensification of activity for the period 1979-2010 with the strongest increase occurring from 2003-10. In contrast, the region corresponding to CH WWD activity observed a significant negative trend since 1979. The dipole in WWD activity trends between the respective locations of upper-level troughs that are responsible for extreme precipitation in the KH and CH likely elicited changes in regional precipitation patterns. This study further examined linkages between synoptic power of the upper level geopotential height field, precipitation, and upper tropospheric circulation as modified by the main modes of climate variability affecting Asia on interannual time-scales. The Siberian High (SH), the Arctic Oscillation (AO), and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) were investigated with regard to HMA climate. Although the relationships between these modes and WWD propagation are complex, their signatures in the upper-level jet and regional precipitation clearly evidence the importance of their multiannual variability for the observed trends in KH and CH synoptic disturbance activity. Positive phases of the SH and AO are linked to a dichotomous response between the KH and CH, with CH precipitation increasing during positive (negative) AO (SH) months. A strong AO increases the magnitude of westerlies over Asia, thus enhancing divergence aloft and reducing subsidence over Siberia, which is associated with the negative phase of the SH. After 1989, the AO index was strongly positive with decreasing strength into the 2000s. The strong positive phase of the AO appears related to a strengthening of WWD activity in the Himalaya and is associated with increased precipitation. Additionally, composites of precipitation during El Niño/La Niña events indicated increased precipitation and the delayed northward migration of the jet during the index's warm-phase. Understanding linkages between HMA climate and the global atmosphere will improve projections of regional WWD variability into future decades and minimize uncertainty surrounding Asia's water resources.

  15. Similarities and differences of aerosol optical properties between southern and northern slopes of the Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Xu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Himalayas is located at the southern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, and it acts as a natural barrier for the transport of atmospheric aerosols, e.g. from the polluted regions of South Asia to the main body of the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we investigate the seasonal and diurnal variations of aerosol optical properties measured at the three Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET sites over the southern (Pokhara station and EVK2-CNR station in Nepal and northern (Qomolangma (Mt. Everest station for Atmospheric and Environmental Observation and Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (QOMS_CAS in Tibet, China slopes of the Himalayas. While observations at QOMS_CAS and EVK2-CNR can generally be representative of a remote background atmosphere, Pokhara is an urban site with much higher aerosol load due to the influence of local anthropogenic activities. The annual mean of aerosol optical depth (AOD during the investigated period was 0.06 at QOMS_CAS, 0.04 at EVK2-CNR and 0.51 at Pokhara, respectively. Seasonal variations of aerosols are profoundly affected by large scale atmospheric circulation. Vegetation fires, peaking during April in the Himalayan region and northern India, contribute to a growing fine mode AOD at 500 nm at the three stations. Dust transported to these sites results in an increase of coarse mode AOD during the monsoon season at the three sites. Meanwhile, coarse mode AOD at EVK2-CNR is higher than QOMS_CAS from July to September, indicating the Himalayas blocks the coarse particles carried by the southwest winds. The precipitation scavenging effect is obvious at Pokhara, which can significantly reduce the aerosol load during the monsoon season. Unlike the seasonal variations, diurnal variations are mainly influenced by meso-scale systems and local topography. In general, precipitation can lead to a decrease of the aerosol load and the average particle size at each station. AOD changes in a short time with the emission rate near the emission source at Pokhara, while does not at the other two stations in remote regions. AOD increases during daytime due to the valley winds at EVK2-CNR, while this diurnal variation of AOD is absent at the other two stations. The surface heating influences the local convection, which further controls the vertical aerosol exchange and the diffusion rate of pollutions to the surrounding areas. The Himalayas blocks most of the coarse particles across the mountains. Fine and coarse mode particles are mixed to make atmospheric composition more complex on the southern slope in spring, which leads to the greater inter-annual difference in diurnal cycles of Ångström exponent (AE at EVK2-CNR than that at QOMS_CAS.

  16. Variations of the crustal thickness in Nepal Himalayas based on tomographic inversion of regional earthquake data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulakov, I.; Maksotova, G.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Raoof, J.; Kayal, J. R.; Jakovlev, A.; Vasilevsky, A.

    2015-02-01

    We estimate variations of the crustal thickness beneath the Nepal Himalayas based on tomographic inversion of regional earthquake data. We have obtained a low-velocity anomaly in the upper part of the model down to depths of 40 to 80 km and proposed that the lower limit of this anomaly represents variations of the Moho depth. This statement was supported by results of synthetic modeling. The obtained variations of crustal thickness match fairly well with the free-air gravity anomalies: thinner crust patterns correspond to lower gravity values and vice versa. There is also some correlation with magnetic field: higher magnetic values correspond to the major areas of thicker crust. We propose that elevated magnetic values can be associated with more rigid segments of the incoming Indian crust which cause more compression in the thrust zone and lead to stronger crustal thickening.

  17. Variations of the crustal thickness in Nepal Himalayas based on tomographic inversion of regional earthquake data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Koulakov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We estimate variations of the crustal thickness beneath the Nepal Himalayas based on tomographic inversion of regional earthquake data. We have obtained a low-velocity anomaly in the upper part of the model down to depths of 40 to 80 km and proposed that the lower limit of this anomaly represents variations of the Moho depth. This statement was supported by results of synthetic modeling. The obtained variations of crustal thickness match fairly well with the free-air gravity anomalies: thinner crust patterns correspond to lower gravity values and vice versa. There is also some correlation with magnetic field: higher magnetic values correspond to the major areas of thicker crust. We propose that elevated magnetic values can be associated with more rigid segments of the incoming Indian crust which cause more compression in the thrust zone and leads to stronger crustal thickening.

  18. Potassium-argon ages of the Amritpur granite, District Nainital, Kumaun Himalaya and its stratigraphic position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potassium-argon ages of muscovite and biotite, separated from the Amritpur granite, District Nainital, Kumaun Himalaya, determined in the 'Geochronology Laboratory' of the IGEM Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow, are 1880 +- 40 m.y. and 1330 +- 40 respectively. The granitic body apparently shows intrusive relationship with quartzite-metavolcanic association of the Bhimtal-Bhowali area of which the latter has given a whole rock K-Ar age of 228 +- 10. These reveal that the Amritpur granite is composite in nature intruded in Middle Proterozoic Period (1880 +- 40 m.y.) and later remobilised at different periods with the development of tourmaline granite in the peripheral parts, as the latest phase. (author)

  19. Rb-Sr ages of the biotite and muscovite of the Himalayas, eastern Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rb-Sr ages of biotite from the southern flank of Mt. Everest, eastern Nepal, range from 14.1 to 1.3 m.y., the youngest biotite coexists with muscovite of 7.3 m.y. These different ages for different samples reflect the difference in cooling history related to the uplift of the Himalayas. The biotite ages decrease with increasing distance from the high mountain range, suggesting that the high range, i.e., the northern area, was uplifted earlier than the southern area. The relationship between the ages and altitutes of sampling sites indicates that the uplift rate of the northern area was 0.60 mm/yr. (author)

  20. Radon measurements in soil and water and its relation with geology, Garhwal Himalaya, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon concentrations were measured in soil and spring water in the Garhwal Himalaya using radon emanometer. The measurements were made in the Berinag, Bhatwari and Munsiari Formations. The main rock types in the area are sheared granitic gneiss, porphyritic gneiss, chlorite schist, mica schist, mylonite, slate, phyllite, quartzite and metabasic. The radon concentrations were found to vary from 1.2 kBq/m3 to 56.5 kBq/m3 in soil and 0.4 Bq/l to 887 Bq/l in water. The results suggest that the radon emanation is controlled not only by uranium content of the rock and soil but also by structural zones (thrust, fault, etc.) which help in the easy migration of radon from the deeper parts of the earth crust. (author)

  1. Studies of natural radionuclides and dose estimation from soil samples of Kumaun Himalaya, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, the distribution of natural radionuclides in soil samples collected from different geological units of Kumaun Himalayas are assessed using gamma ray spectrometer with Nal (Tl) detector. The naturally occurring radioactivity concentration of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were found to vary from 36.4 Bq/kg to 166.6 Bq/kg, 15.3 Bq/kg to 94.7 Bq/kg and 645.9 Bq/kg to 1378.9 Bq/kg, respectively. The total absorbed gamma dose rate was found to vary from 80 nGy/h to 179.6 nGy/h. The resulting dose due to the presence of these radionuclides was estimated from radiation protection point of view. The significance of this investigation is also discussed in details. (author)

  2. Rb-Sr geochronology of the rocks of the Himalayas, Eastern Nepal, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rb-Sr isotopic measurements are made on the Makalu granite, which is one of leucocratic granite occurring sporadically in the high range of the Himalayas. The granite is intruded between the Himalayan gneiss and the Tethyan sediments. In this study, Rb-Sr analyses have been made on both whole rock and small sliced rock. The Rb-Sr isotopic analytical results on whole rock of the Makalu granite define the age of 92.7 +- 9.4 m.y. The analytical results on small slabs suggest that Sr isotopic redistribution occurred after the intrusion of the granite. The initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio of the Makalu granite is 0.7433 +- 0.0019 and is remarkably high. Such high ratio indicates that the granite originated from the remelting or partial remelting of old crustal materials such as Himalayan gneiss. (author)

  3. Radon anomalies and their correlation with microseismicity in N-W Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evidence for radon anomalies in soil-gas and groundwater as earthquake precursor phenomenon is recorded in Kangra and Chamba valleys of Himachal Pradesh, India based on micro-seismicity trends in N-W Himalaya. Radon monitoring is being carried out at Palampur, Jawalamukhi, Dalhousie and Chamba stations using emanometry for discrete measurements and alpha-logger technique for continuous recording of time-series radon data from June 1996 to September 1997. Radon anomalies in both type of data are correlated with some of the micro-earthquakes recorded during the time-window by the seismographic network of Indian Meteorological Department (IMD). A critical analysis is made of radon data to find confidence level and sensitivity of each recording station

  4. Chaudhuriomyia, a new tanypod genus of Macropelopiini (Diptera: Chironomidae: Tanypodinae) from the Eastern Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Nilotpol; Mazumdar, Abhijit

    2015-01-01

    A new genus, Chaudhuriomyia in the tribe Macropelopiini belonging to subfamily Tanypodinae is described and illustrated in all life stages. The genus can be distinguished from all the other known Macropelopiini by the presence of a blunt claw on fore leg and a smooth surface of tibial spur in adult male, seminal capsules without proper neck in adult female, round anal lobe in pupa, and slightly inwardly bent inner tooth of ligula in larva. Generic diagnoses for larva, pupa and adult are provided. Taxonomic position and distribution of the genus are discussed along with a new adult key of tribe Macropelopiini. The specimens were collected from a stream in Indo-Bhutan border area of Eastern Himalaya in Indian Subcontinent. A note on the ecology and biology of the new genus is included. PMID:25947870

  5. Tibetan garnet records early Eocene initiation of thickening in the Himalaya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Matthijs Arjen; Hacker, Bradley

    2014-01-01

    Tectonic reconstructions of the Himalayan orogeny depend on the age at which crustal thickening commenced. To investigate this age, we analyzed garnet from middle crustal rocks exposed in the north Himalayan Mabja and Kangmar gneiss domes of Tibet using Lu-Hf geochronology. Garnet yielded Lu-Hf ages of 54–52 Ma in Mabja and 51–49 Ma in Kangmar samples. On the basis of microstructural and major element and rare earth element zoning observations, the Lu-Hf ages are interpreted as recording garnet growth during contractional deformation in the middle crust at 54.3 ± 0.6 Ma, followed by variable recrystallization during subsequent high-temperature ductile extension. The new Lu-Hf ages are the first to confirm that crustal thickening and contraction in the Tibetan Himalaya was broadly synchronous with the early Eocene collision between Greater India and the Eurasian plate

  6. Seasonal Variation in Essential oil Composition of Artemisianilagirica var. septentrionalis from Foot Hills of Western Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Chandra Padalia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils composition of the aerial parts of Artemisia nilagirica (Clarke Pamp. var. septentrionalis Pamp. in different seasons viz. spring, summer, rainy, autumn and winter seasons under foot hills agroclimatic conditions of western Himalaya were analyzed and compared by GC–FID and GC–MS. Essential oils were mainly composed of monoterpenoids (59.0%-77.3% and sesquiterpenoids (15.7%-31.6%. The major constituents identified were artemisia ketone (38.3%-61.2%, chrysanthenone (1.5%-7.7%, germacrene D (3.1%-6.8%, ?-caryophyllene (1.9%-6.8%, germacra-4,5,10-trien-1-?-ol (1.9%-4.9% and artemisia alcohol (1.4%-3.6%. Compositional analysis showed significant variations in the terpenoid compositions due to seasonal variations. Further, this is for the first time the seasonal variations in essential oil compositions of artemisia ketone rich chemotype of A. nilagirica var. septentrionalis is being reported from India.

  7. A potential new selection criterion for breeding winter barley optimal protein and amino acid profiles for liquid pig feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Bjerg; Blaabjerg, Karoline

    The hypothesis is that cereal proteases in liquid feed degrade and convert water insoluble storage protein into water soluble protein, which may improve the digestibility of protein in pigs compared with dry feeding. Protein utilization is increased by matching the amino acid (AAs) content of the diet as close as possible to the pigs’ requirement. By improving the availability of isoleucine, leucine, histidine and phenylalanine, which are limiting and commercial unavailable, the amount of crude protein in the pig feed can be reduced, resulting in a decreased excretion of nitrogen. The aim was to evaluate the effect of soaking on the amount of water soluble protein and AAs from different winter barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivars. In this experiment, grains from 9 different barley cultivars were soaked and samples were collected at 15 minutes, 2, 4, 6, 8, 24, 48 and 72 hours. The protein concentration was analysed in the supernatant after centrifugation. After 15 min., app. 16% of the total protein was soluble and until 8 hours an increase of 5% units was observed. However, from 8 to 48 hours it increased with 10% units for some cultivars. Based on these analyses, cultivars were selected for amino acid analysis of water soluble protein at 4, 6 and 48 hours. The amount of glutamic acid after 48 hours indicated that the solubilised protein originated from the prolamin fraction in the grain. Comparison of the amount of isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine and histidine in relation to the amount of glutamic acid revealed differences between the cultivars and the solubilised protein at all three times. These preliminary results may indicate that improvements of the nitrogen utilization in pigs fed soaked winter barley depends on the choice of cultivar and soaking time, and may serve as a new selection criterion for barley to be used in feeding.

  8. In vitro Antioxidant, PTP-1B Inhibitory Effects and in vivo Hypoglycemic Potential of Selected Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic potential of plants varies according to their parts. The present study was aimed to ascertain the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of crude fractions obtained from different parts of 6 medicinal plants, Centratherum anthelminticum, Cissus quadrangularis, Terminalia bellerica, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia arjuna and Woodfordia fruticosa. Total phenolic (TPC, total flavonoid (TFC and total tannin content (TTC were determined. In vitro antioxidant abilities were showed by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC and Ferric Reducing/antioxidant Power (FRAP assays. Furthermore, anti-diabetic potential was determined using in vitro protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP-1B inhibition assay and blood glucose lowering effects were evaluated on streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. The result of our study showed that T. chebula fruit exhibited highest amount of TPC (910.43±37.45 mg GAE g-1 and TTC (65.6±6.83 mg Catechin g-1, respectively. Whereas C. anthelminticum seeds contained highest amount of TFC (98.2±27.6 mg Quercetin g-1. The free radical scavenging capacity of T. chebula fruits was the highest among the six plants as determined by DPPH (3.6±0.13 ?g mL-1 and FRAP (109.6±2.5 ?g mL-1 assays. C. anthelminticum seeds (9.16±0.62 ?M mL-1 demonstrated highest oxygen radical absorbance capacity in ORAC test. In addition, C. anthelminticum seeds (38±5.8 ?M showed highest PTP-1B inhibitory effects and maximum blood glucose lowering effects in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Altogether, our findings suggest that T. chebula fruit is potent in ameliorating oxidative damage whereas, C. anthelminticum seeds possess highest antidiabetic and antioxidant properties.

  9. Comparative inhibitory potential of selected dietary bioactive polyphenols, phytosterols on CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 with fluorometric high-throughput screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Thangavel Mahalingam; Kumar, Ramasamy Mohan; Agrawal, Aruna; Dubey, Govind Prasad; Ilango, Kaliappan

    2015-07-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) inhibition by the bioactive molecules of dietary supplements or herbal products leading to greater potential for toxicity of co-administered drugs. The present study was aimed to compare the inhibitory potential of selected common dietary bioactive molecules (Gallic acid, Ellagic acid, ?-Sitosterol, Stigmasterol, Quercetin and Rutin) on CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 to assess safety through its inhibitory potency and to predict interaction potential with co-administered drugs. CYP450-CO complex assay was carried out for all the selected dietary bioactive molecules in isolated rat microsomes. CYP450 concentration of the rat liver microsome was found to be 0.474 nmol/mg protein, quercetin in DMSO has shown maximum inhibition on CYP450 (51.02?±?1.24 %) but less when compared with positive control (79.02?±?1.61 %). In high throughput fluorometric assay, IC50 value of quercetin (49.08?±?1.02-54.36?±?0.85 ?g/ml) and gallic acid (78.46?±?1.32-83.84?±?1.06 ?g/ml) was lower than other bioactive compounds on CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 respectively but it was higher than positive controls (06.28?±?1.76-07.74?±?1.32 ?g/ml). In comparison of in vitro inhibitory potential on CYP3A4 and CYP2D6, consumption of food or herbal or dietary supplements containing quercetin and gallic acid without any limitation should be carefully considered when narrow therapeutic drugs are administered together. PMID:26139922

  10. Climatic and geologic controls on suspended sediment flux in the Sutlej River Valley, western Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wulf

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The sediment flux through Himalayan rivers directly impacts water quality and is important for sustaining agriculture as well as maintaining drinking-water and hydropower generation. Despite the recent increase in demand for these resources, little is known about the triggers and sources of extreme sediment flux events, which lower water quality and account for extensive hydropower reservoir filling and turbine abrasion. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the spatiotemporal trends in suspended sediment flux based on daily data during the past decade (2001–2009 from four sites along the Sutlej River and from four of its main tributaries. In conjunction with satellite data depicting rainfall and snow cover, air temperature and earthquake records, and field observations, we infer climatic and geologic controls of peak suspended sediment concentration (SSC events. Our study identifies three key findings: First, peak SSC events (? 99th SSC percentile coincide frequently (57–80% with heavy rainstorms and account for about 30% of the suspended sediment flux in the semi-arid to arid interior of the orogen. Second, we observe an increase of suspended sediment flux from the Tibetan Plateau to the Himalayan Front at mean annual timescales. This sediment-flux gradient suggests that averaged, modern erosion in the western Himalaya is most pronounced at frontal regions, which are characterized by high monsoonal rainfall and thick soil cover. Third, in seven of eight catchments, we find an anticlockwise hysteresis loop of annual sediment flux variations with respect to river discharge, which appears to be related to enhanced glacial sediment evacuation during late summer. Our analysis emphasizes the importance of unconsolidated sediments in the high-elevation sector that can easily be mobilized by hydrometeorological events and higher glacial-meltwater contributions. In future climate change scenarios, including continuous glacial retreat and more frequent monsoonal rainstorms across the Himalaya, we expect an increase in peak SSC events, which will decrease the water quality and impact hydropower generation.

  11. Chemical characteristics of pond waters within the debris area of Lirung Glacier in Nepal Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozomu TAKEUCHI

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Water samples were analyzed from ponds developed within the debris-covered area of Lirung Glacier (28º 12.9’N, 86º 39.9’E; 4000 m a.s.l. in the Himalayas of Nepal during the pre-monsoon to post-monsoon period of 1996. Major chemical species were classified into three groups based on their relationships relative to the sum of cations: conservative (SiO2, Ca2+, K+, and Alkalinity, semiconservative (Na+, Mg2+, and SO4 2- and non-conservative (NH4 +, NO3 - and Cl-. The dominant processes determining the chemical composition of glacier pond water were sulfide oxidation coupled with carbonate dissolution and chemical weathering of aluminosilicate as indicated by the conservative and semi-conservative species. Calcium and alkalinity appeared as the dominant cation and anion, respectively, among all samples within the basin. Compared to the discharge waters at the outlet of the glacier, most of these pond waters have lower major solutes as well as alkalinity. The availability of fresh reactive minerals at the base of the glacier, coupled with higher temperature in discharge waters than in the ponds, may be the prime factors resulting in higher concentrations of most solutes in the discharge waters than in the ponds. In the ponds, higher concentrations of major solutes as well as alkalinity were observed in the monsoon than the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons, suggesting the role of hydrolysis condition in chemical weathering rates. Ponds within the debris area of Lirung glacier in central Nepal Himalaya are likely to increase in importance if global warming accelerates the rate of glacial melting.

  12. Concentrations of trace elements in wet deposition over the central Himalayas, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathee, Lekhendra; Kang, Shichang; Huang, Jie; Sharma, Chhatra Mani; Sillanpää, Mika; Guo, Junming; Paudyal, Rukumesh

    2014-10-01

    Atmospheric pollutants transported from south Asia may impose a serious impact on human and ecosystem health in the central Himalayan region, Nepal. In order to investigate trace elements in atmospheric wet deposition in the southern slope of the Himalayas, precipitation samples were collected for over a year from four stations: Kathmandu (1314 m.a.s.l), Dhunche (2065 m.a.s.l), Dimsa (3078 m.a.s.l) and Gosainkunda (4417 m.a.s.l) characterized as urban, semi-urban, rural or remote site, respectively. A total of 221 samples were collected and concentrations of 10 trace elements (Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) were examined. The highest concentrations of elements were found at urban site (Kathmandu) and lowest at remote site (Gosainkunda). The seasonal differences of elemental concentrations in Kathmandu was not clear between monsoon and non-monsoon seasons as local sources predominated over regional sources. On the contrary, the other three sites showed a distinct seasonal variation with higher loadings of trace elements during non-monsoon and lower during monsoon. EFs calculations at all sites showed that most of elements (Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) were from anthropogenic sources and some (Al, Fe and Mn) were originated from crustal sources. Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) also indicated that the precipitation chemistry was mostly influenced by crustal and anthropogenic sources in Nepalese Himalayas. The result from the present study is an indication that long-range transport of pollutants has a significant impact on the high altitude remote areas in the central Himalayan regions.

  13. Long-term hydroclimatic variability in monsoon shadow zone of western Himalaya, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Ram R. [Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow (India)

    2011-04-15

    Tree-ring-width data of Himalayan cedar [Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) G. Don] from 11 homogeneous moisture stressed sites in the monsoon shadow zone of the western Himalaya were used to develop a mean chronology extending back to ad 1353. The chronology developed using Regional Curve Standardization method is the first from the Himalayan region of India showing centennial-scale variations. The calibration of ring-width chronology with instrumental precipitation data available from stations close to the tree ring sampling sites showed strong, direct relationship with March-April-May-June (MAMJ) precipitation. This strong relationship was used to supplement the instrumental precipitation data back to ad 1410. The precipitation reconstruction showed extended period of drought in fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Increasingly pluvial conditions were recorded since eighteenth century, with the highest precipitation in the early part of the nineteenth century. The decreasing trend in reconstructed precipitation in the last decade of the twentieth century, consistent with the instrumental records, is associated with the decreasing trend in frequency of western disturbances. MAMJ precipitation over the monsoon shadow zone in the western Himalaya is directly associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and NINO3-SST index of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the leading modes of climate variability influencing climate over large parts of the Northern Hemisphere. However, the relationship between ENSO and MAMJ precipitation collapsed completely during 1930-1960. The breakdown in this relationship is associated with the warm phase of Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). A spectral analysis of reconstructed MAMJ precipitation indicates frequencies in the range of the variability associated with modes of NAO, ENSO and AMO. (orig.)

  14. Radionuclide analysis in the soil of Kumaun Himalaya, India, using gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental release of low levels of radioactivity can occur as a consequence of normal radionuclides present in the earth's crust. We present here the results of a survey undertaken in 2003 on the radionuclide concentration in different rock formations in the eastern part of Kumaun Himalaya. The activity concentration and gamma-absorbed dose rates of the terrestrial radionuclides caused by 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were determined in the soil samples collected from the eastern part of Kumaun Himalaya. The mean concentration of 238U and 232Th in the earth's crust varied from 0.5 to 5 ppm (6 to 60 Bq/kg) and 2 to 20 ppm (8 to 80 Bq/kg) respectively. The reported activity concentration for the different rock formations varied from 32.6 to 1305.5 Bq/kg for 238U, 16.3 to 136.3 Bq/kg for 232Th and 124.6 to 1758.0 Bq/kg for 40K. The distribution of the radionuclides varied with rock type due to different chemical properties of the measured radionuclides and the rocks. The result shows that high activity levels were found in Saryu Formation consisting of augen-gneiss, granite interbedded with schists and flaggy quartzite. The total air-absorbed dose rate in air above 1 m height was calculated from the three radionuclides (226Ra, 232 Th and 40K), which varied from 39.1 to 226.8 nGy h-1. The internal and external health-hazard indices were calculatedrnal health-hazard indices were calculated based on the concentration of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. Strong positive correlations were observed between 235U and 226Ra, 232Th and 226Ra, 40K and 232Th as well as 40K and 226Ra. However, no significant correlation was observed between 238U and 226Ra because of radioactive disequilibrium between them. (author)

  15. Tropospheric ozone variations at the Nepal climate observatory – pyramid (Himalayas, 5079 m a.s.l. and influence of stratospheric intrusion events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vuillermoz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the first 2-years of continuous surface ozone (O3 observations and systematic assessment of the influence of stratospheric intrusions (SI at the Nepal Climate Observatory at Pyramid (NCO-P; 27°57' N, 86°48' E, located in the Southern Himalayas at 5079 m a.s.l. Continuous O3 monitoring has been carried out at this GAW-WMO station in the framework of the Ev-K2-CNR SHARE and UNEP ABC projects since March 2006. Over the period March 2006–February 2008, an average O3 value of 49±12 ppbv (±1? was recorded, with a large annual cycle characterized by a maximum during the pre-monsoon (61±9 ppbv and a minimum during the monsoon (39±10 ppbv. In general, the average O3 diurnal cycles had different shapes in the different seasons, suggesting an important interaction between the synoptic-scale circulation and the local mountain wind regime. Short-term O3 behaviour in the middle/lower troposphere (e.g. at the altitude level of NCO-P can be significantly affected by deep SI which, representing the most important natural input for tropospheric O3, can also influence the regional atmosphere radiative forcing. To identify days possibly influenced by SI at the NCO-P, analyses were performed on in-situ observations (O3 and meteorological parameters, total column O3 data from OMI satellite and air-mass potential vorticity provided by the LAGRANTO back-trajectory model. In particular, a specially designed statistical methodology was applied to the time series of the observed and modelled stratospheric tracers. On this basis, during the 2-year investigation, 14.1% of analysed days were found to be affected by SI. The SI frequency showed a clear seasonal cycle, with minimum during the summer monsoon (1.2% and higher values during the rest of the year (21.5%. As suggested by the LAGRANTO analysis, the position of the subtropical jet stream could play an important role in determining the occurrence of deep SI transport on the Southern Himalayas. In order to estimate the fraction of O3 due to air-mass transport from the stratosphere at the NCO-P, the 30 min O3 concentrations recorded during the detected SI days were analysed. In particular, in-situ relative humidity and black carbon observations were used to exclude influence from wet and polluted air-masses transported by up-valley breezes. This analysis led to the conclusion that during SI O3 significantly increased by 27.1% (+13 ppbv with respect to periods not affected by such events. Moreover, the integral contribution of SI (O3S to O3 at the NCO-P was also calculated, showing that 13.7% of O3 recorded at the measurement site could be attributed to SI. On a seasonal basis, the lowest SI contributions were found during the summer monsoon (less than 0.1%, while the highest were found during the winter period (24.2%. These results indicated that, during non-monsoon periods, high O3 levels could affect NCO-P during SI, thus influencing the variability of tropospheric O3 over the Southern Himalayas. Being a powerful regional greenhouse gas, these results indicate that the evaluation of the current and future regional climate cannot be assessed without properly taking into account the influence of SI to tropospheric O3 in this important area.

  16. Toward independent home use of brain-computer interfaces: a decision algorithm for selection of potential end-users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kübler, Andrea; Holz, Elisa Mira; Sellers, Eric W; Vaughan, Theresa M

    2015-03-01

    Noninvasive brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) use scalp-recorded electrical activity from the brain to control an application. Over the past 20 years, research demonstrating that BCIs can provide communication and control to individuals with severe motor impairment has increased almost exponentially. Although considerable effort has been dedicated to offline analysis for improving signal detection and translation, far less effort has been made to conduct online studies with target populations. Thus, there remains a great need for both long-term and translational BCI studies that include individuals with disabilities in their own homes. Completing these studies is the only sure means to answer questions about BCI utility and reliability. Here we suggest an algorithm for candidate selection for electroencephalographic (EEG)-based BCI home studies. This algorithm takes into account BCI end-users and their environment and should assist in study design and substantially improve subject retention rates, thereby improving the overall efficacy of BCI home studies. It is the result of a workshop at the Fifth International BCI Meeting that allowed us to leverage the expertise of multiple research laboratories and people from multiple backgrounds in BCI research. PMID:25721544

  17. The antithrombotic potential of selective blockade of talin-dependent integrin ?IIb?3 (platelet GPIIb–IIIa) activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrich, Brian G.; Fogelstrand, Per; Partridge, Anthony W.; Yousefi, Nima; Ablooglu, Ararat J.; Shattil, Sanford J.; Ginsberg, Mark H.

    2007-01-01

    In vitro studies indicate that binding of talin to the ?3 integrin cytoplasmic domain (tail) results in integrin ?IIb?3 (GPIIb–IIIa) activation. Here we tested the importance of talin binding for integrin activation in vivo and its biological significance by generating mice harboring point mutations in the ?3 tail. We introduced a ?3(Y747A) substitution that disrupts the binding of talin, filamin, and other cytoplasmic proteins and a ?3(L746A) substitution that selectively disrupts interactions only with talin. Platelets from animals homozygous for each mutation showed impaired agonist-induced fibrinogen binding and platelet aggregation, providing proof that inside-out signals that activate ?IIb?3 require binding of talin to the ?3 tail. ?3(L746A) mice were resistant to both pulmonary thromboembolism and to ferric chloride–induced thrombosis of the carotid artery. Pathological bleeding, measured by the presence of fecal blood and development of anemia, occurred in 53% of ?3(Y747A) and virtually all ?3-null animals examined. Remarkably, less than 5% of ?3(L746A) animals exhibited this form of bleeding. These results establish that ?IIb?3 activation in vivo is dependent on the interaction of talin with the ?3 integrin cytoplasmic domain. Furthermore, they suggest that modulation of ?3 integrin–talin interactions may provide an attractive target for antithrombotics and result in a reduced risk of pathological bleeding. PMID:17627302

  18. Selection and popularization of a new rice cultivar Jinwan 1 with high quality and high yield potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinwan 1, a Hsien rice cv selected from crosses between IR24, IR26 and Zhenlong 13 in 1975-79 by combining conventional breeding methods and 60 Co rays irradiation to the F1s, was officially released in 1986. It had a full growth period 110-135 days depending on different parts in Fujian, plant height 95 cm, intermediate tillering ability, compact plant type and resistance to blast and bacterial leaf blight. It produced 3 million effective tillers/ha., 100 grains/panicle, 85% fertility and 1000-grain wt 29 g when its yield was at 6-6.75 tons/ha. Its yield was 5287.5 kg/ha, with the highest 8572.5 kg/ha, on average in 16 locations in 1982 yield trials, which was 10.7% higher than that of the control Hongwan 52. Jinwan 1 had its brown rice recovery 81.9%, polished rice 76%, amylose 19.9% and protein content 9.5%, which were all higher than the standards for the first grade rice. It was planted to 600 ha. in 1

  19. Transcriptome sequencing reveals potential mechanism of cryptic 3' splice site selection in SF3B1-mutated cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBoever, Christopher; Ghia, Emanuela M; Shepard, Peter J; Rassenti, Laura; Barrett, Christian L; Jepsen, Kristen; Jamieson, Catriona H M; Carson, Dennis; Kipps, Thomas J; Frazer, Kelly A

    2015-03-01

    Mutations in the splicing factor SF3B1 are found in several cancer types and have been associated with various splicing defects. Using transcriptome sequencing data from chronic lymphocytic leukemia, breast cancer and uveal melanoma tumor samples, we show that hundreds of cryptic 3' splice sites (3'SSs) are used in cancers with SF3B1 mutations. We define the necessary sequence context for the observed cryptic 3' SSs and propose that cryptic 3'SS selection is a result of SF3B1 mutations causing a shift in the sterically protected region downstream of the branch point. While most cryptic 3'SSs are present at low frequency (<10%) relative to nearby canonical 3'SSs, we identified ten genes that preferred out-of-frame cryptic 3'SSs. We show that cancers with mutations in the SF3B1 HEAT 5-9 repeats use cryptic 3'SSs downstream of the branch point and provide both a mechanistic model consistent with published experimental data and affected targets that will guide further research into the oncogenic effects of SF3B1 mutation. PMID:25768983

  20. Transcriptome Sequencing Reveals Potential Mechanism of Cryptic 3’ Splice Site Selection in SF3B1-mutated Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBoever, Christopher; Ghia, Emanuela M.; Shepard, Peter J.; Rassenti, Laura; Barrett, Christian L.; Jepsen, Kristen; Jamieson, Catriona H. M.; Carson, Dennis; Kipps, Thomas J.; Frazer, Kelly A.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the splicing factor SF3B1 are found in several cancer types and have been associated with various splicing defects. Using transcriptome sequencing data from chronic lymphocytic leukemia, breast cancer and uveal melanoma tumor samples, we show that hundreds of cryptic 3’ splice sites (3’SSs) are used in cancers with SF3B1 mutations. We define the necessary sequence context for the observed cryptic 3’ SSs and propose that cryptic 3’SS selection is a result of SF3B1 mutations causing a shift in the sterically protected region downstream of the branch point. While most cryptic 3’SSs are present at low frequency (<10%) relative to nearby canonical 3’SSs, we identified ten genes that preferred out-of-frame cryptic 3’SSs. We show that cancers with mutations in the SF3B1 HEAT 5-9 repeats use cryptic 3’SSs downstream of the branch point and provide both a mechanistic model consistent with published experimental data and affected targets that will guide further research into the oncogenic effects of SF3B1 mutation. PMID:25768983

  1. Preparation and characterization of sulfonate polymeric membranes and evaluation of use potential as ion-selective membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This works aims at the preparation of polymeric plane membranes of high filtration, high permeability and selectivity to cations. These membranes are applied to the treatment of radioactive wastes. To obtain membranes its is necessary to attain specific morphologic characteristics, suc as non-symmetric structure and a narrow distribution of the porous size on the surface. For the preparation of the membranes it was made using the method of phase inversion by immersion and precipitation. With this method one can obtain membranes adequate to the application. The ultrafiltration membranes were prepared from polymeric solutions of poly(ether-sulfone) (PES), sulfonate polysulfone (PSS), and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). These solution are solubilized in N, N-dimethyl acetamide. To attain the protonic character to the membranes, it was added polysulfones sulfonate. It was investigated several parameters in this work. These were: PSS containt, exposure time and immersion bath composition (pure water and water solutions of N, N-dimethyl acetamide). The membranes were tested by microscopic electronic scan and permeation experiments. The membranes were compared to commercial membrane for ultrafiltration based on poly(ether-sulfone), 30 K, from Millipore. (author)

  2. Potentials of Selected Malaysian Biomasses as Co-Gasification Fuels with Oil Palm Fronds in a Fixed-Bed Downdraft Gasifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moni Mohamad Nazmi Zaidi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm frond (OPF has been successfully gasified to produce syngas and has since deemed as a potential source of biomass fuel in Malaysia. However, if OPF is to be utilized as a main fuel for industrial-scale firing/gasification plant, interruption in fuel supply may occur due to numerous reasons, for instance inefficient fuel processing and ineffective transportation. A secondary supporting solid fuel is therefore necessary as a partial component to the main fuel in such cases, where the secondary fuel is combusted with the main fuel to adhere to main fuel shortage. Gasification of two fuels together, known as co-gasification, is practiced worldwide, some in industrial scale. However, current practice utilizes biomass fuel as the secondary fuel to coal in co-gasification. This investigation explores into the feasibility of co-gasifying two biomass fuels together to produce syngas. OPF was chosen as the primary fuel and a selection of Malaysian biomasses were studied to discover their compatibility with OPF in co-gasification. Biomass selection was made using score-and-rank method and their selection criteria are concisely discussed.

  3. Risk assessment of potentially toxic elements in agricultural soils and maize tissues from selected districts in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field survey was conducted to investigate the contamination of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) arsenic (As), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), and nickel (Ni) in Tanzanian agricultural soils and to evaluate their uptake and translocation in maize as proxy to the safety of maize used for human and animal consumption. Soils and maize tissues were sampled from 40 farms in Tanzania and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry in the United Kingdom. The results showed high levels of PTEs in both soils and maize tissues above the recommended limits. Nickel levels of up to 34.4 and 56.9 mg kg?1 respectively were found in some maize shoots and grains from several districts. Also, high Pb levels >0.2 mg kg?1 were found in some grains. The grains and shoots with high levels of Ni and Pb are unfit for human and animal consumption. Concentrations of individual elements in maize tissues and soils did not correlate and showed differences in uptake and translocation. However, Ni showed a more efficient transfer from soils to shoots than As, Pb and Cr. Transfer of Cr and Ni from shoots to grains was higher than other elements, implying that whatever amount is assimilated in maize shoots is efficiently mobilized and transferred to grains. Thus, the study recommended to the public to stop consuming and feeding their animals maize with high levels of PTEs for their safety. - Highlights: ? High Ni and Pb levels above the allowable limits were fos above the allowable limits were found in maize grains. ? Also maize shoots unfit for animal use were found with high Ni concentrations. ? Mining activities were among the sources of soil contamination. ? The public advised to stop consuming maize with potentially toxic elements.

  4. The selective NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin has potential prophylactic effects on melamine-related nephrolithiasis in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoran; Lu, Jianzhong; Shang, Panfeng; Bao, Junsheng; Yue, Zhongjin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the effects of apocynin on melamine-cyanuric acid mixture (MCM)-induced nephrolithiasis in vitro and in vivo. For the in vitro experiments, changes in oxidative stress (OS) markers and the expression of osteopontin (OPN) and phospho-p38 (p-p38) were measured to assess the effects of apocynin treatment after MCM-induced crystallization in HK-2 cells, a human renal epithelial-derived cell line. For in vivo studies, the potential effects of apocynin in preventing and treating nephrolithiasis were analyzed with a MCM-induced nephrolithiasis rat model, and urea and creatinine levels were measured. Urinary 8-IP (a product of lipid peroxidation) and malondialdehyde levels and superoxide dismutase activity were assessed in the kidneys as markers of renal OS. The kidneys were removed, weighed, and subjected to histopathological examination. The urolithiasis-associated proteins p-p38 and OPN were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Apocynin treatment prevented the MCM-induced changes in OS and in OPN and p-p38 expression in HK-2 cells. For in vivo experiments, the expression of OS markers, renal OPN, and p-p38 increased after MCM administration, and these increases were diminished by apocynin. In addition, apocynin prevented MCM-induced renal crystallization. Moreover, prophylactic apocynin treatment reduced MCM-induced nephrotoxicity. After therapeutic apocynin treatment in nephrolithic rats, OS decreased, but the other indicators did not improve significantly. Prophylactic apocynin administration reduced renal melamine-related-crystal deposition, potentially by modulating OS and thereby decreasing p-p38 and OPN expression. PMID:25318609

  5. Mode selection of China's urban heating and its potential for reducing energy consumption and CO2 emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China's carbon dioxide (CO2) emission ranks the highest in the world. CO2 emission from urban central heating, which has an average annual growth rate of 10.3%, is responsible for 4.4% of China's total CO2 emission. The current policy for improving urban central heating focuses on replacing coal with natural gas. This paper analyzes the existing situation and problems pertaining to urban heating, and evaluates the potential for reducing energy consumption and CO2 emission by heat pump heating. The results show that the current policy of replacing coal with natural gas for urban central heating decreases energy consumption and CO2 emission by 16.6% and 63.5%, respectively. On the other hand, replacing coal-based urban central heating with heat pump heating is capable of decreasing energy consumption and CO2 emission by 57.6% and 81.4%, respectively. Replacing both urban central and decentralized heating with heat pump heating can lead to 67.7% and 85.8% reduction in energy consumption and CO2 emission, respectively. The decreases in CO2 emission will account for 24.5% of China's target to reduce total CO2 emission by 2020. - Highlights: • Existing situation and problems of urban heating in China. • Feasibility of heat pump heating in China. • Potential of energy saving and emission reduction for heat pump heating. • China should adjust urban heating strategy. • Replacing urban central heating and decentralized heating with heat pump heating

  6. Maitotoxin activates an endogenous non-selective cation channel and is an effective initiator of the activation of the heterologously expressed hTRPC-1 (transient receptor potential) non-selective cation channel in H4-IIE liver cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brereton, H M; Chen, J; Rychkov, G; Harland, M L; Barritt, G J

    2001-08-22

    The structures and mechanisms of activation of non-selective cation channels (NSCCs) are not well understood although NSCCs play important roles in the regulation of metabolism, ion transport, cell volume and cell shape. It has been proposed that TRP (transient receptor potential) proteins are the molecular correlates of some NSCCs. Using fura-2 and patch-clamp recording, it was shown that the maitotoxin-activated cation channels in the H4-IIE rat liver cell line admit Ca(2+), Mn(2+) and Na(+), have a high selectivity for Na(+) compared with Ca(2+), and are inhibited by Gd(3+) (half-maximal inhibition at 1 microM). Activation of the channels by maitotoxin was inhibited by increasing the extracellular Ca(2+) concentration or by inclusion of 10 mM EGTA in the patch pipette. mRNA encoding TRP proteins 1, 2 and 3 at levels comparable with those in brain was detected using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in poly(A)(+) RNA prepared from H4-IIE cells and freshly-isolated rat hepatocytes. In H4-IIE cells transiently transfected with cDNA encoding hTRPC-1, the expressed hTRPC-1 protein was chiefly located at intracellular sites and at the plasma membrane. Cells expressing hTRPC-1 exhibited a substantial enhancement of maitotoxin-initiated Ca(2+) inflow and a modest enhancement of thapsigargin-initiated Ca(2+) inflow (measured using fura-2) and no enhancement of the highly Ca(2+)-selective store-operated Ca(2+) current (measured using patch-clamp recording). In cells expressing hTRPC-1, maitotoxin activated channels which were not found in untransfected cells