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Identification and bioactive potential of endophytic fungi isolated from selected plants of the Western Himalayas  

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This study was conducted to characterize and explore the endophytic fungi of selected plants from the Western Himalayas for their bioactive potential. A total of 72 strains of endophytic fungi were isolated and characterized morphologically as well as on the basis of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 ribosomal gene sequence acquisition and analyses. The fungi represented 27 genera of which two belonged to Basidiomycota, each representing a single isolate, while the rest of the isolates comprised of Ascomycetous...

Qadri, Masroor; Johri, Sarojini; Shah, Bhahwal A.; Khajuria, Anamika; Sidiq, Tabasum; Lattoo, Surrinder K.; Abdin, Malik Z.; Riyaz-ul-hassan, Syed

2013-01-01

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Selecting and weighting spatial predictors for empirical modeling of landslide susceptibility in the Darjeeling Himalayas (India)  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we created predictive models for assessing the susceptibility to shallow translational rocksliding and debris sliding in the Darjeeling Himalayas (India) by empirically selecting and weighting spatial predictors of landslides. We demonstrate a two-stage methodology: (1) quantifying associations of individual spatial factors with landslides of different types using bivariate analysis to select predictors; and (2) pairwise comparisons of the quantified associations using an analytical hierarchy process to assign predictor weights. We integrate the weighted spatial predictors through multi-class index overlay to derive predictive models of landslide susceptibility. The resultant model for shallow translational landsliding based on selected and weighted predictors outperforms those based on all weighted predictors or selected and unweighted predictors. Therefore, spatial factors with negative associations with landslides and unweighted predictors are ineffective in predictive modeling of landslide susceptibility. We also applied logistic regression to model landslide susceptibility, but some of the selected predictors are less realistic than those from our methodology, and our methodology gives better prediction rates. Although previous predictive models of landslide susceptibility indicate that multivariate analyses are superior to bivariate analyses, we demonstrate the benefit of the proposed methodology including bivariate analyses.

Ghosh, Saibal; Carranza, Emmanuel John M.; van Westen, Cees J.; Jetten, Victor G.; Bhattacharya, Dipendra N.

2011-08-01

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Selection of suitable lichen bioindicator species for monitoring climatic variability in the Himalaya.  

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Interspecific comparison in metals and PAHs profile in three lichen species, Flavoparmelia caperata, Phaeophyscia hispidula and Pyxine sorediata, were studied in different altitudinal gradients of the Western Himalayas. The species collected from 14 sites, enroute from Dehradun to Morinda (243 Km) including the trekking route 42 Km from Taluka to Morinda having an altitudinal gradient between 850-3,750 m, were analysed for their metals and PAHs. The species showed similar metal as well as PAHs profile under similar altitudinal gradients in the sequence of F. caperata > P. hispidula > P. sorediata. The difference in pollutant concentrations within each lichen species may be related to intrinsic attributes of the species, such as thallus morphology and the presence of lichen substances which are responsible for the sensitivity and accumulation potential of a particular species. Novelty of the present study lies on the fact that all the species show a similar efficiency of reflecting the environmental condition of the area, albeit the coefficient values of individual species for individual pollutant obtained by three-factor ANOVA revealed that the bioaccumulation affinity of F. caperata is significantly higher than P. hispidula and P. sorediata. For individual metals, F. caperata has a higher affinity for Al, Cr, Fe, Pb and Zn while P. hispidula has a significant positive affinity for Fe and Pb. PCA analysis of sites with respect to pollutant revealed the segregation of sites based on source and distance. Combining the bioaccumulation potential parameters along with geostatistical (GIS) techniques establishes that F. caperata species is a better accumulator of metals and PAHs in comparison to P. hispidula and P. sorediata in the temperate regions of the Himalaya. PMID:24888615

Bajpai, Rajesh; Shukla, Vertika; Upreti, D K; Semwal, Manoj

2014-10-01

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Impact of Climate Change on Potential Distribution of Chinese Caterpillar Fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) in Nepal Himalaya  

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Climate change has already impacted ecosystems and species and substantial impacts of climate change in the future are expected. Species distribution modeling is widely used to map the current potential distribution of species as well as to model the impact of future climate change on distribution of species. Mapping current distribution is useful for conservation planning and understanding the change in distribution impacted by climate change is important for mitigation of future biodiversity losses. However, the current distribution of Chinese caterpillar fungus, a flagship species of the Himalaya with very high economic value, is unknown. Nor do we know the potential changes in suitable habitat of Chinese caterpillar fungus caused by future climate change. We used MaxEnt modeling to predict current distribution and changes in the future distributions of Chinese caterpillar fungus in three future climate change trajectories based on representative concentration pathways (RCPs: RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, and RCP 6.0) in three different time periods (2030, 2050, and 2070) using species occurrence points, bioclimatic variables, and altitude. About 6.02% (8,989 km2) area of the Nepal Himalaya is suitable for Chinese caterpillar fungus habitat. Our model showed that across all future climate change trajectories over three different time periods, the area of predicted suitable habitat of Chinese caterpillar fungus would expand, with 0.11–4.87% expansion over current suitable habitat. Depending upon the representative concentration pathways, we observed both increase and decrease in average elevation of the suitable habitat range of the species. PMID:25180515

Shrestha, Uttam Babu; Bawa, Kamaljit S.

2014-01-01

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Potential effects of ongoing and proposed hydropower development on terrestrial biological diversity in the Indian Himalaya.  

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Indian Himalayan basins are earmarked for widespread dam building, but aggregate effects of these dams on terrestrial ecosystems are unknown. We mapped distribution of 292 dams (under construction and proposed) and projected effects of these dams on terrestrial ecosystems under different scenarios of land-cover loss. We analyzed land-cover data of the Himalayan valleys, where dams are located. We estimated dam density on fifth- through seventh-order rivers and compared these estimates with current global figures. We used a species-area relation model (SAR) to predict short- and long-term species extinctions driven by deforestation. We used scatter plots and correlation studies to analyze distribution patterns of species and dams and to reveal potential overlap between species-rich areas and dam sites. We investigated effects of disturbance on community structure of undisturbed forests. Nearly 90% of Indian Himalayan valleys would be affected by dam building and 27% of these dams would affect dense forests. Our model projected that 54,117 ha of forests would be submerged and 114,361 ha would be damaged by dam-related activities. A dam density of 0.3247/1000 km(2) would be nearly 62 times greater than current average global figures; the average of 1 dam for every 32 km of river channel would be 1.5 times higher than figures reported for U.S. rivers. Our results show that most dams would be located in species-rich areas of the Himalaya. The SAR model projected that by 2025, deforestation due to dam building would likely result in extinction of 22 angiosperm and 7 vertebrate taxa. Disturbance due to dam building would likely reduce tree species richness by 35%, tree density by 42%, and tree basal cover by 30% in dense forests. These results, combined with relatively weak national environmental impact assessment and implementation, point toward significant loss of species if all proposed dams in the Indian Himalaya are constructed. PMID:22985327

Pandit, Maharaj K; Grumbine, R Edward

2012-12-01

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Altitude and Tissue Type Influence Antioxidant Potential of Pellia endiviifolia from Darjeeling Himalaya  

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Full Text Available Herbal remedy is considered as one of the popular forms of alternative and complementary medicines. Plants are considered to possess a number of chemical constituents with diverse pharmacological efficacies. Bryophytes, a small group of plants, are known to contain unique secondary metabolites having pharmacological and potential therapeutic value. The primary focus of the study is to depict the role of altitude and tissue types on antioxidant capacity of the liverwort Pellia endiviifolia (Dicks. Dumort. (Pelliaceae. In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to explore the antioxidative potential of vegetative and reproductive tissues of P. endiviifolia collected from five different altitudes of Darjeeling Himalaya, West Bengal, India. Total phenolics and flavonoids contents of the liverwort samples were also determined. Methanol extract of the thalloid liverwort was investigated for antioxidant activity by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, total phenolic and flavonoid estimation. Maximum radical scavenging activity was found to be 89.336%±4.3. Maximum total phenolics content in 1 mg of the extract was 58±0.175 ?g of Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE per mg dry weight. Maximum flavonoids content in 1mg of the extract was 80.3±331 ?g of Quercetin Equivalent (QE per mg dry weight. The results indicate, for the first time, the antioxidative potential and possible use of the liverwort as a natural antioxidant. It also shows a variation of antioxidant capacity of the liverwort depending on their tissue type and their altitude of occurrence.

Abhijit Dey

2013-01-01

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Seedling growth and survival of selected wild edible fruit species of the Sikkim Himalaya, India  

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In the Sikkim Himalaya, an enormous variety of wild growing plants are exploited at large scale for collection of their edible parts, of which six most prominently utilized fruit species (viz., Baccaurea sapida, Diploknema butyracea, Elaeagnus latifolia, Eriolobus indica, Machilus edulis and Spondias axillaris) were investigated. The growth of nursery raised seedlings was measured at 3 month intervals until two years old in terms of absolute growth rate (AGR), relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), leaf area ratio (LAR), leaf weight ratio (LWR), stem weight ratio (SWR), root weight ratio (RWR) and root-shoot ratio (RSR). Spondias axillaris and Machilus edulis had the maximum AGR, RGR, LAR and SWR among all species. LWR was highest for B. sapida. RGR, LAR and LWR declined with the age of seedlings. RGR was negatively correlated with NAR, SWR, RWR and RSR, though it showed a positive relationship with LAR. For all species, seedlings attained significant sizes after one year of age, and showed reasonable survival after transplantation into the farmers' fields. It is expected that information on the growth behaviour of these species would be useful while they are adopted into agroforestry systems. It is suggested that these species should be multiplied at large scale and distributed to the local inhabitants to reduce pressure on them in natural stands as well as provide economic benefit to the subsistence farmers.

Sundriyal, Manju; Sundriyal, R. C.

2005-07-01

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A review of therapeutic potential of Saussurea lappa-An endangered plant from Himalaya.  

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There are 300 known Saussurea species. Among them, Saussurea lappa (S. lappa) is a representative perennial herb, globally distributed across Himalaya region. S. lappa has been traditionally used in medicines without obvious adverse effects. Despite significant progress in phytochemical and biological analyses of S. lappa over the past few years, inclusive and critical reviews of this plant are anachronistic or quite limited in scope. The present review aims to summarize up-to-date information on the active constituents, pharmacology, traditional uses, trade and challenges in conservation and sustainable use of S. lappa from the literature. In addition to botanical studies and records of the traditional use of S. lappa in over 43 diseases, scientific studies investigating the latent medicinal uses of this species and its constituent phytochemicals for a range of disorders are presented and discussed. The structure, bioactivity, and likely mechanisms of action of S. lappa and its phytochemicals are highlighted. Although some progress has been made, further scrupulous efforts are required to investigate the individual compounds isolated from S. lappa to validate and understand its traditional uses and develop clinical applications. The present review offers preliminary information and gives direction for further basic and clinical research into this plant. PMID:25312191

Zahara, Kulsoom; Tabassum, Shaista; Sabir, Sidra; Arshad, Muhammad; Qureshi, Rahmatullah; Amjad, Muhammad Shoaib; Chaudhari, Sunbal Khalil

2014-09-01

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Phytoremediation potential of Phragmites australis in Hokersar wetland - a Ramsar site of Kashmir Himalaya.  

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Heavy metals are an important class of pollutants with both lethal and sublethal effects on organisms. Wetlands are cheap natural alternatives for removal of heavy metals from soils; however, wetland plants vary greatly in their degree of metal uptake. Hokersar wetland, a Ramsar site of Kashmir Himalaya, India is a game reserve of international importance that provides suitable habitat for resident birds and an excellent stopover point for migratory birds visiting from Palaearctic breeding grounds in Central Asia, China, N-Europe and Siberia. The toxicity of chronic dietary metal exposure in birds may have adverse reproductive effects which include decreased egg production, decreased hatchability, and increased hatchling mortality. Thus, the present study aimed to assess the heavy metal sequestration capability of one of the most common wetland plant species Phragmites australis in Hokersar wetland. The accumulation of the different elements was in order of Al > Mn > Ba > Zn > Cu > Pb > Mo > Co > Cr > Cd > Ni. Translocation factor, i.e. ratio of shoot to root metal concentration revealed that metals were largely retained in the roots of P. australis, thus reducing the supply of metals to avifauna and preventing their bio-accumulation. PMID:24933910

Ahmad, Syed Shakeel; Reshi, Zafar A; Shah, Manzoor A; Rashid, Irfan; Ara, Roshan; Andrabi, Syed M A

2014-01-01

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The potential drivers in forming avian biodiversity hotspots in the East Himalaya-Mountains of Southwest China.  

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Little has been published to describe or interpret Asian biodiversity hotspots, especially the East Himalaya - Mountains of Southwest China (H-MSC) range, thus making necessary a review based on the current knowledge. The Pliocene and Pleistocene geological and glacial histories of the Asian continent is different from those of Europe and North America, suggesting different mechanisms of speciation and extinction, and thus different responses to climate changes during the Quaternary glaciations. This short review summarizes potential drivers in shaping and maintaining high species richness and endemism of birds in the H-MSC range. The geographical location at the junction of different biogeographical realms, wide range of habitats and climates along the extensive elevational range, complex topography, and distinct geological history of this region probably have contributed to the evolution of an exceptionally species-rich and endemic-rich, specialized montane avian fauna. The Mountain systems in the H-MSC may have provided refugia where species survived during the glacial periods and barriers for preventing species dispersal after the glacial periods. More studies are required to further test this refugia hypothesis by comparing more cold-tolerent and warm-tolerent species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25316284

Lei, Fumin; Qu, Yanhua; Song, Gang; Alström, Per; Fjeldså, Jon

2014-10-14

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Hydrology of Himalayas Mountains through gauging of flood and Glaciers Melt historic data hydrographs over selected watersheds under changing climate, Pakistan  

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Mountainous areas of higher altitudes in the northern Pakistan have numerous rivers of great surface runoff during the rainy months and glaciers melt seasons that play a significant role in water resources and hydro-power production. Many of these rivers are unexploited for their water resource potential. If the potential of these rivers are explored, hydro-power production and water supplies in these areas may be improved. The Indus is the mighty river in the Asian countries originating from mountainous area of the Himalayas of Baltistan, Pakistan in which most of the smaller streams and four main rivers drain. Under the larger interest of the economic development of the country, hydrology of these mountainous in northern Pakistan is studied in the perspective of climate change, which includes eight watersheds namely Gilgit, Hunza, Shigar, Shyok, Astore, Jhelum, Swat and Chitral. Available historic data from1960-2005 have been precisely utilized to study the hydrological changes with respect to variability in precipitation, temperature and mean monthly flows, trend of snow melt runoff, daily hydrographs of selected periods (1990 to 1999), water yield and runoff relationship, and flow duration curves. Precipitation from ten meteorological stations in mountainous area of northern Pakistan has not shown uniform distribution of rains but variability in the winter and summer rains is noticed. Review of mean monthly temperature of ten stations suggested that the Upper Indus Basin can be categorized into three hydrological regimes i.e., high altitude catchments with large glacierized parts, middle altitude catchments south of Karakoram, and foothill catchments. A 3-D finite element model (Feflow) has also been used for regional groundwater flow modeling of the Upper Chaj Doab in Indus Basin, Pakistan.

Ahmad, Z.

2013-12-01

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Exotic Lolium perenne Varieties: Their Forage Value and Soil Cover Potential in Himalayas Region  

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Full Text Available Rawalakot lies under humid temperate region at the height of 5500 ft from the sea level. The area is hilly and soils are prone to heavy erosion due to the loss of vegetative cover. Winter frost and snow often kills the local forages and thus depriving the livestock from green herbage altogether. Seven varieties of Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass from European and American germplasm were evaluated for their forage value and soil cover potential under Rawalakot conditions. All varieties compared were diploid (2n = 14. The comparison was based on plant height, fresh and dry matter yield, number of cuttings/ year and tillers plant-1. The variety VA88002 was found to be the best one in plant height and dry and fresh herbage yield followed by SERVO and APUS. When tiller number was compared, the variety APUS was found to be at the top followed by VA88001 and others. All varieties were of spreading nature with increasing persistence in following years and found to be suitable for cutting, grazing and soil conservation

S. D. Ahmad

2001-01-01

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Ethnobotany in the Nepal Himalaya  

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Abstract Background Indigenous knowledge has become recognized worldwide not only because of its intrinsic value but also because it has a potential instrumental value to science and conservation. In Nepal, the indigenous knowledge of useful and medicinal plants has roots in the remote past. Methods The present study reviews the indigenous knowledge and use of plant resources of the Nepal Himalayas along the altitudinal and longitudinal gradient. A total of 264 ...

Bussmann Rainer W; Kunwar Ripu M

2008-01-01

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Potential theory—selected topics  

CERN Document Server

The first part of these lecture notes is an introduction to potential theory to prepare the reader for later parts, which can be used as the basis for a series of advanced lectures/seminars on potential theory/harmonic analysis. Topics covered in the book include minimal thinness, quasiadditivity of capacity, applications of singular integrals to potential theory, L(p)-capacity theory, fine limits of the Nagel-Stein boundary limit theorem and integrability of superharmonic functions. The notes are written for an audience familiar with the theory of integration, distributions and basic functional analysis.

Aikawwa, Hiroaki

1996-01-01

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Feeding of oak (Quercus leucotrichophora) leaves and evaluation for its potential inclusion in the feeding of native heifers of Kumaon Himalaya.  

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After an initial survey on feeds and feeding practices at Kumaon Himalaya, the potential of oak leaves feeding was evaluated in six native heifers (Bos indicus; 101.5 kg BW, 18-24 months) in a partial switch-over design involving two animals each on each treatment at a time. The feeding treatments involved high and low levels of oak leaves (Quercus leucotrichophora, oak leaves (OL)) supplemented to local mixed grass hay (GH) which were GH (G1), GH + low level (42.5 %) of OL (G2) and GH + high level (63.6 %) of OL (G3). The feeding trial for each treatment was conducted for 40 days that ended with a digestibility trial of 6-day duration. The dry matter (DM) intake (kg/day) was non-significantly higher in G3 (3.52) than G2 (3.11) and G1 (2.96). Intake of crude protein (CP) (g/day) was significantly (P higher in both G2 and G3 than G1. The digestibility of DM, CP, organic matter, ether extract and total carbohydrates increased (P higher (P higher (P higher (P < 0.01) than G1. The animals under G1 had negative gain (-50 g/day) compared to 146 and 306 g/day in G2 and G3, respectively. Feeding of OL reduced serum urea and creatinine level and supported serum protein concentration better in G3 compared to G2. The feeding of cattle on GH alone was lacking in both energy and protein for sustaining minimum levels of production, whereas in combination with OL at 36.4:63.6 ratios supported minimum level of production (ADG 300 g) with near nutritional adequacy for major nutrients (CP, DCP, TDN, ME) but with a caution for the minor nutrients like calcium and phosphorus that need to be supplemented. PMID:22576275

Paswan, Vinod Kumar; Sahoo, Artabandhu

2012-12-01

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Export market potential for selected horticultural crops  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper examines the feasibility of utilising an irradiation plant to disinfest fresh fruit and vegetables destined for export markets. It examines the export market potential of selected crops with the prime view of estimating likely trends in export markets in the future. These trends will have a significant bearing on throughput levels, and hence on the economic viability of an ionising energy plant

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Glacial lakes in the Indian Himalayas--from an area-wide glacial lake inventory to on-site and modeling based risk assessment of critical glacial lakes.  

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Glacial lake hazards and glacial lake distributions are investigated in many glaciated regions of the world, but comparably little attention has been given to these topics in the Indian Himalayas. In this study we present a first area-wide glacial lake inventory, including a qualitative classification at 251 glacial lakes >0.01 km(2). Lakes were detected in the five states spanning the Indian Himalayas, and lake distribution pattern and lake characteristics were found to differ significantly between regions. Three glacial lakes, from different geographic and climatic regions within the Indian Himalayas were then selected for a detailed risk assessment. Lake outburst probability, potential outburst magnitudes and associated damage were evaluated on the basis of high-resolution satellite imagery, field assessments and through the use of a dynamic model. The glacial lakes analyzed in the states of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh were found to present moderate risks to downstream villages, whereas the lake in Sikkim severely threatens downstream locations. At the study site in Sikkim, a dam breach could trigger drainage of ca. 16×10(6)m(3) water and generate maximum lake discharge of nearly 7000 m(3) s(-). The identification of critical glacial lakes in the Indian Himalayas and the detailed risk assessments at three specific sites allow prioritizing further investigations and help in the definition of risk reduction actions. PMID:23218457

Worni, Raphael; Huggel, Christian; Stoffel, Markus

2013-12-01

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Forest tree species discrimination in western Himalaya using EO-1 Hyperion  

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The information acquired in the narrow bands of hyperspectral remote sensing data has potential to capture plant species spectral variability, thereby improving forest tree species mapping. This study assessed the utility of spaceborne EO-1 Hyperion data in discrimination and classification of broadleaved evergreen and conifer forest tree species in western Himalaya. The pre-processing of 242 bands of Hyperion data resulted into 160 noise-free and vertical stripe corrected reflectance bands. Of these, 29 bands were selected through step-wise exclusion of bands (Wilk's Lambda). Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithms were applied to the selected bands to assess their effectiveness in classification. SVM was also applied to broadband data (Landsat TM) to compare the variation in classification accuracy. All commonly occurring six gregarious tree species, viz., white oak, brown oak, chir pine, blue pine, cedar and fir in western Himalaya could be effectively discriminated. SVM produced a better species classification (overall accuracy 82.27%, kappa statistic 0.79) than SAM (overall accuracy 74.68%, kappa statistic 0.70). It was noticed that classification accuracy achieved with Hyperion bands was significantly higher than Landsat TM bands (overall accuracy 69.62%, kappa statistic 0.65). Study demonstrated the potential utility of narrow spectral bands of Hyperion data in discriminating tree species in a hilly terrain.

George, Rajee; Padalia, Hitendra; Kushwaha, S. P. S.

2014-05-01

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Methanogens at the top of the world: occurrence and potential activity of methanogens in newly deglaciated soils in high-altitude cold deserts in the Western Himalayas  

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Full Text Available Methanogens typically occur in reduced anoxic environments. However, in recent studies it has been shown that many aerated upland soils, including desert soils also host active methanogens. Here we show that soil samples from high–altitude cold deserts in the western Himalayas (Ladakh, India produce CH4 after incubation as slurry under anoxic conditions at rates comparable to those of hot desert soils. Samples of matured soil from three different vegetation belts (arid, steppe, and subnival were compared with younger soils originating from frontal and lateral moraines of receding glaciers. While methanogenic rates were higher in the samples from matured soils, CH4 was also produced in the samples from the recently deglaciated moraines. In both young and matured soils, those covered by a biological soil crust (biocrust were more active than their bare counterparts. Isotopic analysis showed that in both cases CH4 was initially produced from H2/CO2 but later mostly from acetate. Analysis of the archaeal community in the in situ soil samples revealed a clear dominance of sequences related to Thaumarchaeota, while the methanogenic community comprised only a minor fraction of the archaeal community. Similar to other aerated soils, the methanogenic community was comprised almost solely of the genera Methanosarcina and Methanocella, and possibly also Methanobacterium in some cases. Nevertheless, approximately 103 gdw-1 soil methanogens were already present in the young moraine soil together with cyanobacteria. Our results demonstrate that Methanosarcina and Methanocella not only tolerate atmospheric oxygen but are also able to survive in these harsh cold environments. Their occurrence in newly deglaciated soils shows that they are early colonisers of desert soils, similar to cyanobacteria, and may play a role in the development of desert biocrusts.

RoeyAngel

2013-12-01

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The Wealth of Kashmir Himalaya-Gymnosperms  

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Full Text Available Gymnosperms almost a neglected group of plants in Indian subcontinent especially in Kashmir Himalaya deserves special attention in many respects. Gymnosperm species of the Kashmir Himalaya not only dominate forests-the green gold of the State of Jammu and Kashmir, but are source of diverse economic and medicinal products. The stems, bark, young twigs, leaves, berries, fruits, etc. of gymnosperms are exploited to obtain medicines and other useful products. Many gymnosperm species, such as Taxus wallichiana, Ephedra gerardiana and some Juniperus species if used sustainably can provide chief and effective medicines and at the same time strengthen the States economy. The present study gives a brief account of economic, medicinal and ethno botanical potential of the gymnosperms species of this region. In total 19 species falling in 6 families have been dealt in the present communication. The present study is of paramount importance with respect to bio-prospecting. This effort may serve to awaken the concerned, to be conscious about the wealth we possess and sustainable exploitation of this wealth, which is being at present exploited ruthlessly.

A.R. Dar

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Le cycle sismique en Himalaya  

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We discuss the seismic cycle in the Himalayas and its relation to mountain building on the basis of geodetic, seismological and geological data collected in the Himalaya of Nepal. On average over several seismic cycles, localized slip on a major thrust fault, the Main Himalayan Thrust fault, MHT, accommodates the ˜21 mm·yr -1 convergence rate between southern Tibet and India. The geodetic data show that the MHT is presently locked from the sub-Himalayas to beneath the front of the high range where it roots into a sub-horizontal ductile shear zone under southern Tibet. Aseismic slip during the interseismic period induces stress accumulation at the southern edge of this shear zone triggering intense microseismic activity and elastic straining of the upper crust at the front of the high range. This deformation is released, on the long term, by major earthquakes on the MHT. Such an event is the Mw 8.4-1934-earthquake that ruptured a 250-300-km long segment. The major seismic events along the Himalayas since the 19th century have released more than 70% of the crustal strain accumulated over that period, suggesting that, if any, aseismic slip on the MHT cannot account for more than 30% of the total slip.

Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Bollinger, Laurent; Lavé, Jérôme; Cattin, Rodolphe; Flouzat, Mireille

2001-11-01

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Preliminary Selection of Potential Lines of Soybean  

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Full Text Available Twelve advanced exotic lines of soybean; AGS-194, NS-82-5250, Ciangman, Duiker, AGS-5, Sprito, Platte, Exp-15, Ocepar, PR-16, Decada and M-83-104 were tested for adaptability and high yield performance. Beans yield and their characteristics; days to maturity and plant height, pods per plant and 100-seeds weight, were significantly different among years and inter lines competition. An advanced line Sprito out yielded (> 3000 kg ha-1 compared to other lines, therefore, picked up for National Uniform Yield Trials for wider adaptability. Lines; PR-16, Decada, AGS-5 and Ciangman were the second highest performers with bean yield of 2500 to 3000 kg ha-1 and selected for Intermediate Yield Trials for further evaluation. Fortunately, two line; Duiker and Exp-15 showed early maturing characters that could be crossed with high yielding lines in near future breeding programme.

Mansab A. Khokhar

2002-01-01

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Plate tectonic interpretation of the Western Himalaya  

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The Western Himalaya, which includes the regions of Kumaun, Garhwal, Himachal, Jammu and Kashmir in India displays a complete cross-section of the Himalayan orogenic belt encompassing the principal tectonic zones of Outer Himalaya, Lesser Himalaya, Higher Himalaya, Tethys Himalaya, and Trans Himalaya. The rock formations of the Lesser Himalaya, which are correlatable to those of the northern part of the Indian Peninsular shield, represent deposits on the northern edge of the Indian craton. The Phanerozoic sequence of the Tethys Himalaya zone is interpreted as representing sedimentary deposits of the continental margin. The Central Crystallines of the Higher Himalaya zone, underlying the Phanerozoic sequence of the Tethys Himalaya zone, have been exposed in their present position as a result of uplift and southward movement along the Main Central Thrust. The Trans-Himalaya zone consists of the Indus Suture, Ladakh magmatic arc, Shyok Suture and Karakoram subzones. The Nidar ophiolite and the Shergol and Zildat ophiolitic melanges of the Indus Suture are the tectonised remnants of the Tethys ocean floor. The Ladakh plutonic complex, the Dras volcanics and other related Cretaceous volcanics belong to the plutonic-volcanic series of the Ladakh magmatic arc. The Shyok Suture is interpreted as a back-arc basin, and the Palaeozoic-Mesozoic sequence of the Karakoram subzone represents continental margin deposits of the Karakoram block. The molasse sedimentary deposits of the Outer Himalaya zone are interpreted as representing post-collision sedimentation in a trough that developed in front of the rising Himalaya. The tectonic evolution of Northwestern Himalaya has been involved in the following sequence of events. (a) Subduction of the Indian oceanic plate under the Karakoram (Tibet) block in the Cretaceous, giving rise to the Ladakh magmatic arc and arc-trench gap sedimentation. (b) Collision of the Indian plate with the Ladakh magmatic arc in the middle Eocene forming the Indus palaeosubduction zone. (c) Closure of the Shyok back-arc basin and collision of the Ladakh magmatic arc with the Karakoram block. (d) Suturing of the lithospheric blocks as a result of collision. The penetrative and non-penetrative deformation, regional metamorphism, generation of S-type granites in the Higher Himalaya zone and the formation of nappes and thrusts owe their origin to crustal shortening in the Oligocene-Miocene.

Thakur, Vikram C.

1987-03-01

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Quantifying sand provenance and erosion (Marsyandi River, Nepal Himalaya)  

Science.gov (United States)

We use petrographic and mineralogical data on modern sediments to investigate erosion patterns in the Marsyandi basin of the central Himalaya, a privileged natural laboratory in which a series of multidisciplinary geomorphological, sedimentological, geochemical and geochronological studies have been recently carried out to unravel the interrelationships between tectonic, climatic and sedimentary processes in high-relief orogenic belts. Although relative erosion patterns are effectively constrained by analyses of replicate samples along six successive tracts of the Marsyandi River, uncertainties are caused by potential compositional variation between the monsoon and post-monsoon season. Estimates of erosion rates are significantly affected by poor knowledge of total sediment flux through the basin. Our results support focused erosion of the southern, tectonically-lower part of the Greater Himalaya in the hangingwall of the MCT Zone, where the summer monsoon reaches its peak intensity (up to 5 m/a), and sediment yields and erosion rates reach 14,100 ± 3400 t/km 2 and 5.1 ± 1.2 mm/a. Erosion rates sharply decrease southward in low-relief Lesser Himalayan units (1.6 ± 0.6 mm/a), and also progressively decrease northwards in the high-altitude, tectonically-upper part of the Greater Himalaya, where rainfall decreases rapidly to erosion rates (2.4 ±0.9 mm/a), because precipitations become too scarce to feed significant ice flux and glacial activity. Monsoonal rainfall decreases further to erosion rates are ˜ 1 mm/a. Coupling between erosion and peak monsoonal rainfall along the southern front of the Greater Himalaya is consistent with both channel-flow models of tectonic extrusion and tectonic uplift above a mid-crustal ramp. Altitude and relief are not the principal factors controlling erosion, and the central Nepal eight-thousanders may be viewed as topographic anomalies in cold desert climate at the southern edge of the Tibetan rain shadow.

Garzanti, Eduardo; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Andò, Sergio; Lavé, Jérôme; Attal, Mikaël; France-Lanord, Christian; DeCelles, Peter

2007-06-01

25

Determination of Half-wave Potentials of Selected Chlorophenols  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in english Cyclic voltammetry was used in cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) micellar solution to determine the half-wave potentials of selected chlorophenols, CPs. It is observed that all the electrochemical parameters of the studied CPs decrease with an increase in the number of chlorine atom(s) attached [...] to the parent compound. The mathematical relationship between the obtained E1/2 and the number of chlorine atoms in the parent compound is given. The formal potentials, E0', of the CPs are approximated from the obtained half-wave potentials.

M.O., Iwunze; B., Abel.

2012-09-01

26

Wind energy potential in selected areas in Jordan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? This paper investigates the potential of producing wind power. ? Four locations are selected for wind power generation. ? The payback period is calculated and found reasonable. ? This study reveals that the total rated wind power that can be generated from the four selected wind farms is 136 MW. ? On the other hand, the expected total energy that can be produced from the four selected wind farms is 18.9 × 103 GW h. - Abstract: The present paper investigates the potential of wind energy in selected areas in Jordan. The aim of this work is to set up promising wind farms that are able to feed electricity to the Jordanian distribution authority with excellent percentage of clean energy. There are some particular locations in Jordan where the wind potential is very promising for economical electrical power generation. Four of these promising locations are investigated in this paper for the possibility of building and investing 100 MW wind turbine in each of these four locations. The environmental data needed to perform the present study are obtained from the local Meteorological department. The suggested wind turbines to be implemented in each of the four locations are selected from the international rating and specification catalogues of wind turbine manufacturers. This study reveals that the total rated wind power that can be generated from the four selected wind farms is 136 MW. On the other hand, the expected total energy that can bepected total energy that can be produced from the four selected wind farms is 18.9 × 103 GW h.

27

Estimating the potential for in-line hydropower in the Himalayas: from global remote sensing data to local flow duration curves  

Science.gov (United States)

Adopting multi-use systems in rural water infrastructure is a promising strategy to improve the sustainability of water utilities. For example, in-line hydropower - an infrastructure concept that combines water supply and micro-hydropower - has been successfully implemented in Switzerland for a century. Net profit from electricity is used to cross-subsidize water supply, improving the financial sustainability of water utilities. The concept is transferable to mountainous regions of developing countries, where it promises to alleviate the financial constraints that currently inhibit water supply development. Yet field attempts are missing to evaluate the success of trial in-line hydropower implementations, and a dearth of distributed hydrological and meteorological data complicates evaluations of the potential for future development. In this context, remote sensing offers a powerful technique to overcome data-scarcity issues in developing nations to facilitate the development of appropriate water supply technology. To utilize remotely sensed data for infrastructure planning, however, downscaling and regionalization challenges have to be addressed, especially in the mountainous regions where in-line hydropower would be applicable. Nepal offers an excellent test-bed to explore the potential for incorporating remote-sensing data into water resources planning. Here we present initial downscaling of TRMM daily precipitation data to a 5 x 5 km grid, including bias correction and explicit consideration of elevation effects. Several complementary approaches, including fractal downscaling, statistical downscaling and CDF-matching bias correction are evaluated through a cross-validation process. The results are used to drive different regionalization approaches for flow duration curves of Nepalese rivers. Finally, the relevance of in-line hydropower in rural mountainous communities is briefly discussed, based on feasibility assessments recently conducted in Central Nepal.

Muller, M. F.; Thompson, S. E.; Hermanowicz, S. W.; Jordan, F.

2012-12-01

28

Potential probiotic attributes and antagonistic activity of an indigenous isolate Lactobacillus plantarum DM5 from an ethnic fermented beverage "Marcha" of north eastern Himalayas.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel isolate DM5 identified as Lactobacillus plantarum displayed in vitro probiotic properties as well as antimicrobial activity. It showed adequate level of survival to the harsh conditions of the gastrointestinal tract and survived low acidic pH 2.5 for 5?h. Artificial gastric juice and intestinal fluidic environment decreased the initial viable cell population of isolate DM5 only by 7% and 13%, respectively, while lysozyme (200?µg/ml) and bile salt (0.5%) enhanced its growth. It was found to deconjugate taurodeoxycholic acid, indicating its potential to reduce hypercholesterolemia. Isolate DM5 demonstrated cell surface hydrophobicity of 53% and autoaggregation of 54% which are the prerequisite for adhesion to epithelial cells and colonization to host. Bacteriocin activity of isolate was found to be 6400?AU/ml as it inhibited the growth of food borne pathogens Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Alcaligenes faecalis. The bactericidal action of bacteriocin from isolate was analyzed by flow cytometry, rendering its use as prospective probiotic and starter culture in food industry. PMID:24393040

Das, Deeplina; Goyal, Arun

2014-05-01

29

A Cryosphere Monitoring Project in the Himalayas  

Science.gov (United States)

The Cryosphere Monitoring Project (CMP) has been initiated by ICIMOD (International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development) with the aim to gain more knowledge about the cryosphere in the Himalayas and to build capacities in Nepalese organisations. The CMP is carried out in collaboration with the Kathmandu University, Tribhuvan University, the Department of Hydrology and Meteorology and the Water and Energy Commission Secretariat, and is sponsored by the Royal Norwegian Embassy. The CMP has a multilevel and integrative approach and consists of the following five components: (1) glacier monitoring, (2) assessment of current and future water resources at catchment and sub-basin scale, (3) multi-level remote sensing based observations for glacier and snow monitoring, (4) strengthening ICIMOD as regional knowledge hub for cryospheric information, (5) capacity building of Nepalese organisations. The glacier monitoring component includes field-based mass balance, geometry and glacier flow measurements on two clean and one debris-covered glacier and their analysis, as well as snow cover measurements. The in-situ glacier measurements promote process understanding, provide a refined temporal resolution of mass balance data and data for calibration of glacio-hydrological models. To assess current water resources, meteorological and hydrological measurements are initiated and the run-off is calculated with glacio-hydrological and snow-melt models for the catchments of the selected glaciers. Future water availability will be assessed by down-scaling regional climate model (RCM) data that is applied to the glacio-hydrological model. Remote sensing data is used to improve spatial information about the glacier distribution by refining glacier inventories, and to calculate the geodetic mass balance for the selected glaciers to complement the directly measured glacier mass balance. Additionally, the operation of a MODIS satellite receiving station is planned to obtain near real time snow cover data for the entire Hindu Kush-Himalayas. The Cryosphere Knowledge Hub will be realised with a interactive web-based platform, regular bulletin board services and workshops to ensure knowledge sharing especially within the Hindu Kush-Himalayan region. Capacity building of Nepalese organisations is implemented by the setup of a MSc programme for Research in Glaciology at Kathmandu University for twenty students, which are trained together with staff from governmental organisations in field measurements, glacio-hydrological modelling and remote sensing techniques. The integrative approach of the project ensures a long-term and sustainable monitoring of the cryosphere on several strategic levels.

Stumm, D.; Mool, P. K.; Shresta, A. B.; Joshi, S. P.; Bajracharya, S. R.; Kayastha, R. B.; Devkota, L. P.; Bajracharya, O. R.

2011-12-01

30

Changes in Rongbuk lake and Imja lake in the Everest region of Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

The Himalaya holds the world record in terms of range and elevation. It is one of the most extensively glacierized regions in the world except the Polar Regions. The Himalaya is a region sensitive to climate change. Changes in the glacial regime are indicators of global climate changes. Since the second half of the last century, most Himalayan glaciers have melted due to climate change. These changes directly affected the changes of glacial lakes in the Himalayan region due to the glacier retreat. New glacial lakes are formed, and a number of them have expanded in the Everest region of the Himalayas. This paper focuses on the two glacial lakes which are Imja Lake, located at the southern slope, and Rongbuk Lake, located at the northern slope in the Mt. Everest region, Himalaya to present the spatio-temporal changes from 1976 to 2008. Topographical conditions between two lakes were different (Kruskal-Wallis test, p radiation of Rongbuk Lake was higher than the Imja Lake. Although size of Imja Lake was larger than the Rongbuk Lake in 2008, the growth speed of Rongbuk Lake was accelerating since 2000 and exceeds Imja Lake in 2000-2008. This trend of expansion of Rongbuk Lake is anticipated to be continued in the 21st century. Rongbuk Lake would be the biggest potential risk of glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) at the Everest region of Himalaya in the future.

Chen, W.; Doko, T.; Liu, C.; Ichinose, T.; Fukui, H.; Feng, Q.; Gou, P.

2014-12-01

31

Recent Language Contact in the Nepal Himalaya  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The author examines the conducts and relations between the different language families in Nepalese Himalaya region. The Nepal Himalayas have been the scene of extensive linguistic contact over a considerable period. Languages of different genetic phyla, in particular Indo-European and Tibeto-Burman, have been involved, but so have languages within the Tibeto-Burman phylum representing different stocks with differing typological characteristics. Indeed, the long periods of contact between spea...

Noonan, Michael

2003-01-01

32

Natural selection among Kinnaura of the Himalayan highland: A comparative analysis with other Indian and Himalayan populations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present investigation on fertility and mortality differential among Kinnaura of the Himalayan highland is based on data collected from 160 post-menopausal women belonging to the middle and high altitude region of Kinnaur district of Himachal Pradesh (Indian Himalayas). Selection potential based on differential fertility and mortality was computed for middle- and high-altitude women. Irrespective of the methodology, the total index of selection was found to be highest among middle-altitude...

Gautam Rajesh; Kapoor Anup; Kshatriya G

2009-01-01

33

Tectonic control on topographic and exhumational segmentation of the Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the Himalayan range is commonly presented as cylindrical along-strike, geological structures, topography, precipitation, and exhumation rates as recorded by low-temperature thermochronology data all vary significantly from west to east. In particular, segments of the belt that are characterized by a clear topographic step between the Lesser and Higher Himalaya, associated with a peak in precipitation and focused exhumation (e.g. central Nepal, Himachal Pradesh) alternate with segments where the topography increases more linearly to the north, precipitation peaks at lower elevations and exhumation rates appear to be lower (e.g. western Nepal, Bhutan). The potential climatic or tectonic controls on these spatially variable topographic, precipitation and exhumational patterns have been widely discussed in recent years but remain unclear. The topographic step focussing rapid exhumation has been variably interpreted as being controlled by material movement over a mid-crustal ramp in the Himalayan basal detachment system (the Main Himalayan Thrust or MHT), or by recent out-of-sequence thrusting possibly triggered by strong erosional unloading. We have recently shown that the pattern of exhumation across the central Nepal Himalaya, as recorded by apatite fission-track thermochronology data, can be fit without invoking out-of-sequence thrusting and that the age pattern provides independent constraints on the geometry of the MHT. Inverting published low-temperature thermochronological datasets for west-central Nepal, east-central Nepal and the Bhutan Himalaya shows that lateral variations in the geometry of the MHT (in particular the presence or absence of a major mid-crustal ramp) strongly control the kinematics, exhumation history and the topography of the orogen. Where a major crustal ramp is present, the topography shows a steep gradient that focuses exhumation and orographic precipitation whereas the topography is gentler and exhumation less focused in the absence of a ramp. Our results therefore imply that along-strike climatic variations in the Himalaya respond to tectonics rather than driving it. The presence or absence of a mid-crustal ramp may be due to inherited structures on the underthrusting Indian Plate or, alternatively, may reflect transient behaviour of the accreting Lesser Himalayan thrust stack, which may oscillate between frontal accretion (without a ramp) or basal accretion in the presence of a ramp.

van der Beek, P.; Robert, X.; Mercier, J.; Braun, J.

2012-04-01

34

Remote sensing and GIS techniques for assessing decadal glacier changes in the Sikkim and Nepal Himalayas  

Science.gov (United States)

There is urgency in developing and testing remote sensing tools for developing extensive glacier datasets in high altitude areas of the Himalayas. Detailed information about glacier parameters is missing in many areas of the Himalayas, limiting our understanding of glacier fluctuations in this area. One of the biggest challenges in glacier mapping from spaceborne imagery is the delineation of debris-covered glacial tongues. The high Himalayas provide interesting challenges and unique opportunities for testing glacier mapping algorithms including debris cover. This research exploits the potential of visible, infrared and thermal ASTER data combined with SRTM elevation datasets for mapping glacier parameters (glacier area, elevations and snow lines) in the Himalayas. Multi-spectral classification techniques (ASTER ¾ band ratios and normalized differences NDSI and NDVI), single band thresholds, topographic characteristics (elevation and slope) and thermal information were combined in a decision tree to map clean ice and debris-covered ice. Snow lines were mapped from ASTER imagery acquired at the end of the ablation season, with instrument gains suitable for snow and ice. Ground control points (GCPs) collected in the field were used to assess the accuracy of the remote sensing-derived elevations. Changes in glacier parameters were derived by comparison with glacier datasets from older topographic maps and were linked with changes in climate parameters (precipitation and temperature).

Racoviteanu, A.

2009-04-01

35

The role of glaciers in stream flow from the Nepal Himalaya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent concerns related to the potential impacts of the retreat of Himalayan glaciers on the hydrology of rivers originating in the catchment basins of the Himalaya have been accompanied by few analyses describing the role of glaciers in the hydrologic regime of these mountains. This is, at least in part, a result of the relative inaccessibility of the glaciers of the Himalaya, at altitudes generally between 4000–7000 m, and the extreme logistical difficulties of: 1 reaching the glaciers, and 2 conducting meaningful research once they have been reached. It is apparent that an alternative to traditional "Alpine" glaciology is required in the mountains of the Hindu Kush-Himalaya region. The objectives of the study discussed here have been to develop methodologies that will begin to quantify the role of complete glacier systems in the hydrologic regime of the Nepal Himalaya, and to develop estimates of the potential impact of a continued retreat of these glacier, based on the use of disaggregated low-altitude data bases, topography derived from satellite imagery, and simple process models of water and energy exchange in mountain regions.

While the extent of mesoscale variability has not been established by studies to date, it is clear that the dominant control on the hydrologic regime of the tributaries to the Ganges Basin from the eastern Himalaya is the interaction between the summer monsoon and the 8000 m of topographic relief represented by the Himalayan wall. All the available evidence indicates that the gradient of specific runoff with altitude resulting from this interaction is moderately to strongly curvilinear, with maximum runoff occurring at mid-altitudes, and minima at the altitudinal extremes. At the upper minimum of this gradient, Himalayan glaciers exist in what has been characterized as an "arctic desert".

The methodologies developed for this study involve the relationship between area-altitude distributions of catchment basins and glaciers, based on Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM3 data and water and energy exchange gradients. Based on these methodologies, it is estimated that the contribution of glacier annual melt water to annual stream flow into the Ganges Basin from the glacierized catchments of the Nepal Himalaya represents approximately 4% of the total annual stream flow volume of the rivers of Nepal, and thus, is a minor component of the annual flow of the Ganges River. The models developed for this study indicate that neither stream flow timing nor volume of the rivers flowing into the Ganges Basin from Nepal will be affected materially by a continued retreat of the glaciers of the Nepal Himalaya.

D. Alford

2010-04-01

36

The role of glaciers in stream flow from the Nepal Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent concerns related to the potential impacts of the retreat of Himalayan glaciers on the hydrology of rivers originating in the catchment basins of the Himalaya have been accompanied by few analyses describing the role of glaciers in the hydrologic regime of these mountains. This is, at least in part, a result of the relative inaccessibility of the glaciers of the Himalaya, at altitudes generally between 4000-7000 m, and the extreme logistical difficulties of: 1) reaching the glaciers, and 2) conducting meaningful research once they have been reached. It is apparent that an alternative to traditional "Alpine" glaciology is required in the mountains of the Hindu Kush-Himalaya region. The objectives of the study discussed here have been to develop methodologies that will begin to quantify the role of complete glacier systems in the hydrologic regime of the Nepal Himalaya, and to develop estimates of the potential impact of a continued retreat of these glacier, based on the use of disaggregated low-altitude data bases, topography derived from satellite imagery, and simple process models of water and energy exchange in mountain regions. While the extent of mesoscale variability has not been established by studies to date, it is clear that the dominant control on the hydrologic regime of the tributaries to the Ganges Basin from the eastern Himalaya is the interaction between the summer monsoon and the 8000 m of topographic relief represented by the Himalayan wall. All the available evidence indicates that the gradient of specific runoff with altitude resulting from this interaction is moderately to strongly curvilinear, with maximum runoff occurring at mid-altitudes, and minima at the altitudinal extremes. At the upper minimum of this gradient, Himalayan glaciers exist in what has been characterized as an "arctic desert". The methodologies developed for this study involve the relationship between area-altitude distributions of catchment basins and glaciers, based on Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM3) data and water and energy exchange gradients. Based on these methodologies, it is estimated that the contribution of glacier annual melt water to annual stream flow into the Ganges Basin from the glacierized catchments of the Nepal Himalaya represents approximately 4% of the total annual stream flow volume of the rivers of Nepal, and thus, is a minor component of the annual flow of the Ganges River. The models developed for this study indicate that neither stream flow timing nor volume of the rivers flowing into the Ganges Basin from Nepal will be affected materially by a continued retreat of the glaciers of the Nepal Himalaya.

Alford, D.; Armstrong, R.

2010-04-01

37

Uranium and radon surveys in Siwalik Himalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Integrated measurements of radon in subsurface soil and groundwater are being used for uranium exploration and earthquake prediction. It is well established that large scale mobilization of uranium and radium is carried out by Himalayan rivers which are major sources of radioactivity on the Indian ocean. Our laboratory has been engaged in uranium/thorium estimation and radon studies in the Siwalik Himalaya since 1980, using scintillometry, track-etch technique, surface barrier silicon-junction detectors and pulse ionisation counters (alpha-loggers). Fission track technique and alpha autoradiography is also used to reveal uranium anomalies in geological samples of the area. Siwalik vertebrate fossil bones from Saharanpur (U.P.), Naraiangarh (Haryana) and Nalagarh (H.P.) show anomalously high uranium content variation from 93.8 to 418 ppm which is a riddle for geochemists. The daily and long term variation of radon was monitored in Siwalik Himalaya since 1989 under a Department of Science and Technology (DST) sponsored project. The effect of meteorological parameters on radon emanation is also studied. Radon results are correlated by the gamma activity and in situ uranium content in the soil of the area. The maximum values of radon are recorded in Chhinjra, Rameda, Kasol and Samurkalan areas of Himachal Pradesh. Results indicate that there is a need to undertake epidemiological study correlating cancer risk with high radon values in the Siwalik Himalaya. (author)s in the Siwalik Himalaya. (author)

38

Evolution of earthquake-triggered landslides in the Kashmir Himalaya, northern Pakistan  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of the 08 October 2005 Kashmir earthquake and subsequent snow melt and monsoon rainfall on slope stability was evaluated using repeat photography in the Kashmir Himalaya of northern Pakistan. Sixty-eight landslide-affected locations were selected and photographed in November 2005, May/June 2006, June 2007, and August 2007 to evaluate all potential geomorphic changes. Eighty percent of the locations showed no or very little change, 11% of the locations showed a partial vegetation recovery on the slopes, while 9% showed an increase in the landslide area. All those locations that showed an increase in landsliding were located along rivers and/or roads. The small change in landslide extent is remarkable given that the region experienced one of the heaviest monsoon seasons in the last decade and is counter to earlier predictions of accelerated slope erosion by landsliding in the immediate years following the earthquake. Extensive fissures and ground cracks at many localities, however, still present a potential of future landsliding under wetter conditions. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Khattak, G.A.; Owen, L.A.; Kamp, U.; Harp, E.L.

2010-01-01

39

The economics of reducing emissions from community managed forests in Nepal Himalaya  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The climate change agenda is more important in global politics today than ever before. This research set out to examine whether community forest management (CFM) can play a signifi cant role in reducing global emissions, by taking Nepal’s community forestry sector as a case. The thesis selects three community managed forests in Nepal’s Himalaya region to investigate the extent to which management of such forests by the local communities can successfully contribute towards ...

Karky, Bhaskar Singh

2008-01-01

40

Interseismic deformation in the Nepal Himalaya from GPS data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The velocity of interseismic convergence through the Nepal Himalaya - essential parameter in the study of the seismic cycle - is discussed since several years. To constrain this velocity, we have successfully combined geodetic data from campaign GPS surveys, cGPS stations and DORIS stations to determine the plate motion of India and contemporary crustal strain across Nepal Himalaya. The pattern of crustal deformation across the Eastern and Central Himalaya, impliesthat the MHT is locked...

Bettinelli, Pierre

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Atmospheric carbonaceous aerosols from Indo-Gangetic Plain and Central Himalaya: impact of anthropogenic sources.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present-day scenario of growing anthropogenic activities, carbonaceous aerosols contribute significantly (?20-70%) to the total atmospheric particulate matter mass and, thus, have immense potential to influence the Earth's radiation budget and climate on a regional to global scale. In addition, formation of secondary organic aerosols is being increasingly recognized as an important process in contributing to the air-pollution and poor visibility over urban regions. It is, thus, essential to study atmospheric concentrations of carbonaceous species (EC, OC and WSOC), their mixing state and absorption properties on a regional scale. This paper presents the comprehensive data on emission sources, chemical characteristics and optical properties of carbonaceous aerosols from selected urban sites in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) and from a high-altitude location in the central Himalaya. The mass concentrations of OC, EC and WSOC exhibit large spatio-temporal variability in the IGP. This is attributed to seasonally varying emissions from post-harvest agricultural-waste burning, their source strength, boundary layer dynamics and secondary aerosol formation. The high concentrations of OC and SO4(2-), and their characteristic high mass scattering efficiency, contribute significantly to the aerosol optical depth and scattering coefficient. This has implications to the assessment of single scattering albedo and aerosol radiative forcing on a regional scale. PMID:25199599

Ram, Kirpa; Sarin, M M

2015-01-15

42

Carbon allocation, sequestration and carbon dioxide mitigation under plantation forests of north western Himalaya, India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The organic carbon and soils of the world comprise bulk of the terrestrial carbon and serve as amajorsink and source of atmospheric carbon. Increasing atmospheric concentrations of green house gases may be mitigated by increasing carbon sequestration in vegetation and soil. The study attempted to estimate biomass production and carbon sequestration potential of different plantation ecosystems in north western Himalaya, India. Biomass, carbon density of biomass, soil, detritus, carbon se...

Bandana Devi; Bhardwaj, D. R.; Pankaj Panwar; Sharmistha Pal; Gupta, N. K.; Thakur, C. L.

2013-01-01

43

Selective effects of an octopus toxin on action potentials.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. A lethal, water soluble toxin (Maculotoxin, MTX) with a molecular weight less than 540, can be extracted from the salivary glands of an octopus (Hapalochlaena maculosa).2. MTX blocks action potentials in sartorius muscle fibres of toads without affecting the membrane potential. Delayed rectification is not inhibited by the toxin.3. At low concentrations (10(-6)-10(-5) g/ml.) MTX blocks action potentials only after a certain number have been elicited. The number of action potentials, which can be defined accurately, depends on the concentration of MTX and the concentration of sodium ions in the extracellular solution.4. The toxin has no post-synaptic effect at the neuromuscular junction and it is concluded that it blocks neuromuscular transmission by inhibiting action potentials in motor nerve terminals. PMID:4330930

Dulhunty, A; Gage, P W

1971-10-01

44

Potential of Air-Propelled Abrasives for Selective Weed Control  

Science.gov (United States)

Novel forms of selective weed control are needed by many types of growers, but especially organic growers who are restricted from using synthetic herbicides. Abrasive grit made from corn cobs was expelled from a sand blaster at 517 kPa pressure and aimed at seedlings of common lambsquarters and corn...

45

The Diversity Potential of Relay Selection with Practical Channel Estimation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigate the diversity order of decode-and-forward relay selection in Nakagami-m fading, in cases where practical channel estimation techniques are applied. In this respect, we introduce a unified model for the imperfect channel estimates, where the effects of noise, time-varying channels, and feedback delays are jointly considered. Based on this model, the correlation between the actual and the estimated channel values, \\rho, is expressed as a function of the signal-t...

Michalopoulos, Diomidis S.; Chatzidiamantis, Nestor D.; Schober, Robert; Karagiannidis, George K.

2011-01-01

46

A study of algal biomass potential in selected Canadian regions.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A dynamic assessment model has been developed for evaluating the potential algal biomass and extracted biocrude productivity and costs, using nutrient and water resources available from waste streams in four regions of Canada (western British Columbia, Alberta oil fields, southern Ontario, and Nova Scotia). The purpose of this model is to help identify optimal locations in Canada for algae cultivation and biofuel production. The model uses spatially referenced data across the four regions for nitrogen and phosphorous loads in municipal wastewaters, and CO{sub 2} in exhaust streams from a variety of large industrial sources. Other data inputs include land cover, and solar insolation. Model users can develop estimates of resource potential by manipulating model assumptions in a graphic user interface, and updated results are viewed in real time. Resource potential by location can be viewed in terms of biomass production potential, potential CO{sub 2} fixed, biocrude production potential, and area required. The cost of producing algal biomass can be estimated using an approximation of the distance to move CO{sub 2} and water to the desired land parcel and an estimation of capital and operating costs for a theoretical open pond facility. Preliminary results suggest that in most cases, the CO{sub 2} resource is plentiful compared to other necessary nutrients (especially nitrogen), and that siting and prospects for successful large-scale algae cultivation efforts in Canada will be driven by availability of those other nutrients and the efficiency with which they can be used and re-used. Cost curves based on optimal possible siting of an open pond system are shown. The cost of energy for maintaining optimal growth temperatures is not considered in this effort, and additional research in this area, which has not been well studied at these latitudes, will be important in refining the costs of algal biomass production. The model will be used by NRC-IMB Canada to identify promising locations for both demonstration and pilot-scale algal cultivation projects, including the production potential of using wastewater, and potential land use considerations.

Passell, Howard David; Roach, Jesse Dillon; Klise, Geoffrey T.

2011-11-01

47

Indo-Asian collision in the Sikkim-Bhutan Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

Compared to the central Himalaya, the seismogenic potential of Bhutan has been enigmatic due to its lower than average background seismicity, the absence of a reliable historical record, and its unusual location near the Shillong plateau, where a Mw=8.1 earthquake in 1897 resulted in ?10 m of N/S shortening of the Indian plate to its south. The GPS velocity field measured thrice between 2003 and 2012 provides new insights that permit us to constrain details of loading and collisional geometry. We find that a 90±10 km wide décollement below Sikkim and Bhutan is being loaded at rates of 20±2 mm/year. The locking line lies at approximately 20 km depth and, as in the Himalaya to the west, approximately follows the smoothed 3.5 km contour. Convergence across the Shillong plateau is less than 7 mm/yr. The GPS data suggest that the Brahmaputra valley is rotating clockwise at 0.02±0.1 rad/yr, which is inferred to have the effect of reducing the stressing rate in the Aranuchal Himal. Although a small circle closely defines the Himalayan arc west of 87°E, the Sikkim-Bhutan Himalaya can be approximated by a 500 km linear east-west segment between 87°E and 92°E, terminated by a 10°± change in strike near the 1934 rupture in the west, and by a 20° change in strike at the start of the 400-km-long Arunachal Pradesh segment to the east. Paleoseismic studies to the east and west of Bhutan suggest that a great earthquake may have ruptured this 500 km segment of the arc with 18 m of slip c.1100 AD (Kumar et al., 2011) suggesting that the current slip deficit may be close to that which prevailed before the 1100 earthquake. Thus if no intervening great earthquake has occurred in the Bhutan Himalaya since 1100, the 500 km x100 km area Sikkim/Bhutan segment could slip 18 m at present in a 8.6

Vernant, P.; Drukpa, D.; Pelgay, P.; Bhattacharya, A.; Szeliga, W. M.; Bilham, R. G.

2012-12-01

48

The Diversity Potential of Relay Selection with Practical Channel Estimation  

CERN Document Server

We investigate the diversity order of decode-and-forward relay selection in Nakagami-m fading, in cases where practical channel estimation techniques are applied. In this respect, we introduce a unified model for the imperfect channel estimates, where the effects of noise, time-varying channels, and feedback delays are jointly considered. Based on this model, the correlation between the actual and the estimated channel values, \\rho, is expressed as a function of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), yielding closed-form expressions for the overall outage probability as a function of \\rho. The resulting diversity order and power gain reveal a high dependence of the performance of relay selection on the high SNR behavior of \\rho, thus shedding light onto the effect of channel estimation on the overall performance. It is shown that when the channel estimates are not frequently updated in applications involving time-varying channels, or when the amount of power allocated for channel estimation is not sufficiently high...

Michalopoulos, Diomidis S; Schober, Robert; Karagiannidis, George K

2011-01-01

49

Black carbon aerosols over the Himalayas: direct and surface albedo forcing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Absorbing aerosols such as black carbon (BC or dust over high-altitude Himalayan regions have potential implications on the regional climate and hydrological cycle over South Asia. Making use of extensive measurements of atmospheric BC from several Himalayan stations, an assessment of radiative forcing due to direct and snow-albedo darkening is examined. Generally, BC concentration in the atmosphere peaks during pre-monsoon season over the Himalayas and the climatological mean of atmospheric BC over Hanle (western Himalayas, 4.5?km msl and Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (central Himalayas, 5?km msl are 106±27?ng m?3 and 190±95?ng m?3, respectively. Based on the optical and physical properties of composite aerosols measured at Hanle, clear sky direct radiative forcing (DRF at the top of the atmosphere is estimated as 1.69?W m?2 over snow surface and ?1.54?W m?2 over sandy surface during pre-monsoon season. The estimated amount of BC in the snow varied from 117 to 1.7?µg kg?1 for wide range of dry deposition velocities (0.01–0.054?cm s?1 of BC, snow depth (2–10?cm and snow densities (195–512?kg m?3. Using a size-resolved wet scavenging parametrisation, the amount of BC on snow due to wet scavenging is estimated as 29?µg kg?1 for an accumulated snow depth of 27?cm. For the range of 10–200?µg kg?1 of BC in snow, the diurnally averaged forcing due to snow darkening has been found to vary from 0.87 to 10.2?W m?2 for fresh snow and from 2.6 to 28.1?W m?2 for the aged snow, which is significantly higher than the DRF. The direct and surface albedo radiative forcing could lead to significant warming over the Himalayas during pre-monsoon.

Vijayakumar S. Nair

2013-09-01

50

Metabolic Potential of the Deep Subseafloor at Selected Convergent Margins  

Science.gov (United States)

The cold subseafloor is an extreme environment in which microbial metabolism appears to operate slowly but persistently over space and time. At convergent margins, subseafloor microbial communities experience diffuse flow of aqueous fluids through sediment interstices and variable flow of deeply sourced, advecting fluids. When these fluids mix, geochemical disequilibria are established, and may serve as energy sources in microbial metabolism. This study contrasts the metabolic potential of four near trench sedimentary environments associated with the Costa Rica, Cascadia, Nankai, and Izu-Bonin-Marianas subduction zones, which span much of the global range of water depths (~ 2500 to ~ 5800 m) and thermal structure (heat flow at seafloor ~ 15 to ~ 140 mW/m2) outboard of subduction zones. Geochemical data (pH, NH4+, Na+, K+, Fe2+, Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3-, Cl-, SO42-, SiO2 (aq), CH4 (aq), H2 (aq), PO43-, HS-, and CH3COO-) collected during Ocean Drilling Program Legs 146, 170, 185, 190, and 201 are used in Gibbs free energy minimization calculations to model the bioenergetic potential of key metabolic reactions. At the four sites, pH values are 7.3-8.2, alkalinity values are 1 to 24 mM, and sulfate values are 0 to 30 mM. Notable site-specific differences exist in NH4+ (ranging two orders of magnitude in concentration) and salinity (with reported values up to 40 psu at Izu). The specific reactions considered are: (1) CO2 driven methanogenesis, (2) acetate driven methanogenesis, (3) methanotrophy coupled to sulfate reduction, (4) acetate oxidation coupled to sulfate reduction, (5) acetate oxidation coupled with nitrate reduction, (6) acetate oxidation coupled with ferric iron reduction. The standard Gibbs free energies are combined with the in situ geochemical parameters to calculate overall Gibbs free energies in deep subseafloor environments. In all cases, ferric iron reduction coupled with acetate oxidation yields the greatest energy (~-1600 kJ/mol), followed by nitrate reduction coupled to acetate oxidation (~-776 kJ/mol), sulfate reduction with acetate and CO2 driven methanogenesis at roughly equivalent energetic yields (~-376 kJ/mol), methanotrophy coupled to sulfate reduction (~-224 kJ/mol), and finally acetate driven methanogenesis (~-200 kJ/mol). These reactions represent possible microbial metabolic strategies in the deep subseafloor near convergent margin trenches.

Cardace, D.; Amend, J. P.; Morris, J. D.

2005-12-01

51

Streaming potentials in gramicidin channels measured with ion-selective microelectrodes.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Streaming potentials have been measured for gramicidin channels with a new method employing ion-selective microelectrodes. It is shown that ideally ion-selective electrodes placed at the membrane surface record the true streaming potential. Using this method for ion concentrations below 100 mM, approximately seven water molecules are transported whenever a sodium, potassium, or cesium ion, passes through the channel. This new method confirms earlier measurements (Rosenberg, P.A., and A. Finke...

Tripathi, S.; Hladky, S. B.

1998-01-01

52

Geographic Information System (GIS) as a Decision Support Tool for Selecting Potential Landfill Sites  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the growing potential problems of increased consumption is an escalation in the quantities of municipal solid wastes produced. Landfilling is now accepted as the most widely used method for environmentally safe disposal of solid waste. However, appropriate site selection for waste disposal is one of the major problems in waste management. Selection of suitable landfills can be extremely complex mainly due to the fact that the selection process involves many factors, criteria and regula...

Amakihe, Emeka

2011-01-01

53

Distribution pattern of orchids in Uttarakhand, Western Himalayas, India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Orchids are widely distributed in tropics, subtropics and temperate regions. Within the tropics, orchids form an important feature of the vegetation, chiefly as epiphytes. India’s epiphytic orchid is to be found primarily in the Eastern Himalayas and Western Ghats, while the terrestrial species flourishes in the Western Himalayas. In the state of Uttarakhand, India, orchid distribution is not homogeneous. Orchids are typically concentrated along the riverine areas and in pockets of moist fo...

Jeewan Singh Jalal

2012-01-01

54

EVALUATION OF GARHWAL HIMALAYA WILD EDIBLE TUBER DIOSCOREA DELTOIDEA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Uttarakhand is highly enriched with edible wild tubers. Such tubers are highly potential with medicinal value and nutritional value due to the presence of bio-actives. These tubers are consumed by local inhabitants to play a significant role as supplementary food. The present study is aimed at evaluating the nutritional value, successive extraction, thin layer chromatography of medicinal plant, Dioscorea deltoidea. It is a popular wild edible tubers bearing plant of Indian Himalaya having good nutritional and medicinal potential. These will be the best source of the nutraceuticals. Since tubers are richer in micronutrients and bioactive secondary metabolites, The medicinal plant tuber contain ash value, (total ash 3.34 ± 0.15%, moisture 58.92±0.10%, crude fat 0.60±0.20% and crude fiber 7.50±0.14%, the successive extractive values were studied fresh part weight. The preliminary phytochemical analysis test showed the presence of carbohydrates and glycosides, alkaloid, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, unsaturated triterpenoids and sterol, resin.

Chandra Subhash

2012-03-01

55

Are northeast and western Himalayas earthquake dynamics better “organized” than Central Himalayas: An artificial neural network approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Himalaya covering 20-38° N latitude and 70-98° E longitude, is one of the most seismo-tectonically active and vulnerable regions of the world. Visual inspection of the temporal earthquake frequency pattern of the Himalayas indicates the nature of the tectonic activity prevailing in this region. However, the quantification of this dynamical pattern is essential for constraining a model and characterizing the nature of earthquake dynamics in this region. We examine the temporal evolution ...

Tiwari, R. K.; Sri Lakshmi, S.

2007-01-01

56

Measurement of radon concentration in groundwater of Kumaon Himalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, radon concentration in springs and hand pumps of Kumaon Himalaya, India was measured using radon emanometry technique. The radon measurements were made in springs and groundwater from the hand pumps being used as drinking water sources by general population. The hand pumps and springs were selected near the dwellings and workplaces, where the general public utilizes these water sources for their daily needs. The water samples from springs were collected in an air-tight bottle from the original discharge point (outlet) of the spring having distinct geological unit and geohydrological regime. The water was transferred from discharge point of the spring to the bottom of the bottle using PVC tubing. For hand pumps, the water was pumped out for some time and the samples were collected in 1 L bottle directly from the pump outlet. After allowing the sample bottle to over flow for a while and when no bubbles were visually observed, the sample volume was reduced to a pre-marked position leaving 250 ml of air in the bottle above the water surface. The sample bottle was then connected in a close circuit with Lucas cell, hand operated rubber pump and a glass tube containing CaCl2 to absorb the moisture. The air was then circulated in close circuit for a period of 15 mm till the radon formed a uniform mixture with the air and the resulting alpha activity was recorded. The resulting numbers of the alpha counts were then converted into Bq/l by using the cal then converted into Bq/l by using the calibration factor 1 cpm = 0.0663 Bq/l. The results of radon measurements in springs and hand pumps from the study area are given. Field measurements were taken in different geological units of Kumaun region in Himalaya. The radon concentration in spring water varies from 1 Bq/l to 76 Bq/l with geometric mean 10 Bq/l, whereas in hand pumps it varies from 3 Bq/l to 392 Bq/l with geometric mean of 40 Bq/l. The higher values of radon in the water samples of hand pumps are possibly because of its greater depth, which allows water to interact with a greater thickness of aquifer and thus more radon is expected in hand pumps and tube wells. Radon level was found higher in the area consisting of granite, quartz porphyry, schist, phyllites states and lowest in the area having sedimentary rocks, predominantly dominated by quartzite rocks

57

Uranium and radon surveys in western Himalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The water samples from mountain springs, streams and river systems in the western Himalaya were collected and analysed in the laboratory for uranium and radon contents. It is observed that the Himalayan river system is conspicuous by its high dissolved uranium and radium concentration. The water samples contain from 0.89 ppb to 63.4 ppb of uranium and from 34 Bq/I to 364 Bq/I of radon. The radon emanation in soil is measured by the track-etch method, emanometry and alpha-logger technique. The daily and long-term variation of radon was monitored in some mineralized zones of Himachal Pradesh (HP) state with high uranium content in the soil. The maximum values of radon are recorded in Chhinjra, Rameda, Samurkala and Kasol areas of HP. (author)

58

Environmental radioactivity surveys in Western Himalayas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water samples from mountain springs, streams and river systems in the Western Himalaya were collected and analysed in the laboratory for uranium and radon contents. It was observed that Himalayan river system is conspicuous by its high dissolved uranium and radium concentrations. Water samples contained from 0.89 to 63.40 ppb of uranium and from 34 to 364 Bq/1 of radon. The radon emanation in soil was measured by track-etch method, emanometry, and alpha-logger techniques. Daily and long-term variation of radon was monitored in some U-mineralised zones of Himachal Pradesh and Uttranchal States with high uranium content in soil. There is a need to undertake epidemiological study correlating cancer risk with high uranium and radon values in the environment. (author)

59

Avalanche Protection and Control in the Himalayas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The problems of snow avalanches, their prediction and control in the Himalayas have assumed great relevance and importance not only for the Army but also for the progress of the Himalayan States of Jammu & Kashmir. Himachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, whose upper reaches remain snowbound for nearly six months in a year. The paper discusses briefly the gravity of the problem and presents a broad outline of a case-study of avalanche control for Badrinath Templeand Township in Uttar Pradesh undertaken by the Snow & Avalanche Study Establishment (SASE, Manali. This and many other studies undertaken by the SASE illustrate the contribution of Defellce Science to the solution of this major problem affecting communications, tourism and hill development, as a spin-off from Defence Research.

N. Mohan Rao

2014-01-01

60

Glacier trends in the Eastern Himalayas (Nepal and Sikkim) derived from remote sensing and field observations: a contribution to the GLIMS project  

Science.gov (United States)

The paucity of field-based glacier measurements in the high Himalayas limits our understanding of the temporal and spatial patterns of glacier dynamics and the sensitivity of glaciers to climate variability. While there is some information on decadal changes in glacier extents in the Himalayas, there still remains a gap in glacier parameters such as hypsometry, size distribution and termini elevations. Moreover, the influence of the South Asian monsoon on the response of glaciers to climatic changes is not well understood. Here we compare and contrast present day glacier characteristics in two glacierized areas of the Himalayas: (1) Khumbu (~27.78°N, E 86.54°E ) in the Nepal Himalaya and 2) Sikkim (27.33°N and 88.62°E ) in the Indian Himalaya. These regions were selected to capture a wide variability of glacier topography and debris cover, as well as the pronounced influence of the Asian monsoon. Glacier mapping techniques include: semi-automated algorithms using ASTER and Landsat ETM imagery combined with SRTM data; a decision tree for debris-cover delineation based on visible, near infrared and thermal data combined with morphology; field-based observations (ground-based photography using a GPS-enabled camera); GPS data and meteorological records. We focus on: frequency distribution of glacier area; changes in termini elevations; hypsometry changes over time; glacier topography (slope, aspect, length/width ratio); debris cover characteristics and decadal precipitation and temperature trends. The goal is to apply the results of this new inventory towards assessing the contribution of glaciers to streamflow runoff using area-distributed processes and degree-day methods that we developed for the Nepalese Himalaya.

Racoviteanu, Adina; Armstrong, Richard; Williams, Mark

2010-05-01

 
 
 
 
61

A distance-dependent atomic knowledge-based potential for improved protein structure selection.  

Science.gov (United States)

A heavy atom distance-dependent knowledge-based pairwise potential has been developed. This statistical potential is first evaluated and optimized with the native structure z-scores from gapless threading. The potential is then used to recognize the native and near-native structures from both published decoy test sets, as well as decoys obtained from our group's protein structure prediction program. In the gapless threading test, there is an average z-score improvement of 4 units in the optimized atomic potential over the residue-based quasichemical potential. Examination of the z-scores for individual pairwise distance shells indicates that the specificity for the native protein structure is greatest at pairwise distances of 3.5-6.5 A, i.e., in the first solvation shell. On applying the current atomic potential to test sets obtained from the web, composed of native protein and decoy structures, the current generation of the potential performs better than residue-based potentials as well as the other published atomic potentials in the task of selecting native and near-native structures. This newly developed potential is also applied to structures of varying quality generated by our group's protein structure prediction program. The current atomic potential tends to pick lower RMSD structures than do residue-based contact potentials. In particular, this atomic pairwise interaction potential has better selectivity especially for near-native structures. As such, it can be used to select near-native folds generated by structure prediction algorithms as well as for protein structure refinement. PMID:11455595

Lu, H; Skolnick, J

2001-08-15

62

Southwest-facing slopes control the formation of debris-covered glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To understand the formation conditions of debris-covered glaciers, we examined the dimension and shape of debris-covered areas and potential debris-supply (PDS) slopes of 208 glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya. This was undertaken using satellite images with 2.5 m spatial resolution for manual delineation of debris-covered areas and PDS slopes. The most significant correlation exists between surface area of southwest-facing PDS slopes and debris-covered area. This result suggests that the southw...

Nagai, H.; Fujita, K.; Nuimura, T.; Sakai, A.

2013-01-01

63

Crustal structure of the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

A number of recent receiver function studies have provided tantalizing images of the downgoing Indian plate beneath the Himalayas but these only provide information for thin slice along a range that is more than 2400 km long. To understand the uplift and support of the Himalaya and Tibet will requires a number of such images showing how the crustal structure changes over the length of the range. In 2005-2006 we operated ten broadband seismometers along an ~800km profile extending from the undeformed Indian Shield to the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya, a relatively unexplored region of the Himalaya and a southward extension of the INDEPTH-II profile. We use receiver functions and regionally determined Rayleigh wave group velocity data to determine the variation in crustal structure beneath this part of the range. The Indian Moho is at ~38km beneath the Indian Shield then dips gently northwards beneath the foreland basin and Himalayan foothills to a depth of 44-48km. Beneath Sikkim the Moho exhibit more complex topography, flexing upwards beneath Gangtok with a southeasterly dip then descend rapidly northwards again beneath the Greater Himalaya. The Moho beneath the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya is more complicated than that reported to the west in Nepal. The northernmost site in Sikkim show a considerably delayed Moho Ps phase suggesting that the Moho plunges quite sharply beneath northernmost Sikkim. A low-velocity zone associated with the Main Himalayan Thrust can be traced beneath Sikkim to the start of the Greater Himalaya. Beneath Gangtok the decollement appears to increase in gradient towards the north, having been relatively flat until this point, and is last seen at a depth of ~20 km beneath the northern part of the profile, consistent with observations of the Main Himalayan Thrust from INDEPTH-II controlled source profiles to the north of Sikkim.

Acton, C.; Priestley, K. F.; Mitra, S.; Gaur, V. K.

2009-12-01

64

Global warming may lead to catastrophic floods in the Himalayas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Nepal, data from 49 surveillance stations show that there has been a distinct temperature increase since the middle of the 1970s, the greatest changes being on the highest summits. When lakes overfill and beaches threaten to break down, this is a result of the global warming that melts the glaciers. The glaciers in Bhutan are observed to decrease by 30 - 40 metres per year, in some years as much as 100 metres. In the village of Tribeni an advanced warning system has been established to warn the 10 000 inhabitants of a potential flood from Lake Tsho Rolpa 108 km upstream. Research from the Himalayas also point to another serious threat. The melting threatens not only human lives, tourism, foot paths, roads, bridges and power stations. Since the mountains are the water towers of the world, filling rivers and lakes with water upon which all life depends, continued shrinking of the world's glaciers as is now observed will cause many rivers and fresh-water systems to dry out. Researchers from the UN Unep programme and International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development have registered at least 44 glacier lakes that are increasing so fast that they may cause outburst floods within five years. Similar investigations are being planned in India, Pakistan and China

65

Variations in radon concentration in groundwater of Kumaon Himalaya, India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radon content in groundwater sources depends on the radium concentration in the rock of the aquifer. Radon was measured in water in many parts of the world, mostly for the risk assessment due to consumption of drinking water. The exposure to radon through drinking water is largely by inhalation and ingestion. Airborne radon can be released during normal household activities and can pose a greater potential health risk than radon ingested with water. Transport of radon through soil and bedrock by water depends mainly on the percolation of water through the pores and along fracture planes of bedrock. In this study, the radon concentration in water from springs and hand pumps of Kumaun Himalaya (India)) was measured using the radon emanometry technique. Radon concentration was found to vary from 1 to 392 Bq I-1 with a mean of 50 Bq I-1 in groundwater in different litho-tectonic units. The radon level was found to be higher in the area consisting of granite, quartz porphyry, schist, phyllites and lowest in the area having sedimentary rocks, predominantly dominated by quartzite rocks. (authors)

66

Variations in radon concentration in groundwater of Kumaon Himalaya, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

The radon content in groundwater sources depends on the radium concentration in the rock of the aquifer. Radon was measured in water in many parts of the world, mostly for the risk assessment due to consumption of drinking water. The exposure to radon through drinking water is largely by inhalation and ingestion. Airborne radon can be released during normal household activities and can pose a greater potential health risk than radon ingested with water. Transport of radon through soil and bedrock by water depends mainly on the percolation of water through the pores and along fracture planes of bedrock. In this study, the radon concentration in water from springs and hand pumps of Kumaun Himalaya, India was measured using the radon emanometry technique. Radon concentration was found to vary from 1 to 392 Bq l(-1) with a mean of 50 Bq l(-1) in groundwater in different lithotectonic units. The radon level was found to be higher in the area consisting of granite, quartz porphyry, schist, phyllites and lowest in the area having sedimentary rocks, predominantly dominated by quartzite rocks. PMID:22914330

Bourai, A A; Gusain, G S; Rautela, B S; Joshi, V; Prasad, G; Ramola, R C

2012-11-01

67

Potential site selection for radioactive waste repository using GIS (Study area: Negeri Sembilan) - Phase 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main purpose in this paper is to create the Geographic Information System (GIS) based analysis on the potential site area for near-surface radioactive waste repository in the state of Negeri Sembilan. There are several parameters should be considered related to the safety assessment in selecting the potential site. These parameters such as land-use, urban area, soil, rainfall, lithology, lineament, geomorphology, landslide potential, slope, elevation, hydrogeology and protected land need to be considered before choosing the site. In this phase, we only consider ten parameters for determining the potential suitable site. (author)

68

Level of soil water potential as a tolerance selection environment for peanut to drought stress  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A research was undertaken to determine level of soil water potential as a tolerance selection environment for peanut to drought stress. Result was that of 33 characters measured, 12 ones were selected to be further analyzed. Those characters were grain weight, pod weight, skin weight-percentage, number of filled-pod, number of unfilled-pod, weight of 100-grain, whole-plant weight, shoot weight, shoot-based harvest index, biomass-based harvest index, relative plant growth rate a...

Riadi, Muhammad; Soetopo, Lita; Nur Basuki; Kasno, Astanto

2011-01-01

69

Different Representations of Potential and Selected Motor Plans by Distinct Parietal Areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Traditional theories have considered decision making as a separate neural process occurring before action planning. However, recent neurophysiological studies of spatial target selection have suggested that decision making and motor planning may be performed in an integrated manner. It was proposed that multiple potential plans are concurrently formed and the ultimately selected action simultaneously emerges within the same circuits (e.g., Cisek and Kalaska, 2010; Shadlen and Newsome, 2001). ...

Cui, He; Andersen, Richard A.

2011-01-01

70

Energy Planning in Selected European Regions - Methods for Evaluating the Potential of Renewable Energy Sources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Given their potentially positive impact on climate protection and the preservation of fossil resources, alternative energy sources have become increasingly important for the energy supply over the past years. However, the questions arises what economic and ecological impacts and potential conflicts over land use resources are associated with the promotion of renewable energy production. Using the examples of three selected European Regions in Poland, France and German, the dissertation discus...

Sliz-szkliniarz, Beata

2013-01-01

71

Late Cambrian deformation in the Lesser Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

The Tons Valley, situated in the central-easternmost part of the Himachal Lesser Himalaya, adjoining the Garhwal Himalaya, shows geological features suggestive of a strong pre-Tertiary deformational episode. The Paleoproterozoic Dharagad Group, overlain by the Mesoproterozoic Deoban and Neoproterozoic Simla groups rest as a thrust sheet over the Middle Cambrian Chilar Formation, which occurs as windows and also as tectonic slivers within the thrust sheet designated as the Dharagad Thrust Sheet (DTS). The mineral lineation, inclination of tectonic slivers and overturned beds suggest that the DTS was translated from the NE. The westernmost and southwesternmost leading edges of the DTS are exposed at Subathu and Morni WNW and WSW respectively of the Tons Valley. The position of the leading edges of the DTS vis-à-vis the windows in the Tons Valley suggest a minimum translation of about 50 km for the DTS. The Simla Group at Subathu and the Deoban at Morni, forming parts of the DTS, constitute basement for the Thanetian-Lutetian Subathu Formation of the Himalayan Foreland Basin (HFB). This stratigraphic relationship unambiguously demonstrates that the Simla and the Deoban Groups, forming leading edges of the allochthonous DTS, were already translated and emplaced at Subathu and Morni before the creation of the HFB in which the deposition commenced with the Subathu Formation in Thanetian. It implies that the DTS was translated from the NE to the present position at Subathu and Morni in pre-Thanetian time. There is no direct evidence to constrain the age of the thrusting. In view of regional regression in Late Cambrian, a distinct angular unconformity between the Cambrian and the overlying Ordovician, Early Paleozoic metamorphism and extensive development of Early Paleozoic granites and their rapid exhumation, a Late Cambrian age is suggested for the DTS thrusting. Not only the direction of movement of the DTS is same as that of the Tertiary thrust sheets but also Cambrian folds are co-axial with the Tertiary folds. This strange coincidence shows that similar kinematic field existed during two tectonic events. A ridge, like the present Central Crystalline Axis, was elevated between the Tethyan and Lesser Himalayan basins, which contributed zircons of the Early Cambrian age to both basins.

Bhargava, Om N.; Frank, Wolfgang; Bertle, Rufus

2011-01-01

72

Are northeast and western Himalayas earthquake dynamics better “organized” than Central Himalayas: An artificial neural network approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Himalaya covering 20-38° N latitude and 70-98° E longitude, is one of the most seismo-tectonically active and vulnerable regions of the world. Visual inspection of the temporal earthquake frequency pattern of the Himalayas indicates the nature of the tectonic activity prevailing in this region. However, the quantification of this dynamical pattern is essential for constraining a model and characterizing the nature of earthquake dynamics in this region. We examine the temporal evolution of seismicity (M ? 4 of the Central Himalaya (CH, Western Himalaya (WH and Northeast Himalaya (NEH, for the period of 1960-2003 using artificial neural network (ANN technique. We use a multilayer feedforward artificial neural network (ANN model to simulate monthly resolution earthquake frequency time series for all three regions. The ANN is trained using a standard back-propagation algorithm with gradient decent optimization technique and then generalized through cross-validation. The results suggest that earthquake processes in all three regions evolved on a high dimensional chaotic plane akin to “self-organized” dynamical pattern. Earthquake processes of NEH and WH show a higher predictive correlation coefficient (50-55% compared to the CH (30%, implying that the earthquake dynamics in the NEH and WH are better “organized” than in the CH region. The available tectono-geological observations support the model predictions.

R. K. Tiwari

2007-02-01

73

Temporal and spatial variations in erosion rate in the Sikkim Himalaya as a function of climate and tectonics  

Science.gov (United States)

The Tista River is a major tributary of the Brahmaputra drainage system (Eastern Himalaya). Its headwaters are located in the glaciated northernmost parts of the Sikkim and its catchment area amounts to more than 12,000 km2 including a depositional megafan (extending mostly in Bangladesh and West Bengal-India). The Tista has recently incised its megafan at the topographic front of the mountain range by about 30 meters. Neither the timing of deposition/incision of the megafan sediments, nor the erosion rates of the source areas as well as their potential relationships, have been investigated in detail. Comparing these data is essential to distinguish between a climatic and/or tectonic control of the evolution of the Sikkim Himalaya and piedmont. To constrain erosion rates in the hinterland at different temporal scales (respectively millenial and geological timescales), we report cosmogenic nuclide (10Be) and thermochronological (apatite fission-tracks) data on modern river sands. Results were mapped to evidence spatial variations of erosion/exhumation rates in the Tista catchment. Cosmogenic nuclides were also used to date the onset of incision of the megafan and relate it to potential changes in hinterland erosion. In addition, isotope geochemistry (?Nd and 87Sr/86Sr) performed on modern river sands and Late-Quaternary megafan sediments allows characterizing the isotopic signature of the different source areas and constraining variations in provenance of the Tista megafan deposits through time in response to changing climatic conditions. Results show that the Tista fan deposits are mainly sourced from the High Himalayan Crystalline domain with excursions more influenced by the Lesser Himalaya domain. These data provide a new comprehensive view on modern erosion and long-term exhumation of the Sikkim Himalaya. This study of a "closed system" will help our knowledge and understanding of erosional processes and sediment fluxes in mountainous environments as a function of climate and tectonics.

Abrahami, Rachel; Huyghe, Pascale; van der Beek, Peter; Carcaillet, Julien

2014-05-01

74

Himalayas as seen from STS-66 shuttle Atlantis  

Science.gov (United States)

View is southeastward across China (Tibet), half of Nepal and India. The partly frozen lake near the center of the frame is Pei-Ku T'so ('Bos-tie Lake'). The central Himalaya stretches from Mount Everest on the left past Annapurna on the right. Large tributaries converge to form the Ganges River, flowing through the lowland basin south of the Himalaya. This photograph illustrates the rain shadow effect of the Himalaya Chain; wet, warm air from the Indian Ocean is driven against the mountains, lifted, and drained of water that forms ice caps, the abundant rivers, and forests of the foothills. In contrast the high plateau of Tibet is arid, composed largely of topographically-closed basins because stream flow is inadequate to form integrated drainage networks.

1994-01-01

75

Atmospheric brown clouds reach the Tibetan Plateau by crossing the Himalayas  

Science.gov (United States)

The Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau region (HTP), despite being a remote and sparsely populated area, is regularly exposed to polluted air masses with significant amounts of aerosols including black carbon. These dark, light-absorbing particles are known to exert a great melting potential on mountain cryospheric reservoirs through albedo reduction and radiative forcing. This study combines the available yet sparse ground-based and satellite data to identify a severe aerosol pollution episode observed simultaneously in central Tibet and on the southern side of the Himalayas during 13-19 March 2009. We detail how polluted air masses such as an atmospheric brown cloud (ABC) over South Asia reached the Tibetan Plateau during this pre-monsoon case study. In order to address the mechanisms of pollution transport in the complex topography of the HTP, air-mass trajectories are calculated using hourly outputs from the high-resolution numerical weather prediction model COSMO. Cross-mountain pollution transport is found to occur to a large extent at elevated tropospheric levels other than just through major river valleys. Lifting and advection of polluted air masses over the great mountain range is enabled by a combination of synoptic and local meteorological settings. Winds over the Indo Gangetic Plain (IGP) are generally weak at lower levels during the event, allowing for accumulation of pollutants. The passing of synoptic-scale troughs leads to south-westerly flow in the middle troposphere over northern and central India. Thus, ABC can build up south of the Himalayas and get carried northwards across the mountain range and onto the Tibetan Plateau as the winds obtain a southerly component. Air masses from the ABC hot-spot of the IGP can reach the high glaciers, which may have serious implications for the cryosphere in the HTP region and for climate on regional to global scales.

Lüthi, Z. L.; Škerlak, B.; Kim, S.-W.; Lauer, A.; Mues, A.; Rupakheti, M.; Kang, S.

2014-11-01

76

Atmospheric brown clouds reach the Tibetan Plateau by crossing the Himalayas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau region (HTP, despite being a remote and sparsely populated area, is regularly exposed to polluted air masses with significant amounts of aerosols including black carbon. These dark, light-absorbing particles are known to exert a great melting potential on mountain cryospheric reservoirs through albedo reduction and radiative forcing. This study combines the available yet sparse ground-based and satellite data to identify a severe aerosol pollution episode observed simultaneously in central Tibet and on the southern side of the Himalayas during 13–19 March 2009. We detail how polluted air masses such as an atmospheric brown cloud (ABC over South Asia reached the Tibetan Plateau during this pre-monsoon case study. In order to address the mechanisms of pollution transport in the complex topography of the HTP, air-mass trajectories are calculated using hourly outputs from the high-resolution numerical weather prediction model COSMO. Cross-mountain pollution transport is found to occur to a large extent at elevated tropospheric levels other than just through major river valleys. Lifting and advection of polluted air masses over the great mountain range is enabled by a combination of synoptic and local meteorological settings. Winds over the Indo Gangetic Plain (IGP are generally weak at lower levels during the event, allowing for accumulation of pollutants. The passing of synoptic-scale troughs leads to south-westerly flow in the middle troposphere over northern and central India. Thus, ABC can build up south of the Himalayas and get carried northwards across the mountain range and onto the Tibetan Plateau as the winds obtain a southerly component. Air masses from the ABC hot-spot of the IGP can reach the high glaciers, which may have serious implications for the cryosphere in the HTP region and for climate on regional to global scales.

Z. L. Lüthi

2014-11-01

77

METHOD FOR DETERMINING POTENTIAL ODOR CONTRIBUTION OF SELECTED KRAFT PROCESS STREAMS  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this project was to define the potential odor contribution of selected process streams in the kraft industry that are routinely sewered. A procedure was suggested that can be used for this purpose. Use of a dynamic olfactometer and odor panels to measure odor thr...

78

Selective attention and the auditory vertex potential. 1: Effects of stimulus delivery rate  

Science.gov (United States)

Enhancement of the auditory vertex potentials with selective attention to dichotically presented tone pips was found to be critically sensitive to the range of inter-stimulus intervals in use. Only at the shortest intervals was a clear-cut enhancement of the latency component to stimuli observed for the attended ear.

Schwent, V. L.; Hillyard, S. A.; Galambos, R.

1975-01-01

79

Branched EMG electrodes for stable and selective recording of single motor unit potentials in humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Branched surface EMG electrodes are bipolar electrodes with the hot signal pole referenced to two or more short-circuited leading-off surfaces. This technique provides stable recording of single motor unit potentials during real movements, up to maximal muscle contractions. The selective characteristic of branched electrodes is based on the same principles as the double differential detection system and spatial filtering technique proposed later. Equi-weight calculations to assess the selectivity of different electrode types and their position are used. The main advantage of branched electrodes, especially high stability, is achieved by the wire electrode version. The design, manufacture, implementation, and application of wire electrodes are discussed in detail. During recording of motor unit potentials, electrodes are positioned subcutaneously over the muscle fascia. This positioning maximizes electrode stability. Appropriate orientation of the electrode relative to the muscle architecture ensures adequate selectivity for single motor unit recordings. Branched electrodes require ordinary EMG equipment (two or even one amplifier). PMID:17313346

Christova, Lilia; Stephanova, Diana; Kossev, Andon

2007-02-01

80

Spring-recharging in the Himalayas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

in the settlement of mountain villages in the Himalayas. In fact, in many places, it was the single factor that determined the location of the villages and naturally rainwater has been the source which recharge the catchments of the springs. Forest cover keeps these catchment areas alive for the slow and constant recharging of the springs. In the recent past due to continuous deforestation, the catchment areas have been drastically reduced. Eventually, these denuded lands were unable to conserve water, which has resulted in the drying-up and dying of many mountain springs. Certainly, this became a major threat to both the natural habitats of the springs, as well as to the survival of the communities. In order to meet the water needs of the villages, the government-development agencies devised a distribution system in which water was diverted from regions with an adequate supply to those deprived of water. This approach to remedy the water shortage brought about significant water conflicts, as the rights to water resources were not well defined. This system also did not adequately address water-management and distribution lines for the water resources

 
 
 
 
81

Detrital U-Pb Zircon Ages as a Sediment-Mixing Tracer in the Central Nepal Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

Tectonic deformation and climate interact and compete to control exhumation in the Himalaya. Geomorphic indicators such as hillslope angle, river gradient and concavity suggest higher rock-uplift rates above the Main Central Thrust (MCT) zone. Long and short term erosion rates calculated from Ar/Ar ages, apatite fission track and cosmogenic nuclides show consistently higher erosion rates above the MCT over variable time scales. To test the tectonic control of modern erosion rates in the Himalaya, this study employs a new technique using the downstream mixing of U-Pb zircon ages in Himalayan river sands as a proxy for sediment fluxes. U-Pb dating is well suited for this application in the Himalaya because sedimentary source rocks contain a range of U-Pb zircon ages providing a lithology-specific fingerprint used to trace mixing of sediment from different sources once in the modern river system. Relative erosion rates are calculated for three sites at which a river draining exclusively from above the MCT adjoins a river draining below the MCT. The rivers are small enough that source regions can be accurately defined and climatic factors are constant for reaches both above and below the MCT. 70-100 zircon grains were randomly selected from river sand samples for U-Pb dating by LA-MC-ICPMS and the age distribution of zircon grains below the confluence was statistically deconvolved to estimate the relative contributions of sediment from the two contributing rivers at all three sites. Samples were also collected from tributaries and trunk sediments throughout the Marsyandi drainage. Understanding the downstream evolution of zircon age distributions and heavy mineral content from the headwaters to the foreland improves understanding of erosional patterns and sediment transport dynamics on a drainage scale. These results have implications for the use of U-Pb and fission track ages in detrital grains extracted from foreland basins to interpret the orogenic evolution of the central Himalaya.

Amidon, W. H.; Burbank, D. W.; Gehrels, G. E.

2003-12-01

82

Seismic activity at the MCT in Sikkim Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

A microearthquake survey in the Sikkim Himalaya raised a question whether the north-south segment of the Main Central Thrust (MCT) in this part of the Himalaya is seismically active(?). Fault-plane solution of a cluster of events occurred below this segment of the MCT shows right-lateral strike-slip motion. The seismic observations and the geological evidences suggest that a NNE-SSW trending strike-slip fault, beneath this segment, caused right lateral movement on the MCT, and is seismically active.

De, Reena; Kayal, J. R.

2004-08-01

83

Distribution Characteristics of the Tree Species in Central Himalaya, India  

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Full Text Available A total of 257 tree species were recorded and studied for their pattern and altitudinal distribution in Central Himalaya. Relatively higher percentage (65% of deciduous species was recorded. Distribution of tree species in this region is between <200-4200 m asl. However, maximum (60% species were found either below or at around 1500 m asl altitudes may be due to overlapping of species. Lauraceae and Anacardiaceae are the dominant families in both forms. Species richness declines gradually towards the higher altitudes, it was sharper in evergreen species. Study concludes, the distribution of trees in central Himalaya, depends upon climate, soil, temperature and altitude.

Geeta Kharkwal

2007-01-01

84

Glacier variations and climate change in the central Himalaya over the past few decades  

Science.gov (United States)

Glacier variation is one of many indicators of climate change. Repeat measurements of the glacier terminus positions for selected glaciers in the central Himalaya document that they have been in a state of continuous retreat over the past few decades. Since the 1960s the average retreat rate on the north slope of Qomolangma (Mount Everest) is 5.5-9.5 m a-1 and on Xixiabangma it is 4.0-5.2 m a-1. Many glaciers on the south slope of the central Himalaya have been in retreat, and recently their retreat rate has accelerated. Ice-core studies show that the annual accumulation on these glaciers has fluctuated, but over the last century it has declined. It decreased rapidly in the 1960s and has remained consistently below the long-term mean thereafter. Meteorological station records indicate that the annual mean temperature in the region has slowly increased, particularly during the summer months. The strongest warming has occurred in the last 30 years. These data suggest that the current glacier retreat is due to the combined effect of reduced precipitation and warmer temperatures, and, if these conditions continue, the glaciers in the region will continue to shrink.

Ren, Jiawen; Jing, Zhefan; Pu, Jianchen; Qin, Xiang

85

Taxonomic status of Bupleurum (Apiaceae in outer hills of Kashmir Himalayas, India  

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Full Text Available Introduction: The genus Bupleurum is perennial rhizomatous herbs, recognized by simple leaves,conspicuous bracts and bractlets, often shows a great deal of variation in morphological characteristics. The genus is well developed in temperate and alpine zones of Kashmir Himalayas and other lesser Himalayan ranges of Jammu and Kashmir State. A key to the species, brief description, flowering and fruiting periods are given. The approximate elevation, distribution of species in the region andillustrations of selected species are provided.Material and Methods: The present communication is based on the surveys conducted between 1990 and 2007. The speciemens were mounted on the herbarium sheets and studied in the laboratory with the help of floristic literature.Results: As many as 10 species of genus Bupleurum have been recognized, from the different climaticzones of outer hills of Kashmir Himalayas of Jammu and Kashmir State.Conclusion: The report is first of its kind being communicated from the State of Jammu and Kashmir. Ten species of Bupleurum are described.

B. L. Bhellum

2012-01-01

86

Different representations of potential and selected motor plans by distinct parietal areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditional theories have considered decision making as a separate neural process occurring before action planning. However, recent neurophysiological studies of spatial target selection have suggested that decision making and motor planning may be performed in an integrated manner. It was proposed that multiple potential plans are concurrently formed and the ultimately selected action simultaneously emerges within the same circuits (Shadlen and Newsome, 2001; Cisek and Kalaska, 2010). In the present study, we recorded from the parietal reach region (PRR) and dorsal area 5 (area 5d) in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) while monkeys performed a nonspatial effector (saccade vs reach) choice task. The results show that PRR encodes potential and selected reach plans whereas area 5d encodes only selected reach plans, suggesting a serial visuomotor cortical circuitry for nonspatial effector decisions. Thus, there appears to be a different flow of processing for decisions and planning for spatial target selection, which is more integrated, and nonspatial effector decisions between eye and limb movements, which are more serial. PMID:22159124

Cui, He; Andersen, Richard A

2011-12-01

87

Selective ion and electron heating and potential formation using mode conversions of ICRF waves in HIEI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plasma heating and potential formation by ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) waves are investigated in the HIEI tandem mirror. It is demonstrated that ions and electrons are selectively heated by the appropriate waves that have been mode converted from the fast magnetosonic wave in a two-ion-species plasma. In the central cell, the minority ions can be heated up to 0.3 keV with the presence of the mode-converted slow ion cyclotron wave. Plug cell electrons are heated by the the mode-converted electrostatic slow wave resulting in the formation of an ion confining potential. The dependence of the ion confining potential on the plug electron temperature is in qualitative agreement with values predicted by the improved modified Boltzmann relation which includes velocity space diffusion of electron due to the ICRF wave. The axial confinement of the core plasma is improved by the ICRF produced potential. (author). 13 refs, 9 figs

88

The status of glaciers in Sikkim Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

This study focuses on the influence of lakes and debris cover on the glacier area changes, in the data scarce Sikkim Himalayas, between 1990 and 2010, using Landsat TM and IRS images. A new technique of estimating 'interpretation uncertainty' while mapping glacier terminus on satellite images, is introduced. The overall study showed (i) a glacier area loss of 3 × 0.8 % in 20 years. We also observed the presence of lakes on many debris-covered glaciers, and its expansion accelerated the glacier retreat by 9 ×1.4 %. Though some 'debris-covered glaciers' showed stable fronts, the gradual development and coalescence of supraglacial lakes led to the formation of moraine dam lakes at the terminus. This investigation suggests that 'debris cover' on glaciers can enhance the development of glacial lakes. As a consequence, the retreat of debris-covered glaciers associated with lakes is clearly higher than that of debris-free glaciers. Location of glacier in Sikkim. The map shows the location of glaciers studied in this investigation. : Evolution and coalescence of a supra glacial lake and the formation of a moraine dam. Figs. a and b show no frontal change between 1990 and 1997. Fig. b shows the evolution of a supraglacial lake and fig. c shows the coalescence of supraglacial lake, which occupies glacier area between two lateral moraines. Fig. d shows the formation of a moraine dam lake leading to glacierarea loss.(The yellow line represents the glacier boundary for the year 1990; and red line is the glacier terminus for the year 2009). The four imagesused is a false colour composite with a band combination of red, NIR and SWIR.

basnett, S.; Kulkarni, A. V.; Bolch, T.

2013-12-01

89

Assessment of downscaled current and future projections of diurnal rainfall patterns for the Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

this study we investigate the diurnal precipitation cycle in high-resolution regional climate simulations for present (2000-2010) and future time periods (2030-2040 and 2040-2050) over subregions of the Himalayas. The future periods are simulated under a high-emission scenario, Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) in order to maximize any projected externally driven precipitation signal. For present climate, 4-hourly simulated precipitation is first evaluated against observations to establish model credibility. The diurnal cycle, which is typically characterized by a bimodal structure with primary (secondary) maxima in nighttime (afternoon), is reasonably well represented in the present, giving us confidence when assessing potential future changes. The timing of the precipitation maxima and minima is found to match the observed timings well in the diurnal cycle. In general, the Weather Research and Forecasting model captures the principal shape of the diurnal cycle observed over all the subregions. Under projected future conditions, no significant changes in the diurnal cycle occur. The results suggest modest changes in diurnal precipitation under RCP8.5 emission scenario, as evidenced by an increase in afternoon precipitation around the Himalayas. Although the projected future changes of precipitation presented in this article are within of the expected range of precipitation changes caution must be exercised when interpreting single-model experiments.

Bhatt, B. C.; Sobolowski, Stefan; King, Martin P.

2014-11-01

90

Case history and hazard analysis of two lake-damming landslides in the Himalayas  

Science.gov (United States)

In investigating the hazard and case history of natural dams in the Himalayas, two sites of landslides and their former dammed lakes in the hinterland were visited between May 1994 and October 1995 and analysed from the geomorphological, geotechnical, geohydrological, tectonic, sedimentary and climatic points of view. One of the examples studied, the landslide in the valley of Birahi Ganga (Northern India), is one of the most impressive examples of recent hazards in alpinotype high mountain regions. This study was complemented by a study of the Ghatta Khola landslide (Western Nepal). In both cases, lithotectonic and climatic conditions led to the destabilisation and failure of carbonate bedrock. The occurrence of lakes, dammed over long periods behind the barriers, is of great importance, because after the sometimes fatal landslide event itself, one is confronted and has to cope with a secondary natural hazard, the possibility of a major flood due to the failure of the dam. That is why the preparatory causal factors of the origin of the two lakes (by damming up the river due to the landslide) and their stepwise disappearance (by secondary landslides within the barrier and sedimentation into the basin) were additionally focused upon. It is shown that due to very special circumstances (availability of sediments, heavy rainfall) in the Himalayas there is a progressive decrease in the potential hazard to the landscape and to human beings lower down the main valleys over a period of only a few decades.

Weidinger, Johannes T.

1998-04-01

91

ONYX-015: mechanisms of action and clinical potential of a replication-selective adenovirus  

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Accumulated knowledge in the molecular processes of tumour development combined with the availability of genetically modified viruses resemble the basis for new promising cancer therapeutics. The main advantages of employing replication-competent viruses are achievement of tumour selective killing and amplification of their oncolytic potential within the tumour mass. In this review, we describe the development of ONYX-015, one of the first and most advanced replication-competent viruses for c...

Ries, S.; Korn, W. M.

2002-01-01

92

Site-Selective Glycosylation of Hemoglobin with Variable Molecular Weight Oligosaccharides: A Potential Alternative to PEGylation  

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Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) conjugation (i.e. PEGylation) is a commonly used strategy to increase the circulatory half-life of therapeutic proteins and colloids, however, few viable alternatives exist to replicate its functions. Herein, we report a method for the rapid site-selective glycosylation of proteins with various sized carbohydrates, up to a molecular weight (MW) of 10,000 Da, thus, serving as a potential alternative for PEGylation. More importantly, the method developed has two uniq...

Styslinger, Thomas J.; Zhang, Ning; Bhatt, Veer S.; Pettit, Nicholas; Palmer, Andre F.; Wang, Peng G.

2012-01-01

93

MATERIALS SELECTION FOR THE ZETA POTENTIAL QUALITY-CONTROL OF SOLID SURFACES  

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MATERIALS SELECTION FOR THE ZETA POTENTIAL QUALITY-CONTROL OF SOLID SURFACES Abstract Reliable results of measurements can only be assured by using faultless measuring instruments, the efficiencies of which do, regrettably, deteriorate over time and usage. The correct functioning of instruments can be examined using reference materials. The SurPASS electrokinetic analyser, which has only been on the market for a relatively short time, is also subject to different influences and therefo...

Rudas?, Manuela

2010-01-01

94

ORIGINAL ARTICLE: In-vitro Antioxidant Potential of a Herbal Preparation Containing Four Selected Medicinal Plants  

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Background: The therapeutic effects of several plants used in traditional medicine, are usually attributed to their antioxidant properties. Aim and objective: To evaluate the in-vitro antioxidant potential of herbal preparation a combination of four selected medicinal plants (HP-4) using different experimental models.Material and Methods: Polyphenols, flavonoids and flavonols concentrations and antioxidant activity of herbal preparation (HP-4)as compared to butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) an...

Preeti Padmanabhan; Jangle, Suresh N.

2012-01-01

95

Selection of potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria from fermented olives by in vitro tests  

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The present study aims to evaluate the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from naturally fermented olives and select candidates to be used as probiotic starters for the improvement of the traditional fermentation process and the production of newly added value functional foods. Seventy one (71) lactic acid bacterial strains (17 Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 1 Ln. pseudomesenteroides, 13 Lactobacillus plantarum, 37 Lb. pentosus, 1 Lb. paraplantarum, and 2 Lb. paracasei sub...

Argyri, Anthoula; Zoumpopoulou, Georgia; Karatzas, Kimon Andreas; Tsakalidou, Effie; Nychas, George John; Panagou, Efstathios; Tassou, Chrysoula

2013-01-01

96

On the hyperKaehler potential and the selection rule of the hyperKaehler geometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We build a new class of D=4, N=2 supersymmetric non-linear ?-model completely specified by a neutral hyperKaehler potential. The corresponding hyperKaehler metric is obtained and its hyperKaehler symmetries are discussed. The fundamental hyperKaehler form is derived and its properties are established. Finally, a selection rule of hyperKaehler manifolds from the Kaehler ones is obtained. (author). 17 refs

97

Evoked potential correlates of selective attention with multi-channel auditory inputs  

Science.gov (United States)

Ten subjects were presented with random, rapid sequences of four auditory tones which were separated in pitch and apparent spatial position. The N1 component of the auditory vertex evoked potential (EP) measured relative to a baseline was observed to increase with attention. It was concluded that the N1 enhancement reflects a finely tuned selective attention to one stimulus channel among several concurrent, competing channels. This EP enhancement probably increases with increased information load on the subject.

Schwent, V. L.; Hillyard, S. A.

1975-01-01

98

Attenuation character of seismic waves in Sikkim Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we investigate the seismic wave attenuation beneath Sikkim Himalaya using P, S and coda waves from 68 local earthquakes registered by eight broad-band stations of the SIKKIM network. The attenuation quality factor (Q) depends on frequency as well as lapse time and depth. The value of Q varies from (i) 141 to 639 for P waves, (ii) 143 to 1108 for S waves and (iii) 274 to 1678 for coda waves, at central frequencies of 1.5 Hz and 9 Hz, respectively. The relations that govern the attenuation versus frequency dependence are Q? = (96 ± 0.9) f (0.94 ± 0.01), Q? = (100 ± 1.4) f (1.16 ± 0.01) and Qc = (189 ± 1.5) f (1.2 ± 0.01) for P, S and coda waves, respectively. The ratio between Q? and Q? is larger than unity, implying larger attenuation of P compared to S waves. Also, the values of Qc are higher than Q?. Estimation of the relative contribution of intrinsic (Qi) and scattering (Qs) attenuation reveals that the former mechanism is dominant in Sikkim Himalaya. We note that the estimates of Qc lie in between Qi and Qs and are very close to Qi at lower frequencies. This is in agreement with the theoretical and laboratory experiments. The strong frequency and depth dependence of the attenuation quality factor suggests a highly heterogeneous crust in the Sikkim Himalaya. Also, the high Q values estimated for this region compared to the other segments of Himalaya can be reconciled in terms of moderate seismic activity, unlike rest of the Himalaya, which is seismically more active.

Hazarika, Pinki; Kumar, M. Ravi; Kumar, Dinesh

2013-10-01

99

Seismic structure of the underthrusting Indian crust in Sikkim Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

This study presents the first results of the seismic character of the underthrusting Indian crust in the Sikkim Himalaya deduced through an analysis of ˜3600 receiver functions (RFs) abstracted from waveforms registered at 11 broadband stations spanning a 110 km long N-S profile from the foothills to the higher Himalaya. Common conversion point stacks of receiver functions prominently trace the northward dipping geometry of the Indian Moho beneath the Himalaya. Monte Carlo inversion of the azimuthal variations of the RFs at individual stations adopting the nearest neighborhood algorithm approach reveals that the crustal thickness varies from ˜40 km to 61 km from south to north, with a dip varying between 4° and 10° among stations. A Moho doublet prominently seen at a depth of ˜40 km in the higher Himalaya to the north of Main Boundary Thrust has been interpreted in terms of possible (partial) eclogitization of a granulitic Indian lower crust, akin to the finding just north of the study region beneath southern Tibet. A strong layer of anisotropy (˜17%) localized within a low-velocity layer between 20 and 30 km has a NW-SE oriented fast polarization direction counterintuitive to the convergence-parallel and range-perpendicular alignment expected in a convergent setting due to shear processes. Midcrustal transcurrent deformation in Sikkim and Bhutan, evidenced by a conjugate system of strike-slip faulting with NW to NE trending P axis orientations is the most feasible mechanism for causing a near strike parallel oriented fast axis of anisotropy in this segment of Himalaya.

Singh, Arun; Kumar, M. Ravi; Raju, P. Solomon

2010-12-01

100

Glacier Downwasting-Altitude Patterns in the Western Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

Himalayan glaciers are thought to be sensitive to climate forcing due to the high altitude and significant debris-cover variation. Remote-sensing based studies in the eastern Himalaya reveal recent retreat and downwasting for some glaciers. In the western Himalaya, many glaciers do not exhibit recent retreat, although many exhibit geomorphological conditions resulting from downwasting. Given that glacier sensitivity to climate forcing in the Himalaya is relatively unknown, downwasting patterns have not been well documented, and because radiative and atmospheric forcings differ across the Himalaya, our objective was to assess topographic controlling factors on the glacial downwasting gradient. Specifically, we used multi-temporal ASTER imagery to generate digital elevation models and compute the change in glacier-surface altitude for numerous glaciers across Pakistan over a 2-3 year period. We also used a spectral solar-radiation transfer model to simulate the spatial and temporal complexity of irradiance over glacier surfaces. Results indicate that downwasting-altitude patterns are highly variable depending upon glacier size and orientation, local topographic conditions and glacier debris-cover variations. We found an increase in downwasting with altitude on large glaciers such as the Baltoro, Biafo, Chiantar, Batura and Upper Tirich Mir. This pattern was associated with systematic changes in debris cover, relief, and sky-view factor. Smaller glaciers such as Momhil and Mulungutti exhibited a reverse pattern, with more downwasting at lower altitude near the terminus. Collectively, our results indicate that glacier ablation gradients in the western Himalaya are spatially and temporally complex and strongly controlled by multi-scaled topographic effects. They also reveal that specific glacier mass-balance estimates/conditions should not be extrapolated to represent adjacent glacier conditions or to generate regional estimates.

Bishop, M. P.; Shroder, J. F.; Bulley, H. N.; Haritashya, U. K.; Olsenholler, J. A.

2006-12-01

 
 
 
 
101

Site-Selective Glycosylation of Hemoglobin with Variable Molecular Weight Oligosaccharides: A Potential Alternative to PEGylation  

Science.gov (United States)

Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) conjugation (i.e. PEGylation) is a commonly used strategy to increase the circulatory half-life of therapeutic proteins and colloids, however, few viable alternatives exist to replicate its functions. Herein, we report a method for the rapid site-selective glycosylation of proteins with various sized carbohydrates, up to a molecular weight (MW) of 10,000 Da, thus, serving as a potential alternative for PEGylation. More importantly, the method developed has two unique features. First, traditional protecting group strategies that typically accompany the modification of the carbohydrate fragments are circumvented, allowing for the facile site-selective glycosylation of a desired protein with various sized glycans. Second, the methodology employed is not limited by oligosaccharide size; consequently, glycans of a similar MW to that of PEG, used in the PEGylation of therapeutic proteins, can be employed. To demonstrate the usefulness of this technology, hemoglobin (Hb) was site-selectively glycosylated with a series of carbohydrates of increasing MW (504 to ~10,000 Da). Hb was selected based on the vast wealth of biochemical and biophysical knowledge present in the literature and because of its use as a precursor in the synthesis/formulation of artificial red blood cell substitutes. Following the successful site-selective glycosylation of Hb, the impact of increasing the glycan MW on Hb’s biophysical properties was investigated in vitro. PMID:22489605

Styslinger, Thomas J.; Zhang, Ning; Bhatt, Veer S.; Pettit, Nicholas; Palmer, Andre F.; Wang, Peng G.

2012-01-01

102

Mining for diagnostic information in body surface potential maps: A comparison of feature selection techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In body surface potential mapping, increased spatial sampling is used to allow more accurate detection of a cardiac abnormality. Although diagnostically superior to more conventional electrocardiographic techniques, the perceived complexity of the Body Surface Potential Map (BSPM acquisition process has prohibited its acceptance in clinical practice. For this reason there is an interest in striking a compromise between the minimum number of electrocardiographic recording sites required to sample the maximum electrocardiographic information. Methods In the current study, several techniques widely used in the domains of data mining and knowledge discovery have been employed to mine for diagnostic information in 192 lead BSPMs. In particular, the Single Variable Classifier (SVC based filter and Sequential Forward Selection (SFS based wrapper approaches to feature selection have been implemented and evaluated. Using a set of recordings from 116 subjects, the diagnostic ability of subsets of 3, 6, 9, 12, 24 and 32 electrocardiographic recording sites have been evaluated based on their ability to correctly asses the presence or absence of Myocardial Infarction (MI. Results It was observed that the wrapper approach, using sequential forward selection and a 5 nearest neighbour classifier, was capable of choosing a set of 24 recording sites that could correctly classify 82.8% of BSPMs. Although the filter method performed slightly less favourably, the performance was comparable with a classification accuracy of 79.3%. In addition, experiments were conducted to show how (a features chosen using the wrapper approach were specific to the classifier used in the selection model, and (b lead subsets chosen were not necessarily unique. Conclusion It was concluded that both the filter and wrapper approaches adopted were suitable for guiding the choice of recording sites useful for determining the presence of MI. It should be noted however that in this study recording sites have been suggested on their ability to detect disease and such sites may not be optimal for estimating body surface potential distributions.

McCullagh Paul J

2005-09-01

103

Glacier changes in the Chinese Karakoram-Himalaya Mountains since the late 1950s as revealed by inventories from topographical maps and satellite images  

Science.gov (United States)

The Karakoram-Himalaya Mountains (KHM) are the largest mountain system surrounding the Tibetan Plateau. The early and the recent estimate indicate that the total glacier area in KHM region is about one third of that in the whole Asia High Mountains. Glaciers in KHM are one of the key components in the water resource formation and variation of rivers like Tarim, Brahmaputra, Indus, and Ganges, and so on, where about 1 billion people are living in. Climate change have led to retreating of glaciers in the ranges which may have potential impact on the water availability and so the food and water resources security in the lower reaches of river basins that originated from the huge mountains. Lot of efforts have been taken for understanding changes of glaciers in the region, but few covers the changes based on glacier inventories. Here we introduce our results for glaciers in Chinese part based on glacier inventories from the topographical maps in the late 1950s to early 1980s (area average year of 1972 in the Karakoram and 1975 in the Himalaya) and from satellite images (Landsat TM/ETM+, ASTER, SPOT4/5) acquired in 2009/2010. By excluding those glaciers not well identified from optical images, the total area of glaciers mapped for the second time are 89% and 69% of the total ones mapped at first time in the Karakoram and Himalaya mountains. Results show that glacier retreat was dominant and very few glaciers were in advance or stable. Glaciers in the Himalaya have lost 26.3% of their area in the late 1950s to early 1980s, while that in the Karakoram is 11.9% for the similar time span. As far annual retreat rates, glaciers in Himalaya have experienced a speedy area decrease by 0.80%/yr, higher than that of 0.33%/yr in Karakorum. In General, glacier shrinkage in KHM shows obvious spatial heterogeneity.

Liu, S.; Guo, W.; Wei, J.; Bao, W.

2012-12-01

104

Morphometric analysis of Suketi river basin, Himachal Himalaya, India  

Science.gov (United States)

Suketi river basin is located in the Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh, India. It encompasses a central inter-montane valley and surrounding mountainous terrain in the Lower Himachal Himalaya. Morphometric analysis of the Suketi river basin was carried out to study its drainage characteristics and overall groundwater resource potential. The entire Suketi river basin has been divided into five sub-basins based on the catchment areas of Suketi trunk stream and its major tributaries. Quantitative assessment of each sub-basin was carried out for its linear, areal, and relief aspects. The analysis reveals that the drainage network of the entire Suketi river basin constitutes a 7th order basin. Out of five sub-basins, Kansa khad sub-basin (KKSB), Gangli khad sub-basin (GKSB) and Ratti khad sub-basin (RKSB) are 5th order sub-basins. The Dadour khad sub-basin (DKSB) is 6th order sub-basin, while Suketi trunk stream sub-basin (STSSB) is a 7th order sub-basin. The entire drainage basin area reflects late youth to early mature stage of development of the fluvial geomorphic cycle, which is dominated by rain and snow fed lower order streams. It has low stream frequency (Fs) and moderate drainage density (Dd) of 2.69 km/km 2. Bifurcation ratios (Rb) of various stream orders indicate that streams up to 3rd order are surging through highly dissected mountainous terrain, which facilitates high overland flow and less recharge into the sub-surface resulting in low groundwater potential in the zones of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order streams of the Suketi river basin. The circulatory ratio (Rc) of 0.65 and elongation ratio (Re) of 0.80 show elongated nature of the Suketi river basin, while infiltration number (If) of 10.66 indicates dominance of relief features and low groundwater potential in the high altitude mountainous terrain. The asymmetry factor (Af) of Suketi river basin indicates that the palaeo-tectonic tilting, at drainage basin scale, was towards the downstream right side of the drainage basin. The slope map of Suketi river basin has been classified into three main zones, which delineate the runoff zone in the mountains, recharge zone in the transition zone between mountains and valley plane, and discharge zone in the plane areas of Balh valley.

Pophare, Anil M.; Balpande, Umesh S.

2014-10-01

105

The hydrologic sensitivity of the upper Indus River to glacier changes in the western Karakoram Himalayas  

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Recent controversy regarding the rates of disappearance of glaciers in the Himalayas, the world’s highest mountain chain, has primarily been focused on the eastern Himalayas. Studies carried out in the Central Karakoram Himalayan region suggest an expansion of glaciers. Little information exists about long-term glacier changes and their impact on streamflow in the Karakoram Himalayas where field surveys are difficult due to complex terrain and long term measurements have not been collected....

Naz, Bibi S.

2011-01-01

106

Screening, evaluation and selection ofphosphate-solubilising fungi as potential biofertiliser  

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Full Text Available Phosphate-solubilising saprophytic fungi have a potential application in plant nutrition; therefore, the aim of this study was 1 to perform a screening and isolation of native phosphofungi from volcanic soils of southern Chile, 2 to select a liquid medium for the evaluation of these phosphofungi and 3 to test a selected phospho fungus as a biofertiliser in a volcanic soil. The phosphofungi were screened using Martin medium (rose bengal-streptomycin agar with calcium phosphate (Ca3(PO42 or calcium phytate as the phosphorus source. Six promising strains (Penicillium sp., Penicillium albidum, Penicillium thomii, Penicillium restrictum, Penicillium frequentans and Gliocladium roseum were evaluated in the liquid media of Agnihotri, Asea-Wakelin, Pikovskaya and Nahas. The soluble phosphorus, acid phosphatase activity, pH and fungal biomass were determined. In most soils, the greatest proportion of phosphofungi solubilised organic P. The Asea-Wakelin medium appears to be the medium of choice for the quantitative evaluation of phosphofungi isolated from the volcanic soils tested. Penicillium albidum was selected as a potential biofertiliser due to its capacity to solubilise both inorganic and organic P via its specific solubilising activity (64 mg P/g fungus, phosphatase secretion and enhancement of the growth and mineral nutrition of lettuce plants growing in a volcanic soil.

A Morales

2011-01-01

107

Screening, evaluation and selection ofphosphate-solubilising fungi as potential biofertiliser  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Phosphate-solubilising saprophytic fungi have a potential application in plant nutrition; therefore, the aim of this study was 1) to perform a screening and isolation of native phosphofungi from volcanic soils of southern Chile, 2) to select a liquid medium for the evaluation of these phosphofungi a [...] nd 3) to test a selected phospho fungus as a biofertiliser in a volcanic soil. The phosphofungi were screened using Martin medium (rose bengal-streptomycin agar) with calcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2) or calcium phytate as the phosphorus source. Six promising strains (Penicillium sp., Penicillium albidum, Penicillium thomii, Penicillium restrictum, Penicillium frequentans and Gliocladium roseum) were evaluated in the liquid media of Agnihotri, Asea-Wakelin, Pikovskaya and Nahas. The soluble phosphorus, acid phosphatase activity, pH and fungal biomass were determined. In most soils, the greatest proportion of phosphofungi solubilised organic P. The Asea-Wakelin medium appears to be the medium of choice for the quantitative evaluation of phosphofungi isolated from the volcanic soils tested. Penicillium albidum was selected as a potential biofertiliser due to its capacity to solubilise both inorganic and organic P via its specific solubilising activity (64 mg P/g fungus), phosphatase secretion and enhancement of the growth and mineral nutrition of lettuce plants growing in a volcanic soil.

A, Morales; M, Alvear; E, Valenzuela; C.E, Castillo; F, Borie.

108

Acoustic Noise Alters Selective Attention Processes as Indicated by Direct Current (DC Brain Potential Changes  

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Full Text Available Acoustic environmental noise, even of low to moderate intensity, is known to adversely affect information processing in animals and humans via attention mechanisms. In particular, facilitation and inhibition of information processing are basic functions of selective attention. Such mechanisms can be investigated by analyzing brain potentials under conditions of externally directed attention (intake of environmental information versus internally directed attention (rejection of environmental stimuli and focusing on memory/planning processes. This study investigated brain direct current (DC potential shifts—which are discussed to represent different states of cortical activation—of tasks that require intake and rejection of environmental information under noise. It was hypothesized that without background noise rejection tasks would show more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks and that under noise both kinds of tasks would show positive DC shifts as an expression of cortical inhibition caused by noise. DC potential shifts during intake and rejection tasks were analyzed at 16 standard locations in 45 persons during irrelevant speech or white noise vs. control condition. Without noise, rejection tasks were associated with more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks. During background noise, however, this difference disappeared and both kinds of tasks led to positive DC shifts. Results suggest—besides some limitations—that noise modulates selective attention mechanisms by switching to an environmental information processing and noise rejection mode, which could represent a suggested “attention shift”. Implications for fMRI studies as well as for public health in learning and performance environments including susceptible persons are discussed.

Karin Trimmel

2014-09-01

109

Positive selection at reproductive ADAM genes with potential intercellular binding activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many genes with a role in reproduction, including those implicated in fertilization and spermatogenesis, have been shown to evolve at a faster rate relative to genes associated with other functions and tissues. These survey studies usually group a wide variety of genes with different characteristics and evolutionary histories as reproductive genes based on their site of expression or function. We have examined the molecular evolution of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) gene family, a structurally and functionally diverse group of genes expressed in reproductive and somatic tissue to test whether a variety of protein characteristics such as phylogenetic clusters, tissue of expression, and proteolytic and adhesive function can group fast evolving ADAM genes. We found that all genes were evolving under purifying selection (d(N)/d(S) < 1), although reproductive ADAMs, including those implicated in fertilization and spermatogenesis, evolved at the fastest rate. Genes with a role in binding to cell receptors in endogenous tissue appear to be evolving under purifying selection, regardless of the tissue of expression. In contrast, positive selection of codon sites in the disintegrin/cysteine-rich adhesion domains was detected exclusively in ADAMs 2 and 32, two genes expressed in the testis with a potential role in sperm-egg adhesion. Positive selection was detected in the transmembrane/cytosolic tail region of ADAM genes expressed in a variety of tissues. PMID:14963094

Glassey, Barb; Civetta, Alberto

2004-05-01

110

Fault delineation study using soil-gas method in the Dharamsala area, NW Himalayas, India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Soil-gas activity in the vicinity of neotectonic fault zones within the Dharamsala area in the region of the NW Himalayas, India, has been investigated by determining enhanced concentration values of radon and helium in the soil, using an ionization chamber and an ASM 100 HDS (Alcatel), respectively. A geological map of the area was used for site selection and to locate the predicted courses of faults. Elevated levels of radon and helium in the soil gas were found along a profile of a major fault (MBT-2). Radon shows variation not only due to the tectonic structures but also due to change in lithology. Helium and radon anomalies together show that apart from conspicuous thrust MBT-2, the area under study is cut across by the N-S transverse faults/lineaments.

Walia, Vivek [National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering, National Applied Research Laboratories, Taipei-106, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: vivekwalia@rediffmail.com; Mahajan, Sandeep; Kumar, Arvind; Singh, Surinder; Singh Bajwa, Bikramjit [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar (India); Dhar, Sunil [Department of Geology, Govt. College, Dharamsala, Himachal Pradesh (India); Frank Yang, Tsanyao [National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering, National Applied Research Laboratories, Taipei-106, Taiwan (China); Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei-106, Taiwan (China)

2008-08-15

111

Kinetic and Thermodynamic Study of Calcite Marble Samples from Lesser Himalayas  

Science.gov (United States)

A kinetic and thermodynamic study of selected calcite marble samples from Lesser Himalayas has been performed using thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses at heating rates of and . The minero-petrography of calcite grains, phase analysis, chemical analysis, and minor impurities determination were carried out using thin-section polarized light microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, and electron microprobe analysis, respectively. The calcite content of the investigated marble samples varied from 97.50 mass% to 98.70 mass%. The activation energy, , for the decomposition process increased from to and from to for heating rates of and , respectively, with decreasing calcite content. The activation energy values obtained in the present study were in good agreement with previous studies.

Fahad, M.; Iqbal, Y.

2014-02-01

112

Active prey selection in two pelagic copepods feeding on potentially toxic and non-toxic dinoflagellates  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Grazing on two red tide dinoflagellates, the potentially toxic Karenia mikimotoi and the non-toxic Gyrodinium instriatum, was examined in two species of marine copepods, Pseudocalanus elongatus and Temora longicornis. Both copepods cleared K. mikimotoi at rates that were a little lower but comparable to those at which they cleared the slightly larger G. instriatum when the two dinoflagellates were offered separately. However, when feeding on mixtures of the two prey species, the clearance rates on K. mikimotoi were substantially reduced in both copepods while their clearances of G. instiatum remained unaltered, suggesting active prey selection. Video observations of individual prey capture and feeding events showed prey rejection frequencies (caught and then released cells) that did not differ between mixed and mono-specific diets. This suggests that the selection between prey cells occurs prior to capture and that it is based on remote characterization of the cells.

Schultz, Mette; KiØrboe, Thomas

2009-01-01

113

Neonatal size and infant mortality at high altitude in the western Himalaya.  

Science.gov (United States)

A prospective study was undertaken in Ladakh, India, a high-altitude region of the Himalaya, to investigate the effects of small average birth size on neonatal mortality. While such studies exist from high-altitude regions of the New World and shed light on the adaptive status of high-altitude-dwelling populations there, this is the first to examine this relationship in the Himalaya. In a sample of 168 newborns, birthweight and other anthropometric measurements were reduced relative to Andean and Tibetan newborns. Logistic regression and hazard analysis showed that neonatal biological characteristics such as weight, fatness, and circumferences were important predictors of survival probabilities of infants, especially in the neonatal period. Low Rohrer's Ponderal Index (PI) was particularly strongly related to poor survival outcome. Males and females showed no significant differences in mortality risk. Data derived from reproductive histories revealed that neonatal mortality accounted for 70-80% of total infant mortality in Ladakh. Compared to other high-altitude studies, small newborn size in Ladakh was associated with much higher mortality risks; mortality risk rose dramatically with birthweights below the mean (2,764 grams), which characterized 50% of all newborns. It is argued that newborns in Ladakh are subject to strong directional selective forces that favor higher birthweights that incur lower risks of neonatal mortality, while Andean infants are subject to relatively mild selection pressure at both ends of the birthweight distribution. Given the overall small size at birth of Ladakhi newborns and the poor survival outcomes of newborns below the mean, it is suggested that this population is less well adapted in a biological sense to the stresses inherent in this high-altitude environment than are Andean populations, perhaps due to the relatively recent colonization of the area and the substantial genetic admixture that has occurred in the past. PMID:7943187

Wiley, A S

1994-07-01

114

Hydrogen Sulfide Selectively Potentiates Central Preganglionic Fast Nicotinic Synaptic Input in Mouse Superior Mesenteric Ganglion  

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Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) plays important roles in the enteric system in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. There have been no studies on whether H2S is endogenously generated in peripheral sympathetic ganglia and, if so, its effect on synaptic transmission. In this study, we examined the effect of H2S on cholinergic excitatory fast synaptic transmission in the mouse superior mesenteric ganglion (SMG). Our study revealed that NaHS and endogenously generated H2S selectively potentiated choli...

Sha, Lei; Linden, David R.; Farrugia, Gianrico; Szurszewski, Joseph H.

2013-01-01

115

Selection of phosphorus solubilizing bacteria with biocontrol potential for growth in phosphorus rich animal bone charcoal  

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Bacteria with the ability to solubilize phosphorus (P) and to improve plant health were selected and tested for growth and survival in P-rich animal bone charcoal (ABC). ABC is suggested to be suitable as a carrier for biocontrol agents, offering them a protected niche as well as delivering phosphate to plants, meanwhile re-using P from waste of the food chain. Ninety-seven bacterial isolates from different soils were tested for their potential to dissolve P from ABC. Of these isolates, 60% s...

Postma, J.; Nijhuis, E. H.; Sommeus, E.

2010-01-01

116

Selection of predicted siRNA as potential antiviral therapeutic agent against influenza virus  

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Influenza virus A (IVA) infection is responsible for recent death worldwide. Hence, there is a need to develop therapeutic agents against the virus. We describe the prediction of short interfering RNA (siRNA) as potential therapeutic molecules for the HA (Haemagglutinin) and NA (Neuraminidase) genes. We screened 90,522 siRNA candidates for HA and 13,576 for NA and selected 1006 and 1307 candidates for HA and NA, respectively based on the proportion of viral sequences that are targete...

Raza, Asif; Shareef, Hira; Salim, Hira; Khushal, Rashid; Bokhari, Habib

2011-01-01

117

Integrated Natural Resource Management: Approaches and Lessons from the Himalaya  

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Full Text Available Losses of forest cover, biodiversity, agricultural productivity, and ecosystem services in the Himalayan mountain region are interlinked problems and threats to the sustainable livelihoods of 115 x 106 mountain people as well as the inhabitants of the adjoining Indo-gangetic plains. Until the 1970s, environmental conservation, food security, and rural economic development were treated as independent sectors. The poor outcomes of sector-oriented approaches catalyzed efforts to address environmental and socioeconomic problems concurrently. The identification of "key" natural resource management interventions is an important dimension of integrated management. Projects to rehabilitate the degraded lands that cover 40% of the Indian Himalaya could be key interventions provided that they address both socioeconomic and environmental concerns across spatial and temporal scales. However, projects of this type, e.g., investments in conifer plantations on degraded forest lands, have failed because their designs did not take into account the needs of local residents. This study illustrates a case of land rehabilitation in a small isolated village close to the alpine zone. Vital elements of this project strategy included identifying local perceptions and knowledge and involving the local people in the selection and implementation of the interventions needed to restore the land. Communities were found to be more concerned with the immediate economic benefits from bamboo and medicinal species than the long-term benefits of tree planting. The villagers eventually reached a consensus to plant broadleaved multipurpose trees in association with bamboo and medicinal species. Despite assurances that all the economic benefits from rehabilitation would go to the community, the people would not agree to voluntary labor, although they did absorb significant costs by providing social fencing, farmyard manure, and propagules from community forests. Households shared costs and benefits according to traditional norms. The economic benefits to the local people exceeded the rehabilitation cost over the 7-yr life of the project. There were significant on-site environmental benefits in terms of improvements in soil fertility, biodiversity, protective cover, and carbon sequestration, and off-site benefits from more productive use of labor, reduced pressure on protected areas, and the introduction of rare and threatened medicinal species onto private farmland.

R. K. Maikhuri

2002-01-01

118

A hybrid genetic algorithm for estimating the equilibrium potential of an ion-selective electrode.  

Science.gov (United States)

Non-linear equations can be used to model the measured potential of ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) as a function of time. This can be done by using non-linear least squares regression to fit parameters of non-linear equations to an ISE response curve. In iterative non-linear least squares regression (which can be considered as local optimisers), the determination of starting parameter estimates that yield convergence to the global optimum can be difficult. Starting values away from the global optimum can lead to either abortive divergence or convergence to a local optimum. To address this issue, a global optimisation technique was used to find initial parameter estimates near the global optimum for subsequent further refinement to the absolute optimum. A genetic algorithm has been applied to two non-linear equations relating the measured potential from selected ISEs to time. The parameter estimates found from the genetic algorithm were used as starting values for non-linear least squares regression, and subsequent refinement to the absolute optimum. This approach was successfully used for both expressions with measured data from three different ISEs; namely, calcium, chloride and lead ISEs. PMID:18970469

Watkins, Peter; Puxty, Graeme

2006-02-15

119

Electrical resistivity imaging of seismically active frontal Himalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows. Given the sensitivity of resistivity to rheology, magnetotelluric measurement are undertaken to study deep crustal electrical structures and their possible linkage to the space-depth distribution of seismicity. Magnetotelluric investigations at Thirty three sites along Bijnaur-Mallari profile cutting across major litho tectonic units of Himalaya starting from Indo Ganges plain, Siwalik, Lesser, Higher Himalaya to Tethys Himalaya. Observing the low solar activity during the survey period each site was occupied for five days. Longer occupancy allowed estimation of impedance tensor at periods greater than 500 sec at most of the stations. However at few stations electric field recordings were very noisy perhaps due to unbalanced power network of the region. This is reflected in larger error bars in estimated impedance tensors. Skewness and other dimensionality parameter indicate the validity of 2-D regional model. Robust impedance decomposition for the period band of 10 Hz- 1000 sec of eleven stations reveal that EM strike coincides with the geologic fabric. Considering regional strike EM field were decoupled in TE, TM mode and then inverted for frequency dependent conductivity distribution along the profile. The most conspicuous feature of the inverted resistivity section is the low resistivity zone at a shallow depth of 10 km beneath the Indo-Gangetic Plains that dips down at a low-angle and extends as a continuous plane right up to extends as a continuous plane right up to the northern limit of the profile. The geometry of this layer is correlated with the basement thrust separating the top of the under thrusting Indian Plate from the over-riding sedimentary wedge of lesser Himalaya. The paper will discuss the tectonic and rheological significance of the results of resistivity imaging using magnetotelluric method along the profile from Bijnaur to Mallari.

120

Distribution Characteristics of the Tree Species in Central Himalaya, India  

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A total of 257 tree species were recorded and studied for their pattern and altitudinal distribution in Central Himalaya. Relatively higher percentage (65%) of deciduous species was recorded. Distribution of tree species in this region is between <200-4200 m asl. However, maximum (60%) species were found either below or at around 1500 m asl altitudes may be due to overlapping of species. Lauraceae and Anacardiaceae are the dominant families in both forms. Species richness declines graduall...

Geeta Kharkwal; Yaswant Singh Rawat; Yaspal Singh Pangtey

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Radon variation in drinking water with different lithotectonic units of Uttaranchal Himalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The water samples from Kumaun and Garhwal Himalayas were taken from the sources used directly for the drinking purpose. In all 81 measurements of radon (222Rn) in drinking water were made. Some of the values were found higher than the maximum contamination level (MCL) of 11.1 Bq.1-1 set by US environmental radiation protection. The data were collected from different lithotectonic units along and across the various regional thrust planes, faults, shears etc. The observed values were than correlated with the geological formations and structure of the area. An effort was made for the mathematical interrelationship among the mean radon values from different lithological group. This study is also helpful for identifying regions having a strong potential of radon exposure. (author)

122

EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF TERRESTRIAL ORCHIDS (COLLECTED FROM NORTHERN HIMALAYAS AGAINST CERTAIN HUMAN PATHOGENS  

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Full Text Available The four main varieties of orchids, collected from northern Himalayas (Tara devi and Chhrabra forests, Shimla, HP were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against human pathogenic bacteria. The ethanol and methanol extracts of Cypripedium cordigerum and Malaxis acuminata were found to be highly active against both P.aeruginosa and S.aureus with minimal microbial static concentration (MIC in the range of 100mg/ml. These plants particularly demonstrated antimicrobial properties against Gram negative bacterial strains, which are responsible for severe opportunistic bacterial infection and are resistant to hospitalized infections. These orchid species may thus, be considered important tools in antibacterial strategies. It can be concluded that orchid family represent an untapped source of potentially useful antibacterial products and are worthy of further study.

Amit Bharal*, Manila Kashyap, Vipan Kumar Sohpal and Jaspreet Kaur Sembi

2014-05-01

123

Selection and evaluation of potential very low level wastes (VLLW) from nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The disposal of very low level radioactive waste (VLLW) generated at light water reactors presents a significant problem to the nuclear utility industry. The National Environmental Studies Project of the Atomic Industrial Forum has sponsored a study to develop and summarize information on VLLW to support deregulation of streams that pose a negligible hazard. This paper presents preliminary results of this study, describes the methodology used in selecting candidate streams for detailed analysis, and estimates radiation doses from disposal of these wastes. The study is divided into several sections which describe (1) the concept of regulatory cutoffs and its application to radioactive waste disposal, (2) the selection criteria for VLLW candidate streams, (3) the selection of candidate VLLW streams for study, (4) the potential disposal methods for VLLW, (5) limiting activities for various threshold dose levels, and (6) preliminary conclusions or recommendations available from the study. The results of the study described will be available as a technical document which can be used in support of a petition for exemption or rulemaking to NRC relating to a particular or generic waste stream

124

Pulmonary immunotoxic potentials of metals are governed by select physicochemical properties: chromium agents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing the understanding of how metal ions/complexes react in situ will allow for the improved specificity and controlled toxicity of novel synthetic metallocompounds that will be used as inhaled diagnostics or therapeutics. Our previous work showed that inhalation of select metals (e.g., chromium, vanadium, nickel, iron) caused alterations in lung immune cell function and in local bacterial resistance. The data also suggested that variations in the degree of immuno-modulation induced were not solely dependent on the amount of metal deposited in the lung, but also on the specific compound. If specificity governs immunomodulatory potential, it follows that physicochemical properties inherent to the metal may have a role in the elicited effects. We hypothesize that major determinants of any metal compound's immunomodulatory potential in situ are its redox behavior, valency, and/or solubility. Using changes in local bacterial resistance as an endpoint, differences in immunotoxic potential in the lungs were quantified for a range of chromium agents (insoluble calcium chromate(VI), and soluble sodium chromate(VI), potassium bis(dipicolinato)chromate(III) and sodium bis(dipicolinato)chromate(II)). Results indicated that among the latter three forms of Cr, strongly oxidizing hexavalent Cr (Cr[VI]) had the greatest impact on resistance, while reducing divalent and fairly unreactive trivalent forms of Cr had no effect at an equal exposure level (i.e., 100 microg Cr/m(3), 5 hr/d, for 5 d). Insoluble Cr(VI) had a greater effect than its soluble form. When data was analyzed in the context of pre-infection lung Cr burdens, it was seen that immunomodulatory potentials for both Cr(VI) agents did not differ significantly; however, complexes with different oxidation states did induce varying responses, suggesting that differences in potential might be attributed to redox behavior. From this it was concluded that for Cr, certain physicochemical properties are likely more important to any in situ pulmonary immunotoxicity than others (i.e., redox behavior is more critical than solubility). Our findings, in part, will help provide a basis for understanding why certain metals could be a greater health risk than others, even when encountered in equal amounts. This, in turn, will help researchers in the design of inhalable diagnostic/therapeutic metallopharmaceuticals by pre-empting the selection of certain metal ions/complexes for potential use in these products. PMID:18958687

Cohen, Mitchell D; Prophete, Colette; Sisco, Maureen; Chen, Lung-Chi; Zelikoff, Judith T; Smee, Jason J; Holder, Alvin A; Crans, Debbie C

2006-07-01

125

Radon as an earthquake precursor in NW Himalayas, India  

Science.gov (United States)

The continuous soil gas radon and daily monitoring of radon concentration in water is carried out at Amritsar (Punjab), Kangra and Chamba Valleys of NW Himalayas India to study the correlation of radon anomalies in relation to seismic activities in the region. In this study, radon monitoring in soil was carried out by using barasol probe manufactured by Algade France whereas the radon content in water was recorded using RAD7 radon monitoring system of Durridge Company USA. The radon anomalies observed in the region have been correlated with the seismic events of M ? 2 recorded in NW Himalayas by Wadia Institute of Himalayas Geology Dehradoon and Indian Meteorological Department, New Delhi. The effect of meteorological parameters viz. temperature, pressure, wind velocity and rainfall on radon emission has been studied. The correlation coefficient between radon and meteorological parameters has been evaluated. The equation for the correction of these correlations to obtain a corrected radon concentration that shows less variability is derived. Empirical equations between earthquake magnitude, epicentral distance and precursor time have been examined and respective constants were determined

Kumar, Arvind; Singh, Surinder; Singh Bajwa, Bikramjit; Mahajan, Sandeep; Dhar, Sunil; Walia, Vivek

2010-05-01

126

Mass movement in the Himalaya: new insights and research directions  

Science.gov (United States)

Ongoing studies that relate tectonics to the processes at the surface of Earth show that many more sources of information about agents of shallow denudation, such as mass movement, are required to comprehend the long term erosion that leads to deep denudation over geologic time. Mass movement in the Himalaya is scale-dependent, from the massive extension of whole mountain ranges (gravity tectonics), through the sackung failure of single peaks, to the smallest slope failures. Generally, denudation of the Himalayan orogen begins with slope failure onto glaciers and into river valleys and continues by glacial and fluvial transport. The maximum size of stable slopes and mean angles of slope that are produced by these failures are complex and controlled by a variety of factors, including mass strength of the rocks, stress fields, angles of internal friction controlled by rock type, cohesion that includes the control of rock temperature, bulk unit weight of rock, and discontinuities. The processes of mass movement in the Himalaya have been described many times for the past two centuries. Recently, developments in a variety of fields have been introduced to assess the character of mass movement. Geomorphometry, remote sensing, digital elevation models, and geographic information system technology are revolutionizing the study of mass movement in the Himalaya.

Shroder, John F.; Bishop, Michael P.

1998-12-01

127

Interannual variability of Indian winter monsoon over the Western Himalayas  

Science.gov (United States)

The Indian subcontinent is surrounded by mighty Himalayas in the north. It is characterized by heterogeneous topography and variable landuse from northwest to northeast. Apart from these, due to seasonal changes western, central and eastern Himalayas are having different precipitation patterns. In the present study Indian winter (December, January, February — DJF) monsoon (IWM) precipitation over the Western Himalayas (WH) is analyzed. During IWM, the WH receives almost one third of annual precipitation due to eastward moving cyclonic storms, western disturbances (WDs). Wet and dry precipitation years' composite analysis shows anomalous cyclonic flow over and across the northern India with higher clouding associated with precipitation over the Himalayan region during wet year. Significant southward shift of 200 hPa subtropical westerly jet (SWJ) with stationary wave pattern over south Asian region is seen during wet years. Over equatorial Pacific increased response of attenuated Walker circulation during El Niño situations is associated with higher precipitation wet years. Also, strengthening of Hadley circulation response within 30°S to 30°N provides symmetrical upper tropospheric meridional transport from Southern Hemisphere to Northern Hemisphere during wet years. Significant precursor dependency on evolution of sea surface temperature warming over equatorial eastern Pacific and cooling over western equatorial Pacific is seen.

Dimri, A. P.

2013-07-01

128

Eocene Tibetan plateau remnants preserved in the northwest Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

The northwest Himalaya shows strongly contrasting relief. Deeply incised mountain ranges that are characterized by extremely rapid exhumation and some of the highest peaks in the world are in contrast with high-elevation, low-relief areas such as the Deosai plateau in northern Pakistan, which lies at an altitude of 4,000m. The origin and evolution of such plateau regions at the convergence of the most active continental collision in the world remain elusive. Here we report low-temperature thermochronology data from the Deosai plateau and use thermal history modelling to show that the plateau has undergone continuous slow denudation at rates below 250mMyr-1 for the past 35Myr at least. This finding suggests tectonic and morphologic stability of the plateau since at least Eocene times, only 15-20Myr after the onset of the India-Asia collision. Our work contradicts the hypothesis that widespread low-relief surfaces in the northwest Himalaya result from efficient kilometre-scale glacial erosion during Quaternary times. We show that similarly stable surfaces exist throughout the entire northwest Himalaya and share common morphologic characteristics and denudation histories, which are comparable to those of the western Tibetan plateau. Our results suggest that these surfaces are preserved remnants of an Eocene southwestern Tibetan plateau that was more extensive than today.

van der Beek, Peter; van Melle, Jérémie; Guillot, Stéphane; Pêcher, Arnaud; Reiners, Peter W.; Nicolescu, Stefan; Latif, Mohammad

2009-05-01

129

Body Wave Crustal Attenuation Characteristics in the Garhwal Himalaya, India  

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We estimate frequency-dependent attenuation of P and S waves in Garhwal Himalaya using the extended coda normalization method for the central frequencies 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 16 Hz, with earthquake hypocentral distance ranging from 27 to 200 km. Forty well-located local earthquake waveforms were used to study the seismic attenuation characteristics of the Garhwal Himalaya, India, as recorded by eight stations operated by Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun, India, from 2007 to 2012. We find frequency-dependent P and S wave quality factors as defined by the relations Q P = 56 ± 8f 0.91±0.002 and Q S = 151 ± 8f 0.84±0.002 by fitting a power-law frequency dependence model for the estimated values over the whole region. Both the Q P and Q S values indicate strong attenuation in the crust of Garhwal Himalaya. The ratio of Q S/Q P > 1 obtained for the entire analyzed frequency range suggests that the scattering loss is due to a random and high degree of heterogeneities in the earth medium, playing an important role in seismic wave attenuation in the Himalayan crust.

Negi, Sanjay S.; Paul, Ajay; Joshi, Anand; Kamal

2014-11-01

130

A potential approach for low flow selection in water resource supply and management  

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SummaryLow flow selections are essential to water resource management, water supply planning, and watershed ecosystem restoration. In this study, a new approach, namely the frequent-low (FL) approach (or frequent-low index), was developed based on the minimum frequent-low flow or level used in minimum flows and/or levels program in northeast Florida, USA. This FL approach was then compared to the conventional 7Q10 approach for low flow selections prior to its applications, using the USGS flow data from the freshwater environment (Big Sunflower River, Mississippi) as well as from the estuarine environment (St. Johns River, Florida). Unlike the FL approach that is associated with the biological and ecological impacts, the 7Q10 approach could lead to the selections of extremely low flows (e.g., near-zero flows) that may hinder its use for establishing criteria to prevent streams from significant harm to biological and ecological communities. Additionally, the 7Q10 approach could not be used when the period of data records is less than 10 years by definition while this may not the case for the FL approach. Results from both approaches showed that the low flows from the Big Sunflower River and the St. Johns River decreased as time elapsed, demonstrating that these two rivers have become drier during the last several decades with a potential of salted water intrusion to the St. Johns River. Results from the FL approach further revealed that the recurrence probability of low flow increased while the recurrence interval of low flow decreased as time elapsed in both rivers, indicating that low flows occurred more frequent in these rivers as time elapsed. This report suggests that the FL approach, developed in this study, is a useful alternative for low flow selections in addition to the 7Q10 approach.

Ouyang, Ying

2012-08-01

131

Eastern Himalaya; their oddities, geologic causes and implications (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Himalayan orogen, despite its size and length of its tectonic evolution, appears strikingly cylindrical. Although all the first order geological features can be followed along strike, there are geologically significant differences whose geodynamic implications are not yet clear. The eastern Himalayas are, among others, characterised by several geological features not recognised or present elsewhere in the orogen: a) The map view extent of the metamorphic core of the orogen, the Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS), is broader than in most other regions; b) The exhumation / emplacement of this unit was diachronous; c) The above implies different timing of metamorphic and deformation stages across strike instead of a “single time evolution” for the GHS; d) In the GHS there are putative Tertiary eclogite facies rocks. However, they appear at different structural levels in eastern Nepal, Sikkim and Bhutan; e) The roof of the GHS, the South Tibetan Detachment (STD), has been preserved in a series of klippen not present, or rare in the rest of the orogen; f) The STD in the klippen represents the earliest stage of the movement along the STD and also documents a complex deformation history of this seemingly simple structure; g) The ductile deformation along the STD apparently lasted longer then further to the west (i.e. the leucogranites apparently young eastward); h) The Bhutan Himalaya is the only segment of the orogen with an elevated terrain outboard the orogen (the Shillong Plateau); i) This actively uplifting topography might have: (i) reduced the monsoonal precipitation received by the segment of the Himalaya in the lee of the plateau, and / or (ii) reduced the convergence rate across the same orogenic segment; j) The convergence rates, short and long term seem, however, higher then elsewhere; k) The erosion rates are lower and the low temperature thermochronological data are older than elsewhere in the Himalaya; l) The latter has resulted in heterogeneous, non-equilibrium landscape, and preservation of the geological features mentioned here. Causes and effects of these differences will be hypothesised and a generalized model for the tectonic evolution of the eastern Himalaya suggested.

Grujic, D.

2009-12-01

132

Assessing the potential for bias in meta-analysis due to selective reporting of subgroup analyses within studies.  

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Subgroup analysis is frequently used to investigate heterogeneity in meta-analysis. Subgroup data are not always available, and researchers should record what data were available for each trial. If data were not available, and it is known that the subgroup data were collected, the potential for selective reporting should be considered. Bias due to selective publishing of reports is widely recognized in meta-analysis. In contrast, selective reporting within studies is little discussed but pote...

Hahn, S.; Williamson, Pr; Hutton, Jl; Garner, P.; Flynn, Ev

2000-01-01

133

ORIGINAL ARTICLE: In-vitro Antioxidant Potential of a Herbal Preparation Containing Four Selected Medicinal Plants  

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Full Text Available Background: The therapeutic effects of several plants used in traditional medicine, are usually attributed to their antioxidant properties. Aim and objective: To evaluate the in-vitro antioxidant potential of herbal preparation a combination of four selected medicinal plants (HP-4 using different experimental models.Material and Methods: Polyphenols, flavonoids and flavonols concentrations and antioxidant activity of herbal preparation (HP-4as compared to butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT and á- tocopherol in various experimental models were evaluated. Results: The antioxidantactivities of HP-4 were concentration dependent in different experimental models and were comparable to activities of BHT anda- tocopherol. Conclusion: Polyherbal formulation of HP-4 is better than individual plant extracts.

Preeti Padmanabhan

2012-07-01

134

Characterization of N200 and P300: Selected Studies of the Event-Related Potential  

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Full Text Available The Event-Related Potential (ERP is a time-locked measure of electrical activity of the cerebral surface representing a distinct phase of cortical processing. Two components of the ERP which bear special importance to stimulus evaluation, selective attention, and conscious discrimination in humans are the P300 positivity and N200 negativity, appearing 300 ms and 200 ms post-stimulus, respectively. With the rapid proliferation of high-density EEG methods, and interdisciplinary interest in its application as a prognostic, diagnostic, and investigative tool, an understanding of the underpinnings of P300 and N200 physiology may support its application to both the basic neuroscience and clinical medical settings. The authors present a synthesis of current understanding of these two deflections in both normal and pathological states.

2005-10-01

135

Selective attention and the auditory vertex potential. 2: Effects of signal intensity and masking noise  

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A randomized sequence of tone bursts was delivered to subjects at short inter-stimulus intervals with the tones originating from one of three spatially and frequency specific channels. The subject's task was to count the tones in one of the three channels at a time, ignoring the other two, and press a button after each tenth tone. In different conditions, tones were given at high and low intensities and with or without a background white noise to mask the tones. The N sub 1 component of the auditory vertex potential was found to be larger in response to attended channel tones in relation to unattended tones. This selective enhancement of N sub 1 was minimal for loud tones presented without noise and increased markedly for the lower tone intensity and in noise added conditions.

Schwent, V. L.; Hillyard, S. A.; Galambos, R.

1975-01-01

136

Beyond EICA: understanding post-establishment evolution requires a broader evaluation of potential selection pressures  

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Full Text Available Research on post-establishment evolution in nonnative plant populations has focused almost exclusively on testing the Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability (EICA hypothesis, which posits that the lack of specialized herbivores in the invaded range drives evolution in nonnative plant populations. Fifteen years of conflicting EICA test results suggest that selection pressures other than specialized herbivory are important in driving post-establishment evolution in invasive species. Alternative hypotheses, such as the Evolution of Reduced Competitive Ability (ERCA hypothesis, have been proposed but have received little attention or testing. We argue that the lack of consensus across studies that test EICA may be due in part to the lack of consistent definitions and varying experimental design parameters, and that future research in this field would benefit from new methodological considerations. We examined previous work evaluating post-establishment evolution and evaluated the range of study systems and design parameters used in testing the EICA hypothesis. Our goal was to identify where different uses of ecological terms and different study parameters have hindered consensus and to suggest a path forward to move beyond EICA in post-establishment evolution studies. We incorporated these methods into a design framework that will increase data harmony across future studies and will facilitate examinations of any potential selection pressure driving evolution in the invaded range.

Joshua Atwood

2011-10-01

137

Diffusion in a logarithmic potential: scaling and selection in the approach to equilibrium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The equation which describes a particle diffusing in a logarithmic potential arises in diverse physical problems such as momentum diffusion of atoms in optical traps, condensation processes, and denaturation of DNA molecules. A detailed study of the approach of such systems to equilibrium via a scaling analysis is carried out, revealing three surprising features: (i) the solution is given by two distinct scaling forms, corresponding to a diffusive (x??t) and a subdiffusive (x<selected by the initial condition; and (iii) this dependence on the initial condition manifests a 'phase transition' from a regime in which the scaling solution depends on the initial condition to a regime in which it is independent of it. The selection mechanism which is found has many similarities to the marginal stability mechanism, which has been widely studied in the context of fronts propagating into unstable states. The general scaling forms are presented and their practical and theoretical applications are discussed

138

Framing hydropower as green energy: assessing drivers, risks and tensions in the Eastern Himalayas  

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The culturally and ecologically diverse region of the Eastern Himalayas is the target of ambitious hydropower development plans. Policy discourses at national and international levels position this development as synergistically positive: it combines the production of clean energy to fuel economic growth at regional and national levels with initiatives to lift poor mountain communities out of poverty. Different from hydropower development in the 20th century in which development agencies and banks were important players, contemporary initiatives importantly rely on the involvement of private actors, with a prominent role of the private finance sector. This implies that hydropower development is not only financially viable but also understood as highly profitable. This paper examines the new development of hydropower in the Eastern Himalaya of Nepal and India. It questions its framing as green energy, interrogates its links with climate change, and examines its potential for investment and capital accumulation. To do this, we also review the evidence on the extent to which its construction and operation may modify existing hydrogeological processes and ecosystems, as well as its impacts on the livelihoods of diverse groups of people that depend on these. The paper concludes that hydropower development in the region is characterised by inherent contentions and uncertainties, refuting the idea that dams constitute development projects whose impacts can be simply predicted, controlled and mitigated. Indeed, in a highly complex geological, ecological, cultural and political context that is widely regarded to be especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change, hydropower as a development strategy makes for a toxic cocktail.

Ahlers, R.; Budds, J.; Joshi, D.; Merme, V.; Zwarteveen, M.

2014-11-01

139

Clockwise rotation of the Brahmaputra Valley relative to India: Tectonic convergence in the eastern Himalaya, Naga Hills, and Shillong Plateau  

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data reveal that the Brahmaputra Valley has broken from the Indian Plate and rotates clockwise relative to India about a point a few hundred kilometers west of the Shillong Plateau. The GPS velocity vectors define two distinct blocks separated by the Kopili fault upon which 2-3 mm/yr of dextral slip is observed: the Shillong block between longitudes 89 and 93°E rotating clockwise at 1.15°/Myr and the Assam block from 93.5°E to 97°E rotating at ?1.13°/Myr. These two blocks are more than 120 km wide in a north-south sense, but they extend locally a similar distance beneath the Himalaya and Tibet. A result of these rotations is that convergence across the Himalaya east of Sikkim decreases in velocity eastward from 18 to ?12 mm/yr and convergence between the Shillong Plateau and Bangladesh across the Dauki fault increases from 3 mm/yr in the west to >8 mm/yr in the east. This fast convergence rate is inconsistent with inferred geological uplift rates on the plateau (if a 45°N dip is assumed for the Dauki fault) unless clockwise rotation of the Shillong block has increased substantially in the past 4-8 Myr. Such acceleration is consistent with the reported recent slowing in the convergence rate across the Bhutan Himalaya. The current slip potential near Bhutan, based on present-day convergence rates and assuming no great earthquake since 1713 A.D., is now ~5.4 m, similar to the slip reported from alluvial terraces that offsets across the Main Himalayan Thrust and sufficient to sustain a Mw ? 8.0 earthquake in this area.

Vernant, P.; Bilham, R.; Szeliga, W.; Drupka, D.; Kalita, S.; Bhattacharyya, A. K.; Gaur, V. K.; Pelgay, P.; Cattin, R.; Berthet, T.

2014-08-01

140

Objective selection of EEG late potentials through residual dependence estimation of independent components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a novel method to objectively select electroencephalographic (EEG) cortical sources estimated by independent component analysis (ICA) in event-related potential (ERP) studies. A proximity measure based on mutual information is employed to estimate residual dependences of the components that are then hierarchically clustered based on these residual dependences. Next, the properties of each group of components are evaluated at each level of the hierarchical tree by two indices that aim to assess both cluster tightness and physiological reliability through a template matching process. These two indices are combined in three different approaches to bring to light the hierarchical structure of the cluster organizations. Our method is tested on a set of experiments with the purpose of enhancing late positive ERPs elicited by emotional picture stimuli. Results suggest that the best way to look for physiologically plausible late positive potential (LPP) sources is to explore in depth the tightness of those clusters that, taken together, best resemble the template. According to our results, after brain sources clustering, LPPs are always identified more accurately than from ensemble-averaged raw data. Since the late components of an ERP involve the same associative areas, regardless of the modality of stimulation or specific tasks administered, the proposed method can be simply adapted to other ERP studies, and extended from psychophysiological studies to pathological or sport training evaluation support

 
 
 
 
141

Automated tube potential selection for standard chest and abdominal CT in follow-up patients with testicular cancer: comparison with fixed tube potential  

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To evaluate prospectively, in patients with testicular cancer, the radiation dose-saving potential and image quality of contrast-enhanced chest and abdominal CT with automated tube potential selection. Forty consecutive patients with testicular cancer underwent contrast-enhanced arterio-venous chest and portal-venous abdominal CT with automated tube potential selection (protocol B; tube potential 80-140 kVp), which is based on the attenuation of the CT topogram. All had a first CT at 120 kVp (protocol A) using the same 64-section CT machine and similar settings. Image quality was assessed; dose information (CTDI{sub vol}) was noted. Image noise and attenuation in the liver and spleen were significantly higher for protocol B (P < 0.05 each), whereas attenuation in the deltoid and erector spinae muscles was similar. In protocol B, tube potential was reduced to 100 kVp in 18 chest and 33 abdominal examinations, and to 80 kVp in 5 abdominal CT examinations; it increased to 140 kVp in one patient. Image quality of examinations using both CT protocols was rated as diagnostic. CTDI{sub vol} was significantly lower for protocol B compared to protocol A (reduction by 12%, P < 0.01). In patients with testicular cancer, radiation dose of chest and abdominal CT can be reduced with automated tube potential selection, while image quality is preserved. (orig.)

Gnannt, Ralph; Winklehner, Anna; Frauenfelder, Thomas; Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Eberli, Daniel [University Hospital Zurich, Clinic for Urology, Zurich (Switzerland); Knuth, Alexander [University Hospital Zurich, Clinic for Oncology, Zurich (Switzerland)

2012-09-15

142

Conflicting selection on diaspore traits limits the evolutionary potential of seed dispersal by ants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Conflicts of selection on diaspore traits throughout the dispersal cycle can limit the evolutionary consequences of seed dispersal. However, these conflicts have never been investigated in directed dispersal systems. We explored conflicts of selection through life stages of dispersal in the myrmecochorous herb Helleborus foetidus. Seeds are subject to two contrasting partial selective scenarios. Undispersed seeds are subject to positive directional selection on seed size characters, whereas seeds dispersed are subject to stabilizing selection for size. In both scenarios, seedling establishment determined the magnitude and direction of selection. This does not reflect ant preferences for seed size. However, total selection still depends largely on ant activity, as ants control the relative importance of each selective scenario. We advocate the use of analytical approaches combining multiplicative fitness and microenvironment-specific selection to more realistically estimate the realized selection on traits functional during several life stages. This approach may be extended to any organism dispersing offspring to different environments. PMID:19460082

Manzaneda, Antonio J; Rey, P J; Alcántara, J M

2009-07-01

143

Pulmonary immunotoxic potentials of metals are governed by select physicochemical properties: vanadium agents.  

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The in situ reactions of metal ions/complexes are important in understanding the mechanisms by which environmental and occupational metal particles alter lung immune responses. A better understanding of these reactions in situ will also allow for the improved specificity and controlled toxicity of novel metallocompounds to be used as inhaled diagnostics or therapeutics. Our previous work showed that inhalation of metals (e.g., chromium, vanadium, nickel) caused altered lung immune cell function and host resistance. The data also suggested that the degree of immunomodulation induced depended not only on the amount of metal deposited, but also the compound used. If specificity governs pulmonary immunomodulatory potential, it follows that physicochemical properties inherent to the metal have a role in the elicited effects. We hypothe-size that major determinants of any metal compound's potential are its redox behavior, valency (generally referred to as oxidation state and considered speciation in chemical literature), and/or solubility. In accord with the extensive work carried out with vanadium (chemical symbol V) compounds showing the importance of form used, differences in potential for a range of V agents (pentavalent [V(V)] insoluble vanadium pentoxide and soluble sodium metavanadate, tetravalent [V(IV)] vanadyl dipicolinate, and trivalent [V(III)] bis(dipicolinato)vanadium) were quantified based on induced changes in local bacterial resistance after host inhalation of each agent at 100 mu g V/m(3) (5 hr/d for 5 d). Differences in effect between V(V) forms indicated that solubility was a critical property in in situ pulmonary immunotoxicity. Among the soluble forms, oxidizing vanadate had the greatest impact on resistance; reducing V(III) altered resistance to a lesser extent. Both the V(IV) and insoluble V(V) had no effect. When data was analyzed in the context of pre-infection lung V burdens, soluble V agents with different oxidation states induced varying responses, supporting the hypothesis that differences in immunomodulatory potential might be attributed to redox behavior or valency. Our findings both provide a basis for understanding why some metals could be a greater health risk than others (when encountered in equal amounts) and will assist in the design of inhalable metallopharmaceuticals by allowing researchers to preempt selection of certain metal ions or complexes for use in such products. PMID:18958712

Cohen, Mitchell D; Sisco, Maureen; Prophete, Colette; Chen, Lung-Chi; Zelikoff, Judith T; Ghio, Andrew J; Stonehuerner, Jacqueline D; Smee, Jason J; Holder, Alvin A; Crans, Debbie C

2007-01-01

144

How much the selection of a potential evapotranspiration formulation influences hydrological projections?  

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This research evaluates the sensitivity of hydrological projections to the choice of potential evapotranspiration formulations on two natural sub-catchments in Canada and Germany. Quantification of the uncertainties related to climate change impact modeling, among the evaporative demand process, has been identified as a key element. Twenty-four PET equations, representing a large range of options, are applied on a calibration over the whole observation time series and for future conditions in a modeling chain composed of dynamically downscaled climatic projections and a twenty-member (ensemble) hydrological model, along with a snow module. Origins of the sensitivity and propagation within the hydrological chain are evaluated to comment influences on climate change impact conclusions. This assessment is based on performances, interannual graphs, statistical and distribution tools, as well as hydrological indicators. Results show that PET simulated time series are quite sensitive to the formulation selection, in terms of quantity and annual distribution. Despite the fact that these PET disparities are only partly transferred to the simulated discharge, because lumped models adapt to their input time series in calibration, analysis show that PET selection do affect streamflow simulations in several ways. These divergences occur as expected in summer, when the evapotranspiration processes are peaking, but also in spring, autumn and winter, revealing that the adaptation of the lumped models to the PET has a year-round effect. The choice of PET formulation affects hydrological projections and climate change conclusions for both catchments in terms of simulated and projected values, but also in the magnitude of changes, and in particularly important dynamic periods such as spring and autumn high flows and summer low flows.

Seiller, G.; Anctil, F.

2013-12-01

145

An evaluation of the cytochrome P450 inhibition potential of selected pesticides in human hepatic microsomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this work was to study the ability of 18 pesticides to inhibit selective model activities for all major xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, namely CYP1A1/2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1 and 3A4. Generally organophosphorus insecticides were the most potent and extensive inhibitors, especially towards CYP1A1/2 (IC(50) values of chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion and profenofos approximately 3 micro M), CYP2B6 (IC(50) values of chlorpyrifos and fenitrothion 2.5 micro M), CYP2C8 (fenitrothion 4.3 micro M), CYP2C9 (fenitrothion and malathion 4.8 and 2.5 micro M, respectively), CYP2D6 (chlorpyrifos and phenthoate approximately 3 micro M) and CYP3A4 (chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion and phenthoate 3-4 micro M). Otherwise there were quite considerable differences in potency and extent of inhibition between different organophosphates. Pyrethroids were in general very weak or inactive. Deltamethrin and fenvalerate were potent inhibitors of CYP2D6 (IC(50) values of approximately 3 micro M) while lambda-cyhalothrin potently inhibited both CYP2D6 and CYP3A4-mediated activities (IC(50)'s about 3-4 micro M). Some pesticides caused relatively potent inhibitions sporadically (carbendazim, CYP2D6, IC(50) = 12 micro M; atrazine, CYP3A4, IC(50) = 2.8 micro M; glyphosate, CYP2C9, IC(50) = 3.7 micro M; hexaflumuron, IC(50) = 6.0 micro M). With the exceptions of alpha-cypermethrin, cypermethrin, isoproturon, carbaryl and abamectin, most pesticides inhibited relatively potently at least one CYP-selective activity, which may have relevance for potential interactions in occupational exposures and for further studies on the CYP-associated metabolism of respective pesticides. PMID:20183062

Abass, Khaled; Turpeinen, Miia; Pelkonen, Olavi

2009-08-01

146

Crustal architecture of the Sikkim-Darjeeling Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last decade several studies have provided large scale crust and upper mantle images along isolated regions across the Himalayas and Tibet. The detailed architecture of the Moho, intracrustal interfaces and their relationship, if any, to the Himalayan Thrusts still remains to be understood. The Sikkim-Darjeeling Himalaya is an ideal location to study such details for the following reasons: (a) The wide separation between the MBT and MCT zone allows denser sampling of the deep structure and (b) The existence of the INDEPTH results from southern Tibet allows a correlation with the structure immediately to its north. Six broadband stations located between the surface trace of the MBT and STD in the Sikkim-Darjeeling Himalayas, were operated for two years (2008-2010). Results from three previously operated stations (2005-2006) have been combined with our data to unravel the detailed crustal architecture. P-wave receiver function imaging of the crust reveal a Moho depth of 45 km immediately north of the MBT and gradual northward deepening at 7 degrees dip angle to reach a depth of 55 km beneath the central Himalayan crystalline (between MCT and STD). Further north the dip on the Moho abruptly changes to about 10 degrees indicating the presence of a crustal ramp just south of the STD. Beneath the MCT zone, southward dipping segments on the Moho are observed, which testify to possible Moho imbrication observed earlier beneath Nepal from active seismic data. Most interestingly, a couple of dipping interfaces are observed within the upper-middle crust which could link the surface outcropping thrust boundaries and the deep structure of the crust.

Mitra, S.; Rai, S. S.; Joshi, V.

2010-12-01

147

Phenological attributes of Angelica glauca and A. archangelica expressed at two different climatic zones in Western Himalaya  

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Full Text Available Angelica glauca Edgew. and A. archangelica Linn., are high value medicinal and aromatic plants of the Himalaya. The present study examined phenological attributes of these species under cultivation at two different climatic zones in Western Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India. Plants of both species were cultivated in Tungnath (TN, an alpine zone (3600 m asl and in Pothivasa (PV, a temperate zone (2200 m asl. The results showed that the commencement and completion periods of phenophases, viz., growth initiation, vegetative phase, flowering, fruiting and senescence in both species varied greatly between the climatic zones. However, this variation was negligible between the species. It indicates that there is a need to develop location specific strategy for cultivation and management of the selected species. Further, the information will be highly helpful in determining appropriate time of cultivation practices, viz., seed sowing to harvesting of these species. Based on the corresponding life cycle of these species, it was also concluded that both the species can be cultivated in similar climatic conditions. Overall, the study will help in understanding adaptation features and planning strategies for successful cultivation and effective conservation management of these species.

Rajiv K. Vashistha

2010-01-01

148

Automated tube potential selection for standard chest and abdominal CT in follow-up patients with testicular cancer: comparison with fixed tube potential  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate prospectively, in patients with testicular cancer, the radiation dose-saving potential and image quality of contrast-enhanced chest and abdominal CT with automated tube potential selection. Forty consecutive patients with testicular cancer underwent contrast-enhanced arterio-venous chest and portal-venous abdominal CT with automated tube potential selection (protocol B; tube potential 80-140 kVp), which is based on the attenuation of the CT topogram. All had a first CT at 120 kVp (protocol A) using the same 64-section CT machine and similar settings. Image quality was assessed; dose information (CTDIvol) was noted. Image noise and attenuation in the liver and spleen were significantly higher for protocol B (P vol was significantly lower for protocol B compared to protocol A (reduction by 12%, P < 0.01). In patients with testicular cancer, radiation dose of chest and abdominal CT can be reduced with automated tube potential selection, while image quality is preserved. (orig.)

149

Quantified proarrhythmic potential of selected human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

To improve proarrhythmic predictability of preclinical models, we assessed whether human ventricular-like embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) can be selected following a standardized protocol. Also, we quantified their arrhythmogenic response and compared this to a contemporary used rabbit Purkinje fiber (PF) model. Multiple transmembrane action potentials (AP) were recorded from 164 hESC-CM clusters (9 different batches), and 12 isolated PFs from New Zealand White rabbits. AP duration (APD), early afterdepolarizations (EADs), triangulation (T), and short-term variability of repolarization (STV) were determined on application of the I(Kr) blocker E-4031 (0.03/0.1/0.3/1 muM). Isoproterenol (0.1 muM) was used to assess adrenergic response. To validate the phenotype, RNA isolated from atrial- and ventricular-like clusters (n=8) was analyzed using low-density Taqman arrays. Based on initial experiments, slow beating rate (200 ms) were used to select 31 ventricular-like clusters. E-4031 (1 muM) prolonged APD (31/31) and induced EADs only in clusters with APD90>300 ms (11/16). EADs were associated with increased T (1.6+/-0.2 vs 2.0+/-0.3) and STV (2.7+/-1.5 vs 6.9+/-1.9). Rabbit PF reacted in a similar way with regards to EADs (5/12), increased T (1.3+/-0.1 vs 1.9+/-0.4), and STV (1.2+/-0.9 vs 7.1+/-5.6). According to ROC values, hESC-CMs (STV 0.91) could predict EADs at least equivalent to PF (STV 0.69). Isoproterenol shortened APD and completely suppressed EADs. Gene expression analysis revealed that HCN1/2, KCNA5, and GJA5 were higher in atrial/nodal-like cells, whereas KCNJ2 and SCN1B were higher in ventricular-like cells (P<0.05). Selection of hESC-CM clusters with a ventricular-like phenotype can be standardized. The proarrhythmic results are qualitatively and quantitatively comparable between hESC-CMs and rabbit PF. Our results indicate that additional validation of this new safety pharmacology model is warranted. PMID:20303332

Jonsson, Malin K B; Duker, Göran; Tropp, Charlotte; Andersson, Birgit; Sartipy, Peter; Vos, Marc A; van Veen, Toon A B

2010-05-01

150

Incipient graben formation in the NW Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh, India)  

Science.gov (United States)

GPS data and regional geological compilations show that the highest sectors of the Higher Himalaya are currently undergoing extension. This has been mainly explained with radial extension along the curvature of the Himalayan arc. However, close inspection of neotectonic extension phenomena using high-resolution satellite imagery from the upper Sutlej Valley of the NW Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh, India) suggests that the recent extension direction is rather oriented E-W, and that N-S graben-bounding normal faults in southern Tibet may propagate southward. This assessment is further corroborated by our new detailed structural field investigations and fault kinematic analysis. Our studies reveal that these normal faults cut all previously generated structures, documenting the recent activity of this fault generation. The average offset of these N-S striking, steeply dipping normal faults is in the cm to dm range for a single fault plane. However, since these brittle faults are part of a densely spaced network, the cumulative offset must be significant. Fault kinematic analysis of slickensides demonstrates that these structures are an integral part of a N-S oriented zone of diffuse E-W extension between the Leo Pargil gneiss dome in the north and the Garhwal Himalaya in the south. This E-W extension is also compatible with the orientation of T-axes of earthquake focal mechanisms obtained in the same region. Although different data sets document ongoing E-W extension, the reason for this phenomenon is not well understood. Despite the fact that some of the normal faults cut Quaternary and Tertiary units, and earthquakes occur within the realm of the extensional Leo Pargil gneiss dome, the ubiquitous occurrence of these structures within the Higher Himalaya suggests an orogen-wide origin, independent of extensional processes associated with dome formation. Alternatively, we therefore interpret the neotectonic extensional evolution of this region to reflect a very early state of a graben system propagating southward that is influenced by the E-W tensional stress regime that governs the southern Tibetan Plateau.

Hintersberger, E.; Strecker, M. R.

2007-12-01

151

Cloud-Aerosol Drivers of Reflective Roof and Solar Power Potential Benefits Across Selected Indian Cities  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of reflective roof surfaces is an adaptive strategy for sustainable warm-climate human environments that can improve human comfort for un-conditioned buildings, energy consumption for conditioned buildings, the urban heat island effect, and potentially net radiation absorbed by the earth. Here, we evaluate the (1) potential radiative benefits of installing cool roofs and (2) incoming surface radiation available for solar power generation across selected Indian cities using a combination of satellite data (MODIS and MERRA) and a radiative transfer model (RRTMG). The radiative transfer model was run multiple times at each time step and location in order to separate the effects of clouds and aerosols on top of the atmosphere outgoing shortwave radiation reflected from roofs and on bottom of the atmosphere incoming shortwave radiation available for solar power generation. Modeled downwelling shortwave radiation at the surface was first validated against measurements obtained from urban rooftops during the 9-month (June, 2011-March, 2012) a joint Indian-US Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) campaign. Results show that model bias at two Indian cities, Nainital (-4.2% average midday bias) and Pantnagar (0.5% average midday bias) was small compared to the radiative benefit obtained from a typical increase in surface reflectance (e.g., 0.3-0.6). Although both cities are located in the northern state of Uttarakhand, differences in terrain type, pollution burdens and cloudiness allow for validation of the model across a wide range of conditions. For example, Nainital is located in complex terrain at an altitude of ~2,000 meters near the Himalayan Mountains while Pantnagar is located in a flat plain at an altitude of ~300 meters. Pantnagar had a larger aerosol burden than Nainital as the average aerosol optical depth at Pantnagar (0.47) was larger than Nainital (0.33). Nainital was cloudier, with clouds observed on 62% of the days during the validation period while clouds were observed in Pantnagar on only 47% of the days. We then extend the model analysis to major Indian cities including New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, and Bangalore. Preliminary results indicate that total (anthropogenic and natural) aerosols reduce the additional top of the atmosphere outgoing radiation from the installation of reflective roofs by an average of 45-110 W m-2 at midday, with the high end of the range set at New Dehli and the low end of the range set at Nainital. Similarly, aerosols reduce total incoming surface radiation by 61-150 W m-2, hence reducing potential solar power generation by up to 25% at some locations depending on the utilization of direct vs. diffuse solar energy. Ongoing analysis will evaluate inter-annual trends and variation in cloud and aerosol effects along with spatial variation across each selected city, and 1st order estimates of the potential improvements to radiative benefit and solar power generation from improvements to air quality. The authors note that the methods employed in this work to estimate radiative benefits from air quality changes assume constant cloud fields and do not account for any aerosol-cloud indirect effects or effects from land-use change (i.e. increased surface albedo from wide-scale adoption of reflective roofs).

Millstein, D.; Fischer, M. L.

2013-12-01

152

Electrophysiological localization of distinct calcium potentials at selective somatodendritic sites in the substantia nigra  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The dendrites of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra play a pivotal role in the neurochemical homeostasis of the nucleus. It is conceivable therefore that the cell body and dendrites of these nigral neurons possess distinct and independent electro-responsive features. By means of differential polarization through applied electric fields, the cell body and dendrites have been activated in effective isolation during intracellular recordings from pars compacta neurons in the substantia nigra in vitro. In one class of neurons, which discharge in a "phasic" fashion and are located in the rostral substantia nigra, the dendrites are shown to be the origin of classic low-threshold and high-threshold type calcium potentials: indeed the high-threshold conductance appears to be exclusively dendritic. By contrast, in a second, more caudally located cell type, which discharges rhythmically, a high-threshold calcium spike is located principally in the cell body. The differential localization of these calcium conductances in sub-populations of neurons is likely to determine the functions for the calcium responses in each type of neuron, and moreover highlight the dendrites as dynamic and selective components in the physiology of the substantia nigra. The presence, for example, of the high-threshold calcium conductance in the dendrites of only one class of neuron suggests that this sub-population plays a prominent role in non-classical phenomena of dendritic release of a variety of chemical mediators.

Hounsgaard, J; Nedergaard, S

1992-01-01

153

Dispersal syndrome differentiation of Pinus armandii in Southwest China: Key elements of a potential selection mosaic  

Science.gov (United States)

Pinus armandii is a species of pine native to China with a wide geographical distribution and large-wingless seeds (about 300 mg). The study is to determine the variation in seed dispersal traits among populations within a relative small geographic scale and furthermore to explore if the trait differentiation results in the differences in dispersers, in particular nutcrackers ( Nucifraga caryocatactes) and scatter-hoarding rodents. We conducted studies at five sites at different elevations in northwest Yunnan Province. The study sites are separated by 10-200 km and divided into populations partly isolated by mountains and rivers. The cone and seed traits diverged significantly among the five study sites while the traits among individual trees at each site did not differ significantly. Nutcrackers and scatter-hoarding rodents presented conflicting preference in cone and seed traits: nutcrackers preferred smaller cones with smaller seeds, which increased the foraging efficiency of nutcrackers; while scatter-hoarding rodents tended to cache larger seeds. Consistent with variation in preferences by nutcrackers and scatter-hoarding rodents, in nutcracker-dominated sites, pines were characterized by smaller cones, smaller seeds, and thinner seed coats; while in sites where nutcrackers were not abundant, pines had relatively larger cones with larger seeds, which could enhance caching activities by scatter-hoarding rodents. The study provided some key elements for potential selection mosaic on cone and seed traits of a long-lived perennial tree among populations with limited geographical range.

Chen, Fan; Chen, Jin

2011-11-01

154

Selective and sensitive platform for function-based screening of potentially harmful furans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many furan-containing compounds have been reported to be toxic and/or carcinogenic. Furanoids have been found in a wide range of fruits, herbs, foods, and beverages. The risks for intake of toxic furans have been rising, due to the rapid growth of globe-wide consumption of natural products. The objective of the study was to develop an analytical platform to screen cis-enediones (cis-enedials or ?-ketoenals) resulting from metabolic activation of potentially harmful furans. 2,5-Dimethylfuran (DMF), a model furan compound, was incubated with rat liver microsomes supplemented with glutathione (GSH) and 4-bromobenzylamine (BBA) as trapping agents, to produce a GSH/BBA-derived pyrrole. The incubation mixture was monitored by acquiring neutral loss scan of 129 Da and precursor ion scans of m/z 272, 169, and 171 in polarity switch mode. Four individual chromatograms showed the respective peak with the same retention time. An additional six furan-containing compounds were tested by the same approach, and similar observation was obtained. The system also showed its extremely high sensitivity, and an estimate of the limit of detection for DMF bioactivated in rat liver microsomes was Dioscorea bulbifera L., known to contain furanoditerpenoids, were analyzed by the approach. In conclusion, the platform has been proven selective, sensitive, effective, and reliable, and ICP MS allows us to estimate the resulting bromine-labeled pyrroles without authentic standards. PMID:25279953

Wang, Kai; Zheng, Liwei; Peng, Ying; Song, Juan-e; Zheng, Jiang

2014-11-01

155

Implications of recent levelling observations for Tehri and other high dams in the Himalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seismic hazards around the Tehri and other existing and proposed high dams in the Himalaya are a matter of concern to many people. The magnitude and dimensions of the problem appear to increase with every new set of geophysical and geological data gathered from the Himalaya. But the flexibility and readiness of the people involved to improve their designs for the dams transparently in the light of the evolving perceptions about seismic hazards is not evident to us at least. In this article the evidence for an aspect of seismic hazards in the Himalaya is buttressed. (author). 44 refs., 3 figs

156

Distribution and Potential Mobility of Selected Heavy Metals in a Fluvial Environment Under the Influence of Tanneries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study we evaluated the occurrence of heavy metals in a fluvial environment under the influence of tanneries – the Cadeia and Feitoria rivers basin (RS, south Brazil), highlighting the distribution and potential mobility of the selected elements. Every three months, over one year-period, selected heavy metals and ancillary parameters were analyzed in water and sediment samples taken at ten sites along the rivers. Water analyses followed APHA recommendations, and sediment analyses wer...

Rodrigues M. L. K.; Formoso M. L. L.

2013-01-01

157

Substrate Selection for Fundamental Studies of Electrocatalysts and Photoelectrodes: Inert Potential Windows in Acidic, Neutral, and Basic Electrolyte  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The selection of an appropriate substrate is an important initial step for many studies of electrochemically active materials. In order to help researchers with the substrate selection process, we employ a consistent experimental methodology to evaluate the electrochemical reactivity and stability of seven potential substrate materials for electrocatalyst and photoelectrode evaluation. Using cyclic voltammetry with a progressively increased scan range, we characterize three transparent conduc...

Benck, Jesse D.; Pinaud, Blaise A.; Gorlin, Yelena; Jaramillo, Thomas F.

2014-01-01

158

Determination of Potentially Arable Land and Measurements of Non-Agricultural Uses for Nine Selected Areas in Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study was to determine the percentage of total potentially arable land currently committed to non-agricultural human settlement uses in selected African agro-climatic zones. Nine study areas equal in size to Landsat scenes, were selected by climatic zones as specified by the Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Italy. Soils information were fundamental to this project and were combined with climatic and crop suitability information for each study area. This informat...

Goldblatt, Irvin A.; Hyde, Richard F.

1980-01-01

159

Selection of Origanum vulgare plants for essential oil, carvacrol, total phenols and antioxidant potential  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the summer of 2005, individual plant selection was performed on different oregano populations started at Applied Plant Research (PPO-WUR) in Lelystad, The Netherlands. Selection was focused on erect growing, healthy, leafy but flowering, productive plants. Samples of these visually selected plants were analyzed for essential oil content and its main components (such as carvacrol). Some of the selected plants were also screened for phenolic components and antioxidant activity. This paper de...

Mheen, H. J. C. J.; Havkin-frenkel, D.; Berg, W.

2010-01-01

160

Reassessing Catastrophic Infill of the Pokhara Valley, Nepal Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pokhara valley, home to Nepal's second largest city and a major tourist attraction (28°15'N, 83°58'E), is covered by 4-5 km3 and 50-100 m thick intramontane fan deposits that resulted from massive aggradation of the Seti Khola, a river draining the Annapurna Massif of the Greater Himalaya. Poorly sorted, gravelly fluvial facies intercalated with debris-flow and mud-flow facies known as the Pokhara Gravels attest to highly energetic transport conditions during one or several catastrophic flow events. In May 2012, a devastative flash flood/debris flow in the Seti Khola rekindled interest in the formation processes and timing of the Pokhara Gravels as they may provide constraints on the magnitudes and frequencies of similar past events. Interpretations of previous sedimentological work and radiocarbon dating (Yamanaka, 1982; Fort, 1987) culminated in the belief that the Pokhara Gravels were catastrophically emplaced only 500 to 1000 years ago, although the exact nature, timing, and triggers of the purported event(s) remain obscure. Specifically, it remains debated whether the Pokhara Gravels were deposited instantaneously, possibly within less than a year, or whether sedimentation was more protracted over perhaps decades to millennia. We present new geomorphological, sedimentological, geochemical, and radiocarbon data and re-assess a potential catastrophic infill of the Pokhara Valley during one or several high-magnitude events. Support for this scenario is given by laterally continuous long-runout (~40 km) debris-flow deposits topped by large (i.e. up to >11-m) boulders, a distinctly calcareous lithology diagnostic of a small Greater Himalayan source area tens of kilometres upstream, and by historical anecdotes of a large flood that destroyed an earlier settlement in the area. However, we show that dated outcrops of fine-grained sediments in tributaries blocked by the Pokhara Gravels yield asynchronous ages. Although our radiocarbon dates are consistent with previously reported ones, pooled ages may equally well reflect more than one depositional event. We infer that massive aggradation must have been ongoing after rivers began incising into the Pokhara Gravels. Yet, geochemical fingerprinting of stillwater sediments located several kilometers upstream in these and other tributary valleys suggests a common and strikingly dominant sediment source limited to the Seti Khola's glaciated headwaters. These findings are at odds with the sedimentology of the Pokhara Gravels that point at one or more phases of deposition, most likely by high-magnitude events, possibly even by different transport processes. In summary, our results call for a much more detailed enquiry into the timing and mode of emplacement of the Pokhara Gravels in order to avoid gross misestimates of the hazard portfolio of the Pokhara valley. References: A. Yamanaka. The Science Reports of Tohoku University, 7th Series (Geography), 32, 46-60 (1982). M. Fort. Zeitsch. f. Geom. N.F., Suppl., 63, 9-36 (1987).

Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Bernhardt, Anne; Stolle, Amelie; Adhikari, Basantha; Korup, Oliver

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
161

Potential Stability of All-Solid-State Ion-Selective Electrodes Using Conducting Polymers as Ion-to-Electron Transducers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Demanding analytical applications such as on-line process analysis and clinical analysis require robust, reliable, and maintenance-free ion sensors of high potential stability. In this work the stability of the electrode potential of all-solid-state ion-selective electrodes using conducting polymers as ion-to-electron transducers is critically evaluated by using chronopotentiometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This study is focused on the relationship between the potential stability of the electrode and the capacitance of the solid contact where ion-to-electron transduction takes place. The influence of this capacitance on the potential stability of all-solid-state ion-selective electrodes is studied experimentally by using conducting polymer layers of different thickness as solid contacts in potassium ion-selective electrodes based on a solvent polymeric membrane. Because of its excellent environmental stability, the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) is used as a model compound for the solid contact material. Chronopotentiometry is found to be a convenient and fast experimental method to critically evaluate the potential stability of different types of ion-selective electrodes. PMID:21662838

Bobacka, J

1999-11-01

162

Selected Extracellular microRNA as Potential Biomarkers of Multiple Sclerosis Activity-Preliminary Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Four distinct disease courses are known, although approximately 90 % of patients are diagnosed with the relapsing-remitting form (RRMS). The name "multiple sclerosis" pertains to the underlying pathology: the presence of demyelinating plaques in the CNS, in particular in the periventricular region, corpus callosum, cervical spine, and the cerebellum. There are ongoing efforts to discover biomarkers that would allow for an unequivocal diagnosis, assess the activity of inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes, or warn of disease progression. At present, small noncoding RNA particles-microRNA (miRNA, miR) seem to be particularly noteworthy, as they take part in posttranscriptional regulation of expression of various genes. Changes in composition as well as function of miRNA found in body fluids of MS patients are subjects of research, in the hope they prove accurate markers of MS activity. This preliminary study aims to evaluate the expression of selected extracellular microRNA particles (miRNA-let-7a, miRNA-92a, miRNA-684a) in patients experiencing MS relapse and remission, with healthy volunteers serving as a control group and to evaluate the correlation between miRNA expression and selected clinical parameters of those patients. Thirty-seven patients suffering from MS formed two examined groups: 20 patients undergoing relapse and 17 in remission. Thirty healthy volunteers formed the control group. All patients who were subjects to peripheral blood sampling had been hospitalized in the Department of Neurology and Stroke(1). Four milliliters of venous whole blood had been collected into EDTA tubes. The basis for the selection of the three particular miRNA investigated in this study (miRNA-let-7a, miRNA-92a, miRNA-684a) was a preliminary bioinformatic analysis of data compiled from several medical databases, including Ovid MEDLINE®, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), miRWalk, and miRBase. The isolation of extracellular microRNA from plasma was carried out using miRNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen) reagents. The reverse transcription was carried out with TaqMan® MicroRNA Reverse Transcription Kit (Applied Biosystems), as per manufacturers' instructions. Standard microRNA TaqMan® tests (Applied Biosystems) were used for miRNA quantification. The qPCR were performed on a 7900 HT Fast Real-Time PCR System (Applied Biosystems) and analyzed using Sequence Detection System 2.3 software. In addition, all patients at the Department of Neurology and Stroke undergo a routine complete blood count with differential. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the expression of selected microRNA (has-miR-let-7a, miR-92a, and miR-648a) in the plasma of patients with MS during a relapse as well as in remission and attempt to correlate the acquired data with clinically relevant parameters of the disease. Finding such correlations may potentially lead to the use of miRNA as a biomarker of MS, which could help diagnose the disease and assess its severity and the efficacy of treatment. The difference in the expression of has-miR-let-7a in the remission group and the control group was statistically significant (p?=?0.002). Similarly, the expression of miRNA-648a in patients in remission was significantly different from the expression in the control group (p?=?0.02). Analysis of the correlation between the expression of miRNA-92a and the severity of the disease as measured by the EDSS scale in patients undergoing relapse showed significant negative linear correlation (r?=?-0.54, p?=?0.01). Higher miR-648a expression correlated with more frequent flare-ups in the joint group of patients in remission and relapse (p?=?0.03). This study is one of the few that demonstrate significantly changed expression of selected extracellular miRNA in plasma of MS patients and correlate those findings with clinical parameters. These observations may suggest that some miRNA subsets may be potential biomarkers for

Kacperska, Magdalena Justyna; Jastrzebski, Karol; Tomasik, Bartlomiej; Walenczak, Jakub; Konarska-Krol, Maria; Glabinski, Andrzej

2014-12-10

163

Distribution pattern of orchids in Uttarakhand, Western Himalayas, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Orchids are widely distributed in tropics, subtropics and temperate regions. Within the tropics, orchids form an important feature of the vegetation, chiefly as epiphytes. India’s epiphytic orchid is to be found primarily in the Eastern Himalayas and Western Ghats, while the terrestrial species flourishes in the Western Himalayas. In the state of Uttarakhand, India, orchid distribution is not homogeneous. Orchids are typically concentrated along the riverine areas and in pockets of moist forests where there is suitable habitat for their growth, development and regeneration. The purpose of this study was to provide a general review of the distribution of orchid species (epiphytic and terrestrial in Uttarakhand. A total of 240 species (of which 10 are endemic belonging to 73 genera were recorded. The largest number of orchid species (terrestrial and epiphytic were encountered in the sub-tropical zone (<1500 m. Terrestrial orchids were distributed throughout the altitudinal gradient, but the largest number of species occurred in two ecotones between high and low altitude forests (1500-2000 m and 3000-3500 m. Twenty-one species were restricted to a particular habitat.

Jeewan Singh Jalal

2012-03-01

164

Crustal Structure Across the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

We present crustal models from joint inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh group velocities across the Himalayan collision zone. Receiver functions were analysed from 8 broadband instruments along a ~800km profile extending from the undeformed Indian shield to the Great Himalaya in North Sikkim. This profile provides a southwards extension of the INDEPTH II experiment and benefits from decreased sediment coverage across the Rangpur saddle in comparison with the 5-6km of sediment in the Ganges basin. The Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya share the broad thrust geometries of the Himalayan range but differ in that the Main Central and Boundary Thrusts are exposed within a few kilometres of each other with a number of imbricate thrusts in between. Joint inversion of receiver functions, which are primarily sensitive to velocity contrasts, with group velocity dispersion curves, which are sensitive to vertical velocity averages, allows absolute values of shear-wave velocity to be constrained. Inversion results indicate a moho at ~40km depth for station DGPR in Western Bengal which is comparable to the undeformed south Indian shield, then deepening to ~50km for station DJLG in the Himalayan foothills. Crustal profiles for station LCHG in Northern Sikkim indicate the moho is at a depth of ~62km which is consistent with the crustal thickness calculated for station SP27 in the INDEPTH II profile at a similar latitude.

Acton, C. E.; Mitra, S.; Priestley, K.; Gaur, V. K.

2006-12-01

165

A Study on the nature of genetic divergence in rice from assam and North East Himalayas.  

Science.gov (United States)

A representative group of 190 rice types collected from North-East India along with four standard varieties, three of which were indicas and one japonica, was studied to understand the nature of genetic divergence. Preliminary grouping was done by canonical analysis and the resultant 42 groups were further classified using the D(2) statistic.The final grouping resulted in nine divergent clusters. The three indica standards were found in three different clusters indicating the wide available variability among them. The japonica standard formed a separate group by itself. A majority of the North-East Indian types formed clusters with indicas, whereas some were intermediate and still others were closer to japonica or indica, thus indicating a series of intergrades bridging indica and japonica.Height followed by leaf area was found to be important for primary and 100-grain weight, followed by amylose content for secondary differentiation. It appears that natural selection as well as human selection might have operated for characters differentiating rice types in Assam and North Eastern Himalayas. Geographical distance was not found to be related to genetic divergence. The study suggests that O. sativa contains innumerable but divergent forms, and its classification into definite varietal groups on an arbitrary basis such as isolation barrier, sexual affinity or geographic distribution would be far from reality. PMID:24425072

Vairavan, S; Siddiq, E A; Arunachalam, V; Swaminathan, M S

1973-01-01

166

Selective adsorption resonances in the scattering of helium atoms from xenon coated graphite: Close-coupling calculations and potential dependence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accurate close-coupling calculations are carried out for the scattering of helium atoms from a monolayer of Xe on the (0001) face of graphite, using atom-surface potentials based on pairwise additivity and the (known) He--Xe pair potential. Good agreement is obtained with the selective adsorption data of Bracco et al. The potential dependence of the resonance spectrum is explored, and it is found that the data are very sensitive to fine details; two pair potentials which both reproduce the gas phase data well, give significantly different resonance spectra, and the contributions of three-body forces are also shown to be important. The resonance spectra are significantly affected by small changes in the corrugation strength as well as by the laterally averaged potential. The potential dependence becomes even more pronounced as the scattering energy is decreased

167

Cluster analysis for identifying sub-groups and selecting potential discriminatory variables in human encephalitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Encephalitis is an acute clinical syndrome of the central nervous system (CNS, often associated with fatal outcome or permanent damage, including cognitive and behavioural impairment, affective disorders and epileptic seizures. Infection of the central nervous system is considered to be a major cause of encephalitis and more than 100 different pathogens have been recognized as causative agents. However, a large proportion of cases have unknown disease etiology. Methods We perform hierarchical cluster analysis on a multicenter England encephalitis data set with the aim of identifying sub-groups in human encephalitis. We use the simple matching similarity measure which is appropriate for binary data sets and performed variable selection using cluster heatmaps. We also use heatmaps to visually assess underlying patterns in the data, identify the main clinical and laboratory features and identify potential risk factors associated with encephalitis. Results Our results identified fever, personality and behavioural change, headache and lethargy as the main characteristics of encephalitis. Diagnostic variables such as brain scan and measurements from cerebrospinal fluids are also identified as main indicators of encephalitis. Our analysis revealed six major clusters in the England encephalitis data set. However, marked within-cluster heterogeneity is observed in some of the big clusters indicating possible sub-groups. Overall, the results show that patients are clustered according to symptom and diagnostic variables rather than causal agents. Exposure variables such as recent infection, sick person contact and animal contact have been identified as potential risk factors. Conclusions It is in general assumed and is a common practice to group encephalitis cases according to disease etiology. However, our results indicate that patients are clustered with respect to mainly symptom and diagnostic variables rather than causal agents. These similarities and/or differences with respect to symptom and diagnostic measurements might be attributed to host factors. The idea that characteristics of the host may be more important than the pathogen is also consistent with the observation that for some causes, such as herpes simplex virus (HSV, encephalitis is a rare outcome of a common infection.

Crowcroft Natasha S

2010-12-01

168

Phenolic content, antioxidant potential and Aedes aegyptii ecological friend larvicidal activity of some selected Egyptian plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyphenols constitute a distinct group of natural compounds of medicinal importance exhibiting wide range of physiological activities as antioxidant, immunestimulant, antitumor and antiparasitic. Yellow fever and dengue fever are mosquito-borne infectious diseases transmitted by Aedes aegyptii, the presence of yellow fever in Sudan and dengue fever in Saudi Arabia are threats to Egypt with the reemerging of Ae. aegyptii in Southern Egypt, larvae control is feasible than flying adults. This work was conducted targeting estimation of the relative levels of total phenolic content, antioxidant potential and larvicidal activity of 110 selected Egyptian plants. The highest total phenolic contents were estimated in aqueous extracts of Coronilla scorpioides L., Forsskaolea tenacissima L., Crataegus sinaica Boiss., Pistacia khinjuk Boiss. and Loranthus acacia Benth.; they were 916.70 +/- 4.80, 813.70 +/- 4.16, 744.90 +/- 4.93, 549.00 +/- 3.93& 460.80 +/- 4.02 mg% while those of methanol extracts were estimated in Coronilla scorpioides, Forsskaolea tenacissima, Crataegus sinaica, Loranthus acacia and Pistacia khinjuk, they were 915.60-4.86, 664.60 +/- 4.16, 659.30 +/- 4.80, 590.80 +/- 4.49 & 588.00 +/- 3.85 mg% respectively. Investigation of the antioxidant potentials revealed that the most potent plants were Co-ronilla scorpioides, Forsskaolea tenacissima, Crataegus sinaica, Pistacia khinjuk and Loranthus acacia with calculated values of 454.80 +/- 4.83, 418.4 +/- 4.16, 399.10 +/- 4.90, 342.5 +/- 2.72 & 239.7 +/- 2.91% for aqueous extracts and 452.9 +/- 4.94, 389.6 +/- 4.6, 378.48 +/- 3.84, 352.3 +/- 3.06 & 346.5 +/- 2.98% for methanol extracts respectively while screening of larvicidal activity proved that Coronilla scorpioides, Forsskaolea tenacissima, Crataegus sinaica, Pistacia khinjuk and Loranthus acacia exhibited highest potency calculated as 22.53 +/- 2.01, 23.85 +/- 2.07, 28.17 +/- 2.06, 31.60 +/- 2.93 & 39.73 +/- 4.58 mg% aqueous extracts and 18.53 +/- 1.95, 18.8 +/- 1.67, 20.17 +/- 1.85, 23.28 +/- 2.7 & 28.48 +/- 3.9 mg% methanol ones respectively. PMID:23697028

El-Hela, Atef A; Abdel-Hady, Nevein M; Dawoud, Gouda T M; Hamed, Abdo M; Morsy, Tosson A

2013-04-01

169

Identification of selected therapeutic agents as inhibitors of carboxylesterase 1: potential sources of metabolic drug interactions.  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of studies were designed and carried out in order to explore the potential for the major human hepatic hydrolase, carboxylesterase 1 (hCES1), to serve as a target of metabolic inhibition by a variety of medications. The risk of adverse drug-drug interaction(s) is present when metabolic inhibitors are combined with known or suspected substrates of a given enzyme. In the present report the abundantly expressed hepatic enzyme, hCES1, was examined as a potential target of metabolic inhibition by a number of routinely prescribed medications. hCES1 has been seldom assessed in this regard despite its role in the metabolism and detoxification of many compounds. The psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPH) was chosen as an hCES1 selective substrate. In vitro studies were performed using previously developed cell lines which overexpress hCES1 with both p-nitrophenyl acetate and d-MPH serving as known substrates. Aripiprazole, perphenazine, thioridazine, and fluoxetine were determined to be the potent hCES1 inhibitors. A complementary animal study followed in vitro screening studies to further evaluate the inhibitory effect of aripiprazole on CES1 activity in FVB mice. The results suggest that the concurrent administration of racemic (i.e. dl-) MPH with aripiprazole significantly increased the plasma concentrations of both total MPH as well as the less active l-isomer. The ratio of d-MPH and l-MPH plasma concentrations was significantly decreased in the mice treated with aripiprazole compared to the control animals, indicating an overall decrease of CES1 catalytic activity in aripiprazole treated animals. Additionally, a quantitative structure-activity relationship based analysis identified a number of structural similarities of CES1 inhibitors. In conclusion, drug-drug interactions with MPH are likely mediated via CES1 inhibition as a result of concomitant drug therapies. CES1 inhibition represents an overlooked and little studied source of variability in MPH disposition, tolerability, and response. PMID:20097249

Zhu, Hao-Jie; Appel, David I; Peterson, Yuri K; Wang, Zichao; Markowitz, John S

2010-04-11

170

Selective isolation and differentiation of a stromal population of human embryonic stem cells with osteogenic potential  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The derivation of osteogenic cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) has been hampered by the absence of easy and reproducible protocols. hESC grown in feeder-free conditions, often show a sub population of fibroblast-like, stromal cells growing between the colonies. Thus, we examined the possibility that these cells represent a population of stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells (hESC-stromal). Two in house derived hES cell lines (Odense3 and KMEB3) as well as an externally derived cell line (Hues8) were transitioned to feeder-free conditions. A sub population of fibroblast-like cells established between the hESC colonies were isolated by selective adherence to hyaluronic acid-coated plates (100?g/ml) and were characterized using a combination of FACS analysis and staining. The cells were CD44(+), CD29(+), CD73(+), CD166(+), CD146(+), and CD105(+); and, Oct4(-), CD34(-), CD45(-) and CXCR4(-). When cultured in osteogenic differentiation media, up regulation of osteoblastic lineage markers (DLX5, MSX2, RUNX2, SPARC, ALP, COL1a1, BGLAP, IBSP, DCN, LOX-L4) and production of in vitro mineralized matrix was detected. hESC-stromal cells loaded on a carrier and implanted either subcutaneously or in a critical size calvarial defect in immune deficient mice for 10weeks, resulted in new bone formation and partial repair of the calvarial defect. In conclusion, hESC-stromal can be isolated from hESC cultures and represent a good source for obtaining cells with osteogenic differentiation potential suitable for regenerative medicine protocols.

Harkness, Linda M; Mahmood, Amer

2011-01-01

171

Widespread sequence variations in VAMP1 across vertebrates suggest a potential selective pressure from botulinum neurotoxins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT/A-G), the most potent toxins known, act by cleaving three SNARE proteins required for synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Previous studies on BoNTs have generally utilized the major SNARE homologues expressed in brain (VAMP2, syntaxin 1, and SNAP-25). However, BoNTs target peripheral motor neurons and cause death by paralyzing respiratory muscles such as the diaphragm. Here we report that VAMP1, but not VAMP2, is the SNARE homologue predominantly expressed in adult rodent diaphragm motor nerve terminals and in differentiated human motor neurons. In contrast to the highly conserved VAMP2, BoNT-resistant variations in VAMP1 are widespread across vertebrates. In particular, we identified a polymorphism at position 48 of VAMP1 in rats, which renders VAMP1 either resistant (I48) or sensitive (M48) to BoNT/D. Taking advantage of this finding, we showed that rat diaphragms with I48 in VAMP1 are insensitive to BoNT/D compared to rat diaphragms with M48 in VAMP1. This unique intra-species comparison establishes VAMP1 as a physiological toxin target in diaphragm motor nerve terminals, and demonstrates that the resistance of VAMP1 to BoNTs can underlie the insensitivity of a species to members of BoNTs. Consistently, human VAMP1 contains I48, which may explain why humans are insensitive to BoNT/D. Finally, we report that residue 48 of VAMP1 varies frequently between M and I across seventeen closely related primate species, suggesting a potential selective pressure from members of BoNTs for resistance in vertebrates. PMID:25010769

Peng, Lisheng; Adler, Michael; Demogines, Ann; Borrell, Andrew; Liu, Huisheng; Tao, Liang; Tepp, William H; Zhang, Su-Chun; Johnson, Eric A; Sawyer, Sara L; Dong, Min

2014-07-01

172

Carbon and oxygen isotope changes in Siwalik soils from Nepal Himalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Siwalik sediments of lower Himalayas are derived from the erosion of the rocks from higher reaches and deposited in the foreland basin. These group of sediments are formed over the time span of last ?20 Ma

173

Selective activation of the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor achieved by allosteric potentiation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The forebrain cholinergic system promotes higher brain function in part by signaling through the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR). During Alzheimer's disease (AD), these cholinergic neurons degenerate, therefore selectively activating M1 receptors could improve cognitive function in these patients while avoiding unwanted peripheral responses associated with non-selective muscarinic agonists. We describe here benzyl quinolone carboxylic acid (BQCA), a highly selective allosteric po...

Ma, Lei; Seager, Matthew A.; Wittmann, Marion; Jacobson, Marlene; Bickel, Denise; Burno, Maryann; Jones, Keith; Graufelds, Valerie Kuzmick; Xu, Guangping; Pearson, Michelle; Mccampbell, Alexander; Gaspar, Renee; Shughrue, Paul; Danziger, Andrew; Regan, Christopher

2009-01-01

174

Potential Mobility Among Career Teachers in New York City's Middle Schools: The Relationship Between Selected Occupational Characteristics, Expectations and Attitudes.  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine the relationship between selected occupational characteristics and attitudes of New York City middle-school teachers and their potential mobility within the system, a 33-item questionnaire was distributed to all teachers in a random sample of 12 junior high schools and four middle schools. The questionnaire was designed to obtain data…

Castiglione, Lawrence V.

175

Selection and Evaluation of Microbial Strains with Potential for Biologically Controlling Pink Rot of Potatoes Incited by Phytophthora erythroseptica  

Science.gov (United States)

Selection and evaluation of microbial strains with potential for biologically controlling pink rot of potatoes in storage. T.A.Koltuksuz1, D.A. Schisler2, J.M. Sloan2 and P.J. Slininger2 1Visiting Scientist, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research (NCAUR), USDA-ARS, Peoria, IL 61604 ...

176

Plant operator selection system for evaluating employment candidates' potential for success in electric power plant operations positions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Plant Operator Selection System is a battery of tests and questionnaires that can be administered to job candidates in less than three hours. Various components of the battery measure what a job candidate has accomplished in previous educational and work situations, how well a candidate compares with others on a number of important aptitudes or abilities, and whether or not a candidate possesses the kind of personal stability required in power plant operations positions. A job candidate's answers to the tests and questionnaires of the Plant Operator Selection System are scored and converted to an OVERALL POTENTIAL INDEX. Values of the OVERALL POTENTIAL INDEX [OPI] range between 0 and 15. Candidates with high OPI values are much more likely to become effective and successful plant operators than candidates with low OPI values. It is possible to estimate the financial advantages to a company of using the Plant Operator Selection System in evaluating candidates for plant operations jobs

177

Quantifying sources, transport, deposition and radiative forcing of black carbon over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau  

Science.gov (United States)

Black carbon (BC) particles over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau (HTP), both airborne and those deposited on snow, have been shown to affect snowmelt and glacier retreat. Since BC over the HTP may originate from a variety of geographical regions and emission sectors, it is essential to quantify the source-receptor relationships of BC in order to understand the contributions of natural and anthropogenic emissions and provide guidance for potential mitigation actions. In this study, we use the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) with a newly developed source tagging technique, nudged towards the MERRA meteorological reanalysis, to characterize the fate of BC particles emitted from various geographical regions and sectors. Evaluated against observations over the HTP and surrounding regions, the model simulation shows a good agreement in the seasonal variation of the near-surface airborne BC concentrations, providing confidence to use this modeling framework for characterizing BC source-receptor relationships. Our analysis shows that the relative contributions from different geographical regions and source sectors depend on seasons and the locations in the HTP. The largest contribution to annual mean BC burden and surface deposition in the entire HTP region is from biofuel and biomass (BB) emissions in South Asia, followed by fossil fuel (FF) emissions from South Asia, then FF from East Asia. The same roles hold for all the seasonal means except for the summer when East Asia FF becomes more important. For finer receptor regions of interest, South Asia BB and FF have the largest impact on BC in Himalayas and Central Tibetan Plateau, while East Asia FF and BB contribute the most to Northeast Plateau in all seasons and Southeast Plateau in the summer. Central Asia and Middle East FF emissions have relatively more important contributions to BC reaching Northwest Plateau, especially in the summer. Although local emissions only contribute about 10% to BC in the HTP, this contribution is extremely sensitive to local emission changes. Lastly, we show that the annual mean radiative forcing (0.42 W m-2) due to BC in snow outweighs the BC dimming effect (-0.3 W m-2) at the surface over the HTP. We also find strong seasonal and spatial variation with a peak value of 5 W m-2 in the spring over Northwest Plateau. Such a large forcing of BC in snow is sufficient to cause earlier snow melting and potentially contribute to the acceleration of glacier retreat.

Zhang, R.; Wang, H.; Qian, Y.; Rasch, P. J.; Easter, R. C.; Ma, P.-L.; Singh, B.; Huang, J.; Fu, Q.

2015-01-01

178

Active tectonics coupled to fluvial erosion in the NW Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

Both syntaxial extremities of the Himalaya show a spatial correlation between active exhumation of deep crustal rocks and the presence of powerful rivers, the Indus and the Tsangpo-Brahmaputra, cutting across the range two of the deepest gorges on Earth. These features strongly suggests that vigorous fluvial erosion can locally enhance isostatic and tectonic uplift, which in turn contributes to heat advection and weakening of the crust, as well as to maintain steep topographic gradients [Zeitler et al., 2001]. In order to test this positive feedback model, we combined structural and geochronological data to constrain the tectono-thermal evolution along the Sutlej (NW India), the third largest river cross-cutting entirely the Himalaya. The Himalayan crystalline core zone exposed along the Sutlej Valley is composed of two gneiss sheets, that were successively underthrusted and tectonically extruded as a consequence of the foreland-directed propagation of deformation in the Indian plate margin. During Early to Middle Miocene, combined thrusting along the Main Central Thrust (MCT) and extension along the Sangla Detachment induced the rapid exhumation and cooling of the amphibolite facies to migmatitic High Himalayan Crystalline Sequence [Vannay &Grasemann, 2001]. Underthrusting beneath the MCT led to the creation of the amphibolite facies Lesser Himalayan Crystalline Sequence (LHCS). The LHCS cooled rapidly from Late Miocene to Pleistocene, as a consequence of tectonic extrusion controlled by thrusting along the Munsiari Thrust, and extension in the MCT hanging wall. This phase is still active, as indicated by: (1) cooling rates in excess of 100^oC/Myr during the past ˜3 Myr in the LHCS; (2) Holocene neo-tectonic activity; (3) present-day hydrothermal activity testifying to elevated near-surface geothermal gradients; and (4) seismic activity along the Munsiari Thrust. Modelling of fluvial erosion in the Himalaya indicate that the Sutlej Valley corresponds to the main zone of high erosion index between the syntaxes [Finlayson et al., 2002]. The correlation between active extrusion of deep crustal rocks and focused fluvial erosion along the Sutlej supports consequently the emerging view of a positive feedback between tectonics, topography, and surface processes during the Himalayan tectono-thermal evolution. Finlayson et al. (2002), Geology, 30, 219 222. Vannay &Grasemann (2001), Geological Magazine 138, 253-276. Zeitler et al. (2001), Tectonics, 20, 712-728.

Vannay, J.-C.; Grasemann, B.; Rahn, M.; Frank, W.; Carter, A.

2003-04-01

179

Petrochronologic study of granites in the eastern Nepal Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

Anatexis strongly influences the chemical, thermal, and rheological evolution of continental crust. Partial melting causes compositional differentiation by redistribution of incompatible elements, upward advection of heat during magma transport, and reduction of viscosity in migmatite zones. The orogenic core of the Himalaya consists of a continuous belt of schists and gneisses pervasively intruded by leucogranites derived from partial melting of crustal sources. This study employs high-temperature petrochronology of granites to reveal the spatial and temporal relationships between metamorphism, melting, deformation, and exhumation of the Himalayan middle crust. In eastern Nepal the Greater Himalayan Series (GHS) extends southward from the Everest region to the Mahabharat range forming a broad thrust sheet above the Main Central thrust (MCT). High-grade upper GHS rocks occur along the main orographic front to the north and the Mahabharat range to the south, whereas lower-grade rocks of the MCT zone occur beyween them near Okhaldhunga. Three types of granites were distinguished along a ~100-km-long north-south transect across the area, including 1) weakly to highly deformed granites and orthogneisses of the MCT zone, 2) deformed tourmaline-bearing leucogranite dikes intruding kyanite-bearing gneisses of the Mahabharat, and 3) undeformed to moderately deformed two-mica and tourmaline-bearing leucogranite dikes and sills intruding migmatites of the High Himalaya. U-Th/Pb dating of zircon and monazite by LA-ICPMS reveal the magmatic ages of each of the three types of granites. Granites and orthogneisses of the MCT zone yield dates of c.1800 Ma with evidence for Archean inheritance and recent Pb-loss. Magmatic ages are consistent with those of the Phaplu orthogneiss and Pb-loss may have resulted from Tertiary deformation. The Mahabharat leucogranites dominantly yield ages of c. 480 Ma overprinted by Oligo-Miocene metamorphism and deformation. However, one leucogranite specimen from the Mahabharat yields magmatic zircon crystallization ages ranging from 28.5 to 21 Ma, providing evidence for Oligo-Miocene melting farther toward the foreland than previously recognized. By contrast, granites from the High Himalaya yield monazite ages ranging from 23-18 Ma near Namche Bazaar, and 17-13 Ma near Dudh Kund. These new age constraints build upon previous work, and help form the basis for kinematic interpretations of the MCT.

Lederer, G. W.; Cottle, J. M.; Larson, K.; McAtamney, J.; Moulton, K.; Kellett, D.

2013-12-01

180

Combining thermal data, topography and texture analysis to analyze debris-covered glaciers: a case study from Kangchendzonga area, eastern Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

Accurate delineation of debris-covered glaciers in the Himalaya is needed for estimating rates of glacier area change, mass balance and the contribution of these glaciers to regional hydrology. The delineation of debris-covered glacial remains a challenge in glacier mapping from spaceborne imagery, particularly in optical remote sensing, due to the similarity of the spectral signature of debris-covered ice to surrounding moraines, which makes it difficult to apply standard semi-automated algorithms generally used for clean ice delineation. This paper exploits the potential of visible, infrared and thermal Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) imagery combined with high-resolution Quickbird and Worldview2 imagery for mapping debris cover in the eastern part of the Himalaya. We combine band ratios, thresholds and normalized difference indices with topographic parameters derived from the ASTER digital elevation model in a decision tree algorithm to estimate potentially debris-covered area in the Sikkim Himalaya, with a focus on the Kangchendzonga area. We also evaluate the potential of texture analysis such as statistical techniques and filtering in spatial and frequency domain to characterize debris-covered surfaces and to improve the current classification schemes. Criteria and thresholds for each condition in the decision tree are chosen on the basis of a-priori knowledge extracted from an older topographic map and field observations. The predictive performance of the decision tree algorithm is evaluated using high-resolution Quickbird and Worldview2 data on several debris-covered glacier tongues in the study area. Results of the decision tree algorithm are promising, and show that most glacier tongues can be captures with the use of multi-spectral data combined with topographic variables. Texture analysis shows differences in surface roughness between debris-covered tongues and the surrounding non-ice moraine and clean ice, indicating its potential to improve the decision tree algorithm.

Racoviteanu, A.; Arneaud, Y.; Williams, M.

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
181

Brief Communication: Contending estimates of early 21st century glacier mass balance over the Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

We present glacier thickness changes over the entire Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya arc based on ICESat satellite altimetry data for 2003-2008. The strongest thinning (Indus and Brahmaputra basins, the glacier mass change reaches -22 ± 3 Gt yr-1, about 10% of the current glacier contribution to sea-level rise. For selected catchments over the study area we estimate glacier imbalance contributions to river runoff from a few percent to far over 10%. We highlight the importance of C-band penetration for studies based on the SRTM elevation model. To the very east and west of our study area, this penetration seems to be of larger magnitude and variability than previously assumed.

Kääb, A.; Nuth, C.; Treichler, D.; Berthier, E.

2014-11-01

182

Uranium and radon estimation in some water samples from Himalayas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The uranium content of water samples collected from Kumaun (Uttar Pradesh) and Siwalik (Himachal Pradesh) Himalayas has been estimated using the technique of fission track registration in lexan plastic. The uranium content has been found varying from 1.08 ± 0.02 to 35.83 ± 0.09 ppb. Radon estimation has also been made in the same water samples using LR-115, type II plastic track detectors. The radon content has been found to vary from 2.68 ± 0.23 to 12.55 ± 0.93 pCi/l. No direct correlation has been found between uranium and radon contents. However, the high values of uranium in the mineralized areas confirm that the fission track method can successfully be employed for uranium exploration. (author)

183

Positive selection within sperm-egg adhesion domains of fertilin: an ADAM gene with a potential role in fertilization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genes with a role in fertilization show a common pattern of rapid evolution. The role played by positive selection versus lack of selective constraints has been more difficult to establish. One problem arises from attempts to detect selection in an overall gene sequence analysis. I have analyzed the pattern of molecular evolution of fertilin, a gene coding for a heterodimeric sperm protein belonging to the ADAM (A disintegrin and A metalloprotease) gene family. A nonsynonymous to synonymous rate ratio (d(N)/d(S)) analysis for different protein domains of fertilin alpha and fertilin beta showed d(N)/d(S) < 1, suggesting that purifying selection has shaped fertilin's evolution. However, an analysis of the distribution of single positively selected codon sites using phylogentic analysis by maximum likelihood (PAML) showed sites within adhesion domains (disintegrin and cysteine-rich) of fertilin beta evolving under positive selection. The region 3' to the EGF-like domain of fertilin alpha, where the transmembrane and cytoplasmic tail regions are supposed to be localized, showed higher d(N) and d(S) than any other fertilin alpha region. However, it was not possible to identify positively selected codon sites due to ambiguous alignments of the carboxy-end region (ClustalX vs. DiAlign2). When this region was excluded from the PAML analysis, most single positively selected codon sites were concentrated within adhesion domains (cysteine-rich and EGF-like). The use of an ancestral sequence prior to a recent duplication event of fertilin alpha among non-Hominidae primates (Macaca, Papio, and Saguinus) revealed that the duplication is partially responsible for masking the detection of positively selected sites within the disintegrin domain. Finally, most ADAM genes with a potential role in sperm maturation and/or fertilization showed significantly higher d(N) estimates than other ADAM genes. PMID:12519902

Civetta, Alberto

2003-01-01

184

On the potential of channel selection for recognition of reverberated speech with multiple microphones  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The performance of ASR systems in a room environment with distant microphones is strongly affected by reverberation. As the degree of signal distortion varies among acoustic channels (i.e. microphones), the recognition accuracy can benefit from a proper channel selection. In this paper, we experimentally show that there exists a large margin for WER reduction by channel selection, and discuss several possible methods which do not require any a-priori classification. Moreover, by using a...

Wolf, Martin; Nadeu Camprubi?, Climent

2010-01-01

185

Solar Radiation Patterns and Glaciers in the Western Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

Glacier dynamics in the Himalaya are poorly understood, in part due to variations in topography and climate. It is well known that solar radiation is the dominant surface-energy component governing ablation, although the spatio-temporal patterns of surface irradiance have not been thoroughly investigated given modeling limitations and topographic variations including altitude, relief, and topographic shielding. Glaciation and topographic conditions may greatly influence supraglacial characteristics and glacial dynamics. Consequently, our research objectives were to develop a GIS-based solar radiation model that accounts for Earth's orbital, spectral, atmospheric and topographic dependencies, in order to examine the spatio-temporal surface irradiance patterns on glaciers in the western Himalaya. We specifically compared irradiance patterns to supraglacial characteristics and ice-flow velocity fields. Shuttle Radar Mapping Mission (SRTM) 90 m data were used to compute geomorphometric parameters that were input into the solar radiation model. Simulations results for 2013 were produced for the summer ablation season. Direct irradiance, diffuse-skylight, and total irradiance variations were compared and related to glacier altitude profiles of ice velocity and land-surface topographic parameters. Velocity and surface information were derived from analyses of ASTER satellite data. Results indicate that the direct irradiance significantly varies across the surface of glaciers given local topography and meso-scale relief conditions. Furthermore, the magnitude of the diffuse-skylight irradiance varies with altitude and as a result, glaciers in different topographic settings receive different amounts of surface irradiance. Spatio-temporal irradiance patterns appear to be related to glacier surface conditions including supraglacial lakes, and are spatially coincident with ice-flow velocity conditions on some glaciers. Collectively, our results demonstrate that glacier sensitivity to climate change is also locally controlled by numerous multi-scale topographic parameters.

Dobreva, I. D.; Bishop, M. P.

2013-12-01

186

Synoptic-scale dust transport events in the southern Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

The variability of long-range dust transport events observed in the southern Himalaya and its relation with source areas have been studied thanks to five years’ continuous measurements which were carried out at the “Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid” (NCO-P, 27°57?N, 86°48?E), the highest Northern Hemisphere GAW-WMO global station sited at 5079 m a.s.l. in the high Khumbu valley (Nepal) on the southern Himalaya. During the period March 2006-February 2011, the analyses of the aerosol particle concentrations and LAGRANTO three-dimensional backward trajectories indicated the occurrence of 275 days affected by synoptic-scale dust transport, which account for 22.2% of the investigated period. The frequency of dust transport days (DTDs) showed a clear seasonal cycle, with the highest seasonal value observed during pre-monsoon season (33.5% of the pre-monsoon’s days are DTDs). Large enhancements in coarse aerosol number concentration N1-10 (average: +689%) and mass PM1-10 (average: +1086%) were observed during the dust transport events as compared to the days without dust (dust-free days, DFDs). In addition, the single scattering albedo (SSA) also showed higher values, ranging from 0.87 to 0.90, during DTDs with respect to DFDs (0.80-0.87). The predominant source of mineral dust reaching the measurement site was identified in the arid regions of the north-western Indian subcontinent (Thar desert), which accounted for 41.6% of the trajectories points associated with DTDs. Seasonal analysis also indicated that the winter season was significantly influenced by far western desert regions, such as North Africa and the Arabic Peninsula.

Duchi, R.; Cristofanelli, P.; Marinoni, A.; Bourcier, L.; Laj, P.; Calzolari, F.; Adhikary, B.; Verza, G. P.; Vuillermoz, E.; Bonasoni, P.

2014-06-01

187

Atmospheric Modelling for Air Quality Study over the complex Himalayas  

Science.gov (United States)

An Atmospheric Modelling System has been set up at International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) for the assessment of Air Quality across the Himalaya mountain ranges. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model version 3.5 has been implemented over the regional domain, stretching across 4995 x 4455 km2 centred at Ichhyakamana , the ICIMOD newly setting-up mountain-peak station (1860 m) in central Nepal, and covering terrains from sea-level to the Everest (8848 m). Simulation is carried out for the winter time period, i.e. December 2012 to February 2013, when there was an intensive field campaign SusKat, where at least 7 super stations were collecting meteorology and chemical parameters on various sites. The very complex terrain requires a high horizontal resolution (1 × 1 km2), which is achieved by nesting the domain of interest, e.g. Kathmandu Valley, into 3 coarser ones (27, 9, 3 km resolution). Model validation is performed against the field data as well as satellite data, and the challenge of capturing the necessary atmospheric processes is discussed, before moving forward with the fully coupled chemistry module (WRF-Chem), having local and regional emission databases as input. The effort aims at finding a better understanding of the atmospheric processes and air quality impact on the mountain population, as well as the impact of the long-range transport, particularly of Black Carbon aerosol deposition, to the radiative budget over the Himalayan glaciers. The higher rate of snowcap melting, and shrinkage of permafrost as noticed by glaciologists is a concern. Better prediction will supply crucial information to form the proper mitigation and adaptation strategies for saving people lives across the Himalayas in the changing climate.

Surapipith, Vanisa; Panday, Arnico; Mukherji, Aditi; Banmali Pradhan, Bidya; Blumer, Sandro

2014-05-01

188

The two intracrustal boundary thrusts of the Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

The series of four different, steeply inclined thrusts which sharply sever the youthful autochthonous Cenozoic sedimentary zone, including the Siwalik, from the mature old Lesser Himalayan subprovince is collectively known as the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT). In the proximity of this trust in northwestern and eastern sectors, the parautochtonous Lesser Himalayan sedimentary formations are pushed up and their narrow frontal parts split into imbricate sheets with attendant repetition and inversion of lithostratigraphic units. The superficially steeper thrust plane seems to flatten out at depth. The MBT is tectonically and seismically very active at the present time. The Main Central Thrust (MCT), inclined 30° to 45° northwards, constitutes the real boundary between the Lesser and Great Himalaya. Marking an abrubt change in the style and orientation of structures and in the grade of metamorphism from lower amphibolitefacies of the Lesser Himalayan to higher metamorphic facies of the Great Himalayan, the redefined Main Central Thrust lies at a higher level as that originally recognized by A. Heim and A. Gansser. They had recognized this thrust as the contact of the mesozonal metamorphics against the underlying sedimentaries or epimetamorphics. It has now been redesignated as the Munsiari Thrust in Kumaun. It extends northwest in Himachal as the Jutogh Thrust and farther in Kashmir as the Panjal Thrust. In the eastern Himalaya the equivalents of the Munsiari Thrust are known as the Paro Thrust and the Bomdila Thrust. The upper thrust surface in Nepal is recognized as the Main Central Thrust by French and Japanese workers. The easterly extension of the MCT is known as the Khumbu Thrust in eastern Nepal, the Darjeeling Thrust in the Darjeeling-Sikkim region, the Thimpu Thrust in Bhutan and the Sela Thrust in western Arunachal. Significantly, hot springs occur in close proximity to this thrust in Kumaun, Nepal and Bhutan. There are reasons to believe that movement is taking place along the MCT, although seismically it is less active than the MBT.

Valdiya, K. S.

1980-07-01

189

Looking at the roots of the highest mountains: the lithospheric structure of the Himalaya-Tibet and the Zagros orogens. Results from a geophysical-petrological study  

Science.gov (United States)

The Himalaya-Tibet and Zagros orogens are the two most prominent mountain belts built by continental collision. They are part of a huge belt of Cenozoic age which runs from the Pyrenees to Burma. In its central sector, the collision with the southern margin of the Eurasian plate has resulted not only in the building of mountain ranges over the north-eastern edges of the Arabian and Indian plates but also in widespread deformation 1000-3000 km from the suture zones. Zagros and Himalaya-Tibet orogens share many geodynamic processes but at different rates, amount of convergence and stage of development. The study of their present-day structures provides new insights into their quasi coeval collisional event pointing out differences and similarities in the mountain building processes. We present 2D crust and upper mantle cross-sections down to 400 km depth, along four SW-NE trending profiles. Two profiles cross the Zagros Mountains, running from the Mesopotamian Foreland Basin up to the Alborz and Central Iran. Two other profiles run through the Himalaya-Tibetan orogen: the western transect crosses the western Himalaya, Tarim Basin, Tian Shan Mountains and Junggar Basin; the eastern transect runs from the Indian shield to the Beishan Basin, crossing the eastern Himalaya, Tibetan Plateau, Qaidam Basin and Qilian Mountains. We apply the LitMod-2D code which integrates potential fields (gravity and geoid), isostasy (elevation) and thermal (heat flow and temperature distribution) equations, and mantle petrology. The resulting crust and upper mantle structure is constrained by available data on elevation, Bouguer anomaly, geoid height, surface heat flow and seismic data including P- and S-wave tomography models. Our results show distinct deformation patterns between the crust and the lithospheric mantle beneath the Zagros and Himalaya-Tibetan orogens, indicating a strong strain partitioning in both areas. At crustal level, we found a thickening beneath the Zagros and the Alborz ranges, more pronounced in the southern profile. At sub-crustal level, a lithospheric mantle thinning affects the whole area beneath the Zagros range extending to the north through the zone below the Alborz and the central Iran. In the Himalaya-Tibet region our results show stronger strain partitioning in the horizontal (east-west) direction than in the vertical (depth) direction. At crustal level, the Tibetan Plateau extends more than 1000 km in the eastern profile, whereas it is squeezed between the Himalayan Mountains and the Tarim Basin along the western profile (~600 km). At sub-crustal level, the lithospheric mantle is more homogeneous in thickness and mineral composition along the western profile than the eastern one. Finally, our results on mineral composition show that both collisional regions are characterised by a predominant lherzolitic lithospheric mantle, whereas we observe compositional variations around the suture zones, probably related to subduction and mantle delamination processes.

Tunini, L.; Jimenez-Munt, I.; Fernandez, M.; Villasenor, A.; Afonso, J. C.; Verges, J.

2013-12-01

190

Large landslides lie low: Vertical domains of denudation processes in the arid Himalaya-Karakoram orogen  

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Large bedrock landslides (defined here as affecting >0.1 km2 in planform area) are thought to substantially contribute to denuding active mountain belts, and limiting the growth of topographic relief produced by concurrent tectonic uplift and fluvial or glacial incision. While most research on large landslides has focused on tectonically active, humid mountain belts with varying degrees of rainstorm and earthquake activity, lesser attention has been devoted to arid mountain belts. Especially in the Himalaya, where high denudation rates are commonly associated with high landslide activity, previous work has largely ignored landslide processes in the arid compartments of the orogen. This was motivation for us to compile a landslide inventory covering the arid Himalaya-Karakoram of NW India and N Pakistan within the Indus catchment. Our data set contains 493 rock-slope failures that we compiled from published studies and mapping from remote sensing imagery. Using an empirical volume-area scaling approach we estimate the total landslide volume at >250 km3. This is more than thousand times the contemporary annual sediment load in the Indus River. We analyse the distribution of these volumetrically significant landslides with respect to the regional hypsometry, contemporary glacier cover, and the distribution of rock glaciers. We find that large bedrock landslides in the arid Himalaya-Karakoram region preferentially detach near or from below the study area's median elevation, while glaciers and rock glaciers occupy higher elevations almost exclusively. This trend holds true for both the study area and parts thereof. The largest and highest-lying landslides occur in the Karakoram mountains, where local relief exceeds 6 km, and >90% of the landslide areas lie below the region's median elevation. Our analysis reveals a hitherto unrecognized vertical layering of denudation processes, with landslides chiefly operating below the median elevation, whereas mass transport by glaciers and rock glaciers dominates higher elevation bands. Given a SE-ward decreasing topographic amplitude and increasing median elevation, bedrock landslides tend to affect higher portions of the landscape, while their vertical drop heights decrease accordingly. We conclude that these vertical domains of denudation processes conflict with the view that large bedrock landslides contribute to limiting relief in active mountain belts, unless (a) more frequent and smaller rock falls take on this role, and/or (b) evidence of large bedrock landslides above the permanent snow line is being censored rapidly. In either case, our data favour a model where large rock-slope failures undermine the lower portions of arid high-relief landscapes near the limits of Pleistocene glaciations, potentially signalling a regional postglacial hillslope adjustment. We thus call for a more detailed and refined view on how large rock-slope failures contribute to shaping arid mountain belts.

Blöthe, Jan Henrik

2014-05-01

191

Natural selection among Kinnaura of the Himalayan highland: A comparative analysis with other Indian and Himalayan populations  

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Full Text Available The present investigation on fertility and mortality differential among Kinnaura of the Himalayan highland is based on data collected from 160 post-menopausal women belonging to the middle and high altitude region of Kinnaur district of Himachal Pradesh (Indian Himalayas. Selection potential based on differential fertility and mortality was computed for middle- and high-altitude women. Irrespective of the methodology, the total index of selection was found to be highest among middle-altitude women (0.386 as compared with high-altitude (0.370 women, whereas for the total population it is estimated to be 0.384. It was found that the Kinnaura of the Himalayan highland showing moderate index of total selection and relative contribution of the mortality component (Im to the index of total selection is higher than the corresponding fertility component (If. The analysis of embryonic and post-natal mortality components shows that the post-natal mortality components are higher in comparison with the embryonic mortality components among highlanders and needs special intervention and health care. The present findings are compared with other Indian tribes as well as non-tribes of the Himalayan region and other parts of the country. It reveals that this index among Kinnaura is moderate than the other population groups; among the Himalayan population, the highest was reported for Galong (It = 1.07 of Arunachal, whereas the lowest was reported from Ahom (It = 0.218 of Manipur. The correlation and regression analysis between total index of selection (It and fertility (If and mortality (Im components for pooled data of populations of the Indian Himalayan states show that If and Im account for 21.6 and 29.1% variability, respectively. In Crow?s total index of selection (It along with strong association, which is significant at the 1% level, this indicates that mortality plays a greater role in natural selection in comparison with fertility among populations of the Indian Himalayas.

Gautam Rajesh

2009-01-01

192

Natural selection among Kinnaura of the Himalayan highland: A comparative analysis with other Indian and Himalayan populations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present investigation on fertility and mortality differential among Kinnaura of the Himalayan highland is based on data collected from 160 post-menopausal women belonging to the middle and high altitude region of Kinnaur district of Himachal Pradesh (Indian Himalayas). Selection potential based on differential fertility and mortality was computed for middle-and high-altitude women. Irrespective of the methodology, the total index of selection was found to be highest among middle-altitude women (0.386) as compared with high-altitude (0.370) women, whereas for the total population it is estimated to be 0.384. It was found that the Kinnaura of the Himalayan highland showing moderate index of total selection and relative contribution of the mortality component (Im) to the index of total selection is higher than the corresponding fertility component (If). The analysis of embryonic and post-natal mortality components shows that the post-natal mortality components are higher in comparison with the embryonic mortality components among highlanders and needs special intervention and health care. The present findings are compared with other Indian tribes as well as non-tribes of the Himalayan region and other parts of the country. It reveals that this index among Kinnaura is moderate than the other population groups; among the Himalayan population, the highest was reported for Galong (It = 1.07) of Arunachal, whereas the lowest was reported from Ahom (It = 0.218) of Manipur. The correlation and regression analysis between total index of selection (It) and fertility (If) and mortality (Im) components for pooled data of populations of the Indian Himalayan states show that If and Im account for 21.6 and 29.1% variability, respectively. In Crow's total index of selection (It) along with strong association, which is significant at the 1% level, this indicates that mortality plays a greater role in natural selection in comparison with fertility among populations of the Indian Himalayas. PMID:21088718

Gautam, Rajesh K; Kapoor, Anup K; Kshatriya, G K

2009-09-01

193

Potential and Structural Variation of Some Selected Cultivated Bamboo Species in Peninsular Malaysia  

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Full Text Available Screening of different cultivated bamboo species to find out potential variety of bamboo is most important. Structural variations in term of anatomy, physical and strength properties of 3 year-old cultivated Gigantochloa brang, G. levis, G. scotechinii and G. wrayi were investigated for screening purposes. The culms of these bamboos were selected, harvested and processed for subsequent studies. The results show that each species exhibited differences in the anatomy, physical and strength properties. Each species has differences in the fiber characteristics which showed significant differences between species in terms of length, diameter and lumen sizes. The vascular bundle for these genera were between 4-7/4mm2 and were dense at the outer position in the cross section of the culm having 8.5 vascular bundle/4mm2, middle 4.88 vascular bundle/4mm2 and at the inner position having 3.4 vascular bundle per/4mm2. The vascular bundle length was between 845-1183 um and a width of 530-759 um. The fibre lengths were between (1745.00-2039.98 um, diameter (17.26-22.75 um, lumen (3.83-8.66 um and wall thickness (1.3 -5.31um. The moisture content (MC of the bamboo in green condition ranged between 73-112%, the MC is higher at internodes (95% compared to nodes (78%. Position at inner layer has MC at 126%, middle at 83% and outer at 41%. Density increases from outer to inner layer which started from 500 kg/m2 at inner and increased to more than 820 kg/m2 at outer part of bamboo at 12% moisture content. The specific gravity for all species tested was about 0.69 - 0.78, but the inner position is 0.58, middle 0.73 and outer positions is 0.94. Shrinkage at radial, tangential and the volumetric were at 5-9, 7-12, and 10-17% respectively for all species. Position in a higher rate of shrinkage were at inner (8.6, 13.50, 15.44%, follow by middle (6.85, 9.72, 12.57% and outer (5.04, 6.52, 10.40% respectively. The tensile strength for the bamboos ranged between 103.38-122.15 MPa. The tensile strength of dried bamboo is 138.87 MPa compared with 89.95 MPa for green bamboo. The tensile of modulus of air dried bamboo is 4003.85 MPa compared with 2786.96 MPa for green bamboo. The modulus of rupture (MOR for the bamboos ranged between 91.19-132 MPa. The MOR for dried bamboo was 142.21 MPa compared to the green bamboo 99.56 MPa. The modulus of elasticity (MOE varies between 11961.70-20430.40 MPa. MOE of air dried bamboo was 17610.00 MPa and green bamboo 13777.80 MPa.

Razak Wahab

2012-05-01

194

Substrate selection for fundamental studies of electrocatalysts and photoelectrodes: inert potential windows in acidic, neutral, and basic electrolyte.  

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The selection of an appropriate substrate is an important initial step for many studies of electrochemically active materials. In order to help researchers with the substrate selection process, we employ a consistent experimental methodology to evaluate the electrochemical reactivity and stability of seven potential substrate materials for electrocatalyst and photoelectrode evaluation. Using cyclic voltammetry with a progressively increased scan range, we characterize three transparent conducting oxides (indium tin oxide, fluorine-doped tin oxide, and aluminum-doped zinc oxide) and four opaque conductors (gold, stainless steel 304, glassy carbon, and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite) in three different electrolytes (sulfuric acid, sodium acetate, and sodium hydroxide). We determine the inert potential window for each substrate/electrolyte combination and make recommendations about which materials may be most suitable for application under different experimental conditions. Furthermore, the testing methodology provides a framework for other researchers to evaluate and report the baseline activity of other substrates of interest to the broader community. PMID:25357131

Benck, Jesse D; Pinaud, Blaise A; Gorlin, Yelena; Jaramillo, Thomas F

2014-01-01

195

Dopamine D3 receptor antagonists: the quest for a potentially selective PET ligand. Part 3: Radiosynthesis and in vivo studies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Compound 1 is a potent and selective antagonist of the dopamine D(3) receptor. With the aim of developing a carbon-11 labeled ligand for the dopamine D(3) receptor, 1 was selected as a potential PET probe. [(11)C]1 was obtained by palladium catalyzed cross coupling using [(11)C]cyanide and 4 with a specific activity of 55.5+/-25.9GBq/micromol (1.5+/-0.7Ci/micromol). [(11)C]1 was tested in porcine and non-human primate models to assess its potential as a radioligand for PET imaging of the dopamine D(3) receptor. We conclude that in both species and despite appropriate in vitro properties, [(11)C]1 does not show any specific signal for the dopamine D(3) receptor.

Bennacef, Idriss; Salinas, Cristian A

2009-01-01

196

REDUCING RISK AND PROMOTING SUSTAINABILITY IN THE FOOTHILLS OF THE HIMALAYAS: A Pedagogy for Teaching and Practicing Sustainable Development  

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Full Text Available This paper considers the role of a workshop as an educational approach and as a catalyst for positive change in the context of vulnerability and risk in the foothills of the Himalayas in the region of Uttarakhand, northern India. The paper will discuss the evolving pedagogy of Architecture Sans Frontières-UK (ASF-UK, an organisation that uses workshops as a primary tool to explore international development issues and help develop the relevant competencies for built environment professionals working in this sector. The workshop, and its catalytic potential, will be discussed and evaluated in relation to a case study: an international workshop coordinated by ASF-UK and partner, SEEDS India, which took place in Almora, Uttarakhand in 2010. The workshop marked the inception of a three year project which aims to facilitate improved building practices in symbiosis with disaster mitigation and wider development agendas through education, capacity building and prototype development.

Sarah Ernst

2013-11-01

197

Recruitment of hornbill-dispersed trees in hunted and logged forests of the Indian Eastern Himalaya.  

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Hunting of hornbills by tribal communities is widespread in logged foothill forests of the Indian Eastern Himalaya. We investigated whether the decline of hornbills has affected the dispersal and recruitment of 3 large-seeded tree species. We hypothesized that 2 low-fecundity tree species, Chisocheton paniculatus and Dysoxylum binectariferum (Meliaceae) bearing arillate fruits, are more dispersal limited than a prolifically fruiting drupaceous tree Polyalthia simiarum (Annonaceae), which has potential dispersers other than hornbills. We estimated the abundance of large avian frugivores during the fruiting season along transects in 2 protected and 2 disturbed forests. We compared recruitment of the tree species near (Oriental Pied Hornbills (Anthracoceros albirostris) were significantly lower in disturbed forests, but sites did not differ in abundances of the Mountain Imperial Pigeon (Ducula badia). Overall, tree species showed more severely depressed recruitment of seedlings (77% fewer) and juveniles (69% fewer) in disturbed than in protected forests. In disturbed forests, 93% fewer seedlings of C. paniculatus were beyond parental crowns, and a high number of all seedlings (42%) accumulated directly under reproductive adults. In contrast, D. binectariferum and P. simiarum were recruitment rather than dispersal limited, with fewer dispersed seedlings surviving in disturbed than in protected forests. Results are consistent with the idea that disturbance disrupts mutualisms between hornbills and some large-seeded food plants, with the caveat that role redundancy within even small and specialized disperser assemblages renders other tree species less vulnerable to loss of regular dispersal agents. PMID:19220369

Sethi, Pia; Howe, Henry F

2009-06-01

198

Interactions of biotic and abiotic environmental factors in an ectomycorrhizal symbiosis, and the potential for selection mosaics  

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Background Geographic selection mosaics, in which species exert different evolutionary impacts on each other in different environments, may drive diversification in coevolving species. We studied the potential for geographic selection mosaics in plant-mycorrhizal interactions by testing whether the interaction between bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don) and one of its common ectomycorrhizal fungi (Rhizopogon occidentalis Zeller and Dodge) varies in outcome, when different combinations of plant and fungal genotypes are tested under a range of different abiotic and biotic conditions. Results We used a 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment to test the main and interactive effects of plant lineage (two maternal seed families), fungal lineage (two spore collections), soil type (lab mix or field soil), and non-mycorrhizal microbes (with or without) on the performance of plants and fungi. Ecological outcomes, as assessed by plant and fungal performance, varied widely across experimental environments, including interactions between plant or fungal lineages and soil environmental factors. Conclusion These results show the potential for selection mosaics in plant-mycorrhizal interactions, and indicate that these interactions are likely to coevolve in different ways in different environments, even when initially the genotypes of the interacting species are the same across all environments. Hence, selection mosaics may be equally as effective as genetic differences among populations in driving divergent coevolution among populations of interacting species. PMID:18507825

Piculell, Bridget J; Hoeksema, Jason D; Thompson, John N

2008-01-01

199

Interactions of biotic and abiotic environmental factors in an ectomycorrhizal symbiosis, and the potential for selection mosaics  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Geographic selection mosaics, in which species exert different evolutionary impacts on each other in different environments, may drive diversification in coevolving species. We studied the potential for geographic selection mosaics in plant-mycorrhizal interactions by testing whether the interaction between bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don and one of its common ectomycorrhizal fungi (Rhizopogon occidentalis Zeller and Dodge varies in outcome, when different combinations of plant and fungal genotypes are tested under a range of different abiotic and biotic conditions. Results We used a 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment to test the main and interactive effects of plant lineage (two maternal seed families, fungal lineage (two spore collections, soil type (lab mix or field soil, and non-mycorrhizal microbes (with or without on the performance of plants and fungi. Ecological outcomes, as assessed by plant and fungal performance, varied widely across experimental environments, including interactions between plant or fungal lineages and soil environmental factors. Conclusion These results show the potential for selection mosaics in plant-mycorrhizal interactions, and indicate that these interactions are likely to coevolve in different ways in different environments, even when initially the genotypes of the interacting species are the same across all environments. Hence, selection mosaics may be equally as effective as genetic differences among populations in driving divergent coevolution among populations of interacting species.

Hoeksema Jason D

2008-05-01

200

The potential for using canopy spectral reflectance as an indirect selection tool for yield improvement in winter wheat  

Science.gov (United States)

Scope and methods of study. Complementing breeding effort by deploying alternative methods of identifying higher yielding genotypes in a wheat breeding program is important for obtaining greater genetic gains. Spectral reflectance indices (SRI) are one of the many indirect selection tools that have been reported to be associated with different physiological process of wheat. A total of five experiments (a set of 25 released cultivars from winter wheat breeding programs of the U.S. Great Plains and four populations of randomly derived recombinant inbred lines having 25 entries in each population) were conducted in two years under Great Plains winter wheat rainfed environments at Oklahoma State University research farms. Grain yield was measured in each experiment and biomass was measured in three experiments at three growth stages (booting, heading, and grainfilling). Canopy spectral reflectance was measured at three growth stages and eleven SRI were calculated. Correlation (phenotypic and genetic) between grain yield and SRI, biomass and SRI, heritability (broad sense) of the SRI and yield, response to selection and correlated response, relative selection efficiency of the SRI, and efficiency in selecting the higher yielding genotypes by the SRI were assessed. Findings and conclusions. The genetic correlation coefficients revealed that the water based near infrared indices (WI and NWI) were strongly associated with grain yield and biomass production. The regression analysis detected a linear relationship between the water based indices with grain yield and biomass. The two newly developed indices (NWI-3 and NWI-4) gave higher broad sense heritability than grain yield, higher direct response to selection compared to grain yield, correlated response equal to or higher than direct response for grain yield, relative selection efficiency greater than one, and higher efficiency in selecting higher yielding genotypes. Based on the overall genetic analysis required to establish any trait as an efficient indirect selection tool, the water based SRI (especially NWI-3 and NWI-4) have the potential to complement the classical breeding effort for selecting genotypes with higher yield potential in a winter wheat breeding program.

Prasad, Bishwajit

 
 
 
 
201

Canola Cake as a Potential Substrate for Proteolytic Enzymes Production by a Selected Strain of Aspergillus oryzae: Selection of Process Conditions and Product Characterization.  

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Oil cakes have excellent nutritional value and offer considerable potential for use in biotechnological processes that employ solid-state fermentation (SSF) for the production of high value products. This work evaluates the feasibility of using canola cake as a substrate for protease production by a selected strain of Aspergillus oryzae cultivated under SSF. The influences of the following process parameters were considered: initial substrate moisture content, incubation temperature, inoculum size, and pH of the buffer used for protease extraction and activity analysis. Maximum protease activity was obtained after cultivating Aspergillus oryzae CCBP 001 at 20°C, using an inoculum size of 10(7)?spores/g in canola cake medium moistened with 40?mL of water to 100?g of cake. Cultivation and extraction under selected conditions increased protease activity 5.8-fold, compared to the initial conditions. Zymogram analysis of the enzymatic extract showed that the protease molecular weights varied between 31 and 200?kDa. The concentrated protease extract induced clotting of casein in 5?min. The results demonstrate the potential application of canola cake for protease production under SSF and contribute to the technological advances needed to increase the efficiency of processes designed to add value to agroindustrial wastes. PMID:24455400

Freitas, Adriana C; Castro, Ruann J S; Fontenele, Maria A; Egito, Antonio S; Farinas, Cristiane S; Pinto, Gustavo A S

2013-12-25

202

Glycosaminoglycan-Mediated Selective Changes in the Aggregation States, Zeta Potentials, and Intrinsic Stability of Liposomes  

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Though the aggregation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the presence of liposomes and divalent cations has been previously reported, the effect of different GAG species, as well as minor changes in GAG composition on the aggregates formed is yet unknown. If minor changes in GAG composition produce observable changes in liposome aggregate diameter or zeta potential, such a phenomenon may be used to detect potentially dangerous over-sulfated contaminants in heparin. We studied the mechanism of t...

Nyren-erickson, Erin K.; Haldar, Manas K.; Totzauer, Jessica R.; Ceglowski, Riley; Patel, Dilipkumar S.; Friesner, Daniel L.; Srivastava, D. K.; Mallik, Sanku

2012-01-01

203

Potential influence of selection criteria on the demographic composition of students in an Australian medical school  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior to 1999 students entering our MBBS course were selected on academic performance alone. We have now evaluated the impact on the demographics of subsequent cohorts of our standard entry students (those entering directly from high school of the addition to the selection process of an aptitude test (UMAT, a highly structured interview and a rural incentive program. Methods Students entering from 1985 to 1998, selected on academic performance alone (N = 1402, were compared to those from 1999 to 2011, selected on the basis of a combination of academic performance, interview score, and UMAT score together with the progressive introduction of a rural special entry pathway (N = 1437. Results Males decreased from 57% to 45% of the cohort, students of NE or SE Asian origin decreased from 30% to 13%, students born in Oceania increased from 52% to 69%, students of rural origin from 5% to 21% and those from independent high schools from 56% to 66%. The proportion of students from high schools with relative socio-educational disadvantage remained unchanged at approximately 10%. The changes reflect in part increasing numbers of female and independent high school applicants and the increasing rural quota. However, they were also associated with higher interview scores in females vs males and lower interview scores in those of NE and SE Asian origin compared to those born in Oceania or the UK. Total UMAT scores were unrelated to gender or region of origin. Conclusions The revised selection processes had no impact on student representation from schools with relative socio-educational disadvantage. However, the introduction of special entry quotas for students of rural origin and a structured interview, but not an aptitude test, were associated with a change in gender balance and ethnicity of students in an Australian undergraduate MBBS course.

Puddey Ian B

2011-11-01

204

Recording strategies and selection potential of feed intake measured using the X-ray method in rainbow trout  

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Full Text Available Abstract This study examines the way long-term feed intake should be recorded accurately for selective breeding purposes, and estimates selection potential in feed intake using the X-ray method to record individual daily feed intake in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. The analysis showed that the point estimates of daily feed intake displayed low repeatabilities (r = 0.09–0.32. This indicates that a minimum of three repeated records were needed to accurately record average feed intake at a fixed age. To effectively breed for feed intake over the whole growing period, it is necessary to determine average feed intake at different ages, since there were only moderate phenotypic and genetic correlations between average daily feed intake recorded at 140 g, 750 g and 2000 g wet mass. Heritability for average daily feed intake was low (average h2 = 0.10, indicating that modest genetic changes can be obtained in response to selection. It was concluded that selection to genetically change long-term feed intake can be successful, yet repeated observations at several life stages are needed to ensure the accuracy of feed intake estimates and the efficiency of selection.

Mäntysaari Esa A

2006-06-01

205

Integration of Classification Tree Analyses and Spatial Metrics to Assess Changes in Supraglacial Lakes in the Karakoram Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

Alpine glacier responses to climate chnage reveal increases in retreat with corresponding increases in production of glacier melt water and development of supraglacial lakes. The rate of occurrence and spatial extent of lakes in the Himalaya are difficult to determine because current spectral-based image analysis of glacier surfaces are limited through anisotropic reflectance and lack of high quality digital elevation models. Additionally, the limitations of multivariate classification algorithms to adequately segregate glacier features in satellite imagery have led to an increased interest in non-parametric methods, such as classification and regression trees. Our objectives are to demonstrate the utility of a semi-automated approach that integrates classification- tree-based image segmentation and object-oriented analysis to differentiate supraglacial lakes from glacier debris, ice cliffs, lateral and medial moraines. The classification-tree process involves a binary, recursive, partitioning non-parametric method that can account for non-linear relationships. We used 2002 and 2004 ASTER VNIR and SWIR imagery to assess the Baltoro Glacier in the Karakoram Himalaya. Other input variables include the normalized difference water index (NDWI), ratio images, Moran's I image, and fractal dimension. The classification tree was used to generate initial image segments and it was particularly effective in differentiating glacier features. The object-oriented analysis included the use of shape and spatial metrics to refine the classification-tree output. Classification-tree results show that NDWI is the most important single variable for characterizing the glacier-surface features, followed by NIR/IR ratio, IR band, and IR/Red ratio variables. Lake features extracted from both images show there were 142 lakes in 2002 as compared to 188 lakes in 2004. In general, there was a significant increase in planimetric area from 2002 to 2004, and we documented the formation of 46 new lakes. It appears that lake-size increments occur mostly in the lower part of the ablation zone, whereas most of the new lakes are formed in the upper part of the ablation zone. The classification-tree outputs are intuitive and the data-derived thresholds eliminate commonly subjective visual determination of threshold values. Semi-automated methods thus have the potential of eliminating laborious visual multi-temporal analysis of glacier-surface change, thereby producing consistent and replicable results needed to assess the trends of alpine-glacier response to climate change in the Himalaya.

Bulley, H. N.; Bishop, M. P.; Shroder, J. F.; Haritashya, U. K.

2007-12-01

206

GIS development to monitor climate change and its geohydrological consequences on non-monsoon crop pattern in Himalaya  

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The main objective of the study was to assess climate change and its geohydrological impacts on non-monsoon crop pattern at watershed level through GIS development on climate informatics, land use informatics, hydro-informatics and agro-informatics. The Dabka watershed constitutes a part of the Kosi Basin in densely populated Lesser Himalaya, India in district Nainital has been selected for the case illustration. This reconnaissance study analyzed the climatic database for last three decades (1982-2012) and estimates that the average temperature and evaporation loss have been rising with the rate of 0.07 °C/yr and 4.03 mm/yr respectively whereas the average rainfall has been decreasing with the rate of 0.60 mm/yr. These rates of climate change increasing with mounting elevations. Consequently the existing microclimatic zones (sub-tropical, temperate and moist temperate) shifting towards higher altitudes and affecting the favorable conditions of the land use pattern and decreased the eco-friendly forest and vegetation cover. The land use degradation and high rate of deforestation (0.22 km2 or 1.5%/yr) leads to accelerate several hydrological problems during non-monsoon period (i.e. decreasing infiltration capacity of land surface, declining underground water level, drying up natural perennial springs and streams, decreasing irrigation water availability etc.). In order to that the non-monsoon crops yield has been decreasing with the rate of 0.60% each year as the results suggest that the average crop yield is just about 58 q/ha whereas twenty five to thirty year back it was recorded about 66 q/ha which is about 12% higher (8 q/ha) than existing yield. On the other hand the population increasing with the growth rate of 2% each year. Therefore, decreasing crop yield and increasing population raised food deficiency problem and the people adopting other occupations which ultimately affecting rural livelihood of the Himalaya.

Rawat, Pradeep K.

2014-09-01

207

Genetic parameters for predicted methane production and potential for reducing enteric emissions through genomic selection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mitigation of enteric methane (CH4) emission in ruminants has become an important area of research because accumulation of CH4 is linked to global warming. Nutritional and microbial opportunities to reduce CH4 emissions have been extensively researched, but little is known about using natural variation to breed animals with lower CH4 yield. Measuring CH4 emission rates directly from animals is difficult and hinders direct selection on reduced CH4 emission. However, improvements can be made th...

Haas, Y.; Windig, J. J.; Calus, M. P. L.; Dijkstra, J.; Haan, M. H. A.; Bannink, A.; Veerkamp, R. F.

2011-01-01

208

Radiosensitizing potential of the selective cyclooygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor meloxicam on human glioma cells  

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The COX-2 protein is frequently overexpressed in human malignant gliomas. This expression has been associated with their aggressive growth characteristics and poor prognosis for patients. Targeting the COX-2 pathway might improve glioma therapy. In this study, the effects of the selective COX-2 inhibitor meloxicam alone and in combination with irradiation were investigated on human glioma cells in vitro. A panel of three glioma cell lines (D384, U87 and U251) was used in the experiments fr...

Bijnsdorp, Irene; Kuipers, Gitta; Lafleur, M.; Slotman, Ben; Sminia, Peter; Berg, Jaap; Rijn, Johannes; Wedekind, Laurine

2007-01-01

209

Phytoremediation potential of Alocasia microrrhiza grown on soil collected from selected dumpsites in Ekiti State, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study investigates the effect of enhanced phytoextraction on the accumulation of heavy metals by Alocasia microrrhiza cultivated on soil collected from selected dumpsites in Ekiti State, Nigeria. The application of 1g/kg EDTA decreased the heights of plants relative to control, but significantly increased the concentration of heavy metals in various tissues of the plant. Notably, concentration of Pb and Cu were greater than the threshold value of 100mg/kg, indicative of the fact that Alo...

Asaolu S. S.; Awokunmi E. E.; Ajayi O. O.; Adebayo O. A.

2013-01-01

210

Potential evapotranspiration and its impact on autumn phenological phases of selected plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work deals with the assessment of the impact of water balance on the timing of phenological phases at two locations (Hips and Bukovina), on the selected tree species (hazel (Corylus avellana L.), hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.), sessile oak (Quercus petraea, Liebl.)). Phenological observations have been held since 2007, and together with measurements of meteorological parameters allow us to evaluate the microclimate in the stands in detail. (authors)

211

Depositional environment and provenance of Middle Siwalik sediments in Tista valley, Darjiling District, Eastern Himalaya, India  

Science.gov (United States)

The frontal part of the active, wedge-shaped Indo-Eurasian collision boundary is defined by the Himalayan fold-and-thrust belt whose foreland basin accumulated sediments that eventually became part of the thrust belt and is presently exposed as the sedimentary rocks of the Siwalik Group. The rocks of the Siwalik Group have been extensively studied in the western and Nepal Himalaya and have been divided into the Lower, Middle and Upper Subgroups. In the Darjiling-Sikkim Himalaya, the Upper Siwalik sequence is not exposed and the Middle Siwalik Subgroup exposed in the Tista river valley of Darjiling Himalaya preserves a ~325 m thick sequence of sandstone, conglomerate and shale. The Middle Siwalik section has been repeated by a number of north dipping thrusts. The sedimentary facies and facies associations within the lithostratigraphic column of the Middle Siwalik rocks show temporal repetition of sedimentary facies associations suggesting oscillation between proximal-, mid- and distal fan setups within a palaeo-alluvial fan depositional environment similar to the depositional setup of the Siwalik sediments in other parts of the Himalaya. These oscillations are probably due to a combination of foreland-ward movement of Himalayan thrusts, climatic variations and mountain-ward shift of fan-apex due to erosion. The Middle Siwalik sediments were derived from Higher- and Lesser Himalayan rocks. Mineral characteristics and modal analysis suggest that sedimentation occurred in humid climatic conditions similar to the moist humid climate of the present day Eastern Himalaya.

Kundu, Abhik; Matin, Abdul; Mukul, Malay

2012-02-01

212

Crustal structure across Sikkim, NE Himalaya from new gravity and magnetic data  

Science.gov (United States)

The new gravity and magnetic data recorded along a profile in the Sikkim, NE Himalaya are combined with the existing data from Tibet, Bangladesh and India, to delineate the crustal structure in this part of Himalaya. Modelling of gravity data, constrained from seismic results suggests that long wavelength gravity anomalies arise due to variations in the depth of Moho (36 to 74 km), which are caused by flexed lithosphere of effective elastic thickness of ˜ 50 ± 10 km. Simultaneous modelling of magnetic anomalies and short wave-length gravity anomalies reveals that (a) the magnetic anomalies observed over the Lesser Himalaya and the Higher Himalaya Crystalline rocks might be caused by remnant magnetisation with inclination I = - 18° ± 8° and declination D = 147° ± 10°, which is in conformity with the palaeomagnetic results. These magnetic parameters correspond to ~ 35 ± 10 Ma age of magnetic direction and suggest that the rocks might have acquired magnetisation during cooling period of metamorphism, (b) low grade meta-sediments of the Lesser Himalaya extend up to 12 km depth and thins on either sides forming a bowl shaped geometry and (c) relative gravity high in the Bengal basin might be caused by intrusion of the Rajmahal volcanics. Modelling has also provided constraint on the geometry of the north dipping thrusts.

Tiwari, V. M.; Vyghreswara Rao, M. B. S.; Mishra, D. C.; Singh, B.

2006-07-01

213

Precipitation and snow cover in the Himalaya: from reanalysis to regional climate simulations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We applied a Regional Climate Model (RCM to simulate precipitation and snow cover over the Himalaya, between March 2000 to December 2002. Due to its higher resolution, our model simulates a more realistic spatial variability of wind and precipitation than those of the reanalysis used as boundary conditions. In this region, we found very large discrepancies between the estimations of precipitation provided by reanalysis, rain gauges networks, satellite observations, and our RCM simulation. Our model clearly underestimates precipitation at the foothills of the Himalaya and in its Eastern part. However, our simulation brings an interesting estimation of liquid and solid precipitation in high altitude areas, where satellite and rain gauge networks are few reliable. We found our model to simulate quite accurately the snow cover extent and duration for the two years of simulation in these areas. Snow accumulation and snow duration differ widely along the Himalaya: snowfall can occur during the whole year Western Himalaya, due to both summer monsoon and mid-latitude low pressure systems bringing moisture into this region. In Central Himalaya and on the Tibetan plateau, a much more marked dry season occurs from October to March. Snow cover does not have a well marked seasonal cycle in these regions, since it depends both on the quite variable duration of the monsoon and on the rare but possible occurrence of snowfall during the winter.

M. Ménégoz

2013-06-01

214

Precipitation and snow cover in the Himalaya: from reanalysis to regional climate simulations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We applied a Regional Climate Model (RCM to simulate precipitation and snow cover over the Himalaya, between March 2000 and December 2002. Due to its higher resolution, our model simulates a more realistic spatial variability of wind and precipitation than those of the reanalysis of the European Centre of Medium range Weather Forecast (ECMWF used as lateral boundaries. In this region, we found very large discrepancies between the estimations of precipitation provided by reanalysis, rain gauges networks, satellite observations, and our RCM simulation. Our model clearly underestimates precipitation at the foothills of the Himalaya and in its eastern part. However, our simulation provides a first estimation of liquid and solid precipitation in high altitude areas, where satellite and rain gauge networks are not very reliable. During the two years of simulation, our model resembles the snow cover extent and duration quite accurately in these areas. Both snow accumulation and snow cover duration differ widely along the Himalaya: snowfall can occur during the whole year in western Himalaya, due to both summer monsoon and mid-latitude low pressure systems bringing moisture into this region. In Central Himalaya and on the Tibetan Plateau, a much more marked dry season occurs from October to March. Snow cover does not have a pronounced seasonal cycle in these regions, since it depends both on the quite variable duration of the monsoon and on the rare but possible occurrence of snowfall during the extra-monsoon period.

M. Ménégoz

2013-10-01

215

Patterns of paternity skew among polyandrous social insects : what can they tell us about the potential for sexual selection?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Monogamy results in high genetic relatedness among offspring and thus it is generally assumed to be favored by kin selection. Female multiple mating (polyandry) has nevertheless evolved several times in the social Hymenoptera (ants, bees, and wasps), and a substantial amount of work has been conducted to understand its costs and benefits. Relatedness and inclusive fitness benefits are, however, not only influenced by queen mating frequency but also by paternity skew, which is a quantitative measure of paternity biases among the offspring of polyandrous females. We performed a large-scale phylogenetic analysis of paternity skew across polyandrous social Hymenoptera. We found a general and significant negative association between paternity frequency and paternity skew. High paternity skew, which increases relatedness among colony members and thus maximizes inclusive fitness gains, characterized species with low paternity frequency. However, species with highly polyandrous queens had low paternity skew, with paternity equalized among potential sires. Equal paternity shares among fathers are expected to maximize fitness benefits derived from genetic diversity among offspring. We discuss the potential for postcopulatory sexual selection to influence patterns of paternity in social insects, and suggest that sexual selection may have played a key, yet overlooked role in social evolution.

Jaffé, Rodolfo; Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco

2012-01-01

216

Patterns of paternity skew among polyandrous social insects: what can they tell us about the potential for sexual selection?  

Science.gov (United States)

Monogamy results in high genetic relatedness among offspring and thus it is generally assumed to be favored by kin selection. Female multiple mating (polyandry) has nevertheless evolved several times in the social Hymenoptera (ants, bees, and wasps), and a substantial amount of work has been conducted to understand its costs and benefits. Relatedness and inclusive fitness benefits are, however, not only influenced by queen mating frequency but also by paternity skew, which is a quantitative measure of paternity biases among the offspring of polyandrous females. We performed a large-scale phylogenetic analysis of paternity skew across polyandrous social Hymenoptera. We found a general and significant negative association between paternity frequency and paternity skew. High paternity skew, which increases relatedness among colony members and thus maximizes inclusive fitness gains, characterized species with low paternity frequency. However, species with highly polyandrous queens had low paternity skew, with paternity equalized among potential sires. Equal paternity shares among fathers are expected to maximize fitness benefits derived from genetic diversity among offspring. We discuss the potential for postcopulatory sexual selection to influence patterns of paternity in social insects, and suggest that sexual selection may have played a key, yet overlooked role in social evolution. PMID:23206136

Jaffé, Rodolfo; Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco; den Boer, Susanne P A; Simmons, Leigh W; Baer, Boris

2012-12-01

217

Estimation of Q p and Q s of Kinnaur Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

The attenuation characteristics of the Kinnaur area of the North West Himalayas were studied using local earthquakes that occurred during 2008-2009. Most of the analyzed events are from the vicinity of the Panjal Thrust (PT) and South Tibetan Detachment Thrust, which are well-defined tectonic discontinuities in the Himalayas. The frequency-dependent attenuation of P and S waves was estimated using the extended coda normalization method. Data from 64 local earthquakes recorded at 10 broadband stations were used. The coda normalization of the spectral amplitudes of P and S waves was done at central frequencies of 1.5, 3, 6, 9, and 12 Hz. Q p increases from about 58 at 1.5 Hz to 706 at 12 Hz, and Q s increases from 105 at 1.5 Hz to 1,207 at 12 Hz. The results show that the quality factors for both P and S waves ( Q p and Q s) increase as a function of frequency according to the relation Q = Q o f n , where Q o is the corresponding Q value at 1 Hz frequency and " n" is the frequency relation parameter. We obtained Q p = (47 ± 2) f (1.04±0.04) and Q s = (86 ± 4) f (0.96±0.03) by fitting power law dependency model for the estimated values of the entire study region. The Q 0 and n values show that the region is seismically very active and the crust is highly heterogeneous. There was no systematic variation of values of Q p and Q s at different frequencies from one tectonic unit to another. As a consequence, average values of these parameters were obtained for each frequency for the entire region, and these were used for interpretation and for comparison with worldwide data. Q p values lie within the range of values observed for some tectonically active regions of the world, whereas Q s values were the lowest among the values compared for different parts of the world. Q s/ Q p values were >1 for the entire range of frequencies studied. All these factors indicate that the crust is highly heterogeneous in the study region. The high Q s/ Q p values also indicate that the region is partially saturated with fluids.

Kumar, Naresh; Mate, Shonkholen; Mukhopadhyay, Sagarika

2014-01-01

218

Survey on basic knowledge about exposure and potential environmental and health risks for selected nanomaterials  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Based on a literature review this report provides a general description as well as an environmental and health profile of 7 nanomaterials. The examined nanomaterials are selected because of expected high use or specific environmental and health properties. Fullerenes, iron, silver, nanoclay and titanium-, cerium-, and silicondioxides were studied in the project. Based on current uses, it is concluded that current applications of nano-iron and nanoclay can not cause unexpected “nano-associated” health or environmental problems. Although no specific risk associated with current uses of any of the 7 other nanomaterials were identified, there are areas where there may be reason for attention and thus need for more knowledge.

Mikkelsen, Sonja Hagen; Hansen, Erik

2011-01-01

219

Selected new developments in vibrational structure theory: potential construction and vibrational wave function calculations.  

Science.gov (United States)

This perspective addresses selected recent developments in the theoretical calculation of vibrational spectra, energies, wave functions and properties. The theoretical foundation and recently developed computational protocols for constructing hierarchies of vibrational Hamiltonian operators are reviewed. A many-mode second quantization (SQ) formulation is discussed prior to the discussion of anharmonic wave functions. Emphasis is put on vibrational self-consistent field (VSCF) based methods and in particular vibrational coupled cluster (VCC) theory. Other issues are also reviewed briefly, such as inclusion of thermal effects, response theoretical calculation of spectra, and the difficulty in treating dense spectra. PMID:22491444

Christiansen, Ove

2012-04-10

220

Strategies for the evaluation and selection of potential vaginal probiotics from human sources: an exemplary study.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the last years, the application of probiotics in gynaecological clinical practice has gained increasing relevance regarding therapy and prevention. This trend has also provoked the need for having tailored pharmaceutical preparations containing powerful microbial strains with defined properties. For the development of such preparations, several factors and criteria have to be considered, thereby not only focusing on identity and safety aspects as well as individual properties of the bacterial strains, but also on technological issues, such as stability and targeted release from the preparation. Against this background, this report exemplarily addresses the development procedure of a probiotic bacterial formulation for gynaecological application, covering the search for suitable strains, assessing their microbiological, molecular biological and physiological characterisation, and the selection for their use in clinical trials. In detail, starting with 127 presumptive lactobacilli isolates of vaginal origin, a step-by-step selection of candidate strains meeting special criteria was thoroughly examined, finally leading to a preparation consisting of four individual Lactobacillus strains that possess particular significance in women's urogenital health. Relevant issues and quality criteria of probiotic preparations used in gynecology are addressed and exemplarily introduced. PMID:24675230

Domig, K J; Kiss, H; Petricevic, L; Viernstein, H; Unger, F; Kneifel, W

2014-09-01

 
 
 
 
221

Energy Efficiency Potential in Existing Commercial Buildings: Review of Selected Recent Studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report reviews six recent studies (from 2002 through 2006) by states and utilities to assess the energy saving potential in existing commercial buildings. The studies cover all or portions of California, Connecticut, Vermont, Colorado, Illinois, and the Pacific Northwest. The studies clearly reveal that lighting remains the single largest and most cost effective end use that can be reduced to save energy. Overall the study indicated that with existing technologies and costs, a reasonable range of economic savings potential in existing commercial buildings is between 10 and 20 percent of current energy use. While not a focus of the study, an additional conclusion is that implementation of commercial building monitoring and controls would also play an important role in the nation’s efforts to improve energy efficiency of existing buildings.

Belzer, David B.

2009-04-03

222

WOUND HEALING ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL POTENTIALS OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS USED BY MALAYALI TRIBES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Healing chronic lower extremity wound is a problem worldwide, especially in developing countries. Aim of the present study is to document the traditional knowledge base / medicinal plants pertinent to healing wound popular among Malayali’s in Vattal Hills, Dharmapuri, Tamilnadu, India. Malayali’s in this area use a large number of plants extracts/ decoctions/ pastes to heal wound/ cut. Further, many of the plants used by Malayali’s have not been validated for their wound healing potenti...

Ramya Subramanian; Gopinath Krishnasamy; Aruna Devaraj; Padmavathy Sethuraman; Ramaraj Jayakumararaj

2011-01-01

223

Selection of potential probiotic Enterococcus faecium isolated from Portuguese fermented food.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from fermented products were evaluated for potential use as probiotic strains. In addition to efaAfm gene, commonly found in E. faecium food isolates, none of the isolates possessed virulence genes and none had positive reactions for the production of tyramine, histamine, putrescine and cadaverine in the screening medium used. All of these four isolates proved to be resistant to 65 °C. E. faecium 119 did not show antimicrobial activity against any of the target bacteria investigated. E. faecium 85 and 101 inhibited Listeria innocua and E. faecium DSMZ 13590. The strain E. faecium 120 inhibited seven target bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes 7946, L. monocytogenes 7947, L. innocua 2030c, L. innocua NCTC 11286, E. faecium DSMZ 13590, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213) and was chosen as the representative to assess the ability to survive gastrointestinal tract passage simulation, as well as the protective role of two food matrices (skim milk and Alheira) during its passage. For both matrices used, no significant differences (pmilk matrix the isolate was reduced to values below the detection limit of the enumeration technique by the end of the two digestions, in contrast to the Alheira matrix, for which isolate 120 showed a reduction of only ca. 1 log CFU/ml. The E. faecium strain 120 was shown to be a potential candidate for further investigations as a potential probiotic culture. PMID:25268323

Barbosa, Joana; Borges, Sandra; Teixeira, Paula

2014-11-17

224

Visual encoding and fixation target selection in free viewing: presaccadic brain potentials  

Science.gov (United States)

In scrutinizing a scene, the eyes alternate between fixations and saccades. During a fixation, two component processes can be distinguished: visual encoding and selection of the next fixation target. We aimed to distinguish the neural correlates of these processes in the electrical brain activity prior to a saccade onset. Participants viewed color photographs of natural scenes, in preparation for a change detection task. Then, for each participant and each scene we computed an image heat map, with temperature representing the duration and density of fixations. The temperature difference between the start and end points of saccades was taken as a measure of the expected task-relevance of the information concentrated in specific regions of a scene. Visual encoding was evaluated according to whether subsequent change was correctly detected. Saccades with larger temperature difference were more likely to be followed by correct detection than ones with smaller temperature differences. The amplitude of presaccadic activity over anterior brain areas was larger for correct detection than for detection failure. This difference was observed for short “scrutinizing” but not for long “explorative” saccades, suggesting that presaccadic activity reflects top-down saccade guidance. Thus, successful encoding requires local scanning of scene regions which are expected to be task-relevant. Next, we evaluated fixation target selection. Saccades “moving up” in temperature were preceded by presaccadic activity of higher amplitude than those “moving down”. This finding suggests that presaccadic activity reflects attention deployed to the following fixation location. Our findings illustrate how presaccadic activity can elucidate concurrent brain processes related to the immediate goal of planning the next saccade and the larger-scale goal of constructing a robust representation of the visual scene. PMID:23818877

Nikolaev, Andrey R.; Jurica, Peter; Nakatani, Chie; Plomp, Gijs; van Leeuwen, Cees

2013-01-01

225

Potential of Mean Force Calculations for Ion Selectivity in a Cyclic Peptide Nanotube  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ion selectivity in a simple cyclic peptide nanotube, composed of four cyclo[-(D-Ala-Glu-D-Ala-Gln)2-] units, is investigated by calculating the PMF profiles of Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, and Cl. ions permeating through the peptide nanotube in water. The final PMF profiles of the ions obtained from the umbrella sampling (US) method show an excellent agreement with those from the thermodynamic integration (TI) method. The PMF profiles of Na{sup +} and K{sup +} display free energy wells while the PMF curve of Cl{sup -} features free energy barriers, indicating the selectivity of the cyclic peptide nanotube to cations. Decomposition of the total mean force into the contribution from each component in the system is also accomplished by using the TI method. The mean force decomposition profiles of Na{sup +} and K{sup +} demonstrate that the dehydration free energy barriers by water molecules near the channel entrance and inside the channel are completely compensated for by attractive electrostatic interactions between the cations and carbonyl oxygens in the nanotube. In the case of Cl{sup -}, the dehydration free energy barriers are not eliminated by an interaction between the anion and the peptide nanotube, leading to the high free energy barriers in the PMF profile. Calculations of the coordination numbers of the ions with oxygen atoms pertaining to either water molecules or carbonyl groups in the peptide nanotube reveal that the stabilization of the cations in the midplane regions of the nanotube arises from the favorable interaction of the cations with the negatively charged carbonyl oxygens

Choi, Kyu Min; Kwon, Chan Ho; Kim, Hong Lae; Hwang, Hyon Seok [Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

2012-03-15

226

Visual encoding and fixation target selection in free viewing: presaccadic brain potentials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In scrutinizing a scene, the eyes alternate between fixations and saccades. During a fixation, two component processes can be distinguished: visual encoding and selection of the next fixation target. We aimed to distinguish the neural correlates of these processes in the electrical brain activity prior to a saccade onset. Participants viewed color photographs of natural scenes, in preparation for a change detection task. Then, for each participant and each scene we computed an image heat map, with temperature representing the duration and density of fixations. The temperature difference between the start and end points of saccades was taken as a measure of the expected task-relevance of the information concentrated in specific regions of a scene. Visual encoding was evaluated according to whether subsequent change was correctly detected. Saccades with larger temperature difference were more likely to be followed by correct detection than ones with smaller temperature differences. The amplitude of presaccadic activity over anterior brain areas was larger for correct detection than for detection failure. This difference was observed for short “scrutinizing” but not for long “explorative” saccades, suggesting that presaccadic activity reflects top-down saccade guidance. Thus, successful encoding requires local scanning of scene regions which are expected to be task-relevant. Next, we evaluated fixation target selection. Saccades “moving up” in temperature were preceded by presaccadic activity of higher amplitude than those “moving down”. This finding suggests that presaccadic activity reflects attention deployed to the following fixation location. Our findings illustrate how presaccadic activity can elucidate concurrent brain processes related to the immediate goal of planning the next saccade and the larger-scale goal of constructing a robust representation of the visual scene.

AndreyRNikolaev

2013-06-01

227

Visual encoding and fixation target selection in free viewing: presaccadic brain potentials.  

Science.gov (United States)

In scrutinizing a scene, the eyes alternate between fixations and saccades. During a fixation, two component processes can be distinguished: visual encoding and selection of the next fixation target. We aimed to distinguish the neural correlates of these processes in the electrical brain activity prior to a saccade onset. Participants viewed color photographs of natural scenes, in preparation for a change detection task. Then, for each participant and each scene we computed an image heat map, with temperature representing the duration and density of fixations. The temperature difference between the start and end points of saccades was taken as a measure of the expected task-relevance of the information concentrated in specific regions of a scene. Visual encoding was evaluated according to whether subsequent change was correctly detected. Saccades with larger temperature difference were more likely to be followed by correct detection than ones with smaller temperature differences. The amplitude of presaccadic activity over anterior brain areas was larger for correct detection than for detection failure. This difference was observed for short "scrutinizing" but not for long "explorative" saccades, suggesting that presaccadic activity reflects top-down saccade guidance. Thus, successful encoding requires local scanning of scene regions which are expected to be task-relevant. Next, we evaluated fixation target selection. Saccades "moving up" in temperature were preceded by presaccadic activity of higher amplitude than those "moving down". This finding suggests that presaccadic activity reflects attention deployed to the following fixation location. Our findings illustrate how presaccadic activity can elucidate concurrent brain processes related to the immediate goal of planning the next saccade and the larger-scale goal of constructing a robust representation of the visual scene. PMID:23818877

Nikolaev, Andrey R; Jurica, Peter; Nakatani, Chie; Plomp, Gijs; van Leeuwen, Cees

2013-01-01

228

A review of the potential and actual sources of pollution to groundwater in selected karst areas in Slovenia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Slovenian karst areas extend over 43% of the country; limestones and dolomites of the Mesozoic era prevail. In Slovenia karst groundwater contributes up to 50% of the total drinking water supply. The quality of water is very high, despite the fact that it is extremely vulnerable to pollution. The present article is a study and a review of the potential and actual sources of pollution to the groundwater in the selected karst aquifers (the Kras, Velika planina and Snežnik plateaus), which diff...

G. Kova?i?; Ravbar, N.

2005-01-01

229

Relation between methanogenic archaea and methane production potential in selected natural wetland ecosystems across China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Methane (CH4 emissions from natural wetland ecosystems exhibit large spatial variability at regional, national, and global levels related to temperature, water table, plant type and methanogenic archaea etc. To understand the underlying factors that induce spatial differences in CH4 emissions, and the relationship between the population of methanogenic archaea and CH4 production potential in natural wetlands around China, we measured the CH4 production potential and the abundance of methanogenic archaea in vertical soil profiles sampled from the Poyang wetland in the subtropical zone, the Hongze wetland in the warm temperate zone, the Sanjiang marsh in the cold temperate zone, and the Ruoergai peatland in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in the alpine climate zone. The top soil layer had the highest population of methanogens (1.07–8.29 × 109 cells g?1 soil in all wetlands except the Ruoergai peatland and exhibited the maximum CH4 production potential measured at the mean in situ summer temperature. There is a significant logarithmic correlation between the abundance of methanogenic archaea and the soil organic carbon (R2 = 0.72, P < 0.001, n = 13 and between the abundance of methanogenic archaea and the total nitrogen concentrations (R2 = 0.76, P < 0.001, n = 13 in wetland soils. This indicates that the amount of soil organic carbon may affect the population of methanogens in wetland ecosystems. While the CH4 production potential is not significantly related to methanogen population (R2 = 0.01, P > 0.05, n = 13, it is related to the dissolved organic carbon concentration (R2 = 0.31, P = 0.05, n = 13. This suggests that the methanogen population might be not an effective index for predicting the CH4 production in wetland ecosystems. The CH4 production rate of the top soil layer increases with increasing latitude, from 273.64 ?g CH4 kg?1 soil d?1 in the Poyang wetland to 664.59 ?g CH4 kg?1 soil d?1 in the Carex lasiocarpa marsh of the Sanjiang Plain. We conclude that CH4 production potential in the freshwater wetlands of Eastern China is mainly affected by the supply of methanogenic substrates rather than temperature; in contrast, low summer temperatures at high elevations in the Ruoergai peatland of the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau result in the presence of dominant species of methanogens with low CH4 production potential, which in turn suppresses CH4 production.

D. Y. Liu

2011-02-01

230

Study of natural radionuclide in soil samples of Garhwal Himalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Natural radioactivity and the associated external exposure due to gamma radiation depends on the geological and geographical conditions, and appear at different levels in the soil of each region in world. The natural radionuclide are widely distributed in various geological formations and ecosystems such as rocks, soil groundwater and food stuffs. In present study the distribution of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K contents were measured in the soil samples collected from different litho logical unit of Garhwal Himalayas. The analysis of soil sample was carried out using gamma ray spectrometer. The activity concentration of naturally occurring radio nuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in these soil samples were found to vary from BDL to 131.48 Bq/kg, 8.84 Bq/kg to 384.42 Bq/kg and 471.22 to 1406.25 Bq/kg, respectively. The distribution of radionuclide widely depends upon the rock formation and chemical properties with in earth. The activity concentration varied widely depending on sample origin. The external absorbed gamma dose due 226Ra, 232Th and 40K was also calculated which vary from 49.06 nGy/h to 306.11 nGy/h. The radium equivalent activity from these soil sample were found from 99.59 Bq/kg to 694.04 Bq/kg. (author)

231

Three hitherto unreported macro-fungi from Kashmir Himalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Himalayan state, Jammu and Kashmir due to its climate ranging from tropical deciduous forests to temperate and coniferous forests provides congenial habitat for the growth of diverse macro fungal species which in turn gives it the status of 'hub' of macro-fungal species. The macro fungal species richness of the state is directly related to its expansive forest communities and diverse weather patterns, but all the regions of the state have not been extensively surveyed till now. In this backdrop, a systematic survey for exploration and inventorization of macro fungal species of Western Kashmir Himalaya was undertaken during the year 2009 and 2010, which in turn resulted identification of the three species viz., Thelephora caryophyllea (Schaeff.) Pers., Coltricia cinnamomea (Pers.) Murr., and Guepinia helvelloides Fr. as new reports from the Kashmir. These species were identified on the basis of macro and microscopic characters and also the aid of taxonomic keys, field manuals, mushroom herbaria and help from expert taxonomists in the related field was taken into account. (author)

232

Transverse tectonics in the Sikkim Himalaya: A magnetotelluric study  

Science.gov (United States)

The tectonics of seismically active Sikkim Himalaya, as inferred by numerous seismological studies, is distinct from the conventional thrust tectonics proposed for the Himalayan collision belt. Here, focal mechanisms of several moderate magnitude earthquakes and composite fault plane solutions of microearthquakes have revealed strike-slip motion along faults transverse to the northward convergence direction of the Indian plate. In the present study, we analyze broadband magnetotelluric data of 12 sites located along an approximately N-S profile cutting across major geological sub-domains of Sikkim to test whether magnetotelluric strikes also support such transverse tectonic nature of the region. We have performed strike analysis of the data by two decomposition approaches as well as by phase tensor method. The study has revealed local variations in the strike directions within the region consistent with the geological and tectonic setup and the presence of transverse tectonic features in the region of Main Central Thrust Zone (MCTZ) where major axis of phase ellipses align in NNW-SSE to NW-SE direction. This trend coincides with the one obtained by microseismic data recorded after the September 18, 2011 earthquake (Mw 6.9). Magnetotelluric strike analysis thus supports the presence of NNW-to-NW trending transverse tectonic zone in MCTZ.

Manglik, A.; Pavan Kumar, G.; Thiagarajan, S.

2013-03-01

233

Crustal structure in the Siwalik Himalayas using magnetotelluric studies  

Science.gov (United States)

Tectonics in the Himalayan foothills is a result of the compressional forces active since the collision between Indian and Eurasian plates and is best understood as a combination of thin skin tectonics and the basement level faulting. In order to delineate the depth extent of various thrusts and faults, wide band Magnetotelluric (MT) studies were conducted at 17 stations over the Una-Mandi profile located in the Lesser Himalayas. These studies indicate that the Palampur thrust may be a composite of two thrust zones which merge together on the south of the MT profile and extends to depths of about 8 km. The Lambagraon syncline flanked by the Sarkaghat anticline on the NE and the Bahl anticline to the SW, is about 10 km deep. The crust is underlain by a conductive layer with a resistivity of about 100 W - m at depth of about 50 km below the Palampur thrust and Sarkaghat anticline. This layer is delineated at shallower depths of about 35 km below the Lambagraon syncline and also on the NE towards the main boundary thrust.

Gokarn, S. G.; Rao, C. K.; Gupta, G.

2002-01-01

234

The mammalian fauna from the Central Himalaya, Nepal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nepal harbors unique mammalian fauna, but it is poorly studied at higher elevation. Mammalian fauna were recorded in Manaslu Conservation Area, Dudhkunda and Dudhkoshi valley of Solukhumbu district and Kanchenjunga Conservation Area of Nepal during March 2011 to April 2013 along the trail and the study plots from 700m to 4400m a.s.l. Semi-structured interviews were made with local people to understand their behavior and habitats. Altogether, 29 mammalian fauna were recorded. Five species were recorded new for the areas. Overall, Carnivore species (nine were encountered more, followed by species of the order Cetartiodactyla (seven. The highest number of mammalian fauna (18 was identified from Manaslu Conservation Area whereas the least (11 from Dudhkunda and Dudhkoshi valley. Human wildlife conflict was frequent with Himalayan Goral (Naemorhedus goral, Barking Deer (Muntiacus vaginalis, Himalayan Tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus, Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta, Nepal Grey Langur (Semnopithecus schistaceus and Himalayan Black Bear (Ursus thibetanus for crop depredation in these areas. Although mammalian research started a long time ago, scenario of comprehensive research is not satisfactory in the Central Himalaya, Nepal.

Hem Bahadur Katuwal

2013-07-01

235

Survey of radon and thoron in homes of Indian Himalaya.  

Science.gov (United States)

Measurements of radon, thoron and their progeny were carried out in some houses from Garhwal and Kumaun Himalayas of India using a LR-115 plastic track detector. The measurements were made in various residential houses of the area at a height of 2.5 m above the ground level using a twin chamber radon dosemeter, which can record the values of radon, thoron and their progeny separately. The concentrations of radon and thoron in these homes were found to vary from 11 to 191 and 1 to 156 Bq m(-3), respectively. The equilibrium factor between radon and progeny varies from 0.02 to 0.90, with an average of 0.26 for the region. The resulting dose rate due to radon, thoron and their decay products was found to vary from 0.02 to 0.84 ?Sv h(-1) with an arithmetic mean of 0.27 ?Sv h(-1). A detailed analysis of the distribution of radon, thoron and their decay products inside a house is also reported. The observed dose rates due to radon, thoron and progeny were found somewhat higher but well below the international recommendations. PMID:21486831

Ramola, Rakesh Chand

2011-07-01

236

Decoupling of erosion and precipitation in the Himalayas.  

Science.gov (United States)

The hypothesis that abrupt spatial gradients in erosion can cause high strain rates in active orogens has been supported by numerical models that couple erosional processes with lithospheric deformation via gravitational feedbacks. Most such models invoke a 'stream-power' rule, in which either increased discharge or steeper channel slopes cause higher erosion rates. Spatial variations in precipitation and slopes are therefore predicted to correlate with gradients in both erosion rates and crustal strain. Here we combine observations from a meteorological network across the Greater Himalaya, Nepal, along with estimates of erosion rates at geologic timescales (greater than 100,000 yr) from low-temperature thermochronometry. Across a zone of about 20 km length spanning the Himalayan crest and encompassing a more than fivefold difference in monsoon precipitation, significant spatial variations in geologic erosion rates are not detectable. Decreased rainfall is not balanced by steeper channels. Instead, additional factors that influence river incision rates, such as channel width and sediment concentrations, must compensate for decreasing precipitation. Overall, spatially constant erosion is a response to uniform, upward tectonic transport of Greater Himalayan rock above a crustal ramp. PMID:14668861

Burbank, D W; Blythe, A E; Putkonen, J; Pratt-Sitaula, B; Gabet, E; Oskin, M; Barros, A; Ojha, T P

2003-12-11

237

Survey of radon and thoron in homes of Indian Himalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of radon, thoron and their progeny were carried out in some houses from Garhwal and Kumaun Himalayas of India using a LR-115 plastic track detector. The measurements were made in various residential houses of the area at a height of 2.5 m above the ground level using a twin chamber radon dosemeter, which can record the values of radon, thoron and their progeny separately. The concentrations of radon and thoron in these homes were found to vary from 11 to 191 and 1 to 156 Bq m-3, respectively. The equilibrium factor between radon and progeny varies from 0.02 to 0.90, with an average of 0.26 for the region. The resulting dose rate due to radon, thoron and their decay products was found to vary from 0.02 to 0.84 ?Sv h-1 with an arithmetic mean of 0.27 ?Sv h-1. A detailed analysis of the distribution of radon, thoron and their decay products inside a house is also reported. The observed dose rates due to radon, thoron and progeny were found somewhat higher but well below the international recommendations. (authors)

238

Phytochemical diversity of Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. from Western Himalaya.  

Science.gov (United States)

Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. (Rutaceae), commonly known as 'curry leaf tree', is a popular spice and condiment of India. To explore the diversity of the essential-oil yield and aroma profile of curry leaf, growing wild in foot and mid hills of north India, 58 populations were collected during spring season. M. koenigii populations were found to grow up to an altitude of 1487?m in north India. Comparative results showed considerable variations in the essential-oil yield and composition. The essential-oil yield varied from 0.14 to 0.80% in shade-dried leaves of different populations of M. koenigii. Analysis of the essential oils by GC and GC/MS, and the subsequent classification by statistical analysis resulted in four clusters with significant variations in their terpenoid composition. Major components of the essential oils of investigated populations were ?-pinene (2; 4.5-71.5%), sabinene (3; Himalaya. The present study documents M. koenigii populations having higher amounts of sabinene (3; up to 66.1%) for the first time. PMID:23576349

Verma, Ram S; Chauhan, Amit; Padalia, Rajendra C; Jat, Sanjeev K; Thul, Sanjog; Sundaresan, Velusamy

2013-04-01

239

Radon in groundwater of eastern Doon valley, Outer Himalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radon content in water may serve as a useful tracer for several geohydrological processes. The hydrodynamic factor, presence of radium in host rocks, as well as the soil porosity and permeability control its concentration in groundwater. In order to understand the factors that control the occurrence of radon in groundwater of Doon valley in Outer Himalaya, a total of 34 groundwater samples were collected from handpumps and tubewells covering three hydrogeological units/areas in the eastern part of Doon valley. Radon variation in tubewells and handpumps varies from 25.4±1.8 to 92.5±3.4 Bq/l with an average of 53.5±2.6 Bq/l. A significant positive correlation between radon concentration and depth of the wells was observed in the Doiwala-Dudhli and Jolleygrant areas suggesting that radon concentration increases with drilling depth in areas consisting of sediments of younger Doon gravels, whereas samples of the Ganga catchment show negative correlation. The high radon levels at shallower depths in the Ganga catchment (consisting of fluvial terraces of Ganga basin) indicate uranium-rich sediments at shallower depth

240

Assessment of biogenic secondary organic aerosol in the Himalayas  

Science.gov (United States)

Biogenic contributions to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the Southeast Asian regional haze were assessed by measurement of particle-phase isoprene, monoterpene, and sesquiterpene photooxidation products in fine particles (PM2.5) at Godavari, Nepal, located in the Himalayas at an elevation of 1600 meters. Organic species were measured in solvent-extracts of filter samples using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) and chemical derivatization. Molecular markers for primary aerosol sources—including motor vehicles, biomass burning, and detritus—and SOA tracers were measured. High concentrations of isoprene derivatives, particularly in the late summer months, point to biogenic SOA as a significant source of organic carbon in the Himalayan region. First-generation SOA products from alpha-pinene were detected in all samples, whereas multi-generation products were not, suggesting that monoterpenes were at an early stage of oxidation at Godavari. Biogenic SOA contributions to PM2.5 organic carbon in the 2005 monsoon and post-monsoon season ranged from 2-19% for isoprene, 1-5% for monoterpenes, and 1-4% for sesquiterpenes. Primary and secondary biogenic sources combined accounted for approximately half of observed organic aerosol, suggesting additional aerosol sources and/or precursors are significant in this region.

Stone, B. A.; Nguyen, T.; Pradhan, B.; Dangol, P.

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
241

Earthquakes in India and the Himalaya: tectonics, geodesy and history  

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Full Text Available The record of earthquakes in India is patchy prior to 1800 and its improvement is much impeded by its dispersal in a dozen local languages, and several colonial archives. Although geological studies will necessarily complement the historical record, only two earthquakes of the dozens of known historical events have resulted in surface ruptures, and it is likely that geological data in the form of liquefaction features will be needed to extend the historical record beyond the most recent few centuries. Damage from large Himalayan earthquakes recorded in Tibet and in Northern India suggests that earthquakes may attain M = 8.2. Seismic gaps along two-thirds of the Himalaya that have developed in the past five centuries, when combined with geodetic convergence rates of approximately 1.8 m/cy, suggests that one or more M = 8 earthquakes may be overdue. The mechanisms of recent earthquakes in Peninsular India are consistent with stresses induced in the Indian plate flexed by its collision with Tibet. A region of abnormally high seismicity in western India appears to be caused by local convergence across the Rann of Kachchh and possibly other rift zones of India. Since the plate itself deforms little, this deformation may be related to incipient plate fragmentation in Sindh or over a larger region of NW India.

R. Bilham

2004-06-01

242

Carbon storage and sequestration potential of selected tree species in India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A dynamic growth model (CO2FIX) was used for estimating the carbon sequestration potential of sal (Shorea Robusta Gaertn. f.), Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus Tereticornis Sm.), poplar (Populus Deltoides Marsh), and teak (Tectona Grandis Linn. f.) forests in India. The results indicate that long-term total carbon storage ranges from 101 to 156 Mg C?ha?1, with the largest carbon stock in the living biomass of long rotation sal forests (82 Mg C?ha?1). The net annual carbon sequestration rates we...

Kaul, M.; Mohren, G. M. J.; Dadhwal, V. K.

2010-01-01

243

Wet air oxidation as a pretreatment option for selective biodegradability enhancement and biogas generation potential from complex effluent.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study looks at the possibility of wet air oxidation (WAO) based pretreatment of complex effluent to selectively enhance the biodegradability (without substantial COD destruction) and facilitate biogas generation potential. A lab-scale wet air oxidation reactor with biomethanated distillery wastewater (B-DWW) as a model complex effluent (COD 40,000 mg L(-1)) was used to demonstrate the proof-of-concept. The studies were conducted using a designed set of experiments and reaction temperature (150-200°C), air pressure (6-12 bar) and reaction time (15-120 min) were the main process variables of concern for WAO process optimization. WAO pretreatment of B-DWW enhanced the biodegradability of the complex wastewater by the virtue of enhancing its biodegradability index (BI) from 0.2 to 0.88, which indicate favorable Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) for biogas generation. The kinetics of COD destruction and BI enhancement has also been reported. PMID:22789827

Padoley, K V; Tembhekar, P D; Saratchandra, T; Pandit, A B; Pandey, R A; Mudliar, S N

2012-09-01

244

Selection of a potential probiotic Lactobacillus strain and subsequent in vivo studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The probiotic potential of a Lactobacillus strain, isolated from pig faeces, was assessed as a probiotic in piglets. The strain was examined for resistance to pH 2.0, 0.5% oxgall and antibiotics, and antimicrobial activities against enteric pathogenic bacteria. The probiotic strain, L. reuteri BSA131, was administered through the feed to 25 1-month-old Landrace piglets. The piglets were divided into five groups of five piglets each and fed with different diets for 28 days. The daily consumption of L. reuteri BSA131 was assigned into two groups by the concentration of 10(6) or 10(8) freeze-dried bacteria. Fecal samples were collected before, during, and after consumption. Lactobacilli and enterobacteria cell counts were determined in the fecal samples. The liveweight gains and feed consumption of the piglets were recorded daily. This study showed that strain BSA131 enhanced liveweight gains and feed conversion rates in piglets. It also showed a significant increase in lactobacilli cell counts and decreases in enterobacterial numbers in the fecal samples. Strain BSA131 was considered to be a potential probiotic for piglets, especially after weaning. PMID:11759052

Chang, Y H; Kim, J K; Kim, H J; Kim, W Y; Kim, Y B; Park, Y H

2001-10-01

245

Energy performance contracting - energy saving potential of selected energy conservation measures (ECM)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report has been developed under the research project 'Etablering af grundlag for energitjenester i Danmark' (project number: ENS-33031-0185) under the Danish research programme - EFP. The objective of this project has been to contribute to the utilisation of the large potential for energy conservations in the building sector within the public, industry and service sectors through the development of a better basis for decision making for both the Energy Service Companies (ESCOes) and the building owners. The EU directive on Energy Service Contracting points at the buildings as the area where the biggest potential market for energy services and energy efficiency improvements are. The EFP-project has two parts: (1) A Danish part and (2) participation in the international cooperation project 'Holistic Assesment Tool-Kit on Energy Efficient Retrofit Measures for Government Buildings (EnERGo)', Annex 46 under the IEA R and D program 'Energy Conservation In Buildings And Community Systems' (ECBCS). This report describes the Danish contributions to the IEA projects subtask B, which has a primary objective to develop a database of energy conservation measures (ECM) with descriptions and performance characteristics of these. (au)

Johansson, M. (Dansk Energi Analyse A/S, Frederiksberg (Denmark)); Langkilde, G.; Olesen, Bjarne W. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, ICIEE, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Moerck, O. (Cenergia Energy Consultants, Herlev (Denmark)); Sundman, O. (DONG Energy, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Engelund Thomsen, K. (Aalborg Univ., SBi, Hoersholm (Denmark))

2008-09-15

246

Potential and limitations of multidecadal satellite soil moisture observations for selected climate model evaluation studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Soil moisture is an essential climate variable (ECV of major importance for land–atmosphere interactions and global hydrology. An appropriate representation of soil moisture dynamics in global climate models is therefore important. Recently, a first multidecadal, observation-based soil moisture dataset has become available that provides information on soil moisture dynamics from satellite observations (ECVSM, essential climate variable soil moisture. The present study investigates the potential and limitations of this new dataset for several applications in climate model evaluation. We compare soil moisture data from satellite observations, reanalysis and simulations from a state-of-the-art land surface model and analyze relationships between soil moisture and precipitation anomalies in the different dataset. Other potential applications like model parameter optimization or model initialization are not investigated in the present study. In a detailed regional study, we show that ECVSM is capable to capture well the interannual and intraannual soil moisture and precipitation dynamics in the Sahelian region. Current deficits of the new dataset are critically discussed and summarized at the end of the paper to provide guidance for an appropriate usage of the ECVSM dataset for climate studies.

A. Loew

2013-09-01

247

Selection of potential antagonists against asparagus crown and root rot caused by Fusarium spp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Crown and root rot is one of the most important diseases of asparagus crop worldwide. Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. asparagi and F. proliferatum are the two species more frequently associated to this complex and their prevalence depends on the production area. The control of the disease on asparagus crop is difficult to achieve because its perennial condition and the long survival of the pathogen in the soil as chlamydospores or as mycelium in infected plant debris. Furthermore, Fusarium spp. are easily disseminated with asparagus propagation materials. Thus, control measures should aim at obtaining seedlings protection for longer than achieved with conventional pre-planting chemical treatments. The effectiveness of fungal antagonists on the control of diseases caused by soil borne fungi has been reported. The potential of Trichoderma spp. as a biological control agent against diseases caused by Fusarium spp. in tomato and asparagus has been studied . It has been suggested that microorganisms isolated from the root or rhizosphere of a specific crop may be better adapted to that crop and may provide better disease control than organisms originally isolated from other plant species. The objective of this work was the evaluation of the potential of fungal isolates from symptomless asparagus plants as biocontrol agents of Fusarium crown and root rot. PMID:19226757

Rubio-Pérez, E; Molinero-Ruiz, M L; Melero-Vara, J M; Basallote-Ureba, M J

2008-01-01

248

Conference report: 15th Himalaya-Karakoram-Tibet workshop, Chengdu, China, 21-24 April 2000  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Himalaya-Karakoram-Tibet (HKT) workshops were initiated at Leicester University in 1985 as a forum for all active workers in the region. The numbers of active researchers have grown year by year and this, the 15th HKT, had a record number of delegates, over 300, from many different countries. The 15th Himalaya-Karakoram-Tibet international Conference was held at the Tibet Hotel, Chengdu in Sichuan Province, China over 21-24 April 2000. Two field excursions were held, a pre-conference trip...

Searle, Mp

2001-01-01

249

[Selection of winter plant species for wetlands constructed as sewage treatment systems and evaluation of their wastewater purification potentials].  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to establish an evaluation system for selection of winter wetland plants possessing high wastewater purification potentials in subtropics areas, designed sewage treatment experiments were carried out by introducing into the constructed wetlands 25 species of winter wetland plants. Cluster analysis was performed by including harmful environment-resistant enzyme and substrate enzyme activities into the commonly applied plant screening and assessment indexes system. The obtained results indicated that there were significant differences among the tested winter plants in their root length and vigor, leaf malonaldehyde (MDA), biomass, average nitrogen and phosphorus concentration and uptake, and urease and phosphoric acid enzyme activities in the root areas. Based on the established evaluation system, the tested plants were clustered into 3 groups. The plants in the 1st group possessing high purification potentials are Oenanthe javanica, Brassicacapestris, Juncus effusu, Saxifragaceae, Iris pseudoacorus, Osmanthus fragrans and Iris ensata; those in the 2nd group possessing moderate purification potentials are Brassica oleracea var acephala, Calendula officinalis, Aucuba japonica, Ligustrum lucidu, Beta vulgaris, Rhododendron simsii and Ilex latifolia; and those in the 3rd group with low purification potentials are Brassica oleracea var acephala, Calistephus chinensis, Rosa chinensis, Antirrhinums, Liriope palatyphylla, Zephyranthes candida, Fatshedera lizei, Petunia hybrida, Ilex quihoui, Dianthus caryophyllus and Loropetalum chinensis. PMID:21090294

Chen, Yong-hua; Wu, Xiao-fu; Chen, Ming-li; Jiang, Li-juan; Li, Ke-lin; Lei, Dian; Wang, Hai-bin

2010-08-01

250

[Selection and purification potential evaluation of woody plant in vertical flow constructed wetlands in the subtropical area].  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to solve the problem that wetland herbaceous plants tend to die during winter in subtropics areas, selection and purification potential evaluation experiments were carried out by introducing into the constructed wetlands 16 species of woody wetland plants. Cluster analysis was performed by including the morphological characteristics, physiological characteristics, as well as nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation of the woody wetland plants. The results indicated that there were significant differences among the tested woody plants in their survival rate, height increase, root length increase and vigor, Chlorophyll content, Superoxide dismutase, Malonaldehyde, Proline, Peroxidase, biomass, average concentration and accumulation of nitrogen and phosphorus. Based on the established evaluation system, the tested plants were clustered into 3 groups. The plants in the 1st group possessing high purification potentials are Nerium oleander and Hibiscus syriacus. Those in the 2nd group possessing moderate purification potentials are Trachycarpus fortune, Llex latifolia Thunb., Gardenia jasminoides, Serissa foetida and Ilex crenatacv Convexa. And those in the 3rd group with low purification potentials are Jasminum udiflorum, Hedera helix, Ligustrum vicaryi, Ligustrum lucidum, Buxus sempervives, Murraya paniculata, Osmanthus fragrans, Mahoniafortune and Photinia serrulata. PMID:24812951

Chen, Yong-Hua; Wu, Xiao-Fu; Hao, Jun; Chen, Ming-Li; Zhu, Guang-Yu

2014-02-01

251

A simple electrochemical method for the rapid estimation of antioxidant potentials of some selected medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clinical and Epidemiological studies have shown that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular diseases, cancers and other related disorders. These beneficial health effects have been attributed in part to the presence of antioxidants in dietary plants. Therefore screening for antioxidant properties of plant extracts has been one of the interests of scientists in this field. Different screening methods have been reported for the evaluation of antioxidant properties of plant extracts in the literature. In the present research a rapid screening method has been introduced based on cyclic voltammetry for antioxidant screening of some selected medicinal plant extracts. CYCLIC VOLTAMMETRY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF SEVEN MEDICINAL PLANTS: Buxus hyrcana, Rumex crispus, Achillea millefolium, Zataria multiflora, Ginkgo biloba, Lippia citriodora and Heptaptera anisoptera was carried out at different scan rates. Based on the interpretation of voltammograms, Rumex crispus, Achillea millefolium and Ginkgo biloba showed higher antioxidant capability than the others while Lippia citriodora contained the highest amount of antioxidants. Cyclic voltammetry is expected to be a simple method for screening antioxidants and estimating the antioxidant activity of foods and medicinal plants. PMID:25317192

Amidi, Salimeh; Mojab, Faraz; Bayandori Moghaddam, Abdolmajid; Tabib, Kimia; Kobarfard, Farzad

2012-01-01

252

Virulence potential of Enterococcus gallinarum strains isolated from selected Nigerian traditional fermented foods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Five Enterococcus isolates from some Nigerian traditional fermented foods were identified as Enterococcus gallinarum by using phenotypic and genotypic tests. Safety properties such as antibiotic susceptibility, virulence gene detection, haemolysin, gelatinase and bacteriocin production were determined using standard methods. There was no resistance to clinically relevant antibiotics. Virulence gene for collagen binding antigen and aggregation substance were detected in 60% of the E. gallinarum strains; while surface adhesin was detected in 20%, but none of the strains had cytolysin activator and gelatinase. Phenotype characterizations of the E. gallinarum isolates indicated that none of the isolates produced haemolysin and gelatinase. Enterococcus gallinarum C103 and U82 had no antimicrobial activity against all the selected bacteria pathogens while E. gallinarum W184, T71 and W21 were active against some of the indicator bacteria pathogens. Only E. gallinarum T71 and W21 showed broad spectra of antimicrobial activity. Combination of virulence factors did not appear in these food isolates. Therefore, these strains particularly the two strains with high spectra of antimicrobial activity could be exploited as functional starters in foods.

IYABO C. OLADIPO

2014-08-01

253

Potential aluminium(III)- and gallium(III)-selective optical sensors based on porphyrazines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Porphyrazines possessing non-coordinating alkyl (propyl) and aralkyl (4-tert-butylphenyl) groups in the periphery were studied as optical sensors for a set of mono-, di- and trivalent cations. Investigated porphyrazines in the UV-Vis monitored titrations revealed significant responses towards aluminium and gallium cations, unlike other metal ions studied. Additionally, porphyrazine possessing 4-tert-butylphenyl peripheral substituents showed sensor property towards ruthenium cation and was chosen for further investigation. The presence of isosbestic points in absorption spectra for its titration with aluminium, gallium and ruthenium cations, accompanied by a linear Benesi-Hildebrand plot, proved complex formation. The continuous variation method was used to determine binding stoichiometry in 1:1 porphyrazine-metal ratio. X-Ray studies and density functional theory calculations were employed to investigate octa(4-tert-butylphenyl)porphyrazine structure. The results helped to explain the observed selectivity towards certain ions. Interaction between ion and porphyrazine meso nitrogen in a Lewis acid-Lewis base manner is proposed. PMID:21558658

Goslinski, Tomasz; Tykarska, Ewa; Kryjewski, Michal; Osmalek, Tomasz; Sobiak, Stanislaw; Gdaniec, Maria; Dutkiewicz, Zbigniew; Mielcarek, Jadwiga

2011-01-01

254

WOUND HEALING ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL POTENTIALS OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS USED BY MALAYALI TRIBES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Healing chronic lower extremity wound is a problem worldwide, especially in developing countries. Aim of the present study is to document the traditional knowledge base / medicinal plants pertinent to healing wound popular among Malayali’s in Vattal Hills, Dharmapuri, Tamilnadu, India. Malayali’s in this area use a large number of plants extracts/ decoctions/ pastes to heal wound/ cut. Further, many of the plants used by Malayali’s have not been validated for their wound healing potential. The investigation resulted in the identification of 82 medicinal plants across 39 families to heal wound/cut. Maximum remedies were obtained from herbs (40% followed by trees (31% > shrubs (18% > climbers (10% and straggler (1%. Most of the healing aliments use leaves (30% followed by whole plant (16% > root (15% > seed (11% > fruit (10% > stem (14% > flower (4%. Further, external application of herbal formulations outnumbered oral consumption to promote wound healing.

Ramya Subramanian

2011-05-01

255

Psychopathy-related differences in selective attention are captured by an early event-related potential.  

Science.gov (United States)

According to the response modulation model, the poorly regulated behavior of psychopathic individuals reflects a problem reallocating attention to process peripheral information while engaged in goal-directed behavior (Patterson & Newman, 1993). We evaluated this tenet using male prisoners and an early event-related potential component (P140) to index attentional processing. In all task conditions, participants viewed and categorized letter stimuli that could also be used to predict electric shocks. Instructions focused attention either on the threat-relevant dimension of the letters or an alternative, threat-irrelevant dimension. Offenders with high scores on Hare's (2003) Psychopathy Checklist-Revised displayed a larger P140 under alternative versus threat conditions. Beyond demonstrating psychopathy-related differences in early attention, these findings suggest that psychopathic individuals find it easier to ignore threat-related distractors when they are peripheral versus central to their goal-directed behavior. PMID:22452763

Baskin-Sommers, Arielle; Curtin, John J; Li, Wen; Newman, Joseph P

2012-10-01

256

Plio-Plistocene in-sequence thrust propagation along the Main Central Thrust zone (Kumaon-Garhwal Himalaya, India): New thermochronological data  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kumaon and Garhwal Himalayas, NW-India have similar geologic, tectonic, topographic and precipitation pattern. However, low-temperature thermochronological age pattern varies significantly along the strike as well as across the strike of major faults. Here, we interpret the new set of thermochronological age data across the strike of major faults namely Vaikrita Thrust (VT), Munsiari Thrust (MT), Berinag Thrust (BT) and the Baijnath nappe along Pindari valley in the Kumaon-Garhwal Himalaya. In the present work, 18 new apatite fission track (AFT) ages of samples collected along a north-south transect have been reported. Ages in the hanging wall of VT which range from 2.1 ± 0.2 to 4.2 ± 0.7 Ma, have been found to be becoming younger linearly with distance from north to the VT. This trend crosses the VT with significant jump in ages. In the south of the VT, ages are lying between 0.3 ± 0.1 and 3.9 ± 0.8 Ma, and show linear variation with distance from the VT to BT. No significant jump in ages across the MT is observed and the linear trend of younging southward is continuing till the BT. The break and displacement in age pattern with youngest ages close to thrusts possibly indicate progressive late thrust movement. It reflects sequential uplift and cooling towards the south from the VT to BT which is consistent with an in-sequence style of thrust propagation. We compare our new data to the published thermochronological data from its adjacent traverses along the Goriganga and Dhauliganga valleys (~ 25 km away from the present traverse towards east and west respectively) in the Kumaon-Garhwal Himalaya in order to understand potential along-strike variations in the kinematics. Our observations indicate a dynamic coupling between tectonic and surface processes in the Garhwal-Kumaon Himalaya and support that the geometry of crustal scale faults and their associated kinematics control exhumation pathways of rocks.

Singh, Paramjeet; Patel, R. C.; Lal, Nand

2012-10-01

257

A novel test to determine the significance of neural selectivity to single and multiple potentially correlated stimulus features.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mutual information is a principled non-linear measure of dependence between stochastic variables, which is widely used to study the selectivity of neural responses to external stimuli. Here we define and develop a set of novel statistical independence tests based on mutual information, which quantify the significance of neural selectivity to either single features or to multiple, potentially correlated stimulus features like those often present in naturalistic stimuli. If the values of different features are correlated during stimulus presentation, it is difficult to establish if one feature is genuinely encoded by the response, or if it instead appears to be encoded only as a side effect of its correlation with another genuinely represented feature. Our tests provide a way to disambiguate between these two possibilities. We use realistic simulations of neural responses tuned to one or more correlated stimulus features to investigate how limited sampling bias correction procedures affect the statistical power of such independence tests, and we characterize the regimes in which the distribution of information values under the null hypothesis can be approximated by simple distributions (Chi-square or Gaussian). Finally, we apply these tests to experimental data to determine the significance of tuning of the band limited power (BLP) of the gamma [30-100 Hz] frequency range of the primary visual cortical local field potential to multiple correlated features during presentation of naturalistic movies. We show that gamma BLP carries significant, genuine information about orientation, space contrast and time contrast, despite the strong correlations between these features. PMID:22142889

Ince, Robin A A; Mazzoni, Alberto; Bartels, Andreas; Logothetis, Nikos K; Panzeri, Stefano

2012-09-15

258

Marker-assisted selection as a potential tool for genetic improvement in developing countries: debating the issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Marker-assisted selection (MAS) is a complementary technology, for use in conjunction with more established conventional methods of genetic selection, for plant and animal improvement. It has generated a good deal of expectations, many of which have yet to be realized. Although documentation is limited, the current impact of MAS on products delivered to farmers seems small. While the future possibilities and potential impacts of MAS are considerable, there are also obstacles to its use, particularly in developing countries. Principal among these are issues relating to current high costs of the technology and its appropriateness, given that publicly funded agricultural research in many developing countries is suboptimal and development priorities do not necessarily include genetic improvement programmes. Other potential obstacles to the uptake of MAS in developing countries include limited infrastructure, the absence of conventional selection and breeding programmes, poor private sector involvement and lack of research on specific crops of importance in developing countries. Intellectual property rights may also be an important constraint to development and uptake of MAS in the developing world. It is hoped that through partnerships between developing and developed country institutions and individuals, including public-private sector collaboration, MAS costs can be reduced, resources pooled and shared and capacity developed. With the assistance of the Consultative Grouth the assistance of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) and international organizations such as FAO, developing countries can benefit more from MAS. These were some of the outcomes of a moderated e-mail conference, entitled 'Molecular Marker- Assisted Selection as a Potential Tool for Genetic Improvement of Crops, Forest Trees, Livestock and Fish in Developing Countries', that FAO hosted at the end of 2003. During the four-week conference, 627 people subscribed and 85 messages were posted, about 60 percent coming from people living in developing countries. Most messages (88 percent) came from people working in research centres (national or international) or universities. The remainder came from people working as independent consultants or from farmer organizations, government agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) or United Nations (UN) organizations. (author)

259

An initial model of seismic microzonation of Sikkim Himalaya through thematic mapping and GIS integration of geological and strong motion features^*  

Science.gov (United States)

Seismic microzonation and hazard mapping was undertaken in the Sikkim Himalaya with local site conditions and strong ground motion attributes incorporated into a geographic information system. A strong motion network in Sikkim consisting of 9 digital accelerographs recorded more than 100 events during 1998-2002, of which 72 events are selected with signal-to-noise ratios ?3 for the estimation of site response (SR), peak ground acceleration (PGA) and resonance frequency (RF) at all stations. With these data and inputs from IRS-1C LISS III digital data, topo-sheets, geographical boundary of the State of Sikkim, surface geological maps, soil taxonomy map at 1:50,000 scale and seismic refraction profiles, the seismological and geological thematic maps, namely, SR, PGA, RF, lithology, soil class, slope, drainage, and landslide layers were generated. The geological and seismological layers are assigned normalized weights and feature ranks following a pair-wise comparison hierarchical approach and later integrated through GIS to create the microzonation map of the region. The overall SR, PGA and resonance frequency show an increasing trend in a NW-SE direction, peaking at Singtam in the lesser Himalaya. Six major hazard zones are demarcated with different percentages of probability index values in the geological, seismological hazard and microzonation maps. The maximum risk is attached to a probability greater than 78% in the Singtam and adjoining area. These maps offer generally better spatial representation of seismic hazards including site-specific analysis as a first level microzonation attempt.

Nath, Sankar Kumar

2005-05-01

260

Using molecular systematics and GIS-based modeling approaches for selection of potential sites to explore the desirable microbial products  

Science.gov (United States)

Microorganisms and their chemical products are widely used as sources to isolate many drugs. To search for novel and potential bioactive compounds from microorganisms, one approach is to acquire microbial samples from various environments. However, with random collection and selection of the microbes, it would be hard to find the desired bioactive compounds. To support the selection of the ecological habitat for collecting microorganisms in an efficient way, we proposed a computational framework using molecular systematics and GIS-based modeling approaches. The first step in this framework, molecular sequences and bioactivity profiles of microbes are used to build the phylogenetic trees, whose leaf nodes are also associated with site location. Next, the phylogenetic diversity (PD) of microbes/bioactivities among different geographic sites is estimated from the trees for the selection of interesting sites. Using microbe occurrence and geographic data from the sites of interest, GARP algorithm is applied for the prediction of species distribution in other areas. In addition, the PD values from each site are used in training data for prediction of phylogenetic diversity and bioactivity diversity in unexplored areas.

Yokwai, Sunai; Phadermrod, Boonyarat; Pacharawongsakda, Eakasit; Ingsriswang, Supawadee

2008-10-01

 
 
 
 
261

Utilization of the Potentials of Selected Microorganisms as Biocontrol and Biofertilizer for Enhanced Crop Improvement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Some selected microorganisms isolated from rhizosphere of crops, were screened for their abilities to enhance crop growth and suppress plant parasitic nematodes; in screenhouse experiments. Two promising hybrids of soybean genotypes: TGx 1448-2E (medium duration and TGx 1485-1D (early maturing and a high yielding hybrid of maize genotype Oba Super 1 were used. Microorganisms assessed included the fungi: Trichoderma pseudokoningii, Trichoderma viride, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Aspergillus niger, Glomus mosseae and the rhizobacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida. One thousand juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita were applied to soybean, while five thousand Pratylenchus zeae (juveniles and adults were applied to maize. Fungal spores and rhizobacteria cells approximately 2.5x106 mL-1 concentration were applied per plant, for maize experiment. For soybean experiment, Bradyrhizobium japonicum (106 cells, Trichoderma pseudokoningii (6.8x106 spores and G. mosseae (200 spores were inoculated per plant. The effect of microorganism`s application was compared with a nematicide (carbofuran treatment, untreated control and a nematode only control. The parameters measured were nematode density, root damage due to plant parasitic nematode infection, relative leaf chlorophyll content and plant growth parameters. The inoculated beneficial microorganisms in most cases significantly (p?0.05 reduced the nematode density across the treatments in test crops by up to 79.6% and improved plant growth by up to 46.0%, when treatments performances were compared across treatments. Most of the beneficial microorganisms assessed have prospects of enhancing nematode management through nematode density reduction and improving crop production.

E.O. Oyekanmi

2008-01-01

262

Selection of potential cold water marine species for testing of oil dispersants, and chemically dispersed oil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study regarding marine species for toxicity testing for Alaska conditions was presented and the potential adverse impacts of a large marine oil spill in cold water were discussed with the objective to determine if the spill should be treated by the use of oil dispersants. Without dispersion, the oil can pollute marine epifauna and can deposit on beaches. The decision to apply dispersants to a marine oil spill requires knowledge of the toxicity of the undispersed oil to pelagic marine life occurring via natural dispersion as opposed to the toxicity of the oil-dispersant mixture. Most standard toxicity tests apply to warm water species. This paper discussed the need to have a standard test species relevant to Alaska waters for toxicity testing. In this study, toxicity testing was done according to the methods of the Chemical Response to Oil Spills : Ecological Effects Research Forum (CROSERF). The testing included capturing adult species in the winter and holding them until larval hatching. Toxicity testing was completed in a narrow time frame before hatching ceased. Many chemical samples were tested. Topsmelt, urchins, shellfish, mysids, copepods, pink salmon fry, and tidepool sculpin were considered by the author to be the most useful for certain types of toxicity testing. 29 refs

263

Investigation of greenhouse gas reduction potential and change in technological selection in Indian power sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to the growing energy needs along with increasing concerns towards control of greenhouse gas emissions, most developing countries are under pressure to find alternative methods for energy conversion and policies to make these technologies economically viable. One of the instruments that have been adopted by many industrial countries is that of the carbon tax. The rate of introducing carbon taxes however, depends upon the local economic conditions and market forces. The case of Indian power sector has been examined by using MARKAL model for introduction of carbon taxes at four different trajectories. Their implications on the power generation choices have been investigated for a time span of 25 years from the year 2000. In general large hydropower plants have emerged as the first choice followed by wind energy systems. However, cheaper availability of coal in India keeps scope of use of coal based technologies for which pressurised fluidised bed combustion technology has been found to be the balanced choice among fossil technologies. There exists a potential of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by about 25% as compared to the 'business-as-usual' case in presence of high carbon tax rates

264

Phytotoxicity of biosolids and screening of selected plant species with potential for mercury phytoextraction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mercury contaminated stockpiles of biosolids (3.5-8.4 mg kg(-1) Hg) from Melbourne Water's Western Treatment Plant (MW-WTP) were investigated to evaluate the possibility for their phytoremediation. Nine plant species (Atriplex codonocarpa, Atriplex semibaccata, Austrodanthonia caespitosa, Brassica juncea, Brassica napus, Gypsophila paniculata, Sorghum bicolor, Themeda triandra and Trifolium subterraneum) were screened for phytoextraction potential in Hg-contaminated biosolids from MW-WTP. In addition, the same plant species were germinated and grown in two other substrates (i.e. potting mix and potting mix spiked with mercury(II)). Growth measurements and the mercury uptake for all three substrates were compared. Some plant species grown in potting mix spiked with mercury(II) grew more vigorously than in the other two substrates and showed higher levels of sulphur in their tissues. These results suggested that the mercury stress activated defence mechanisms and it was hypothesised that this was the likely reason for the enhanced production of sulphur compounds in the plant species studied which stimulated their growth. Some species did not grow in biosolids because of the combined effect of high mercury toxicity and high salt content. Atriplex conodocarpa and Australodanthonia caespitose proved to be the most suitable candidates for mercury phytoextraction because of their ability to translocate mercury from roots to the above-ground tissues. PMID:19775810

Lomonte, Cristina; Doronila, Augustine I; Gregory, David; Baker, Alan J M; Kolev, Spas D

2010-01-15

265

Subject Combination and Electrode Selection in Cooperative Brain-Computer Interface Based on Event Related Potentials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available New paradigms are required in Brain-Computer Interface (BCI systems for the needs and expectations of healthy people. To solve this issue, we explore the emerging field of cooperative BCIs, which involves several users in a single BCI system. Contrary to classical BCIs that are dependent on the unique subject’s will, cooperative BCIs are used for problem solving tasks where several people shall be engaged by sharing a common goal. Similarly as combining trials over time improves performance, combining trials across subjects can significantly improve performance compared with when only a single user is involved. Yet, cooperative BCIs may only be used in particular settings, and new paradigms must be proposed to efficiently use this approach. The possible benefits of using several subjects are addressed, and compared with current single-subject BCI paradigms. To show the advantages of a cooperative BCI, we evaluate the performance of combining decisions across subjects with data from an event-related potentials (ERP based experiment where each subject observed the same sequence of visual stimuli. Furthermore, we show that it is possible to achieve a mean AUC superior to 0.95 with 10 subjects and 3 electrodes on each subject, or with 4 subjects and 6 electrodes on each subject. Several emerging challenges and possible applications are proposed to highlight how cooperative BCIs could be efficiently used with current technologies and leverage BCI applications.

Hubert Cecotti

2014-04-01

266

The potential use of an alternative fluid for SFR intermediate loops: selection and first design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Among the Generation IV systems, Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR) are promising and benefit of considerable technological experience, but improvements are researched on safety approach and capital cost reduction. One of the main problems to be solved by the standard SFR design is the proper management of the risk of leakage between the intermediate circuit filled with sodium and the energy conversion system using a water Rankine cycle. This risk requires notably an early detection of water leakage to prevent a water-sodium reaction. One innovative solution to this problem is the replacement of the sodium in the secondary loops by an alternative liquid fluid, less reactive with water. This alternative fluid might also allow innovative designs, e.g. intermediate heat exchanger and steam generator grouped in the same component. CEA, Areva NP and EdF have formed a working group in order to evaluate different 'alternative fluids' that might replace sodium. A first selection retained seven fluids on the bases of 'required properties' as: large operating range (low melting point, high boiling point ...), fluid cost and availability, acceptable corrosion at SFR working temperature. These are three bismuth alloys, two nitrate salts, one hydroxide melt and sodium with nanoparticles. Then, it was decided to evaluate these fluids through a multi- criteria analysis in order to point advantages and drawbacks of each fluid and to compare them with sodium. Lack of knowledge, impact on mate sodium. Lack of knowledge, impact on materials, design, working conditions and reactor availability should be emphasized by this analysis, in order to provide sound arguments for a research program on one or two most promising fluids. A global note is given to each fluid by evaluating them with respect to 'grand criteria', weighted differently according to their importance. The grand criteria were: thermal properties, reactivity with structures, reactivity with other fluids (air, water, sodium), chemistry control (including tritium management), safety and waste management, inspection maintenance and repair (ISI and R), impact on components and circuits, availability and cost, level of use. The impact on reactor availability and manageability and the level of knowledge on each fluid were estimated through the former criteria and introduced in the final evaluation as main criteria. The aim of this paper is to present the method of evaluation, the results obtained and the choice that have been made. The impact on design and operation are enhanced for the most promising fluids. It was found that sodium remains the most interesting intermediate fluid. However, Lead Bismuth Eutectic and sodium with nanoparticles also presents some interests and should be further evaluated. (author)

267

Potential consequences of selection to change gestation length on performance of Holstein cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic evaluations for gestation length (GL) for Holstein service sires were studied to determine their effectiveness in predicting GL in an independent data set. Consequences of selection on GL were also assessed by examining correlated changes in milk and fitness traits. Holstein bulls with ? 300 calvings between 1998 and 2005 were stratified into the following 7 groups using predicted transmitting ability (PTA) for service sire GL: calving between 2006 and 2009 were segregated by the service sire PTA GL groups (group had 8,317 to 73,324 gestations), and these mates' GL were examined to determine effectiveness of service sire PTA GL. The model included fixed effects for herd-year and service sire group, plus covariates for conception dates to account for time opportunity among mates. Mean GL for mates by service sire group (from lowest to highest PTA GL) were 275.3, 276.5, 277.8, 278.6, 279.5, 280.6, and 281.7 d. Thus, service sire PTA GL was effective in identifying bulls that modified GL. Subsequent yield and fitness traits were also examined for the (independent) mates with the same service sire groups. Intermediate service sire PTA GL was optimal for yield traits and days open; performance for productive life and culling generally became less favorable as service sire PTA GL increased. A second examination was made by replacing service sire PTA GL groups in the model with phenotypic cow GL groups. Relationships between GL and subsequent performance for milk yield and fitness traits were examined using 9 phenotypic cow GL groups: ? 271, 272-273, …, 284-285, and ? 286 d. Performance generally improved for subsequent lactation yield as cow GL increased; however, intermediate GL was optimal for productive life, calving ease, stillbirth, culling, and days open. Results indicated that neither shortening nor increasing the mean for GL in the Holstein breed provided much overall benefit when all traits were considered. The same traits examined in the cows for the correlated effect from various GL were also examined in their offspring to determine whether the GL producing the calf had any influence on these same traits when the offspring reached their own productive period. Little carryover occurred from GL on the dam to the other traits observed on the offspring when examined a generation later. PMID:21257069

Norman, H D; Wright, J R; Miller, R H

2011-02-01

268

Subtractive phage display selection from canine visceral leishmaniasis identifies novel epitopes that mimic Leishmania infantum antigens with potential serodiagnosis applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonotic disease that is endemic to Brazil, where dogs are the main domestic parasite reservoirs, and the percentages of infected dogs living in regions where canine VL (CVL) is endemic have ranged from 10% to 62%. Despite technological advances, some problems have been reported with CVL serodiagnosis. The present study describes a sequential subtractive selection through phage display technology from polyclonal antibodies of negative and positive sera that resulted in the identification of potential bacteriophage-fused peptides that were highly sensitive and specific to antibodies of CVL. A negative selection was performed in which phage clones were adhered to purified IgGs from healthy and Trypanosoma cruzi-infected dogs to eliminate cross-reactive phages. The remaining supernatant nonadhered phages were submitted to positive selection against IgG from the blood serum of dogs that were infected with Leishmania infantum. Phage clones that adhered to purified IgGs from the CVL-infected serum samples were selected. Eighteen clones were identified and their reactivities tested by a phage enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (phage-ELISA) against the serum samples from infected dogs (n = 31) compared to those from vaccinated dogs (n = 21), experimentally infected dogs with cross-reactive parasites (n = 23), and healthy controls (n = 17). Eight clones presented sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 100%, and they showed no cross-reactivity with T. cruzi- or Ehrlichia canis-infected dogs or with dogs vaccinated with two different commercial CVL vaccines in Brazil. Our study identified eight mimotopes of L. infantum antigens with 100% accuracy for CVL serodiagnosis. The use of these mimotopes by phage-ELISA proved to be an excellent assay that was reproducible, simple, fast, and inexpensive, and it can be applied in CVL-monitoring programs. PMID:24256622

Costa, Lourena E; Lima, Mayara I S; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Martins, Vivian T; Duarte, Mariana C; Lage, Paula S; Lopes, Eliane G P; Lage, Daniela P; Ribeiro, Tatiana G; Andrade, Pedro H R; de Magalhães-Soares, Danielle F; Soto, Manuel; Tavares, Carlos A P; Goulart, Luiz R; Coelho, Eduardo A F

2014-01-01

269

In vitro screening of potential probiotic activities of selected lactobacilli isolated from unpasteurized milk products for incorporation into soft cheese.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim was to select potentially probiotic lactobacilli from 88 strains isolated from unpasteurized milk and cheese products, and to incorporate these bacteria in a viable state into a soft cheese, without changing its quality. The survival of these bacteria was assessed in acidic and bile conditions, after freezing at -80 degrees C. Four strains from unpasteurized Camembert--two Lactobacillus plantarum strains and two Lb. paracasei/casei strains--were identified and typed by PCR and PFGE and were found to display potentially probiotic characteristics in addition to resistance to low pH and bile. These characteristics were resistance to lysozyme, adhesion to CACO-2 cells, antimicrobial effects against common foodborne pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, innocuity following the ingestion of high doses by mice and appropriate antibiotic susceptibility profiles. The potential of Lb. plantarum strain UCMA 3037 for incorporation into a soft cheese (Pont-l'Eveque registered designation of origin (RDO)) was investigated. This strain grew well and survived in sufficient numbers (more than 10(7) cfu/g throughout the shelf-life of the product) in the cheese. This strain did not change the quality score of the product until the best before date (75 days after manufacture). Thus, unpasteurized Camembert is a natural source of potentially probiotic lactobacilli, which could be used as an additive in the development of potentially probiotic soft cheeses. Further work is required to demonstrate the persistence and efficacy of these strains in the human host upon ingestion. PMID:15605712

Coeuret, Valérie; Gueguen, Micheline; Vernoux, Jean Paul

2004-11-01

270

Development of live attenuated Streptococcus agalactiae as potential vaccines by selecting for resistance to sparfloxacin.  

Science.gov (United States)

To develop attenuated bacteria as potential live vaccines, sparfloxacin was used in this study to modify 40 isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae. Majority of S. agalactiae used in this study were able to develop at least 80-fold resistance to sparfloxacin. When the virulence of the sparfloxacin-resistant S. agalactiae isolates were tested in 10-12g Nile tilapia by intraperitoneal injection at dose of 2×10(7)CFU/fish, 31 were found to be avirulent to fish. Of the 31 avirulent sparfloxacin-resistant S. agalactiae isolates, 30 provided 75-100% protection to 10-12g Nile tilapia against challenges with a virulent S. agalactiae isolate Sag 50. When the virulence of the 30 sparfloxacin-resistant S. agalactiae isolates was tested in 3-5g Nile tilapia by intraperitoneal injection at dose of 2×10(7)CFU/fish, six were found to be avirulent to 3-5g Nile tilapia. Of the six avirulent sparfloxacin-resistant S. agalactiae isolates, four provided 3-5g Nile tilapia 100% protection against challenges with homologous isolates, including Sag 97-spar isolate that was non-hemolytic. However, Sag 97-spar failed to provide broad cross-protection against challenges with heterologous isolates. When Nile tilapia was vaccinated with a polyvalent vaccine consisting of 30 sparfloxacin-resistant S. agalactiae isolates at dose of 2×10(6)CFU/fish, the polyvalent vaccine provided significant (Ptilapia against challenges with 30 parent isolates of S. agalactiae. Taken together, our results suggest that a polyvalent vaccine consisting of various strains of S. agalactiae might be essential to provide broader protection to Nile tilapia against infections caused by S. agalactiae. PMID:23583891

Pridgeon, Julia W; Klesius, Phillip H

2013-05-31

271

The Potential Use of an Alternative Fluid for SFR Intermediate Loops: Selection and First Design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Among the Generation IV systems, Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR) are promising and benefit of considerable technological experience, but improvements are researched on safety approach and capital cost reduction. One of the main problems to be solved by the standard SFR design is the proper management of the risk of leakage between the intermediate circuit filled with sodium and the energy conversion system using a water Rankine cycle. This risk requires notably an early detection of water leakage to prevent a water-sodium reaction, and adequate draining and pressure resistant components to mitigate the reaction consequences. One can think also to suppress this risk by replacing the sodium in the secondary loops by an alternative fluid, less reactive with water. This alternative fluid might also allow innovative designs, e.g. Intermediate Heat eXchanger (IHX) and Steam Generator Unit (SGU) grouped in the same component. CEA, AREVA and EDF have formed a working group in order to evaluate different 'alternative fluids' that might replace sodium. A first selection retained seven fluids on the bases of 'required properties' as: large operating range (low melting point, high boiling point ...), fluid cost and availability, acceptable corrosion at SFR working temperature. These are three bismuth alloys, two nitrate salts, one molten hydroxide and sodium with nanoparticles. Then, it was decided to evaluate these fluids through a multi-criteria analysis in order to point out advanteria analysis in order to point out advantages and drawbacks of each fluid and to compare them with sodium. Lack of knowledge, impact on materials, design, working conditions and reactor availability should be emphasized by this analysis, in order to provide sound arguments for a research program on one or two most promising fluids. A global note is given to each fluid by evaluating them with respect to 'major criteria', weighted differently according to their importance. The major criteria were: thermal properties, reactivity with structures, reactivity with other fluids (air, water, sodium), chemistry control (including tritium management), safety and waste management, In Service Inspection and Repair (ISI and R), impact on components and circuits, availability and cost, level of use. The impact on reactor availability and manageability and the level of knowledge on each fluid were estimated through the former criteria and introduced in the final evaluation as main criteria. The aim of this paper is to present the method of evaluation, the results obtained and the choice that have been made. The impact on design and operation are enhanced for the most promising fluids. It was found that sodium remains the most interesting intermediate fluid regarding all the criteria, and despite its reaction with water. Lead Bismuth Eutectic presents some interests and should be further evaluated. It is however clear that this fluid raises a number of issues, such as corrosion of steel, which would request to lower operating temperature, or to find new materials and then lengthy R and D. (author)

272

Seleção de plantas com potencial para fitorremediação de tebuthiuron / Plant selection with potential for tebuthiuron phytodecontamination  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivo selecionar espécies tolerantes ao tebuthiuron, visando utilizá-las em programas de fitorremediação de solos contaminados com esse herbicida. Foram avaliadas: Amaranthus hybridus, Crotalaria juncea, Chamaesyce hyssopifolia, C. hirta, Canavalia ensiformes, Helianthus a [...] nnus, Pennisetum typhoides, Estizolobium aterrimum, Raphanus raphanistrum e Crotalaria incana. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, em vasos contendo 3 dm³ de solo de textura argilo-arenosa com 2,18 dag kg¹ de matéria orgânica. O experimento foi delineado em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições de tratamentos em fatorial 10 x 4 x 4, os quais foram constituídos por 10 espécies, quatro doses de tebuthiuron (0,0; 5,0; 1,0; e 2,0 kg ha-1), aplicadas em pré-emergência, e quatro épocas de avaliação (15, 30, 45 e 60 dias após a semeadura). Foram avaliadas a fitotoxicidade do herbicida, a altura de plantas e a massa de matéria seca da parte aérea, de raízes e do total da planta. Canavalia ensiformes e Pennisetum typhoides foram tolerantes ao tebuthiuron na dose de 0,5 kg ha-1. Estizolobium aterrimum tolerou tebuthiuron até a dose de 1,0 kg ha¹, apresentando fitotoxicidade menos acentuada e menor redução de altura de plantas e da massa de matéria seca da parte aérea, de raízes e do total da planta em relação ao tratamento testemunha. Abstract in english This study aimed to select tebuthiuron- tolerant plants to use them in phytoremediation programs in contaminated soils. The evaluated species were: Amaranthus hybridus, Crotalaria juncea, C. hyssopifolia, Chamaesyce hirta, Canavalia ensiformes, Helianthus annus, Pennisetum typhoides, Estizolobium at [...] errimum, Raphanus raphanistrum and Crotalaria incana. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, with a sandy-clay soil with 2.18 dag kg-1 of organic matter, in pots of 3 dm³ capacity. The experiment was arranged in a 10 x 4 x 4 factorial scheme in a randomized block design with three replications. The treatments consisted of: 10 species, four tebuthiuron doses (0.0; 0.5; 1.0 e 2.0 kg ha-1) applied in pre-emergence, and four evaluation times (15, 30, 45, and 60 days after sowing). Phytotoxicity, plant height and, above-ground, root and total biomass dry matter were evaluated. Canavalia ensiformes and Pennisetum typhoides were tolerant to tebuthiuron at the dose of 0.5 kg ha-1, and Estizolobium aterrimum up to the dose of 1.0 kg ha-1, with the latter showing less phytotoxicity symptoms and a smaller reduction of plant height, above-ground, root, and total biomass dry matter, as compared to the control treatment.

F.R., Pires; C.M., Souza; A.A., Silva; M.E.L.R., Queiroz; S.O., Procópio; J.B., Santos; E.A., Santos; P.R., Cecon.

2003-12-01

273

Sporadic, rainfall triggered landslides and debris flows in the monsoon, Nepal Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

Small river catchments play a major role in the overall denudation of the Himalayas, because they may generate extreme, geomorphic events. We characterize their potential impacts on the morphology and functioning of trunk rivers, and indirectly on infrastructure and settlements located along the valley floor. Our study case, the Ghatte Khola, is an intermittent tributary of the Kali Gandaki (Western Nepal) affected by occasional debris flow events. The cause of the debris flows is a persistent planar slide zone (dip slope) that is reactivated by pre- or monsoon heavy rainfall on the upper, forested catchment. As a result, the narrow valley of the upstream part of the tributary is temporary clogged by slide masses, until sudden, landslide outburst floods occur. Downstream, where the channel is entrenched across a 5-8 m thick debris fan, the functioning of successive debris flows cause bank erosion and stream channel widening. At the junction with the Kali Gandaki, the flows may aggrade debris volumes large enough to dam the Kali Gandaki for a few hours and cause the level of this major river to rise more than 5 m upstream. During the last 40 years, pulsed aggradations transferred erosion point to the opposite (left bank) side of the Kali Gandaki. This ephemeral, yet threatening behaviour of the stream, occurs every two or three years, according to field investigations (geomorphic mapping, sediment analysis) and interviews of villagers. We present various scenarios simulated using the SAGA-GIS cellular automata combined with a Digital Elevation Model. We discuss the available rainfall intensity-duration thresholds susceptible to trigger Himalayan landslides. Our study suggests that such high-magnitude/low-frequency events are very efficient to foster sediment fluxes and create temporary sediment storages in Himalayan valleys, a fact that is to be considered prior to any new settlement and road design in a country where infrastructures are rapidly developing.

Fort, Monique; Etienne, Cossart; Alexis, Conte; Natacha, Gribenski; Gilles, Arnaud-Fassetta

2010-05-01

274

Volatile organic compounds over Eastern Himalaya, India: temporal variation and source characterization using Positive Matrix Factorization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A first ever study on the characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs has been made over a Himalayan high altitude station in India. A total of 18 VOCs (mono aromatics-BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, non-BTEX substituted aromatics and halocarbon have been measured over Darjeeling (27.01° N, 88.15° E, 2200 m a.s.l. in the eastern Himalaya in India during the period of July 2011–June 2012. The annual average concentration of the sum of 18 target VOCs (TVOC was 376.3 ± 857.2 ?g m?3. Monoaromatics had the highest contribution (72% followed by other substituted aromatics (22% and halocarbon (6% compounds. Toluene was the most abundant VOC in the atmosphere of Darjeeling with the contribution of ~37% to TVOC followed by benzene (~21%, ethylbenzene (~9% and xylenes (~6%. TVOC concentrations were highest during the postmonsoon season with minimum solar radiation and lowest during the premonsoon season with maximum solar radiation. Anthropogenic activities related mainly to tourists like diesel and gasoline emissions, biomass and coal burning, use of solvent and solid waste emissions were almost equal in both the seasons. Seasonal variation in TVOCs over Darjeeling was mainly governed by the incoming solar radiation rather than the emission sources. Source apportionment study using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF model indicated that major fraction of (~60% TVOC were contributed by diesel and gasoline exhausts followed by solvent evaporation (18% and other sources. Diesel exhaust was also found to have the maximum potential in tropospheric ozone formation. The atmospheric loading of BTEX over Darjeeling was found to be comparable with several Indian metro cities and much higher than other cities around the world.

C. Sarkar

2014-12-01

275

Volatile organic compounds over Eastern Himalaya, India: temporal variation and source characterization using Positive Matrix Factorization  

Science.gov (United States)

A first ever study on the characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been made over a Himalayan high altitude station in India. A total of 18 VOCs (mono aromatics-BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene), non-BTEX substituted aromatics and halocarbon) have been measured over Darjeeling (27.01° N, 88.15° E, 2200 m a.s.l.) in the eastern Himalaya in India during the period of July 2011-June 2012. The annual average concentration of the sum of 18 target VOCs (TVOC) was 376.3 ± 857.2 ?g m-3. Monoaromatics had the highest contribution (72%) followed by other substituted aromatics (22%) and halocarbon (6%) compounds. Toluene was the most abundant VOC in the atmosphere of Darjeeling with the contribution of ~37% to TVOC followed by benzene (~21%), ethylbenzene (~9%) and xylenes (~6%). TVOC concentrations were highest during the postmonsoon season with minimum solar radiation and lowest during the premonsoon season with maximum solar radiation. Anthropogenic activities related mainly to tourists like diesel and gasoline emissions, biomass and coal burning, use of solvent and solid waste emissions were almost equal in both the seasons. Seasonal variation in TVOCs over Darjeeling was mainly governed by the incoming solar radiation rather than the emission sources. Source apportionment study using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model indicated that major fraction of (~60%) TVOC were contributed by diesel and gasoline exhausts followed by solvent evaporation (18%) and other sources. Diesel exhaust was also found to have the maximum potential in tropospheric ozone formation. The atmospheric loading of BTEX over Darjeeling was found to be comparable with several Indian metro cities and much higher than other cities around the world.

Sarkar, C.; Chatterjee, A.; Majumdar, D.; Ghosh, S. K.; Srivastava, A.; Raha, S.

2014-12-01

276

Toxicity, sublethal effects, and potential modes of action of select fungicides on freshwater fish and invertebrates  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite decades of agricultural and urban use of fungicides and widespread detection of these pesticides in surface waters, relatively few data are available on the effects of fungicides on fish and invertebrates in the aquatic environment. Nine fungicides are reviewed in this report: azoxystrobin, boscalid, chlorothalonil, fludioxonil, myclobutanil, fenarimol, pyraclostrobin, pyrimethanil, and zoxamide. These fungicides were identified as emerging chemicals of concern because of their high or increasing global use rates, detection frequency in surface waters, or likely persistence in the environment. A review of the literature revealed significant sublethal effects of fungicides on fish, aquatic invertebrates, and ecosystems, including zooplankton and fish reproduction, fish immune function, zooplankton community composition, metabolic enzymes, and ecosystem processes, such as leaf decomposition in streams, among other biological effects. Some of these effects can occur at fungicide concentrations well below single-species acute lethality values (48- or 96-hour concentration that effects a response in 50 percent of the organisms, that is, effective concentration killing 50 percent of the organisms in 48 or 96 hours) and chronic sublethal values (for example, 21-day no observed adverse effects concentration), indicating that single-species toxicity values may dramatically underestimate the toxic potency of some fungicides. Fungicide modes of toxic action in fungi can sometimes reflect the biochemical and (or) physiological effects of fungicides observed in vertebrates and invertebrates; however, far more studies are needed to explore the potential to predict effects in nontarget organisms based on specific fungicide modes of toxic action. Fungicides can also have additive and (or) synergistic effects when used with other fungicides and insecticides, highlighting the need to study pesticide mixtures that occur in surface waters. For fungicides that partition to organic matter in sediment and soils, it is particularly important to determine their effects on freshwater mussels and other freshwater benthic invertebrates in contact with sediments, as available toxicity studies with pelagic species, mainly Daphnia magna, may not be representative of these benthic organisms. Finally, there is a critical need for studies of the chronic effects of fungicides on reproduction, immunocompetence, and ecosystem function; sublethal endpoints with population and community-level relevance.

Elskus, Adria A.

2012-01-01

277

Selecting the optimal method to calculate daily global reference potential evaporation from CFSR reanalysis data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Potential evaporation (PET is one of the main inputs of hydrological models. Yet, there is limited consensus on which PET equation is most applicable in hydrological climate impact assessments. In this study six different methods to derive global scale reference PET time series from CFSR reanalysis data are compared: Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor and original and modified versions of the Hargreaves and Blaney-Criddle method. The calculated PET time series are (1 evaluated against global monthly Penman-Monteith PET time series calculated from CRU data and (2 tested on their usability for modeling of global discharge cycles.

The lowest root mean squared differences and the least significant deviations (95 % significance level between monthly CFSR derived PET time series and CRU derived PET were obtained for the cell specific modified Blaney-Criddle equation. However, results show that this modified form is likely to be unstable under changing climate conditions and less reliable for the calculation of daily time series. Although often recommended, the Penman-Monteith equation did not outperform the other methods. In arid regions (e.g., Sahara, central Australia, US deserts, the equation resulted in relatively low PET values and, consequently, led to relatively high discharge values for dry basins (e.g., Orange, Murray and Zambezi. Furthermore, the Penman-Monteith equation has a high data demand and the equation is sensitive to input data inaccuracy. Therefore, we preferred the modified form of the Hargreaves equation, which globally gave reference PET values comparable to CRU derived values. Although it is a relative efficient empirical equation, like Blaney-Criddle, the equation considers multiple spatial varying meteorological variables and consequently performs well for different climate conditions. In the modified form of the Hargreaves equation the multiplication factor is uniformly increased from 0.0023 to 0.0031 to overcome the global underestimation of CRU derived PET obtained with the original equation. It should be noted that the bias in PET is not linearly transferred to actual evapotranspiration and runoff, due to limited soil moisture availability and precipitation.

The resulting gridded daily PET time series provide a new reference dataset that can be used for future hydrological impact assessments or, more specifically, for the statistical downscaling of daily PET derived from raw GCM data.

F. C. Sperna Weiland

2011-07-01

278

Assessment of the antioxidant potential of selected plant extracts--in vitro and in vivo experiments on pork.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antioxidant potential of selected plant extracts was assessed in vitro and in vivo experiments on pork. In the in vitro experiment, the anti-oxidative capacity of ethanol-water extract of Melissa officinalis (MW), ethanol-propylene-glycol extracts of M. officinalis (MP), Origanum vulgaris (O) and Salvia officinalis (S) at different dilutions was analysed. Furthermore a 2% essential oil concentrate was added to Origanum (OSi) and Salvia (SSi). In the two in vivo experiments in total 104 Slovak White Meaty pigs were fed with plant extracts (MW and O) at different doses with/without additional vitamin E. In the in vitro experiment Melissa (MW) showed a higher antioxidant potential compared to Origanum and Salvia assessed by TEAC assay. Addition of essential oil to Origanum improved substantially the anti-oxidative capacity. In the in vivo experiment the highest muscle anti-oxidative effect was obtained by feeding 60 ml Origanum. Small improvement in muscle antioxidant potential was observed by feeding Melissa or Origanum in combination with vitamin E. By feeding 10 ml Melissa, Origanum or Salvia the meat quality parameters such as pH(1) and pH(24), drip loss and shear force was not affected. After 5 days storage of meat the redness value was positively affected. PMID:20488625

Lahucky, Rudolf; Nuernberg, Karin; Kovac, Lubomir; Bucko, Ondrej; Nuernberg, Gerd

2010-08-01

279

Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors potentiate gene blunting induced by repeated methylphenidate treatment: Zif268 versus Homer1a.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a growing use of psychostimulants, such as methylphenidate (Ritalin; dopamine re-uptake inhibitor), for medical treatments and as cognitive enhancers in the healthy. Methylphenidate is known to produce some addiction-related gene regulation. Recent findings in animal models show that selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs), including fluoxetine, can potentiate acute induction of gene expression by methylphenidate, thus indicating an acute facilitatory role for serotonin in dopamine-induced gene regulation. We investigated whether repeated exposure to fluoxetine, in conjunction with methylphenidate, in adolescent rats facilitated a gene regulation effect well established for repeated exposure to illicit psychostimulants such as cocaine-blunting (repression) of gene inducibility. We measured, by in situ hybridization histochemistry, the effects of a 5-day repeated treatment with methylphenidate (5?mg/kg), fluoxetine (5?mg/kg) or a combination on the inducibility (by cocaine) of neuroplasticity-related genes (Zif268, Homer1a) in the striatum. Repeated methylphenidate treatment alone produced minimal gene blunting, while fluoxetine alone had no effect. In contrast, fluoxetine added to methylphenidate robustly potentiated methylphenidate-induced blunting for both genes. This potentiation was widespread throughout the striatum, but was most robust in the lateral, sensorimotor striatum, thus mimicking cocaine effects. For illicit psychostimulants, blunting of gene expression is considered part of the molecular basis of addiction. Our results thus suggest that SSRIs, such as fluoxetine, may increase the addiction liability of methylphenidate. PMID:23763573

Van Waes, Vincent; Vandrevala, Malcolm; Beverley, Joel; Steiner, Heinz

2014-11-01

280

Distribution of the Late-Quaternary deformation in Northwestern Himalaya  

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Three main Cenozoic thrusts at the front of Northwestern Himalaya have accommodated most of the India-Eurasia convergence across the belt over the last million years and produced the present relief. Their recent tectonic activity is poorly known because of the long period of inaccessibility of the Jammu and Kashmir state, and because the latest and only large earthquake recorded in the region occurred in 1555 AD. We show where the deformation is localized during the Late-Quaternary, and determine shortening rates across the structures by analyzing the geometry and chronology of geomorphic markers. The Main Boundary Thrust in this region ceased moving at least ?30 ka ago. On the contrary, the more external Medlicott-Wadia Thrust and Main Frontal Thrust, both merging at depth on the sub-flat detachment of the Main Himalayan Thrust, exhibit hectometric-scale deformations accumulated during the last thousands of years. The total shortening rate absorbed by these faults over the last 14-24 ka is between 13.2 and 27.2 mm/yr (11.2 ± 3.8 and 9.0 ± 3.2 mm /yr, respectively). Part of this deformation may be associated to the geometry of the Chenab reentrant, which could generate an extra oblique component. However, the lower bound of our shortening rates is consistent with previously determined geodetic rates. Active deformation on these structures follows an in-sequence/out-of-sequence pattern, with breaking of both ramps being possible for earthquakes triggered on the main detachment.

Vassallo, R.; Mugnier, J.-L.; Vignon, V.; Malik, M. A.; Jayangondaperumal, R.; Srivastava, P.; Jouanne, F.; Carcaillet, J.

2015-02-01

 
 
 
 
281

Global Warming, Climate Change and Glacier Retreat of Nepal Himalayas  

Science.gov (United States)

Global average air temperature near the earth surface rose 0.74¡¾0.18¨¬C during the twentieth century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concludes that observed increased globally averaged temperatures since mid-twentieth century is very likely due to the observed increment in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations, which leads to warming of the surface and lower atmosphere by increasing the greenhouse effect. Climate models referred by IPCC project that global surface temperature are likely to be increase by 1.1 to 6.4¨¬C between 1990 and 2100. An increase in global temperature is expected to cause other changes including glacier retreat, sea level rise, increase intensity of extreme weather events and change in the pattern of precipitation, etc. The Nepal Himalaya revealed 3,252 glaciers and 2,323 lakes, which are 3,500 m above the sea level. They cover an area of 5,323 km2 with an estimated ice reserve of 481 km3. The average temperature in Nepal is rising by 0.5¨¬C per decade, and because of this reason, big glacial lakes in the country are at high risk of flooding from glacial lake bursts, which would have an adverse effect, such as huge loss of life and property. Nepal is facing a disturbance in mountain climate, flash floods, cloudbursts, erratic weather patterns and so on. The death of number of people due to floods and landslides is increasing annually. It is reported that more than 164 people already died because of floods and landslides during the current year, 2007 rainy season. Nepal does emit negligible greenhouse gases compare to developed and industrialized countries, however, country and people are facing the consequences of actions of other developed and industrialized countries. Study shows the¡¡disasters in current years and possible hazards in future due to the probable causes of global warming and recommends some suggestions for controlling of green house gases emission.

Shrestha, S.; Hisaki, Y.

2007-12-01

282

Two new species of the genus Pseudostenophylax Martynov (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae) from the Indian Himalaya.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two new species of the genus Pseudostenophylax Martynov 1909 from the Indian Himalaya are described and illustrated. These include P. himachalica sp. n. from Sathrundi (Himachal Pradesh) and P. gulmargensis sp. n. from Gulmarg (Jammu & Kashmir), both belonging to the P. aniketos Group. With these two additions, Pseudostenophylax is now represented in India by 25 species. PMID:24758810

Parey, Sajad H; Saina, Malkiat S; Pandher, Manpreet S

2013-01-01

283

Oblique convergence and slip partitioning in the NW Himalaya: Implications from GPS measurements  

Science.gov (United States)

report GPS measurements of crustal deformation across the Kashmir Himalaya. We combined these results with the published results of GPS measurements from the Karakoram fault system and suggest that in the Kashmir Himalaya, the motion between the southern Tibet and India plate is oblique with respect to the structural trend. We estimated this almost north-south oblique motion to be 17 ± 2 mm/yr, which is partitioned between dextral motion of 5 ± 2 mm/yr on the Karakoram fault system and oblique motion of 13.6 ± 1 mm/yr with an azimuth of N198°E in the northwest-southeast trending Kashmir Himalayan frontal arc. Thus, the partitioning of the India-Southern Tibet oblique motion is partial in the Kashmir Himalayan frontal arc. However, in the neighboring Nepal Himalaya, there is no partitioning; the entire India-Southern Tibet motion of 19-20 mm/yr is arc normal and is accommodated entirely in the Himalayan frontal arc. The convergence rate in the Kashmir frontal Himalaya is about 25% less than that in the Nepal Himalayan region. However, here the Karakoram fault system accommodates about 20% of the southern Tibet and Indian plate convergence and marks the northern extent of the NW Himalayan arc sliver. The Kaurik Chango rift, a north-south oriented seismically active cross-wedge transtensional fault appears to divide the sliver in two parts causing varying translatory motion on the Karakoram fault on either side of the Kaurik Chango rift.

Kundu, Bhaskar; Yadav, Rajeev Kumar; Bali, Bikram Singh; Chowdhury, Sonalika; Gahalaut, V. K.

2014-10-01

284

Uranium estimation in plants of the Siwalik Himalayas, Himachal Pradesh, India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fission track technique has been used to estimate uranium content in plants, water and rock samples collected from Siwalik Himalayas of Himachal Pradesh. The present study aims to propose a correlation hypothesis for uranium exploration based on uranium content anomalies. (author)

285

Extreme rainfalls in Eastern Himalaya and southern slope of Meghalaya Plateau and their geomorphologic impacts  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the detailed rainfall characteristics of 3 key areas located in the eastern monsoon India: the margin of Darjeeling Himalaya, the margin of Bhutanese Himalaya and the Cherrapunji region at the southern slope of Meghalaya Upland. All these areas are sensitive to changes but differ in annual rainfall totals (2000-4000 mm, 4000-6000 m and 6000-23,000 mm respectively) and in the frequency of extreme rainfalls. Therefore the response of geomorphic processes is different, also due to various human impact. In the Darjeeling Himalaya the thresholds may be passed 2-3 times in one century and the system may return to the former equilibrium. At the margin of western Bhutanese Himalaya in 1990s, the clustering of three events caused an acceleration in the transformation and formation of a new trend of evolution, especially in the piedmont zone. In the Cherrapunji of Meghalaya region in the natural conditions the effects of dozens of extreme rainfalls every year were checked by the dense vegetation cover. After deforestation and extensive land use the fertile soil was removed and either the exposed bedrock or armoured debris top layer protect the surface against degradation and facilitate only rapid overland flow. A new "sterile" system has been formed.

Soja, Roman; Starkel, Leszek

2007-02-01

286

Petrography, geochemistry and regional significance of crystalline klippen in the Garhwal Lesser Himalaya, India  

Science.gov (United States)

Uphalda gneisses (UG) is a crystalline klippe located near Srinagar in Garhwal Himalaya. These gneisses are compared with Debguru porphyroids (DP) (?Ramgarh group) of Garhwal-Kumaun Himalaya and Baragaon mylonitic gneisses (BMG) of Himachal Himalaya. Petrographic study reveals that the deformation of UG was initiated at higher temperature (above 350°C) and continued till lowering of temperature and deformation led to the mylonitization. Geochemically, these granitic gneisses (UG, DP and BMG) exhibit similar composition. Features such as high molecular A/CNK value (>1), presence of normative corundum and absence of normative diopside, enhanced Rb/Sr, Rb/Zr ratios, enrichment of Th and containing rounded zircons support their crustally-derived S-type granitic nature. The linear plot in major oxides is interpreted in terms of fractional crystallization processes. Mantle normalized multi-element spider diagram of UG illustrates depletion of Ba, Nb, Sr, P and Ti and enrichment of Th and show similarities with DP and BMG. Similarities were observed in lithology, petrographic characters and chemical composition of UG, DP, BMG and Ulleri augen gneisses (Nepal). Comparison with the rocks of Higher Himalayan crystallines (?Vaikrita), suggests that these rocks (UG) are not transported from Higher Himalaya as understood earlier. This study however proposes that, these gneissic bodies represent an older basement occurring as a tectonic sliver which emplaced within the cover sequence as wedges at different structural levels. This is a regional phenomena observed throughout the Lesser Himalayan region.

Islam, R.; Ghosh, S. K.; Vyshnavi, S.; Sundriyal, Y. P.

2011-06-01

287

Crustal structure of the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya and southern Tibet  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of data from nine, temporary broadband seismic stations operated across West Bengal and Sikkim, along with publicly available data from seismographs in the surrounding region, provides the first image of the descending Indian Plate beneath the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya. The down-going Indian crust is imaged by receiver function common conversion point stacking using data from 32 sites in combination with more detailed analyses from simultaneous modelling of receiver function data and Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion at 13 stations. Compared to locations farther south on the Indian Shield our southernmost station shows evidence for thickened crust beneath the Mahanadi Rift basin with a possible mafic basal layer. North of the Mahanadi Rift the Indian Moho is ˜38 km deep below the Archean terranes of the northeast part of the Indian Shield. The Moho then dips gently northward beneath the Himalayan foreland basin reaching a depth of 44-48 km below the Himalayan foothills. Below Sikkim the Moho continues to deepen but there are indications of secondary structures in the receiver function image and modelling results suggesting some imbrication of the crust as it flexes downward. The crust thickens further beneath the Greater Himalaya and southern Tibet reaching depths of ˜65-70 km below the Southern Tibet Detachment (STD). Below the Lhasa Terrane north of the STD a double discontinuity exists with interfaces at 55-60 km and ˜80 km depth. There is a significant reduction in the average shear wave velocity of the crystalline crust between sites to the south of and on the Himalayan foreland basin and sites in the Himalaya and to the north. Below the Himalaya and southern Tibet the P-to-S conversion (Ps) has a lower amplitude compared to that observed at sites on the undeformed Indian Shield. This decrease in amplitude of the Moho Ps phase could arise from a lower impedance contrast across the crust-mantle boundary or from scattering due to deformation of the crust and Moho. A coherent negative arrival beneath the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya indicate the presence of a low velocity zone (LVZ), possibly associated with the Main Himalayan Thrust. This LVZ can be traced beneath the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya but disappears beneath the Greater Himalaya.

Acton, C. E.; Priestley, K.; Mitra, S.; Gaur, V. K.

2011-02-01

288

Toxicological properties of several medicinal plants from the Himalayas (India) against vectors of malaria, filariasis and dengue.  

Science.gov (United States)

The leaves of five plants namely Nyctanthes arbortistis (Oleaceae), Catharanthus roseus (Apocynaceae), Boenininghusenia albiflora (Rutaceae), Valeriana hardwickii (Valerianaceae) and Eupatorium odoratum (Asteraceae) were selected for the first time from the Garhwal region of north west Himalaya to investigation its toxicological properties against mosquito vectors of malaria, filariasis and dengue. In a laboratory study, using different polarity solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol) were tested against important larvae of malaria, filariasis and dengue vectors in India. It was observed that petroleum ether fraction of all selected plant possess good larvicidal properties than other solvent fraction. The LC(50) values of isolates from Nyctanthes arbortistis (HAR-1), C. roseus (CAT-1), B. albiflora (BOA-1), V. hardwickii (SUG-1) and E. odoratum (EUP-1) against Anopheles stephensi were 185 ppm, 150 ppm, 105 ppm, 225 ppm and 135 ppm, respectively. The results therefore suggest that the fraction code BOA-1 has excellent larvicidal properties and could be incorporated as botanical insecticides against mosquito vectors with high safety to nontarget organisms. The same fraction was tested against adult vectors of malaria, filariasis and dengue, but no mortality was observed. PMID:22041755

Alam, M F; Safhi, Mohammed M; Chopra, A K; Dua, V K

2011-08-01

289

Brittle-fault deformation history in the NW Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh, India)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Himalayan mountain belt and the Tibetan Plateau are the manifestations of intense crustal shortening and uplift along the southern margin of Eurasia associated with the India-Eurasia collision. While crustal shortening has been focused at lower elevations until the present day along the southern boundary of the Lesser Himalaya and the Siwalik ranges, several generations of both, orogen-parallel and orogen-perpendicular extensional structures have developed. These structures characterize the higher-elevation regions within the Higher and Tethyan Himalaya, suggesting syntectonic extension. In the NW Himalaya (India), extending from the deeply cut gorges of the Sutlej and Spiti rivers to the Garhwal Himalaya, closely spaced young normal faults, focal mechanisms of earthquakes with magnitudes between 5.2 and 6.8, and regional GPS measurements reveal ongoing E-W extension. Surprisingly, and in contrast to other extensional features observed in the Himalaya, this direction is neither parallel nor perpendicular to the NE-SW regional shortening direction. Here, we present new data obtained from structural geological mapping, fault kinematic analysis of hundreds of brittle faults, and remote sensing spanning the area between the Tso Morari Lake in the Tibetan Himalaya in the north and the mountain front in the Garhwal Himalaya in the south (30°-33°N/77°-79°E). In addition, we integrated published data on extensional phenomena in this region of the Himalaya. In the Garhwal Himalaya and the Sutlej-Spiti region, we collected and analyzed outcrop-scale brittle fault-planes with displacements of up to several cm. To analyze fault kinematic data (strike and dip of the fault, slip direction and sense of slip) for these micro-faults, we calculated strain axes for approx. 100 outcrop locations using the TectonicsFP program. This data set, as well as field observations on crosscutting relationships, mineralization of fault planes, and correlations with deformation structures in lake sediments, allows us to identify and temporally separate different phases of deformation. Taken together, this new data allows us to provide a detailed account of the brittle deformation and its temporal evolution. In the southern and western part of our study area, brittle faulting records mainly shortening perpendicular to the strike of the orogen, partly overprinted by normal faulting related to extension, both parallel and perpendicular to shortening. During this stage extensional deformation was associated with strike-slip faulting, mostly observed along reactivated fault planes. In the northeastern part of our study area, we were able to detect at least three extension directions: (1) NW-SE extension is the dominant brittle deformation observed in the Spiti Valley; (2) NE-SW extension associated with the Southern Tibetan Detachment is documented as well in brittle faults. In the vicinity of the Leo Pargil gneiss dome, however, the observed extension is predominantly normal to the NNE-SSW striking long axis of the exhuming dome. (3) Based on cross-cutting relationships, E-W extension is the most recent deformation phase identified throughout the entire study area. The young normal faults overprint all previously formed deformation features. Interestingly, our structural data set of brittle faults suggests, however that ongoing extension is affecting a much larger region towards the south and west than the distribution of seismicity would suggest. In conclusion, the strain patterns derived from our collected brittle deformation features at a variety of length scales reflect the large regional deformation pattern very well, but also emphasize the relevance of syntectonic extension in a region still dominated by overall shortening, which highlights the role of extensional processes in the Himalaya.

Hintersberger, E.; Decker, K.; Thiede, R.; Strecker, M.

2009-04-01

290

Selection of Potential Antagonistic Bacillus and Trichoderma Isolates from Tomato Rhizospheric Soil Against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycoperscisi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to obtain a potential indigenous biocontrol agent against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici on tomato from different agroclimatic zones in India. Wide collection of Trichoderma and Bacillus was conducted from tomato rhizospheric soil in IIVR farm (Varanasi, IIHR farm (Bangalore, IARI farm (Rajendra Nagar and farm of APHU (T.P. Gudem by using Trichoderma Specific Media (TSM and Nutrient Agar (NA. As a result, total 65 strains were cultured and maintained in which 28 were Bacillus and 37 were Trichoderma, respectively. On the basis of in vitro bioassays viz., dual culture and poisoned food technique it was concluded that 3 most prominent Trichoderma isolates viz., DPNST-4, -8 and -29 and four most prominent of DPNSB-2, -11, -18 and -28 from Bacillus were selected.

N. Thajuddin

2011-01-01

291

Distribution and Potential Mobility of Selected Heavy Metals in a Fluvial Environment Under the Influence of Tanneries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study we evaluated the occurrence of heavy metals in a fluvial environment under the influence of tanneries – the Cadeia and Feitoria rivers basin (RS, south Brazil, highlighting the distribution and potential mobility of the selected elements. Every three months, over one year-period, selected heavy metals and ancillary parameters were analyzed in water and sediment samples taken at ten sites along the rivers. Water analyses followed APHA recommendations, and sediment analyses were based on methods from USEPA (SW846 and European Community (BCR sequential extraction. The determinations were performed by ICP/OES, except for Hg (CV/ETA. Statistical factor analysis was applied to water and sediment data sets, in order to obtain a synthesis of the environmental diagnosis. The results revealed that water quality decreased along the rivers, and mainly on the dry period (January, showing the influence of tannery plants vicinity and flow variations. Except for Fe, Al, and eventually Mn, heavy metal contents in water were in agreement with Brazilian standards. Concerning sediments, Al, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn, Ti, and Zn concentrations appeared to reflect the base levels, while Cr and Hg were enriched in the deposits from the lower part of the basin. The partition of heavy metals among the sediment geochemical phases showed higher mobility of Mn along the sampling sites, followed by Cr in the lower reach of the basin, most affected by tanneries. Since Cr was predominantly associated to the oxidizable fraction, its potential mobilization from contaminated sediments would be associated to redox conditions. The detection of Hg in the tissue of a bottom-fish species indicated that the environmental conditions are apparently favoring the remobilization of this metal from contaminated sediments.

Rodrigues M. L. K.

2013-04-01

292

Electrical resistivity cross-section across the Garhwal Himalaya: Proxy to fluid-seismicity linkage  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnetotelluric (MT) measurements along a profile cutting across the Garhwal Himalaya of India are inverted to obtain 2-D electrical resistivity structures of the Himalayan wedge and of the underthrusting Indian plate. The imaged resistivity cross-section is dominated by a low-angle north-east dipping intra-crustal high conducting layer (IC-HCL) with an average thickness of 5 km. At transition from the Lesser Himalaya to the Higher Himalaya, the IC-HCL is marked by a ramp structure across which its top jumps from a depth of 8 km to 13 km. High conductivity of the layer is caused by pounding of upward propagating metamorphic fluids trapped by tectonically induced neutral buoyancy. In compression regime of the Himalaya, the mechanical weakening effects of the fluids counteract the fault-normal stresses, thereby facilitating thrust-type earthquakes on a plane imaged as the top of the IC-HCL. It is suggested that in the Himalaya collision belt, like the active subduction zone, the active seismic plane forming seat of large and great earthquakes is located a few kilometers above the top of the down-going plate. In this tectonic setting, the high conductance ramp symbolizes a block of low shear strength and high strain, which under the deviatoric stresses release accentuated stresses into the brittle crust, thereby generating small but more frequent earthquakes in the narrow Himalayan Seismic Belt. In response to either the co-seismic pumping or the stress transfer during inter-seismic period, the upward infiltration of fluid fluxes into the over pressurized zones sufficiently reduces the shear strength of local thrusts and shear zones, turning these into locales of concentrated seismicity.

Rawat, Gautam; Arora, B. R.; Gupta, P. K.

2014-12-01

293

Potential social, institutional, and environmental impacts of selected energy-conservation measures in two Washington communities. [Seattle and Yakima  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The likely environmental, social, and institutional impacts of selected energy-conservation measures in two communities in Washington state are reported. The five conservation measures investigated in this study were: (1) retrofitting existing buildings; (2) district heating and Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES); (3) small automobiles and vehicle redesign; (4) land-use and housing modifications; and (5) electric-utility rate reform. Twenty potential impact areas were selected for analysis. These areas were divided into five categories of environmental impacts, economic impacts, community impacts, personal impacts, and overall quality of life in the community. The research was conducted in Seattle and Yakima, Washington. In each location, about two dozen public officials and business, labor, and community leaders were interviewed. Their diverse views are summarized. The Seattle respondents saw energy conservation as a highly desirable policy with a number of temporary, transitional problems arising as energy-conservation measures were implemented. Yakima respondents, in contrast, did not expect to encounter many serious energy problems in the foreseeable future and consequently viewed energy conservation as a relatively minor community concern. Moreover, they anticipated that many conservation measures, if implemented by the government, would encounter either apathy or resistance in their community. Two broad generalizations can bedrawn from these interviews: (1) energy conservation will basically be beneficial for the natural environment and our society; and (2) if energy conservation does become a dominant thrust in our society, it could stimulate and reinforce a much broader process of fundamental social change. (LCL)

Edelson, E.; Olsen, M.

1980-03-01

294

Glass and Glass-Ceramic Materials from Simulated Composition of Lunar and Martian Soils: Selected Properties and Potential Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

In-situ resource processing and utilization on planetary bodies is an important and integral part of NASA's space exploration program. Within this scope and context, our general effort is primarily aimed at developing glass and glass-ceramic type materials using lunar and martian soils, and exploring various applications of these materials for planetary surface operations. Our preliminary work to date have demonstrated that glasses can be successfully prepared from melts of the simulated composition of both lunar and martian soils, and the melts have a viscosity-temperature window appropriate for drawing continuous glass fibers. The glasses are shown to have the potential for immobilizing certain types of nuclear wastes without deteriorating their chemical durability and thermal stability. This has a direct impact on successfully and economically disposing nuclear waste generated from a nuclear power plant on a planetary surface. In addition, these materials display characteristics that can be manipulated using appropriate processing protocols to develop glassy or glass-ceramic magnets. Also discussed in this presentation are other potential applications along with a few selected thermal, chemical, and structural properties as evaluated up to this time for these materials.

Ray, C. S.; Sen, S.; Reis, S. T.; Kim, C. W.

2005-01-01

295

The structural geometry, metamorphic and magmatic evolution of the Everest massif, High Himalaya of Nepal-South Tibet  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a new geological map together with cross-sections and lateral sections of the Everest massif. We combine field relations, structural geology, petrology, thermobarometry and geochronology to interpret the tectonic evolution of the Everest Himalaya. Lithospheric convergence of India and Asia since collision at c. 50 Ma. resulted in horizontal shortening, crustal thickening and regional metamorphism in the Himalaya and beneath southern Tibet. High temperatures (>620 °C) duri...

Searle, Mp; Simpson, Rl; Law, Rd; Parrish, Rr; Waters, Dj

2003-01-01

296

Treeline dynamics with climate change at the central Nepal Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

Treeline shifting in tandem with climate change has widely been reported from various parts of the world. In Nepal, several impacts of climate change on the physical environment have been observed, but study on the biological impacts is lacking. This dendrochronological study was carried out at the treeline in the high mountain slope of Kalchuman Lake (3750-4003 m a.s.l.) area of Manaslu Conservation Area in the central Nepal Himalaya to explore the impact of climate change on the treeline dynamic. Two belt transect plots (size: 20 m wide, > 250 m long) were laid which included treeline as well as tree species limit. Ecological mapping of all individuals of dominant trees Abies spectabilis and Betula utilis was done and their tree cores were collected. Stand character and age distribution revealed an occurrence of more matured B. utilis (max. age 198 years) compared to A. spectabilis (max. age 160 years). A. spectabilis contained an overwhelmingly high population (89%) of younger plants (< 50 years) indicating its high recruitment rate. Population age structure along the elevation gradient revealed an upward shifting of A. spectabilis at the rate of 2.61 m year-1 since AD 1850. The upper distribution limit of B. utilis was found to be stagnant in the past few decades. An increment in plant density as well as upward shifting in the studied treeline ecotones was observed. The temporal growth of A. spectabilis was correlated negatively with the monthly mean and minimum temperature of June to September of the current and previous year. The regeneration of A. spectabilis, on the other hand, was positively correlated with August precipitation and monthly maximum temperature of the month of the current year. The growth and regeneration of A. spectabilis was more sensitive to maximum and minimum temperature rather than average temperature. The growth of the B. utilis was mainly limited by moisture stress during the pre-monsoon season. As these two species presented species-specific responses to climate change with differential pattern in regeneration condition, much wider differences are anticipated in their population status as climate continues to change throughout the century.

Gaire, N. P.; Koirala, M.; Bhuju, D. R.; Borgaonkar, H. P.

2014-07-01

297

Minor soil erosion contribution to denudation in Central Nepal Himalaya.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to decipher river sediments provenance in terms of erosion processes, we characterized geochemical compositions of hillslope material coming from soils, glaciers and landslide, and compared them to rivers sediments. We focused our study on two South flank Himalayan catchments: (1) Khudi khola, as an example of small High Himalayan catchment (150 km2), undergoing severe precipitation, and rapid erosion ? 3.5 mm/yr [A] and (2) the Narayani-Gandak Transhimalayan basin (52000 km2) that drains the whole central Nepal. To assess the question, systematic samplings were conducted on hillslope material from different erosion processes in the basins. River sediment include daily sampling during the 2010 monsoon at two stations, and banks samples in different parts of the basins. Source rocks, soil and landslide samples, are compared to river sediment mobile to immobile element ratios, completed by hydration degree H2O+ analysis[2]. Data show that soils are clearly depleted in mobile elements Na, K, Ca, and highly hydrated compared to source rocks and other erosion products. In the Khudi basin, the contrast between soil and river sediment signatures allow to estimate that soil erosion represents less than 5% of the total sediment exported by the river. Most of the river sediment therefore derives from landslides inputs and to a lesser extent by barren high elevation sub-basins. This is further consistent with direct observation that, during monsoon, significant tributaries of the Khudi river do not export sediments. Considering that active landslide zones represent less than 0.5% of the total watershed area, it implies that erosion distribution is highly heterogeneous. Landslide erosion rate could reach more than 50 cm/yr in the landslide area. Sediments of the Narayani river are not significantly different from those of the Khudi in spite of more diverse geomorphology and larger area of the basin. Only H2O+ and Total Organic Carbon concentrations normalised to Al/Si ratios show distinctly higher values. This suggests that contribution of soil erosion is higher than in the Khudi basin. Nevertheless, soil erosion remains a minor source of sediments implying that more physical processes such as landslide and glaciers dominate the erosional flux. In spite of high deforestation and agricultural land-use [B], soil erosion does not represent an important source of sediments in Nepal Himalaya. [A] Gabet et al. (2008) Earth and Planetary Science Letters 267, 482-494. [B] Gardner et al. (2003) Applied Geography 23, 23-45.

Morin, Guillaume; France-Lanord, Christian; Gallo, Florian; Lupker, Maarten; Lavé, Jérôme; Gajurel, Ananta

2013-04-01

298

Assessment of radon variability in the borehole in Garhwal Himalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a part of multi-parametric earthquake precursory studies at Ghuttu, Central Himalaya, radon concentration is being measured at two depths in a 68 m borehole. One measurement is taken at a depth of 10 m from surface in the air column above the water table and the second one at 50 m within the water column. Besides radon concentration, air temperature, water temperature, atmospheric pressure, rainfall and water level fluctuations are also recorded with sampling interval of 15 minute. The continuous time series of radon variations at 10 m depth along with other environmental parameters over 3 years (2007-2009) recording shows strong variability including well-defined seasonal, day-to-day and diurnal variations The strong seasonal variations with summer maximum and winter minimum closely follow the similar variations in atmospheric temperature with time lag of few days. The control of temperature gradient in borehole on the emission of radon is evident in the form of different patterns of daily variations. Four types of daily variations are observed (i) positive peaks in late afternoon, (ii) negative peaks in early morning hours (iii) sinusoidal with double peaks and iv) long intervals when daily variations are conspicuously absent, particularly in winter and rainy season. Examination and correlation with environmental factors has revealed that when atmospheric temperature is well below the water temperature in borehole, the later show constant value around 19? in all seasons. In this situation, temperature gradients are not conducive to set up the convection currents for the emanation of radon to surface. Thus, explaining the absence of daily variation in radon concentration in winter. During the rainy season, following continuous rainfalls, once the soil/rocks are saturated with water radon concentrations show fair stability. Long pauses in rainfall give jerky variability during rainy season with no clear pattern of daily variation. During rest of the seasons when surface temperature are always higher than that of water temperature the nature of observed pattern can be reconciled in the form and amplitude of daily progression in temperature gradient. An accurate description and elimination of the effect of environmental variables is essential. Efficacy of approach developed will demonstrated in isolating earthquake precursory signatures in this continuous radon data. (author)

299

Treeline dynamics with climate change at Central Nepal Himalaya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Global climate change has multidimensional impacts with several biological fingerprints, and treeline shifting in tandem with climate change is a widely observed phenomenon in various parts of the world. In Nepal several impacts of climate change on physical environments have been observed. However, studies on the biological impacts are lacking. This dendrochronological study was carried out at the treeline ecotone (3750–4003 m a.s.l. in the Kalchuman Lake (Kal Tal area of the Manaslu Conservation Area in central Nepal Himalaya with the aim to study the dynamic impact of climate change at the treeline. The study provides an insight into regeneration and treeline dynamics over the past 200 yr. Two belt transect plots (size: 20 m wide, >250 m long were laid covering forest line, treeline as well as tree species Abies spectabilis and Betula utilis was done and their tree-cores were collected. Stand character and age distribution revealed an occurrence of more matured B. utilis (max. age 198 yr old compared to A. spectabilis (max. age 160 yr. A. spectabilis contained an overwhelmingly high population (89% of younger plants (A. spectabilis at the rate of 2.61 m yr?1 since 1850 AD. The upper distribution limit of B. utilis was found stagnant in the past few decades. An increment in plant density as well as upward shifting in the studied treeline ecotones was observed. Thus, two species presented species-specific responses to climate change and much wider differences anticipated in their population status as climate continues to cha spectabilis correlated negatively with the mean monthly temperature of May–August of the current year and with September of the previous year. The regeneration of A. spectabilis, on the other hand, was positively related with May–August precipitation and January–April temperature of the current year. The reconstructed average summer temperature (May–August using tree ring data revealed alternate period of cool and warm period with warming in the 2nd half of the 20th century. Further palynological and geochronological studies of sediments of the Kalchuman Lake would advance our understanding of past climatic trends and dynamics of the associated treeline and vegetation in the area.

N. P. Gaire

2013-10-01

300

NEPHELINE FORMATION POTENTIAL IN SLUDGE BATCH 4 AND ITS IMPACT ON DURABILITY: SELECTING GLASSES FOR A PHASE 3 STUDY  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Savannah River National Laboratory's frit development effort for SB4 is being driven by the most current CBU option for this sludge, referred to as Case 15C Blend 1. Candidate frits have been identified for this option via a paper study approach developed by Peeler and Edwards with the intent of down-selecting to a set of key frits whose operating windows (i.e., WL intervals that meet PCCS MAR criteria) are robust to and/or selectively optimal for this sludge option. The primary frits that appear attractive on paper (i.e., down-selected via the paper study) are now being incorporated into this experimental study. The potential for the formation of a nepheline primary crystalline phase is an important factor in frit development for SB4, due to the high Al2O3 content of this sludge. Based upon earlier work by Li et al., glasses that do not satisfy the constraint: (SiO2/SiO2 + Na2O + Al2O3) > 0.62 where the oxides are expressed as mass fractions in the glass, will precipitate nepheline as their primary crystalline phase, hindering the durability of the glass. Based on the most recent compositional projection from the CBU for SB4 (Case 15C Blend 1), 16 glasses have been selected to complement the earlier work by continuing the investigation into the ability of the above constraint to predict the occurrence of a nepheline primary crystalline phase for SB4 glasses and into the impact of such phasesglasses and into the impact of such phases on the durability of the SB4 glasses. Glasses were selected to cover WLs which tightly bound the nepheline discriminator value of 0.62, with the intent of refining this value to a level of confidence where it can be incorporated into offline administrative controls and/or the PCCS to support SME acceptability decisions. In addition, glass specimens at WLs of 35 and 40% will be prepared and analyzed to contribute needed data to the ComPro(trademark) database in anticipation of a variability study for SB4. The glasses in Table 4-3 are to batched and fabricated using standard procedures. Visual observations and other analytical techniques are to be used, as needed, to assess the presence of crystals with specific interest in the nepheline primary phase. The durability of these glasses (for both quenched and centerline canister cooled versions) is to be measured using the ASTM PCT Method A. The results from these efforts are to be documented in a subsequent report. The results of this study will provide valuable input for the frit development efforts and subsequent feedback to the CBU regarding the relative viability of the current SB4 option under consideration. The refined nepheline discriminator value will provide a guideline for the avoidance of nepheline crystallization in SB4 glasses and aid in down-selection of frit compositions. These data will be combined with the results of melt rate studies and a paper study of the frits robustness with regard to variability in the sludge composition to provide an optimized frit recommendation to DWPF for immobilization of SB4

 
 
 
 
301

Glacier length, area and volume changes in the Himalaya: an overview and specific examples  

Science.gov (United States)

The Himalaya comprises one of the largest glacier-covered areas outside the polar regions. Glaciers are of special interest for several reasons. For instance, receding glaciers can cause the development of hazardous glacial lakes and glaciers contribute to the overall river runoff. The importance of the glacier melt to run off, however, varies significantly depending especially on the precipitation regime. Previous studies indicate that the vast majority of the Himalayan glaciers retreated during the recent decades with only few exemptions. Although the numbers of investigates glaciers increased in the last few years, there is still a lack of knowledge about the glacier behaviour in the different regions of the Himalaya. Existing length measurements in the Indian Himalaya show continuous retreat with an accelerating trend in recent years for most of the glaciers. The annual retreat rates vary between ~5m and more than 50m. However, several measurements are based on topographic maps or coarse satellite data and can have therefore higher uncertainties. Own reassessments for the debris-covered Gangotri Glacier situated in Garhwal Himalaya/western India based on high resolution imagery such as Corona, Hexagon, IRS PAN, LISS IV, and Cartosat-1 show an continuous retreat with an average rate of 19.9 ± 0.3 m a-1 from 1965 to 2006. This is significant but less than previously published. Similar results were revealed for the area changes in upper Alaknanda and Bhagirathi valleys in Garhwal Himalaya. We found a lower but still significant area loss of 4.6 ± 2.8 % between 1968 and 2006. Area changes in Khumbu Himalaya/Nepal are with ~5% between 1962 and 2005 comparable. Investigations in the Greater Himalayan Range in southern Ladakh/northwest India revealed a general receding trend but with some of the larger glaciers with high altitude catchments being stable or even advancing. Preliminary results for Shyok Valley (Jammu and Kashmir) show on average stable or slightly advancing glaciers. This is consistent with existing studies of the Karakoram glaciers. However, area and length changes show indirect signals only while the mass balance is most directly linked to climate. Debris cover on glaciers which is common throughout the Himalaya further influences glacier melt. Existing studies show that area and length changes are reduced in comparison to debris-free glaciers. Currently no long-term in-situ glacier mass balance measurements exist. Remote sensed derived geodetic mass balance estimations are a suitable tool to improve the knowledge on the reaction of glaciers to climate change. Detailed investigations on the debris-covered glaciers in Khumbu Himalaya based on stereo Corona, ASTER and Cartosat-1 data revealed a specific mass balance of -0.32 ± 0.08 m w.e. a-1 between 1972 and 2007 which is within the global mean. The surface lowering is significant for all glaciers despite thick debris-cover. Consistently, preliminary results of the large debris-covered Zemu Glacier in Sikkim/Eastern Indian Himalaya indicate significant mass loss but only a slight reduction in length. Further analyses are under way and also climatic considerations will be addressed.

Bolch, T.; Bhambri, R.; Kamp, U.; Pieczonka, T.

2011-12-01

302

Geomorphic impacts, age and significance of two giant landslide dams in the Nepal Himalayas: Ringmo-Phoksundo (Dolpo District) and Dhampu-Chhoya (Mustang District).  

Science.gov (United States)

Large catastrophic slope failures have recently retained much attention in the northern dry Himalayas (1). They play a prominent role in the denudation history of active orogens at a wide range of spatial and time scales (2), and they impact durably landforms and process evolution in upstream catchments. Their occurrence mostly results from three different potential triggers: earthquakes, post-glacial debuttressing, and permafrost melting. We focus on two examples of giant rock slope failures that occurred across and north of the Higher Himalaya of Nepal and assess their respective influence on the regional, geomorphic evolution. The Ringmo rockslide (4.5 km3) results from the collapse of a mountain wall (5148 m) cut into palaeozoic dolomites of the Tethysian Himalayas. It caused the damming of the Suli Gad River at the origin of the Phoksumdo Lake (3600 m asl). The presence of glacial till at the very base of the sequence suggests the rockslide event is post-glacial, a field assumption confirmed by cosmogenic dating. Two consistent 36Cl ages of 20,885 ±1675 argue for a single, massive event of paraglacial origin that fits well with the last chronologies available on the Last Glacial Maximum in the Nepal Himalaya. The persistence of the Phoksumdo Lake is due to its dam stability (i.e. high lime content of landslide components) and to low sediment flux from the arid, upper Suli Gad catchment. The Dhampu-Chhoya rock avalanche (about 1 km3, area extent 10 km2) was derived from the northward failure of the Kaiku ridge, uphold by north-dipping, upper crystallines of the Higher Himalaya. It dammed the Kali Gandaki River, with complex interactions with the Late Pleistocene ice tongues derived from the Dhaulagiri (8167 m) and Nilgiris (7061 m) peaks. Both the rock avalanche and glaciers controlled the existence and level of the "Marpha Lake" (lacustrine deposits up to Kagbeni). Again, consistent 10Be ages of 29,680 ± 1015 ka obtained from two large blocks (>1000 m3) suggest a single event, in full agreement with other 10Be dates obtained by a different team from the same site (3). This latter event occurred during glaciation, and was likely triggered in connection with the North Himalayan Fault and/or Thakkhola fault activity. Post-landslide dam evolution includes rapid dissection of lacustrine deposits (4), yet the braided pattern of the Kali Gandaki evidence the delay in headward erosion caused by landslide dam persistence. References: (1) Hewitt K., 2009. Catastrophic rock slope failures and late Quaternary developments in the Nanga Parbat-Haramosh Massif, Upper Indus basin, northern Pakistan. Quaternary Science Reviews, 28, 1055-1069; (2) Korup, O., Clague, J.J., 2009. Natural hazards, extreme events, and mountain topography. Quaternary Science Reviews 28, 977-990; (3) Zech R., Zech M, Kubik P.W., Kharki K., Zech W. (2009). Deglaciation and landscape history around Annapurna, Nepal, based on 10Be surface exposure dating, Quaternary Science Reviews, v. 28(11-12), pp.1106-1118; (4) Fort M., Cossart E. (2013) Erosion assessment in the middle Kali Gandaki (Nepal): A sediment budget approach. Journal of Nepal Geological Society, Vol. 46, pp. 25-40.

Fort, Monique; Braucher, Regis; Bourlès, Didier; Guillou, Valery; Nath Rimal, Lila; Gribenski, Natacha; Cossart, Etienne

2014-05-01

303

Identifying potential selective fluorescent probes for cancer-associated protein carbonic anhydrase IX using a computational approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a biomarker for tumor hypoxia. Fluorescent inhibitors of CAIX have been used to study hypoxic tumor cell lines. However, these inhibitor-based fluorescent probes may have a therapeutic effect that is not appropriate for monitoring treatment efficacy. In the search for novel fluorescent probes that are not based on known inhibitors, a database of 20,860 fluorescent compounds was virtually screened against CAIX using hierarchical virtual ligand screening (HierVLS). The screening database contained 14,862 compounds tagged with the ATTO680 fluorophore plus an additional 5998 intrinsically fluorescent compounds. Overall ranking of compounds to identify hit molecular probe candidates utilized a principal component analysis (PCA) approach. Four potential binding sites, including the catalytic site, were identified within the structure of the protein and targeted for virtual screening. Available sequence information for 23 carbonic anhydrase isoforms was used to prioritize the four sites based on the estimated "uniqueness" of each site in CAIX relative to the other isoforms. A database of 32 known inhibitors and 478 decoy compounds was used to validate the methodology. A receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis using the first principal component (PC1) as predictive score for the validation database yielded an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.92. AUC is interpreted as the probability that a binder will have a better score than a non-binder. The use of first component analysis of binding energies for multiple sites is a novel approach for hit selection. The very high prediction power for this approach increases confidence in the outcome from the fluorescent library screening. Ten of the top scoring candidates for isoform-selective putative binding sites are suggested for future testing as fluorescent molecular probe candidates. PMID:25459770

Kamstra, Rhiannon L; Floriano, Wely B

2014-11-01

304

Analysis of wind speed data and wind energy potential in three selected locations in south-east Nigeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, the wind speed characteristics and energy potential in selected three locations in south eastern part of Nigeria were investigated using wind speed data that span between 24 and 37 years measured at 10m height. It was shown that the annual mean wind speed at height of 10 m for Enugu, Owerri, and Onitsha are 5.42 m/s, 3.36 m/s, and 3.59 m/s, respectively, while the annual mean power densities are, respectively, 96.98 W/m2, 23.23 W/m2 and 28.34 W/m{sup 2}. It was further shown that the mean annual value of the most probable wind speed are 5.47m/s, 3.72m/s and 3.50m/s for Enugu, Owerri and Onitsha, respectively, while the respective annual value of the wind speed carrying maximum energy 6.48m/s, 4.33m/s, and 3.90m/s.The performance of selected commercial wind turbine models (with rated power between 50kW and 1000kW) designed for electricity generation and a windmill (rated power of 0.36kW) for water pumping located in these sites were examined.The annual energy output and capacity factor for these turbines as well as the water produced by the windmill were determined. The minimum required design parameters for a wind turbine to be a viable option for electricity generation in each location are also suggested. (orig.)

Oyedepo, Sunday O. [Covenant Univ., Ota, Ogun State (Nigeria). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Adaramola, Muyiwa S. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Energy and Process Engineering; Paul, Sunday S. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

2012-07-01

305

Microearthquake activity in some parts of the Himalaya and the tectonic model  

Science.gov (United States)

Microearthquake data from temporary/permanent networks in different parts of the Himalaya shed new light on understanding the earthquake generating processes and their relation to tectonic models of the region. The microearthquake activity in Arunachal Pradesh, northeastern Himalaya, is found to be pronounced at the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) and to its south; the subcrustal earthquakes (depth 50-80 km) occur much below the plane of detachment of the tectonic models proposed by Seeber et al. (1981) and Ni and Barazangi (1984). The MBT is not the seismogenic fault; the earthquakes are generated by strike-slip movement on deep seated hidden faults, transverse to the MBT. The high seismic activity in the Shillong Plateau, about 200 km south of the MBT in the northeast region, is due to the influence of Himalayan collision tectonics to the north and Burmese arc subduction tectonics to the east. The activity in the Plateau is not directly related to the Himalayan thrust belt or seismic belt. These are mostly crustal earthquakes (depth 10-30 km), and are caused by local active faults/lineaments. In the eastern Himalaya, in the Sikkim and Darjeeling area, the seismic activity is found to be clustered mostly to the north of the MBT. The earthquakes occur at a depth range 0-50 km; the majority of them occur below the detachment plane by thrust-faulting. In the central part, in the Nepal Himalaya, lateral variations of the seismic activity are observed, which represent lateral segmentation of the MBT by transverse tectonic features. In the western Himalaya, however, the tectonic models fit well with the microearthquake data. In the Himachal Pradesh of the western Himalaya, the microearthquakes are mostly recorded in the MBT zone, and the hypocentres (depth 0-20 km) are confined above the plane of detachment or on the Basement Thrust. The earthquakes mostly occur to the south of the Main Central Thrust (MCT), which suggests that the MCT is not seismogenic; it is rather a dormant fault. No single tectonic model explains the Himalayan earthquakes.

Kayal, J. R.

2001-09-01

306

Assessment of background levels of trace metals in water and soil from a remote region of Himalaya.  

Science.gov (United States)

Selected trace metals were estimated by atomic absorption spectrometry in the water and soil samples collected from the remote region of Himalaya. The soil samples were analysed for soluble and acid extractable fraction of trace metals. In water samples, Ca, Na, Mg and K emerged as dominant contributors, whereas, Ca, Na, K, Mg, Fe and Pb were estimated at comparatively higher levels in the water extract of the soil. In case of acid extract of the soil samples, Ca, K, Fe, Mg, Mn and Na were found at elevated concentrations. Based on mean levels of the metals, following decreasing concentration order was observed in water samples: Ca > Na > Mg > K > Pb > Co > Cu > Zn > Mn > Cr > Fe > Cd > Li, however, in the acid extract of the soil, following order was noted: Ca > K > Fe > Mg > Mn > Na > Pb > Zn > Cr > Li > Cu > Co > Cd. The correlation study revealed appreciably diverse mutual relationships of trace metals in the water and soil samples. The multivariate cluster analyses exhibited divergent apportionment of trace metals in water and soil samples. Among the trace metals, Cd, Pb, Li, Zn, Cr, Cu, Mn and Co exhibited extreme to significant anthropogenic enrichment in the soil samples, while the rest of the metals were mostly contributed by the natural processes. PMID:21625922

Shah, Munir H; Iqbal, Javed; Shaheen, Nazia; Khan, Nadeem; Choudhary, Muhammad Aziz; Akhter, Gulraiz

2012-03-01

307

Multilocation trial of potential selected mutant lines of groundnut (arachis hypogaea) at 3 location in Peninsular Malaysia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two fixed mutant lines of groundnut derived from cultivar Matjan were selected for their yield potential at M10 generation. Multilocation trial of these mutants (MJ40/42 and MJ20/165-5) was carried out to evaluate genotype stability at different climate and soil types in Peninsular Malaysia. The mutant lines were planted and compared with their parent (Matjan) and control variety (MKT1). The identified locations were in Taiping (Perak), Machang (Kelantan), and Air Hitam (Johor). The soils at the locations were of the Serdang, Bungor and Rengam series, respectively. The trial was carried out simultaneously in the same year at each location. Mutant MJ20/165-5 showed stable performance at all location compared to other genotypes tested. Its yield was higher than the parent in Kelantan and Johor trial and showed similar performance in Perak. This mutant also showed better yield performance than the control varieties in the Kelantan trial. Meanwhile, mutant line MJ40/42 gave better yield in Kelantan and Johor but did not perform well in Perak as compared to its parent and control varieties. (Author)

308

12-Chemokine Gene Signature Identifies Lymph Node-like Structures in Melanoma: Potential for Patient Selection for Immunotherapy?  

Science.gov (United States)

We have interrogated a 12-chemokine gene expression signature (GES) on genomic arrays of 14,492 distinct solid tumors and show broad distribution across different histologies. We hypothesized that this 12-chemokine GES might accurately predict a unique intratumoral immune reaction in stage IV (non-locoregional) melanoma metastases. The 12-chemokine GES predicted the presence of unique, lymph node-like structures, containing CD20+ B cell follicles with prominent areas of CD3+ T cells (both CD4+ and CD8+ subsets). CD86+, but not FoxP3+, cells were present within these unique structures as well. The direct correlation between the 12-chemokine GES score and the presence of unique, lymph nodal structures was also associated with better overall survival of the subset of melanoma patients. The use of this novel 12-chemokine GES may reveal basic information on in situ mechanisms of the anti-tumor immune response, potentially leading to improvements in the identification and selection of melanoma patients most suitable for immunotherapy.

Messina, Jane L.; Fenstermacher, David A.; Eschrich, Steven; Qu, Xiaotao; Berglund, Anders E.; Lloyd, Mark C.; Schell, Michael J.; Sondak, Vernon K.; Weber, Jeffrey S.; Mulé, James J.

2012-10-01

309

Informing Selection of Nanomaterial Concentrations for ToxCast in Vitro Testing Based on Occupational Exposure Potential  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Little justification is generally provided for selection of in vitro assay testing concentrations for engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Selection of concentration levels for hazard evaluation based on real-world exposure scenarios is desirable.

Gangwal, Sumit; Brown, James S.; Wang, Amy; Houck, Keith A.; Dix, David J.; Kavlock, Robert J.; Hubal, Elaine A. Cohen

2011-01-01

310

Helium/radon precursory anomalies of Chamoli earthquake, Garhwal Himalaya, India  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Garhwal Himalaya, the Bhagirthi and Alaknanda valleys were rocked respectively by two major earthquakes; the Uttarkashi earthquake of magnitude mb=6.5, Ms= 7.0 on 20 October, 1991 and the Chamoli earthquake of mb =6.8, Ms=6.5 on 29 March 1999, during this decade only. Both these seismic events are associated with ongoing deformation along the main central thrust (MCT) of the Himalayas. The helium and radon anomalies on 24 and 27 March 1999, respectively, were recorded at Palampur which is about 393 km from the Chamoli earthquake epicentre. A helium/radon ratio anomaly was recorded on 20 March, 9 days before the Chamoli earthquake. The precursory nature of radon and helium anomalies is a strong indicator of the physical basis of earthquake prediction and a preliminary test for the proposed conceptual helium/radon ratio model.

Singh Virk, Hardev; Walia, Vivek; Kumar, Naresh

2001-03-01

311

Occurrences of damaging earthquakes between the Himachal and Darjeeling Himalayas: Tectonic implications  

Science.gov (United States)

Detailed analysis of intensity for ten damaging historical earthquakes in the central arcuate belt between the Himachal and Darjeeling Himalayas was carried out in the backdrop of isoseismal eccentricity, source depth and Indian plate obliquity. Results indicate that the elongated axes of the isoseismals and strike of ruptures for shallow earthquakes are almost parallel with strike of the Himalayan arc, and clearly conformable with the obliquity. An empirical power law relationship between eccentricity and focal depth established under the present study illustrates that the deeper events are more influenced by the bending of the penetrating Indian lithosphere, whereas the shallower events are principally controlled by the obliquity. A positive correlation between eccentricities and obliquity obviously supports this inference. The present study further reveals that the constant decrease in Indian plate obliquity from Himachal to Nepal-Bihar Himalaya is well compatible with the graben structures and horizontal shearing along this arcuate segment.

Ansari, Md. Afroz; Khan, Prosanta K.

2014-08-01

312

Large radiative forcing efficiency of atmospheric aerosols over the Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is based on measurements made at the Nepal Climate Observatory at Pyramid (NCO-P, 27.95 N, 86.82 E), located at 5079 m altitude in the Sagamartha National Park, Eastern Nepal Himalaya. We analised seasonal variations of solar downward irradiance (SW), columnar water vapour content (wv), aerosol optical depth at 500 nm (?) and surface albedo (A) in the period between 2007 and 2010, in order to obtain the radiative perturbations produced by aerosols in the SW. SW measurements are carried out by a CMP21 pyranometer, while A is derived from a CNR1 radiometer. Values of wv and ? are retrieved from the measurements by the EVK2-CNR Cimel sunphotometer operating within the AERONET network. ? was found to be lower than 0.1 in 98% of the cases. However, during the pre-monsoon season, especially in the months of April and May, cases with ? reaching 0.27 were recorded. The aerosol surface shortwave radiative effect in cloud-free periods was estimated during the elevated aerosol optical depth cases using different methods. The 'hybrid method' was applied using experimental measurements of solar downward irradiance and simulations made with the MODTRAN (MODerate resolution atmospheric TRANsmission) model. The dependency of SW on A and wv was determined from MODTRAN simulations, and was used to correct experimental measurements for albedo and water vapour changes. The radiative perturbation produced by aerosol was thus obtained as the difference between the measured irradiances and the modelled values for aerosol-free conditions and the same water vapour and albedo values, and at the same solar zenith angle. The aerosol radiative effect was also derived by comparing elevated and low aerosol optical depth cases, at similar values of solar zenith angle, albedo, and column water vapour. In addition the direct method, relating SW to changes in ?, was also used. These three methods produce consistent results. Although the overall aerosol radiative perturbation is small, it becomes relatively large during elevated aerosol cases. The radiative forcing efficiency (radiative effect produced by a unit aerosol optical depth) is significantly larger than at other sites worldwide, reaching values above 360 W/m2 at about 50° solar zenith angle. The maximum radiative effect is about -90±18 Wm-2 (for ?=0.25), corresponding to a reduction by more than 10% of the solar radiation at the surface. During these elevated aerosol events high concentrations of pollutants were measured: PM10 and PM 2.5 showed concentrations higher than 50 ng m-3, while the black carbon concentration reached 3000 ng m-3. The backtrajectory analysis for the elevated aerosol cases shows that the polluted airmasses observed at NCO-P come from Indo-Gangetic plain and Punjab, regions characterized by the highest industrial and demographic concentration of the Indian subcontinent.

Gasbarra, Daniele; di Sarra, Alcide; Meloni, Daniela; Bonasoni, Paolo; Di Biagio, Claudia; Gobbi, Gian Paolo; Marinoni, Angela; Pietro Verza, Gian; Vuillermoz, Elisa

2014-05-01

313

Field relations, petrogenesis and emplacement of the Bhagirathi leucogranite, Garhwal Himalaya  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Bhagirathi leucogranite forms a series of low-angle en echelon, lensoidal intrusions at the top of the High Himalayan slab in the central Himalaya of Garhwal, northern India. The leucogranite comprises the assemblage: K-feldspar + quartz + plagioclase + tourmaline + muscovite ± biotite ± garnet. Compared to other High Himalayan leucogranites it is particularly rich in tourmaline. The granite is generally compositionally homogeneous although it is magmatically banded in both the upper an...

Searle, Mp; Metcalfe, Rp; Rex, Aj; Norry, Mj

1993-01-01

314

Origin and radiative forcing of black carbon transported to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The remote and high elevation regions of central Asia are influenced by black carbon (BC emissions from a variety of locations. BC deposition contributes to melting of glaciers and questions exist, of both scientific and policy interest, as to the origin of the BC reaching the glaciers. We use the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem model to identify the location from which BC arriving at a variety of locations in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau originates. We then calculate its direct and snow-albedo radiative forcing. We analyze the seasonal variation in the origin of BC using an adjoint sensitivity analysis, which provides a detailed map of the location of emissions that directly contribute to black carbon concentrations at receptor locations. We find that emissions from northern India and central China contribute the majority of BC to the Himalayas, although the precise location varies with season. The Tibetan Plateau receives most BC from western and central China, as well as from India, Nepal, the Middle East, Pakistan and other countries. The magnitude of contribution from each region varies with season and receptor location. We find that sources as varied as African biomass burning and Middle Eastern fossil fuel combustion can significantly contribute to the BC reaching the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. We compute radiative forcing in the snow-covered regions and find the forcing due to the BC induced snow-albedo effect to vary from 5–15 W m?2 within the region, an order of magnitude larger than radiative forcing due to the direct effect, and with significant seasonal variation in the northern Tibetan Plateau. Radiative forcing from reduced snow albedo likely accelerates glacier melting. Our analysis may help inform mitigation efforts to slow the rate of glacial melt by identifying regions that make the largest contributions to BC deposition in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau.

M. Kopacz

2011-03-01

315

Volatile-assisted intrusion and autometasomatism of leucogranites in the Khumbu Himalaya, Nepal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Leucogranite crops out in the upper Imja Khola, Khumbu Himalaya, Nepal, where it makes up approximately 50% of the exposed bedrock. Leucogranites and their associated aplite-pegmatites typically intruded as concordant sills, millimeters- to kilometers-wide. The exceptional Nuptse granite is an ellipsoidal pluton of nearly 1-km radius, which probably resulted from the ballooning of a sill and is wrapped in concordant country rock foliation. Small-scale structures and mineral paragenesis indica...

Weinberg, Rf; Searle, Mp

1999-01-01

316

Radon variations in soil and groundwater of Bhilagana valley, Garhwal Himalaya, India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radon measurements were made in the soil-gas and groundwater present in various lithological units and across the major tectonic zone (Munsiari and Bhatwari-Ramgarh Thrust) located between Ghansali and Ghuttu area in Bhilangana valley of the Garhwal Himalaya, India. High concentrations of radon were observed both in soil-gas and groundwater samples located close to the tectonic planes. Overall radon concentration in this area was found to be controlled by lithology, structure and associated uranium mineralization. (author)

317

Precipitation and snow cover in the Himalaya: from reanalysis to regional climate simulations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We applied a Regional Climate Model (RCM) to simulate precipitation and snow cover over the Himalaya, between March 2000 and December 2002. Due to its higher resolution, our model simulates a more realistic spatial variability of wind and precipitation than those of the reanalysis of the European Centre of Medium range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) used as lateral boundaries. In this region, we found very large discrepancies between the estimations of precipitation provided by reanalysis, rain gau...

Me?ne?goz, M.; Galle?e, H.; Jacobi, H. W.

2013-01-01

318

Comparative Study of Herbaceous Vegetation in Lower Dachigam National Park, Kashmir Himalaya, India  

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The present study was conducted to estimate the variation in herbaceous community features in terms of diversity, species richness and distribution pattern in the two different ecosystems i.e., site I (pastureland) and site II (forest) in the lower Dachigam National Park of Kashmir, Himalaya. The pasture site is located outside the National Park and is under grazing were as forest site is located inside the National Park and is protected. The study was done on seasonal basis and the results r...

Bhat, G. A.; Soni, P.; Shameem, S. A.

2010-01-01

319

Biomass and diversity of dry alpine plant communities along altitudinal gradients in the Himalayas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A non-linear relationship between phytodiversity and altitude has widely been reported, but the relationship between phytomass and altitude remains little understood. We examined the phytomass and diversity of vascular plants along altitudinal gradients on the dry alpine rangelands of Ladakh, western Himalaya. We used generalized linear and generalized additive models to assess the relationship between these vegetation parameters and altitude. We found a hump-shaped relationship between above...

Namgail, T.; Rawat, G. S.; Mishra, C.; Wieren, S. E.; Prins, H. H. T.

2012-01-01

320

Diversity of Culturable Soil Micro-fungi along Altitudinal Gradients of Eastern Himalayas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Very few studies have addressed the phylogenetic diversity of fungi from Northeast India under the Eastern Himalayan range. In the present study, an attempt has been made to study the phylogenetic diversity of culturable soil fungi along the altitudinal gradients of eastern Himalayas. Soil samples from 24 m above sea level to 2,000 m above sea level altitudes of North-East India were collected to investigate soil micro-fungal community structure and diversity. Molecular characterization of th...

Devi, Lamabam Sophiya; Khaund, Polashree; Nongkhlaw, Fenella M. W.; Joshi, S. R.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF TERRESTRIAL ORCHIDS (COLLECTED FROM NORTHERN HIMALAYAS) AGAINST CERTAIN HUMAN PATHOGENS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The four main varieties of orchids, collected from northern Himalayas (Tara devi and Chhrabra forests, Shimla, HP) were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against human pathogenic bacteria. The ethanol and methanol extracts of Cypripedium cordigerum and Malaxis acuminata were found to be highly active against both P.aeruginosa and S.aureus with minimal microbial static concentration (MIC) in the range of 100mg/ml. These plants particularly demonstra...

Amit Bharal, Manila Kashyap

2014-01-01

322

Studies on the impact of local folk on forests of Garhwal Himalaya: Pt. 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

People in the Himalayas have been using fuelwood as the only source of energy for generations. Increasing population and declining forest resources have led to strict environmental laws in the area. The human impact on forests of the region was studied. The present biomass consumption of approximate 442 kg person-1 yr-1 along with cowdung are contributing factors for the present state of forest deforestation in the region. (author)

323

Region-wide glacier mass balances over the Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya during 1999–2011  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The recent evolution of Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya (PKH glaciers, widely acknowledged as valuable high-altitude as well as mid-latitude climatic indicators, remains poorly known. To estimate the region-wide glacier mass balance for 9 study sites spread from the Pamir to the Hengduan Shan (eastern Himalaya, we compared the 2000 Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM digital elevation model (DEM to recent (2008–2011 DEMs derived from SPOT5 stereo imagery. During the last decade, the region-wide glacier mass balances were contrasted with moderate mass losses in the eastern and central Himalaya (?0.22 ± 0.12 m w.e. yr?1 to ?0.33 ± 0.14 m w.e. yr?1 and larger losses in the western Himalaya (?0.45 ± 0.13 m w.e. yr?1. Recently reported slight mass gain or balanced mass budget of glaciers in the central Karakoram is confirmed for a larger area (+0.10 ± 0.16 m w.e. yr"1 and also observed for glaciers in the western Pamir (+0.14 ± 0.13 m w.e. yr?1. Thus, the "Karakoram anomaly" should be renamed the "Pamir-Karakoram anomaly", at least for the last decade. The overall mass balance of PKH glaciers, ?0.14 ± 0.08 m w.e. yr?1, is two to three times less negative than the global average for glaciers distinct from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Together with recent studies using ICESat and GRACE data, DEM differencing confirms a contrasted pattern of glacier mass change in the PKH during the first decade of the 21st century.

J. Gardelle

2013-08-01

324

Pictorial keys for predominant Bactrocera and Dacus fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) of north western Himalaya  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A pictorial key for 13 species of fruit flies under 2 genera namely Bactrocera and Dacus of subfamily Dacinae (Diptera: Tephritidae) is presented in this paper based on actual photographs of fruit flies collected from north western Himalaya of India during 2009-2010. Among these, Bactrocera diversa (Coquillett), Bactrocera scutellaris (Bezzi), Bactrocera tau (Walker), Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi), Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), B...

Prabhakar, C. S.; Pankaj Sood; Mehta, P. K.

2012-01-01

325

Planktonic Desmid Flora of South of the Eastern Himalayas: A Systematic Approach on Algae-I  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Desmids are freshwater algae often considered as indicator of oligotrophic environment for water bodies. There are ample examples of works done by various workers throughout the world. Though desmids are reported from many parts of India, North East India, located in South of the Eastern Himalaya, is lacking behind in the study of this particular microflora in spite of its rich biodiversity. Therefore, an attempt has been made to study the planktonic desmid flora of North East India. Samples ...

Medhi, K. K.; Buragohain, B. B.; Yasmin, F.

2011-01-01

326

Origin and radiative forcing of black carbon transported to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The remote and high elevation regions of central Asia are influenced by black carbon (BC emissions from a variety of locations. BC deposition contributes to melting of glaciers and questions exist, of both scientific and policy interest, as to the origin of the BC reaching the glaciers. We use the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem model to identify the location from which BC arriving at a variety of locations in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau originates. We then calculate its direct and snow-albedo radiative forcing. We analyze the seasonal variation in the origin of BC using an adjoint sensitivity analysis, which provides a detailed map of the location of emissions that directly contribute to black carbon concentrations at receptor locations. We find that emissions from northern India and central China contribute the majority of BC to the Himalayas, although the precise location varies with season. The Tibetan Plateau receives most BC from western and central China, as well as from India, Nepal, the Middle East, Pakistan and other countries. The magnitude of contribution from each region varies with season and receptor location. We find that sources as varied as African biomass burning and Middle Eastern fossil fuel combustion can significantly contribute to the BC reaching the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. We compute radiative forcing in the snow-covered regions and estimate the forcing due to the BC induced snow-albedo effect at about 5–15 W m?2 within the region, an order of magnitude larger than radiative forcing due to the direct effect, and with significant seasonal variation in the northern Tibetan Plateau. Radiative forcing from reduced snow albedo accelerates glacier melting. Our analysis can help inform mitigation efforts to slow the rate of glacial melt by identifying regions that make the largest contributions to BC deposition in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau.

M. Kopacz

2010-09-01

327

Diversity of Medicinal Plants among Different Forest-use Types of the Pakistani Himalaya  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Diversity of Medicinal Plants among Different Forest-use Types of the Pakistani Himalaya Medicinal plants collected in Himalayan forests play a vital role in the livelihoods of regional rural societies and are also increasingly recognized at the international level. However, these forests are being heavily transformed by logging. Here we ask how forest transformation influences the diversity and composition of medicinal plants in northwestern Pakistan, where we studied old-growth forests, for...

Adnan, Muhammad; Ho?lscher, Dirk

2012-01-01

328

Development of extension faults on the oblique thrust ramp hanging wall: example from the Tethys Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

Inhomogeneous strain at late stages of deformation of modelling clay models with frontal and oblique thrust ramp geometries results in formation of extension faults on the hanging wall. The extension faults trend nearly parallel to the axis of maximum compression and orthogonal to the trend of the frontal ramp. Faults with similar geometries occur in the Upper Satluj River Basin of the Tethys Himachal Himalaya. The experimental results help in understanding the present day normal faulting and related active tectonics of the area.

Dubey, A. K.; Bhakuni, S. S.

2004-07-01

329

Evaluation of ASTER GDEM with respect to SRTM for Chandra-Bhaga Basin, Indian Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

Evaluation of ASTER GDEM with respect to SRTM for Chandra-Bhaga Basin, Indian Himalaya Pratima Pandey, G. Venkataraman Centre of Studies in Resources Engineering, IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India Abstract A digital elevation model (DEM) is a simple representation of a surface in 3 dimensional way with height as the third dimension along with x and y in rectangular axes. DEM has wide applications in various areas like disaster management, hydrology and water management, geomorphology and in urban development. Valuable information about a terrain can be inferred by exploiting a DEM in proper way. Study of DEM becomes very useful for studying mountainous terrain such as Himalaya which is otherwise hard to access due to harsh weather and inaccessibility. DEM can be generated by aerial photos, stereo images from satellites and toposheet. SRTM and ASTER GDEM are DEM which generated from satellite images and covers maximum parts of the earth. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) is a good quality DEM created in 2000 covering the globe between 600 N and 580 S with 3 arc second (90m) resolution. SRTM is available freely for research. ASTER GDEM is recently released global DEM created using ASTER scenes and made available to the world since June 2009 for carrying out research. ASTER GDEM covers land surfaces between 83°N and 83°S with estimated accuracies of 20 meters vertical data and 30 meters for horizontal data. So ASTER GDEM supposed to be more sophisticated. The present study aims at comparing the ASTER GDEM with the SRTM and ASTER DEM and evaluating its relative characteristics for undulating surface and glaciers of Chandra-Bhaga sub-basin situated in Lahual-Spiti district of Himachal Pradesh, Indian Himalaya. Once the characteristics of ASTER GDEM are evaluated for Himalayan terrain it can be used for various studies involving rugged terrain of Himalaya.

Pandey, P.

2011-12-01

330

Local perceptions of climate change validated by scientific evidence in the Himalayas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Himalayas are assumed to be undergoing rapid climate change, with serious environmental, social and economic consequences for more than two billion people. However, data on the extent of climate change or its impact on the region are meagre. Based on local knowledge, we report perceived changes in climate and consequences of such changes for biodiversity and agriculture. Our analyses are based on 250 household interviews administered in 18 villages, and focused group discussions conducted...

Chaudhary, Pashupati; Bawa, Kamaljit S.

2011-01-01

331

Mechanisms and timescales of felsic magma segregation, ascent and emplacement in the Himalaya  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We combine field, petrological, geochemical and experimental observations to evaluate the timescales of compaction-driven and shear-assisted melt extraction and ascent in the Himalaya. The results show that melt migration via compaction and channelling is inescapable and operates on timescales of less than 1 million years and possibly as short as 0.1 million years. Field and petrological data show that such a fast and efficient melt transfer results from a combination of favourable factors, i...

Scaillet, B.; Searle, Mp

2006-01-01

332

Mechanical analysis of controls on strain partitioning in the Himalayas of central Nepal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a mechanical analysis of the problem of slip partitioning between the major thrust systems in a collisional range. We focus on two structures in the Himalayas of central Nepal: the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT) and the Main Central Thrust (MCT). We use finite element modeling to test the influence of various parameters, such as friction coefficients and surface processes, and we investigate how they affect the distribution of deformation between these two faults. We observe that repr...

Godard, Vincent; Burbank, Douglas W.

2011-01-01

333

Origin and radiative forcing of black carbon transported to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau  

Science.gov (United States)

The remote and high elevation regions of central Asia are influenced by black carbon (BC) emissions from a variety of locations. BC deposition contributes to melting of glaciers and questions exist, of both scientific and policy interest, as to the origin of the BC reaching the glaciers. We use the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem model to identify the location from which BC arriving at a variety of locations in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau originates. We then calculate its direct and snow-albedo radiative forcing. We analyze the seasonal variation in the origin of BC using an adjoint sensitivity analysis, which provides a detailed map of the location of emissions that directly contribute to black carbon concentrations at receptor locations. We find that emissions from northern India and central China contribute the majority of BC to the Himalayas, although the precise location varies with season. The Tibetan Plateau receives most BC from western and central China, as well as from India, Nepal, the Middle East, Pakistan and other countries. The magnitude of contribution from each region varies with season and receptor location. We find that sources as varied as African biomass burning and Middle Eastern fossil fuel combustion can significantly contribute to the BC reaching the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. We compute radiative forcing in the snow-covered regions and find the forcing due to the BC induced snow-albedo effect to vary from 5-15 W m-2 within the region, an order of magnitude larger than radiative forcing due to the direct effect, and with significant seasonal variation in the northern Tibetan Plateau. Radiative forcing from reduced snow albedo likely accelerates glacier melting. Our analysis may help inform mitigation efforts to slow the rate of glacial melt by identifying regions that make the largest contributions to BC deposition in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau.

Kopacz, M.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Wang, J.; Leibensperger, E. M.; Henze, D. K.; Singh, K.

2011-03-01

334

Antioxidant capacities and total polyphenol contents of hydro-ethanolic extract of phytococktail from trans-Himalaya.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant potential of hydro-ethanolic extract of a novel phytococktail comprising of sea buckthorn, apricot, and Rhodiola (SAR) from trans-Himalaya. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity of the extract increased in a dose-dependent manner (upto 0.1 mg/mL), and was found to be about 38% of that of ascorbic acid at 0.1 mg/mL. The hydro-ethanolic extract of SAR also scavenged the ABTS(.+) radical generated by ABTS/potassium persulfate (PPS) system and was found to be about 62% of that of ascorbic acid at 0.1 mg/ mL. The total antioxidant power of the extract was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content was found to be 1.28016 × 10(-3) mol gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract. Total flavonoid and flavonol contents were estimated to be 2.5970 × 10(-4) mol and 4.87 × 10(-4) mol quercetin equivalent/g extract, respectively. The hydro-ethanolic extract of this phytococktail indicated presence of essential phytoconstituents of polyphenols, flavonoids, flavonols, and ascorbic acid, which contributed significantly to its antioxidant capacity. The combination of the 3 plants may well support their use in traditional medicine to combat oxidative stress and high-altitude sickness. PMID:22225422

Dhar, P; Tayade, A B; Bajpai, P K; Sharma, V K; Das, S K; Chaurasia, O P; Srivastava, R B; Singh, S B

2012-02-01

335

Geochemical characterization of supraglacial debris via in situ and optical remote sensing methods: a case study in Khumbu Himalaya, Nepal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Surface glacier debris samples and field spectra were collected from the ablation zones of Nepal Himalaya Ngozumpa and Khumbu glaciers in November and December 2009. Geochemical and mineral compositions of supraglacial debris were determined by X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. This composition data was used as ground truth in evaluating field spectra and satellite supraglacial debris composition and mapping methods. Satellite remote sensing methods for characterizing glacial surface debris include visible to thermal infrared hyper- and multispectral reflectance and emission signature identification, semi-quantitative mineral abundance indicies and spectral image composites. Satellite derived supraglacial debris mineral maps displayed the predominance of layered silicates, hydroxyl-bearing and calcite minerals on Khumbu Himalayan glaciers. Supraglacial mineral maps compared with satellite thermal data revealed correlations between glacier surface composition and glacier surface temperature. Glacier velocity displacement fields and shortwave, thermal infrared false color composites indicated the magnitude of mass flux at glacier confluences. The supraglacial debris mapping methods presented in this study can be used on a broader scale to improve, supplement and potentially reduce errors associated with glacier debris radiative property, composition, areal extent and mass flux quantifications.

K. A. Casey

2012-01-01

336

Tree-ring-based snowfall record for cold arid western Himalaya, India since A.D. 1460  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding snowfall variations in high-elevation cold arid regions of the western Himalaya is important as snowmelt water is the main source of water to meet the scores of socioeconomic needs. The ground-based observational data, though limited to the last two decades, show decreasing snowfall, raising the concern of looming water scarcity in the region. The tree-ring data of Himalayan cedar from a network of six moisture-stressed sites, where snowmelt water is the sole source of soil moisture for tree growth, were used to develop the November-April snow water equivalent (SWE) extending back to A.D. 1460. The reconstruction revealed persistent severe droughts in the 1780s followed by the 1480s and relatively lesser magnitude droughts in the 1540s-1560s, 1740s, and early twentieth century. The pluvial conditions observed in 1948-1958 and 1986-1996 stand out over any other period of such duration. The SWE reconstruction revealed large-scale spatial coherence with the corresponding month's Palmer Drought Severity Index over the western Himalayan region. Significant relationship observed between SWE reconstruction and January-March Chenab River flow revealed its potential utility in understanding water resource availability in the long-term perspective.

Yadav, Ram R.; Bhutiyani, Mahendra R.

2013-07-01

337

Glycosphingolipid expression on murine L1-fibrosarcoma cells: analysis of clonal in vivo and in vitro selected sublines with different lung colonisation potential.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The patterns of acidic and neutral glycosphingolipids (GSLs) were examined in a syngeneic tumour system in Balb/c mice consisting of closely related cell lines with different colonisation potentials directed to the murine lungs (in vivo selected highly metastatic sublines of L1-fibrosarcoma cells and their WGA-resistant mutants with low metastatic potential). GSLs were analysed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography and structurally identified by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry...

Hanisch, F. G.; So?lter, J.; Jansen, V.; Lochner, A.; Peter-katalinic, J.; Uhlenbruck, G.

1990-01-01

338

Mantle deformation in Sikkim and adjoining Himalaya: Evidences for a complex flow pattern  

Science.gov (United States)

New measurements of azimuthal anisotropy within the Himalayan collision zone and southern Tibet, obtained by applying the SKS-splitting technique to waveforms from 31 broadband seismic stations, reveal significant variations in the strength and orientation of the fast axes. Stations in the Sikkim Himalaya, show strong anisotropy south of Main Central Thrust (MCT), with delay times ˜1 s. The fast polarization directions are nearly parallel to the strike of the Himalaya mountain chain and vary consistently along the profile, from 105° in the south to 130° in the north. However, in the adjacent Nepal Himalaya, a predominance of plate motion related strain is observed, at least up to the MCT. The western portion of southern Tibet, south of the Indus-Tsangpo suture zone, reveals characteristics of E-W oriented anisotropy, contrary to null anisotropy found in the eastern part. The complex flow pattern revealed in the present study may be due a combination of basal shear resulting from plate motion and ductile flow along the collision front due to compression.

Singh, Arun; Kumar, M. Ravi; Raju, P. Solomon

2007-10-01

339

Variation in net primary productivity and biomass of forests in the high mountains of Central Himalaya  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study describes the biomass and net primary productivity of the forests of Central Himalaya occurring in areas where vegetation ranges from close-canopy broad-leaved forest to stunted open-canopy timberline vegetation. The forests studied were Acer cappadocicum forest at 2750 m, Betula utilis forest at 3150 m, and Rhododendron campanulatum forest at 3300 m altitude in Central Himalaya. With the rise in altitude the forest biomass decreased from 308.3 ton/ha in Acer forest to 40.5 ton/ha in Rhododendron forest. The decrease in net primary productivity was less steep, from 19.6 ton/ha/yr in Acer forest to 10.0 ton/ha/yr in Rhododendron forest. The production efficiency of leaves (net production per unit leaf weight) in these forests is higher than in low altitude broad-leaved forests of Central Himalaya, i.e. from 2.89 in Acer forest to 3.41 g net production/g leaf biomass/yr, against 0.81-1.55 at lower altitudes. 31 refs, 6 tabs

Garkoti, S.C.; Singh, S.P. [Dept. of Botany, Kumaun Univ., Naini Tal (India)

1995-05-01

340

Focal depths and fault plane solutions of earthquakes and active tectonics of the Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

Synthetic seismograms were compared with long-period body waves for nine earthquakes with epicenters in the Himalayan arc to determine depths of foci and to improve fault plane solutions. Focal depths are shallow (10-20 km). Inferred slip vectors are locally perpendicular to the mountain range; they plunge very gently (about 10 deg) in the eastern sections of the range and more steeply (about 25 deg) in western sections. Assuming India to be a rigid plate, the radially oriented slip vectors imply that southern Tibet extends at about half the rate of underthrusting in the Himalaya and therefore probably at about 5-10 mm/yr. The shallow depths and gentle dips of the fault planes, at least for the events in the eastern half of the range, are consistent with coherent underthrusting of the Indian plate beneath, at least, the Lesser Himalaya. The steeper dips of fault planes in the western part of the arc might reflect deformation of the overriding thrust plate or simply a steepening of the main underthrusting zone beneath the Greater Himalaya.

Baranowski, J.; Armbruster, J.; Seeber, L.; Molnar, P.

1984-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

A climatological-dynamical analysis associated with precipitation around the southern part of the Himalayas  

Science.gov (United States)

The precipitation variability and circulation characteristics around the Himalayas are examined using the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data, the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Asian Monsoon Experiment (GAME) reanalysis, National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP-NCAR) reanalysis, and some of the Indian radiosonde data sets. The observation by precipitation radar on board the TRMM satellite reveals an afternoon maximum of precipitation during the premonsoon season and midnight-early morning maximum during the summer monsoon season over the southern slopes of the Himalayas. The data also shows that the morning precipitation moves southward in the mature monsoon season. The GAME reanalysis reveals a robust diurnal cycle of the atmospheric system that is coherent with the diurnal cycle of precipitation around the southern slopes of the Himalayas. The significant increase of moisture due to the southeasterly wind in the mature monsoon season seems to produce favorable conditions for the midnight-early morning rain. The down-valley wind at midnight probably triggers moist convection. The radiative cooling at the top of clouds may enhance the convection. The precipitation associated with the moist convection seems to generate a cold pool, which results in a density current. The downslope movement of the density current probably induces the southward movement of the precipitation system in the morning.

Bhatt, B. C.; Nakamura, K.

2006-01-01

342

New insights into trace element wet deposition in the Himalayas: amounts, seasonal patterns, and implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our research provides the first complete year-long dataset of wet deposition of trace elements in the high Himalayas based on a total of 42 wet deposition events on the northern slope of Mt. Qomolangma (Everest). Except for typical crustal elements (Al, Fe, and Mn), the concentration level of most trace elements (Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Cd, Sn, Cs, Pb, Bi, and U) are generally comparable to those preserved in snow pits and ice cores from the nearby East Rongbuk Glacier. Cadmium was the element most affected by anthropogenic emissions. No pronounced seasonal variations are observed for most trace elements despite different transport pathways. In our study, the composition of wet precipitation reflects a regional background condition and is not clearly related to specific source regions. For the trace element record from ice cores and snow pits in the Himalayas, it could be deduced that the pronounced seasonal patterns were caused by the dry deposition of trace elements (aerosols) during their long exposure to the atmosphere after precipitation events. Our findings are of value for the understanding of the trace element deposition mechanisms in the Himalayas. PMID:25205151

Cong, Zhiyuan; Kang, Shichang; Zhang, Yulan; Gao, Shaopeng; Wang, Zhongyan; Liu, Bin; Wan, Xin

2014-09-11

343

One Dimensional Reference velocity model and precise locations of earthquake hypocenters in the Central Himalaya  

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We report a well constrained velocity model of the Central (Kumaon-Garhwal) Himalaya, based on a rigorous analysis of over 5,000 seismograms generated at 50 digital broadband seismic stations in the region between April 2005 and June 2008. These include data from 385 local earthquakes with azimuth gaps of less than 180°, each of which had a minimum of 7P and 5S phase readings. This velocity model was then used to map the locations of 1150 earthquakes of magnitude between 1 and 5, that occurred in the region during the recording period.A majority of these occur in the upper 20 km of the crust and form a 50 km wide band along the surface trace of the Main Central Thrust, as first shown by Gaur et al.(1984). However, we also find another parallel band of earthquakes about 70 km to its southwest, and a significant number both in the Tethys Himalaya and within the flexed crust of the under-thrusting Indian plate beneath the Ganga basin, notably along an arc-normal band through Chamoli which has witnessed two moderate earthquakes (of magnitude more than 5 ) over the past dozen years. Furthermore, unlike the reported absence of seismicity (Monsalve et al. 2006) in the lower crust of Nepal Himalaya, and its reappearance in the shallow mantle, the Central Himalayan crust is found to be seismically active throughout, with no event reliably recorded in the shallow mantle of this region during the epoch of our seismic recording.

Rai, S. S.; Perugu, M.; Krishnavajjhala, S.; Paul, A.; Parimi, R.; Gupta, S.; Gaur, V. K.

2011-12-01

344

Crustal density structure from 3D gravity modeling beneath Himalaya and Lhasa blocks, Tibet  

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The Himalaya and Lhasa blocks act as the main belt of convergence and collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates. Their crustal structures can be used to understand the dynamic process of continent-continent collision. Herein, we present a 3D crustal density model beneath these two tectonic blocks constrained by a review of all available active seismic and passive seismological results on the velocity structure of crust and lower lithosphere. From our final crustal density model, we infer that the present subduction-angle of the Indian plate is small, but presents some variations along the west-east extension of the orogenic belt: The dip angle of the Moho interface is about 8-9° in the eastern and western part of the orogenic belt, and about 16° in the central part. Integrating crustal P-wave velocity distribution from wide-angle seismic profiling, geothermal data and our crustal density model, we infer a crustal composition model, which is composed of an upper crust with granite-granodiorite and granite gneiss beneath the Lhasa block; biotite gneiss and phyllite beneath the Himalaya, a middle crust with granulite facies and possible pelitic gneisses, and a lower crust with gabbro-norite-troctolite and mafic granulite beneath the Lhasa block. Our density structure (<3.2 g/cm3) and composition (no fitting to eclogite) in the lower crust do not be favor to the speculation of ecologitized lower crust beneath Himalaya and the southern of Lhasa block.

Bai, Zhiming; Zhang, Sufang; Braitenberg, Carla

2013-12-01

345

Impact of aerosol on surface reaching solar irradiance over Mohal in the northwestern Himalaya, India  

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The present study, for the first time during 2007, is focused to examine the impact of aerosols on surface reaching solar irradiance over Mohal (31.9°N, 77.12°E, 1154 m amsl) in the northwestern part of the Indian Himalaya. The study also aims to estimate shortwave aerosol radiative forcing (SWARF) and its effect on regional climate. The multi-wavelength solar radiometer (MWR) is used to measure aerosol optical depth (AOD) over a wider spectrum, i.e. ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared. The AOD is obtained by analyzing the data from MWR following the Langley technique. The radiative transfer model is used along with Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds model to estimate the SWARF. Aerosol shows a great efficiency to reduce substantial fraction of energy from the surface reaching direct solar beam, i.e. 154 W m-2 ?m-1 per unit AOD at 0.5 ?m. The SWARF at the surface, top of the atmosphere and the atmosphere is estimated to be -18.5±1.7, +0.6±3.7 and +19.1±3.1 W m-2, respectively. The large SWARF at the surface stood during the summer (April-July), while small during the monsoon (August-September). Moderate SWARF is obtained in the autumn (October-November) and winter (December-March). The study estimates a notable extinction in incoming solar radiation relatively with lower atmospheric heating from 0.41 to 0.73 K day-1. The potential effect of aerosol is found relatively higher on high aerosol loading days. On these days, the lower atmospheric heating increases by a factor 1.8 (during dust events) and 1.7 (during biomass burning). This study concludes that aerosols produce significant reduction in incoming solar radiation with substantial increase in lower atmospheric heating, leading to a remarkable effect on the atmospheric stability. In addition, as a subject of future interest, the present study has also important implications on the atmospheric circulation and regional climate.

Guleria, Raj Paul; Kuniyal, Jagdish Chandra; Dhyani, Pitamber Prasad; Joshi, Ranjan; Sharma, Nand Lal

2014-02-01

346

Studies of the in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials of selected Yemeni medicinal plants from the island Soqotra  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent years have witnessed that there is a revival of interest in drug discovery from medicinal plants for the maintenance of health in all parts of the world. The aim of this work was to investigate 26 plants belonging to 17 families collected from a unique place in Yemen (Soqotra Island for their in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Methods The 26 plants were extracted with methanol and hot water to yield 52 extracts. Evaluation for in vitro anticancer activity was done against three human cancer cell lines (A-427, 5637 and MCF-7 by using an established microtiter plate assay based on cellular staining with crystal violet. Antimicrobial activity was tested against three Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria, one yeast species and three multiresistant Staphylococcus strains by using an agar diffusion method and the determination of MIC against three Gram-positive bacteria with the broth micro-dilution assay. Antioxidant activity was investigated by measuring the scavenging activity of the DPPH radical. Moreover, a phytochemical screening of the methanolic extracts was done. Results Notable cancer cell growth inhibition was observed for extracts from Ballochia atro-virgata, Eureiandra balfourii and Hypoestes pubescens, with IC50 values ranging between 0.8 and 8.2 ?g/ml. The methanol extracts of Acanthospermum hispidum, Boswellia dioscorides, Boswellia socotrana, Commiphora ornifolia and Euphorbia socotrana also showed noticeable antiproliferative potency with IC50 values Acacia pennivenia, Boswellia dioscorides, Boswellia socotrana, Commiphora ornifolia, Euclea divinorum, Euphorbia socotrana, Leucas samhaensis, Leucas virgata, Rhus thyrsiflora, and Teucrium sokotranum with inhibition zones > 15 mm and MIC values ? 250 ?g/ml. In addition, the methanolic extracts of Acacia pennivenia, Boswellia dioscorides, Boswellia socotrana and Commiphora ornifolia showed good antioxidant potential at low concentrations (more than 80% at 50 ?g/ml. Conclusion Our results show once again that medicinal plants can be promising sources of natural products with potential anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidative activity. The results will guide the selection of some plant species for further pharmacological and phytochemical investigations.

Bednarski Patrick J

2009-03-01

347

Contemporary deformation in the Kashmir-Himachal, Garhwal and Kumaon Himalaya: significant insights from 1995-2008 GPS time series  

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We present new insights on the time-averaged surface velocities, convergence and extension rates along arc-normal transects in Kumaon, Garhwal and Kashmir-Himachal regions in the Indian Himalaya from 13 years of high-precision Global Positioning System (GPS) time series (1995-2008) derived from GPS data at 14 GPS permanent and 42 campaign stations between and . The GPS surface horizontal velocities vary significantly from the Higher to Lesser Himalaya and are of the order of 30 to 48 mm/year NE in ITRF 2005 reference frame, and 17 to 2 mm/year SW in an India fixed reference frame indicating that this region is accommodating less than 2 cm/year of the India-Eurasia plate motion (). The total arc-normal shortening varies between along the different transects of the northwest Himalayan wedge, between the Indo-Tsangpo suture to the north and the Indo-Gangetic foreland to the south indicating high strain accumulation in the Himalayan wedge. This convergence is being accommodated differentially along the arc-normal transects; in Lesser Himalaya and 3-4 mm/year in Higher Himalaya south of South Tibetan Detachment. Most of the convergence in the Lesser Himalaya of Garhwal and Kumaon is being accommodated just south of the Main Central Thrust fault trace, indicating high strain accumulation in this region which is also consistent with the high seismic activity in this region. In addition, for the first time an arc-normal extension of has also been observed in the Tethyan Himalaya of Kumaon. Inverse modeling of GPS-derived surface deformation rates in Garhwal and Kumaon Himalaya using a single dislocation indicate that the Main Himalayan Thrust is locked from the surface to a depth of over a width of 110 km with associated slip rate of . These results indicate that the arc-normal rates in the Northwest Himalaya have a complex deformation pattern involving both convergence and extension, and rigorous seismo-tectonic models in the Himalaya are necessary to account for this pattern. In addition, the results also gave an estimate of co-seismic and post-seismic motion associated with the 1999 Chamoli earthquake, which is modeled to derive the slip and geometry of the rupture plane.

Jade, Sridevi; Mukul, Malay; Gaur, V. K.; Kumar, Kireet; Shrungeshwar, T. S.; Satyal, G. S.; Dumka, Rakesh Kumar; Jagannathan, Saigeetha; Ananda, M. B.; Kumar, P. Dileep; Banerjee, Souvik

2014-06-01

348

Earthquake Relocation and Lateral Variation of Coda Q in Sikkim-Himalaya  

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We use data from 29 local earthquakes recorded by a network of broadband 3-component stations in Sikkim Himalaya for estimation of frequency dependent attenuation of the crust. The events range in magnitude from 3.0-5.5 and had occurred between 2005 to present. First these events are relocated using phase data from both local and regional seismograms recorded by stations within a radius of 350 km. We then use the local records of event-receiver pairs to measure the decay of coda amplitudes at a range of central frequencies (eg. 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 10 and 12 Hz). These measurements have then been combined to estimate the frequency dependence of coda Q of the form Q(f)= Q0*f? given as: Q(f)= 123.700 × 29.301 f(0.979 × 0.038) For these 43 event-receiver pairs, the Q0 value has been observed to range from 80-200 with an average of 123.700 × 29.301 and eta ranging from 0.92 - 1.04 with an average of 0.979 × 0.038. In order to unravel the lateral variation of Q0, we regionalized the measured Q0 values by combining all the event-receiver path measurements using a back projection algorithm. In order to stabilize the inversion a nine-point spatial smoothening (similar to spatial Gaussian filter) has been applied to our dataset. Our results reveal that the Himalaya is characterized by low Q0 (80-100) values compared to the foreland basin to its south (150-200). Within the Himalaya we observe two E-W trending low Q0 regions. A comparison with the crustal structure beneath the Sikkim Himalaya reveals that the low Q0 regions correspond to the ramp on the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT) beneath the Higher Himalaya. This is a region of high strain and profuse micro-seismicity corresponding to observed low quality factor of the crust.

Ajaay, T.; Mitra, S.

2013-12-01

349

Instrument-free control of the standard potential of potentiometric solid-contact ion-selective electrodes by short-circuiting with a conventional reference electrode.  

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A simple, instrument-free method to control the standard potential (E°) of potentiometric solid-contact ion-selective electrodes (SC-ISE) is described. In this method, the electrode potential of a SC-ISE is reset by short-circuiting the electrode with a metallic wire to a conventional Ag/AgCl/3 M KCl reference electrode (RE) in a solution containing primary ions. The method is studied experimentally for SC-ISEs where the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with the bulky anion poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate), PEDOT(PSS), is used as the solid contact. Three different types of ion-selective membranes (ISMs) are studied: two potassium-selective membranes, with and without the lipohilic additive tetradodecylammonium tetrakis(4-chlorophenyl)borate (ETH-500) and a cation-sensitive membrane without an ionophore. When the SC-ISE is short-circuited with the RE, the PEDOT(PSS) layer is oxidized or reduced, thereby shifting the potential of the SC-ISE to the proximity of the potential of the RE so that the potential difference between these two electrodes becomes zero or close to zero. The slope of the calibration curve is preserved after the short-circuit treatment of the SC-ISEs. The short-circuiting method is an important step toward calibration-free potentiometric analysis. PMID:25284311

Vanamo, Ulriika; Bobacka, Johan

2014-11-01

350

A novel barley cultivar (Himalaya 292) with a specific gene mutation in starch synthase IIa raises large bowel starch and short-chain fatty acids in rats.  

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Himalaya 292 (Hordeum vulgare, var. himalaya 292) is a novel, hull-less barley cultivar with a single nucleotide change in the gene encoding starch synthase IIa (EC 2.4.1.21). This leads to loss of enzyme activity, resulting in a grain with less total starch and a higher proportion of amylose. These changes, plus higher total and soluble nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP), could increase its resistant starch (RS) content. Accordingly, rats were fed a diet containing stabilized whole-grain barley flours from Himalaya 292 or two commercial varieties (Namoi or Waxiro) or wheat or oat bran at equivalent NSP concentrations for 14 d. There were favorable significant changes in a number of bowel health-related indices. Fecal output by rats fed Himalaya 292 was higher than by those fed Namoi or oat bran, whereas total large bowel digesta mass was higher than in those fed WAXIRO: Cecal starch concentrations and pools were higher in rats fed Himalaya 292 than in all other groups. Fecal and cecal digesta pH was lower in rats fed Himalaya 292 than in all other groups except that fed oat bran. Colonic digesta pH was lower in rats fed Himalaya 292 than in those fed wheat bran or NAMOI: Fecal total SCFA excretion was higher in rats fed Himalaya 292 than in those fed Namoi or oat bran. Although cecal total SCFA pools did not differ among groups, colonic SCFA were higher in rats fed Himalaya 292 than in those fed Namoi or WAXIRO: These data indicate that changes in Himalaya 292 grain composition result in greater RS with consequent alterations in large bowel SCFA and pH when fed to rats. PMID:15051833

Bird, Anthony R; Flory, Corinna; Davies, Debra A; Usher, Sylvia; Topping, David L

2004-04-01

351

Rauwolfia (Reserpine) As a Potential Antihypertensive Agent: A Review  

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The root of Rauwolfia serpentina Benth has been used in India from century. The genus name was selected in honor of Dr. Leonhard Rauwolf, a 16thcentury German botanist, Physician & explorer. Rauwolfia serpentina is a large climbing/twining herb or shrub, belonging to family Apocynaceae and found in the Assam, Pegu, Himalayas, Java, Tennasserim, Deccan, Peninsula, Bihar and the Malay Peninsula. Reserpine is the principle alkaloid of Rauwolfia serpentina and has its clinical application with su...

Gawade B.V.; Fegade S.A.

2012-01-01

352

Radon Precursory Signals for Some Earthquakes of Magnitude > 5 Occurred in N-W Himalaya: An Overview  

Science.gov (United States)

The N-W Himalaya was rocked by a few major and many minor earthquakes. Two major earthquakes in Garhwal Himalaya: Uttarkashi earthquake of magnitude Ms= 7.0 (mb = 6.6) on October 20, 1991 in Bhagirthi valley and Chamoli earthquake of Ms= 6.5 (mb = 6.8) on March 29, 1999 in the Alaknanda valley and one in Himachal Himalaya: Chamba earthquake of magnitude 5.1 on March 24, 1995 in Chamba region, were recorded during the last decade and correlated with radon anomalies. The helium anomaly for Chamoli earthquake was also recorded and the Helium/Radon ratio model was tested on it. The precursory nature of radon and helium anomalies is a strong indicator in favor of geochemical precursors for earthquake prediction and a preliminary test for the Helium/Radon ratio model.

Walia, Vivek; Virk, Hardev Singh; Bajwa, Bikramjit Singh

2006-04-01

353

Darkening of the mid-Himalaya glaciers since 2000 and the potential causes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Himalayan glaciers are a vital water source for people in the high regions of Asia. Their complete melting would be a crisis for approximately 1 billion people. Albedo is one of the key parameters that affect the energy balance of the snow and ice surfaces. Since 2000, albedos have been retrieved from satellite data for eleven representative Himalayan glaciers. It was found that most of the glaciers showed declining trends in the albedo of their upper areas, indicating that they have generally become darker in the past decade. A simulation case study in conjunction with in situ measurements showed that light-absorbing constituents (e.g., black carbon and dust) could be partly responsible for this phenomenon during late springtime; the background regional warming could also be responsible. The current surface radiation absorption in Himalayan glaciers could lead to significant melting, causing most of them to be in danger of rapid mass loss. (letter)

354

Selection of candidate container materials for the conceptual waste package design for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain  

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Preliminary selection criteria have been developed, peer-reviewed, and applied to a field of 41 candidate materials to choose three alloys for further consideration during the advanced conceptual design phase of waste package development for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These three alloys are titanium grade 12, Alloy C-4, and Alloy 825. These selections are specific to the particular conceptual design outlined in the Site Characterization Plan. Other design concepts that may be considered in the advanced conceptual design phase may favor other materials choices

355

Lack of Abuse Potential in a Highly Selective Dopamine D3 Agonist, PF-592,379, in Drug Self-Administration and Drug Discrimination in Rats  

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Dopamine D3-preferring agonists are commonly used to treat Parkinson’s disease and restless leg syndrome; however, laboratory animal studies suggest that they may possess a moderate abuse potential. These studies aimed to compare the highly-selective, full D3 agonist PF-592,379 to that of the less selective D3 agonist 7-OH-DPAT, and the indirect dopamine agonist cocaine in drug self-administration and discrimination assays. Although rats readily acquired high rates of fixed ratio (FR)1 resp...

Collins, Gregory T.; Butler, Paul; Wayman, Chris; Ratcliffe, Sian; Gupta, Paul; Oberhofer, Geoffrey; Caine, S. Barak

2012-01-01

356

Implication of the southern Tethyan Himalaya (Sutlej section, India) for the extrusion of the Higher Himalaya and the geometry of the mid-crustal channel  

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In the last three years, various combinations of channel flow and critical taper mechanisms have been suggested as plausible mechanism for the extrusion of the Higher Himalaya (HH, Beaumont and Jamieson 2010; Chambers et al., 2011; Larson et al., 2011; Corrie et al., 2012; Long et al. 2012; Mukherjee, in press). An alternate and rather less popular model of the HH has been southward droop of the northern boundary of the HH viz. the 'South Tibetan Detachment System-Upper (STDSU)' (Exner et al. 2006). Had the later been true, drag folds with southward vergence would be expected immediately north of the STDSU. In a SW to NE traverse from Morang up to Spillo along the Sutlej river valley (Himachal Pradesh, India), such folds do occur within the southern part of the Tethyan Himalaya. On close observation, the primary shear planes of top-to~S shear are overturned by folds with broad rounded hinges and with ~ NE dipping axial planes and limbs. The shear sense indicated by the sigmoid fabrics matches with the asymmetry of the folds. Northward from Spillo, large-scale folds (antiforms) with down-dip extensional shear in both limbs indicate 'irregular' doming of the Tethyan sediments. One of the best exposures of this shear sense that could be deciphered even from a distance is where the National Highway 22 running along the river valley joins the road to Nasang village. Below the Tethyan sediments, a mid-crustal sub-horizontal channel is widely accepted to allow the Higher Himalayan rock materials to flow from beneath south Tibet. Much north of Spillo, the Leo Pargil granite-gneiss dome has been suggested as an exposure of the channel materials. Thus, this work suggests (i) flap of the STDSU might have triggered the extrusion of the HH; and (ii) doming of a part of the Tethyan Himalaya could be due to the rise of low-density hot, partially molten rocks through the sub-horizontal channel. This would imply that the upper boundary of the sub-horizontal channel was flexible rather than rigid. Following Mancktelow (2008), the viscosity ratio between the mid-crustal material and that of the surrounding Tethyan sediments might be > 10-7.Taking the viscosity of the mid-crustal material as 1018-1019 Pa s, that for the Tethyan schists are loosely constrained as < 1025 to 1026 Pa s. This matches the viscosity values (between 500-700 0C: 1018-1019 Pa s) given for schists by Landholt-Bornstein (1982).

Mukherjee, Soumyajit

2013-04-01

357

Geochemical evolution of peraluminous paleoproterozoic bandal orthogneiss NW, Himalaya, Himachal Pradesh, India: implications for the ancient crustal growth in the Himalaya  

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Paleoproterozoic (1900±100 Ma) granites along a 2000 km linear belt in the Lesser Himalaya are significant in terms of their tectonic setting and emplacement as they form the basement for younger sedimentary cover rocks. The geochemistry and petrogenesis of one granitic body (Bandal Orthogneiss, 1904±70 Ma) from the Lesser Himalayan belt has been studied and correlated with the other plutons in the belt. The Paleoproterozoic Bandal orthogneiss, covering ˜500 sq. km surface area, occupies the core of the Kulu-Rampur window, Himachal Pradesh, NW Lesser Himalaya. The orthogneiss is S-type, peraluminous and can be subdivided into two suites: a muscovite-biotite granite [Suite I, coarse grained porphyritic gneiss (CPG) and fine grained gneiss (FG)] and a tourmaline-muscovite granite [Suite II, leucogranite, (LG)]. The two mica granites (Suite I) form the bulk of the Bandal orthogneiss whereas the tourmaline-bearing granite, which cuts across suite I, occurs in the central part of the main pluton. Comparison of their bulk composition with melt experimental data suggest formation of LG from a water-undersaturated magma of minimum-melt composition at pressures around 3-4 kbar whereas the tourmaline-free granites may have been derived by melting due to biotite dehydration at pressures >5 kbar. High concentrations of MgO+FeO, Ba/Sr, Rb/Sr and Ti of the two-mica granites reflect higher extents of melting derived from biotite dehydration melting of a metasedimentary source. Tourmaline leucogranites with higher Rb/Sr and low Ba/Sr ratios represent low-fraction melts extracted from their protoliths under conditions of low water activity. The striking similarities in terms of the geological setting, geochemical characteristics and the age data between Bandal orthogneisses and the adjoining Wangtu Gneisses suggest that they were formed under similar tectono-magmatic environment during Paleoproterozic period. The wide spread occurrence of Paleoproterozoic gneisses in the Lesser Himalayan belt strongly suggest that they represent the granitic basement on which the younger sedimentary rocks were deposited. The geochemical studies on the overlying sedimentary rocks (Chail and Jutogh formations) in the Lesser Himalaya suggest that the huge volumes of granitic magmatism played a significant role in changing the crustal composition of the Himalayan rocks from mafic to felsic during the post-Archean.

Sharma, K. K.; Rashid, S. A.

2001-06-01

358

Spatiotemporal variation in exhumation of the Crystallines in the NW-Himalaya, India: Constraints from fission track dating analysis  

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During Himalayan orogeny, coeval thrusting along the Main Central/Munsiari Thrust (MCT/MT) and extension along the South Tibetan-Detachment System (STDS) are widely responsible for rapid exhumation of the Higher Himalayan Crystalline (HHC) zone. Apatite and zircon fission-track data along the Kaliganga and Darma valleys in the Kumaon Himalaya serve to document the shallow bedrock exhumation history of the HHC. Taking into account sample location within the HHC with respect to the MCT/MT, the apatite fission track (AFT) data-sets along the Darma (1.0 ± 0.1 to 2.8 ± 0.3 Ma) and Kaliganga (1.4 ± 0.2 to 2.4 ± 0.3 Ma) which are sharing same structural setting and rock types and being separated by 40 km, show very similar patterns of exhumation histories since Plio-Quaternary in the Kumaon Himalaya. Data sets along Darma and Kaliganga are very similar to data set of adjacent traverse (50 km away) along the Goriganga valley studied by Patel and Carter (2009). Whole data sets within the HHC in Kumaon Himalaya provide clear evidence for Plio-Quaternary tectonic activity along the Vaikrita Thrust (VT). Precipitation in this region exerts a strong influence on erosional surface processes. Fluvial erosional unloading along the Himalaya is focused on the high mountainous region of the HHC, where the orographic barrier forces out the maximum percentage of annual rainfall. FT cooling ages reveal coincidence between rapid erosion and exhumation that is focused in a ~ 25-30 km wide sector of the HHC, rather than covering the entire orogen. Similarity of AFT age pattern and exhumation rates along all three major traverses (Goriganga, Darma and Kaliganga) indicates that the region has been experiencing constant rate of crustal uplift and erosion since long time. Comparison of fission track ages from the Kumaon Himalaya with other segments of the NW-Himalaya shows spatiotemporal variation in exhumation. It is described due to the development of local structures such as dome/window in Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Himalayas and Quaternary active thrusting along the VT and MCT/MT in the Garhwal-Kumaon Himalaya.

Patel, R. C.; Adlakha, Vikas; Lal, Nand; Singh, Paramjeet; Kumar, Y.

2011-05-01

359

Evaluation of potential mineral resources in the vicinity of seven selected domes in Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report attempts to evaluate, as quantitatively as reasonable, the possible potential resources around seven salt domes in East Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. Any estimation of possible potential resources is difficult under the most favorable circumstances, so in the absence of precise geophysical data supplemented by drilling, any such estimates must be considered best-guess estimates. It is possible, however, to achieve a range of possible amounts of potential resources, the maximal ranges being impractical but, providing a framework within which future data will categorize and evaluate the resources more precisely. These volumetric ranges of potential resources for each dome have been estimated and each dome then ranked on a scale of 1 to 10 for (a) prospectivity of the enclosing stratigraphic sequences, (b) structural prospectivity, (c) prospectivity relative to different possible potential resources, and (d) a collective prospectivity

360

Improvement of Sexual Destination in Atropa acuminata Royle (Solanaceae-A Critically Endangered Medicinal Plant of Northwestern Himalaya  

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Full Text Available Good seed set is no guarantee of absolute sexual destination in plants. Seed viability and seed vigour are crucial phases in the life cycle of every sexually reproducing plant. The present study was an attempt to improve the sexual destination-the germination and seedling survival of Atropa acuminata Royle (Solanaceae, an endemic and extremely restricted sub-alpine medicinal plant of North West Himalayas under ex situ conditions at (1580 m with an aim to develop a successful germination protocol and agrotechnique in order to revegetate disturbed areas. Among various treatments given to the seeds, GA3, Scarification, warm water treatment and chilling at 4°C for 90 days were found to be most effective with percentage germination of 73.3±18.80, 79.95±9.40, 66.6±6.6, 45±7.07 (X±SE, respectively. The results reveal that the seeds do not germinate unless specific environmental signals or events occur which trigger the genetic and hormonal response of the seeds thereby facilitating their germination. The diversity and the extent of the dormancy mechanisms encountered here suggest that under harsh conditions, natural selection may favour seeds with a genetic system for dormancy and delayed germination. A relation was observed between seed size/weight,%age germination and subsequent seedling survival. Seedling survival is also effected by specific habitat requirement and stiff intra and inter-specific competition particularly the whimsical behaviour of Sambucus wigthiana (an alien species which grows in the vicinity of Atropa is beyond the ken of Atropa, adding fuel to the already burning candle apart from habitat fragmentation and herbivory.

Parvaiz A. Wani

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Synthesis of novel pyrazole–thiadiazole hybrid as potential potent and selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors.  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of 1,3,4-trisubstituted pyrazole derivatives (3 a-f), (4 a-f), and (5 a-f) have been synthesized and evaluated for their cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2) inhibitory activity. The structures of newly synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, 1H NMR, and mass spectral analysis. All of the compounds showed good inhibition of COX-2 with IC50 of 1.33-17.5 ?M. Among these derivatives, compound (5c) was the most potent and selective COX-2 inhibitor (IC50 = 1.33 ?M), with a significant selectivity index (SI > 60). Molecular docking studies were carried out in order to predict the hypothetical binding mode of these compounds to the COX-2 isoenzyme. The result of present study suggests that pyrazole-thiadiazole hybrid could be an interesting approach for the design of new selective COX-2 inhibitory agents. PMID:25444084

Alegaon, S G; Hirpara, M B; Alagawadi, K R; Hullatti, K K; Kashniyal, K

2014-11-15

362

The CMIP5 picture of current and future precipitation in the Karakoram-Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

Extended and orographically complex areas, such as the Hindu-Kush Karakoram Himalaya (HKKH) region, can pose a serious challenge for climate models in their ability to reproduce historical precipitation and in projecting its future change, particularly for global climate models (GCM), still characterized by a quite coarse resolution. This study analyses and compares the skill of a set of thirty-two state-of-the-art GCMs participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) in simulating precipitation in the HKKH. In particular we consider the ability of the models in reproducing the annual cycle and historical long-term trends of precipitation and we analyse precipitation changes in future scenarios with respect to historical conditions. We consider separately the HKK (Hindu-Kush Karakoram) in the west and the Himalaya region in the east, which are characterized by different precipitation climatologies, known to depend on different circulation patterns. Future precipitation is analysed for the two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) scenarios RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5. Historical model simulations are compared with Climate Research Unit (CRU) and Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) precipitation data in the period 1901-2005. We find that the multi-model ensemble mean and most models exhibit a wet bias with respect to CRU and GPCC observations in both regions and in all seasons. The models differ greatly in the seasonal climatology of precipitation which they reproduce in the HKK. The CMIP5 models simulate wetter future conditions in the Himalaya in summer, with a gradual precipitation increase throughout the twenty-first century. Wetter summer future conditions are also predicted by most models in the RCP 8.5 scenario for the HKK, while no significant change can be detected in winter for both regions on average, with the models showing a large spread in their behaviour.

Palazzi, Elisa; von Hardenberg, Jost; Terzago, Silvia; Provenzale, Antonello

2014-05-01

363

Crustal Structure Beneath the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya from Teleseismic Receiver Functions  

Science.gov (United States)

The Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya lying between Nepal and Bhutan share the broad thrust geometries of the Himalayan belt, but differ from elsewhere along the arc in that the surface traces of the Main Central and the Main Boundary thrusts in the frontal part of the mountain belt are exposed within just a few kilometers of each other and the intervening region is occupied by several imbricate thrusts active in the Quaternary. These and other differences, notably the southward intrusion of the Tibetan plateau along the Yadong-Gulu rift zone between Sikkim and Bhutan, suggest possible differences in the crustal structure beneath this part of the range. We analyzed teleseismic receiver functions from 6 broadband seismographs oper