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Identification and bioactive potential of endophytic fungi isolated from selected plants of the Western Himalayas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was conducted to characterize and explore the endophytic fungi of selected plants from the Western Himalayas for their bioactive potential. A total of 72 strains of endophytic fungi were isolated and characterized morphologically as well as on the basis of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 ribosomal gene sequence acquisition and analyses. The fungi represented 27 genera of which two belonged to Basidiomycota, each representing a single isolate, while the rest of the isolates comprised of Ascomycetous...

2013-01-01

2

Identification and bioactive potential of endophytic fungi isolated from selected plants of the Western Himalayas.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted to characterize and explore the endophytic fungi of selected plants from the Western Himalayas for their bioactive potential. A total of 72 strains of endophytic fungi were isolated and characterized morphologically as well as on the basis of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 ribosomal gene sequence acquisition and analyses. The fungi represented 27 genera of which two belonged to Basidiomycota, each representing a single isolate, while the rest of the isolates comprised of Ascomycetous fungi. Among the isolated strains, ten isolates could not be assigned to a genus as they displayed a maximum sequence similarity of 95% or less with taxonomically characterized organisms. Among the host plants, the conifers, Cedrus deodara, Pinus roxburgii and Abies pindrow harbored the most diverse fungi, belonging to 13 different genera, which represented almost half of the total genera isolated. Several extracts prepared from the fermented broth of these fungi demonstrated strong bioactivity against E. coli and S. aureus with the lowest IC(50) of 18??g/ml obtained with the extract of Trichophaea abundans inhabiting Pinus sp. In comparison, extracts from only three endophytes were significantly inhibitory to Candida albicans, an important fungal pathogen. Further, 24 endophytes inhibited three or more phytopathogens by at least 50% in co-culture, among a panel of seven test organisms. Extracts from 17 fungi possessed immuno-modulatory activities with five of them showing significant immune suppression as demonstrated by the in vitro lymphocyte proliferation assay. This study is an important step towards tapping the endophytic fungal diversity from the Western Himalayas and assessing their bioactive potential. Further studies on the selected endophytes may lead to the isolation of novel natural products for use in medicine, industry and agriculture. PMID:23420270

Qadri, Masroor; Johri, Sarojini; Shah, Bhahwal A; Khajuria, Anamika; Sidiq, Tabasum; Lattoo, Surrinder K; Abdin, Malik Z; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed

2013-12-01

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Carbon Stock Potential of Oak and Pine Forests in Garhwal Region in Indian Central Himalayas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oak (Quercus leucotichophora and pine (Pinus roxburghii are the two most dominant forest types occurring in Indian Central Himalayas. CO2 mitigation potential of these two forest types was observed in the present study. Carbon stock densities for AGTB, BB, LHG, DWS, AGSB and SOC were estimated and higher values were recorded in oak forest stands. Total carbon density estimated was 2420.54 Mg/ha for oak forest of Gopeshwar and 986.93 Mg/ha for pine forest of Nandprayag. CO2 mitigation potential of oak forest of Gopeshwar was recorded to be 8,713.94 CO2e and of pine forests 3552.95 CO2e.

Nanda Nautiyal

2013-05-01

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Altitude and Tissue Type Influence Antioxidant Potential of Pellia endiviifolia from Darjeeling Himalaya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Herbal remedy is considered as one of the popular forms of alternative and complementary medicines. Plants are considered to possess a number of chemical constituents with diverse pharmacological efficacies. Bryophytes, a small group of plants, are known to contain unique secondary metabolites having pharmacological and potential therapeutic value. The primary focus of the study is to depict the role of altitude and tissue types on antioxidant capacity of the liverwort Pellia endiviifolia (Dicks. Dumort. (Pelliaceae. In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to explore the antioxidative potential of vegetative and reproductive tissues of P. endiviifolia collected from five different altitudes of Darjeeling Himalaya, West Bengal, India. Total phenolics and flavonoids contents of the liverwort samples were also determined. Methanol extract of the thalloid liverwort was investigated for antioxidant activity by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, total phenolic and flavonoid estimation. Maximum radical scavenging activity was found to be 89.336%±4.3. Maximum total phenolics content in 1 mg of the extract was 58±0.175 ?g of Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE per mg dry weight. Maximum flavonoids content in 1mg of the extract was 80.3±331 ?g of Quercetin Equivalent (QE per mg dry weight. The results indicate, for the first time, the antioxidative potential and possible use of the liverwort as a natural antioxidant. It also shows a variation of antioxidant capacity of the liverwort depending on their tissue type and their altitude of occurrence.

Abhijit Dey

2013-01-01

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Seedling growth and survival of selected wild edible fruit species of the Sikkim Himalaya, India  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Sikkim Himalaya, an enormous variety of wild growing plants are exploited at large scale for collection of their edible parts, of which six most prominently utilized fruit species (viz., Baccaurea sapida, Diploknema butyracea, Elaeagnus latifolia, Eriolobus indica, Machilus edulis and Spondias axillaris) were investigated. The growth of nursery raised seedlings was measured at 3 month intervals until two years old in terms of absolute growth rate (AGR), relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), leaf area ratio (LAR), leaf weight ratio (LWR), stem weight ratio (SWR), root weight ratio (RWR) and root-shoot ratio (RSR). Spondias axillaris and Machilus edulis had the maximum AGR, RGR, LAR and SWR among all species. LWR was highest for B. sapida. RGR, LAR and LWR declined with the age of seedlings. RGR was negatively correlated with NAR, SWR, RWR and RSR, though it showed a positive relationship with LAR. For all species, seedlings attained significant sizes after one year of age, and showed reasonable survival after transplantation into the farmers' fields. It is expected that information on the growth behaviour of these species would be useful while they are adopted into agroforestry systems. It is suggested that these species should be multiplied at large scale and distributed to the local inhabitants to reduce pressure on them in natural stands as well as provide economic benefit to the subsistence farmers.

Sundriyal, Manju; Sundriyal, R. C.

2005-07-01

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Hydrology of Himalayas Mountains through gauging of flood and Glaciers Melt historic data hydrographs over selected watersheds under changing climate, Pakistan  

Science.gov (United States)

Mountainous areas of higher altitudes in the northern Pakistan have numerous rivers of great surface runoff during the rainy months and glaciers melt seasons that play a significant role in water resources and hydro-power production. Many of these rivers are unexploited for their water resource potential. If the potential of these rivers are explored, hydro-power production and water supplies in these areas may be improved. The Indus is the mighty river in the Asian countries originating from mountainous area of the Himalayas of Baltistan, Pakistan in which most of the smaller streams and four main rivers drain. Under the larger interest of the economic development of the country, hydrology of these mountainous in northern Pakistan is studied in the perspective of climate change, which includes eight watersheds namely Gilgit, Hunza, Shigar, Shyok, Astore, Jhelum, Swat and Chitral. Available historic data from1960-2005 have been precisely utilized to study the hydrological changes with respect to variability in precipitation, temperature and mean monthly flows, trend of snow melt runoff, daily hydrographs of selected periods (1990 to 1999), water yield and runoff relationship, and flow duration curves. Precipitation from ten meteorological stations in mountainous area of northern Pakistan has not shown uniform distribution of rains but variability in the winter and summer rains is noticed. Review of mean monthly temperature of ten stations suggested that the Upper Indus Basin can be categorized into three hydrological regimes i.e., high altitude catchments with large glacierized parts, middle altitude catchments south of Karakoram, and foothill catchments. A 3-D finite element model (Feflow) has also been used for regional groundwater flow modeling of the Upper Chaj Doab in Indus Basin, Pakistan.

Ahmad, Z.

2013-12-01

7

Ethnobotany in the Nepal Himalaya  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Indigenous knowledge has become recognized worldwide not only because of its intrinsic value but also because it has a potential instrumental value to science and conservation. In Nepal, the indigenous knowledge of useful and medicinal plants has roots in the remote past. Methods The present study reviews the indigenous knowledge and use of plant resources of the Nepal Himalayas along the altitudinal and longitudinal gradient. A total of 264 ...

Kunwar Ripu M; Bussmann Rainer W

2008-01-01

8

Potential theory—selected topics  

CERN Document Server

The first part of these lecture notes is an introduction to potential theory to prepare the reader for later parts, which can be used as the basis for a series of advanced lectures/seminars on potential theory/harmonic analysis. Topics covered in the book include minimal thinness, quasiadditivity of capacity, applications of singular integrals to potential theory, L(p)-capacity theory, fine limits of the Nagel-Stein boundary limit theorem and integrability of superharmonic functions. The notes are written for an audience familiar with the theory of integration, distributions and basic functional analysis.

Aikawwa, Hiroaki

1996-01-01

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Selecting potential children and unconditional parental love.  

Science.gov (United States)

For now, the best way to select a child's genes is to select a potential child who has those genes, using genetic testing and either selective abortion, sperm and egg donors, or selecting embryos for implantation. Some people even wish to select against genes that are only mildly undesirable, or to select for superior genes. I call this selection drift--the standard for acceptable children is creeping upwards. The President's Council on Bioethics and others have raised the parental love objection: Just as we should love existing children unconditionally, so we should unconditionally accept whatever child we get in the natural course of things. If we set conditions on which child we get, we are setting conditions on our love for whatever child we get. Although this objection was prompted by selection drift, it also seems to cover selecting against genes for severe impairments. I argue that selection drift is not inconsistent with the ideal of unconditional parental love and, moreover, that the latter actually implies that we should practise selection drift--in other words, we should try to select potential children with the best genetic endowments. My endowment argument for the second claim works from an analogy between arranging an endowment prior to conception to fund a future child's education, and arranging a genetic endowment by selecting a potential child who already has it, where in both cases the child would not have existed without the endowment. I conclude with some programmatic remarks about the nonidentity problem. PMID:18447861

Davis, John

2008-06-01

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Export market potential for selected horticultural crops  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper examines the feasibility of utilising an irradiation plant to disinfest fresh fruit and vegetables destined for export markets. It examines the export market potential of selected crops with the prime view of estimating likely trends in export markets in the future. These trends will have a significant bearing on throughput levels, and hence on the economic viability of an ionising energy plant

1985-01-01

11

Could a megaquake occur in the Himalayas?  

Science.gov (United States)

GPS measurements of crustal deformation are showing that a magnitude 9 earthquake could occur in the Himalayas. Roger Bilham of the University of Colorado at Boulder reported at the AGU Fall Meeting that the region, known to be seismically active, could produce a much larger earthquake than previously thought. Bilham and colleagues used GPS to monitor rates of crustal deformation in the Himalayas. They found that the potential rupture zone is larger than scientists had believed—the region where strain is building is twice as wide as expected. Previous estimates, which were based on the historical earthquake record, suggested that the largest earthquake that would occur in the region would have a magnitude in the low 8s. Such an earthquake could be devastating—the Kashmir valley region alone is home to 6 million people.

Balcerak, Ernie

2011-12-01

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Inheritance of earthquake hazard from suturing: the Himalayas as an analogue for the structural architecture and seismic potential of the Greater Caucasus  

Science.gov (United States)

The nascent collision between the Arabian and Eurasian continents has created the second-largest active collisional orogen on Earth and provides a rare opportunity to investigate how structures formed during initial suturing influence and even control the subsequent first-order structural architecture of the evolving orogen. Between the Caspian and Black Seas, the Greater Caucasus Mountains form both the northern margin of the Arabia-Eurasia collision and the main locus of orogen-perpendicular shortening, despite being located some 700 km north of the Bitlis suture. A better understanding of active structures in the range is critical for understanding the mechanics and evolution of this collisional orogen. Developing such a structural model of the Greater Caucasus is also essential for assessing earthquake hazards. Here we begin to address these problems by using geologic maps, digital topographic data, and structural measurements to create preliminary geologic cross sections across the southern flank of the central and western Greater Caucasus. These sections span both a low-elevation foreland fold-thrust belt in the south and the main topographic front of the range ~15-40 km to the north. In addition, we investigate active deformation using topographic surveys of river terraces in the foreland south of the western Greater Caucasus range front near the city of Zugdidi. Based on these observations, we suggest that the neotectonic architecture of the range is broadly analogous to that of the Himalayas, where active deformation is not focused along a range-front-defining fault but instead is localized tens of kilometers to the south, along the south edge of a low-elevation, low-relief foreland fold-thrust belt. We infer that active faults within the fold-thrust belt sole into a shallow (~5-10 km deep), north-dipping basal decollement that roots into a crustal-scale ramp which lies beneath the main topography of the Greater Caucasus. Based on prior work on the regional geology of the range, we hypothesize that this geometry results from the Cenozoic closure of a relict Mesozoic ocean basin within the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone, broadly similar to the eastern Black Sea and South Caspian Basins to which it was connected. A new compilation of earthquake records from local seismic networks shows that the central and eastern Greater Caucasus Mountains are underlain by a northeast-dipping subducted slab, likely resulting from closure of this relict back-arc basin. Himalayan-style tectonism along the northern edge of the Arabia-Eurasia collision could potentially dictate the location, magnitude, and recurrence of seismicity in the Caucasus region, and as such has significant potential for seismic hazard assessment here. Rather than solely occurring on the main thrust within the range, this model suggests that significant earthquakes may occur within the fold-thrust belt and on a basal decollement that connects them to structures within the main range. Much of the region's population, including the Georgian capital city of Tbilisi, is found within or near the foreland fold-thrust belt.

Trexler, C.; Cowgill, E.; Forte, A. M.; Mumladze, T.; Sokhadze, G.; Elashvili, M.; Niemi, N. A.

2013-12-01

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Limit of strain partitioning in the Himalaya marked by large earthquakes in western Nepal  

Science.gov (United States)

Great earthquakes and high seismic risk in the Himalaya are thought to be focussed near the range front, where the Indian Plate slides beneath the mountain range. However, the Himalaya is curved and plate convergence becomes increasingly oblique westwards. Strain in the western Himalaya is hypothesized to be partitioned, such that western parts move northwestwards with respect to the central Himalaya. Here we use field data to identify a 63-km-long earthquake rupture on a previously unrecognized fault in the western Himalaya, far from the range front. We use radiocarbon dating to show that one or more earthquakes created 10m of surface displacement on the fault between AD 1165 and 1400. During this time interval, large range-front earthquakes also occurred. We suggest that the active fault we identified is part of a larger fault system, the Western Nepal Fault System, which cuts obliquely across the Himalaya. We combine our observations with a geodynamical model to show that the Western Nepal Fault System marks the termination of the strain-partitioned region of the western Himalaya and comprises a first-order structure in the three-dimensional displacement field of the mountain range. Our findings also identify a potential seismic hazard within the interior of the Himalaya that may necessitate significant changes to seismic hazard assessments.

Murphy, M. A.; Taylor, M. H.; Gosse, J.; Silver, C. R. P.; Whipp, D. M.; Beaumont, C.

2014-01-01

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Forest tree species discrimination in western Himalaya using EO-1 Hyperion  

Science.gov (United States)

The information acquired in the narrow bands of hyperspectral remote sensing data has potential to capture plant species spectral variability, thereby improving forest tree species mapping. This study assessed the utility of spaceborne EO-1 Hyperion data in discrimination and classification of broadleaved evergreen and conifer forest tree species in western Himalaya. The pre-processing of 242 bands of Hyperion data resulted into 160 noise-free and vertical stripe corrected reflectance bands. Of these, 29 bands were selected through step-wise exclusion of bands (Wilk's Lambda). Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithms were applied to the selected bands to assess their effectiveness in classification. SVM was also applied to broadband data (Landsat TM) to compare the variation in classification accuracy. All commonly occurring six gregarious tree species, viz., white oak, brown oak, chir pine, blue pine, cedar and fir in western Himalaya could be effectively discriminated. SVM produced a better species classification (overall accuracy 82.27%, kappa statistic 0.79) than SAM (overall accuracy 74.68%, kappa statistic 0.70). It was noticed that classification accuracy achieved with Hyperion bands was significantly higher than Landsat TM bands (overall accuracy 69.62%, kappa statistic 0.65). Study demonstrated the potential utility of narrow spectral bands of Hyperion data in discriminating tree species in a hilly terrain.

George, Rajee; Padalia, Hitendra; Kushwaha, S. P. S.

2014-05-01

15

Potential Selectable Marker for Genetic Transformation in Banana  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Successful genetic transformation of banana requires effective selection systems. The effectiveness of kanamycin, neomycin, genetic in G-418, paromomycin, basta and hygromycin as selection agents to inhibit the growth of single meristematic buds of Pisang Rastali (AAB) were evaluated. Due to the potential generation of chimeric plants containing both transformed and non-transformed in meristematic buds, the presence of an efficient refined selection system is essential in transformation studi...

Sreeramanan, S.; Maziah, M.; Abdullah, M. P.; Rosli, N. M.; Xavier, R.

2006-01-01

16

Wind energy potential in selected areas in Jordan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? This paper investigates the potential of producing wind power. ? Four locations are selected for wind power generation. ? The payback period is calculated and found reasonable. ? This study reveals that the total rated wind power that can be generated from the four selected wind farms is 136 MW. ? On the other hand, the expected total energy that can be produced from the four selected wind farms is 18.9 × 103 GW h. - Abstract: The present paper investigates the potential of wind energy in selected areas in Jordan. The aim of this work is to set up promising wind farms that are able to feed electricity to the Jordanian distribution authority with excellent percentage of clean energy. There are some particular locations in Jordan where the wind potential is very promising for economical electrical power generation. Four of these promising locations are investigated in this paper for the possibility of building and investing 100 MW wind turbine in each of these four locations. The environmental data needed to perform the present study are obtained from the local Meteorological department. The suggested wind turbines to be implemented in each of the four locations are selected from the international rating and specification catalogues of wind turbine manufacturers. This study reveals that the total rated wind power that can be generated from the four selected wind farms is 136 MW. On the other hand, the expected total energy that can be produced from the four selected wind farms is 18.9 × 103 GW h.

2013-01-01

17

Potential selection for female choice in Viola tricolor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

That sexual selection can be an active force in plant evolution is still under debate. When the number of pollen grains deposited onto a stigma exceeds the number of available ovules, competition among pollen grains for fertilizations will result in selection on traits that increase siring ability (e.g. pollen tube growth rate). The pistil can be regarded as an arena for pollen competition, where pistil size and shape have the potential to intensify competition and thereby increase the possib...

Skogsmyr, Io; Lankinen, A?sa

2000-01-01

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Potential Selectable Marker for Genetic Transformation in Banana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Successful genetic transformation of banana requires effective selection systems. The effectiveness of kanamycin, neomycin, genetic in G-418, paromomycin, basta and hygromycin as selection agents to inhibit the growth of single meristematic buds of Pisang Rastali (AAB were evaluated. Due to the potential generation of chimeric plants containing both transformed and non-transformed in meristematic buds, the presence of an efficient refined selection system is essential in transformation studies. Single buds were cultured on solid and liquid MS media supplemented with 5 mg L-1 of BAP for a period of four weeks. Six selection agents tested each at 0, 25, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 mg L-1. In preliminary experiment, basta and hygromycin were required at lower concentrations. Therefore, experiment was carried out at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 mg L-1. Of six compounds tested, basta and hygromycin was suitable selection agent since it inhibits the growth of single buds at lower concentrations. However, hygromycin selection makes it the preferred selection over basta for easily scoreable phenotype and faster inhibition response of explants. Genetic in G-418 is effective than kanamycin, neomycin and paromomycin for selecting transformed plants conferring resistance to npt11 gene. The use of liquid medium containing selection agents showed effective in banana due lower concentrations required and good contact between explants and medium.

S. Sreeramanan

2006-01-01

19

Determination of Half-wave Potentials of Selected Chlorophenols  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in english Cyclic voltammetry was used in cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) micellar solution to determine the half-wave potentials of selected chlorophenols, CPs. It is observed that all the electrochemical parameters of the studied CPs decrease with an increase in the number of chlorine atom(s) attached [...] to the parent compound. The mathematical relationship between the obtained E1/2 and the number of chlorine atoms in the parent compound is given. The formal potentials, E0', of the CPs are approximated from the obtained half-wave potentials.

Iwunze, M.O.; Abel, B..

20

Modelling analysis of potential carbon sequestration in selected forest types  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ten selected forest types were examined to assess the carbon sequestering potential of those forest types, to show the relevance of varying carbon sequestering criteria, and to present a method as a possible standard for carbon sequestering assessments. The model CO2FIX was used to quantify carbon sequestering potential of the forest, soils and forest products. Carbon sequestering criteria were long-term averages of carbon in forest biomass, and the average net annual carbon storage flux during the first rotation. Selectively logged evergreen rain forests were found to contain the largest long-term average stock of carbon in the biomass and products. The highest net annual carbon fixation in the first rotation was achieved by the Pinus radiata D. Don on fertile sites in Brazil. Values obtained should be considered as maximum boundaries for carbon sequestration. 5 tabs., 5 figs. 58 refs.

Nabuurs, G. J.; Mohren, G. M. J.

1995-07-01

 
 
 
 
21

Euler and potential computational results for selected aerodynamic configurations  

Science.gov (United States)

A selection of CFD successes and failures is evaluated, on the basis of experimental data/CFD result correlations involving full-potential and Euler computations of the aerodynamics of four commercial transport wings and two low aspect ratio delta wings. An effort is made to ascertain optimum values for grid density and distribution, artificial dissipation, Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy number, enthalphy damping, and a multigrid scheme for each flow condition and configuration analyzed. It is demonstrated that CFD solutions can assist the experimentalist prior to a test by indicating the locations of high pressure gradients and projecting test condition limitations due to balance design limits.

Hicks, R. M.; Cliff, S. E.; Melton, J. E.; Langhi, R. G.; Goodsell, A. M.

1990-01-01

22

Indo-Asian collision in the Sikkim-Bhutan Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

Compared to the central Himalaya, the seismogenic potential of Bhutan has been enigmatic due to its lower than average background seismicity, the absence of a reliable historical record, and its unusual location near the Shillong plateau, where a Mw=8.1 earthquake in 1897 resulted in ?10 m of N/S shortening of the Indian plate to its south. The GPS velocity field measured thrice between 2003 and 2012 provides new insights that permit us to constrain details of loading and collisional geometry. We find that a 90±10 km wide décollement below Sikkim and Bhutan is being loaded at rates of 20±2 mm/year. The locking line lies at approximately 20 km depth and, as in the Himalaya to the west, approximately follows the smoothed 3.5 km contour. Convergence across the Shillong plateau is less than 7 mm/yr. The GPS data suggest that the Brahmaputra valley is rotating clockwise at 0.02±0.1 rad/yr, which is inferred to have the effect of reducing the stressing rate in the Aranuchal Himal. Although a small circle closely defines the Himalayan arc west of 87°E, the Sikkim-Bhutan Himalaya can be approximated by a 500 km linear east-west segment between 87°E and 92°E, terminated by a 10°± change in strike near the 1934 rupture in the west, and by a 20° change in strike at the start of the 400-km-long Arunachal Pradesh segment to the east. Paleoseismic studies to the east and west of Bhutan suggest that a great earthquake may have ruptured this 500 km segment of the arc with 18 m of slip c.1100 AD (Kumar et al., 2011) suggesting that the current slip deficit may be close to that which prevailed before the 1100 earthquake. Thus if no intervening great earthquake has occurred in the Bhutan Himalaya since 1100, the 500 km x100 km area Sikkim/Bhutan segment could slip 18 m at present in a 8.6segment into smaller segments with along-arc lengths of approximately 150 km, based on significant structural discontinuities, and block-like structures in the Indian plate and the Tibetan plateau. It is possible that one of these segments ruptured in a historical earthquake in 1713, whose location is not well defined and for which no paleoseismic evidence currently exists, in which case this segment has a current slip deficit of 6 m and could re-rupture presently in a 8.2segments, could host a Mw=8.7 earthquake were they to rupture together.

Vernant, P.; Drukpa, D.; Pelgay, P.; Bhattacharya, A.; Szeliga, W. M.; Bilham, R. G.

2012-12-01

23

The role of glaciers in stream flow from the Nepal Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent concerns related to the potential impacts of the retreat of Himalayan glaciers on the hydrology of rivers originating in the catchment basins of the Himalaya have been accompanied by few analyses describing the role of glaciers in the hydrologic regime of these mountains. This is, at least in part, a result of the relative inaccessibility of the glaciers of the Himalaya, at altitudes generally between 4000-7000 m, and the extreme logistical difficulties of: 1) reaching the glaciers, and 2) conducting meaningful research once they have been reached. It is apparent that an alternative to traditional "Alpine" glaciology is required in the mountains of the Hindu Kush-Himalaya region. The objectives of the study discussed here have been to develop methodologies that will begin to quantify the role of complete glacier systems in the hydrologic regime of the Nepal Himalaya, and to develop estimates of the potential impact of a continued retreat of these glacier, based on the use of disaggregated low-altitude data bases, topography derived from satellite imagery, and simple process models of water and energy exchange in mountain regions. While the extent of mesoscale variability has not been established by studies to date, it is clear that the dominant control on the hydrologic regime of the tributaries to the Ganges Basin from the eastern Himalaya is the interaction between the summer monsoon and the 8000 m of topographic relief represented by the Himalayan wall. All the available evidence indicates that the gradient of specific runoff with altitude resulting from this interaction is moderately to strongly curvilinear, with maximum runoff occurring at mid-altitudes, and minima at the altitudinal extremes. At the upper minimum of this gradient, Himalayan glaciers exist in what has been characterized as an "arctic desert". The methodologies developed for this study involve the relationship between area-altitude distributions of catchment basins and glaciers, based on Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM3) data and water and energy exchange gradients. Based on these methodologies, it is estimated that the contribution of glacier annual melt water to annual stream flow into the Ganges Basin from the glacierized catchments of the Nepal Himalaya represents approximately 4% of the total annual stream flow volume of the rivers of Nepal, and thus, is a minor component of the annual flow of the Ganges River. The models developed for this study indicate that neither stream flow timing nor volume of the rivers flowing into the Ganges Basin from Nepal will be affected materially by a continued retreat of the glaciers of the Nepal Himalaya.

Alford, D.; Armstrong, R.

2010-04-01

24

The role of glaciers in stream flow from the Nepal Himalaya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent concerns related to the potential impacts of the retreat of Himalayan glaciers on the hydrology of rivers originating in the catchment basins of the Himalaya have been accompanied by few analyses describing the role of glaciers in the hydrologic regime of these mountains. This is, at least in part, a result of the relative inaccessibility of the glaciers of the Himalaya, at altitudes generally between 4000–7000 m, and the extreme logistical difficulties of: 1 reaching the glaciers, and 2 conducting meaningful research once they have been reached. It is apparent that an alternative to traditional "Alpine" glaciology is required in the mountains of the Hindu Kush-Himalaya region. The objectives of the study discussed here have been to develop methodologies that will begin to quantify the role of complete glacier systems in the hydrologic regime of the Nepal Himalaya, and to develop estimates of the potential impact of a continued retreat of these glacier, based on the use of disaggregated low-altitude data bases, topography derived from satellite imagery, and simple process models of water and energy exchange in mountain regions.

While the extent of mesoscale variability has not been established by studies to date, it is clear that the dominant control on the hydrologic regime of the tributaries to the Ganges Basin from the eastern Himalaya is the interaction between the summer monsoon and the 8000 m of topographic relief represented by the Himalayan wall. All the available evidence indicates that the gradient of specific runoff with altitude resulting from this interaction is moderately to strongly curvilinear, with maximum runoff occurring at mid-altitudes, and minima at the altitudinal extremes. At the upper minimum of this gradient, Himalayan glaciers exist in what has been characterized as an "arctic desert".

The methodologies developed for this study involve the relationship between area-altitude distributions of catchment basins and glaciers, based on Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM3 data and water and energy exchange gradients. Based on these methodologies, it is estimated that the contribution of glacier annual melt water to annual stream flow into the Ganges Basin from the glacierized catchments of the Nepal Himalaya represents approximately 4% of the total annual stream flow volume of the rivers of Nepal, and thus, is a minor component of the annual flow of the Ganges River. The models developed for this study indicate that neither stream flow timing nor volume of the rivers flowing into the Ganges Basin from Nepal will be affected materially by a continued retreat of the glaciers of the Nepal Himalaya.

D. Alford

2010-04-01

25

Glacier Changes in the Bhutanese Himalaya - Present and Future  

Science.gov (United States)

Glacierized change in the Himalayas affects river-discharge, hydro-energy and agricultural production, and Glacial Lake Outburst Flood potential, but its quantification and extent of impacts remains highly uncertain. Here we present conservative, comprehensive and quantitative predictions for glacier area and meltwater flux changes in Bhutan, monsoonal Himalayas. In particular, we quantify the uncertainties associated with the glacier area and meltwater flux changes due to uncertainty in climate data, a critical problem for much of High Asia. Based on a suite of gridded climate data and a robust glacier melt model, our results show that glacier area and meltwater change projections can vary by an order of magnitude for different climate datasets. The most conservative results indicate that, even if climate were to remain at the present-day mean values (1980-2000), almost 10% of Bhutan's glacierized area would vanish and the meltwater flux would drop by as much as 30%. New mapping of glacierized area from 2000-2010 shows a significant change in glacierized area of 4-6%. Thus the conservative steady-state area changes predicted by the model are already being realized. Under the conservative scenario of an additional 1°C regional warming, glacier retreat is predicted to continue until about 25% of Bhutan's glacierized area will have disappeared and the annual meltwater flux, after an initial spike, would drop by as much as 65%.

Rupper, S.; Schaefer, J. M.; Burgener, L. K.; Maurer, J.; Smith, R.; Cook, E.; Putnam, A. E.; Krusic, P.; Tsering, K.; Koenig, L.

2012-12-01

26

Rock magnetic survey of Himalaya-Karakoram ranges, northern Pakistan; Pakistan hokubu, Himalaya-Karakoram tai no ganseki jikigakuteki chosa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes results of the rock magnetic survey mainly including measurement of magnetic susceptibility conducted in the northern Pakistan from 1992 to 1997. Magnetic characteristics in Himalaya-Karakoram ranges and prospective ore deposits are also described. Magnetic susceptibility data measured in this district were summarized as a frequency map in each geological block. Granitoids in the northern part of Kohistan batholith and granitoids of Ladakh batholith showed remarkably high magnetic susceptibility values, which suggested they are magnetite-series magmatism. It has been known that magnetite-series magmatism often accompanies sulfide-forming mineral resources, which suggests high potentiality of abundant mineral resources containing Mo, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ag and Au. From the results of the magnetic susceptibility measurements and the above-mentioned models, accordingly, it can be pointed out that the northern part of Kohistan batholith, the distribution area of Ladakh batholith, and surrounding areas are promising targets for mineral resources exploration in the Himalaya-Karakoram ranges, northern Pakistan. 5 refs., 3 figs.

Yoshida, M. [Geoscience Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Khadim, I.; Ahmad, M. [Geological Survey of Pakistan, Islamabad (Pakistan)

1997-10-22

27

Selection of potential microorganism for sago starch fermentation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fermentation process of sago starch for the production of bioproduct requires potential microorganism that have ability to hydrolyze sago starch. The purpose of this research was to get the potential of amylolytic microorganisms for their capability of amyloglucosidase activity and to know the sugar strains of the fermentation result. Eleven amylolytic microorganisms (9 strains of mold and 2 strains of yeast were obtained from the collection Research Centre for Biotechnology – Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI, Cibinong-Bogor were used. The selection step was carried out based on their capability of starch hydrolysis to reducing sugar. The best result indicates that the production of reducing sugar reached the highest 18.485 ppm and amyloglucosidase activities was 3.583 units by KTU-1 strain. The highest total acid obtained was 5.85 mg/mL by Rhizopus IFO.R5442. The cell biomass was obtained between 0.5 to 1.74 g dry weight/100 mL and pH of the final fermentation (72 h were 3.57 to 8.38.

RUTH MELLIAWATI

2006-02-01

28

Treasure and Tragedy of the Kashmir Himalaya  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biological interventions and sequential eco-edaphic changes have depleted the habitats of essential and commercially valuable medicinal plants, hence paved the way to invasive alien species, thereby infuriating the bio-resource diminution and deprivation. The present communication is an attempt to draw attention to the importance of some threatened medicinal plants of Kashmir Himalaya and the various threats they are forced upon. In total 12 species belonging to 11 families have been surveyed...

Wani, Parvaiz A.; Dar, A. R.; Mohi-ud-din, G. G.; Ganaie, Khursheed A.; Nawchoo, Irshad A.; Wafai, B. A.

2006-01-01

29

Thermal characteristics of the Main Himalaya Thrust and the Indian lower crust with implications for crustal rheology and partial melting in the Himalaya orogen  

Science.gov (United States)

The Main Himalaya Thrust (MHT) is the current tectonic boundary between the subducting Indian lithosphere and the overlying Himalayan orogenic prism and the Tibetan crust. We present thermo-kinematic calculations and metamorphic P-T-t paths of the Indian lower crust (ILC) that constrain the thermal structure of the MHT and the southern Tibetan crust (Lhasa Block) and explain the origin of a thin, seismic low velocity zone that was revealed by the recent Hi-CLIMB experiment from receiver functions of teleseismic waves. Northward of the Himalayas, the low velocity zone occurs within the ductile regime of the crust and is thought to extend along the MHT into the Lhasa Block. In the Lhasa Block, the low velocity zone occurs directly above the ILC. Predicted evolution of mineralogy of the ILC along its subduction P-T-t path shows that its dehydration can potentially induce wet melting within the orogenic prism above the inclined portion of the MHT. However, north of the Yarlung Tsangpo Suture (YTS) below the southern Lhasa Block, where subduction of the ILC is flat, the ILC is predicted to be anhydrous eclogite and therefore, it cannot supply H2O to the overlying crust. The seismic low velocity zone above this portion of the ILC is best explained by dehydration melting due to strain heating. The MHT there appears to be localized by the rheological contrast between the ductile lower Lhasa Block and the strong eclogitic ILC. Southward thrusting of the Himalaya orogenic prism, which contains accreted Indian upper crust, causes advection of hot middle-crustal rocks to shallower levels, thereby producing a shallow ductile regime between the Himalayas and the YTS. The shallow ductile regime is evident in the limit of upper crustal earthquake foci to shallow depths in this region.

Náb?lek, Peter I.; Náb?lek, John L.

2014-06-01

30

Black carbon aerosols over the Himalayas: direct and surface albedo forcing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Absorbing aerosols such as black carbon (BC) or dust over high-altitude Himalayan regions have potential implications on the regional climate and hydrological cycle over South Asia. Making use of extensive measurements of atmospheric BC from several Himalayan stations, an assessment of radiative forcing due to direct and snow-albedo darkening is examined. Generally, BC concentration in the atmosphere peaks during pre-monsoon season over the Himalayas and the climatological mean of atmospheric...

Nair, Vijayakumar S.; Suresh Babu, S.; Krishna Moorthy, K.; Arun Kumar Sharma; Angela Marinoni; Ajai

2013-01-01

31

Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS)-geological perspective and a case study from Ladakh Himalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is a recent addition to the conventional mass spectrometry and is based on measurement of cosmogenic radionuclides. It is a highly potential technique to understand a variety of geological problems particularly in geomorphology, paleoclimatology and ocean research and is in fact the only technique to precisely measure erosion rates, river incision rates, sedimentation rates and surface exposure ages. The paper briefly presents the geological perspectives of the AMS technique and some preliminary results from Ladakh Himalaya

1997-08-01

32

Crustal Attenuation Variations Across the Himalaya and the Southern Tibetan Plateau From Local and Regional Earthquakes  

Science.gov (United States)

We calculated average body wave seismic attenuation from local and regional earthquakes recorded during the Himalayan Nepal Tibet Seismic Experiment (HIMNT) to assess crustal attenuation sources beneath eastern Nepal and the southern Tibetan Plateau. Measuring attenuation beneath the Himalaya and the Tibetan Plateau could help resolve the crustal composition and the nature and location of crustal partial melt if it exists. Raw seismograms of local events with focal depths greater than 50 km show a strong variation in frequency content between stations located on the Himalaya to stations located on the Tibetan Plateau. We calculated frequency dependent average Q values, the attenuation quality factor, for over 2300 P and S phase paths through body wave spectral modeling and, for selected events, by measuring the dominant frequency on the raw seismograms assuming no frequency dependence. Body wave spectra were windowed from 0.1-15 Hz for 240 earthquakes ranging in local magnitude 2-5.5 by solving for corner frequency and moment for each event and t*, the attenuation parameter, for each event-station path (Stachnik et al, 2004). Moments from spectral modeling agree with moments calculated from full waveform moment tensor inversion. Corner frequencies for Tibetan Plateau events peak at 1-5 Hz while corner frequencies of events in the Himalayas range from 3-15 Hz. P attenuation frequency dependence is greater for stations in Nepal compared to Tibetan Plateau stations while S attenuation frequency dependence is generally similar for the entire network. Both Qp and Qs are found to be dramatically lower beneath the southern Tibetan Plateau than beneath the Himalaya. Low Qs under the Tibetan Plateau may support the existence of crustal melt in the upper Tibetan crust and a low S velocity layer. However, P-waves appear to attenuate as much as S-waves and velocity tomography shows no low S velocity zone, which suggests that attenuation sources other than crustal melt may exist under the southern Tibetan Plateau.

de La Torre, T. L.; Sheehan, A. F.

2006-12-01

33

Southwest-facing slopes control the formation of debris-covered glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To understand the formation conditions of debris-covered glaciers, we examined the dimension and shape of debris-covered areas and potential debris-supply (PDS slopes of 208 glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya. This was undertaken using satellite images with 2.5 m spatial resolution for manual delineation of debris-covered areas and PDS slopes. The most significant correlation exists between surface area of southwest-facing PDS slopes and debris-covered area. This result suggests that the southwest-facing PDS slopes supply the largest quantity of debris mantle. The shape of debris-covered areas is also an important variable quantitatively defined using a geometric index. Elongate or stripe-like debris-covered areas on north-flowing glaciers are common throughout the Bhutan Himalaya, associated with the small quantities of debris from north-facing PDS slopes. In contrast, south-flowing glaciers have large ablation zones, entirely covered by debris. Our findings suggest that this difference is caused by effective diurnal freeze–thaw cycles rather than seasonal freeze–thaw cycles, permafrost degradation, or snow avalanches. In terms of geographic setting, local topography also contributes to glacier debris supply and the proportion of debris cover on the studied glaciers is suppressed by the arid Tibetan climate, whereas the north-to-south asymmetric topography of the Bhutan Himalaya has less influence on the proportion of debris cover.

H. Nagai

2013-04-01

34

Southwest-facing slopes control the formation of debris-covered glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To understand the formation conditions of debris-covered glaciers, we examined the dimension and shape of debris-covered areas and potential debris-supply (PDS slopes of 213 glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya. This was undertaken using satellite images with 2.5 m spatial resolution for manual delineation of debris-covered areas and PDS slopes. The most significant correlation exists between surface area of southwest-facing PDS slopes and debris-covered area. This result suggests that the southwest-facing PDS slopes supply the largest quantity of debris mantle. The shape of debris-covered areas is also an important variable, quantitatively defined using a geometric index. Elongate or stripe-like debris-covered areas on north-flowing glaciers are common throughout the Bhutan Himalaya. In contrast, south-flowing glaciers have large ablation zones, entirely covered by debris. Our findings suggest that this difference is caused by effective diurnal freeze–thaw cycles rather than seasonal freeze–thaw cycles, permafrost degradation, or snow avalanches. In terms of geographic setting, local topography also contributes to glacier debris supply and the proportion of debris cover on the studied glaciers is suppressed by the arid Tibetan climate, whereas the north-to-south asymmetric topography of the Bhutan Himalaya has less influence on the proportion of debris cover.

H. Nagai

2013-08-01

35

Black carbon aerosols over the Himalayas: direct and surface albedo forcing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Absorbing aerosols such as black carbon (BC or dust over high-altitude Himalayan regions have potential implications on the regional climate and hydrological cycle over South Asia. Making use of extensive measurements of atmospheric BC from several Himalayan stations, an assessment of radiative forcing due to direct and snow-albedo darkening is examined. Generally, BC concentration in the atmosphere peaks during pre-monsoon season over the Himalayas and the climatological mean of atmospheric BC over Hanle (western Himalayas, 4.5?km msl and Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (central Himalayas, 5?km msl are 106±27?ng m?3 and 190±95?ng m?3, respectively. Based on the optical and physical properties of composite aerosols measured at Hanle, clear sky direct radiative forcing (DRF at the top of the atmosphere is estimated as 1.69?W m?2 over snow surface and ?1.54?W m?2 over sandy surface during pre-monsoon season. The estimated amount of BC in the snow varied from 117 to 1.7?µg kg?1 for wide range of dry deposition velocities (0.01–0.054?cm s?1 of BC, snow depth (2–10?cm and snow densities (195–512?kg m?3. Using a size-resolved wet scavenging parametrisation, the amount of BC on snow due to wet scavenging is estimated as 29?µg kg?1 for an accumulated snow depth of 27?cm. For the range of 10–200?µg kg?1 of BC in snow, the diurnally averaged forcing due to snow darkening has been found to vary from 0.87 to 10.2?W m?2 for fresh snow and from 2.6 to 28.1?W m?2 for the aged snow, which is significantly higher than the DRF. The direct and surface albedo radiative forcing could lead to significant warming over the Himalayas during pre-monsoon.

Vijayakumar S. Nair

2013-09-01

36

Tumor-selective coronaviruses as potential anti-cancer agents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite much progress in the treatment of certain types of cancer, generally the successes of cancer therapy are still largely insufficient and new treatment options are therefore urgently needed. Oncolytic virotherapy may offer an unconventional approach to selectively eradicate cancer cells, while leaving the normal tissues essentially unaffected. Several viruses are currently being analysed for their capability to kill cancer cells. So far, coronaviruses had not been explored for use in ca...

Wu?rdinger, Thomas

2006-01-01

37

The Diversity Potential of Relay Selection with Practical Channel Estimation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigate the diversity order of decode-and-forward relay selection in Nakagami-m fading, in cases where practical channel estimation techniques are applied. In this respect, we introduce a unified model for the imperfect channel estimates, where the effects of noise, time-varying channels, and feedback delays are jointly considered. Based on this model, the correlation between the actual and the estimated channel values, \\rho, is expressed as a function of the signal-t...

Michalopoulos, Diomidis S.; Chatzidiamantis, Nestor D.; Schober, Robert; Karagiannidis, George K.

2011-01-01

38

A study of algal biomass potential in selected Canadian regions.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A dynamic assessment model has been developed for evaluating the potential algal biomass and extracted biocrude productivity and costs, using nutrient and water resources available from waste streams in four regions of Canada (western British Columbia, Alberta oil fields, southern Ontario, and Nova Scotia). The purpose of this model is to help identify optimal locations in Canada for algae cultivation and biofuel production. The model uses spatially referenced data across the four regions for nitrogen and phosphorous loads in municipal wastewaters, and CO{sub 2} in exhaust streams from a variety of large industrial sources. Other data inputs include land cover, and solar insolation. Model users can develop estimates of resource potential by manipulating model assumptions in a graphic user interface, and updated results are viewed in real time. Resource potential by location can be viewed in terms of biomass production potential, potential CO{sub 2} fixed, biocrude production potential, and area required. The cost of producing algal biomass can be estimated using an approximation of the distance to move CO{sub 2} and water to the desired land parcel and an estimation of capital and operating costs for a theoretical open pond facility. Preliminary results suggest that in most cases, the CO{sub 2} resource is plentiful compared to other necessary nutrients (especially nitrogen), and that siting and prospects for successful large-scale algae cultivation efforts in Canada will be driven by availability of those other nutrients and the efficiency with which they can be used and re-used. Cost curves based on optimal possible siting of an open pond system are shown. The cost of energy for maintaining optimal growth temperatures is not considered in this effort, and additional research in this area, which has not been well studied at these latitudes, will be important in refining the costs of algal biomass production. The model will be used by NRC-IMB Canada to identify promising locations for both demonstration and pilot-scale algal cultivation projects, including the production potential of using wastewater, and potential land use considerations.

Passell, Howard David; Roach, Jesse Dillon; Klise, Geoffrey T.

2011-11-01

39

Testing of selected workplace chemicals for teratogenic potential  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The reproductive toxicity and teratogenic potential of 19 industrial chemicals have been investigated during the past 3 a. Preliminary studies utilizing intraperitoneal treatments of rats on days 1-15 of gestation have been conducted on the following ten chemicals: allyl chloride, bisphenol A, copper naphthenate, ethylene dibromide, hexachlorobutadiene, 2-mercaptobenzothiazole, methyl styrene, naphthalene, 2-nitropropane, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane. Studies utilizing inhalation exposure of rats and rabbits on days 1-19 and 1-24, respectively, of gestation have been conducted on the following nine chemicals: butylene oxide, carbon disulfide, 2-ethoxyethanol, ethyl benzene, methyl bromide, nitrous oxide, styrene oxide, tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene. In the preliminary studies, evidence of teratogenic potential was seen with allyl chloride and bisphenol A, and fetal toxicity was found in the absence of maternal toxicity with methyl styrene and 2-nitropropane. In the inhalation studies, 2-ethoxyethanol was strongly embryotoxic at the higher exposure levels employed and was teratogenic at the lower concentration.

Hardin, B.D.; Bond, G.P.; Sikov, M.R.; Andrew, F.D.; Beliles, R.P.; Niemeier, R.W.

1981-01-01

40

The Diversity Potential of Relay Selection with Practical Channel Estimation  

CERN Document Server

We investigate the diversity order of decode-and-forward relay selection in Nakagami-m fading, in cases where practical channel estimation techniques are applied. In this respect, we introduce a unified model for the imperfect channel estimates, where the effects of noise, time-varying channels, and feedback delays are jointly considered. Based on this model, the correlation between the actual and the estimated channel values, \\rho, is expressed as a function of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), yielding closed-form expressions for the overall outage probability as a function of \\rho. The resulting diversity order and power gain reveal a high dependence of the performance of relay selection on the high SNR behavior of \\rho, thus shedding light onto the effect of channel estimation on the overall performance. It is shown that when the channel estimates are not frequently updated in applications involving time-varying channels, or when the amount of power allocated for channel estimation is not sufficiently high...

Michalopoulos, Diomidis S; Schober, Robert; Karagiannidis, George K

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Pyrometallurgical slags as a potential source of selected metals recovery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Complex analysis of concentration and form of occurrence such metals as Zn, Pb, Fe and Cu in slags formed during a current zinc production in the Imperial Smelting Process (ISP is a possible basis for development of optimal recovery technology. For this purpose studies of slags from the current production of the Shaft Furnace Unit and of the Lead Refining of the “Miasteczko ?l?skie” Zinc Smelting Plant were carried out. The studies results show that slags includes high concentrations of: Zn from 0,064 % to 1,680 %, Pb from 10,56 % to 50,71 %, Fe from 0,015 % to 2,576 %, Cu from 7,48 % to 64,95 %, and change in a broad range. This slags show significant heterogeneity, caused by intermetallic phases (Zn - Pb, Cu - Zn, Cu - Pb formed on the surface thereof. It is so possible that slag can be a potential source of this metals recovery.

K. Nowi?ska

2014-10-01

42

Landscape drivers, signatures, and erosion rates from the western Himalaya using detrital Beryllium-10  

Science.gov (United States)

The Himalaya represents one of the most dynamic orogenic systems on the planet. Characterized by both large tectonic and climatic gradients, the Himalaya has been used as a proving ground over the last decade to test contrasting theories about the relative role climate and tectonics play in driving overall landscape form and sediment flux in active mountain belts. Despite considerable efforts to date, results remain contradictory and are further complicated by the inherent dependence between precipitation and topography in orogenic systems. In this study we seek to shed additional light on this debate using a combination of satellite derived data (TRMM rainfall, Landsat land cover, Google Earth-derived channel widths), digital elevation model landscape metrics (normalized channel steepness indices, width-adjusted specific stream power, hillslope angles), existing apatite fission track ages, and ~65 new detrital Beryllium-10 erosion-rate estimates spread across the Ganges and Mahakali watersheds in the western Himalaya. This dataset represents one of the largest detrital CRN studies to date in the Himalaya and argues for dominant tectonic control of sediment flux in the region. Comparisons of erosion-rate estimates with established landscape metrics is in agreement with recently published relationships from other mountain belts and argues against a large-scale precipitation-modulated landscape signature. This finding is evidenced by 1) a general increase in mean hillslope and normalized channel steepness values with increasing precipitation, 2) a lack of coincidence between high erosion rates and precipitation amount or intensity, and 3) spatial coincidence between erosion rates, known tectonic units, and apatite fission-track ages. Whereas these data do not require or demonstrate a clear precipitation dependence, we do acknowledge that they allow for this potential, especially within distinct tectonic regimes where sufficient erosion rate-landscape metric scatter may mask more subtle precipitation driven trends and overprints. This analysis provides a detailed view into the spatial variability of erosion across a large region of the Himalaya at the centennial to millennial timescale (apparent erosion rates range from 0.1 to 7 mm/yr) and should provide key insights for future debates about the relative contributions of climate and tectonics in active orogenic evolution.

Fisher, G.; Bookhagen, B.; Burbank, D. W.; Whipple, K. X.; Godard, V.

2013-12-01

43

Pentaquark symmetries, selection rules and another potentially narrow state  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We identify essential differences between the pentaquark and chiral soliton models of 10-bar5 and 85 pentaquarks and conventional 83 states, which are experimentally measurable. We show how the decays of ?5 states in particular can test models of the pentaquarks, recommend study of the relative branching ratios of, e.g., ?-5??-?0 :?0?-, and predict that the decay amplitude ?5??*? is zero at leading order in pentaquark models for any mixture of 10-bar and the associated 85. We also include a pedagogic discussion of wavefunctions in the pentaquark picture and show that pentaquark models have this 85 with F/D=1/3, in leading order forbidding ?5??K. The role of Fermi-Dirac symmetry in the qqqq wavefunction and its implications for the width of pentaquarks are briefly discussed. The relative couplings g2(?QNKQ*)/g2(?QNKQ)=3 for Q?s,c,b. A further potentially narrow state ? in 85 with JP=3/2+ is predicted around 1650 MeV

2004-04-22

44

Effects of herbivore species richness on the niche dynamics of blue sheep Pseudois nayaur in the Indian Trans-Himalaya  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aim To understand the community structure of mountain ungulates by exploring their niche dynamics in response to sympatric species richness. Location Ladakh and Spiti Regions of the Western Indian Trans-Himalaya. Methods We used the blue sheep Pseudois nayaur, a relatively widely distributed mountain ungulate, as a model species to address the issue. We selected three discrete valleys in three protected areas with similar environmental features but varying wild ungulate species richness, and ...

Namgail, T.; Mishra, C.; Jong, C. B.; Wieren, S. E.; Prins, H. H. T.

2009-01-01

45

Measurement of radon concentration in groundwater of Kumaon Himalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, radon concentration in springs and hand pumps of Kumaon Himalaya, India was measured using radon emanometry technique. The radon measurements were made in springs and groundwater from the hand pumps being used as drinking water sources by general population. The hand pumps and springs were selected near the dwellings and workplaces, where the general public utilizes these water sources for their daily needs. The water samples from springs were collected in an air-tight bottle from the original discharge point (outlet) of the spring having distinct geological unit and geohydrological regime. The water was transferred from discharge point of the spring to the bottom of the bottle using PVC tubing. For hand pumps, the water was pumped out for some time and the samples were collected in 1 L bottle directly from the pump outlet. After allowing the sample bottle to over flow for a while and when no bubbles were visually observed, the sample volume was reduced to a pre-marked position leaving 250 ml of air in the bottle above the water surface. The sample bottle was then connected in a close circuit with Lucas cell, hand operated rubber pump and a glass tube containing CaCl2 to absorb the moisture. The air was then circulated in close circuit for a period of 15 mm till the radon formed a uniform mixture with the air and the resulting alpha activity was recorded. The resulting numbers of the alpha counts were then converted into Bq/l by using the calibration factor 1 cpm = 0.0663 Bq/l. The results of radon measurements in springs and hand pumps from the study area are given. Field measurements were taken in different geological units of Kumaun region in Himalaya. The radon concentration in spring water varies from 1 Bq/l to 76 Bq/l with geometric mean 10 Bq/l, whereas in hand pumps it varies from 3 Bq/l to 392 Bq/l with geometric mean of 40 Bq/l. The higher values of radon in the water samples of hand pumps are possibly because of its greater depth, which allows water to interact with a greater thickness of aquifer and thus more radon is expected in hand pumps and tube wells. Radon level was found higher in the area consisting of granite, quartz porphyry, schist, phyllites states and lowest in the area having sedimentary rocks, predominantly dominated by quartzite rocks

2010-11-24

46

Spatial variability of glacier decline in the Indian and Nepalese Himalaya since the 1960s  

Science.gov (United States)

Since reaching their Little Ice Age Maximums, Himalayan glaciers have generally undergone a period of retreat, evident from large moraines left at former ice limits. Currently, however, detailed assessments of Himalayan glacier fluctuations over the past century are limited and fail to compare spatially or temporally to records available in Central Europe, North America and Scandinavia. Consequently, the variability and magnitude of glacial change across the Himalayas, a region that is typified by complex climatic settings, is still yet to be fully understood. Against a back drop of poor data availability, 1960s Corona stereo-imagery and historic GLIMS glacier outlines now offer an opportunity to assess glacier extent in regions of the Himalayas pre-1980. Comparing glacier measurements derived from Corona and GLIMS datasets with those made from more contemporary ASTER data, changes in glacier area and length, between the 1960/70s and 2000s, were quantified for selected glaciers located in Uttaranchal, India (Bhagirathi and Pindar/Kali basins) and Central Nepal (Seti and Trisula basins). Most notably, results indicate that glaciers selected in the Bhagirathi and Pindar/Kali basins reduced in area by 7.97% and 7.54%, respectively. Contrastingly, glaciers located in the Seti and Trisula basins experienced a significantly higher rate of decline, reducing in area by 29.78% and 50.55%, respectively. After reviewing other Himalayan glacier change records, it is suggested that the comparatively limited decline of Uttaranchal glaciers may be attributed to the existence of a climatic transitional zone in this region where glaciers benefit from large amounts of both summer and winter snowfall enabling them to greater withstand recent climate changes. The spatial variability of glacier decline shown here has important implications when considering the future impacts of continued retreat on regional water resources across the Himalaya.

Wilson, R.; Rivera, A.; Collins, D. N.; Entwistle, N. S.

2013-12-01

47

Variations in radon concentration in groundwater of Kumaon Himalaya, India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radon content in groundwater sources depends on the radium concentration in the rock of the aquifer. Radon was measured in water in many parts of the world, mostly for the risk assessment due to consumption of drinking water. The exposure to radon through drinking water is largely by inhalation and ingestion. Airborne radon can be released during normal household activities and can pose a greater potential health risk than radon ingested with water. Transport of radon through soil and bedrock by water depends mainly on the percolation of water through the pores and along fracture planes of bedrock. In this study, the radon concentration in water from springs and hand pumps of Kumaun Himalaya (India)) was measured using the radon emanometry technique. Radon concentration was found to vary from 1 to 392 Bq I-1 with a mean of 50 Bq I-1 in groundwater in different litho-tectonic units. The radon level was found to be higher in the area consisting of granite, quartz porphyry, schist, phyllites and lowest in the area having sedimentary rocks, predominantly dominated by quartzite rocks. (authors)

2012-03-03

48

Southwest-facing slopes control the formation of debris-covered glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To understand the formation conditions of debris-covered glaciers, we examined the dimension and shape of debris-covered areas and potential debris-supply (PDS) slopes of 208 glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya. This was undertaken using satellite images with 2.5 m spatial resolution for manual delineation of debris-covered areas and PDS slopes. The most significant correlation exists between surface area of southwest-facing PDS slopes and debris-covered area. This result suggests that the southw...

Nagai, H.; Fujita, K.; Nuimura, T.; Sakai, A.

2013-01-01

49

Streaming potentials in gramicidin channels measured with ion-selective microelectrodes.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Streaming potentials have been measured for gramicidin channels with a new method employing ion-selective microelectrodes. It is shown that ideally ion-selective electrodes placed at the membrane surface record the true streaming potential. Using this method for ion concentrations below 100 mM, approximately seven water molecules are transported whenever a sodium, potassium, or cesium ion, passes through the channel. This new method confirms earlier measurements (Rosenberg, P.A., and A. Finke...

Tripathi, S.; Hladky, S. B.

1998-01-01

50

Geographic Information System (GIS) as a Decision Support Tool for Selecting Potential Landfill Sites  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the growing potential problems of increased consumption is an escalation in the quantities of municipal solid wastes produced. Landfilling is now accepted as the most widely used method for environmentally safe disposal of solid waste. However, appropriate site selection for waste disposal is one of the major problems in waste management. Selection of suitable landfills can be extremely complex mainly due to the fact that the selection process involves many factors, criteria and regula...

2011-01-01

51

Potential gain from optimizing multigeneration selection on an identified quantitative trait locus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential extra response that can be obtained from the optimal use of a known QTL in selection by optimizing weights in an index of breeding value for the QTL and polygenic EBV was investigated for a range of parameters. Optimal strategies were derived for a deterministic model of simultaneous selection on a QTL and polygenic effects using optimal control theory. Responses over 10 generations to the following selection strategies were compared: 1) standard QTL selection, with QTL weights equal to 1, 2) optimal QTL selection, 3) stepwise single-generation optimal QTL selection, and 4) non-QTL selection based on phenotype. Cumulative discounted response with discount rates of 10 or 30% per generation were evaluated and used as objective for optimal selection strategies. Optimal selection balanced the conflict between short- and long-term responses and gave greater cumulative discounted response than standard QTL selection of up to 20%, but less than 5% for most cases. Discount rate had limited impact. For a QTL with an additive effect of one polygenic standard deviation, cumulative discounted response from optimal QTL selection was less than 5% greater than response for non-QTL selection for most cases. Exceptions were traits with low heritability and recessive QTL at low frequency, for which extra response was up to 55% greater. Stepwise optimal selection resulted in less cumulative discounted response than standard QTL selection for QTL with negative dominance. The benefit of optimal over stepwise optimal selection was limited (less than 4%) for most cases, except for overdominant QTL. These results indicate that optimizing selection on an identified QTL can result in greater responses to selection but that extra responses tend to be limited for the situations studied here of single-stage purebred selection on a single QTL for a trait observed on both sexes. PMID:11811450

Dekkers, J C; Chakraborty, R

2001-12-01

52

Earthquake recurrence in the central Himalaya: Some outstanding issues  

Science.gov (United States)

Evaluation of the historic and geologic data from the central Himalaya suggests that the region experienced many significant earthquakes in the past. However, many questions remain on the pattern of earthquake recurrence, style of deformation and causative structures. A major question is when the last great earthquake in the central Himalaya was. While the renewal time of earthquakes originating on the detachment fault might match the expectations of the seismic gap models, the subsidiary faults within the wedge may localize strain leading to earthquakes events that need not maintain any temporal relation with the plate boundary breaking earthquakes and leading to surface slip due to the favorable geometry of the ramps. Observed temporal and spatial clustering of earthquakes along the Himalaya, nature of surface rupture and the amplified slip reported from geological section associated with the paleo-earthquakes may result from the dual nature of seismic sources along the Himalaya. This fundamental difference in source zones may be the key to understanding the temporal and spatial clustering of earthquakes along the Himalaya. The class of earthquakes that originate on the duplex zone propagate vertically on the steeply dipping faults and leading to surface ruptures, as observed in the 2005 Kashmir earthquake, that showed a peak surface offset of 7 m. Archaeo-seismological evidence point to a great earthquake in the central Himalaya occurred sometime between AD 1000 and AD 1290, suggesting a temporal gap of >800 years for great earthquakes in the region. Our studies also suggest that the source zone of the 1803 earthquake can be located close to Uttarkashi, on the duplex zone. The possible out-sequence-events like the 1803 Garhwal earthquake apparently suggest that the duplex zone south of the MCT is equally, if not more, active and capable of generating large/great earthquakes in the central Himalaya rather than the Himalayan frontal thrusts.. The age determinations of the paleoliquefaction features from the alluvial plain in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh suggest that previous great earthquakes in the respective segments may have occurred about 1000 years ago. These dates have some correlation with previous studies on the active faults on the Nepal side. We will present the results of our recent investigations of the geological proxies in the Himalaya and the Gangetic alluvial Plains along with a critical evaluation of the previous studies and discuss our strategy to address some of the outstanding questions on the earthquake recurrence in the central Himalaya.

Chittenipattu, Rajendran; Rajendran, Kusala; John, Biju; Sanwal, Jaishri

2013-04-01

53

Growth Characteristics, Biomass and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Variation of Garhwal Himalaya’s Fodder and Fuel Wood Tree Species at the Nursery Stage  

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Full Text Available Fodder and fuel wood deficiency in the Himalayan region is well recognized. Rural inhabitants are exploiting these forest resources for their livelihood for generations which leads to severe deforestation. The aim of this study was to identify the fast growing fodder and fuel wood tree species of Garhwal Himalayas at nursery stage with wider relevance and great potential for extensive afforestation programmes. Seed of Bauhinia purpurea L., Bauhinia retusa Roxb., Bauhinia variegate L., Celtis australis L., Ficus nemoralis Wall., Ficus roxburghii Wall., Grewia optiva Drummond, Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit, Melia azedarach L., Ougeinia oojeinensis (Roxb. Hochr., Quercus leucotrichophora A. Camus, Terminalia alata Heyne ex Roth. and Toona ciliate M. Roem. were collected from the superior trees and seedlings were raised. After one year and one month of establishment at the nursery, the growth characteristics, biomass and chlorophyll fluorescence (dark-adopted Fv/Fm of each species were also recorded. G. optiva had shown the highest growth in terms of height, basal diameter increment and number of branches, while production of leaves was more on O. oojeinensis. Biomass and chlorophyll fluorescence (maximum quantum yield or photochemical efficiency of PSII was found highest in Q. leucotrichophora which indicates photosynthetically this species was most active among the studied fodder and fuel wood tree species. The information in this communication could be utilized for developing various conservation and sustainable strategies in the Garhwal Himalayas to mitigate the<

Azamal Husen

2013-01-01

54

Are northeast and western Himalayas earthquake dynamics better “organized” than Central Himalayas: An artificial neural network approach  

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Full Text Available The Himalaya covering 20-38° N latitude and 70-98° E longitude, is one of the most seismo-tectonically active and vulnerable regions of the world. Visual inspection of the temporal earthquake frequency pattern of the Himalayas indicates the nature of the tectonic activity prevailing in this region. However, the quantification of this dynamical pattern is essential for constraining a model and characterizing the nature of earthquake dynamics in this region. We examine the temporal evolution of seismicity (M ? 4 of the Central Himalaya (CH, Western Himalaya (WH and Northeast Himalaya (NEH, for the period of 1960-2003 using artificial neural network (ANN technique. We use a multilayer feedforward artificial neural network (ANN model to simulate monthly resolution earthquake frequency time series for all three regions. The ANN is trained using a standard back-propagation algorithm with gradient decent optimization technique and then generalized through cross-validation. The results suggest that earthquake processes in all three regions evolved on a high dimensional chaotic plane akin to “self-organized” dynamical pattern. Earthquake processes of NEH and WH show a higher predictive correlation coefficient (50-55% compared to the CH (30%, implying that the earthquake dynamics in the NEH and WH are better “organized” than in the CH region. The available tectono-geological observations support the model predictions.

R. K. Tiwari

2007-02-01

55

Treasure and Tragedy of the Kashmir Himalaya  

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Full Text Available Biological interventions and sequential eco-edaphic changes have depleted the habitats of essential and commercially valuable medicinal plants, hence paved the way to invasive alien species, thereby infuriating the bio-resource diminution and deprivation. The present communication is an attempt to draw attention to the importance of some threatened medicinal plants of Kashmir Himalaya and the various threats they are forced upon. In total 12 species belonging to 11 families have been surveyed, assessed and analyzed for their importance and threat status. The study revealed that the already restricted populations of these threatened species are squeezed further by various natural and anthropogenic factors, above and beyond being subjected to over-exploitation. All these causative factors if not addressed without more ado, the day is not far away when this precious legacy will be lost for ever. It is indeed a grave situation for these species which calls for the recoup whatever is left. There is a buzz for the execution of global slogan and it is the need of hour to conserve these gems in today`s world of bioprospecting.

Parvaiz A. Wani

2006-01-01

56

Spring-recharging in the Himalayas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

in the settlement of mountain villages in the Himalayas. In fact, in many places, it was the single factor that determined the location of the villages and naturally rainwater has been the source which recharge the catchments of the springs. Forest cover keeps these catchment areas alive for the slow and constant recharging of the springs. In the recent past due to continuous deforestation, the catchment areas have been drastically reduced. Eventually, these denuded lands were unable to conserve water, which has resulted in the drying-up and dying of many mountain springs. Certainly, this became a major threat to both the natural habitats of the springs, as well as to the survival of the communities. In order to meet the water needs of the villages, the government-development agencies devised a distribution system in which water was diverted from regions with an adequate supply to those deprived of water. This approach to remedy the water shortage brought about significant water conflicts, as the rights to water resources were not well defined. This system also did not adequately address water-management and distribution lines for the water resources

2009-10-01

57

Distribution Characteristics of the Tree Species in Central Himalaya, India  

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Full Text Available A total of 257 tree species were recorded and studied for their pattern and altitudinal distribution in Central Himalaya. Relatively higher percentage (65% of deciduous species was recorded. Distribution of tree species in this region is between <200-4200 m asl. However, maximum (60% species were found either below or at around 1500 m asl altitudes may be due to overlapping of species. Lauraceae and Anacardiaceae are the dominant families in both forms. Species richness declines gradually towards the higher altitudes, it was sharper in evergreen species. Study concludes, the distribution of trees in central Himalaya, depends upon climate, soil, temperature and altitude.

Geeta Kharkwal

2007-01-01

58

Rapid response to selection, competitive release and increased transmission potential of artesunate-selected Plasmodium chabaudi malaria parasites.  

Science.gov (United States)

The evolution of drug resistance, a key challenge for our ability to treat and control infections, depends on two processes: de-novo resistance mutations, and the selection for and spread of resistant mutants within a population. Understanding the factors influencing the rates of these two processes is essential for maximizing the useful lifespan of drugs and, therefore, effective disease control. For malaria parasites, artemisinin-based drugs are the frontline weapons in the fight against disease, but reports from the field of slower parasite clearance rates during drug treatment are generating concern that the useful lifespan of these drugs may be limited. Whether slower clearance rates represent true resistance, and how this provides a selective advantage for parasites is uncertain. Here, we show that Plasmodium chabaudi malaria parasites selected for resistance to artesunate (an artemisinin derivative) through a step-wise increase in drug dose evolved slower clearance rates extremely rapidly. In single infections, these slower clearance rates, similar to those seen in the field, provided fitness advantages to the parasite through increased overall density, recrudescence after treatment and increased transmission potential. In mixed infections, removal of susceptible parasites by drug treatment led to substantial increases in the densities and transmission potential of resistant parasites (competitive release). Our results demonstrate the double-edged sword for resistance management: in our initial selection experiments, no parasites survived aggressive chemotherapy, but after selection, the fitness advantage for resistant parasites was greatest at high drug doses. Aggressive treatment of mixed infections resulted in resistant parasites dominating the pool of gametocytes, without providing additional health benefits to hosts. Slower clearance rates can evolve rapidly and can provide a strong fitness advantage during drug treatment in both single and mixed strain infections. PMID:24763470

Pollitt, Laura C; Huijben, Silvie; Sim, Derek G; Salathé, Rahel M; Jones, Matthew J; Read, Andrew F

2014-04-01

59

Rapid Response to Selection, Competitive Release and Increased Transmission Potential of Artesunate-Selected Plasmodium chabaudi Malaria Parasites  

Science.gov (United States)

The evolution of drug resistance, a key challenge for our ability to treat and control infections, depends on two processes: de-novo resistance mutations, and the selection for and spread of resistant mutants within a population. Understanding the factors influencing the rates of these two processes is essential for maximizing the useful lifespan of drugs and, therefore, effective disease control. For malaria parasites, artemisinin-based drugs are the frontline weapons in the fight against disease, but reports from the field of slower parasite clearance rates during drug treatment are generating concern that the useful lifespan of these drugs may be limited. Whether slower clearance rates represent true resistance, and how this provides a selective advantage for parasites is uncertain. Here, we show that Plasmodium chabaudi malaria parasites selected for resistance to artesunate (an artemisinin derivative) through a step-wise increase in drug dose evolved slower clearance rates extremely rapidly. In single infections, these slower clearance rates, similar to those seen in the field, provided fitness advantages to the parasite through increased overall density, recrudescence after treatment and increased transmission potential. In mixed infections, removal of susceptible parasites by drug treatment led to substantial increases in the densities and transmission potential of resistant parasites (competitive release). Our results demonstrate the double-edged sword for resistance management: in our initial selection experiments, no parasites survived aggressive chemotherapy, but after selection, the fitness advantage for resistant parasites was greatest at high drug doses. Aggressive treatment of mixed infections resulted in resistant parasites dominating the pool of gametocytes, without providing additional health benefits to hosts. Slower clearance rates can evolve rapidly and can provide a strong fitness advantage during drug treatment in both single and mixed strain infections.

Pollitt, Laura C.; Huijben, Silvie; Sim, Derek G.; Salathe, Rahel M.; Jones, Matthew J.; Read, Andrew F.

2014-01-01

60

Active Faults of the Northwest Himalaya: Pattern, Rate, and Timing of Surface Rupturing Earthquakes  

Science.gov (United States)

The 2005 Kashmir earthquake (Mw 7.6) is the only Himalayan earthquake to rupture the surface since the 15th to 16th century A.D. when >Mw 8.5 earthquakes ruptured the Himalayan Frontal thrust (HFT) in the central Himalaya. Megathrust-type earthquakes like these seem to relieve a majority of the accumulated interseismic strain and concentrate permanent strain across a narrow width at the deformation front (faults within the orogen appear to accommodate little strain). The 2005 within-plate rupture in Kashmir may be a clue that a different seismotectonic model applies to the northwest Himalaya where active deformation occurs on faults distributed more than 120 km across the orogen. An asymmetric anticline marks the deformation front in Kashmir where the HFT is inferred to be blind, though ~20 m-high escarpments suggest that unrecognized thrust fault(s) may reach the surface locally. Folded river terraces and dip data also suggest that this frontal fold contains a SW-dipping back thrust. In Pakistan the Salt Range thrust system (SRT) defines the thrust front. New mapping and preliminary OSL dates from deformed Holocene sediments exposed along the westernmost SRT reveal that the fault slips at 1-7 mm/yr and last ruptured within the last several thousand years. Within the orogenic wedge to the north of the deformation front, active shortening occurs along a system of surface-rupturing reverse faults, extending from the Balakot-Bagh fault (source of the 2005 Kashmir earthquake) to the Reasi fault (RF) in Indian Kashmir to the southeast. One strand of the RF displaces a 350 m-high, 80 ± 6 ka (preliminary OSL age) fluvial terrace, yielding a minimum shortening rate of 3-5 mm/yr. Trenches excavated across the RF nearby reveal a distinct angular unconformity that likely formed during a surface rupture ~4500 yrs BP. Farther north, three northeast-dipping reverse faults cut Quaternary terraces on the southwest side of the Kashmir Valley. Trenches expose evidence for at least 2 surface rupturing events in the latest Quaternary and a shortening rate of 0.3 to 1.3 mm/yr. The active structures described above can account for 15 to 50% of India-Asia convergence, with up to ~20% of the shortening occurring on structures within the orogenic belt. Seismicity in the NW Himalaya is also broadly distributed but tends to concentrate in several places (e.g., the Indus-Kohistan and Hazara Lower seismic zones). Like in the central Himalaya, the zones of seismicity in the NW Himalaya may locate regions where interseismic strain accumulates, possibly in the middle crust along thrust ramps, and is released during large (>Mw 7.5) events. These relatively infrequent earthquakes likely activate portions (all?) of the plate boundary detachment fault and/or the within-plate fault systems. It may be possible for the region to generate earthquakes as large as >Mw 8.5, taking into account a reasonable average slip value and maximum possible rupture area. Recognition of internal surface-rupturing reverse faults indicates probabilistic models for seismic hazards in the NW Himalaya ought to account for great earthquakes on the Main Himalayan thrust (the basal detachment), moderate earthquakes on upper plate faults, and potentially events in the down-going Indian plate.

Yule, J.; Madden, C.; Gavillot, Y.; Hebeler, A.; Meigs, A.; Hussein, A.; Malik, M.; Bhat, M.; Kausar, A.; Ramzan, S.; Sayab, M.; Yeats, R. S.

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
61

Potential site selection for radioactive waste repository using GIS (Study area: Negeri Sembilan) - Phase 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main purpose in this paper is to create the Geographic Information System (GIS) based analysis on the potential site area for near-surface radioactive waste repository in the state of Negeri Sembilan. There are several parameters should be considered related to the safety assessment in selecting the potential site. These parameters such as land-use, urban area, soil, rainfall, lithology, lineament, geomorphology, landslide potential, slope, elevation, hydrogeology and protected land need to be considered before choosing the site. In this phase, we only consider ten parameters for determining the potential suitable site. (author)

2010-10-12

62

Level of soil water potential as a tolerance selection environment for peanut to drought stress  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A research was undertaken to determine level of soil water potential as a tolerance selection environment for peanut to drought stress. Result was that of 33 characters measured, 12 ones were selected to be further analyzed. Those characters were grain weight, pod weight, skin weight-percentage, number of filled-pod, number of unfilled-pod, weight of 100-grain, whole-plant weight, shoot weight, shoot-based harvest index, biomass-based harvest index, relative plant growth rate a...

Riadi, Muhammad; Soetopo, Lita; Nur Basuki; Kasno, Astanto

2011-01-01

63

Earthquakes, Uplift, and Landscape Evolution in the NW Himalayas  

Science.gov (United States)

The terrain between Main Mantle Thrust to Salt Range Thrust in the NW Himalayas has been characterized by surface and subsurface features with variable tectonic activity. These features show relatively variable tectonic activity, existence of blind faults and basement faulting. In the present study, we use seismological and remote sensing analysis backed by field observations to investigate the relationship between earthquakes, uplift, and landscape evolution. We use nonlinear analysis to understand the earthquake dynamics in relation to surface faults and blind faults. The fractal analysis of the seismicity in three subsurface features of the area is used to characterize the roughness of the faults' surface. We find a high fault surface roughness in the Indus Kohistan Seismic Zone (IKSZ). It is concluded that the area is in the process of being uplifted and landscape is evolving. This evolution is further investigated using a set of geomorphological analyses consisting of extracting a drainage network from digital elevation models (DEM). The extracted streams are analysed using to calculate geomorphic indices and relative uplift rates. These analyses were applied on Indus, Swat, Kabul, Kunhar, Kishanganga, Poonch, Jehlum, Swan and Kurram, Kabul Rivers and their associate tributaries. The analyses provide us with the spatial variation of relative uplift based upon specific streams. We found that the Hazara Kashmir Syntaxis and Nanga Parbat Haramosh Massif are subject to a relatively high uplift. It is observed that the neotectonic activities are linearizing the drainage network from meandering pattern. We analyse the complete drainage texture using fractal dimension and lacunarity analysis. The analysis of the fractal dimension (D) employing box counting methods is calculated with a moving window approach and the lower values of D demonstrate the effect of neotectonic activity. The locations with lower but similar D values are further differentiated using lacunarity analysis of the selected sites by measuring the spatial homogeneity between the empty spaces. By analysing different locations and features we are concluding that landscape evolution along Hazara Kashmir Syntaxis was rapid.

Shahzad, F.; Mahmood, S.; Gloaguen, R.

2009-05-01

64

Climatic adaptations of body melanisation in Drosophila melanogaster from Western Himalayas.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated population divergence in body melanisation in wild samples of Drosophila melanogaster across an elevational gradient (512-2202 m) in the Western Himalayas. Wild populations are characterized by higher phenotypic variability as compared with laboratory populations. Significant differences in elevational slope values for three posterior abdominal segments (fifth, sixth and seventh) in wild versus laboratory populations suggest plastic effects. However, elevational slope values do not differ for the three anterior abdominal segments (second, third and fourth). Thus, elevational changes in melanisation include genetic as well as plastic effects. Fitness consequences of within population variability were analyzed on the basis of assorted darker and lighter flies from two highlands as well as from two lowland localities. There is lack of correlation of melanisation with body size as well as ovariole number in assorted darker and lighter flies. For each population, darker flies showed higher desiccation resistance, lower rate of water loss, longer copulation duration and greater fecundity as compared with lighter flies. Phenotypic variations in body melanisation can be interpreted in relation with seasonal changes in temperature as well as humidity (Tcv and RHcv) of the sites of origin of populations. Thus, elevational changes in body melanisation may represent genetic response to selection pressures imposed by colder and drier climatic conditions in the Western Himalayas. PMID:18820467

Parkash, Ravi; Sharma, Vineeta; Kalra, Bhawna

2008-01-01

65

Taxonomic status of Bupleurum (Apiaceae in outer hills of Kashmir Himalayas, India  

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Full Text Available Introduction: The genus Bupleurum is perennial rhizomatous herbs, recognized by simple leaves,conspicuous bracts and bractlets, often shows a great deal of variation in morphological characteristics. The genus is well developed in temperate and alpine zones of Kashmir Himalayas and other lesser Himalayan ranges of Jammu and Kashmir State. A key to the species, brief description, flowering and fruiting periods are given. The approximate elevation, distribution of species in the region andillustrations of selected species are provided.Material and Methods: The present communication is based on the surveys conducted between 1990 and 2007. The speciemens were mounted on the herbarium sheets and studied in the laboratory with the help of floristic literature.Results: As many as 10 species of genus Bupleurum have been recognized, from the different climaticzones of outer hills of Kashmir Himalayas of Jammu and Kashmir State.Conclusion: The report is first of its kind being communicated from the State of Jammu and Kashmir. Ten species of Bupleurum are described.

B. L. Bhellum

2012-01-01

66

Energy Planning in Selected European Regions - Methods for Evaluating the Potential of Renewable Energy Sources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Given their potentially positive impact on climate protection and the preservation of fossil resources, alternative energy sources have become increasingly important for the energy supply over the past years. However, the questions arises what economic and ecological impacts and potential conflicts over land use resources are associated with the promotion of renewable energy production. Using the examples of three selected European Regions in Poland, France and German, the dissertation discus...

2013-01-01

67

Selection of potential pollinizers for ‘Hass’ avocado based on flowering time and male-female overlapping  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Avocado production is dependent on the singular synchronous protogynous dichogamy of the species that promotes outcrossing. With the objective of selecting potential pollinizer avocado genotypes for ‘Hass’, the most important avocado cultivar worldwide, we have monitored during two consecutive years the flowering phenology of 27 avocado genotypes in Southeastern Spain.

Alcaraz, M. L.; Hormaza, Jose? Ignacio

2009-01-01

68

Nature and Timing of Quaternary glaciation in the Himalaya: Review and Speculation  

Science.gov (United States)

Reconstructions of the extent and defining the timing of Quaternary glaciation across the Himalaya is an important step towards understanding the nature of long-term (centennial-millennial scale) climate-glacier dynamics in the high mountains of Central Asia. Recent efforts, aided by extensive programs of mapping and numerical dating, are beginning to more accurately define the extent and timing of Quaternary glaciation throughout the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen. The picture that is emerging is one of complex variation in the timing and extent of glaciation within and between regions. This variation is likely controlled by regional differences in the role of the major climatic systems that influence the region over time and topographic factors. A transect across the western end of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen, including detailed studies in the Lahul Himalaya, Zanskar, Ladakh, Hunza and the Pamir, illustrates this complexity. This transect has the potential, when examined in more detail using newly developing numerical dating, and geomorphic and sedimentologic methods, to derive high-resolution records of glaciation that will help in understanding the complex relationship between climate-glacier dynamics and topography.

Owen, L. A.

2012-12-01

69

Agricultural Diversification in the Garhwal Himalaya: A Spatio-Temporal Analysis  

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Full Text Available The Garhwal Himalaya represents a traditional agricultural society where more than 74% population largely depends on the cultivation of subsistence cereal crops to run their livelihood. Over the time, with the increase in human population and decrease in per capita land, the traditional subsistence agriculture could not fulfill food requirement. This was resulted in food insecurity and thus agricultural diversification began with the cultivation of cash crops - fruits, off-season vegetables and also of medicinal plants. Although, agro-ecological condition favours diversification of crops and agro-biodiversity is very high in the Garhwal region, the pace of diversifying cash crops for commercialization is tremendously low. Diversity in crops varies spatially - horizontal and vertical and temporally - rabi and kharif seasons. The highlands characterize high agro-biodiversity in comparison to the mid-slopes and the valley regions. Crop diversification index (CDI of cereals and cash crops was calculated separately from the secondary dada. A case study of six villages was done to calculate cost-benefit analysis of cereals and cash crops. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential of diversification – cereals as well as cash crops for livelihood sustainability in the Garhwal Himalaya

Vishwambhar Prasad Sati

2012-01-01

70

Selection of optimal recording sites for limited lead body surface potential mapping: A sequential selection based approach  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study we propose the development of a new algorithm for selecting optimal recording sites for limited lead body surface potential mapping. The proposed algorithm differs from previously reported methods in that it is based upon a simple and intuitive data driven technique that does not make any presumptions about deterministic characteristics of the data. It uses a forward selection based search technique to find the best combination of electrocardiographic leads. Methods The study was conducted using a dataset consisting of body surface potential maps (BSPM recorded from 116 subjects which included 59 normals and 57 subjects exhibiting evidence of old Myocardial Infarction (MI. The performance of the algorithm was evaluated using spatial RMS voltage error and correlation coefficient to compare original and reconstructed map frames. Results In all, three configurations of the algorithm were evaluated and it was concluded that there was little difference in the performance of the various configurations. In addition to observing the performance of the selection algorithm, several lead subsets of 32 electrodes as chosen by the various configurations of the algorithm were evaluated. The rationale for choosing this number of recording sites was to allow comparison with a previous study that used a different algorithm, where 32 leads were deemed to provide an acceptable level of reconstruction performance. Conclusion It was observed that although the lead configurations suggested in this study were not identical to that suggested in the previous work, the systems did bear similar characteristics in that recording sites were chosen with greatest density in the precordial region.

McCullagh Paul J

2006-02-01

71

Are northeast and western Himalayas earthquake dynamics better "organized" than Central Himalayas: An artificial neural network approach  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Los Himalayas entre los 20 y 38 grados de latitud N y los 70 a 98 grados de longitud E están entre las regiones más activas y vulnerables a los temblores en el mundo. Se examina la evolución de la sismicidad en el tiempo (M > 4) en los Himalayas centrales, occidentales y del Noreste para el interval [...] o de 1960-2003 utilizando el método de redes neuronales artificiales (ANN). El modelo de capas múltiples sirve para simular la frecuencia de sismos con una resolución mensual. Para el entrenamiento del ANN se utiliza un algoritmo de propagación en reversa con optimización de gradiente, y se generaliza el resultado con validación cruzada. Se concluye que las tres regiones se caracterizan por procesos que evolucionan en un plano multidimensional caótico similar a una dinámica auto-organizada. El sector central posee un coeficiente de correlación más bajo que las otras dos regiones, que parecen estar mejor "organizadas", lo que es consistente con la información geológica y tectónica disponible. Abstract in english The Himalaya covering 20-38° N latitude and 70-98° E longitude, is one of the most seismo-tectonically active and vulnerable regions of the world. Visual inspection of the temporal earthquake frequency pattern of the Himalayas indicates the nature of the tectonic activity prevailing in this region. [...] However, the quantification of this dynamical pattern is essential for constraining a model and characterizing the nature of earthquake dynamics in this region. We examine the temporal evolution of seismicity (M > 4) of the Central Himalaya (CH), Western Himalaya (WH) and Northeast Himalaya (NEH), for the period of 1960-2003 using artificial neural network (ANN) technique. We use a multilayer feedforward artificial neural network (ANN) model to simulate monthly resolution earthquake frequency time series for all three regions. The ANN is trained using a standard back-propagation algorithm with gradient decent optimization technique and then generalized through cross-validation. The results suggest that earthquake processes in all three regions evolved on a high dimensional chaotic plane akin to "self-organized" dynamical pattern. Earthquake processes of NEH and WH show a higher predictive correlation coefficient (50-55%) compared to the CH (30%), implying that the earthquake dynamics in the NEH and WH are better "organized" than in the CH region. The available tectonogeological observations support the model predictions.

S., Sri Lakshmi; R. K., Tiwari.

72

Low seismicity in the Bhutan Himalaya and the stress shadow of the 1897 Shillong Plateau earthquake  

Science.gov (United States)

The seismicity of the Bhutan Himalaya region is generally low as compared to its adjoining Himalayan segments. The topography in the region is slightly subdued and different from the neighbouring central Nepal region. Low seismicity in the region may possibly be due to the postulated low convergence rate in the Bhutan Himalaya, difference in subsurface structures, or the aseismic nature of the region. We suggest that the lower seismicity in the Bhutan Himalaya may also be due to stress change caused by the great 1897 Shillong Plateau earthquake as the low seismicity region of the Bhutan Himalaya coincides with the stress shadow of the earthquake.

Gahalaut, V. K.; Rajput, Shikha; Kundu, Bhaskar

2011-06-01

73

Selective ion and electron heating and potential formation using mode conversions of ICRF waves in HIEI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plasma heating and potential formation by ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) waves are investigated in the HIEI tandem mirror. It is demonstrated that ions and electrons are selectively heated by the appropriate waves that have been mode converted from the fast magnetosonic wave in a two-ion-species plasma. In the central cell, the minority ions can be heated up to 0.3 keV with the presence of the mode-converted slow ion cyclotron wave. Plug cell electrons are heated by the the mode-converted electrostatic slow wave resulting in the formation of an ion confining potential. The dependence of the ion confining potential on the plug electron temperature is in qualitative agreement with values predicted by the improved modified Boltzmann relation which includes velocity space diffusion of electron due to the ICRF wave. The axial confinement of the core plasma is improved by the ICRF produced potential. (author). 13 refs, 9 figs

1994-09-01

74

Cycles of Sediment Aggradation and Incision in the Western Sub-Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

The magnitude of sediment delivery from the Himalayan mountains to the foreland, is characterized by large fluctuations on different timescales. At the first order, these fluctuations are manifested by periods of sediment aggradation, associated with the formation of large alluvial fans during times of high sediment delivery and re-incision and remobilization during reduced sediment delivery. At longer timescale (106-107 yr) sediment delivery is controlled by tectonic processes, whereas at shorter timescales (103-105 yr) climatic fluctuations such as variations in monsoonal strength or Quaternary glacial and interglacial oscillations dictate sediment production and transport. However, detailed stratigraphic information and chronologies of Quaternary sediment aggradation and incision cycles within the Sub-Himalaya are lacking and the degree of variability in sediment delivery during these episodes has remained unclear. In this study, we investigate Quaternary sediments exposed within the Sub-Himalaya of the Kangra re-entrant to the west of the Beas river. Here, the outlets of the drainage basins provide an ideal location to analyze aggradation and re-incision of transiently-stored sediments. The sediment-source region for this area is the Dhauladhar range, in the Higher Himalaya, which has been uplifting since the Late Miocene, thus restricting the potential source region for Late Cenozoic sediments supplied to the foreland. Folded and faulted Siwalik sediments of the Sub-Himalaya have formed sediment-filled intramontane piggy-back basin and have been progressively excavated. Thus far, we document a prolonged sediment-aggradation period by a thick sequence of boulder conglomerates. Subsequent re-incision of this fill, has left atleast three distinct terrace levels, which are recognized regionally at elevations ~5-10m, 65±10m and 140±10m above the present-day riverbed. The composition of the fill unit is dominated by 60% granitic clasts and is therefore distinct from the regionally exposed Siwalik conglomerates (>65% quartzite). We interpret the provenance signal to mean that the exposed lithologies in the catchment most likely had changed from quartzite-rich Higher Himalayan cover units to unroofed granites between the time of deposition of the Upper Siwalik conglomerates and sedimentary basin fill. Preliminary river profile analyses and topographic profiles along the terrace surfaces revealed tilting of some of the older, higher terrace levels in certain sections towards the north-east when compared to the gradient of the present-day river, suggesting ongoing internal shortening within the Sub-Himalaya. DEM-based geomorphic analysis, surface exposure dating and burial dating of well-shielded sediments using cosmogenic nuclides are in progress. With the expected results, we anticipate to determine the chronology of terrace levels, determine deformation rates, reconstruct the fluvial incision history and ultimately the minimum sediment-flux rate in the study area.

Dey, Saptarshi; Thiede, Rasmus; Bookhagen, Bodo; Strecker, Manfred

2013-04-01

75

Crossmodal effects of Guqin and piano music on selective attention: an event-related potential study.  

Science.gov (United States)

To compare the effects of music from different cultural environments (Guqin: Chinese music; piano: Western music) on crossmodal selective attention, behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) data in a standard two-stimulus visual oddball task were recorded from Chinese subjects in three conditions: silence, Guqin music or piano music background. Visual task data were then compared with auditory task data collected previously. In contrast with the results of the auditory task, the early (N1) and late (P300) stages exhibited no differences between Guqin and piano backgrounds during the visual task. Taking our previous study and this study together, we can conclude that: although the cultural-familiar music influenced selective attention both in the early and late stages, these effects appeared only within a sensory modality (auditory) but not in cross-sensory modalities (visual). Thus, the musical cultural factor is more obvious in intramodal than in crossmodal selective attention. PMID:19766172

Zhu, Weina; Zhang, Junjun; Ding, Xiaojun; Zhou, Changle; Ma, Yuanye; Xu, Dan

2009-11-27

76

A Sexual selection approach to women's pupil size preferences in a potential mate  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dilated pupils represent a display of sexual interest. The attraction value of this display in a potential mate varies between women. While some females find a clear demonstration of sexual interest attractive, others prefer less overt sexual attentions. This study aims to account for these differences using a sexual selection approach. Male faces were manipulated to have three different pupil sizes to determine which size women find the most attractive. Individuals’ with unr...

Smallwood, Eleanor

2006-01-01

77

ONYX-015: mechanisms of action and clinical potential of a replication-selective adenovirus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Accumulated knowledge in the molecular processes of tumour development combined with the availability of genetically modified viruses resemble the basis for new promising cancer therapeutics. The main advantages of employing replication-competent viruses are achievement of tumour selective killing and amplification of their oncolytic potential within the tumour mass. In this review, we describe the development of ONYX-015, one of the first and most advanced replication-competent viruses for c...

Ries, S.; Korn, W. M.

2002-01-01

78

Unbound Protein-Protein Docking Selections by the DFIRE-based Statistical Pair Potential  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A newly developed statistical pair potential based on Distance-scaled Finite Ideal-gas REference (DFIRE) state is applied to unbound protein-protein docking structure selections. The performance of the DFIRE energy function is compared to those of the well-established ZDOCK energy scores and RosettaDock energy function using the comprehensive decoy sets generated by ZDOCK and RosettaDock. Despite significant difference in the functional forms and complexities of the three en...

Liu, Song; Zhang, Chi; Zhou, Yaoqi

2004-01-01

79

Non-selective cation channels, transient receptor potential channels and ischemic stroke  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Several pathways to neural cell death are involved in ischemic stroke, and all require monovalent or divalent cation influx, implicating non-selective cation (NC) channels. NC channels are also likely to be involved in the dysfunction of vascular endothelial cells that leads to formation of edema following cerebral ischemia. Two newly described NC channels have emerged as potential participants in ischemic stroke, the acid sensing ion channel (ASIC), and the sulfonylurea receptor-1 (SUR1)-reg...

2007-01-01

80

Selection of potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria from fermented olives by in vitro tests  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study aims to evaluate the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from naturally fermented olives and select candidates to be used as probiotic starters for the improvement of the traditional fermentation process and the production of newly added value functional foods. Seventy one (71) lactic acid bacterial strains (17 Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 1 Ln. pseudomesenteroides, 13 Lactobacillus plantarum, 37 Lb. pentosus, 1 Lb. paraplantarum, and 2 Lb. paracasei sub...

Argyri, Anthoula; Zoumpopoulou, Georgia; Karatzas, Kimon Andreas; Tsakalidou, Effie; Nychas, George John; Panagou, Efstathios; Tassou, Chrysoula

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Potential and Structural Variation of Some Selected Cultivated Bamboo Species in Peninsular Malaysia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Screening of different cultivated bamboo species to find out potential variety of bamboo is most important. Structural variations in term of anatomy, physical and strength properties of 3 year-old cultivated Gigantochloa brang, G. levis, G. scotechinii and G. wrayi were investigated for screening purposes. The culms of these bamboos were selected, harvested and processed for subsequent studies. The results sho...

2012-01-01

82

Fault delineation study using soil-gas method in the Dharamsala area, NW Himalayas, India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Soil-gas activity in the vicinity of neotectonic fault zones within the Dharamsala area in the region of the NW Himalayas, India, has been investigated by determining enhanced concentration values of radon and helium in the soil, using an ionization chamber and an ASM 100 HDS (Alcatel), respectively. A geological map of the area was used for site selection and to locate the predicted courses of faults. Elevated levels of radon and helium in the soil gas were found along a profile of a major fault (MBT-2). Radon shows variation not only due to the tectonic structures but also due to change in lithology. Helium and radon anomalies together show that apart from conspicuous thrust MBT-2, the area under study is cut across by the N-S transverse faults/lineaments

2008-08-01

83

New analysis of Crab nebula and OFF source data at VHE with HAGAR in the Himalayas  

Science.gov (United States)

The High Altitude GAmma-Ray (HAGAR) array is a wavefront sampling array of 7 telescopes, using the atmospheric Cherenkov technique, set up at Hanle, at 4270 m above mean sea level, in the Ladakh region of the Himalayas. It constitutes the first phase of the HImalayan Gamma-Ray Observatory (HIGRO) project, and is sensitive to gamma rays from ˜200 GeV. Regular source observations are on since September 2008. We have collected more than 80 hrs of data from Crab nebula, standard candle source of TeV gamma-ray astronomy, and present preliminary results on selected data sets. We have also collected more than 60 hrs of data from OFF-source regions at a similar declination, for estimation of statistical fluctuations and systematics in our data/analysis. We present these studies and discuss our analysis procedures.

Britto, Richard Joseph; Hagar Collaboration

84

Integrated Natural Resource Management: Approaches and Lessons from the Himalaya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Losses of forest cover, biodiversity, agricultural productivity, and ecosystem services in the Himalayan mountain region are interlinked problems and threats to the sustainable livelihoods of 115 x 106 mountain people as well as the inhabitants of the adjoining Indo-gangetic plains. Until the 1970s, environmental conservation, food security, and rural economic development were treated as independent sectors. The poor outcomes of sector-oriented approaches catalyzed efforts to address environmental and socioeconomic problems concurrently. The identification of "key" natural resource management interventions is an important dimension of integrated management. Projects to rehabilitate the degraded lands that cover 40% of the Indian Himalaya could be key interventions provided that they address both socioeconomic and environmental concerns across spatial and temporal scales. However, projects of this type, e.g., investments in conifer plantations on degraded forest lands, have failed because their designs did not take into account the needs of local residents. This study illustrates a case of land rehabilitation in a small isolated village close to the alpine zone. Vital elements of this project strategy included identifying local perceptions and knowledge and involving the local people in the selection and implementation of the interventions needed to restore the land. Communities were found to be more concerned with the immediate economic benefits from bamboo and medicinal species than the long-term benefits of tree planting. The villagers eventually reached a consensus to plant broadleaved multipurpose trees in association with bamboo and medicinal species. Despite assurances that all the economic benefits from rehabilitation would go to the community, the people would not agree to voluntary labor, although they did absorb significant costs by providing social fencing, farmyard manure, and propagules from community forests. Households shared costs and benefits according to traditional norms. The economic benefits to the local people exceeded the rehabilitation cost over the 7-yr life of the project. There were significant on-site environmental benefits in terms of improvements in soil fertility, biodiversity, protective cover, and carbon sequestration, and off-site benefits from more productive use of labor, reduced pressure on protected areas, and the introduction of rare and threatened medicinal species onto private farmland.

R. K. Maikhuri

2002-01-01

85

Satellite Remote Sensing of Snow/Ice Albedo over the Himalayas  

Science.gov (United States)

The Himalayan glaciers and snowpacks play an important role in the hydrological cycle over Asia. The seasonal snow melt from the Himalayan glaciers and snowpacks is one of the key elements to the livelihood of the downstream densely populated regions of South Asia. During the pre-monsoon season (April-May-June), South Asia not only experiences the reversal of the regional meridional tropospheric temperature gradient (i.e., the onset of the summer monsoon), but also is being bombarded by dry westerly airmass that transports mineral dust from various Southwest Asian desert and arid regions into the Indo-Gangetic Plains in northern India. Mixed with heavy anthropogenic pollution, mineral dust constitutes the bulk of regional aerosol loading and forms an extensive and vertically extended brown haze lapping against the southern slopes of the Himalayas. Episodic dust plumes are advected over the Himalayas, and are discernible in satellite imagery, resulting in dust-capped snow surface. Motivated by the potential implications of accelerated snowmelt, we examine the changes in radiative energetics induced by aerosol transport over the Himalayan snow cover by utilizing space borne observations. Our objective lies in the investigation of potential impacts of aerosol solar absorption on the Top-of-Atmosphere (TOA) spectral reflectivity and the broadband albedo, and hence the accelerated snowmelt, particularly in the western Himalayas. Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity (LER) in the visible and near-infrared wavelengths, derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer radiances, is used to generate statistics for determining perturbation caused due to dust layer over snow surface in over ten years of continuous observations. Case studies indicate significant reduction of LER ranging from 5 to 8% in the 412-860nm spectra. Broadband flux observations, from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System, are also used to investigate changes in shortwave TOA flux over dust-laden and dust-free snow covered regions. Additionally, spatio-temporal and intra-seasonal variations of LER, along with snow cover information, are used to characterize the seasonal melt pattern and thus to distinguish the outstanding aerosol-induced snowmelt signal. Results from this observational work are expected to provide better understanding of the radiative impact of aerosols over snow surface, especially its role in the Himalayan hydro-glacialogical variability.

Hsu, N. Christina; Gautam, Ritesh

2012-01-01

86

Distribution Characteristics of the Tree Species in Central Himalaya, India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A total of 257 tree species were recorded and studied for their pattern and altitudinal distribution in Central Himalaya. Relatively higher percentage (65%) of deciduous species was recorded. Distribution of tree species in this region is between <200-4200 m asl. However, maximum (60%) species were found either below or at around 1500 m asl altitudes may be due to overlapping of species. Lauraceae and Anacardiaceae are the dominant families in both forms. Species richness declines graduall...

Geeta Kharkwal; Yaswant Singh Rawat; Yaspal Singh Pangtey

2007-01-01

87

Dot Com Mantra: Social computing in the Central Himalayas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Billions of dollars are being spent nationally and globally on providing computing access to digitally disadvantaged groups and cultures with an expectation that computers and the Internet can lead to higher socio-economic mobility. This ethnographic study of social computing in the Central Himalayas, India, investigates alternative social practices with new technologies and media amongst a population that is for the most part undocumented. In doing so, this book offers fresh and critical per...

Arora, P. A.

2010-01-01

88

Electrical resistivity imaging of seismically active frontal Himalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows. Given the sensitivity of resistivity to rheology, magnetotelluric measurement are undertaken to study deep crustal electrical structures and their possible linkage to the space-depth distribution of seismicity. Magnetotelluric investigations at Thirty three sites along Bijnaur-Mallari profile cutting across major litho tectonic units of Himalaya starting from Indo Ganges plain, Siwalik, Lesser, Higher Himalaya to Tethys Himalaya. Observing the low solar activity during the survey period each site was occupied for five days. Longer occupancy allowed estimation of impedance tensor at periods greater than 500 sec at most of the stations. However at few stations electric field recordings were very noisy perhaps due to unbalanced power network of the region. This is reflected in larger error bars in estimated impedance tensors. Skewness and other dimensionality parameter indicate the validity of 2-D regional model. Robust impedance decomposition for the period band of 10 Hz- 1000 sec of eleven stations reveal that EM strike coincides with the geologic fabric. Considering regional strike EM field were decoupled in TE, TM mode and then inverted for frequency dependent conductivity distribution along the profile. The most conspicuous feature of the inverted resistivity section is the low resistivity zone at a shallow depth of 10 km beneath the Indo-Gangetic Plains that dips down at a low-angle and extends as a continuous plane right up to the northern limit of the profile. The geometry of this layer is correlated with the basement thrust separating the top of the under thrusting Indian Plate from the over-riding sedimentary wedge of lesser Himalaya. The paper will discuss the tectonic and rheological significance of the results of resistivity imaging using magnetotelluric method along the profile from Bijnaur to Mallari.

2009-08-23

89

Genetic aspects of uranium mineralization in the Himalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Himalayan Uranium Province hosts five major types of uranium mineralization: (1) stratiform remobilized (Proterozoic), (2) structurally controlled hydrothermal (Proterozoic), (3) black shale-phosphorite (Palaeozoic-Mesozoic), (4) sandstone (Siwalik belt, Tertiary), and (5) primary disseminations in granitoids (Tertiary). Evaluation of the genetic aspects of these types has led to the identification of distinct spatial (lithostratigraphic and tectonic units) and temporal relations among them. The sandstone types are confined to the Tertiary (Middle Miocene to Pleistocene) molasse formations found south of th Main Boundary Thrust (MBT). Between the MBT and the Main Central Thrust, in the Lesser Himalaya, mineralization hosted in the Chail quartzite-phyllite ± metabasic sequences is of stratiform remobilized type. The structurally controlled hydrothermal type is confined to Dalings and gneisses. Syngenetic uranium in black shale-phosphorite sequences of Palaeozoic-Mesozoic age is found on the southern fringes of the Lesser Himalaya, bordering the MBT. Disseminated uranium occurs in the Tertiary and Proterozoic(?) granitoids of the Greater Himalaya and Ladakh. Rb-Sr geochronological data on host rocks and U-Pb dates on uraninites from some areas indicate that uranium mineralization in stratiform remobilized and structurally controlled types hosted by the Chails, Dalings and gneisses is essentially Precambrian and thus existed much before the Himalayan Orogeny. The Himalayan Orogeny, however, appears to have aided in further remobilization. The sandstone type mineralization in the Siwalik, on the other hand, is directly related to the process of formation of the foredeep and molasse sedimentation and subsequent uplift and epigenesis of the uranium mineralization, all of which are directly relatable to the evolution of the Himalaya. The relevance of deep seated lineament structures to mineralization, particularly of uranium, needs to be evaluated critically, as most of the uranium mineralization of the Proterozoic occurs in close proximity to the thrust sheets. (author). 36 refs, 8 figs, 3 tabs

1987-03-09

90

Hillslope erosion and landslide dynamics in the central Himalayas  

Science.gov (United States)

Slope failures and landslides are the most important processes of hillslope erosion in non-glaciated active orogens. Beside tectonic activity, climate forcing, in particular daily and cumulated rainfall, have been pointed out as critical for triggering landslides, but large questions remain open relative to slope dynamics and climate influence. To address the question of hillslope erosion in active orogens, we are currently implementing different methodological approaches to measure erosion rates and document erosion processes in the central Himalaya. We present a focused study on the Khudi Khola valley (southern Annapurnas region in Nepal). This 136km2-wide catchment has previously been monitored in 1999-2004 to document climatic dynamics [Putkonen, 2004] and fluxes of suspended sediment. Those fluxes indicate an average modern erosion rate of 2-3mm/yr, well above erosion rates in surrounding High Himalayan catchments [Gabet et al., 2007]. From field study and aerial photos, a zone of large landslides in the upper part of the valley was identified as a major potential source for those sediments. On the long-range, comparison of satellite images from 1974 to 2010 indicates indeed that the landslide has been very active, his scar moving up by 400m, providing the source for the very high sediment production observed by Gabet et al. [2007]. To better document the short-term behaviour of this landslide, a specific study has been carried out during 2010 and 2011 monsoons on the landslide and on the Khudi watershed. Ten kilometres downstream from the landslide, suspended sediment concentration was measured every day and sediment samples were analyzed. Major elements data showed constant values during monsoon and a geochemical signature similar to the landslide samples, which is consistent with a predominant contribution of the landslide to the final sediment exported by the river all over the monsoon. In parallel, in order to follow the motions at the heart of the landslide, cameras were installed on the edges of the scar, taking one picture every thirty minutes during daytime. From these pictures, we were able to measure displacement vectors, using the iterative PIV plug-in for ImageJ software. Preliminary results show continuous displacements from the end of June to November within the landslide. In addition, we observe a good temporal correlation between major slope creeping and geomorphic activity and daily rainfall peaks. Nevertheless, further downstream, we only observe high sediment concentration values during the first weeks of the monsoon, although the rainfall and the landslide activity are still important until the middle of September. On-going work is focused on answering such apparent paradox.

Gallo, F.; Lavé, J.; Morin, G.; France-Lanord, C.; Gajurel, A. P.

2012-04-01

91

Radon variation in drinking water with different lithotectonic units of Uttaranchal Himalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The water samples from Kumaun and Garhwal Himalayas were taken from the sources used directly for the drinking purpose. In all 81 measurements of radon (222Rn) in drinking water were made. Some of the values were found higher than the maximum contamination level (MCL) of 11.1 Bq.1-1 set by US environmental radiation protection. The data were collected from different lithotectonic units along and across the various regional thrust planes, faults, shears etc. The observed values were than correlated with the geological formations and structure of the area. An effort was made for the mathematical interrelationship among the mean radon values from different lithological group. This study is also helpful for identifying regions having a strong potential of radon exposure. (author)

2005-11-23

92

Screening, evaluation and selection ofphosphate-solubilising fungi as potential biofertiliser  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phosphate-solubilising saprophytic fungi have a potential application in plant nutrition; therefore, the aim of this study was 1 to perform a screening and isolation of native phosphofungi from volcanic soils of southern Chile, 2 to select a liquid medium for the evaluation of these phosphofungi and 3 to test a selected phospho fungus as a biofertiliser in a volcanic soil. The phosphofungi were screened using Martin medium (rose bengal-streptomycin agar with calcium phosphate (Ca3(PO42 or calcium phytate as the phosphorus source. Six promising strains (Penicillium sp., Penicillium albidum, Penicillium thomii, Penicillium restrictum, Penicillium frequentans and Gliocladium roseum were evaluated in the liquid media of Agnihotri, Asea-Wakelin, Pikovskaya and Nahas. The soluble phosphorus, acid phosphatase activity, pH and fungal biomass were determined. In most soils, the greatest proportion of phosphofungi solubilised organic P. The Asea-Wakelin medium appears to be the medium of choice for the quantitative evaluation of phosphofungi isolated from the volcanic soils tested. Penicillium albidum was selected as a potential biofertiliser due to its capacity to solubilise both inorganic and organic P via its specific solubilising activity (64 mg P/g fungus, phosphatase secretion and enhancement of the growth and mineral nutrition of lettuce plants growing in a volcanic soil.

A Morales

2011-01-01

93

Screening, evaluation and selection ofphosphate-solubilising fungi as potential biofertiliser  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Phosphate-solubilising saprophytic fungi have a potential application in plant nutrition; therefore, the aim of this study was 1) to perform a screening and isolation of native phosphofungi from volcanic soils of southern Chile, 2) to select a liquid medium for the evaluation of these phosphofungi a [...] nd 3) to test a selected phospho fungus as a biofertiliser in a volcanic soil. The phosphofungi were screened using Martin medium (rose bengal-streptomycin agar) with calcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2) or calcium phytate as the phosphorus source. Six promising strains (Penicillium sp., Penicillium albidum, Penicillium thomii, Penicillium restrictum, Penicillium frequentans and Gliocladium roseum) were evaluated in the liquid media of Agnihotri, Asea-Wakelin, Pikovskaya and Nahas. The soluble phosphorus, acid phosphatase activity, pH and fungal biomass were determined. In most soils, the greatest proportion of phosphofungi solubilised organic P. The Asea-Wakelin medium appears to be the medium of choice for the quantitative evaluation of phosphofungi isolated from the volcanic soils tested. Penicillium albidum was selected as a potential biofertiliser due to its capacity to solubilise both inorganic and organic P via its specific solubilising activity (64 mg P/g fungus), phosphatase secretion and enhancement of the growth and mineral nutrition of lettuce plants growing in a volcanic soil.

Morales, A; Alvear, M; Valenzuela, E; Castillo, C.E; Borie, F.

94

Non-selective cation channel blockers: potential use in nervous system basic research and therapeutics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Non-selective cationic channels (NSCC) are a heterogeneous family of channels, widely expressed in non-excitable and excitable cells, that share several functional characteristics but have diverse molecular origin. NSCC can be formed by transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, calcium activated non-selective channels, hyperpolarization activated cation currents, acid-sensitive cationic channels (ASIC), etc. As a result of its wide expression, as well as to the fact that the activation of such currents produce a persistent membrane depolarization, NSCC have been involved in a variety of neuronal processes such as signal transduction, firing pattern (including plateau potentials and bursting mechanisms) as well as synaptic transmission. Due to the relevance of such channels, alterations in their normal function have been associated with the pathophysiology of several nervous system diseases. Over the last years several blockers of such channels have been discovered. Here we review the pharmacology of NSCC blockers including trivalent cations, verapamil derivates, flufenamic acid, the "typical" TRP blockers 2-APB, ACA and SKF 96365 as well as ASIC blockers. This review focuses on the pharmacological properties of such drugs and their potential use for the understanding of the nervous system as well as for the treatment of neurological diseases. PMID:18673137

Peña, Fernando; Ordaz, Benito

2008-07-01

95

Eastern Himalaya; their oddities, geologic causes and implications (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Himalayan orogen, despite its size and length of its tectonic evolution, appears strikingly cylindrical. Although all the first order geological features can be followed along strike, there are geologically significant differences whose geodynamic implications are not yet clear. The eastern Himalayas are, among others, characterised by several geological features not recognised or present elsewhere in the orogen: a) The map view extent of the metamorphic core of the orogen, the Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS), is broader than in most other regions; b) The exhumation / emplacement of this unit was diachronous; c) The above implies different timing of metamorphic and deformation stages across strike instead of a “single time evolution” for the GHS; d) In the GHS there are putative Tertiary eclogite facies rocks. However, they appear at different structural levels in eastern Nepal, Sikkim and Bhutan; e) The roof of the GHS, the South Tibetan Detachment (STD), has been preserved in a series of klippen not present, or rare in the rest of the orogen; f) The STD in the klippen represents the earliest stage of the movement along the STD and also documents a complex deformation history of this seemingly simple structure; g) The ductile deformation along the STD apparently lasted longer then further to the west (i.e. the leucogranites apparently young eastward); h) The Bhutan Himalaya is the only segment of the orogen with an elevated terrain outboard the orogen (the Shillong Plateau); i) This actively uplifting topography might have: (i) reduced the monsoonal precipitation received by the segment of the Himalaya in the lee of the plateau, and / or (ii) reduced the convergence rate across the same orogenic segment; j) The convergence rates, short and long term seem, however, higher then elsewhere; k) The erosion rates are lower and the low temperature thermochronological data are older than elsewhere in the Himalaya; l) The latter has resulted in heterogeneous, non-equilibrium landscape, and preservation of the geological features mentioned here. Causes and effects of these differences will be hypothesised and a generalized model for the tectonic evolution of the eastern Himalaya suggested.

Grujic, D.

2009-12-01

96

Two Species of Bryoria (Lichenized Ascomycota, Parmeliaceae) from the Sino-Himalayas  

Science.gov (United States)

We performed a taxonomic study on two species of the genus Bryoria from the Sino-Himalayas, SW-China. B. nadvornikiana is new to China and B. furcellata is new to Yunnan and Sichuan provinces in the Sino-Himalayas. Morphology, habitat, distributions and chemistry of the two species are discussed.

Wang, Li-song; Harada, Hiroshi; Koh, Young Jin

2005-01-01

97

Two species of bryoria (lichenized ascomycota, parmeliaceae) from the sino-himalayas.  

Science.gov (United States)

We performed a taxonomic study on two species of the genus Bryoria from the Sino-Himalayas, SW-China. B. nadvornikiana is new to China and B. furcellata is new to Yunnan and Sichuan provinces in the Sino-Himalayas. Morphology, habitat, distributions and chemistry of the two species are discussed. PMID:24049496

Wang, Li-Song; Harada, Hiroshi; Koh, Young Jin; Hur, Jae-Seoun

2005-12-01

98

GaN-based anion selective sensor: Probing the origin of the induced electrochemical potential  

Science.gov (United States)

The gallium nitride (GaN) semiconductor has been used as the sensing element in a chemical sensor for the measurement of charged species in solution. The sensor shows remarkable selectivity for anions, such as sulphate (SO42-) and hydroxide (OH-). It is shown that the GaN surface interacts selectively with Lewis bases as shown by impedance spectra. In addition, both the impedance spectra and the surface induced potential of the sensor element correlate very well with the activity of both the negatively charged hydroxide and the sulphate anions used. These results indicate that there is a direct interaction of the electron deficient gallium in the GaN surface with the Lewis base anionic ligands. A band model for the investigated GaN/KOH-solution system has been deduced.

Chaniotakis, Nikos A.; Alifragis, Yiannis; Georgakilas, Alexandros; Konstantinidis, Giorgos

2005-04-01

99

Antimycotic potential of Crataeva religiosa Hook and Forst against some selected fungal pathogens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Crataeva religiosa Hook and Forst belonging to family Capparidaceae (Cappaceae) was selected based on its ethnopharmacological uses like diuretic, laxative, lithonotriptic, antirheumatic, antiperiodic, bitter tonic, rubifacient and counterirritant and was investigated to evaluate in vitro antimycotic potential of petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanolic and aqueous extracts against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Cryptococcus marinus and Aspergillus niger by disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of C. religiosa extracts were found in the range of 0.062 - 0.5 mg/disc. The ethanolic extract significantly inhibits the growth of selected fungal pathogens, whereas aqueous extract do not show zone of inhibition against the tested Candida species. The results indicate the possible therapeutic uses of the plant as a potent antifungal agent. PMID:18666433

Sahoo, Sabuj; Mishra, Sagar K; Panda, Prasana K; Tripathy, Shyamlendu; Mishra, Satya R; Ellaiah, Poluri; Dash, Sashi K

2008-01-01

100

The therapeutic potential of class I selective histone deacetylase inhibitors in ovarian cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Epithelial ovarian cancer remains the deadliest gynecologic malignancy. Despite advances in treatment, new approaches are needed. Histone deacetylases (HDACs are a family of enzymes that regulate gene expression by removing acetyl groups from lysine residues on histones and non-histone proteins. Inhibition of HDACs with small molecules has led to the development of HDAC inhibitors (HDACi that are in clinical use, primarily for hematologic malignancies. Although clinical trials with HDACi as single agents in solid tumors have been disappointing, data from independent labs and recent work by our group show that class I selective HDACi have potent anti-tumor effects in preclinical models of ovarian cancer. This review summarizes the role of HDACs in ovarian cancer and the potential niche for selective class I HDACi, particularly HDAC3 in ovarian cancer therapy.

DineoKhabele

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
101

Active prey selection in two pelagic copepods feeding on potentially toxic and non-toxic dinoflagellates  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Grazing on two red tide dinoflagellates, the potentially toxic Karenia mikimotoi and the non-toxic Gyrodinium instriatum, was examined in two species of marine copepods, Pseudocalanus elongatus and Temora longicornis. Both copepods cleared K. mikimotoi at rates that were a little lower but comparable to those at which they cleared the slightly larger G. instriatum when the two dinoflagellates were offered separately. However, when feeding on mixtures of the two prey species, the clearance rates on K. mikimotoi were substantially reduced in both copepods while their clearances of G. instiatum remained unaltered, suggesting active prey selection. Video observations of individual prey capture and feeding events showed prey rejection frequencies (caught and then released cells) that did not differ between mixed and mono-specific diets. This suggests that the selection between prey cells occurs prior to capture and that it is based on remote characterization of the cells.

Schultz, Mette; Kiørboe, Thomas

2009-01-01

102

Potential benefits of genomic selection on genetic gain of small ruminant breeding programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

In conventional small ruminant breeding programs, only pedigree and phenotype records are used to make selection decisions but prospects of including genomic information are now under consideration. The objective of this study was to assess the potential benefits of genomic selection on the genetic gain in French sheep and goat breeding designs of today. Traditional and genomic scenarios were modeled with deterministic methods for 3 breeding programs. The models included decisional variables related to male selection candidates, progeny testing capacity, and economic weights that were optimized to maximize annual genetic gain (AGG) of i) a meat sheep breeding program that improved a meat trait of heritability (h(2)) = 0.30 and a maternal trait of h(2) = 0.09 and ii) dairy sheep and goat breeding programs that improved a milk trait of h(2) = 0.30. Values of ±0.20 of genetic correlation between meat and maternal traits were considered to study their effects on AGG. The Bulmer effect was accounted for and the results presented here are the averages of AGG after 10 generations of selection. Results showed that current traditional breeding programs provide an AGG of 0.095 genetic standard deviation (?a) for meat and 0.061 ?a for maternal trait in meat breed and 0.147 ?a and 0.120 ?a in sheep and goat dairy breeds, respectively. By optimizing decisional variables, the AGG with traditional selection methods increased to 0.139 ?a for meat and 0.096 ?a for maternal traits in meat breeding programs and to 0.174 ?a and 0.183 ?a in dairy sheep and goat breeding programs, respectively. With a medium-sized reference population (nref) of 2,000 individuals, the best genomic scenarios gave an AGG that was 17.9% greater than with traditional selection methods with optimized values of decisional variables for combined meat and maternal traits in meat sheep, 51.7% in dairy sheep, and 26.2% in dairy goats. The superiority of genomic schemes increased with the size of the reference population and genomic selection gave the best results when nref > 1,000 individuals for dairy breeds and nref > 2,000 individuals for meat breed. Genetic correlation between meat and maternal traits had a large impact on the genetic gain of both traits. Changes in AGG due to correlation were greatest for low heritable maternal traits. As a general rule, AGG was increased both by optimizing selection designs and including genomic information. PMID:23736059

Shumbusho, F; Raoul, J; Astruc, J M; Palhiere, I; Elsen, J M

2013-08-01

103

Is the N170 peak of visual event-related brain potentials car-selective?  

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The N170 is a peak of event-related brain potentials commonly acknowledged to be larger in amplitude for face stimuli compared with any other visual object. Recently, the face selectivity of the N170 has been challenged based on the observation of similar N170 amplitude to faces and cars presented full front. Here, we measured the N170 elicited by the same stimulus categories using a one-back memory and categorization tasks. We found that N170 mean amplitude was significantly larger for cars ...

2009-01-01

104

Selection of phosphorus solubilizing bacteria with biocontrol potential for growth in phosphorus rich animal bone charcoal  

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Bacteria with the ability to solubilize phosphorus (P) and to improve plant health were selected and tested for growth and survival in P-rich animal bone charcoal (ABC). ABC is suggested to be suitable as a carrier for biocontrol agents, offering them a protected niche as well as delivering phosphate to plants, meanwhile re-using P from waste of the food chain. Ninety-seven bacterial isolates from different soils were tested for their potential to dissolve P from ABC. Of these isolates, 60% s...

Postma, J.; Nijhuis, E. H.; Sommeus, E.

2010-01-01

105

Evolutionary study of a potential selection target region in the pig.  

Science.gov (United States)

Domestication, modern breeding and artificial selection have shaped dramatically the genomic variability of domestic animals. In livestock, the so-called FAT1 quantitative trait locus (QTL) in porcine chromosome 4 was the first QTL uncovered although, to date, its precise molecular nature has remained elusive. Here, we characterize the nucleotide variability of 13 fragments of ?500?bp equally spaced in a 2?Mb region in the vicinity of the FAT1 region in a wide-diversity panel of 32 pigs. Asian and European animals, including local Mediterranean and international pig breeds, were sequenced. Patterns of genetic variability were very complex and varied largely across loci and populations; they did not reveal overall a clear signal of a selective sweep in any breed, although FABP4 fragment showed a significantly higher diversity. We used an approximate Bayesian computation approach to infer the evolutionary history of this SSC4 region. Notably, we found that European pig populations have a much lower effective size than their Asian counterparts: in the order of hundreds vs hundreds of thousands. We show also an important part of extant European variability is actually due to introgression of Asian germplasm into Europe. This study shows how a potential loss in diversity caused by bottlenecks and possible selective sweeps associated with domestication and artificial selection can be counterbalanced by migration, making it much more difficult the identification of selection footprints based on naive demographic assumptions. Given the small fragment analyzed here, it remains to be studied how these conclusions apply to the rest of the genome. PMID:20502482

Ojeda, A; Ramos-Onsins, S E; Marletta, D; Huang, L S; Folch, J M; Pérez-Enciso, M

2011-02-01

106

Winter wheat hull (husk) is a valuable source for tricin, a potential selective cytotoxic agent.  

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The flavone, tricin (5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxyflavone) has great potential as an anticancer agent, due to its specific chemopreventive activity. In spite of these characteristics, its use in preclinical studies is still limited, mainly because of its limited availability and high production cost. Tricin is found mainly in cereal grains, such as wheat, rice, barley, oat and maize. However, its concentration in these plants is not sufficient for commercial use. To find a reliable, rich source of tricin, we investigated its distribution in different parts of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and designed an efficient method for its isolation and purification. The highest amount (770 ± 157 mg/kg dry weight) was found in the husks of winter wheat. This concentration is one of the highest in any plant species and is considered as a cheap source of natural tricin. The purified wheat husks tricin was found to be a selective potent inhibitor of two cancer cell lines of liver and pancreas, while having no side effects on normal cells. This selective action suggests that tricin could be considered as a potential candidate for pre-clinical trials as a chemopreventive agent. In addition, fibre-rich crude wheat husk could be used as a natural chemopreventive agent in food supplement. PMID:23411198

Moheb, Amira; Grondin, Melanie; Ibrahim, Ragai K; Roy, René; Sarhan, Fathey

2013-06-01

107

Hierarchical virtual screening: identification of potential high-affinity and selective ?(3)-adrenergic receptor agonists.  

Science.gov (United States)

The hierarchical virtual screening (HVS) study, consisting of pharmacophore modelling, docking and VS of the generated focussed virtual library, has been carried out to identify novel high-affinity and selective ?(3)-adrenergic receptor (?-AR) agonists. The best pharmacophore model, comprising one H-bond donor, two hydrophobes, one positive ionizable and one negative ionizable feature, was developed based on a training set of 51 ?(3)-AR agonists using the pharmacophore generation protocol implemented in Discovery Studio. The model was further validated with the test set, external set and ability of the pharmacophoric features to complement the active site amino acids of the homology modelled ?(3)-AR developed using MODELLER software. The focussed virtual library was generated using the structure-based insights gained from our earlier reported comprehensive study focussing on the structural basis of ?-AR subtype selectivity of representative agonists and antagonists. The HVS with the sequential use of the best pharmacophore model and homology modelled ?(3)-AR in the screening of the generated focussed library has led to the identification of potential virtual leads as novel high-affinity and selective ?(3)-AR agonists. PMID:22452658

Saxena, A K; Roy, K K

2012-07-01

108

Thermal developmental plasticity affects body size and water conservation of Drosophila nepalensis from the Western Himalayas.  

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In the Western Himalayas, Drosophila nepalensis is more abundant during the colder and drier winter than the warmer rainy season but the mechanistic bases of such adaptations are largely unknown. We tested effects of developmental plasticity on desiccation-related traits (body size, body melanization and water balance traits) that may be consistent with changes in seasonal abundance of this species. D. nepalensis grown at 15°C has shown twofold higher body size, greater melanization (?15-fold), higher desiccation resistance (?55 h), hemolymph as well as carbohydrate content (twofold higher) as compared with corresponding values at 25°C. Water loss before succumbing to death was much higher (?16%) at 15°C than 25°C. Developmental plastic effects on body size are associated with changes in water balance-related traits (bulk water, hemolymph and dehydration tolerance). The role of body melanization was evident from the analysis of assorted darker and lighter flies (from a mass culture of D. nepalensis reared at 21°C) which lacked differences in dry mass but showed differences in desiccation survival hours and rate of water loss. For adult acclimation, we found a slight increase in desiccation resistance of flies reared at lower growth temperature, whereas in flies reared at 25°C such a response was lacking. In D. nepalensis, greater developmental plasticity is consistent with its contrasting levels of seasonal abundance. Finally, in the context of global climate change in the Western Himalayas, D. nepalensis seems vulnerable in the warmer season due to lower adult as well as developmental acclimation potential at higher growth temperature (25°C). PMID:24923309

Parkash, R; Lambhod, C; Singh, D

2014-08-01

109

Influence of surface charge and dissolution on the selective phagocytosis of potentially carcinogenic particulate metal compounds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Substantial evidence has accumulated which documents the active endocytosis by cells of particulate nickel compounds having potent carcinogenic and transforming capacity; compounds less potent in these respects exhibit a reduced tendency to be phagocytized by cultured fibroblasts. The surface charges (zeta potentials) of a number of particulate nickel compounds were measured in an attempt to identify the determinants of their variable degrees of cellular uptake. The carcinogenic particulates, crystalline NiS, Ni3S2, and NiO, exhibit strongly negative zeta potentials in distilled water and enter cells readily, while noncarcinogenic amorphous NiS, which is phagocytized to a lesser degree, is slightly positive in surface charge under similar conditions. The greater dissolution rate of amorphous NiS in comparison to crystalline NiS may contribute to its reduced uptake by cells by causing substantial alteration of the particle surface and/or by the generation of particle dissolution products at its site of cellular interaction which inhibit particle uptake. Addition of ionic nickel was found to be inhibitory toward the phagocytosis process in general, although the potency of ionic nickel in inhibiting particle uptake is not sufficiently high to attribute the selectivity of uptake of nickel-containing particulates solely to this inhibitory effect. Freshly suspended amorphous NiS particles were phagocytized more than particles aged in either H2O or culture medium for 1 to 7 days. This reduced tendency of the aged amorphous NiS particles to be phagocytized remained following removal of potential inhibitory dissolution products. Binding of amorphous NiS to DEAE paper, which represented an alternate method to determine the surface charge, was decreased by aging in H2O or culture medium, suggesting that a loss of negative surface charge during this aging process may have been associated with decreased uptake. These findings lend support to the hypothesis that surface charge may play a role in the phagocytosis of potentially carcinogenic nickel sulfide particles. PMID:6640519

Heck, J D; Costa, M

1983-12-01

110

Growth and Yield Potential of Nine Selected Genotypes of Sweet Potato  

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Full Text Available The growth and yield potential of nine selected genotypes of sweet potato was studied. Length and weight of vines per plant, number of main stems per plant, number and weight of tubers per plant and weight, length, diameter and dry matter content of tuber varied significantly among the genotypes. The genotypes SP3 gave the highest yield 47.59 t ha -1 followed by SP4 (42.82 t ha -1, SP16 (36.15 t ha -1 and SP1 (35.89 t ha -1. Tuber yield had significant and positive correlation with length and weight of vines per plant, number and weight of tubers per plant, average weight of tuber and diameter of tuber. Considering the associations into direct and indirect effects, weight of tubers per plant followed by average weight of tuber and number of tubers per plant found to contribute to the higher yield.

M. J. Islam

2002-01-01

111

Potential of Radiotelescopes for Atmospheric Line Observations: I. Observation Principles and Transmission Curves for Selected Sites  

CERN Multimedia

Existing and planned radiotelescopes working in the millimetre (mm) and sub-millimetre wavelengths range provide the possibility to be used for atmospheric line observations. To scrutinize this potential, we outline the differences and similarities in technical equipment and observing techniques between ground-based aeronomy mm-wave radiometers and radiotelescopes. Comprehensive tables summarizing the technical characteristics of existing and future (sub)-mm radiotelescopes are given. The advantages and disadvantages using radiotelescopes for atmospheric line observations are discussed. In view of the importance of exploring the sub-mm and far-infrared wavelengths range for astronomical observations and atmospheric sciences, we present model calculations of the atmospheric transmission for selected telescope sites (DOME-C/Antarctica, ALMA/Chajnantor, JCMT and CSO on Mauna Kea/Hawaii, KOSMA/Swiss Alpes) for frequencies between 0 and 2000 GHz (0 to 150 micron) and typical atmospheric conditions using the forwar...

Schneider, Nicola; Baron, Philippe

2009-01-01

112

Characterization of N200 and P300: Selected Studies of the Event-Related Potential  

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Full Text Available The Event-Related Potential (ERP is a time-locked measure of electrical activity of the cerebral surface representing a distinct phase of cortical processing. Two components of the ERP which bear special importance to stimulus evaluation, selective attention, and conscious discrimination in humans are the P300 positivity and N200 negativity, appearing 300 ms and 200 ms post-stimulus, respectively. With the rapid proliferation of high-density EEG methods, and interdisciplinary interest in its application as a prognostic, diagnostic, and investigative tool, an understanding of the underpinnings of P300 and N200 physiology may support its application to both the basic neuroscience and clinical medical settings. The authors present a synthesis of current understanding of these two deflections in both normal and pathological states.

2005-10-01

113

ONYX-015: mechanisms of action and clinical potential of a replication-selective adenovirus  

Science.gov (United States)

Accumulated knowledge in the molecular processes of tumour development combined with the availability of genetically modified viruses resemble the basis for new promising cancer therapeutics. The main advantages of employing replication-competent viruses are achievement of tumour selective killing and amplification of their oncolytic potential within the tumour mass. In this review, we describe the development of ONYX-015, one of the first and most advanced replication-competent viruses for cancer therapy. We discuss the molecular biology of this therapeutic approach and the interesting results obtained with this virus in clinical trials. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 5–11. DOI: 10.1038/sj/bjc/6600006 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 The Cancer Research Campaign

Ries, S; Korn, W M

2002-01-01

114

ORIGINAL ARTICLE: In-vitro Antioxidant Potential of a Herbal Preparation Containing Four Selected Medicinal Plants  

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Full Text Available Background: The therapeutic effects of several plants used in traditional medicine, are usually attributed to their antioxidant properties. Aim and objective: To evaluate the in-vitro antioxidant potential of herbal preparation a combination of four selected medicinal plants (HP-4 using different experimental models.Material and Methods: Polyphenols, flavonoids and flavonols concentrations and antioxidant activity of herbal preparation (HP-4as compared to butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT and á- tocopherol in various experimental models were evaluated. Results: The antioxidantactivities of HP-4 were concentration dependent in different experimental models and were comparable to activities of BHT anda- tocopherol. Conclusion: Polyherbal formulation of HP-4 is better than individual plant extracts.

Preeti Padmanabhan

2012-07-01

115

Selective determination of potential impurities in an active pharmaceutical ingredient using HPLC-SPE-HPLC.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present paper describes the selective determination of two synthetic intermediates (2,4-dichloro-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline (IMP-1) and its derivative (IMP-2) as potential impurities in the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API)-A using two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) hyphenated via on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) (HPLC-SPE-HPLC). Two synthetic intermediates that are potential impurities in API-A were concentrated on-line on two Shimadzu MAYI-ODS SPE columns (10 mm×4.6 mm I.D.) after heartcutting in 1st dimension HPLC (1st HPLC) using a Shiseido CAPCELL PAK ACR C18 column (250 mm × 10.0 mm I.D.). Each analyte retained on these SPE columns was transferred to 2nd dimension HPLC (2nd HPLC) with a Shiseido CAPCELL PAK MG-II column (150 mm × 3.0 mm I.D.) for further separation and was subsequently detected with high sensitivity UV. The HPLC-SPE-HPLC system achieved a stepwise downsizing in HPLC. The method was validated and found to be accurate and precise with a linear range of 0.25-250 ppm of each intermediate in API-A with respect to a 500 ?L injection of 40 mg/mL of API-A in dimethyl sulfoxide. The method was successfully applied for the determination of these impurities in API batches, and the results demonstrated the usefulness of HPLC-SPE-HPLC for the selective determination of trace impurities in APIs. PMID:23806999

Yamamoto, Eiichi; Niijima, Jun; Asakawa, Naoki

2013-10-01

116

Acute Stress Alters Auditory Selective Attention in Humans Independent of HPA: A Study of Evoked Potentials  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Acute stress is a stereotypical, but multimodal response to a present or imminent challenge overcharging an organism. Among the different branches of this multimodal response, the consequences of glucocorticoid secretion have been extensively investigated, mostly in connection with long-term memory (LTM). However, stress responses comprise other endocrine signaling and altered neuronal activity wholly independent of pituitary regulation. To date, knowledge of the impact of such “paracorticoidal” stress responses on higher cognitive functions is scarce. We investigated the impact of an ecological stressor on the ability to direct selective attention using event-related potentials in humans. Based on research in rodents, we assumed that a stress-induced imbalance of catecholaminergic transmission would impair this ability. Methodology/Principal Findings The stressor consisted of a single cold pressor test. Auditory negative difference (Nd) and mismatch negativity (MMN) were recorded in a tonal dichotic listening task. A time series of such tasks confirmed an increased distractibility occuring 4–7 minutes after onset of the stressor as reflected by an attenuated Nd. Salivary cortisol began to rise 8–11 minutes after onset when no further modulations in the event-related potentials (ERP) occurred, thus precluding a causal relationship. This effect may be attributed to a stress-induced activation of mesofrontal dopaminergic projections. It may also be attributed to an activation of noradrenergic projections. Known characteristics of the modulation of ERP by different stress-related ligands were used for further disambiguation of causality. The conjuncture of an attenuated Nd and an increased MMN might be interpreted as indicating a dopaminergic influence. The selective effect on the late portion of the Nd provides another tentative clue for this. Conclusions/Significance Prior studies have deliberately tracked the adrenocortical influence on cognition, as it has proven most influential with respect to LTM. However, current cortisol-optimized study designs would have failed to detect the present findings regarding attention.

Elling, Ludger; Steinberg, Christian; Brockelmann, Ann-Kathrin; Dobel, Christan; Bolte, Jens; Junghofer, Markus

2011-01-01

117

Interactions of biotic and abiotic environmental factors in an ectomycorrhizal symbiosis, and the potential for selection mosaics  

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Abstract Background Geographic selection mosaics, in which species exert different evolutionary impacts on each other in different environments, may drive diversification in coevolving species. We studied the potential for geographic selection mosaics in plant-mycorrhizal interactions by testing whether the interaction between bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don) and one of its common ectomycorrhizal fungi (Rhizopogon occidentalis Zeller and Dodge) varies in ...

Piculell Bridget J; Hoeksema Jason D; Thompson John N

2008-01-01

118

Using Natural Selection to Explore the Adaptive Potential of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii  

Science.gov (United States)

Improving feedstock is critical to facilitate the commercial utilization of algae, in particular in open pond systems where, due to the presence of competitors and pests, high algal growth rates and stress tolerance are beneficial. Here we raised laboratory cultures of the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under serial dilution to explore the potential of crop improvement using natural selection. The alga was evolved for 1,880 generations in liquid medium under continuous light (EL population). At the end of the experiment, EL cells had a growth rate that was 35% greater than the progenitor population (PL). The removal of acetate from the medium demonstrated that EL growth enhancement largely relied on efficient usage of this organic carbon source. Genome re-sequencing uncovered 1,937 polymorphic DNA regions in the EL population with 149 single nucleotide polymorphisms resulting in amino acid substitutions. Transcriptome analysis showed, in the EL population, significant up regulation of genes involved in protein synthesis, the cell cycle and cellular respiration, whereas the DNA repair pathway and photosynthesis were down regulated. Like other algae, EL cells accumulated neutral lipids under nitrogen depletion. Our work demonstrates transcriptome and genome-wide impacts of natural selection on algal cells and points to a useful strategy for strain improvement.

Price, Dana C.; Levitan, Orly; Boyd, Jeffrey; Bhattacharya, Debashish

2014-01-01

119

Beyond EICA: understanding post-establishment evolution requires a broader evaluation of potential selection pressures  

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Full Text Available Research on post-establishment evolution in nonnative plant populations has focused almost exclusively on testing the Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability (EICA hypothesis, which posits that the lack of specialized herbivores in the invaded range drives evolution in nonnative plant populations. Fifteen years of conflicting EICA test results suggest that selection pressures other than specialized herbivory are important in driving post-establishment evolution in invasive species. Alternative hypotheses, such as the Evolution of Reduced Competitive Ability (ERCA hypothesis, have been proposed but have received little attention or testing. We argue that the lack of consensus across studies that test EICA may be due in part to the lack of consistent definitions and varying experimental design parameters, and that future research in this field would benefit from new methodological considerations. We examined previous work evaluating post-establishment evolution and evaluated the range of study systems and design parameters used in testing the EICA hypothesis. Our goal was to identify where different uses of ecological terms and different study parameters have hindered consensus and to suggest a path forward to move beyond EICA in post-establishment evolution studies. We incorporated these methods into a design framework that will increase data harmony across future studies and will facilitate examinations of any potential selection pressure driving evolution in the invaded range.

Joshua Atwood

2011-10-01

120

Influence of anode potentials on selection of Geobacter strains in microbial electrolysis cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Through their ability to directly transfer electrons to electrodes, Geobacter sp. are key organisms for microbial fuel cell technology. This study presents a simple method to reproducibly select Geobacter-dominated anode biofilms from a mixed inoculum of bacteria using graphite electrodes initially poised at -0.25, -0.36 and -0.42 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The biofilms all produced maximum power density of approximately 270 m Wm(-2) (projected anode surface area). Analysis of 16S rRNA genes and intergenic spacer (ITS) sequences found that the biofilm communities were all dominated by bacteria closely related to Geobacter psychrophilus. Anodes initially poised at -0.25 V reproducibly selected biofilms that were dominated by a strain of G. psychrophilus that was genetically distinct from the strain that dominated the -0.36 and -0.42 V biofilms. This work demonstrates for the first time that closely related strains of Geobacter can have very different competitive advantages at different anode potentials. PMID:23665518

Commault, Audrey S; Lear, Gavin; Packer, Michael A; Weld, Richard J

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
121

Assessment of Potential for Biodiesel Feedstock of Selected Wild Plant Oils Indigenous to Botswana  

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Full Text Available Biodiesel is attracting increasing attention worldwide as a blending component or a direct replacement of petroleum diesel fuel in transport sector.The challenge to scientists and engineers is to identify appropriate feedstocks for biodiesel production. The majority of potential feedstocks are edible species which are at the centre of the “fuel versus food” debate. It is therefore imperative for scientists and engineers to continue the search for biodiesel feedstocks that do not compete with food security. This work investigated some properties of selected wild plant oils to assess suitability as feedstock for biodiesel production. Properties reviewed include oil yield levels, oil acidity, percentage of free fatty acids and the level of energy content. The wild plant oils under review were extracted from Scelerocarya birrea, Tylosema esculentum and Ximenia caffra fruit seeds. In addition, Jatropha oil was analysed for purposes of comparison. Thermal properties of wild plant oils were compared with those of petroleum diesel. Results indicate that wild plant oils investigated had sufficiently high oil yield levels desirable for potential feedstocks for biodiesel production. The energy content levels of wild plant oils were marginally lower than that of petroleum diesel with a maximum variation of 5.7 MJ/Kg.

Jerekias Gandure

2011-12-01

122

Objective selection of EEG late potentials through residual dependence estimation of independent components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a novel method to objectively select electroencephalographic (EEG) cortical sources estimated by independent component analysis (ICA) in event-related potential (ERP) studies. A proximity measure based on mutual information is employed to estimate residual dependences of the components that are then hierarchically clustered based on these residual dependences. Next, the properties of each group of components are evaluated at each level of the hierarchical tree by two indices that aim to assess both cluster tightness and physiological reliability through a template matching process. These two indices are combined in three different approaches to bring to light the hierarchical structure of the cluster organizations. Our method is tested on a set of experiments with the purpose of enhancing late positive ERPs elicited by emotional picture stimuli. Results suggest that the best way to look for physiologically plausible late positive potential (LPP) sources is to explore in depth the tightness of those clusters that, taken together, best resemble the template. According to our results, after brain sources clustering, LPPs are always identified more accurately than from ensemble-averaged raw data. Since the late components of an ERP involve the same associative areas, regardless of the modality of stimulation or specific tasks administered, the proposed method can be simply adapted to other ERP studies, and extended from psychophysiological studies to pathological or sport training evaluation support

2009-08-01

123

Effects of potential partners' physical attractiveness and socioeconomic status on sexuality and partner selection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Male (n = 170) and female (n = 212) college students viewed photographs, which had been prerated for physical attractiveness, of three opposite-sex individuals. These photographs were paired with three levels of occupational status and income. Subjects indicated their willingness to engage in relationships of varying levels of sexual intimacy and marital potential with the portrayed individuals. Analyses of variance, correlations, and trend analyses supported the hypotheses. Compared to men, women are more likely to prefer or insist that sexual intercourse occur in relationships that involve affection and marital potential, and women place more emphasis than men do on partners' SES in such relationships. Consequently, men's SES and their willingness and ability to invest affection and resources in relationships may often outweigh the effects of their physical attractiveness in women's actual selection of partners. These results and the literature reviewed are more consistent with parental investment theory than with the view that these sex differences are solely the result of differential access to resources and differential socialization. PMID:2337380

Townsend, J M; Levy, G D

1990-04-01

124

Environmental change and challenge in the Himalaya. A historical perspective  

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Full Text Available This overview, or retrospective, has two objectives. The first is to demonstrate how the principles of ‘mountain geoecology’ were applied in an attempt to counteract the political and socio-economic impacts of a major and misguided environmental orthodoxy-the Theory of Himalayan Environmental Degradation (henceforth to be referred to as the ‘Theory’. The second is to explore the difficulties of transferring the results of on-going scholarly mountain research into the public and political decision-making process. In this sense the paper should be regarded as a case study of the potentially serious effects of exaggerated and emotionally based responses to orthodoxies founded on assumptions and latter-day myths. A third objective, reserved for the companion paper in this issue, outlines the origins of mountain geoecology and explores how academic research influenced the inclusion of high level concern for mountain problems within AGENDA 21, one of the principal results of the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development (popularly known as the Rio Earth Summit and declaration of 2002 as the International Year of Mountains. The original environmental orthodoxy (the Theory has been eclipsed since the turn of the Millennium by a new populist alarm proposing that the current climate warming will cause all the Himalayan glaciers to disappear in the near future. From this it would follow that, as the glacier melt progresses, numerous large glacial lakes, forming as a consequence, would burst and the ensuing floods would annihilate many millions of people. Eventually, as the glaciers disappeared vital rivers, such as the Ganges and Brahmaputra, would wither to seasonal streams heralding further massive loss of life due to desertification and starvation. This current environmental alarm could be regarded as a present day parallel to the original Theory and will be examined in the final section of the paper. Between 1970 and about 1985 it was almost universal wisdom amongst scholars and development specialists, as well as conservationists, that the Himalaya were on the brink of environmental, and hence socio-economic and political collapse. This theme of gloom and doom was taken up avidly by journalists, politicians, and diplomats; it influenced the expenditure of large sums of aid and development money, and augmented periodic international confrontations. In concise terms, in the early 1970s an assumed approaching environmental disaster was perceived to be driven by relentless growth in the population of subsistence hill communities and their dependence on mountain forests for fuel, fodder, building materials, and conversion to agricultural land. The assumption of rapid and catastrophic deforestation of steep hillslopes under a monsoon climate (the World Bank predicted that there would be no accessible forest remaining in Nepal by the year 2000 led inexorably to a series of dependent assumptions: increasing soil erosion and worsening landslide incidence; accelerated flooding and siltation on the plains of Gangetic India and Bangladesh; social and political unrest, if not serious armed conflict – the notion of a world super-crisis, considering that the region in question contained about ten percent of the world’s entire human population and about thirty percent of its poorest. As will be emphasized later, none of this all-embracing construct was based on reliable evidence, but it was accepted world-wide as a given. It represents a prime example of the dangers associated with convenient adoption of environmental myths, or environmental orthodoxies, especially where the myth is a Western ‘scientific’ construct. I characterized it as The Theory of Himalayan Environmental Degradation (Ives, 1985.Esta perspectiva global, o retrospectiva, tiene dos objetivos. El primero es demostrar cómo se aplicaron los principios de la “geoecología de montaña” en un intento por contrarrestar los impactos políticos y socioeconómicos de una errónea ortodoxia ambiental, la Teoría de la Degr

Ives, Jack D.

2012-05-01

125

Tectonic controls of transient landscapes in the Bhutan Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research has identified many landscapes within the Himalaya that are not easily explained by classical critical taper models of orogenic wedges. One of the most striking examples is the sharp physiographic transition between the more subdued landforms of the Lower Himalayan ranges and the Higher Himalayan ranges to the north in Nepal. This transition has been attributed to several potential causes: changes in the rheology of rocks at depth, a ramp in the basal detachment of the orogenic wedge, a blind duplex, or a north-dipping, surface-breaking thrust fault. A similar, but more subdued transition marks the northern margin of perched, low-relief landscape patches found at ca. 3000 m in Bhutan. These low-relief surfaces, characterized by bogs and thick saprolites at the surface, overlie piggyback basins within the evolving orogenic wedge, filled with hundreds of meters of colluvial and alluvial deposits. The southern boundaries of the low-relief surfaces are less regular than the physiographic transition at their northern boundaries. The surfaces occur at similar elevations but are not continuous geographically, having been dissected by a series of river systems draining southward from the crest of the range. Pronounced knickpoints have formed at the southern margins of the low-relief surfaces. Our work suggests that there is a young (Pliocene-Pleistocene) fault system coincident with the physiographic transition in Bhutan. This high-angle, north-dipping structure, the Lhuentse fault, has minor normal-sense offset and could not have been responsible for differential uplift of the rugged terrain (in the hanging wall) relative to the low-relief landscape (in the footwall). The Lhuentse fault is coincident with the back limb of a previously inferred blind duplex at depth, and thus may be associated with active deformation on a rotated horse within the duplex. This duplex may also be responsible for the creation of the low-relief landscapes to the south of the Lhuentse fault due to upstream tilting in the back limb of the antiformal rock uplift pattern. Erosion patterns modeled on the basis of newly acquired 40Ar/39Ar and (U-Th)/He thermochronometric data as well as basin-average erosion rates from detrital cosmogenic nuclide concentrations are consistent with this hypothesis. We used a landscape evolution model (CHILD) to track landscape response to an imposed antiformal rock uplift gradient produced by an active duplex at depth. Rotation associated with the back limb of such a duplex causes aggradation, surface uplift, and headward migration of knickpoints. The wedge of sediment deposited during fluvial aggradation migrates northward beyond the back limb where uplift lessens. At this position in the landscape, a subdued physiographic transition develops in the model, similar to the one observed in Bhutan. Our modeling suggests that the presence and juxtaposition of low-relief landscapes and a physiographic transition, and our observed distribution of erosion rates can be explained by a single, simple mechanism related to the growth of a blind duplex.

Adams, B. A.; Whipple, K. X.; Hodges, K. V.; Van Soest, M. C.; Heimsath, A. M.

2013-12-01

126

Regulation and Regulatory Role of WNT Signaling in Potentiating FSH Action during Bovine Dominant Follicle Selection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Follicular development occurs in wave like patterns in monotocous species such as cattle and humans and is regulated by a complex interaction of gonadotropins with local intrafollicular regulatory molecules. To further elucidate potential mechanisms controlling dominant follicle selection, granulosa cell RNA harvested from F1 (largest) and F2 (second largest) follicles isolated at predeviation (PD) and onset of diameter deviation (OD) stages of the first follicular wave was subjected to preliminary RNA transcriptome analysis. Expression of numerous WNT system components was observed. Hence experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that WNT signaling modulates FSH action on granulosa cells during follicular waves. Abundance of mRNA for WNT pathway members was evaluated in granulosa cells harvested from follicles at emergence (EM), PD, OD and early dominance (ED) stages of the first follicular wave. In F1 follicles, abundance of CTNNB1 and DVL1 mRNAs was higher and AXIN2 mRNA was lower at ED versus EM stages and DVL1 and FZD6 mRNAs were higher and AXIN2 mRNA was lower in F1 versus F2 follicle at the ED stage. Bovine granulosa cells were treated in vitro with increasing doses of the WNT inhibitor IWR-1+/- maximal stimulatory dose of FSH. IWR-1 treatment blocked the FSH-induced increase in granulosa cell numbers and reduced the FSH-induced increase in estradiol. Granulosa cells were also cultured in the presence or absence of FSH +/- IWR-1 and hormonal regulation of mRNA for WNT pathway members and known FSH targets determined. FSH treatment increased CYP19A1, CCND2, CTNNB1, AXIN2 and FZD6 mRNAs and the stimulatory effect on CYP19A1 mRNA was reduced by IWR-1. In contrast, FSH reduced CARTPT mRNA and IWR-1 partially reversed the inhibitory effect of FSH. Results support temporal and hormonal regulation and a potential role for WNT signaling in potentiating FSH action during dominant follicle selection. PMID:24936794

Gupta, P S P; Folger, Joseph K; Rajput, Sandeep K; Lv, Lihua; Yao, Jianbo; Ireland, James J; Smith, George W

2014-01-01

127

Regulation and Regulatory Role of WNT Signaling in Potentiating FSH Action during Bovine Dominant Follicle Selection  

Science.gov (United States)

Follicular development occurs in wave like patterns in monotocous species such as cattle and humans and is regulated by a complex interaction of gonadotropins with local intrafollicular regulatory molecules. To further elucidate potential mechanisms controlling dominant follicle selection, granulosa cell RNA harvested from F1 (largest) and F2 (second largest) follicles isolated at predeviation (PD) and onset of diameter deviation (OD) stages of the first follicular wave was subjected to preliminary RNA transcriptome analysis. Expression of numerous WNT system components was observed. Hence experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that WNT signaling modulates FSH action on granulosa cells during follicular waves. Abundance of mRNA for WNT pathway members was evaluated in granulosa cells harvested from follicles at emergence (EM), PD, OD and early dominance (ED) stages of the first follicular wave. In F1 follicles, abundance of CTNNB1 and DVL1 mRNAs was higher and AXIN2 mRNA was lower at ED versus EM stages and DVL1 and FZD6 mRNAs were higher and AXIN2 mRNA was lower in F1 versus F2 follicle at the ED stage. Bovine granulosa cells were treated in vitro with increasing doses of the WNT inhibitor IWR-1+/? maximal stimulatory dose of FSH. IWR-1 treatment blocked the FSH-induced increase in granulosa cell numbers and reduced the FSH-induced increase in estradiol. Granulosa cells were also cultured in the presence or absence of FSH +/? IWR-1 and hormonal regulation of mRNA for WNT pathway members and known FSH targets determined. FSH treatment increased CYP19A1, CCND2, CTNNB1, AXIN2 and FZD6 mRNAs and the stimulatory effect on CYP19A1 mRNA was reduced by IWR-1. In contrast, FSH reduced CARTPT mRNA and IWR-1 partially reversed the inhibitory effect of FSH. Results support temporal and hormonal regulation and a potential role for WNT signaling in potentiating FSH action during dominant follicle selection.

Gupta, P. S. P.; Folger, Joseph K.; Rajput, Sandeep K.; Lv, Lihua; Yao, Jianbo; Ireland, James J.; Smith, George W.

2014-01-01

128

Spatiotemporal Perturbations of Pore fluid Pressure in Kumaon Himalayas  

Science.gov (United States)

Convergence of Indian and Eurasian Plate induces significant seismic activity in the regions around the plate boundaries and pose a serious seismic risk to population living around Himalayas. As important as this area is; the studies relating to seismic risk evaluation has been limited and severely inadequate. Advent of newer techniques and the seismic deployment done by National Geophysical Research Institute during 2004 and 2008 for collection of high quality data enables us to study the stress and pore fluid pressure state and rate changes in space and time to assess the seismic risk. Many studies have predicated the occurrence of earthquake sequences on overpressurized fluids which lead to the failure of the faults. Knowledge about pore fluid pressure at hypocentral depths can provide critical insights in to risk evaluation as pore fluid pressure and triggering of events are closely related. The methodology of Focal Mechanism Tomography developed by Terakawa Toshiko (2010) enables us to map a three dimensional distribution of pore fluid pressure. The scheme has been shown to exhibit good reliability in previous studies and has been applied to many seismically active regions. We make use of this methodology to study the spatiotemporal changes in pore fluid pressure at hypocentral depths in Kumaon Himalaya region. We analyzed well constrained 785 shallow events (Depthstars) which were analyzed to give focal mechanism for further analysis. The blue triangles represent the stations which were deployed during the period 2004-2008 for collection of this data.

Mannu, U.; Nandan, S.

2012-12-01

129

Screening of CHP Potential at Federal Sites in Select Regions of the U.S.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Combined Cooling Heat and Power (CHP) is a master term for onsite power generation technologies that sequentially produce electrical or mechanical energy and useful thermal energy. Some form of CHP has existed for more than 100 years and it is now achieving a greater level of acceptance due to an increasing need for reliable power service and energy cost management. Capturing and using the heat produced as a byproduct of generating electricity from fuel sources increases the usable energy that can be obtained from the original fuel source. CHP technologies have the potential to reduce energy consumption through increased efficiency--decreasing energy bills as well as pollution. The EPA recognizes CHP as a potent climate change mitigation measure. The U.S. Department of Energy (D.O.E.) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is assisting Federal agencies to realize their energy efficiency goals. CHP is an efficiency measure that is receiving growing attention because of its sizable potential to provide efficiency, environmental, and reliability benefits. CHP therefore benefits the host facility, the electric infrastructure, and the U.S. society as a whole. This report and study seeks to make a preliminary inquiry into near term CHP opportunities for federal facilities in selected U.S. regions. It offers to help focus the attention of policy makers and energy facility managers on good candidate facilities for CHP. First, a ranked list of high potential individual sites is identified. Then, several classes of federal facilities are identified for the multiple opportunities they offer as a class. Recommendations are then offered for appropriate next steps for the evaluation and cost effective implementation of CHP. This study was designed to ultimately rank federal facilities in terms of their potential to take advantage of CHP economic and external savings in the near term. In order to best serve the purposes of this study, projections have been expressed in terms of sizing CHP to thermal and electrical estimates. The table below is a summary of findings of CHP potential for those federal facilities that chose to participate in the screening process. The study focused on three U.S. regions: California, Texas, and New York/New England. All federal facilities in these three regions with reported building space greater than 100,000 square feet were initial targets to contact and offer CHP screening services. Ranking criteria were developed to screen sites for near term CHP potential. The potential site list was pared down for a variety of reasons including site- specific and agency wide decisions not to participate, desk audit assessments, and untraceable contact information. The results are based upon the voluntary participation of those sites we were able to contact, so they reflect a fraction of the total potential CHP opportunities at federal government facilities.

Energy Nexus Group, . .

2002-02-25

130

Spectral variability of debris covered glaciers via optical remote sensing: examples from Iceland, Khumbu Himalaya, New Zealand and Norway  

Science.gov (United States)

Debris cover on glaciers, ranging from fine scale part per million (ppm) ice impurities to scattered ice/debris mixtures to continuous several meter thick debris, remains a key challenge to cryospheric remote sensing. Satellite based remote sensing of glacier debris cover is applicable to glacier areal extent mapping, glacier energy balance (solar absorption, glacier ablation rates, downwasting), debris source identification (atmospheric transport or local deposition), and glacier kinematics. Visible to shortwave infrared in situ spectroscopy are presented from glaciers located in Iceland, Khumbu Himalaya, and Norway. Visible to thermal infrared satellite derived spectral measurements are given from the above locations as well as New Zealand. Landsat, ASTER, Hyperion and MODIS sensors are utilized for satellite derived comparisons. X-ray diffraction derived mineralogy and X-ray fluorescence based quantitative geochemical results are given for debris from Iceland, Khumbu Himalaya and New Zealand glaciers. Variability of debris cover spectral signatures and geochemical composition are evaluated. Techniques for utilizing the diversity of debris cover spectral measurements are discussed with preliminary results indicating strong potential for use of optical remote sensing to assist in extent delineation and further surface characterization of glacier debris cover.

Casey, K.; Kääb, A.

2010-12-01

131

Homology modelling of CB1 receptor and selection of potential inhibitor against Obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity and patient morbidity has become a health concern worldwide. Obesity is associated with over activity of the endocannabinoid system, which is involved in the regulation of appetite, lipogenesis and insulin resistance. Hypothalamic cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) inverse agonists reduce body weight and improve cardiometabolic abnormalities in experimental and human obesity but displayed neuropsychiatric side effects. Hence, there is a need to develop therapeutics which employs blocking peripheral CB1 receptors and still achieve substantial weight loss. In view of the same, adipose tissue CB1 receptors are employed for this study since it is more specific in reducing visceral fat. Computer aided structure based virtual screening finds application to screen novel inhibitors and develop highly selective and potential drug. The rational drug design requires crystal structure for the CB1 receptor. However, the structure for the CB1 receptor is not available in its native form. Thus, we modelled the crystal structure using a lipid G-Protein coupled receptor (PDB: 3V2W, chain A) as template. Furthermore, we have screened a herbal ligand Quercetin [- 2- (3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl) - 3, 5, 7-trihydroxychromen-4-one] a flavonol present in Mimosa pudica based on its better pharmacokinetics and bioavailability profile. This ligand was selected as an ideal lead molecule. The docking of quercetin with CB1 receptor showed a binding energy of -6.56 Kcal/mol with 4 hydrogen bonds, in comparison to the known drug Rimonabant. This data finds application in proposing antagonism of CB1 receptor with Quercetin, for controlling obesity. PMID:22829723

Shrinivasan, Mahesh; Skariyachan, Sinosh; Aparna, Vaka; Kolte, Vinod Rama

2012-01-01

132

Selecting Potential Targetable Biomarkers for Imaging Purposes in Colorectal Cancer Using TArget Selection Criteria (TASC): A Novel Target Identification Tool  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) of colorectal origin is associated with a poor prognosis. However, cytoreductive surgery combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy is available for a selected group of PC patients, which significantly increases overall survival rates up to 30%. As a consequence, there is substantial room for improvement. Tumor targeting is expected to improve the treatment efficacy of colorectal cancer (CRC) further through 1) more sensitive preoperative tumor dete...

Oosten, Marleen; Crane, Lucia Ma; Bart, Joost; Leeuwen, Fijs W.; Dam, Gooitzen M.

2011-01-01

133

A Study on the nature of genetic divergence in rice from assam and North East Himalayas.  

Science.gov (United States)

A representative group of 190 rice types collected from North-East India along with four standard varieties, three of which were indicas and one japonica, was studied to understand the nature of genetic divergence. Preliminary grouping was done by canonical analysis and the resultant 42 groups were further classified using the D(2) statistic.The final grouping resulted in nine divergent clusters. The three indica standards were found in three different clusters indicating the wide available variability among them. The japonica standard formed a separate group by itself. A majority of the North-East Indian types formed clusters with indicas, whereas some were intermediate and still others were closer to japonica or indica, thus indicating a series of intergrades bridging indica and japonica.Height followed by leaf area was found to be important for primary and 100-grain weight, followed by amylose content for secondary differentiation. It appears that natural selection as well as human selection might have operated for characters differentiating rice types in Assam and North Eastern Himalayas. Geographical distance was not found to be related to genetic divergence. The study suggests that O. sativa contains innumerable but divergent forms, and its classification into definite varietal groups on an arbitrary basis such as isolation barrier, sexual affinity or geographic distribution would be far from reality. PMID:24425072

Vairavan, S; Siddiq, E A; Arunachalam, V; Swaminathan, M S

1973-01-01

134

Selective oxidation of methionine residues in apolipoprotein A-I and its potential biological consequences  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The earliest stages of HDL oxidation are accompanied by the oxidation of specific Met residues in apolipoprotein AI and AII and the formation of Met sulfoxides (Met(O)) has been proposed to play a significant role in the reduction and hence detoxification of lipid hydroperoxides associated with HDL. Oxidation of HDL may generally decrease the anti-atherogenic properties of this lipoprotein, although both, the inhibition and the enhancement of cholesterol removal from cells has been reported for different types of oxidation. In light of these findings we have investigated the secondary structure, lipid affinity, LCAT activation and cholesterol-efflux promoting properties of native and selectively oxidized apo A-I(apo A-I{sub +32}, containing Met(O) at Met{sub l12} and Met{sub l48}) in purified or reconstituted forms. Data obtained by circular dichroism revealed that selective oxidation of Met residues 112 and 148 does not alter alpha helicity of the protein in solution, indicating that this oxidation is not sufficient to influence significantly this type of secondary structure of apo A-I in its `lipid-free` form. The lipid affinity of native apo A-I and apo A-I{sub +32} was determined as the rate of clearance of DMPC multilamellar to small unilamellar vesicles. Compared with the native protein, apo A-I{sub +32} induced a 2-3 fold faster rate of clearance, suggesting that the increased hydrophilicity due Met(O) increased the rate for protein-lipid interactions. Met residues 112 and 148 reside in the hydrophobic faces of helices 5 and 7, and both these regions have been suggested to be important for both, LCAT activation and cholesterol efflux. Kinetic experiments have revealed that the affinity for LCAT is comparable for HDL reconstituted with either apo A-I or apo A-I{sub +32}. Efflux of [{sup 3}H]-cholesterol from lipid-laden human monocytederived macrophages to isolated apolipoproteins was enhanced for apo A-I{sub +32} compared with apo A-I, consistent with the DMPC clearance data. Together these findings suggest that selective oxidation of Met residues of apo A-I may enhance rather than diminish known antiatherogenic activities of the apolipoprotein. Thus, our results are consistent with the overall hypothesis that detoxification of lipid hydroperoxides by Met residues of apo A-I is potentially antiatherogenic

Panzenboeck, U.; Waldeck, R.; Rye, K.A.; Sloane, T.; Kritharides, L.; Stocker, R. [The Heart Research Institute, Camperdown, NSW (Australia)

1998-12-31

135

Selective oxidation of methionine residues in apolipoprotein A-I and its potential biological consequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The earliest stages of HDL oxidation are accompanied by the oxidation of specific Met residues in apolipoprotein AI and AII and the formation of Met sulfoxides (Met(O)) has been proposed to play a significant role in the reduction and hence detoxification of lipid hydroperoxides associated with HDL. Oxidation of HDL may generally decrease the anti-atherogenic properties of this lipoprotein, although both, the inhibition and the enhancement of cholesterol removal from cells has been reported for different types of oxidation. In light of these findings we have investigated the secondary structure, lipid affinity, LCAT activation and cholesterol-efflux promoting properties of native and selectively oxidized apo A-I(apo A-I+32, containing Met(O) at Metl12 and Metl48) in purified or reconstituted forms. Data obtained by circular dichroism revealed that selective oxidation of Met residues 112 and 148 does not alter alpha helicity of the protein in solution, indicating that this oxidation is not sufficient to influence significantly this type of secondary structure of apo A-I in its 'lipid-free' form. The lipid affinity of native apo A-I and apo A-I+32 was determined as the rate of clearance of DMPC multilamellar to small unilamellar vesicles. Compared with the native protein, apo A-I+32 induced a 2-3 fold faster rate of clearance, suggesting that the increased hydrophilicity due Met(O) increased the rate for protein-lipid interactions. Met residues 112 and 148 reside in the hydrophobic faces of helices 5 and 7, and both these regions have been suggested to be important for both, LCAT activation and cholesterol efflux. Kinetic experiments have revealed that the affinity for LCAT is comparable for HDL reconstituted with either apo A-I or apo A-I+32. Efflux of [3H]-cholesterol from lipid-laden human monocytederived macrophages to isolated apolipoproteins was enhanced for apo A-I+32 compared with apo A-I, consistent with the DMPC clearance data. Together these findings suggest that selective oxidation of Met residues of apo A-I may enhance rather than diminish known antiatherogenic activities of the apolipoprotein. Thus, our results are consistent with the overall hypothesis that detoxification of lipid hydroperoxides by Met residues of apo A-I is potentially antiatherogenic

1998-11-15

136

Quantified proarrhythmic potential of selected human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

To improve proarrhythmic predictability of preclinical models, we assessed whether human ventricular-like embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) can be selected following a standardized protocol. Also, we quantified their arrhythmogenic response and compared this to a contemporary used rabbit Purkinje fiber (PF) model. Multiple transmembrane action potentials (AP) were recorded from 164 hESC-CM clusters (9 different batches), and 12 isolated PFs from New Zealand White rabbits. AP duration (APD), early afterdepolarizations (EADs), triangulation (T), and short-term variability of repolarization (STV) were determined on application of the I(Kr) blocker E-4031 (0.03/0.1/0.3/1 muM). Isoproterenol (0.1 muM) was used to assess adrenergic response. To validate the phenotype, RNA isolated from atrial- and ventricular-like clusters (n=8) was analyzed using low-density Taqman arrays. Based on initial experiments, slow beating rate (200 ms) were used to select 31 ventricular-like clusters. E-4031 (1 muM) prolonged APD (31/31) and induced EADs only in clusters with APD90>300 ms (11/16). EADs were associated with increased T (1.6+/-0.2 vs 2.0+/-0.3) and STV (2.7+/-1.5 vs 6.9+/-1.9). Rabbit PF reacted in a similar way with regards to EADs (5/12), increased T (1.3+/-0.1 vs 1.9+/-0.4), and STV (1.2+/-0.9 vs 7.1+/-5.6). According to ROC values, hESC-CMs (STV 0.91) could predict EADs at least equivalent to PF (STV 0.69). Isoproterenol shortened APD and completely suppressed EADs. Gene expression analysis revealed that HCN1/2, KCNA5, and GJA5 were higher in atrial/nodal-like cells, whereas KCNJ2 and SCN1B were higher in ventricular-like cells (P<0.05). Selection of hESC-CM clusters with a ventricular-like phenotype can be standardized. The proarrhythmic results are qualitatively and quantitatively comparable between hESC-CMs and rabbit PF. Our results indicate that additional validation of this new safety pharmacology model is warranted. PMID:20303332

Jonsson, Malin K B; Duker, Göran; Tropp, Charlotte; Andersson, Birgit; Sartipy, Peter; Vos, Marc A; van Veen, Toon A B

2010-05-01

137

Late miocene/pliocene origin of the inverted metamorphism of the Central Himalaya.  

Science.gov (United States)

The spatial association of intracontinental thrusting and inverted metamorphism, recognized in the Himalaya more than a century ago, has inspired continuing efforts to identify their causal relationship. Perhaps the best known sequence of inverted metamor...

T. M. Harrison F. J. Ryerson P. LeFort A. Yin

1997-01-01

138

Crustal thickness and Poisson's ratio variations across the northwest Himalaya and eastern Ladakh  

Science.gov (United States)

Crustal thickness and Poisson's ratios are estimated across the northwest (NW) Himalaya and eastern Ladakh applying H-k stacking method on receiver functions of teleseismic earthquakes recorded at 16 broadband seismological stations. The results show significant lateral variation of crustal thickness from the Lesser and Higher Himalaya (˜50 km thick) to Ladakh (˜80 km thick) through the Indus Tsangpo Suture Zone (ITSZ). The Indian Moho is continuously traceable across the ITSZ which is consistent with the underthrusting of the Indian plate beyond the surface collision boundary. The estimated Poisson's ratios in the Lesser and Higher Himalaya are low (0.249-0.253), suggesting felsic composition of the crust. The Poisson's ratio is intermediate in the Tethyan Himalaya (0.269-0.273) and high beneath Ladakh (0.280-0.303), indicating the effect of aqueous fluid/partial melt present in the crust.

Hazarika, Devajit; Kumar, Naresh; Yadav, Dilip Kumar

2013-08-01

139

Carbon and oxygen isotope changes in Siwalik soils from Nepal Himalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Siwalik sediments of lower Himalayas are derived from the erosion of the rocks from higher reaches and deposited in the foreland basin. These group of sediments are formed over the time span of last ?20 Ma

2000-12-01

140

Carbon fixation through forestation activities: A study of the carbon sequestering potential of selected forest types  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1991 the Face Foundation was founded by the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (Sep) with the aim to fix CO[sub 2] by means of planting of new forest. One of the Foundation's first activities was to initiate a study to develop a methodology for calculating the CO[sub 2] fixation capacity of forest ecosystems. In this report the CO[sub 2]-fixation of 16 different forest types is covered. The study also provides some understanding of the fixation spectrum of a forest system. Finally a method is presented to calculate the sequestration capacity of other forest types. The carbon storage potential of these forest ecosystems has been established with the help of a dynamic model which describes the carbon cycle from annual growth and loss rates of the main biomass compartments of the forest ecosystem, in combination with accumulation and turnover of soil organic matter. The carbon sequestering capacity of forest ecosystems can be evaluated by several criteria that fall into two broad categories: (1) the long-term average stock of carbon in the living biomass and in the forest products; and (2) the average net annual carbon flux during the first rotation. All results are based on the assumption that site factors remain constant. Possible effects of climate change, acidification or declining soil fertility are not taken into account. The analysis of carbon sequestering potential depends largely on availability of growth and yield data. The simulations were fitted by hand to reproduce existing inventory data. Concluding, it can be stated that based on the most important criterion, 'long-term average stock of carbon in the biomass and products' selectively logged lowland evergreen tropical rain forest and Douglas-fir forest in the USA sequester the largest amount of carbon. Both may achieve carbon stocks of some 200 Mg C ha[sup -1]. 37 figs., 26 tabs., 11 appendices, 181 refs.

Nabuurs, G.J.; Mohren, G.M.J.

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Widespread Climate Change in the Himalayas and Associated Changes in Local Ecosystems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Climate change in the Himalayas, a biodiversity hotspot, home of many sacred landscapes, and the source of eight largest rivers of Asia, is likely to impact the well-being of \\(\\sim\\)20% of humanity. However, despite the extraordinary environmental, cultural, and socio-economic importance of the Himalayas, and despite their rapidly increasing ecological degradation, not much is known about actual changes in the two most critical climatic variables: temperature and rainfall. Nor do...

Bawa, Kamaljit S.; Shrestha, Uttam Babu; Gautam, Shiva Prasad

2012-01-01

142

High altitude survival: conflicts between pastoralism and wildlife in the Trans-Himalaya  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Keywords : Pastoralism, agriculture, wildlife, Himalaya, competition, bharal, yak, livestock, snow leopard, wolf, herbivore, ungulate, resource, rangeland, steppe, mountainHow harmonious is the coexistence between pastoralism and wildlife? This thesis is a response to repeated calls for a better understanding of pastoralism and its impacts on wildlife in India. Based on studies in the high altitude rangelands of the Trans-Himalaya that have a grazing history of over three millennia, I attempt...

2001-01-01

143

EEG Channel Selection Using Particle Swarm Optimization for the Classification of Auditory Event-Related Potentials  

Science.gov (United States)

Brain-machine interfaces (BMI) rely on the accurate classification of event-related potentials (ERPs) and their performance greatly depends on the appropriate selection of classifier parameters and features from dense-array electroencephalography (EEG) signals. Moreover, in order to achieve a portable and more compact BMI for practical applications, it is also desirable to use a system capable of accurate classification using information from as few EEG channels as possible. In the present work, we propose a method for classifying P300 ERPs using a combination of Fisher Discriminant Analysis (FDA) and a multiobjective hybrid real-binary Particle Swarm Optimization (MHPSO) algorithm. Specifically, the algorithm searches for the set of EEG channels and classifier parameters that simultaneously maximize the classification accuracy and minimize the number of used channels. The performance of the method is assessed through offline analyses on datasets of auditory ERPs from sound discrimination experiments. The proposed method achieved a higher classification accuracy than that achieved by traditional methods while also using fewer channels. It was also found that the number of channels used for classification can be significantly reduced without greatly compromising the classification accuracy.

Hokari, Haruhide

2014-01-01

144

NAD-analogues as potential anticancer agents: conformational restrictions as basis for selectivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cofactor type inhibitors (NAD-analogues) of IMP-dehydrogenase (IMPDH) were synthesized and their application as potential anticancer agents are discussed. C-nucleoside isosteres of NAD, C-NAD and C-PAD, showed an effective competitive inhibition of IMPDH, C-NAD but not C-PAD caused extremely potent inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase. We also synthesized compounds in which nicotinamide riboside was replaced with tiazofurin (TAD-analogues) and the 2' and 3'-positions of adenosine part were fluorinated. The ribose ring of 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoroadenosine is in the C3'-endo conformation whereas 3'-deoxy-3'-fluoroadenosine favors the C2'-endo sugar pucker. These derivatives are good inhibitors of IMPDH type II, the isoenzyme dominant in neoplastic cells. In contrast, all these analogues showed rather week inhibitory activity against alcohol dehydrogenase. Nicotinamide riboside derivatives in which the base and the sugar are linked through an oxygen or a methylene bridge were synthesized. NAD-analogues containing such conformationally restricted nicotinamide nucleoside moiety (syn or anti) are expected to be selective inhibitors of B-specific (IMPDH) or A-specific dehydrogenases, respectively. PMID:8790723

Pankiewicz, K W; Zatorski, A; Watanabe, K A

1996-01-01

145

Improvement of selected strains through gamma irradiation for enhanced lipolytic potential  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the present investigation was to enhance the production of industrially important enzyme lipase by subjecting the wild lipase producing fungal strains i.e. Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus microsporus and Penicillium atrovenetum to various doses of gamma irradiation (20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140 and 160 Gy). The isolation and lipolytic activity of selected mutant derived strains is described in this paper. Among all the mutants tested, MBL-5 obtained at 140Gy of Aspergillus niger strain showed highest extracellular lipase activity (13.75 +- 0.15 U mL/sup -1/) while MBL-1 Rhizopus microsporus at the rate 20Gy showed the lowest activity i.e., 1.06 +- 0.11 U mL/sup -1/. A range of pH 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 was used to check the lipolytic potential of various mutants along with their wild type. It was observed that MBL-5 (Aspergillus niger) and MBL-2 (Rhizopus microsporus) showed enhanced extracellular lipase activity at pH 11 while MBL-3 (Penicillium atrovenetum) showed the highest extracellular lipase activity 22.53 +- 0.21 U mL/sup -1/ at pH 9. It indicates a possible role for the MBL-2, MBL-3 and MBL-5 mutant strains in the detergent industry for the development of eco-friendly technologies. (author)

2010-08-01

146

Nucleoside transport inhibitors, dipyridamole and p-nitrobenzylthioinosine, selectively potentiate the antitumor activity of NB1011.  

Science.gov (United States)

NB1011, a novel anticancer agent, targets tumor cells expressing high levels of thymidylate synthase (TS). NB1011 is converted intracellularly to bromovinyldeoxyuridine monophosphate (BVdUMP) which competes with the natural substrate, deoxyuridine monophosphate, for binding to TS. Unlike inhibitors, NB1011 becomes a reversible substrate for TS catalysis. Thus, TS retains activity and converts BVdUMP into cytotoxic product(s). In vitro cytotoxicity studies demonstrate NB1011's preferential activity against tumor cells expressing elevated TS protein levels. Additionally, NB1011 has antitumor activity in vivo. To identify drugs which interact synergistically with NB1011, we screened 13 combinations of chemotherapeutic agents with NB1011 in human tumor and normal cells. Dipyridamole and p-nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR), potent inhibitors of equilibrative nucleoside transport, synergized with NB1011 selectively against 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-resistant H630R10 colon carcinoma cells [combination index (CI)=0.75 and 0.35] and Tomudex-resistant MCF7TDX breast carcinoma cells (CI=0.51 and 0.57), both TS overexpressing cell lines. These agents produced no synergy with NB1011 in Det551 and CCD18co normal cells (CI > 1.1) lacking TS overexpression. Dipyridamole potentiated NB1011's cytotoxicity in medium lacking nucleosides and bases, suggesting a non-salvage-dependent mechanism. We demonstrate that nucleoside transport inhibitors, dipyridamole and NBMPR, show promise for clinically efficacious combination with NB1011. PMID:11914638

Boyer, Christopher R; Karjian, Patricia L; Wahl, Geoffrey M; Pegram, Mark; Neuteboom, Saskia T C

2002-01-01

147

Petrochronologic study of granites in the eastern Nepal Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

Anatexis strongly influences the chemical, thermal, and rheological evolution of continental crust. Partial melting causes compositional differentiation by redistribution of incompatible elements, upward advection of heat during magma transport, and reduction of viscosity in migmatite zones. The orogenic core of the Himalaya consists of a continuous belt of schists and gneisses pervasively intruded by leucogranites derived from partial melting of crustal sources. This study employs high-temperature petrochronology of granites to reveal the spatial and temporal relationships between metamorphism, melting, deformation, and exhumation of the Himalayan middle crust. In eastern Nepal the Greater Himalayan Series (GHS) extends southward from the Everest region to the Mahabharat range forming a broad thrust sheet above the Main Central thrust (MCT). High-grade upper GHS rocks occur along the main orographic front to the north and the Mahabharat range to the south, whereas lower-grade rocks of the MCT zone occur beyween them near Okhaldhunga. Three types of granites were distinguished along a ~100-km-long north-south transect across the area, including 1) weakly to highly deformed granites and orthogneisses of the MCT zone, 2) deformed tourmaline-bearing leucogranite dikes intruding kyanite-bearing gneisses of the Mahabharat, and 3) undeformed to moderately deformed two-mica and tourmaline-bearing leucogranite dikes and sills intruding migmatites of the High Himalaya. U-Th/Pb dating of zircon and monazite by LA-ICPMS reveal the magmatic ages of each of the three types of granites. Granites and orthogneisses of the MCT zone yield dates of c.1800 Ma with evidence for Archean inheritance and recent Pb-loss. Magmatic ages are consistent with those of the Phaplu orthogneiss and Pb-loss may have resulted from Tertiary deformation. The Mahabharat leucogranites dominantly yield ages of c. 480 Ma overprinted by Oligo-Miocene metamorphism and deformation. However, one leucogranite specimen from the Mahabharat yields magmatic zircon crystallization ages ranging from 28.5 to 21 Ma, providing evidence for Oligo-Miocene melting farther toward the foreland than previously recognized. By contrast, granites from the High Himalaya yield monazite ages ranging from 23-18 Ma near Namche Bazaar, and 17-13 Ma near Dudh Kund. These new age constraints build upon previous work, and help form the basis for kinematic interpretations of the MCT.

Lederer, G. W.; Cottle, J. M.; Larson, K.; McAtamney, J.; Moulton, K.; Kellett, D.

2013-12-01

148

Distribution and Potential Mobility of Selected Heavy Metals in a Fluvial Environment Under the Influence of Tanneries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study we evaluated the occurrence of heavy metals in a fluvial environment under the influence of tanneries – the Cadeia and Feitoria rivers basin (RS, south Brazil), highlighting the distribution and potential mobility of the selected elements. Every three months, over one year-period, selected heavy metals and ancillary parameters were analyzed in water and sediment samples taken at ten sites along the rivers. Water analyses followed APHA recommendations, and sediment analyses wer...

Rodrigues M. L. K.; Formoso M. L. L.

2013-01-01

149

Uranium and radon estimation in some water samples from Himalayas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The uranium content of water samples collected from Kumaun (Uttar Pradesh) and Siwalik (Himachal Pradesh) Himalayas has been estimated using the technique of fission track registration in lexan plastic. The uranium content has been found varying from 1.08 ± 0.02 to 35.83 ± 0.09 ppb. Radon estimation has also been made in the same water samples using LR-115, type II plastic track detectors. The radon content has been found to vary from 2.68 ± 0.23 to 12.55 ± 0.93 pCi/l. No direct correlation has been found between uranium and radon contents. However, the high values of uranium in the mineralized areas confirm that the fission track method can successfully be employed for uranium exploration. (author)

1988-01-01

150

Tectonics of the Central Crystallines of western Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

The crystalline sheet of the Higher Himalaya, referred to as the Central Crystallines, is a continuous lithotectonic unit which can be traced from the River Kali of eastern Kumaun in the east to Sankoo in the Suru River valley of Kashmir in the west. The principal lithostratigraphic units of this zone are pelites, psammites, gneisses, amphibolites, migmatites and leucocratic granites. The rocks of this zone show progressive regional metamorphism of normal as well as reverse types, the metamorphic grade ranging from chlorite to sillimanite zone. The Main Central Thrust, which demarcates the southern boundary of the Central Crystallines, has brought the crystalline rocks to rest over the sediments of Deoban Group in Kumaun and Garhwal and over the Outer Crystallines (=Chail-Jutogh Nappe) in Himachal Pradesh. The evidence obtained from metamorphism, deformation and radiometric dating indicate that the Central Crystallines is an old Precambrian basement which has been reactivated during Caledonian and Alpine orogenic movements.

Thakur, V. C.

1980-02-01

151

Phenolic content, antioxidant potential and Aedes aegyptii ecological friend larvicidal activity of some selected Egyptian plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyphenols constitute a distinct group of natural compounds of medicinal importance exhibiting wide range of physiological activities as antioxidant, immunestimulant, antitumor and antiparasitic. Yellow fever and dengue fever are mosquito-borne infectious diseases transmitted by Aedes aegyptii, the presence of yellow fever in Sudan and dengue fever in Saudi Arabia are threats to Egypt with the reemerging of Ae. aegyptii in Southern Egypt, larvae control is feasible than flying adults. This work was conducted targeting estimation of the relative levels of total phenolic content, antioxidant potential and larvicidal activity of 110 selected Egyptian plants. The highest total phenolic contents were estimated in aqueous extracts of Coronilla scorpioides L., Forsskaolea tenacissima L., Crataegus sinaica Boiss., Pistacia khinjuk Boiss. and Loranthus acacia Benth.; they were 916.70 +/- 4.80, 813.70 +/- 4.16, 744.90 +/- 4.93, 549.00 +/- 3.93& 460.80 +/- 4.02 mg% while those of methanol extracts were estimated in Coronilla scorpioides, Forsskaolea tenacissima, Crataegus sinaica, Loranthus acacia and Pistacia khinjuk, they were 915.60-4.86, 664.60 +/- 4.16, 659.30 +/- 4.80, 590.80 +/- 4.49 & 588.00 +/- 3.85 mg% respectively. Investigation of the antioxidant potentials revealed that the most potent plants were Co-ronilla scorpioides, Forsskaolea tenacissima, Crataegus sinaica, Pistacia khinjuk and Loranthus acacia with calculated values of 454.80 +/- 4.83, 418.4 +/- 4.16, 399.10 +/- 4.90, 342.5 +/- 2.72 & 239.7 +/- 2.91% for aqueous extracts and 452.9 +/- 4.94, 389.6 +/- 4.6, 378.48 +/- 3.84, 352.3 +/- 3.06 & 346.5 +/- 2.98% for methanol extracts respectively while screening of larvicidal activity proved that Coronilla scorpioides, Forsskaolea tenacissima, Crataegus sinaica, Pistacia khinjuk and Loranthus acacia exhibited highest potency calculated as 22.53 +/- 2.01, 23.85 +/- 2.07, 28.17 +/- 2.06, 31.60 +/- 2.93 & 39.73 +/- 4.58 mg% aqueous extracts and 18.53 +/- 1.95, 18.8 +/- 1.67, 20.17 +/- 1.85, 23.28 +/- 2.7 & 28.48 +/- 3.9 mg% methanol ones respectively. PMID:23697028

El-Hela, Atef A; Abdel-Hady, Nevein M; Dawoud, Gouda T M; Hamed, Abdo M; Morsy, Tosson A

2013-04-01

152

Cluster analysis for identifying sub-groups and selecting potential discriminatory variables in human encephalitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Encephalitis is an acute clinical syndrome of the central nervous system (CNS, often associated with fatal outcome or permanent damage, including cognitive and behavioural impairment, affective disorders and epileptic seizures. Infection of the central nervous system is considered to be a major cause of encephalitis and more than 100 different pathogens have been recognized as causative agents. However, a large proportion of cases have unknown disease etiology. Methods We perform hierarchical cluster analysis on a multicenter England encephalitis data set with the aim of identifying sub-groups in human encephalitis. We use the simple matching similarity measure which is appropriate for binary data sets and performed variable selection using cluster heatmaps. We also use heatmaps to visually assess underlying patterns in the data, identify the main clinical and laboratory features and identify potential risk factors associated with encephalitis. Results Our results identified fever, personality and behavioural change, headache and lethargy as the main characteristics of encephalitis. Diagnostic variables such as brain scan and measurements from cerebrospinal fluids are also identified as main indicators of encephalitis. Our analysis revealed six major clusters in the England encephalitis data set. However, marked within-cluster heterogeneity is observed in some of the big clusters indicating possible sub-groups. Overall, the results show that patients are clustered according to symptom and diagnostic variables rather than causal agents. Exposure variables such as recent infection, sick person contact and animal contact have been identified as potential risk factors. Conclusions It is in general assumed and is a common practice to group encephalitis cases according to disease etiology. However, our results indicate that patients are clustered with respect to mainly symptom and diagnostic variables rather than causal agents. These similarities and/or differences with respect to symptom and diagnostic measurements might be attributed to host factors. The idea that characteristics of the host may be more important than the pathogen is also consistent with the observation that for some causes, such as herpes simplex virus (HSV, encephalitis is a rare outcome of a common infection.

Crowcroft Natasha S

2010-12-01

153

Synoptic-scale dust transport events in the southern Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

The variability of long-range dust transport events observed in the southern Himalaya and its relation with source areas have been studied thanks to five years’ continuous measurements which were carried out at the “Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid” (NCO-P, 27°57?N, 86°48?E), the highest Northern Hemisphere GAW-WMO global station sited at 5079 m a.s.l. in the high Khumbu valley (Nepal) on the southern Himalaya. During the period March 2006-February 2011, the analyses of the aerosol particle concentrations and LAGRANTO three-dimensional backward trajectories indicated the occurrence of 275 days affected by synoptic-scale dust transport, which account for 22.2% of the investigated period. The frequency of dust transport days (DTDs) showed a clear seasonal cycle, with the highest seasonal value observed during pre-monsoon season (33.5% of the pre-monsoon’s days are DTDs). Large enhancements in coarse aerosol number concentration N1-10 (average: +689%) and mass PM1-10 (average: +1086%) were observed during the dust transport events as compared to the days without dust (dust-free days, DFDs). In addition, the single scattering albedo (SSA) also showed higher values, ranging from 0.87 to 0.90, during DTDs with respect to DFDs (0.80-0.87). The predominant source of mineral dust reaching the measurement site was identified in the arid regions of the north-western Indian subcontinent (Thar desert), which accounted for 41.6% of the trajectories points associated with DTDs. Seasonal analysis also indicated that the winter season was significantly influenced by far western desert regions, such as North Africa and the Arabic Peninsula.

Duchi, R.; Cristofanelli, P.; Marinoni, A.; Bourcier, L.; Laj, P.; Calzolari, F.; Adhikary, B.; Verza, G. P.; Vuillermoz, E.; Bonasoni, P.

2014-06-01

154

Selective isolation and differentiation of a stromal population of human embryonic stem cells with osteogenic potential  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The derivation of osteogenic cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) has been hampered by the absence of easy and reproducible protocols. hESC grown in feeder-free conditions, often show a sub population of fibroblast-like, stromal cells growing between the colonies. Thus, we examined the possibility that these cells represent a population of stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells (hESC-stromal). Two in house derived hES cell lines (Odense3 and KMEB3) as well as an externally derived cell line (Hues8) were transitioned to feeder-free conditions. A sub population of fibroblast-like cells established between the hESC colonies were isolated by selective adherence to hyaluronic acid-coated plates (100μg/ml) and were characterized using a combination of FACS analysis and staining. The cells were CD44(+), CD29(+), CD73(+), CD166(+), CD146(+), and CD105(+); and, Oct4(-), CD34(-), CD45(-) and CXCR4(-). When cultured in osteogenic differentiation media, up regulation of osteoblastic lineage markers (DLX5, MSX2, RUNX2, SPARC, ALP, COL1a1, BGLAP, IBSP, DCN, LOX-L4) and production of in vitro mineralized matrix was detected. hESC-stromal cells loaded on a carrier and implanted either subcutaneously or in a critical size calvarial defect in immune deficient mice for 10weeks, resulted in new bone formation and partial repair of the calvarial defect. In conclusion, hESC-stromal can be isolated from hESC cultures and represent a good source for obtaining cells with osteogenic differentiation potential suitable for regenerative medicine protocols.

Harkness, Linda M; Mahmood, Amer

2011-01-01

155

Potential influence of selection criteria on the demographic composition of students in an Australian medical school  

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Abstract Background Prior to 1999 students entering our MBBS course were selected on academic performance alone. We have now evaluated the impact on the demographics of subsequent cohorts of our standard entry students (those entering directly from high school) of the addition to the selection process of an aptitude test (UMAT), a highly structured interview and a rural incentive program. Methods Students entering from 1985 to 1998, selected on academic performa...

2011-01-01

156

Large landslides lie low: Vertical domains of denudation processes in the arid Himalaya-Karakoram orogen  

Science.gov (United States)

Large bedrock landslides (defined here as affecting >0.1 km2 in planform area) are thought to substantially contribute to denuding active mountain belts, and limiting the growth of topographic relief produced by concurrent tectonic uplift and fluvial or glacial incision. While most research on large landslides has focused on tectonically active, humid mountain belts with varying degrees of rainstorm and earthquake activity, lesser attention has been devoted to arid mountain belts. Especially in the Himalaya, where high denudation rates are commonly associated with high landslide activity, previous work has largely ignored landslide processes in the arid compartments of the orogen. This was motivation for us to compile a landslide inventory covering the arid Himalaya-Karakoram of NW India and N Pakistan within the Indus catchment. Our data set contains 493 rock-slope failures that we compiled from published studies and mapping from remote sensing imagery. Using an empirical volume-area scaling approach we estimate the total landslide volume at >250 km3. This is more than thousand times the contemporary annual sediment load in the Indus River. We analyse the distribution of these volumetrically significant landslides with respect to the regional hypsometry, contemporary glacier cover, and the distribution of rock glaciers. We find that large bedrock landslides in the arid Himalaya-Karakoram region preferentially detach near or from below the study area's median elevation, while glaciers and rock glaciers occupy higher elevations almost exclusively. This trend holds true for both the study area and parts thereof. The largest and highest-lying landslides occur in the Karakoram mountains, where local relief exceeds 6 km, and >90% of the landslide areas lie below the region's median elevation. Our analysis reveals a hitherto unrecognized vertical layering of denudation processes, with landslides chiefly operating below the median elevation, whereas mass transport by glaciers and rock glaciers dominates higher elevation bands. Given a SE-ward decreasing topographic amplitude and increasing median elevation, bedrock landslides tend to affect higher portions of the landscape, while their vertical drop heights decrease accordingly. We conclude that these vertical domains of denudation processes conflict with the view that large bedrock landslides contribute to limiting relief in active mountain belts, unless (a) more frequent and smaller rock falls take on this role, and/or (b) evidence of large bedrock landslides above the permanent snow line is being censored rapidly. In either case, our data favour a model where large rock-slope failures undermine the lower portions of arid high-relief landscapes near the limits of Pleistocene glaciations, potentially signalling a regional postglacial hillslope adjustment. We thus call for a more detailed and refined view on how large rock-slope failures contribute to shaping arid mountain belts.

Blöthe, Jan Henrik

2014-05-01

157

Magnetostratigraphy of the Neogene Siwalik Group of far eastern Himalaya, Kameng section, Arunashal Pradesh, India  

Science.gov (United States)

Foreland basins act as receptacles for synorogenic sediments and store materials eroded off a convergent mountain belt (DeCelles and Giles, 1996, DeCelles and Giles, 1996). Their infill records tectonic, climatic and erosional processes that govern the development of the mountain belt and the foreland basin. Consequently, studying the infill of foreland basins can give clues as to the reconstruction of the orogen tectonic growth and the interaction with global or regional climate (e.g. Molnar & England, 1990). The Himalaya, the highest range in the world, is used as a natural laboratory to test the interactions between these processes, in particular because of the effect of the Tibetan Plateau uplift on the intensity and variability of the Asian monsoon (Kutzbach et al., 1993; Fluteau et al., 1999). Exhumation, erosion and climate events affecting the Himalaya are recorded in the Neogene Siwalik foreland basin deposits (e.g. DeCelles et al., 1998, 2000; Galy et al., 1999; Huyghe et al., 2001, 2005; Najman, 2005). Dating these deposits is a key element to reconstruct the Himalaya's evolution. Despite a wealth of studies in the central and western Himalayan foreland, very few studies have been carried out in the eastern part (Yin et al., 2006, Cina et al 2009). Understanding the evolution of this eastern part is essential for reconstructing the regional migration of the Himalayan deformation. In addition, the eastern Himalayan foreland potentially records the evolution of processes associated to the eastern syntaxis drainage networks (Singh and France-Lanord, 2002) and the Shillong plateau uplift (Grujic et al., 2006). Therefore, accurate dating of the sediments of the Eastern part of the Siwalik foreland basin using magnetostratigraphy is a crucial initial step for further investigations such as sedimentological and structural field studies, fission tracks, provenance and isotopic stable laboratory analysis. These investigations aim at constraining the exhumation and climate of this part of the chain. The purpose of this communication is to report new paleomagnetic results from the Siwalik Group in the remote far eastern district of Arunachal Pradesh, where no previous studies have been conducted. We performed a magnetostratigraphic study along the Kameng river section where a thick series of Siwalik sediments is well exposed and accessible. On the section we studied, several magnetostratigraphic correlations are possible but results show that the age of the deposits ranges between 18 My and 3 My. The main facies transitions occur at the same time as those of the central part of the range (Ojha et al 2008, Gautam et al 2000). Analysing the paleostreams of the oldest part of the section reveals that the transport direction of sediments was North-East South-West. Their origin is thus very likely the Himalayan syntaxis. Thermochronological analyses, which are currently in progress, will enable us to choose between the various possible correlations, and the isotopic analysis will help us to determine the exact provenance of the sediments.

Chirouze, Francois; Huyghe, Pascale; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume

2010-05-01

158

Seasonal and annual mass balances of Mera and Pokalde glaciers (Nepal Himalaya) since 2007  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Everest region, Nepal, ground-based monitoring programmes were started on the debris-free Mera Glacier (27.7° N, 86.9° E; 5.1 km2, 6420 to 4940 m a.s.l.) in 2007 and on the small Pokalde Glacier (27.9° N, 86.8° E; 0.1 km2, 5690 to 5430 m a.s.l., ~ 25 km north of Mera Glacier) in 2009. These glaciers lie on the southern flank of the central Himalaya under the direct influence of the Indian monsoon and receive more than 80% of their annual precipitation in summer (June to September). Despite a large inter-annual variability with glacier-wide mass balances ranging from -0.67 ± 0.28 m w.e. in 2011-2012 (Equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) at ~ 5800 m a.s.l.) to +0.46 ± 0.28 m w.e. in 2010-2011 (ELA at ~ 5340 m a.s.l.), Mera Glacier has been shrinking at a moderate mass balance rate of -0.08 ± 0.28 m w.e. yr-1 since 2007. Ice fluxes measured at two distinct transverse cross sections at ~ 5350 m a.s.l. and ~ 5520 m a.s.l. confirm that the mean state of this glacier over the last one or two decades corresponds to a limited mass loss, in agreement with remotely-sensed region-wide mass balances of the Everest area. Seasonal mass balance measurements show that ablation and accumulation are concomitant in summer which in turn is the key season controlling the annual glacier-wide mass balance. Unexpectedly, ablation occurs at all elevations in winter due to wind erosion and sublimation, with remobilised snow potentially being sublimated in the atmosphere. Between 2009 and 2012, the small Pokalde Glacier lost mass more rapidly than Mera Glacier with respective mean glacier-wide mass balances of -0.72 and -0.23 ± 0.28 m w.e. yr-1. Low-elevation glaciers, such as Pokalde Glacier, have been usually preferred for in-situ observations in Nepal and more generally in the Himalayas, which may explain why compilations of ground-based mass balances are biased toward negative values compared with the regional mean under the present-day climate.

Wagnon, P.; Vincent, C.; Arnaud, Y.; Berthier, E.; Vuillermoz, E.; Gruber, S.; Ménégoz, M.; Gilbert, A.; Dumont, M.; Shea, J. M.; Stumm, D.; Pokhrel, B. K.

2013-11-01

159

Looking at the roots of the highest mountains: the lithospheric structure of the Himalaya-Tibet and the Zagros orogens. Results from a geophysical-petrological study  

Science.gov (United States)

The Himalaya-Tibet and Zagros orogens are the two most prominent mountain belts built by continental collision. They are part of a huge belt of Cenozoic age which runs from the Pyrenees to Burma. In its central sector, the collision with the southern margin of the Eurasian plate has resulted not only in the building of mountain ranges over the north-eastern edges of the Arabian and Indian plates but also in widespread deformation 1000-3000 km from the suture zones. Zagros and Himalaya-Tibet orogens share many geodynamic processes but at different rates, amount of convergence and stage of development. The study of their present-day structures provides new insights into their quasi coeval collisional event pointing out differences and similarities in the mountain building processes. We present 2D crust and upper mantle cross-sections down to 400 km depth, along four SW-NE trending profiles. Two profiles cross the Zagros Mountains, running from the Mesopotamian Foreland Basin up to the Alborz and Central Iran. Two other profiles run through the Himalaya-Tibetan orogen: the western transect crosses the western Himalaya, Tarim Basin, Tian Shan Mountains and Junggar Basin; the eastern transect runs from the Indian shield to the Beishan Basin, crossing the eastern Himalaya, Tibetan Plateau, Qaidam Basin and Qilian Mountains. We apply the LitMod-2D code which integrates potential fields (gravity and geoid), isostasy (elevation) and thermal (heat flow and temperature distribution) equations, and mantle petrology. The resulting crust and upper mantle structure is constrained by available data on elevation, Bouguer anomaly, geoid height, surface heat flow and seismic data including P- and S-wave tomography models. Our results show distinct deformation patterns between the crust and the lithospheric mantle beneath the Zagros and Himalaya-Tibetan orogens, indicating a strong strain partitioning in both areas. At crustal level, we found a thickening beneath the Zagros and the Alborz ranges, more pronounced in the southern profile. At sub-crustal level, a lithospheric mantle thinning affects the whole area beneath the Zagros range extending to the north through the zone below the Alborz and the central Iran. In the Himalaya-Tibet region our results show stronger strain partitioning in the horizontal (east-west) direction than in the vertical (depth) direction. At crustal level, the Tibetan Plateau extends more than 1000 km in the eastern profile, whereas it is squeezed between the Himalayan Mountains and the Tarim Basin along the western profile (~600 km). At sub-crustal level, the lithospheric mantle is more homogeneous in thickness and mineral composition along the western profile than the eastern one. Finally, our results on mineral composition show that both collisional regions are characterised by a predominant lherzolitic lithospheric mantle, whereas we observe compositional variations around the suture zones, probably related to subduction and mantle delamination processes.

Tunini, L.; Jimenez-Munt, I.; Fernandez, M.; Villasenor, A.; Afonso, J. C.; Verges, J.

2013-12-01

160

Plant operator selection system for evaluating employment candidates' potential for success in electric power plant operations positions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Plant Operator Selection System is a battery of tests and questionnaires that can be administered to job candidates in less than three hours. Various components of the battery measure what a job candidate has accomplished in previous educational and work situations, how well a candidate compares with others on a number of important aptitudes or abilities, and whether or not a candidate possesses the kind of personal stability required in power plant operations positions. A job candidate's answers to the tests and questionnaires of the Plant Operator Selection System are scored and converted to an OVERALL POTENTIAL INDEX. Values of the OVERALL POTENTIAL INDEX [OPI] range between 0 and 15. Candidates with high OPI values are much more likely to become effective and successful plant operators than candidates with low OPI values. It is possible to estimate the financial advantages to a company of using the Plant Operator Selection System in evaluating candidates for plant operations jobs

1982-06-01

 
 
 
 
161

Determination of heavy metal pollution in soils from selected potentially contaminated sites in Tema  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the study was to assess the concentration and determine the level of pollution by harmful heavy metals in soils from selected potentially contaminated sites in Tema. The metals of interest include; mercury, lead, cadmium, cobalt zinc, arsenic, nickel, copper and chromium. A total of forty seven (47) samples comprising thirty eight sub-samples (38) and nine (9) composite samples were collected from nine (9) different locations. These included playgrounds, steel processing factories, used Lead Acid Battery (ULAB) recycling plant, mechanic workshops and the municipal waste disposal site. The samples were prepared after which the elemental concentrations were determined using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) with a secondary target excitation arrangement (5.9 keV). The analysis of the samples yielded the following mean heavy metal concentrations in mg/kg: 424.38 (Cr); 408.68 (Ni); 14427 (Cu); 4129.87 (Zn); 1580.68 (As); 647.48 (Hg); 73361.51 (Pb) and 1176.16 (Co). The mean concentrations of heavy metals in the soils were in the following order Pb>Zn>As>Co>Cu>Hg>Cr>Ni. Mercury was detected at only two of the sites. The average heavy metals in the soils from the sites were generally high since most of them exceeded the optimum and action values of the New Dutch List. The Enrichment Factor (EF) ratios show that the enrichment of the elements in the soils ranged from deficiently to extremely highly enriched. The contamination factor show that the contamination by the heavy metals were low at some of the sites and very high at others. The geoaccumulation indices indicated that the playground (PG) has not been contaminated by any of the metals, C8 is contaminated strongly by mercury only and the contamination at the remaining sites varied from moderately contaminated to extremely contaminated by the metals. The Igeo also indicated that the elements accounting for extreme contamination are lead, arsenic, copper, zinc mercury and chromium. Lead accounted for the most contamination. The Pollution Load Index (PLI) rated Gravita as the mot contaminated of the sites and the Play ground the least contaminated. The pollution load indices indicated that two (2) out of the nine sites in the study were uncontaminated by the heavy metals (PLISS>WD>AFL>TS>L19>C8>PG. (au)

2011-01-01

162

Environmental impact assessment of mountain tourism in developing regions: A study in Ladakh, Indian Himalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mountain tourism in developing countries is becoming a growing environmental concern due to extreme seasonality, lack of suitable infrastructures and planning, and interference with fragile ecosystems and protected areas. This paper presents a study devoted to assess the adverse environmental impacts of tourism, and in particular of trekking-related activities, in Ladakh, Indian Himalaya. The proposed approach is based on the use of Geographical Information System (GIS) modeling and remote sensing imageries to cope with the lack of data that affect the region. First, stressors associated with trekking, and environmental receptors potentially affected were identified. Subsequently, a baseline study on stressors (trail use, waste dumping, camping, pack animal grazing and off-road driving) and receptors (soil, water, wildlife, vegetation) was conducted through field work, data collection, and data processing supported by GIS. Finally, impacts were modeled by considering the intensity of the stressors, and the vulnerability and the value of the receptors. The results were spatially aggregated into watershed units, and combined to generate composite impact maps. The study concluded that the most affected watersheds are located in the central and southeastern part of Ladakh, along some of the most visited trails and within the Hemis and the Tsokar Tsomoriri National parks. The main objective of the study was to understand patterns of tourism-induced environmental degradation, so as to support mitigation interventions, as well as the development of suitable tourism policies.

2009-07-01

163

Thermal evolution and exhumation of the Ladakh Batholith, northwest Himalaya, India  

Science.gov (United States)

High elevation, low relief regions are recognised across the northwest Himalaya, including the Ladakh and Kohistan areas. A homogeneity of uplift and cooling histories across these large spatial (> 360 km) and temporal (> 35 Ma) scales would be remarkable. Here we examine the thermal evolution of the Ladakh Batholith, northwest India since the early Tertiary using a combination of amphibole geobarometry and apatite and zircon low temperature thermochronometry data to investigate the spatio-temporal progression of emplacement, uplift and exhumation. The emplacement depth varies with distance north of the Indus River and suggests that the southern part of the batholith (Indus River) had more overlying rocks removed (~ 3-5 km more) compared to the northern edge. Compiled low temperature thermochronometry data from elevations > 3200 m above mean sea level indicate significant exhumation of the southern margin of the Ladakh Batholith in the Oligocene (> 26 Ma) while exhumation of the northern margin occurred later in the Mid to Late Miocene (< 17 Ma). Topography across the batholith was asymmetric throughout the Oligocene and Miocene and potentially only since the Pliocene has the current amplitude and wavelength been established. This extensive dataset from across the Ladakh Batholith does not support a generalised regional model of early rapid exhumation post India-Eurasia collision followed by steady and slow denudation to the present.

Kirstein, Linda A.

2011-04-01

164

REDUCING RISK AND PROMOTING SUSTAINABILITY IN THE FOOTHILLS OF THE HIMALAYAS: A Pedagogy for Teaching and Practicing Sustainable Development  

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Full Text Available This paper considers the role of a workshop as an educational approach and as a catalyst for positive change in the context of vulnerability and risk in the foothills of the Himalayas in the region of Uttarakhand, northern India. The paper will discuss the evolving pedagogy of Architecture Sans Frontières-UK (ASF-UK, an organisation that uses workshops as a primary tool to explore international development issues and help develop the relevant competencies for built environment professionals working in this sector. The workshop, and its catalytic potential, will be discussed and evaluated in relation to a case study: an international workshop coordinated by ASF-UK and partner, SEEDS India, which took place in Almora, Uttarakhand in 2010. The workshop marked the inception of a three year project which aims to facilitate improved building practices in symbiosis with disaster mitigation and wider development agendas through education, capacity building and prototype development.

Sarah Ernst

2013-11-01

165

Electrostatic potential within the free volume space of imidazole-based solvents: insights into gas absorption selectivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, a variety of molecular simulation tools are used to help characterize the selective absorption of CO2 and CH4 in imidazole-based solvents. We focus our efforts on a series of 1-n-alkyl-2-methyl-imidazoles and ether-functionalized imidazoles, over a temperature range from 293 to 353 K, and we perform detailed analysis of the free volume. We find that the electrostatic potential within the solvent free volume cavities provides a useful indication of the selective absorption of CO2 and CH4. The electrostatic potential calculation is significantly faster than the direct calculation of the chemical potential, and tests with the 1-n-alkyl-2-methyl-imidazoles and the ether-functionalized imidazoles indicate that this may be a useful screening tool for other solvents. PMID:24341933

Liu, Haining; Zhang, Zhongtao; Bara, Jason E; Turner, C Heath

2014-01-01

166

Metastatic potential of B16 melanoma cells after in vitro selection for organ-specific adherence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Heterogeneous primary tumors contain subpopulations of cells that differ in ability to metastasize to specific host organs. We have used cryostat sections of host organs to select for metastatic variants of B16 melanoma cells with increased adhesion to specific syngeneic tissues. By repeating the selection procedure with lung tissue, a subpopulation of cells was isolated that demonstrated a specific increase in binding to cryostat sections of mouse lung. This altered binding was reflected by ...

1985-01-01

167

E-W extension in the NW Indian Himalaya - Triggered by Tibetan Plateau Deformation?  

Science.gov (United States)

E-W extension in the Himalaya is well known from the central part of the orogen between 81° and 89° E and has produced major N-S striking normal faults bounding the Thakkola and Yadong grabens, as well as the Ama Drime massif, for example. These extensional structures and normal faults within the adjacent Tibetan Plateau strike virtually at right angles with respect to the trend of the Central Himalaya. The mechanisms governing active extension in the transition between the Tibetan Plateau and the Himalaya are subject to ongoing discussion, mainly because in the Central Himalaya, extension in both areas is oriented approximately E-W. Models explaining E-W extension in this part of the orogen can be broadly cast into two different groups. (1) One group constitutes models that explain extension parallel to the arc, triggered by the geometry and/or the arcuate shape of the Himalaya. In this case, the normal faults are expected to strike perpendicular to the trend of the orogen. (2) The other group of models relates N-S striking normal faults and grabens to processes within the Tibetan Plateau. In contrast to the E-W oriented Central Himalaya, the Indian Himalaya west of 81°E is oriented NW-SE, and thus provides a fortuitous structural setting to differentiate between arc-parallel and E-W extension phenomena. Therefore, this area is well suited to test the applicability of current tectonic models concerning extensional processes in the Himalayan orogen and improve our understanding of the determining mechanisms. We present new structural field data, field and remote-sensing based geomorphic analyses and geochronologic information to help elucidate the character of extension in the NW Himalaya. In particular, we studied the kinematics of brittle faults, documented and mapped fault scarps in Quaternary sedimentary deposits using satellite imagery and field inspection, and made field observations in the Greater Sutlej Region (Spiti, Lahul, Kinnaur) and the Garhwal Himalaya. The collected data permits us to document pervasive, ongoing E-W extension in the Higher Himalaya reaching as far south as the footwall of the MCT. E-W extension began at approximately 15 Ma and clearly reflects the most recent deformation phase in this part of the Himalaya as closely spaced normal faults related to E-W extension cut across all previous structures. In addition, our comprehensive data set documents that despite the southward convexity of the mountain range E-W extension prevails in the NW Indian Himalaya and postdates previous arc-parallel NW-SE oriented extension, as well as arc-perpendicular NE-SW oriented extension. Our results thus suggest that currently active extension is independent of the overall geometry of the Himalayan arc. Rather, we suggest that E-W extension in the investigated area is part of a regional phenomenon characteristic for the Tibetan Plateau, the transitional region between Tibet and the Higher Himalaya, as well as areas farther south. This may indicate that E-W extension propagates southward from Tibet, which may be driven by the collapse of the Tibetan Plateau.

Hintersberger, E.; Thiede, R. C.; Strecker, M. R.; Hacker, B. R.

2009-12-01

168

The potential for evolutionary responses to cell-lineage selection on growth form and its plasticity in a red seaweed.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite much theoretical discussion on the evolutionary significance of intraclonal genetic variation, particularly for modular organisms whose lack of germ-soma segregation allows for variants arising in clonal growth to contribute to evolutionary change, the potential of this variation to fuel adaptation remains surprisingly untested. Given intraclonal variation, mitotic cell lineages, rather than sexual offspring, may frequently act as units of selection. Here, we applied artificial selection to such lineages in the branching red seaweed Asparagopsis armata, targeting aspects of clonal growth form and growth-form plasticity that enhance light acquisition on patchy subtidal reefs and predicting that a genetic basis to intraclonal variation may promote significant responses that cannot accompany phenotypic variation alone. Cell-lineage selection increased variation in branch proliferation among A. armata genets and successfully altered its plasticity to light. Correlated responses in the plasticity of branch elongation, moreover, showed that cell-lineage selection may be transmitted among the plasticities of growth-form traits in A. armata via pleiotropy. By demonstrating significant responses to cell-lineage selection on growth-form plasticity in this seaweed, our study lends support to the notion that intraclonal genetic variation may potentially help clonal organisms to evolve adaptively in the absence of sex and thereby prove surprisingly resilient to environmental change. PMID:19115857

Monro, Keyne; Poore, Alistair G B

2009-02-01

169

Precipitation and snow cover in the Himalaya: from reanalysis to regional climate simulations  

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Full Text Available We applied a Regional Climate Model (RCM to simulate precipitation and snow cover over the Himalaya, between March 2000 to December 2002. Due to its higher resolution, our model simulates a more realistic spatial variability of wind and precipitation than those of the reanalysis used as boundary conditions. In this region, we found very large discrepancies between the estimations of precipitation provided by reanalysis, rain gauges networks, satellite observations, and our RCM simulation. Our model clearly underestimates precipitation at the foothills of the Himalaya and in its Eastern part. However, our simulation brings an interesting estimation of liquid and solid precipitation in high altitude areas, where satellite and rain gauge networks are few reliable. We found our model to simulate quite accurately the snow cover extent and duration for the two years of simulation in these areas. Snow accumulation and snow duration differ widely along the Himalaya: snowfall can occur during the whole year Western Himalaya, due to both summer monsoon and mid-latitude low pressure systems bringing moisture into this region. In Central Himalaya and on the Tibetan plateau, a much more marked dry season occurs from October to March. Snow cover does not have a well marked seasonal cycle in these regions, since it depends both on the quite variable duration of the monsoon and on the rare but possible occurrence of snowfall during the winter.

M. Ménégoz

2013-06-01

170

Potential and Structural Variation of Some Selected Cultivated Bamboo Species in Peninsular Malaysia  

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Full Text Available Screening of different cultivated bamboo species to find out potential variety of bamboo is most important. Structural variations in term of anatomy, physical and strength properties of 3 year-old cultivated Gigantochloa brang, G. levis, G. scotechinii and G. wrayi were investigated for screening purposes. The culms of these bamboos were selected, harvested and processed for subsequent studies. The results show that each species exhibited differences in the anatomy, physical and strength properties. Each species has differences in the fiber characteristics which showed significant differences between species in terms of length, diameter and lumen sizes. The vascular bundle for these genera were between 4-7/4mm2 and were dense at the outer position in the cross section of the culm having 8.5 vascular bundle/4mm2, middle 4.88 vascular bundle/4mm2 and at the inner position having 3.4 vascular bundle per/4mm2. The vascular bundle length was between 845-1183 um and a width of 530-759 um. The fibre lengths were between (1745.00-2039.98 um, diameter (17.26-22.75 um, lumen (3.83-8.66 um and wall thickness (1.3 -5.31um. The moisture content (MC of the bamboo in green condition ranged between 73-112%, the MC is higher at internodes (95% compared to nodes (78%. Position at inner layer has MC at 126%, middle at 83% and outer at 41%. Density increases from outer to inner layer which started from 500 kg/m2 at inner and increased to more than 820 kg/m2 at outer part of bamboo at 12% moisture content. The specific gravity for all species tested was about 0.69 - 0.78, but the inner position is 0.58, middle 0.73 and outer positions is 0.94. Shrinkage at radial, tangential and the volumetric were at 5-9, 7-12, and 10-17% respectively for all species. Position in a higher rate of shrinkage were at inner (8.6, 13.50, 15.44%, follow by middle (6.85, 9.72, 12.57% and outer (5.04, 6.52, 10.40% respectively. The tensile strength for the bamboos ranged between 103.38-122.15 MPa. The tensile strength of dried bamboo is 138.87 MPa compared with 89.95 MPa for green bamboo. The tensile of modulus of air dried bamboo is 4003.85 MPa compared with 2786.96 MPa for green bamboo. The modulus of rupture (MOR for the bamboos ranged between 91.19-132 MPa. The MOR for dried bamboo was 142.21 MPa compared to the green bamboo 99.56 MPa. The modulus of elasticity (MOE varies between 11961.70-20430.40 MPa. MOE of air dried bamboo was 17610.00 MPa and green bamboo 13777.80 MPa.

Razak Wahab

2012-05-01

171

K-maps of HR Selection Procedures and Their Potential Use in the Identification of Talented Students  

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Full Text Available In this paper the K-maps are understood as a graphical rendering of a procedural knowledge. The procedural knowledge in question concerns a possible use of selection procedures commonly used in personnel selection in the context of human resources management. Actually, the identification of talented students might be an important task in educational setting. If this task could be successfully carried out by use of a procedure developed in another field, the efforts necessary for implementing it might be alleviated to a considerable degree. On the other hand, this paper is about potential uses of K-maps in the first place.

Kolman Lud?k

2008-03-01

172

Therapeutic potential of functional selectivity in the treatment of heart failure  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Adrenergic and angiotensin receptors are prominent targets in pharmacological alleviation of cardiac remodeling and heart failure, but their use is associated with cardiodepressant side effects. Recent advances in our understanding of seven transmembrane receptor signaling show that it is possible to design ligands with "functional selectivity," acting as agonists on certain signaling pathways while antagonizing others. This represents a major pharmaceutical opportunity to separate desired from adverse effects governed by the same receptor. Accordingly, functionally selective ligands are currently pursued as next-generation drugs for superior treatment of heart failure.

Christensen, Gitte Lund; Aplin, Mark

2010-01-01

173

Impact of Climate Change on Glacier Health and Water Resources in the Indus Watershed, NW Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

The Indus River is the 21st largest river in the world, with a mean discharge of ~5.5 m3/s. More than 178 million people rely on the water provided by the Indus River for agriculture, industrial development and hydropower generation. Much of the discharge of the Indus comes from seasonal melt from the more than 2600 glaciers of the northwestern Himalayas. These glaciers are quite sensitive to shifting climate, and increasing regional temperature and changing precipitation patterns have the potential to alter glacial melt runoff rates dramatically, particularly in the monsoon-influenced valleys on the southern side of the range. We have calculated current glacial-melt contributions to the Indus River remotely using glacier size, the distribution of glaciers in the watershed, reanalysis climate output and empirical ablation rates. Preliminary calculations indicate glacial-melt accounts for ~40% of annual river discharge, and up to 70% of summer runoff. Understanding the impact of regional climate change on the mass balance of glaciers in the Indus watershed is essential. Any small shifts in regional climate could significantly affect the mass budget of these glaciers, and in turn the amount of discharge in the Indus River, as well as its tributaries. The distribution of these glaciers in relation to the major pathways of moisture delivery during the summer monsoon also suggests potentially very different responses to future climate change. Using similar calculation methods in conjunction with field measurements and future temperature and precipitation projections in the region, we are determining the potential change in discharge of the Indus River over time, and helping to quantify the significance of glacier health and glacier melt on regional water resources both today and in the future.

Asay, M.; Koppes, M. N.; Rupper, S.; McKean, A.; Parks, E.

2009-12-01

174

Geological investigations at a high altitude, remote coal mine on the Northwest Pakistan and Afghanistan frontier, Karakoram Himalaya  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Northwest Pakistan and Afghanistan frontier is located one of the most remote, inaccessible, and inhospitable part of the Himalayan orogenic belt. In this region, two of the world's largest and most distinct mountain belts intersect; the Karakoram Himalaya (mainly in Pakistan) and the Hindu Kush (mainly in Afghanistan). Located at high altitude, in a remote part of Northwest Pakistan, close to the border with Afghanistan, tribal villagers began excavating a series of audits into the steep mountain slopes, beneath glaciers, to extract valuable coal and carbonaceous shale resources. These were discovered in 1996, by the villagers, whilst hunting, and may represent some of the highest mine workings in the world. Small-scale mining operations subsequently developed using rudimentary mining methods and the mine became known as the Reshit or Pamir Coal Mine.The coal deposits are sedimentary, highly disturbed and tectonised, having been subjected to multiple phases of orogenic crustal deformation. The coal occurs as discrete lenses, several tens of metres in their lateral dimension, between steeply dipping, overturned and thrusted limestone beds of Jurassic age. The coal provided a vital, alternative source of fuel for the villagers since the local, traditional fuel supply was wood, which had become severely depleted, and imports of kerosene from neighbouring China and Afghanistan were too expensive. The mining operations experienced severe problems. These included several collapses of mine entrances, the failure of the adits to intersect the coal-bearing zones, the potential threat of geological hazards, mining-induced hazards and harsh high-altitude operating conditions, particularly during the winter months. International aid was provided to assist the villagers and a geological investigation was commissioned to investigate the problems at the mine. The geology of Karakoram Himalaya is relatively poorly understood. Until recently the region was restricted to foreign visitors and large areas of this mountain belt are virtually unmapped. Existing geological and topographic maps are difficult to obtain or are unavailable due to the close proximity of political frontiers, national borders and security reasons. The mineral resource potential of this region is virtually unknown. Few western geologists have visited this area due to its inaccessibility and political constraints, being situated close the frontiers with China, Afghanistan, and the disputed Pakistan and India territory of Kashmir.The Pakistan and Afghanistan border, is once again, now closed to foreign visitors. The objectives of this paper are to document the occurrence of coal and carbonaceous shale, at high altitude, in the Karakoram Himalaya and to provide details on the geology, geological hazards, reserves and labour-intensive mining operations. These observations and information may provide the basis for future mineral exploration, mining-geology, mining-engineering, feasibility studies and engineering geological investigation in the Karakoram Himalaya.

Donnelly, Laurance J. [Chartered Geologist, Halcrow Group Ltd., Deanway Technology Centre, Wilmslow Road, Handforth, Cheshire, SK9 3FB (United Kingdom)

2004-12-03

175

Selection rules for jumps between resonant states induced by potential strength variation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The jump phenomenon between two S-matrix poles induced by a small potential strength variation is studied for the scattering by a central square potential g V (r), g of C. Let Rg(l) denote the Riemann surface over the complex g-plane, on which the pole function k = k(l)(g) is single valued and analytic. By associating a sheet ?n(l) of Rg(l) and its k-plane image ?n'(l) (l) to a state with the quantum numbers (l,n) the jump between the states (l,n) and (l,m), induced by the potential strength variation, is understood as the jump between the sheet images ?n'(l) and ?m'(l). The rules for the jumps (l,n) ? (l,m) as a consequence of a small potential strength variation are deduced. (author)

2005-01-01

176

Potential influence of selection criteria on the demographic composition of students in an Australian medical school  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior to 1999 students entering our MBBS course were selected on academic performance alone. We have now evaluated the impact on the demographics of subsequent cohorts of our standard entry students (those entering directly from high school of the addition to the selection process of an aptitude test (UMAT, a highly structured interview and a rural incentive program. Methods Students entering from 1985 to 1998, selected on academic performance alone (N = 1402, were compared to those from 1999 to 2011, selected on the basis of a combination of academic performance, interview score, and UMAT score together with the progressive introduction of a rural special entry pathway (N = 1437. Results Males decreased from 57% to 45% of the cohort, students of NE or SE Asian origin decreased from 30% to 13%, students born in Oceania increased from 52% to 69%, students of rural origin from 5% to 21% and those from independent high schools from 56% to 66%. The proportion of students from high schools with relative socio-educational disadvantage remained unchanged at approximately 10%. The changes reflect in part increasing numbers of female and independent high school applicants and the increasing rural quota. However, they were also associated with higher interview scores in females vs males and lower interview scores in those of NE and SE Asian origin compared to those born in Oceania or the UK. Total UMAT scores were unrelated to gender or region of origin. Conclusions The revised selection processes had no impact on student representation from schools with relative socio-educational disadvantage. However, the introduction of special entry quotas for students of rural origin and a structured interview, but not an aptitude test, were associated with a change in gender balance and ethnicity of students in an Australian undergraduate MBBS course.

Puddey Ian B

2011-11-01

177

Monsoon variability in the Himalayas under the condition of global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An ice core-drilling program was carried out at the accumulation area of Dasuopu glacier (28deg23'N, 85deg43'E, 7100 m a.s.l.) in the central Himalayas in 1997. The ice core was analyzed continuously for stable isotopes (?18O), and major ions throughout the core. Cycles indicated by ?18O, cations were identified and counted as seasonal fluctuations as annual increment from maximum to maximum values. Reconstructed 300-year annual net accumulation (water equivalent) from the core, with a good correlation to Indian monsoon, reflects a major precipitation trend in the central Himalayas. The accumulation trend, separated from the time series, shows a strong negative correlation to Northern Hemisphere temperature. Generally, as northern hemisphere temperature increases 0.1degC, the accumulation decreases about 80 mm, reflecting monsoon rainfall in the central Himalayas has decreased over the past decades in the condition of global warming. (author)

2003-04-01

178

Role of oblique convergence in the active deformation of the Himalayas and southern Tibet plateau  

Science.gov (United States)

Noting similarities with subduction along curved oceanic trenches and using a simple block model, we show that radial vergence evident in earthquake slip vectors along the Himalayan deformation front, east-west extension on north-trending normal faults in the Himalayas and southern Tibet, and right-lateral strike slip on the Karakorum-Jiali fault zone can all result from basal shear caused by the Indian plate sliding obliquely beneath Tibet along a gently dipping, arcuate plate boundary. Within the framework of this mechanism, the normal faults in the Himalayas and southern Tibet are not proxies for the uplift history of Tibet. The distribution and style of the faults in the Himalayas and southern Tibet suggest that the basal drag from the underthrusting Indian lithosphere extends northward beneath most of southern Tibet.

McCaffrey, Robert; Nabelek, John

1998-08-01

179

Selective Cholinergic Depletion in Medial Septum Leads to Impaired Long Term Potentiation and Glutamatergic Synaptic Currents in the Hippocampus  

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Cholinergic depletion in the medial septum (MS) is associated with impaired hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. Here we investigated whether long term potentiation (LTP) and synaptic currents, mediated by alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the CA1 hippocampal region, are affected following cholinergic lesions of the MS. Stereotaxic intra-medioseptal infusions of a selective immunotoxin, 192-saporin, against choliner...

Kanju, Patrick M.; Parameshwaran, Kodeeswaran; Sims-robinson, Catrina; Uthayathas, Subramaniam; Josephson, Eleanor M.; Rajakumar, Nagalingam; Dhanasekaran, Muralikrishnan; Suppiramaniam, Vishnu

2012-01-01

180

Event-related potentials during a selective attention task with short interstimulus intervals in patients with schizophrenia.  

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OBJECTIVE: To study selective attention in schizophrenia by examining event-related potentials during a dichotic listening task with short interstimulus intervals (ISIs). DESIGN: Prospective study. PARTICIPANTS: Twelve patients with schizophrenia in remission and 12 age-matched controls with no history of psychiatric or neurological illness. INTERVENTIONS: Participants were asked to push a button in response to target stimuli in either ear. OUTCOME MEASURES: Reaction time, correct response ra...

Iwanami, A.; Isono, H.; Okajima, Y.; Noda, Y.; Kamijima, K.

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Hillslope-channel coupling in the Nepal Himalayas and threat to man-made structures: The middle Kali Gandaki valley  

Science.gov (United States)

In mountain areas, the confinement of valleys favours landslide interaction with rivers, causing channel changes or short-lived dams and lakes that may threaten trails, roads and human settlements. Their impacts may occur successively in space and time, and they affect randomly the functioning of the sediment fluxes. The present study focuses on the interaction patterns between unstable mountain slopes and the Kali Gandaki River, in the Nepal Himalayas. In this valley, the deepest on earth, a road linking the Myagdi and Mustang districts has been under construction for the past 5 years, either cutting into the bedrock or crossing areas affected episodically by debris slides, earth flows, debris flows and rock slides. On the basis of the geomorphic evolution observed over the last three decades, we assess the potential threats that now arise following completion of the road. We mapped three areas of recurrent mass wasting features characteristic of the most frequent situations encountered in this valley. We analyzed the combination of the hydro-geomorphic processes involved. With the use of a DEM, we assessed the volume and spatial impact of temporary river dams on infrastructure located along the valley floor. We estimated hydraulic parameters to document the geomorphic efficiency of river flooding after dam breaching. We reconstructed the spatial extent of (1) areas threatened by backwater flooding upstream of the dams and (2) areas threatened by the collapse of the dams. We describe the current geomorphic and sedimentary adjustments still at work along the valley sides. Our findings confirm that in the High Himalaya, medium scale landslides (10 5-6 m 3) play a major role in the overall process of denudation and sediment transfer. They highly influence the transient nature of bedload transport in the channel. In reducing the residence time of sediments in temporary, spatially limited traps of the valley bottom, they enhance the vulnerability of land and people attracted by a roadside location.

Fort, M.; Cossart, E.; Arnaud-Fassetta, G.

2010-12-01

182

Earthquakes in India and the Himalaya: tectonics, geodesy and history  

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Full Text Available The record of earthquakes in India is patchy prior to 1800 and its improvement is much impeded by its dispersal in a dozen local languages, and several colonial archives. Although geological studies will necessarily complement the historical record, only two earthquakes of the dozens of known historical events have resulted in surface ruptures, and it is likely that geological data in the form of liquefaction features will be needed to extend the historical record beyond the most recent few centuries. Damage from large Himalayan earthquakes recorded in Tibet and in Northern India suggests that earthquakes may attain M = 8.2. Seismic gaps along two-thirds of the Himalaya that have developed in the past five centuries, when combined with geodetic convergence rates of approximately 1.8 m/cy, suggests that one or more M = 8 earthquakes may be overdue. The mechanisms of recent earthquakes in Peninsular India are consistent with stresses induced in the Indian plate flexed by its collision with Tibet. A region of abnormally high seismicity in western India appears to be caused by local convergence across the Rann of Kachchh and possibly other rift zones of India. Since the plate itself deforms little, this deformation may be related to incipient plate fragmentation in Sindh or over a larger region of NW India.

R. Bilham

2004-06-01

183

BotEC: The Himalayas and Continental Drift  

Science.gov (United States)

Queston: The story of the Himalayas can be traced back to the breakup of the supercontinent, called Pangaea, about 200 million years ago, when India began its rapid movement northward towards Asia. Asia was a much smaller continent then. Then, between 45 and 55 million years ago, India and Asia collided. Before collision, India moved northward at about 7-10 centimeters per year. Remarkably, India's northward movement was slowed only a little after the collisionâit continues to plow into Asia at a rate of 5-6 centimeters per year. We can measure the present northward movement of India into Asia using GPS measurements over a period of time. So, there is little doubt of the continued movement of India. There is much debate about how the northward march of India into Asia is being accommodated. Of course, the high Himalayan Plateau is a manifestation of this collision between two continents. Let's assume that India began to plow into the Asian continent 55 million years ago and that, since then, it has continued to uniformly move northward into the Asian continent at 6 centimeters per year (for 55 million years). Calculate the total distance (in kilometers) that India has plowed into Asia.

Kresan, Peter

184

Study of natural radionuclide in soil samples of Garhwal Himalaya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Natural radioactivity and the associated external exposure due to gamma radiation depends on the geological and geographical conditions, and appear at different levels in the soil of each region in world. The natural radionuclide are widely distributed in various geological formations and ecosystems such as rocks, soil groundwater and food stuffs. In present study the distribution of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K contents were measured in the soil samples collected from different litho logical unit of Garhwal Himalayas. The analysis of soil sample was carried out using gamma ray spectrometer. The activity concentration of naturally occurring radio nuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in these soil samples were found to vary from BDL to 131.48 Bq/kg, 8.84 Bq/kg to 384.42 Bq/kg and 471.22 to 1406.25 Bq/kg, respectively. The distribution of radionuclide widely depends upon the rock formation and chemical properties with in earth. The activity concentration varied widely depending on sample origin. The external absorbed gamma dose due 226Ra, 232Th and 40K was also calculated which vary from 49.06 nGy/h to 306.11 nGy/h. The radium equivalent activity from these soil sample were found from 99.59 Bq/kg to 694.04 Bq/kg. (author)

2011-10-01

185

HIMEX-A Broad Band Seismic Experiment Across Kumaon Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

We present initial results from a dense seismic network in Kumaon Himalaya comprising of 25 broadband Guralp CMG-3T seismometer and REFTEK's RT130 data loggers recording earthquakes in continuous mode at 50 samples/s. The seismographs are placed mostly along a 150 km long SW -NE profile (29.80N, 78.54 E to 30.65N, 79.81E ) from Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT) in south to Southern Tibetan Detachment (STD) in the north at an average spacing of 10 km. Between MBT and MCT the stations are also deployed off the profile for better earthquake location and velocity imaging in the region. The experiment started in April 2005 and would continue for 24 months. Based on analysis of regional earthquakes Pn and Sn velocity of 8.4 and 4.7 km/s has been inferred. Using teleseismic receiver functions we model the Moho depth increasing from 40 km beneath HFT to 50km below MCT. Signature of underthrusted Indian crust is clearly visible in the receiver function as positive conversion. The differential time of this conversion increases from less than 1s in south to more than 2 s in the north of MCT.

Rai, S. S.; Singh, A.

2005-12-01

186

Survey of radon and thoron in homes of Indian Himalaya.  

Science.gov (United States)

Measurements of radon, thoron and their progeny were carried out in some houses from Garhwal and Kumaun Himalayas of India using a LR-115 plastic track detector. The measurements were made in various residential houses of the area at a height of 2.5 m above the ground level using a twin chamber radon dosemeter, which can record the values of radon, thoron and their progeny separately. The concentrations of radon and thoron in these homes were found to vary from 11 to 191 and 1 to 156 Bq m(-3), respectively. The equilibrium factor between radon and progeny varies from 0.02 to 0.90, with an average of 0.26 for the region. The resulting dose rate due to radon, thoron and their decay products was found to vary from 0.02 to 0.84 ?Sv h(-1) with an arithmetic mean of 0.27 ?Sv h(-1). A detailed analysis of the distribution of radon, thoron and their decay products inside a house is also reported. The observed dose rates due to radon, thoron and progeny were found somewhat higher but well below the international recommendations. PMID:21486831

Ramola, Rakesh Chand

2011-07-01

187

The mammalian fauna from the Central Himalaya, Nepal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nepal harbors unique mammalian fauna, but it is poorly studied at higher elevation. Mammalian fauna were recorded in Manaslu Conservation Area, Dudhkunda and Dudhkoshi valley of Solukhumbu district and Kanchenjunga Conservation Area of Nepal during March 2011 to April 2013 along the trail and the study plots from 700m to 4400m a.s.l. Semi-structured interviews were made with local people to understand their behavior and habitats. Altogether, 29 mammalian fauna were recorded. Five species were recorded new for the areas. Overall, Carnivore species (nine were encountered more, followed by species of the order Cetartiodactyla (seven. The highest number of mammalian fauna (18 was identified from Manaslu Conservation Area whereas the least (11 from Dudhkunda and Dudhkoshi valley. Human wildlife conflict was frequent with Himalayan Goral (Naemorhedus goral, Barking Deer (Muntiacus vaginalis, Himalayan Tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus, Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta, Nepal Grey Langur (Semnopithecus schistaceus and Himalayan Black Bear (Ursus thibetanus for crop depredation in these areas. Although mammalian research started a long time ago, scenario of comprehensive research is not satisfactory in the Central Himalaya, Nepal.

Hem Bahadur Katuwal

2013-07-01

188

Canola Cake as a Potential Substrate for Proteolytic Enzymes Production by a Selected Strain of Aspergillus oryzae: Selection of Process Conditions and Product Characterization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oil cakes have excellent nutritional value and offer considerable potential for use in biotechnological processes that employ solid-state fermentation (SSF) for the production of high value products. This work evaluates the feasibility of using canola cake as a substrate for protease production by a selected strain of Aspergillus oryzae cultivated under SSF. The influences of the following process parameters were considered: initial substrate moisture content, incubation temperature, inoculum size, and pH of the buffer used for protease extraction and activity analysis. Maximum protease activity was obtained after cultivating Aspergillus oryzae CCBP 001 at 20°C, using an inoculum size of 10(7)?spores/g in canola cake medium moistened with 40?mL of water to 100?g of cake. Cultivation and extraction under selected conditions increased protease activity 5.8-fold, compared to the initial conditions. Zymogram analysis of the enzymatic extract showed that the protease molecular weights varied between 31 and 200?kDa. The concentrated protease extract induced clotting of casein in 5?min. The results demonstrate the potential application of canola cake for protease production under SSF and contribute to the technological advances needed to increase the efficiency of processes designed to add value to agroindustrial wastes. PMID:24455400

Freitas, Adriana C; Castro, Ruann J S; Fontenele, Maria A; Egito, Antonio S; Farinas, Cristiane S; Pinto, Gustavo A S

2013-12-25

189

The group selection questionnaire: a qualitative analysis of potential group members.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Group Selection Questionnaire (GSQ) has been shown to predict which individuals will improve during group psychotherapy. The present study sought to quantitatively and qualitatively describe those who are predicted to benefit (low scorers) and not benefit (high scorers) from group, based on their GSQ scores. High and low scorers were selected from two samples-a "non-clinical" group of undergraduates in an introductory psychology course and a "clinical" group of clients from a university counseling center. Analyses of differences in GSQ scores and interview transcripts indicated that low scorers anticipated benefits from groups, found it easy to share feelings and opinions, felt they were a part of groups, and described themselves as open. High scorers reported being passive, private, reserved, and unlikely to share feelings. PMID:19817577

Krogel, Julieann; Beecher, Mark E; Presnell, Jennifer; Burlingame, Gary; Simonsen, Collin

2009-10-01

190

Radiosensitizing potential of the selective cyclooygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor meloxicam on human glioma cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The COX-2 protein is frequently overexpressed in human malignant gliomas. This expression has been associated with their aggressive growth characteristics and poor prognosis for patients. Targeting the COX-2 pathway might improve glioma therapy. In this study, the effects of the selective COX-2 inhibitor meloxicam alone and in combination with irradiation were investigated on human glioma cells in vitro. A panel of three glioma cell lines (D384, U87 and U251) was used in the experiments fr...

Bijnsdorp, Irene; Kuipers, Gitta; Lafleur, M.; Slotman, Ben; Sminia, Peter; Berg, Jaap; Rijn, Johannes; Wedekind, Laurine

2007-01-01

191

Evolutionary study of a potential selection target region in the pig  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Domestication, modern breeding and artificial selection have shaped dramatically the genomic variability of domestic animals. In livestock, the so-called FAT1 quantitative trait locus (QTL) in porcine chromosome 4 was the first QTL uncovered although, to date, its precise molecular nature has remained elusive. Here, we characterize the nucleotide variability of 13 fragments of ?500?bp equally spaced in a 2?Mb region in the vicinity of the FAT1 region in a wide-diversity panel of 32 pigs...

Ojeda, A.; Ramos-onsins, S. E.; Marletta, D.; Huang, L. S.; Folch, J. M.; Pe?rez-enciso, M.

2011-01-01

192

Utilization of the Potentials of Selected Microorganisms as Biocontrol and Biofertilizer for Enhanced Crop Improvement  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Some selected microorganisms isolated from rhizosphere of crops, were screened for their abilities to enhance crop growth and suppress plant parasitic nematodes; in screenhouse experiments. Two promising hybrids of soybean genotypes: TGx 1448-2E (medium duration) and TGx 1485-1D (early maturing) and a high yielding hybrid of maize genotype Oba Super 1 were used. Microorganisms assessed included the fungi: Trichoderma pseudokoningii, Trichoderma viride, Paecilomyc...

2008-01-01

193

The assessment of genetic potential in performance tested gilts by means of selection indexes method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this research paper was to make an assessment of breeding value of performance tested gilts of Swedish Landrace and F1 crossbreds of Swedish Landrace and Great Yorkshire by the method of selection index. The traits on whose basis the breeding value was estimated were: daily liveweight gain, average backfat thickness measured at two sites and carcass meat percentage. These traits were corrected for body mass of 100kg by the method of base indexes and the following average values were determined: corrected daily liveweight gain (KZDP 408.93g/day, corrected average backfat thickness measured at two sites (KSL 9.77mm and corrected carcass meat percentage (KPM 61.08%. Studying the effect of genotype, year and birth season of gilts a statistically significant variation (P>0.05 of these traits provoked by the mentioned factors was not determined while the gilts` sire statistically highly significantly (P<0.001 influenced all studied traits. Heritability coefficients were: h2= 0.255 for KZDP, h2= 0.356 for KSL and h2 = 0.349 for KPM. The four selection index equations were constructed among which as the most optimal was chosen the one which includes all three traits (KZDP, KSL and KPM and whose coefficient of the correlation of selection index and aggregate genotype was rIAG = 0.594. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31081

Popovac Mladen

2014-01-01

194

Why the Sign of Snowfall Change Over the Karakoram and Eastern Himalaya Differ  

Science.gov (United States)

The Himalaya Region has been highlighted in the literature as a region of unique and pronounced hydroclimate change. Due to the paucity of monitoring systems in this harsh and remote environment, there are limited tools available to explore the meteorological mechanism controlling the differences in regional snowfall variability. We use a set of high resolution climate model experiments to show that the Greater Himalayas exhibit regions with distinct climate change signatures. These results provide compelling evidence that Karakoram and Eastern Himalayan mountain ranges should be treated as unique systems with different climatic responses to radiative forcing.

Kapnick, S. B.; Delworth, T. L.

2013-12-01

195

A geostatistical approach to estimation of coal bed methane potentiality in a selected part of Jharia coalfield, Jharkhand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the present study, an integrated geological, statistical, and geostatistical approach to evaluation of CBM potentiality has been attempted in a small part of the Parbatpur block in the Jharia coalfield. The geological study includes preparation of litho logs, their correlation and an understanding of the relationship of various analytical constituents of coal with depth. Statistical and geostatistical modeling of ash, volatile matter and thickness in respect of seam XV reveal the population parameters and spatial characteristics of individual variables. Block-wise CBM potentiality has been assessed by estimating gas-in-place (GIP) for each block. The overall approach to evaluation of the CBM potentiality in the selected part of Jharia coalfield provides an accurate and reliable technique for CBM assessment. The block-by-block CBM estimates thus obtained can be utilized for follow-up decisions in respect of CBM exploitation in the coalfield. 13 refs., 9 figs.

Sarkar, B.C.; Saikia, K.; Sarma, M.; Pandey, S.; Paul, P.R. [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India)

2007-07-01

196

Potential productivity and yield gap of selected crops in the rainfed regions of India, Thailand, and Vietnam  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ICRISAT's intervention in the project improving management of natural resources for sustainable rainfed agriculture funded by the Asian Development Bank aims to increase the productivity and sustainability of the medium and high water-holding capacity soils in the intermediate rainfall ecoregion of India, Thailand, and Vietnam. This study examined the potential yield and yield gap of selected crops predominantly grown in the target regions where the project is operational. We used the CROPGRO-soybean model to determine the potential yield and yield gap of soybean crop for several locations in India. For northeastern Thailand and northern Vietnam we compared the experimental yields with the farmers' current yields in the region to estimate the yield gaps. It has been estimated that for several locations in India the soybean yield gap ranged from 19% to 65% of potential yield. For northeastern Thailand the yield gap for paddy rice, upland rice, maize, and soybean ranged from 11% to 67% of their respective potential yields. In northern Vietnam the farmers' maize yields were two-third of the potential yield; however, groundnut and soybean have a yield gap of 40 to 60% of potential yield. Various constraints limiting crop yields in these regions have been highlighted. It is suggested that location-specific integrated approaches would be needed to bridge the yield gap of the predominant crops grown in the target regions.

Piara Singh

2006-08-01

197

Energy Efficiency Potential in Existing Commercial Buildings: Review of Selected Recent Studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report reviews six recent studies (from 2002 through 2006) by states and utilities to assess the energy saving potential in existing commercial buildings. The studies cover all or portions of California, Connecticut, Vermont, Colorado, Illinois, and the Pacific Northwest. The studies clearly reveal that lighting remains the single largest and most cost effective end use that can be reduced to save energy. Overall the study indicated that with existing technologies and costs, a reasonable range of economic savings potential in existing commercial buildings is between 10 and 20 percent of current energy use. While not a focus of the study, an additional conclusion is that implementation of commercial building monitoring and controls would also play an important role in the nation’s efforts to improve energy efficiency of existing buildings.

Belzer, David B.

2009-04-03

198

Galex-selected Nearby Young Stars: X-ray Counterparts and Potential New eps Cha Members  

Science.gov (United States)

We are searching the GALEX (UV) and 2MASS+WISE (infrared) sky survey data for nearby young, low-mass stars. We select candidates on the basis of proper motions (PMs), infrared colors and magnitudes, and UV excesses that are all indicative of young M dwarfs within ~100 pc of Earth. Here, we describe the preliminary results of searches of available ROSAT, XMM, and Chandra archival data for X-ray detections that might establish high levels of coronal activity and, hence, help confirm the youth of UV/IR/PM-selected candidates. We also present an analysis of candidate young stars in the vicinity of the ~7-Myr-old epsilon Chamaeleonis Association, in an effort to identify possible new members (and companions to known members) of this young stellar group. Support for this work was provided in part by the National Science Foundation under a Research Experience for Undergraduates program grant (PHY-1062874) to RIT and by NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program award NNX12AH37G to RIT and UCLA.

Diaz, Mariangelly; Rodriguez, D.; Darling, S.; Principe, D.; Kastner, J. H.; Montez, R.; Zuckerman, B. M.

2013-01-01

199

Potential of Mean Force Calculations for Ion Selectivity in a Cyclic Peptide Nanotube  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ion selectivity in a simple cyclic peptide nanotube, composed of four cyclo[-(D-Ala-Glu-D-Ala-Gln)2-] units, is investigated by calculating the PMF profiles of Na+, K+, and Cl. ions permeating through the peptide nanotube in water. The final PMF profiles of the ions obtained from the umbrella sampling (US) method show an excellent agreement with those from the thermodynamic integration (TI) method. The PMF profiles of Na+ and K+ display free energy wells while the PMF curve of Cl- features free energy barriers, indicating the selectivity of the cyclic peptide nanotube to cations. Decomposition of the total mean force into the contribution from each component in the system is also accomplished by using the TI method. The mean force decomposition profiles of Na+ and K+ demonstrate that the dehydration free energy barriers by water molecules near the channel entrance and inside the channel are completely compensated for by attractive electrostatic interactions between the cations and carbonyl oxygens in the nanotube. In the case of Cl-, the dehydration free energy barriers are not eliminated by an interaction between the anion and the peptide nanotube, leading to the high free energy barriers in the PMF profile. Calculations of the coordination numbers of the ions with oxygen atoms pertaining to either water molecules or carbonyl groups in the peptide nanotube reveal that the stabilization of the cations in the midplane regions of the nanotube arises from the favorable interaction of the cations with the negatively charged carbonyl oxygens

2012-03-01

200

Potential biochemical markers for selection of disease resistance in Vigna radiata  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek (Green gram), a major pulse crop is prone to damaging diseases caused by Erysiphe polygoni, Cercospora canescens and Rhizoctonia sp. Therefore, the development of multiple resistance is a major breeding objective in green gram. Resistance to powdery mildew has already been developed, however, there are no reports on the development of resistance to Cercospora in green gram. Owing to limitation of conventional screening methods, the improvement for multiple disease resistance is inadequate, in this crop. It needs an efficient and quick selection method, for screening the plant population at an early stage. It is well established that the resistant interaction, in plants, involves accumulation of antibiotic compound phytoalexin (Genestein in Vigna radiata) and induction of enzymes such as ?-1,3 gulcanase and Chitinases. These compounds are not only induced by pathogens but also pathogen-derived elicitors. These biochemical compounds can be used as resistance indicative biochemical markers for screening the natural or mutagen induced genetic diversity in populations of Vigna radiata in non-destructive manner. It, however, needs a systematic study of plant defense response. This paper deals with the response of resistant and susceptible cultivars of vigna radiata to Cercospora elicitor and development of non-destructive selection method for disease resistance. (author)

2001-12-01

 
 
 
 
201

Assessment of Potential for Biodiesel Feedstock of Selected Wild Plant Oils Indigenous to Botswana  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biodiesel is attracting increasing attention worldwide as a blending component or a direct replacement of petroleum diesel fuel in transport sector.The challenge to scientists and engineers is to identify appropriate feedstocks for biodiesel production. The majority of potential feedstocks are edible species which are at the centre of the “fuel versus food” debate. It is therefore imperative for scientists and engineers to continue the search for biodiesel feedstocks that do not ...

Jerekias Gandure; Clever Ketlogetswe

2011-01-01

202

Psychopathy-Related Differences in Selective Attention Are Captured by an Early Event-Related Potential  

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According to the response modulation model, the poorly regulated behavior of psychopathic individuals reflects a problem reallocating attention to process peripheral information while engaged in goal-directed behavior (Patterson & Newman, 1993). We evaluated this tenet using male prisoners and an early event-related potential component (P140) to index attentional processing. In all task conditions, participants viewed and categorized letter stimuli that could also be used to predict electric ...

Baskin–sommers, Arielle; Curtin, John J.; Li, Wen; Newman, Joseph P.

2012-01-01

203

Action potential throughput in aged rat hippocampal neurons: regulation by selective forms of hyperpolarization  

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At hippocampal synapses, repetitive synaptic stimulation (RSS) in the theta frequency range (3–12 Hz) is associated with robust EPSP frequency facilitation (FF) and consequently, enhanced action potential (spike) generation and throughput. A complex, synaptically-induced hyperpolarization (SIHP) is also triggered by synaptic activation, and a Ca2+-dependent afterhyperpolarization (AHP) is triggered above spike threshold. With aging, the AHP is increased and impairs intracellular spike gener...

2009-01-01

204

Relation between methanogenic archaea and methane production potential in selected natural wetland ecosystems across China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Methane (CH4) emissions from natural wetland ecosystems exhibit large spatial variability at regional, national, and global levels related to temperature, water table, plant type and methanogenic archaea etc. To understand the underlying factors that induce spatial differences in CH4 emissions, and the relationship between the population of methanogenic archaea and CH4 production potential in natural wetlands around China, w...

Liu, D. Y.; Ding, W. X.; Jia, Z. J.; Cai, Z. C.

2011-01-01

205

The method of assessment of solar potential for selected area with use Geographical Information Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper describes a method for analyse the spatial distribution of solar energy potential based on calculated solar irradiation with use of GIS (Geographical Information System). Program GIS GRASS gives opportunity to create spatial distribution of solar radiation which is taking into account such important elements like: terrain, atmosphere, pollutants, water and aerosol in atmosphere, clouds. The use of GIS GRASS module – named r.sun gives opportunity to generate spatial distribution o...

Pietras M.; Netzel P.

2012-01-01

206

Disease burden of fuelwood combustion pollutants in rural households of the Himalayas, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Background: household biomass combustion for cooking purposes produces pollutants. Exposure to these pollutants has various adverse health impacts and is a major contributor to global disease burden. However, a precise estimate of the burden attributable to biomass combustion at the local level is not available in different parts of the world, therefore restricting policymakers’ ability to develop targeted actions against the health hazards. a study was conducted in the rural Himalayas to generate information about disease burden, with the purpose of aiding the development of strategies to improve public health.
Methods: exposure level, population exposed and other relevant data regarding fuel-wood use, were collected through questionnaire survey from 102 randomly selected households spread in 46 villages in a two phase cluster random sampling design study during 2008 – 09. the burden of disease for acute Lower respiratory Infection (aLrI, chronic obstructive Pulmonary disease (coPd and Lung cancer were estimated as per fuel-based approach of WHo guidelines for rural hilly households, using fuel- wood for cooking.
Results: households, primarily dependent on fuel-wood for fuel, had disability adjusted life years (daLYs lost and deaths that were much higher than the national status. The incidence of disease burden was 2 909 daLYs lost, with a share of 1 987 for aLrI in children "up to" 5 years age, 730 for coPd and 192 for Lung cancer in adults more than 30 years old, respectively.
This result has implications for policy makers when deciding on an effective exposure reduction strategy and describes the risks connected between these health hazards and the health outcome of inhabitants exposed to them. The paper also discusses the intervention strategies for “addressing” the issues relevant to fuel-wood generated exposure.

Rajiv Pandey

2012-03-01

207

The method of assessment of solar potential for selected area with use Geographical Information Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes a method for analyse the spatial distribution of solar energy potential based on calculated solar irradiation with use of GIS (Geographical Information System. Program GIS GRASS gives opportunity to create spatial distribution of solar radiation which is taking into account such important elements like: terrain, atmosphere, pollutants, water and aerosol in atmosphere, clouds. The use of GIS GRASS module – named r.sun gives opportunity to generate spatial distribution of solar radiation on Lower Silesia (south – west part of Poland. In this work the analyse of solar potential to obtain hot water in the individual household were done. This analyse was based on the amount of total solar radiation monthly sums generated by r.sun module. Spatial distribution of solar potential was used to classify the Lower Silesia region in terms of work efficiency solar installations. It is very usefully because it gives people information about the date of the return of the funds invested in the purchase of the solar collectors.

Netzel P.

2012-10-01

208

Patterns of paternity skew among polyandrous social insects : what can they tell us about the potential for sexual selection?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Monogamy results in high genetic relatedness among offspring and thus it is generally assumed to be favored by kin selection. Female multiple mating (polyandry) has nevertheless evolved several times in the social Hymenoptera (ants, bees, and wasps), and a substantial amount of work has been conducted to understand its costs and benefits. Relatedness and inclusive fitness benefits are, however, not only influenced by queen mating frequency but also by paternity skew, which is a quantitative measure of paternity biases among the offspring of polyandrous females. We performed a large-scale phylogenetic analysis of paternity skew across polyandrous social Hymenoptera. We found a general and significant negative association between paternity frequency and paternity skew. High paternity skew, which increases relatedness among colony members and thus maximizes inclusive fitness gains, characterized species with low paternity frequency. However, species with highly polyandrous queens had low paternity skew, with paternity equalized among potential sires. Equal paternity shares among fathers are expected to maximize fitness benefits derived from genetic diversity among offspring. We discuss the potential for postcopulatory sexual selection to influence patterns of paternity in social insects, and suggest that sexual selection may have played a key, yet overlooked role in social evolution.

Jaffé, Rodolfo; Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco

2012-01-01

209

Effects of inter- and intramodal selective attention to non-spatial visual stimuli: an event-related potential analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to trains of rapidly presented auditory and visual stimuli. ERPs in conditions in which subjects attended to different features of visual stimuli were compared with ERPs to the same type of stimuli when subjects attended to different features of auditory stimuli. This design permitted us to study effects of variations in both intramodal and intermodal visual attention on the timing and topography of ERP components in the same experiment. There were no indications that exogenous N110, P140 and N180 components to line gratings of high and low spatial frequencies were modulated by either intra- or intermodal forms of attention. Furthermore, intramodal and intermodal attention effects on ERPs showed similar topographical distributions. These combined findings suggest that the same neural generators in extrastriate occipital areas are involved in both forms of attention. Visual ERPs elicited in the condition in which subjects were engaged in auditory selective attention showed a large positive displacement at the occipital scalp sites relative to ERPs to attended and unattended stimuli in the visual condition. The early onset of this positivity might be associated with a highly confident and early rejection of the irrelevant visual stimuli, when these stimuli are presented among auditory stimuli. In addition, the later onset of selection potentials in the intramodal condition suggests that a more precise stimulus selection is needed when features of visual stimuli are rejected among other features of the same stimulus pattern, than when visual stimuli are rejected among stimuli of another modality. PMID:9858057

de Ruiter, M B; Kok, A; van der Schoot, M

1998-11-01

210

Active surveillance: a potential strategy for select patients with small renal masses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased abdominal imaging has led to the significant incidental detection of clinically localized renal masses. While the gold standard remains surgical excision, mortality rates from kidney cancer remain relatively unchanged implying that a proportion of small renal masses may be indolent tumors that do not require surgical intervention. As a result, active surveillance has emerged as an alternative management strategy in select patients with significant competing risks. Although the contemporary literature characterizing the natural history of untreated small renal masses is limited, recent data demonstrate that many incidental renal masses demonstrate slow growth kinetics with a low rate of progression to metastatic disease over an intermediate time period. Prospective trials are necessary to define entry and intervention criteria for active surveillance protocols. PMID:21992727

Smaldone, Marc C; Uzzo, Robert G

2011-10-01

211

Potential of Mean Force Calculations for Ion Selectivity in a Cyclic Peptide Nanotube  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ion selectivity in a simple cyclic peptide nanotube, composed of four cyclo[-(D-Ala-Glu-D-Ala-Gln)2-] units, is investigated by calculating the PMF profiles of Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, and Cl. ions permeating through the peptide nanotube in water. The final PMF profiles of the ions obtained from the umbrella sampling (US) method show an excellent agreement with those from the thermodynamic integration (TI) method. The PMF profiles of Na{sup +} and K{sup +} display free energy wells while the PMF curve of Cl{sup -} features free energy barriers, indicating the selectivity of the cyclic peptide nanotube to cations. Decomposition of the total mean force into the contribution from each component in the system is also accomplished by using the TI method. The mean force decomposition profiles of Na{sup +} and K{sup +} demonstrate that the dehydration free energy barriers by water molecules near the channel entrance and inside the channel are completely compensated for by attractive electrostatic interactions between the cations and carbonyl oxygens in the nanotube. In the case of Cl{sup -}, the dehydration free energy barriers are not eliminated by an interaction between the anion and the peptide nanotube, leading to the high free energy barriers in the PMF profile. Calculations of the coordination numbers of the ions with oxygen atoms pertaining to either water molecules or carbonyl groups in the peptide nanotube reveal that the stabilization of the cations in the midplane regions of the nanotube arises from the favorable interaction of the cations with the negatively charged carbonyl oxygens

Choi, Kyu Min; Kwon, Chan Ho; Kim, Hong Lae; Hwang, Hyon Seok [Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

2012-03-15

212

Genetic variability, evidence of potential recombinational event and selection of LEI0258 in chicken.  

Science.gov (United States)

The chicken major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays an important role in the immune response, disease resistance, productivity, and other important economic traits of the chicken. Therefore, a description of the polymorphisms of this region is crucial for understanding the genetic pattern of the MHC. The tandem repeat LEI0258 is located within the B region of the chicken MHC and is surprisingly strongly associated with serology. This marker has been used worldwide to provide a picture of the core area of the chicken MHC-B region and to categorize chicken MHC haplotypes. Thus, insight into the evolutionary pattern of LEI0258 may be useful for understanding MHC diversity. In the current study, 30 alleles of LEI0258 from 12 populations were screened and sequenced, and alleles that have previously been published in GenBank were also analyzed. The resulting 124 alleles were classified into four clusters according to the SNPs and indels found within the sequences flanking the repeats. Furthermore, a recombination region was identified between -30 and +43 that suggests that recombination may have played a role in the evolution of this MHC. Finally, strong evidence regarding the selection and evolutionary dynamics of the LEI0258 region is presented. Generally speaking, microsatellite is a classic anonymous marker which changes by genetic drift rather than by direct selection. Although, the genotypes of LEI0258 in MHC-B correlate with serology, its mechanism of inheritance and evolution was unclear. This study not only establishes a framework of further diversity or association studies in LEI0258, but also unraveling the reason what driving force and formulate the evolutionary dynamics of this region. PMID:24374474

E, Guangxin; Sha, Rinai; Zeng, Shengcheng; Wang, Chen; Pan, Jianfei; Han, Jianlin

2014-03-01

213

Relation between methanogenic archaea and methane production potential in selected natural wetland ecosystems across China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Methane (CH4 emissions from natural wetland ecosystems exhibit large spatial variability at regional, national, and global levels related to temperature, water table, plant type and methanogenic archaea etc. To understand the underlying factors that induce spatial differences in CH4 emissions, and the relationship between the population of methanogenic archaea and CH4 production potential in natural wetlands around China, we measured the CH4 production potential and the abundance of methanogenic archaea in vertical soil profiles sampled from the Poyang wetland in the subtropical zone, the Hongze wetland in the warm temperate zone, the Sanjiang marsh in the cold temperate zone, and the Ruoergai peatland in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in the alpine climate zone. The top soil layer had the highest population of methanogens (1.07–8.29 × 109 cells g?1 soil in all wetlands except the Ruoergai peatland and exhibited the maximum CH4 production potential measured at the mean in situ summer temperature. There is a significant logarithmic correlation between the abundance of methanogenic archaea and the soil organic carbon (R2 = 0.72, P < 0.001, n = 13 and between the abundance of methanogenic archaea and the total nitrogen concentrations (R2 = 0.76, P < 0.001, n = 13 in wetland soils. This indicates that the amount of soil organic carbon may affect the population of methanogens in wetland ecosystems. While the CH4 production potential is not significantly related to methanogen population (R2 = 0.01, P > 0.05, n = 13, it is related to the dissolved organic carbon concentration (R2 = 0.31, P = 0.05, n = 13. This suggests that the methanogen population might be not an effective index for predicting the CH4 production in wetland ecosystems. The CH4 production rate of the top soil layer increases with increasing latitude, from 273.64 ?g CH4 kg?1 soil d?1 in the Poyang wetland to 664.59 ?g CH4 kg?1 soil d?1 in the Carex lasiocarpa marsh of the Sanjiang Plain. We conclude that CH4 production potential in the freshwater wetlands of Eastern China is mainly affected by the supply of methanogenic substrates rather than temperature; in contrast, low summer temperatures at high elevations in the Ruoergai peatland of the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau result in the presence of dominant species of methanogens with low CH4 production potential, which in turn suppresses CH4 production.

D. Y. Liu

2011-02-01

214

Carbon storage and sequestration potential of selected tree species in India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A dynamic growth model (CO2FIX) was used for estimating the carbon sequestration potential of sal (Shorea Robusta Gaertn. f.), Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus Tereticornis Sm.), poplar (Populus Deltoides Marsh), and teak (Tectona Grandis Linn. f.) forests in India. The results indicate that long-term total carbon storage ranges from 101 to 156 Mg C?ha?1, with the largest carbon stock in the living biomass of long rotation sal forests (82 Mg C?ha?1). The net annual carbon sequestration rates we...

2010-01-01

215

Gondwana coals of Bhutan Himalaya - occurrence, properties and petrographic characteristics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A narrow belt of highly inclined coal-bearing Gondwana strata occurs in the extreme southeastern part of Bhutan Himalaya. Recently, a systematic survey was undertaken along this coal belt and coals of three areas were analyzed in detail for the evaluation of their physico-chemical properties and petrographic characteristics. The entire region is in the midst of the Great Himalayan orogenic belt, and the whole stratigraphic sequence underwent several diastrophic movements in the geological past. The massive effects of these orogenies is more pronounced in the coal beds, of Gondwana sequence, and due to severe crushing and tectonic shearing these coals became powdery and flaky in nature. Significantly, the coals retained their pre-deformational rank exhibiting typical high-volatile, low-rank, bituminous characters, with mild caking propensities. Also these coals are markedly low in sulphur, phosphorus, chlorine and carbonate content like that of Peninsular Gondwana coals. Petrographic studies of these Bhutan coals revealed a close similarity with the eastern Raniganj coals (Upper Permian) of Peninsular India. The tectonic shearing and crushing of the coals are exhibited by the frequent presence of microfolding, microfaulting, and other compressional structures. However, the coals of all the three areas have shown a consistently low order of reflectance values. This typical retention of pre-deformational low-rank bituminous character is a significant feature of Bhutan coals. It shows that massive orogenic movements were only able to physically crush these coals but could not generate the requisite thermal regime to raise the rank of these coals. 35 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Mukherjee, A.K.; Alam, M.M.; Ghose, S.

1988-03-01

216

Phytochemical diversity of Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. from Western Himalaya.  

Science.gov (United States)

Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. (Rutaceae), commonly known as 'curry leaf tree', is a popular spice and condiment of India. To explore the diversity of the essential-oil yield and aroma profile of curry leaf, growing wild in foot and mid hills of north India, 58 populations were collected during spring season. M. koenigii populations were found to grow up to an altitude of 1487?m in north India. Comparative results showed considerable variations in the essential-oil yield and composition. The essential-oil yield varied from 0.14 to 0.80% in shade-dried leaves of different populations of M. koenigii. Analysis of the essential oils by GC and GC/MS, and the subsequent classification by statistical analysis resulted in four clusters with significant variations in their terpenoid composition. Major components of the essential oils of investigated populations were ?-pinene (2; 4.5-71.5%), sabinene (3; <0.05-66.1%), (E)-caryophyllene (11; 1.6-18.0%), ?-pinene (4; <0.05-13.6%), terpinen-4-ol (9; 0.0-8.4%), ?-terpinene (8; 0.2-7.4%), limonene (7; 1.1-5.5%), ?-terpinene (6; 0.0-4.5%), (E)-nerolidol (14; 0.0-4.1%), ?-humulene (12; 0.6-3.5%), ?-thujene (1; 0.0-2.5%), ?-elemene (10; 0.2-2.4%), ?-selinene (13; 0.2-2.3%), and myrcene (5; 0.5-2.1%). Comparison of the present results with those in earlier reports revealed new chemotypes of M. koenigii in investigated populations from Western Himalaya. The present study documents M. koenigii populations having higher amounts of sabinene (3; up to 66.1%) for the first time. PMID:23576349

Verma, Ram S; Chauhan, Amit; Padalia, Rajendra C; Jat, Sanjeev K; Thul, Sanjog; Sundaresan, Velusamy

2013-04-01

217

Selection of potential antagonists against asparagus crown and root rot caused by Fusarium spp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Crown and root rot is one of the most important diseases of asparagus crop worldwide. Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. asparagi and F. proliferatum are the two species more frequently associated to this complex and their prevalence depends on the production area. The control of the disease on asparagus crop is difficult to achieve because its perennial condition and the long survival of the pathogen in the soil as chlamydospores or as mycelium in infected plant debris. Furthermore, Fusarium spp. are easily disseminated with asparagus propagation materials. Thus, control measures should aim at obtaining seedlings protection for longer than achieved with conventional pre-planting chemical treatments. The effectiveness of fungal antagonists on the control of diseases caused by soil borne fungi has been reported. The potential of Trichoderma spp. as a biological control agent against diseases caused by Fusarium spp. in tomato and asparagus has been studied . It has been suggested that microorganisms isolated from the root or rhizosphere of a specific crop may be better adapted to that crop and may provide better disease control than organisms originally isolated from other plant species. The objective of this work was the evaluation of the potential of fungal isolates from symptomless asparagus plants as biocontrol agents of Fusarium crown and root rot. PMID:19226757

Rubio-Pérez, E; Molinero-Ruiz, M L; Melero-Vara, J M; Basallote-Ureba, M J

2008-01-01

218

SOIL CARBON DYNAMICS AND GLOBAL WARMING POTENTIAL OF SELECTED SOIL SERIES AND LANDUSE CATEGORIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Land use conversion is usually accompanied by a decline in soil organic carbon. This work is aimed to determine the soil organic carbon affected by the multiple land use in a particular soil series. The study was conducted in Ustic Haplohumults soil series of Kottayam district of Kerala including land uses like Cropland, Wetland, Agricultural land, Homestead and Mixed vegetation land. Change in land use induced significant losses of soil and particulate organic carbon. The maximum SOC content (7.39% was observed in abandoned paddy field which is nearly 89% more than the lowest values of 0.76% recorded from the Homestead soil. Soil carbon sequestration potential of different land uses varies on spatial and temporal basis along with the interplay of environmental externalities. Potential for CO2 production and global warming of various soils was in accordance with C mineralization and this explains the role and capacity of various land use under consideration to store and release carbon. In the present study it was found that the soils of coconut plantation serve as a better system in terms of maximum SOC storage and minimum carbon emission. The present study reveals the significance and importance of specific land use category which is optimal for particular soil series towards soil carbon storage.

Feba Merin Chacko

2014-03-01

219

Energy performance contracting - energy saving potential of selected energy conservation measures (ECM)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report has been developed under the research project 'Etablering af grundlag for energitjenester i Danmark' (project number: ENS-33031-0185) under the Danish research programme - EFP. The objective of this project has been to contribute to the utilisation of the large potential for energy conservations in the building sector within the public, industry and service sectors through the development of a better basis for decision making for both the Energy Service Companies (ESCOes) and the building owners. The EU directive on Energy Service Contracting points at the buildings as the area where the biggest potential market for energy services and energy efficiency improvements are. The EFP-project has two parts: (1) A Danish part and (2) participation in the international cooperation project 'Holistic Assesment Tool-Kit on Energy Efficient Retrofit Measures for Government Buildings (EnERGo)', Annex 46 under the IEA R and D program 'Energy Conservation In Buildings And Community Systems' (ECBCS). This report describes the Danish contributions to the IEA projects subtask B, which has a primary objective to develop a database of energy conservation measures (ECM) with descriptions and performance characteristics of these. (au)

Johansson, M. (Dansk Energi Analyse A/S, Frederiksberg (Denmark)); Langkilde, G.; Olesen, Bjarne W. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, ICIEE, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Moerck, O. (Cenergia Energy Consultants, Herlev (Denmark)); Sundman, O. (DONG Energy, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Engelund Thomsen, K. (Aalborg Univ., SBi, Hoersholm (Denmark))

2008-09-15

220

Unbiased cut selection for optimal upper limits in neutrino detectors the model rejection potential technique  

CERN Document Server

We present a method for optimising experimental cuts in order to place the strongest constraints (upper limits) on theoretical signal models. The method relies only on signal and background expectations derived from Monte-Carlo simulations, so no bias is introduced by looking at actual data, for instance by setting a limit based on expected signal above the ``last remaining data event.'' After discussing the concept of the ``average upper limit,'' based on the expectation from an ensemble of repeated experiments with no true signal, we show how the best model rejection potential is achieved by optimising the cuts to minimise the ratio of this ``average upper limit'' to the expected signal from the model. As an example, we use this technique to determine the limit sensitivity of kilometre scale neutrino detectors to extra-terrestrial neutrino fluxes from a variety of models, e.g. active galaxies and gamma-ray bursts. We suggest that these model rejection potential optimised limits be used as a standard method ...

Hill, G C; Hill, Gary C.; Rawlins, Katherine

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Potential and limitations of multidecadal satellite soil moisture observations for selected climate model evaluation studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Soil moisture is an essential climate variable (ECV of major importance for land–atmosphere interactions and global hydrology. An appropriate representation of soil moisture dynamics in global climate models is therefore important. Recently, a first multidecadal, observation-based soil moisture dataset has become available that provides information on soil moisture dynamics from satellite observations (ECVSM, essential climate variable soil moisture. The present study investigates the potential and limitations of this new dataset for several applications in climate model evaluation. We compare soil moisture data from satellite observations, reanalysis and simulations from a state-of-the-art land surface model and analyze relationships between soil moisture and precipitation anomalies in the different dataset. Other potential applications like model parameter optimization or model initialization are not investigated in the present study. In a detailed regional study, we show that ECVSM is capable to capture well the interannual and intraannual soil moisture and precipitation dynamics in the Sahelian region. Current deficits of the new dataset are critically discussed and summarized at the end of the paper to provide guidance for an appropriate usage of the ECVSM dataset for climate studies.

A. Loew

2013-09-01

222

Exploring the potential for using artificial radionuclides to assess the selective erosion of sediment particles and soil organic matter  

Science.gov (United States)

This communication presents the preliminary results of experimental work to assess the potential for using the artificial gamma-emitting radionuclides, Caesium-134 (134Cs) and Cobalt-60 (60Co), to simulate the particle-size selective sediment redistribution, and hence, of soil organic carbon, on a range of different cultivated hillslope soils from southern England. The concentration of artificial radionuclides and soil organic matter (SOM) in sediment are both subject to a differentiation as a consequence of selective detachment and depositional processes caused by surface-runoff during erosion events on hillslope environments. Unlike soil organic matter, the radionuclides Cs and Co remain stable in sediment, i.e. they remain attached to particles and are not subject to mineralization during transport or after deposition. A priori reasoning suggests, therefore, that artificial radionuclides represent a faithful analogue that can be effectively used to study the movement of particulate soil organic matter through a range of mobilization and transport processes.

Greenwood, P.

2012-04-01

223

Sporadic, rainfall triggered landslides and debris flows in the monsoon, Nepal Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

Small river catchments play a major role in the overall denudation of the Himalayas, because they may generate extreme, geomorphic events. We characterize their potential impacts on the morphology and functioning of trunk rivers, and indirectly on infrastructure and settlements located along the valley floor. Our study case, the Ghatte Khola, is an intermittent tributary of the Kali Gandaki (Western Nepal) affected by occasional debris flow events. The cause of the debris flows is a persistent planar slide zone (dip slope) that is reactivated by pre- or monsoon heavy rainfall on the upper, forested catchment. As a result, the narrow valley of the upstream part of the tributary is temporary clogged by slide masses, until sudden, landslide outburst floods occur. Downstream, where the channel is entrenched across a 5-8 m thick debris fan, the functioning of successive debris flows cause bank erosion and stream channel widening. At the junction with the Kali Gandaki, the flows may aggrade debris volumes large enough to dam the Kali Gandaki for a few hours and cause the level of this major river to rise more than 5 m upstream. During the last 40 years, pulsed aggradations transferred erosion point to the opposite (left bank) side of the Kali Gandaki. This ephemeral, yet threatening behaviour of the stream, occurs every two or three years, according to field investigations (geomorphic mapping, sediment analysis) and interviews of villagers. We present various scenarios simulated using the SAGA-GIS cellular automata combined with a Digital Elevation Model. We discuss the available rainfall intensity-duration thresholds susceptible to trigger Himalayan landslides. Our study suggests that such high-magnitude/low-frequency events are very efficient to foster sediment fluxes and create temporary sediment storages in Himalayan valleys, a fact that is to be considered prior to any new settlement and road design in a country where infrastructures are rapidly developing.

Fort, Monique; Etienne, Cossart; Alexis, Conte; Natacha, Gribenski; Gilles, Arnaud-Fassetta

2010-05-01

224

Geologic mapping of the Ladakh Himalaya by computer processing of Landsat data  

Science.gov (United States)

Computer processed Landsat digital data and field studies have been integrated to make a geologic map of the Indus Suture in the Ladakh Himalaya. This coordinated approach has been successful at locating and identifying the areal extent of the major rock bodies in a 2500 square kilometer area, much of which is inaccessable for conventional field geologic studies.

Francica, J. R.; Birnie, R. W.; Johnson, G. D.

1980-01-01

225

Use of Indigenous Knowledge in Environmental Decision-Making by Communities in the Kumaon Himalayas  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is designed to find out how people in rural communities residing in the middle Himalayas use indigenous knowledge to support environmental decisions while addressing water and land use related concerns. The study not only serves to enrich our understanding of community decision-making, especially as connected to land use and ecological…

Honwad, Sameer

2010-01-01

226

Structure of the Chamba nappe and position of the Main Central Thrust in Kashmir Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

The Chamba nappe, composed of an approximately 8 km thick sequence of Late Precambrian to Jurassic age rocks is located between the Higher Himalaya Crystallines (HHC) and the Lesser Himalayan (LH) formations of Panjal Imbricate Zone (PIZ) in the Kashmir Himalaya. To the south, the Panjal Thrust, demarcating the base, brings the Chamba nappe rocks over the Panjal Imbricate Zone. To the north, the Chamba nappe rocks lie over the metamorphic HHC along the south dipping Chenab Normal Fault (CNB). A pervasive stretching lineation defined by a mineral lineation, stretched pebbles and felspar phenocrysts plunges NE-NNE and occurs on the foliation/cleavage surface. This lineation is related to southward displacement of the Chamba nappe. The Chamba nappe is folded by regional scale fold, viz. the Chamba, Tandi and Bharmor synclines and the Tisa anticline. These NW-SE trending folds structures were developed synchronously with southward thrusting of the Chamba nappe. The Chamba nappe results from southwestward sliding of cover rocks from their basement (HHC) due to topographic uplift. The Main Central Thrust (MCT) in Kashmir Himalaya is different from that of the Kumaun and Nepal Himalaya. The MCT (Vaikrita Thrust) does not extend west of the Beas river, but it is exposed in the Rampur Window and the Kishtwar Window separating the HHC from the underlying LH rocks. Southward propagation of the MCT from the window zone, up-cutting the overlying HHC, is transferred to the Panjal Thrust which transports the Chamba nappe to the south over the Lesser Himalayan formations.

Thakur, V. C.

1998-04-01

227

Renewable energy in Turkey and selected European countries. Potentials, policies and techniques. A handbook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the major problems encountered in the inclusion of renewable energy in university programmes is the lack of suitable materials and documents which may guide this process. The materials produced as part of the project ''Renewable Energy Networks between Turkish and European Universities'' (RENET) - and this Handbook in particular - will therefore be especially useful to university teachers, since it shows some of the ways via which the subject issue of renewable energy may be included in university programmes. The best-practices here documented also serve the purpose of illustrating how the available know-how can be documented and transferred between countries. By means of this interdisciplinary and inclusive approach, this book will be helpful to universities in Turkey and across Europe, which may want to take full advantage of the potential benefits the inclusion of matters related to renewable energy in university programmes may bring about. (orig.)

Leal Filho, Walter; Mannke, Franziska [Hamburg Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany). Research and Transfer Centre Applications of Life Sciences; Kuchta, Kerstin; Haker, Konstantin [Hamburg Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany). Faculty of Life Sciences

2009-07-01

228

Antiplasmodial potential of selected medicinal plants from eastern Ghats of South India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malaria caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is a major health problem of the developing world. In the present study medicinal plants from Eastern Ghats of South India have been extracted with ethyl acetate and assayed for growth inhibition of asexual erythrocytic stages of chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive (3D7) and (CQ)-resistant (INDO) strains of P. falciparum in culture using the fluorescence-based SYBR Green I assay. Studied extracts showed a spectrum of antiplasmodial activities ranging from (a) very good (IC(50)Zingiber officinale); (b) good (IC(50), >10-15 ?g/mL: Ficus religiosa and Murraya koenigii); (c) moderate (IC(50)>15-25 ?g/mL: Ficus benghalensis); (d) poor activity (IC(50)>25-60 ?g/mL) and (e) inactive (IC(50)>60 ?g/mL). Resistance indices ranging from 0.78 to 1.28 suggest that some of these extracts had equal promise against the CQ resistant INDO strain of P. falciparum. Cytotoxicity assessment of the extracts against HeLa cell line using MTT assay revealed that the selectivity indices in the range of 3-15 suggesting a good margin of safety. PMID:23399920

Kaushik, Naveen Kumar; Bagavan, Asokan; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Mohanakrishnan, Dinesh; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Elango, Gandhi; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Sahal, Dinkar

2013-05-01

229

Phytoremediation potential of Alocasia microrrhiza grown on soil collected from selected dumpsites in Ekiti State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of enhanced phytoextraction on the accumulation of heavy metals by Alocasia microrrhiza cultivated on soil collected from selected dumpsites in Ekiti State, Nigeria. The application of 1g/kg EDTA decreased the heights of plants relative to control, but significantly increased the concentration of heavy metals in various tissues of the plant. Notably, concentration of Pb and Cu were greater than the threshold value of 100mg/kg, indicative of the fact that Alocasia microrrhiza could be a good candidate for Pb and Cuphytoextraction. BF, TF and RR values (1.1–1.6, (4.3-4.8 and (1.4–2.3 revealed the effectiveness of the plant to translocate Pb and Cu to their harvestable portion. RRs values greater than one also indicated the efficiency of plant under chelate-induced phytoextraction. However, the concentration of heavy metals did not vary significantly at p < 0.05 (LSD test in all dumpsites investigated.

Asaolu S. S.

2013-04-01

230

The Potential Use of Laser Ablation for Selective Cleaning of Indiana Limestone  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this investigation and conservation study was to examine and evaluate the laser ablation method as a practical technique for cleaning of Indiana limestone, a calcite-cemented stone widely used in historic structures throughout the United States. To this goal, a thorough petrographic characterization of the samples was performed prior to and following laser cleaning tests by Q-switched and short free running Nd:YAG lasers. The main optimization problem was the amber-gray appearance associated with the laser ablation by Q-switching lasers. Following the evaluation of such a cleaning result, two practicable solutions based on suitable pulse duration or wavelength selections were successfully demonstrated and then compared with different intervention protocols proposed. This chapter will show that through this case study, an understanding of effective uses of cleaning highly weathered Indiana limestone through the use of three types of Q-switched and short free running Nd:YAG lasers can be most effective in the removal from limestone of surface soiling and thick built-up carbon deposits ranging from 0.5 to 1mm in thickness. Case study evaluation methods included petrographic examination of composition, texture, and microstructure using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy performed on thin and polished sections of limestone sampled from six areas before and after cleaning. The microscopy studies were supplemented with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to characterize crystalline phases and track changes in chemistry.

Normandin, K. C.; Powers, L.; Slaton, D.; Scheffler, M. J.

231

Wet air oxidation as a pretreatment option for selective biodegradability enhancement and biogas generation potential from complex effluent.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study looks at the possibility of wet air oxidation (WAO) based pretreatment of complex effluent to selectively enhance the biodegradability (without substantial COD destruction) and facilitate biogas generation potential. A lab-scale wet air oxidation reactor with biomethanated distillery wastewater (B-DWW) as a model complex effluent (COD 40,000 mg L(-1)) was used to demonstrate the proof-of-concept. The studies were conducted using a designed set of experiments and reaction temperature (150-200°C), air pressure (6-12 bar) and reaction time (15-120 min) were the main process variables of concern for WAO process optimization. WAO pretreatment of B-DWW enhanced the biodegradability of the complex wastewater by the virtue of enhancing its biodegradability index (BI) from 0.2 to 0.88, which indicate favorable Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) for biogas generation. The kinetics of COD destruction and BI enhancement has also been reported. PMID:22789827

Padoley, K V; Tembhekar, P D; Saratchandra, T; Pandit, A B; Pandey, R A; Mudliar, S N

2012-09-01

232

Utilization of the Potentials of Selected Microorganisms as Biocontrol and Biofertilizer for Enhanced Crop Improvement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Some selected microorganisms isolated from rhizosphere of crops, were screened for their abilities to enhance crop growth and suppress plant parasitic nematodes; in screenhouse experiments. Two promising hybrids of soybean genotypes: TGx 1448-2E (medium duration and TGx 1485-1D (early maturing and a high yielding hybrid of maize genotype Oba Super 1 were used. Microorganisms assessed included the fungi: Trichoderma pseudokoningii, Trichoderma viride, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Aspergillus niger, Glomus mosseae and the rhizobacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida. One thousand juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita were applied to soybean, while five thousand Pratylenchus zeae (juveniles and adults were applied to maize. Fungal spores and rhizobacteria cells approximately 2.5x106 mL-1 concentration were applied per plant, for maize experiment. For soybean experiment, Bradyrhizobium japonicum (106 cells, Trichoderma pseudokoningii (6.8x106 spores and G. mosseae (200 spores were inoculated per plant. The effect of microorganism`s application was compared with a nematicide (carbofuran treatment, untreated control and a nematode only control. The parameters measured were nematode density, root damage due to plant parasitic nematode infection, relative leaf chlorophyll content and plant growth parameters. The inoculated beneficial microorganisms in most cases significantly (p?0.05 reduced the nematode density across the treatments in test crops by up to 79.6% and improved plant growth by up to 46.0%, when treatments performances were compared across treatments. Most of the beneficial microorganisms assessed have prospects of enhancing nematode management through nematode density reduction and improving crop production.

E.O. Oyekanmi

2008-01-01

233

Role of heterogeneous catalysis in the gas-sensing selectivity of high-temperature mixed potential sensors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The sensitivity of a mixed potential electrochemical sensor is determined by the concentration of the analyte gas at the gas/electrode/electrolyte interface. These concentrations, along with the kinetic properties of the three-phase interface and oxygen partial pressure, establish the mixed potential generated by the device. The selectivity of mixed potential sensors is therefore strongly influenced by the heterogeneous catalytic properties of the surfaces that closely surround the sensor including: the metal oxide electrode, solid electrolyte, other components of the sensor body, and the sensor enclosure. Analysis of the change in CO, C3H6, and C3H8 concentration using gas chromatography shows that the observed preferential sensitivity of a LaCrO3//YSZ//Pt bulk mixed potential sensor towards C3H8 is largely due to heterogeneous catalysis of the C3H6 on the sensor body, which in this work, is YSZ. By blocking YSZ heterogeneous catalysis by using a coating of thick Au, the sensor exhibits nearly identical sensitivity to both C3H6 and C3H8. Although a similar amount of heterogeneous catalytic oxidation of CO takes place, the LaCrO3//YSZ//Pt sensor exhibits only a small response to CO and this therefore may be associated with the electrode kinetics and electrocatalytic properties of the sensor interface towards the electro-oxidation of the CO. Data for HC and CO selectivity will be presented at 1% O2 / 12% CO2 / N2 and at temperatures between 550 and 600 C.

Brosha, E. L. (Eric L.); Mukundan, R. (Rangachary); Garzón F., Fernando

2002-01-01

234

Subject Combination and Electrode Selection in Cooperative Brain-Computer Interface Based on Event Related Potentials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available New paradigms are required in Brain-Computer Interface (BCI systems for the needs and expectations of healthy people. To solve this issue, we explore the emerging field of cooperative BCIs, which involves several users in a single BCI system. Contrary to classical BCIs that are dependent on the unique subject’s will, cooperative BCIs are used for problem solving tasks where several people shall be engaged by sharing a common goal. Similarly as combining trials over time improves performance, combining trials across subjects can significantly improve performance compared with when only a single user is involved. Yet, cooperative BCIs may only be used in particular settings, and new paradigms must be proposed to efficiently use this approach. The possible benefits of using several subjects are addressed, and compared with current single-subject BCI paradigms. To show the advantages of a cooperative BCI, we evaluate the performance of combining decisions across subjects with data from an event-related potentials (ERP based experiment where each subject observed the same sequence of visual stimuli. Furthermore, we show that it is possible to achieve a mean AUC superior to 0.95 with 10 subjects and 3 electrodes on each subject, or with 4 subjects and 6 electrodes on each subject. Several emerging challenges and possible applications are proposed to highlight how cooperative BCIs could be efficiently used with current technologies and leverage BCI applications.

Hubert Cecotti

2014-04-01

235

Subject combination and electrode selection in cooperative brain-computer interface based on event related potentials.  

Science.gov (United States)

New paradigms are required in Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) systems for the needs and expectations of healthy people. To solve this issue, we explore the emerging field of cooperative BCIs, which involves several users in a single BCI system. Contrary to classical BCIs that are dependent on the unique subject's will, cooperative BCIs are used for problem solving tasks where several people shall be engaged by sharing a common goal. Similarly as combining trials over time improves performance, combining trials across subjects can significantly improve performance compared with when only a single user is involved. Yet, cooperative BCIs may only be used in particular settings, and new paradigms must be proposed to efficiently use this approach. The possible benefits of using several subjects are addressed, and compared with current single-subject BCI paradigms. To show the advantages of a cooperative BCI, we evaluate the performance of combining decisions across subjects with data from an event-related potentials (ERP) based experiment where each subject observed the same sequence of visual stimuli. Furthermore, we show that it is possible to achieve a mean AUC superior to 0.95 with 10 subjects and 3 electrodes on each subject, or with 4 subjects and 6 electrodes on each subject. Several emerging challenges and possible applications are proposed to highlight how cooperative BCIs could be efficiently used with current technologies and leverage BCI applications. PMID:24961765

Cecotti, Hubert; Rivet, Bertrand

2014-01-01

236

Phytotoxicity of biosolids and screening of selected plant species with potential for mercury phytoextraction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mercury contaminated stockpiles of biosolids (3.5-8.4 mg kg(-1) Hg) from Melbourne Water's Western Treatment Plant (MW-WTP) were investigated to evaluate the possibility for their phytoremediation. Nine plant species (Atriplex codonocarpa, Atriplex semibaccata, Austrodanthonia caespitosa, Brassica juncea, Brassica napus, Gypsophila paniculata, Sorghum bicolor, Themeda triandra and Trifolium subterraneum) were screened for phytoextraction potential in Hg-contaminated biosolids from MW-WTP. In addition, the same plant species were germinated and grown in two other substrates (i.e. potting mix and potting mix spiked with mercury(II)). Growth measurements and the mercury uptake for all three substrates were compared. Some plant species grown in potting mix spiked with mercury(II) grew more vigorously than in the other two substrates and showed higher levels of sulphur in their tissues. These results suggested that the mercury stress activated defence mechanisms and it was hypothesised that this was the likely reason for the enhanced production of sulphur compounds in the plant species studied which stimulated their growth. Some species did not grow in biosolids because of the combined effect of high mercury toxicity and high salt content. Atriplex conodocarpa and Australodanthonia caespitose proved to be the most suitable candidates for mercury phytoextraction because of their ability to translocate mercury from roots to the above-ground tissues. PMID:19775810

Lomonte, Cristina; Doronila, Augustine I; Gregory, David; Baker, Alan J M; Kolev, Spas D

2010-01-15

237

Helpful or harmful? Potential effects of exercise on select inflammatory conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inflammation has been characterized as a double-edged sword, requiring a balance between health as maintained by regular exercise and activities that would exacerbate inflammatory diseases. The influence of exercise on inflammation is complex and has been widely studied in both healthy patient populations as well as populations of patients with many inflammatory and/or autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Inflammatory markers can be affected by the type of exercise and muscle contraction, as well as the intensity, duration, and consistency of the exercise sessions. Because of these potentially important effects, many members of the general public, as well as some clinicians, believe that exercise could exacerbate symptoms and accelerate the progression of such conditions. The effects of different types of exercise have been studied among patients with inflammatory conditions such as ankylosing spondylitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, and idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, as well as congestive heart failure, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome, which are considered low-grade systemic inflammatory diseases. This review will help exercise professionals and clinicians understand the effects of exercise on inflammatory markers, as well as offer effective treatment options and recommendations for patients exercising with rheumatic or inflammatory conditions. PMID:24231601

Thomas, Jennifer L

2013-11-01

238

[Selection and purification potential evaluation of woody plant in vertical flow constructed wetlands in the subtropical area].  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to solve the problem that wetland herbaceous plants tend to die during winter in subtropics areas, selection and purification potential evaluation experiments were carried out by introducing into the constructed wetlands 16 species of woody wetland plants. Cluster analysis was performed by including the morphological characteristics, physiological characteristics, as well as nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation of the woody wetland plants. The results indicated that there were significant differences among the tested woody plants in their survival rate, height increase, root length increase and vigor, Chlorophyll content, Superoxide dismutase, Malonaldehyde, Proline, Peroxidase, biomass, average concentration and accumulation of nitrogen and phosphorus. Based on the established evaluation system, the tested plants were clustered into 3 groups. The plants in the 1st group possessing high purification potentials are Nerium oleander and Hibiscus syriacus. Those in the 2nd group possessing moderate purification potentials are Trachycarpus fortune, Llex latifolia Thunb., Gardenia jasminoides, Serissa foetida and Ilex crenatacv Convexa. And those in the 3rd group with low purification potentials are Jasminum udiflorum, Hedera helix, Ligustrum vicaryi, Ligustrum lucidum, Buxus sempervives, Murraya paniculata, Osmanthus fragrans, Mahoniafortune and Photinia serrulata. PMID:24812951

Chen, Yong-Hua; Wu, Xiao-Fu; Hao, Jun; Chen, Ming-Li; Zhu, Guang-Yu

2014-02-01

239

The potential use of an alternative fluid for SFR intermediate loops: selection and first design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Among the Generation IV systems, Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR) are promising and benefit of considerable technological experience, but improvements are researched on safety approach and capital cost reduction. One of the main problems to be solved by the standard SFR design is the proper management of the risk of leakage between the intermediate circuit filled with sodium and the energy conversion system using a water Rankine cycle. This risk requires notably an early detection of water leakage to prevent a water-sodium reaction. One innovative solution to this problem is the replacement of the sodium in the secondary loops by an alternative liquid fluid, less reactive with water. This alternative fluid might also allow innovative designs, e.g. intermediate heat exchanger and steam generator grouped in the same component. CEA, Areva NP and EdF have formed a working group in order to evaluate different 'alternative fluids' that might replace sodium. A first selection retained seven fluids on the bases of 'required properties' as: large operating range (low melting point, high boiling point ...), fluid cost and availability, acceptable corrosion at SFR working temperature. These are three bismuth alloys, two nitrate salts, one hydroxide melt and sodium with nanoparticles. Then, it was decided to evaluate these fluids through a multi- criteria analysis in order to point advantages and drawbacks of each fluid and to compare them with sodium. Lack of knowledge, impact on materials, design, working conditions and reactor availability should be emphasized by this analysis, in order to provide sound arguments for a research program on one or two most promising fluids. A global note is given to each fluid by evaluating them with respect to 'grand criteria', weighted differently according to their importance. The grand criteria were: thermal properties, reactivity with structures, reactivity with other fluids (air, water, sodium), chemistry control (including tritium management), safety and waste management, inspection maintenance and repair (ISI and R), impact on components and circuits, availability and cost, level of use. The impact on reactor availability and manageability and the level of knowledge on each fluid were estimated through the former criteria and introduced in the final evaluation as main criteria. The aim of this paper is to present the method of evaluation, the results obtained and the choice that have been made. The impact on design and operation are enhanced for the most promising fluids. It was found that sodium remains the most interesting intermediate fluid. However, Lead Bismuth Eutectic and sodium with nanoparticles also presents some interests and should be further evaluated. (author)

2009-12-07

240

Seleção de plantas com potencial para fitorremediação de tebuthiuron Plant selection with potential for tebuthiuron phytodecontamination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo selecionar espécies tolerantes ao tebuthiuron, visando utilizá-las em programas de fitorremediação de solos contaminados com esse herbicida. Foram avaliadas: Amaranthus hybridus, Crotalaria juncea, Chamaesyce hyssopifolia, C. hirta, Canavalia ensiformes, Helianthus annus, Pennisetum typhoides, Estizolobium aterrimum, Raphanus raphanistrum e Crotalaria incana. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, em vasos contendo 3 dm³ de solo de textura argilo-arenosa com 2,18 dag kg¹ de matéria orgânica. O experimento foi delineado em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições de tratamentos em fatorial 10 x 4 x 4, os quais foram constituídos por 10 espécies, quatro doses de tebuthiuron (0,0; 5,0; 1,0; e 2,0 kg ha-1, aplicadas em pré-emergência, e quatro épocas de avaliação (15, 30, 45 e 60 dias após a semeadura. Foram avaliadas a fitotoxicidade do herbicida, a altura de plantas e a massa de matéria seca da parte aérea, de raízes e do total da planta. Canavalia ensiformes e Pennisetum typhoides foram tolerantes ao tebuthiuron na dose de 0,5 kg ha-1. Estizolobium aterrimum tolerou tebuthiuron até a dose de 1,0 kg ha¹, apresentando fitotoxicidade menos acentuada e menor redução de altura de plantas e da massa de matéria seca da parte aérea, de raízes e do total da planta em relação ao tratamento testemunha.This study aimed to select tebuthiuron- tolerant plants to use them in phytoremediation programs in contaminated soils. The evaluated species were: Amaranthus hybridus, Crotalaria juncea, C. hyssopifolia, Chamaesyce hirta, Canavalia ensiformes, Helianthus annus, Pennisetum typhoides, Estizolobium aterrimum, Raphanus raphanistrum and Crotalaria incana. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, with a sandy-clay soil with 2.18 dag kg-1 of organic matter, in pots of 3 dm³ capacity. The experiment was arranged in a 10 x 4 x 4 factorial scheme in a randomized block design with three replications. The treatments consisted of: 10 species, four tebuthiuron doses (0.0; 0.5; 1.0 e 2.0 kg ha-1 applied in pre-emergence, and four evaluation times (15, 30, 45, and 60 days after sowing. Phytotoxicity, plant height and, above-ground, root and total biomass dry matter were evaluated. Canavalia ensiformes and Pennisetum typhoides were tolerant to tebuthiuron at the dose of 0.5 kg ha-1, and Estizolobium aterrimum up to the dose of 1.0 kg ha-1, with the latter showing less phytotoxicity symptoms and a smaller reduction of plant height, above-ground, root, and total biomass dry matter, as compared to the control treatment.

F.R. Pires

2003-12-01

 
 
 
 
241

A method for selecting potential geosites. The case of glacial geosites in the Chablais area (French and Swiss Prealps)  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 2009, an Interreg IVA project (123 Chablais), dealing with the promotion of natural and cultural heritage in the Chablais area, has been developed. It is linked to the creation of the Chablais Geopark. In a context of development of smart forms of tourism, the objective was to develop a strategy promoting the glacial heritage to a wide public in an area where the glaciers have almost disappeared. The recognition of specific places as geoheritage is the result of a double process: a scientific one, based on more or less sophisticated methods, and a social one, that is the acknowledgment by the society. One of the first scientific tasks is to produce a list of "potential geosites" that will be assessed in more details. However, this selection is often a weak point of inventories. It often seems like a "black box" without any transparency. In this project (123 Chablais) we carried out an inventory of glacial geosites, using the method developed by Reynard et al. (2007, 2012). However, a method has been created to enlighten the selection process, and to enhance choices in geoheritage management. As it was not possible to consider all sites in the Chablais area, a mixed selection approach was developed, halfway between completeness and specificity (Martin, 2012). The first step was the creation of a list of "points of interest", established using different sources: literature review, fieldwork and use of GIS to cross information. A selection was then performed according to two criteria: correspondence with a glacial stage (time axis) and belonging to a type of forms (spatial axis). Finally, selected sites aimed at providing a representative overview of the regional glacial witnesses. Therefore, representative sites of the regional geology were selected as well as sites presenting regional peculiarities Temporal and spatial attributes were given to the 101 points of interest identified. From a temporal point of view, this inventory aimed at presenting the main stages of the glacial retreat since the Last Glacial Maximum. From a spatial point of view, the objective was to show the different types of glacial remnants, but also some landforms related to deglaciation processes. Finally, 32 glacial and associated geosites were selected. Each geosite was submitted to a full evaluation process, including basis information, description, explanation of morphogenesis and an evaluation of values assigned to geosites. This assessment, first qualitative, provided valuable information concerning their intrinsic interest and their management. A numerical evaluation was also assessed to classify geosites and define an order of priority for their touristic promotion. It is worth to be noted that each selected points of interest can in fact be qualified as a geosite, using a clear method of selection. In this study, the numerical evaluation is not a mean to select geosites but a way to rank one geosite to another. Some geosites can be abandoned if intrinsic values are too low. Despite a well-defined protocol, the subjectivity and authors' choices are part of the selection process and inventory. This fact is certainly not a weakness. It must be considered whenever such inventory is made. Reference Martin, S. (2012). Valoriser le géopatrimoine par la médiation indirecte et la visualisation des objets géomorphologiques (Thèse de doctorat). Université de Lausanne, Lausanne. Reynard E., Fontana G., Kozlik L., Scapozza C. (2007). A method for assessing the scientific and additional values of geomorphosites, Geographica Helvetica, 62(3), 148-158. Reynard, E., Perret, A., Grangier, L., & Kozlik, L. (2012). Methodological approach for the assessment, protection, promotion and management of geoheritage. EGU General Assembly, Vienna.

Perret, Amandine; Reynard, Emmanuel

2014-05-01

242

Mineral concentration in selected native temperate grasses with potential use as biofuel feedstock.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stands of native grasses along roadways, in buffer strips, riparian zones and grass prairies have potential utility as feedstock for bioenergy production. The sustainability of harvesting these stands is reliant, in part, on knowledge of the mineral concentration of the harvested grasses because removal of mineral nutrients such as phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) can impact subsequent biomass production and ecosystem services associated with these stands. Mineral content of biomass, particularly that of silicon (Si), chlorine (Cl), and sulfur (S) also impacts thermochemical conversion approaches that convert grasses into bioproducts. This study quantified Cl, S, Si, P and K in Bromus marginatus, Elymus glaucus, Poa secunda, Pseudoroegneria, Elymus lanceolatus, Elymus trachycaulus, Leymus cinereus, Leymus triticoides, and Pseudoroegneria spicata collected at three growth developmental stages from four plant introduction stations located in the western US. Differences (P< or =0.05) in mineral concentrations were associated with developmental stage, species, and location. Variability was greatest in Si concentrations which ranged from 1847 to 28620 mg kg(-1), similar to those recorded in other grasses. Variability in Cl and S concentrations also occurred, but at less magnitude than that of Si. Concentrations of P and K, two mineral fertilizer components, varied approximately threefold among these grasses. Differences in mineral concentrations among these grasses were not completely dependent upon soil mineral content. Long-term evaluations of available soil mineral concentrations under contrasting management practices are needed to quantify how local conditions impact mineral cycling, and in turn, the sustainability of harvesting these stands. The data presented here establish baselines for these species in locations subject to contrasting environmental and microbiological conditions that affect mineral cycling and availability. PMID:19329307

El-Nashaar, H M; Griffith, S M; Steiner, J J; Banowetz, G M

2009-07-01

243

Selective cholinergic depletion in medial septum leads to impaired long term potentiation and glutamatergic synaptic currents in the hippocampus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cholinergic depletion in the medial septum (MS) is associated with impaired hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. Here we investigated whether long term potentiation (LTP) and synaptic currents, mediated by alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the CA1 hippocampal region, are affected following cholinergic lesions of the MS. Stereotaxic intra-medioseptal infusions of a selective immunotoxin, 192-saporin, against cholinergic neurons or sterile saline were made in adult rats. Four days after infusions, hippocampal slices were made and LTP, whole cell, and single channel (AMPA or NMDA receptor) currents were recorded. Results demonstrated impairment in the induction and expression of LTP in lesioned rats. Lesioned rats also showed decreases in synaptic currents from CA1 pyramidal cells and synaptosomal single channels of AMPA and NMDA receptors. Our results suggest that MS cholinergic afferents modulate LTP and glutamatergic currents in the CA1 region of the hippocampus, providing a potential synaptic mechanism for the learning and memory deficits observed in the rodent model of selective MS cholinergic lesioning. PMID:22355337

Kanju, Patrick M; Parameshwaran, Kodeeswaran; Sims-Robinson, Catrina; Uthayathas, Subramaniam; Josephson, Eleanor M; Rajakumar, Nagalingam; Dhanasekaran, Muralikrishnan; Suppiramaniam, Vishnu

2012-01-01

244

Marker-assisted selection as a potential tool for genetic improvement in developing countries: debating the issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Marker-assisted selection (MAS) is a complementary technology, for use in conjunction with more established conventional methods of genetic selection, for plant and animal improvement. It has generated a good deal of expectations, many of which have yet to be realized. Although documentation is limited, the current impact of MAS on products delivered to farmers seems small. While the future possibilities and potential impacts of MAS are considerable, there are also obstacles to its use, particularly in developing countries. Principal among these are issues relating to current high costs of the technology and its appropriateness, given that publicly funded agricultural research in many developing countries is suboptimal and development priorities do not necessarily include genetic improvement programmes. Other potential obstacles to the uptake of MAS in developing countries include limited infrastructure, the absence of conventional selection and breeding programmes, poor private sector involvement and lack of research on specific crops of importance in developing countries. Intellectual property rights may also be an important constraint to development and uptake of MAS in the developing world. It is hoped that through partnerships between developing and developed country institutions and individuals, including public-private sector collaboration, MAS costs can be reduced, resources pooled and shared and capacity developed. With the assistance of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) and international organizations such as FAO, developing countries can benefit more from MAS. These were some of the outcomes of a moderated e-mail conference, entitled 'Molecular Marker- Assisted Selection as a Potential Tool for Genetic Improvement of Crops, Forest Trees, Livestock and Fish in Developing Countries', that FAO hosted at the end of 2003. During the four-week conference, 627 people subscribed and 85 messages were posted, about 60 percent coming from people living in developing countries. Most messages (88 percent) came from people working in research centres (national or international) or universities. The remainder came from people working as independent consultants or from farmer organizations, government agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) or United Nations (UN) organizations. (author)

2007-01-01

245

Selection for growth potential among migratory brown trout (Salmo trutta) fry competing for territories: evidence from otoliths  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Otolith microstructure analysis was employed to determine differential size and growth characteristics between newly emerged migratory brown trout (Salmo trutta) fry which establish feeding territories and those which are forced to move downstream from the redd. Fry size at emergence was poorly predicted by otolith size, which precluded reliable back-calculation of fry size to investigate a possible size-selection mechanism. However, there was a clear-cut selection for individuals with significantly larger otoliths at emergence among fry which established territories in artificial stream sections. This elements pattern commenced with the onset of territorial aggression between fry. Fry which established territories to the end of the experiment had significantly higher initial otolith growth rates than emigrating fry, and their dry weights at the end of the experiment were well predicted by both otolith size at emergence and otolith size at the end of the experiment. Transparent zones in otoliths from downstream migrants suggested that these fry were starved; this was also supported by their declining dry weights over time. These results were explained as selection for greater growth potential as based on a proposed coupling between otolith microstructure formation and fish metabolism and on the behavioral ecology of migratory brown trout fry.

Titus, R.G.; Mosegaard, Henrik

1991-01-01

246

The Potential Use of an Alternative Fluid for SFR Intermediate Loops: Selection and First Design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Among the Generation IV systems, Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR) are promising and benefit of considerable technological experience, but improvements are researched on safety approach and capital cost reduction. One of the main problems to be solved by the standard SFR design is the proper management of the risk of leakage between the intermediate circuit filled with sodium and the energy conversion system using a water Rankine cycle. This risk requires notably an early detection of water leakage to prevent a water-sodium reaction, and adequate draining and pressure resistant components to mitigate the reaction consequences. One can think also to suppress this risk by replacing the sodium in the secondary loops by an alternative fluid, less reactive with water. This alternative fluid might also allow innovative designs, e.g. Intermediate Heat eXchanger (IHX) and Steam Generator Unit (SGU) grouped in the same component. CEA, AREVA and EDF have formed a working group in order to evaluate different 'alternative fluids' that might replace sodium. A first selection retained seven fluids on the bases of 'required properties' as: large operating range (low melting point, high boiling point ...), fluid cost and availability, acceptable corrosion at SFR working temperature. These are three bismuth alloys, two nitrate salts, one molten hydroxide and sodium with nanoparticles. Then, it was decided to evaluate these fluids through a multi-criteria analysis in order to point out advantages and drawbacks of each fluid and to compare them with sodium. Lack of knowledge, impact on materials, design, working conditions and reactor availability should be emphasized by this analysis, in order to provide sound arguments for a research program on one or two most promising fluids. A global note is given to each fluid by evaluating them with respect to 'major criteria', weighted differently according to their importance. The major criteria were: thermal properties, reactivity with structures, reactivity with other fluids (air, water, sodium), chemistry control (including tritium management), safety and waste management, In Service Inspection and Repair (ISI and R), impact on components and circuits, availability and cost, level of use. The impact on reactor availability and manageability and the level of knowledge on each fluid were estimated through the former criteria and introduced in the final evaluation as main criteria. The aim of this paper is to present the method of evaluation, the results obtained and the choice that have been made. The impact on design and operation are enhanced for the most promising fluids. It was found that sodium remains the most interesting intermediate fluid regarding all the criteria, and despite its reaction with water. Lead Bismuth Eutectic presents some interests and should be further evaluated. It is however clear that this fluid raises a number of issues, such as corrosion of steel, which would request to lower operating temperature, or to find new materials and then lengthy R and D. (author)

2012-03-01

247

Selecting the optimal method to calculate daily global reference potential evaporation from CFSR reanalysis data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Potential evaporation (PET is one of the main inputs of hydrological models. Yet, there is limited consensus on which PET equation is most applicable in hydrological climate impact assessments. In this study six different methods to derive global scale reference PET time series from CFSR reanalysis data are compared: Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor and original and modified versions of the Hargreaves and Blaney-Criddle method. The calculated PET time series are (1 evaluated against global monthly Penman-Monteith PET time series calculated from CRU data and (2 tested on their usability for modeling of global discharge cycles.

The lowest root mean squared differences and the least significant deviations (95 % significance level between monthly CFSR derived PET time series and CRU derived PET were obtained for the cell specific modified Blaney-Criddle equation. However, results show that this modified form is likely to be unstable under changing climate conditions and less reliable for the calculation of daily time series. Although often recommended, the Penman-Monteith equation did not outperform the other methods. In arid regions (e.g., Sahara, central Australia, US deserts, the equation resulted in relatively low PET values and, consequently, led to relatively high discharge values for dry basins (e.g., Orange, Murray and Zambezi. Furthermore, the Penman-Monteith equation has a high data demand and the equation is sensitive to input data inaccuracy. Therefore, we preferred the modified form of the Hargreaves equation, which globally gave reference PET values comparable to CRU derived values. Although it is a relative efficient empirical equation, like Blaney-Criddle, the equation considers multiple spatial varying meteorological variables and consequently performs well for different climate conditions. In the modified form of the Hargreaves equation the multiplication factor is uniformly increased from 0.0023 to 0.0031 to overcome the global underestimation of CRU derived PET obtained with the original equation. It should be noted that the bias in PET is not linearly transferred to actual evapotranspiration and runoff, due to limited soil moisture availability and precipitation.

The resulting gridded daily PET time series provide a new reference dataset that can be used for future hydrological impact assessments or, more specifically, for the statistical downscaling of daily PET derived from raw GCM data.

F. C. Sperna Weiland

2011-07-01

248

Selecting the optimal method to calculate daily global reference potential evaporation from CFSR reanalysis data  

Science.gov (United States)

Potential evaporation (PET) is one of the main inputs of hydrological models. Yet, there is limited consensus on which PET equation is most applicable in hydrological climate impact assessments. In this study six different methods to derive global scale reference PET time series from CFSR reanalysis data are compared: Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor and original and modified versions of the Hargreaves and Blaney-Criddle method. The calculated PET time series are (1) evaluated against global monthly Penman-Monteith PET time series calculated from CRU data and (2) tested on their usability for modeling of global discharge cycles. The lowest root mean squared differences and the least significant deviations (95 % significance level) between monthly CFSR derived PET time series and CRU derived PET were obtained for the cell specific modified Blaney-Criddle equation. However, results show that this modified form is likely to be unstable under changing climate conditions and less reliable for the calculation of daily time series. Although often recommended, the Penman-Monteith equation did not outperform the other methods. In arid regions (e.g., Sahara, central Australia, US deserts), the equation resulted in relatively low PET values and, consequently, led to relatively high discharge values for dry basins (e.g., Orange, Murray and Zambezi). Furthermore, the Penman-Monteith equation has a high data demand and the equation is sensitive to input data inaccuracy. Therefore, we preferred the modified form of the Hargreaves equation, which globally gave reference PET values comparable to CRU derived values. Although it is a relative efficient empirical equation, like Blaney-Criddle, the equation considers multiple spatial varying meteorological variables and consequently performs well for different climate conditions. In the modified form of the Hargreaves equation the multiplication factor is uniformly increased from 0.0023 to 0.0031 to overcome the global underestimation of CRU derived PET obtained with the original equation. It should be noted that the bias in PET is not linearly transferred to actual evapotranspiration and runoff, due to limited soil moisture availability and precipitation. The resulting gridded daily PET time series provide a new reference dataset that can be used for future hydrological impact assessments or, more specifically, for the statistical downscaling of daily PET derived from raw GCM data.

Sperna Weiland, F. C.; Tisseuil, C.; Dürr, H. H.; Vrac, M.; van Beek, L. P. H.

2011-07-01

249

5-Chlorodeoxycytidine when coadministered with modulators of pyrimidine metabolism is an effective and potentially tumor-selective in vivo radiosensitizer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

5-Chlorodeoxycytidine, a halogenated pyrimidine nucleoside analog, was coadministered with several modulators of pyrimidine metabolism, in order to achieve tumor selective radiosensitization in murine tumor models. The modulators were tetrahydrouridine (an inhibitor of cytidine deaminase), PALA (an inhibitor of aspartate transcarbamylase), 5-fluorodeoxycytidine (which acts to inhibit thymidylate synthetase, and also produces single and double strand breaks in DNA, through incorporation of FdUTP and dUTP into DNA, and subsequent repair) and 5-benzylacyclourindine (an inhibitor of uridine phosphorylase). Several experimental approaches were utilized to determine the extent of tumor radiosensitization and selectivity. Studies measuring the levels of the various metabolites of CldC one hour following CldC administration with or without the various modulators of metabolism showed that it is possible to selectively generate CldU and CldUMP in the tumor compared to normal tissues. DNA incorporation studies measuring the extent of substitution of CldU (derived from CldC) for thymidine also demonstrated the potential for tumor selectivity. Incorporation positively correlated with the levels of cytidine deaminase and dCMP deaminase (two enzymes involved in the metabolism of CldC) in a particular tissue. The levels of these enzymes have been reported to be elevated in many human malignancies. Two model systems were used to assay tumor radiosensitization. The optimum CldC treatment protocol (with tetrahydrouridine, PALA, and 5-fluorodeoxycytidine) yielded a two-fold dose enhancement ratio with the RIF-1 tumor model irradiated in vivo (cell survival was assayed via clonogenic assay). Utilizing the Lewis lung carcinoma model and measuring tumor growth over time, tumor growth was completely arrested for six days following irradiation, with the CldC protocol

1989-01-01

250

Treeline dynamics with climate change at Central Nepal Himalaya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Global climate change has multidimensional impacts with several biological fingerprints, and treeline shifting in tandem with climate change is a widely observed phenomenon in various parts of the world. In Nepal several impacts of climate change on physical environments have been observed. However, studies on the biological impacts are lacking. This dendrochronological study was carried out at the treeline ecotone (3750–4003 m a.s.l. in the Kalchuman Lake (Kal Tal area of the Manaslu Conservation Area in central Nepal Himalaya with the aim to study the dynamic impact of climate change at the treeline. The study provides an insight into regeneration and treeline dynamics over the past 200 yr. Two belt transect plots (size: 20 m wide, >250 m long were laid covering forest line, treeline as well as tree species Abies spectabilis and Betula utilis was done and their tree-cores were collected. Stand character and age distribution revealed an occurrence of more matured B. utilis (max. age 198 yr old compared to A. spectabilis (max. age 160 yr. A. spectabilis contained an overwhelmingly high population (89% of younger plants (A. spectabilis at the rate of 2.61 m yr?1 since 1850 AD. The upper distribution limit of B. utilis was found stagnant in the past few decades. An increment in plant density as well as upward shifting in the studied treeline ecotones was observed. Thus, two species presented species-specific responses to climate change and much wider differences anticipated in their population status as climate continues to cha spectabilis correlated negatively with the mean monthly temperature of May–August of the current year and with September of the previous year. The regeneration of A. spectabilis, on the other hand, was positively related with May–August precipitation and January–April temperature of the current year. The reconstructed average summer temperature (May–August using tree ring data revealed alternate period of cool and warm period with warming in the 2nd half of the 20th century. Further palynological and geochronological studies of sediments of the Kalchuman Lake would advance our understanding of past climatic trends and dynamics of the associated treeline and vegetation in the area.

N. P. Gaire

2013-10-01

251

Treeline dynamics with climate change at Central Nepal Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

Global climate change has multidimensional impacts with several biological fingerprints, and treeline shifting in tandem with climate change is a widely observed phenomenon in various parts of the world. In Nepal several impacts of climate change on physical environments have been observed. However, studies on the biological impacts are lacking. This dendrochronological study was carried out at the treeline ecotone (3750-4003 m a.s.l.) in the Kalchuman Lake (Kal Tal) area of the Manaslu Conservation Area in central Nepal Himalaya with the aim to study the dynamic impact of climate change at the treeline. The study provides an insight into regeneration and treeline dynamics over the past 200 yr. Two belt transect plots (size: 20 m wide, >250 m long) were laid covering forest line, treeline as well as tree species Abies spectabilis and Betula utilis was done and their tree-cores were collected. Stand character and age distribution revealed an occurrence of more matured B. utilis (max. age 198 yr old) compared to A. spectabilis (max. age 160 yr). A. spectabilis contained an overwhelmingly high population (89%) of younger plants (<50 yr) indicating its high recruitment rate. Population age structure along an elevation gradient revealed an upward shifting of A. spectabilis at the rate of 2.61 m yr-1 since 1850 AD. The upper distribution limit of B. utilis was found stagnant in the past few decades. An increment in plant density as well as upward shifting in the studied treeline ecotones was observed. Thus, two species presented species-specific responses to climate change and much wider differences anticipated in their population status as climate continues to cha spectabilis correlated negatively with the mean monthly temperature of May-August of the current year and with September of the previous year. The regeneration of A. spectabilis, on the other hand, was positively related with May-August precipitation and January-April temperature of the current year. The reconstructed average summer temperature (May-August) using tree ring data revealed alternate period of cool and warm period with warming in the 2nd half of the 20th century. Further palynological and geochronological studies of sediments of the Kalchuman Lake would advance our understanding of past climatic trends and dynamics of the associated treeline and vegetation in the area.

Gaire, N. P.; Koirala, M.; Bhuju, D. R.; Borgaonkar, H. P.

2013-10-01

252

In vitro screening of potential probiotic activities of selected lactobacilli isolated from unpasteurized milk products for incorporation into soft cheese.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim was to select potentially probiotic lactobacilli from 88 strains isolated from unpasteurized milk and cheese products, and to incorporate these bacteria in a viable state into a soft cheese, without changing its quality. The survival of these bacteria was assessed in acidic and bile conditions, after freezing at -80 degrees C. Four strains from unpasteurized Camembert--two Lactobacillus plantarum strains and two Lb. paracasei/casei strains--were identified and typed by PCR and PFGE and were found to display potentially probiotic characteristics in addition to resistance to low pH and bile. These characteristics were resistance to lysozyme, adhesion to CACO-2 cells, antimicrobial effects against common foodborne pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, innocuity following the ingestion of high doses by mice and appropriate antibiotic susceptibility profiles. The potential of Lb. plantarum strain UCMA 3037 for incorporation into a soft cheese (Pont-l'Eveque registered designation of origin (RDO)) was investigated. This strain grew well and survived in sufficient numbers (more than 10(7) cfu/g throughout the shelf-life of the product) in the cheese. This strain did not change the quality score of the product until the best before date (75 days after manufacture). Thus, unpasteurized Camembert is a natural source of potentially probiotic lactobacilli, which could be used as an additive in the development of potentially probiotic soft cheeses. Further work is required to demonstrate the persistence and efficacy of these strains in the human host upon ingestion. PMID:15605712

Coeuret, Valérie; Gueguen, Micheline; Vernoux, Jean Paul

2004-11-01

253

Mineralogy, Petrology and Bromine Geochemistry of Selected Samples of the Salado Salt, Lea and Eddy Counties, New Mexico: A Potential Horizon for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste.  

Science.gov (United States)

The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the mineralogy, petrology and dehydration characteristics of the Salado Salt near Carlsbad, New Mexico (a potential radioactive waste repository). Bedded evaporite deposits were selected by the National Acade...

D. W. Combs

1975-01-01

254

Identification of 3-hydroxy-2-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-ones as isoform-selective PKC-? inhibitors and potential therapeutics for psychostimulant abuse†‡  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

From a screen of small molecule libraries to identify potential therapeutics for psychostimulant abuse, 3-hydroxy-2-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-ones were shown to be isoform-selective PKC-? inhibitors.

Yuan, Langtian; Seo, Jin-soo; Kang, Nam Sook; Keinan, Shahar; Steele, Sarah E.; Michelotti, Gregory A.; Wetsel, William C.; Beratan, David N.; Gong, Young-dae; Lee, Tong H.; Hong, Jiyong

2009-01-01

255

Selective processing of pain-related word stimuli in subclinical depression as indicated by event-related brain potentials.  

Science.gov (United States)

An intense discussion still exists as to whether pain and depression are causally related or independent of each other. To investigate processing of pain-related word stimuli in subclinically depressed individuals, we designed an event-related potentials study in a group control design. Pain words and neutral words were presented to 16 subclinically depressed and 16 control participants. Behavioral and electrophysiological measures were taken during lexical decision and recognition tasks. Depressive compared to control participants showed enhanced P300 amplitudes at parietal electrodes triggered by pain-related words during the lexical decision task, which presumably is a sign of enhanced recollection processes for these word stimuli. In line with these electrophysiological findings, depressed participants also tended to better recall the pain-related words in the later recognition task than control participants. We conclude that subclinically depressed individuals selectively process pain-related stimuli, and this processing bias could enhance their vulnerability to develop pain symptoms. PMID:16038774

Nikendei, Christoph; Dengler, Wilhelm; Wiedemann, Georg; Pauli, Paul

2005-09-01

256

Selection of Potential Antagonistic Bacillus and Trichoderma Isolates from Tomato Rhizospheric Soil Against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycoperscisi  

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Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to obtain a potential indigenous biocontrol agent against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici on tomato from different agroclimatic zones in India. Wide collection of Trichoderma and Bacillus was conducted from tomato rhizospheric soil in IIVR farm (Varanasi, IIHR farm (Bangalore, IARI farm (Rajendra Nagar and farm of APHU (T.P. Gudem by using Trichoderma Specific Media (TSM and Nutrient Agar (NA. As a result, total 65 strains were cultured and maintained in which 28 were Bacillus and 37 were Trichoderma, respectively. On the basis of in vitro bioassays viz., dual culture and poisoned food technique it was concluded that 3 most prominent Trichoderma isolates viz., DPNST-4, -8 and -29 and four most prominent of DPNSB-2, -11, -18 and -28 from Bacillus were selected.

N. Thajuddin

2011-01-01

257

Geomorphic impacts, age and significance of two giant landslide dams in the Nepal Himalayas: Ringmo-Phoksundo (Dolpo District) and Dhampu-Chhoya (Mustang District).  

Science.gov (United States)

Large catastrophic slope failures have recently retained much attention in the northern dry Himalayas (1). They play a prominent role in the denudation history of active orogens at a wide range of spatial and time scales (2), and they impact durably landforms and process evolution in upstream catchments. Their occurrence mostly results from three different potential triggers: earthquakes, post-glacial debuttressing, and permafrost melting. We focus on two examples of giant rock slope failures that occurred across and north of the Higher Himalaya of Nepal and assess their respective influence on the regional, geomorphic evolution. The Ringmo rockslide (4.5 km3) results from the collapse of a mountain wall (5148 m) cut into palaeozoic dolomites of the Tethysian Himalayas. It caused the damming of the Suli Gad River at the origin of the Phoksumdo Lake (3600 m asl). The presence of glacial till at the very base of the sequence suggests the rockslide event is post-glacial, a field assumption confirmed by cosmogenic dating. Two consistent 36Cl ages of 20,885 ±1675 argue for a single, massive event of paraglacial origin that fits well with the last chronologies available on the Last Glacial Maximum in the Nepal Himalaya. The persistence of the Phoksumdo Lake is due to its dam stability (i.e. high lime content of landslide components) and to low sediment flux from the arid, upper Suli Gad catchment. The Dhampu-Chhoya rock avalanche (about 1 km3, area extent 10 km2) was derived from the northward failure of the Kaiku ridge, uphold by north-dipping, upper crystallines of the Higher Himalaya. It dammed the Kali Gandaki River, with complex interactions with the Late Pleistocene ice tongues derived from the Dhaulagiri (8167 m) and Nilgiris (7061 m) peaks. Both the rock avalanche and glaciers controlled the existence and level of the "Marpha Lake" (lacustrine deposits up to Kagbeni). Again, consistent 10Be ages of 29,680 ± 1015 ka obtained from two large blocks (>1000 m3) suggest a single event, in full agreement with other 10Be dates obtained by a different team from the same site (3). This latter event occurred during glaciation, and was likely triggered in connection with the North Himalayan Fault and/or Thakkhola fault activity. Post-landslide dam evolution includes rapid dissection of lacustrine deposits (4), yet the braided pattern of the Kali Gandaki evidence the delay in headward erosion caused by landslide dam persistence. References: (1) Hewitt K., 2009. Catastrophic rock slope failures and late Quaternary developments in the Nanga Parbat-Haramosh Massif, Upper Indus basin, northern Pakistan. Quaternary Science Reviews, 28, 1055-1069; (2) Korup, O., Clague, J.J., 2009. Natural hazards, extreme events, and mountain topography. Quaternary Science Reviews 28, 977-990; (3) Zech R., Zech M, Kubik P.W., Kharki K., Zech W. (2009). Deglaciation and landscape history around Annapurna, Nepal, based on 10Be surface exposure dating, Quaternary Science Reviews, v. 28(11-12), pp.1106-1118; (4) Fort M., Cossart E. (2013) Erosion assessment in the middle Kali Gandaki (Nepal): A sediment budget approach. Journal of Nepal Geological Society, Vol. 46, pp. 25-40.

Fort, Monique; Braucher, Regis; Bourlès, Didier; Guillou, Valery; Nath Rimal, Lila; Gribenski, Natacha; Cossart, Etienne

2014-05-01

258

Distribution and Potential Mobility of Selected Heavy Metals in a Fluvial Environment Under the Influence of Tanneries  

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Full Text Available In this study we evaluated the occurrence of heavy metals in a fluvial environment under the influence of tanneries – the Cadeia and Feitoria rivers basin (RS, south Brazil, highlighting the distribution and potential mobility of the selected elements. Every three months, over one year-period, selected heavy metals and ancillary parameters were analyzed in water and sediment samples taken at ten sites along the rivers. Water analyses followed APHA recommendations, and sediment analyses were based on methods from USEPA (SW846 and European Community (BCR sequential extraction. The determinations were performed by ICP/OES, except for Hg (CV/ETA. Statistical factor analysis was applied to water and sediment data sets, in order to obtain a synthesis of the environmental diagnosis. The results revealed that water quality decreased along the rivers, and mainly on the dry period (January, showing the influence of tannery plants vicinity and flow variations. Except for Fe, Al, and eventually Mn, heavy metal contents in water were in agreement with Brazilian standards. Concerning sediments, Al, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn, Ti, and Zn concentrations appeared to reflect the base levels, while Cr and Hg were enriched in the deposits from the lower part of the basin. The partition of heavy metals among the sediment geochemical phases showed higher mobility of Mn along the sampling sites, followed by Cr in the lower reach of the basin, most affected by tanneries. Since Cr was predominantly associated to the oxidizable fraction, its potential mobilization from contaminated sediments would be associated to redox conditions. The detection of Hg in the tissue of a bottom-fish species indicated that the environmental conditions are apparently favoring the remobilization of this metal from contaminated sediments.

Rodrigues M. L. K.

2013-04-01

259

Lung-selective gene responses to alveolar hypoxia: potential role for the bone morphogenetic antagonist gremlin in pulmonary hypertension.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pulmonary hypoxia is a common complication of chronic lung diseases leading to the development of pulmonary hypertension. The underlying sustained increase in vascular resistance in hypoxia is a response unique to the lung. Thus we hypothesized that there are genes for which expression is altered selectively in the lung in response to alveolar hypoxia. Using a novel subtractive array strategy, we compared gene responses to hypoxia in primary human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-L) with those in cardiac microvascular endothelium and identified 90 genes (forming 9 clusters) differentially regulated in the lung endothelium. From one cluster, we confirmed that the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist, gremlin 1, was upregulated in the hypoxic murine lung in vivo but was unchanged in five systemic organs. We also demonstrated that gremlin protein was significantly increased by hypoxia in vivo and inhibited HMVEC-L responses to BMP stimulation in vitro. Furthermore, significant upregulation of gremlin was measured in lungs of patients with pulmonary hypertensive disease. From a second cluster, we showed that CXC receptor 7, a receptor for the proangiogenic chemokine CXCL12, was selectively upregulated in the hypoxic lung in vivo, confirming that our subtractive strategy had successfully identified a second lung-selective hypoxia-responsive gene. We conclude that hypoxia, typical of that encountered in pulmonary disease, causes lung-specific alterations in gene expression. This gives new insights into the mechanisms of pulmonary hypertension and vascular loss in chronic lung disease and identifies gremlin 1 as a potentially important mediator of vascular changes in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. PMID:18469115

Costello, Christine M; Howell, Katherine; Cahill, Edwina; McBryan, Jean; Konigshoff, Melanie; Eickelberg, Oliver; Gaine, Sean; Martin, Finian; McLoughlin, Paul

2008-08-01

260

The potential of selected macroalgal species for treatment of AMD at different pH ranges in temperate regions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The metal bioaccumulation potential of selected macroalgae species at different pH ranges was study for usage as part of a possible secondary passive acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment technology in algae ponds. Two separate studies were conducted to determine the suitability of macroalgae for passive treatment when metabolic processes in macrophytes and microorganisms in constructed wetlands decrease during winter months. In the field study, the bioconcentration of metals (mg/kg dry weight) measured in the benthic macroalgae mats was in the following order: site 1. Oedogonium crassum Al > Fe > Mn > Zn; site 2. Klebsormidium klebsii, Al > Fe > Mn > Zn; site 3. Microspora tumidula, Fe > Al > Mn > Zn and site 4. M. tumidula, Fe > Mn > Al > Zn. In the laboratory study, cultured macroalgae K. klebsii, O. crassum and M. tumidula isolated from the field sampling sites were exposed to three different pH values (3, 5 and 7), while bioaccumulation of the metals, Al, Fe, Mn and Zn and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity were measured in the different selected algae species at a constant water temperature of 14 °C. Bioaccumulation of Al was the highest for O. crassum followed by K. klebsii and M. tumidula (p pH values under constant low water temperature. PMID:24835955

Oberholster, Paul J; Cheng, Po-Hsun; Botha, Anna-Maria; Genthe, Bettina

2014-09-01

 
 
 
 
261

Response to genomic selection: The Bulmer effect and the potential of genomic selection when the number of phenotypic records is limiting  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last ten years, genomic selection has developed enormously. Simulations and results on real data suggest that breeding values can be predicted with high accuracy using genetic markers alone. However, to reach high accuracies, large reference populations are needed. In many livestock populations or even species, such populations cannot be established when traits are difficult or expensive to record, or when the population size is small. The value of genomic selection is then questionable. Methods In this study, we compare traditional breeding schemes based on own performance or progeny information to genomic selection schemes, for which the number of phenotypic records is limiting. Deterministic simulations were performed using selection index theory. Our focus was on the equilibrium response obtained after a few generations of selection. Therefore, we first investigated the magnitude of the Bulmer effect with genomic selection. Results Results showed that the reduction in response due to the Bulmer effect is the same for genomic selection as for selection based on traditional BLUP estimated breeding values, and is independent of the accuracy of selection. The reduction in response with genomic selection is greater than with selection based directly on phenotypes without the use of pedigree information, such as mass selection. To maximize the accuracy of genomic estimated breeding values when the number of phenotypic records is limiting, the same individuals should be phenotyped and genotyped, rather than genotyping parents and phenotyping their progeny. When the generation interval cannot be reduced with genomic selection, large reference populations are required to obtain a similar response to that with selection based on BLUP estimated breeding values based on own performance or progeny information. However, when a genomic selection scheme has a moderate decrease in generation interval, relatively small reference population sizes are needed to obtain a similar response to that with selection on traditional BLUP estimated breeding values. Conclusions When the trait of interest cannot be recorded on the selection candidate, genomic selection schemes are very attractive even when the number of phenotypic records is limited, because traditional breeding requires progeny testing schemes with long generation intervals in those cases.

Van Grevenhof Elizabeth M

2012-08-01

262

Aldose reductase inhibitory, anti-cataract and antioxidant potential of selected medicinal plants from the Marathwada region, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

The water, ethanol and chloroform extracts of selected plants such as Adhatoda vasica (L.) (Acanthaceae), Caesalpinia bonduc (L.), Cassia fistula (L.) (Caesalpiniaceae) and Biophytum sensitivum (L.) (Oxalidaceae) were evaluated for rat lens aldose reductase inhibitory (RLAR) potential, anti-cataract and antioxidant activities. All the samples inhibited the aldose reductase considerably and exhibited anti-cataract activity, while C. fistula (IC(50), 0.154 mg mL(-1)) showed significant RLAR inhibitory activity as compared to the other tested samples, and was further found to be more effective in maintaining sugar-induced lens opacity in the rat lens model. The antioxidant potential of plant extracts was determined using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazine), hydroxyl (OH), nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) scavenging activities, along with determination of reducing power, ferrous ion chelating ability and inhibition of polyphenol oxidase (PPO). The extracts of the tested plant showed significant free radical scavenging activities and inhibited the activity of enzyme PPO, a model oxidising enzyme. The plant samples were found to possess considerable amounts of vitamin C, total polyphenols and flavonoids. PMID:21462076

Gacche, R N; Dhole, N A

2011-04-01

263

An application of zeta potential method for the selection of nano-fluids to enhance IVR capability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In-vessel Retention (IVR) is one of the key severe accident management strategies that have been applied currently for advanced light water reactors such as APR1000 or APR1400. The concept of IVR consists of external cooling of the reactor vessel by flooding the reactor cavity to remove the decay heat from the molten core through the lower head of the vessel. However, the heat removal process is limited by the occurrence of critical heat flux (CHF) at the reactor vessel outer surface that may lead to a sharp increase of local temperature, damaging the integrity of the reactor vessel. In order to obtain higher power of nuclear reactors and to assure the achievement of the IVR capability during accident conditions, an enhancement of CHF at the outer surface of the vessel is required. The potential use of nano-fluids to increase the CHF is among the main IVR enhancing approaches. In this study, Al2O3 and CNT nano-fluids with different concentrations have been used as the potential coolant to enhance IVR capabilities. The dispersion stability of the nano-fluids was verified by zeta potential measurements. The results showed effects of time, concentration and pH on the stability of nanofluids. Three types of nano-fluids were selected as the candidates to apply for the IVR. A series of experiments have been performed in this study to understand the pool-boiling critical heat flux behavior on downward facing surfaces submerged in a pool of nano-fluids at very low concentration. The inclination angle was changed from horizontal to vertical to investigate the effect of orientation on CHF enhancement which is needed for the application in IVR

2009-05-01

264

Gharats (watermills): Indigenous device for sustainable development of renewable hydro-energy in Uttrakhand Himalayas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Himalaya has a rich ancient tradition for tapping hydro-energy from the hill streams and rivers through the device of gharats (watermills). The present contribution encompasses the study on the energy consumption pattern of hill communities living in buffer zone of the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, a world heritage site located in Garhwal Himalayas, India, The current status of gharats, the factors responsible for the neglect of this renewable energy device, initiatives taken for upgrading for their revival have been highlighted. Field and policy level opportunities and constraints associated with promotion of such hydro-energy in the study area by upgrading of traditional watermills are analysed and suitable options for removing impediments are suggested. (author)

Sharma, Ramesh C.; Bisht, Yashpal; Sharma, Rekha; Singh, Deepak [Department of Environmental Sciences, H. N. B. Garhwal University, Srinagar (Garhwal) (India)

2008-10-15

265

Braving the attitude of altitude: Caragana jubata at work in cold desert of Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

The present work was conducted to understand the basis of adaptation in Caragana jubata in its niche environment at high altitude cold desert of Himalaya. Molecular data showed predominance of genes encoding chaperones and those involved in growth and development at low temperature (LT), a major cue operative at high altitude. Importantly, these genes expressed in C. jubata in its natural habitat. Their homologues in Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, and Glycine max did not exhibit similar trend of gene expression at LT. Constitutive expression and a quick up-regulation of the above genes suggested the ability of C. jubata to adjust its cellular machinery to maintain growth and development in its niche. This was reflected in LT50 (the temperature at which 50% injury occurred) and LT mediated photosynthetic acclimatory response. Such molecular and physiological plasticity enables C. jubata to thrive in the high altitude cold desert of Himalayas.

Bhardwaj, Pardeep Kumar; Kapoor, Ritu; Mala, Deep; Bhagwat, Geetika; Acharya, Vishal; Singh, Anil Kumar; Vats, Surender Kumar; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh; Kumar, Sanjay

2013-01-01

266

Gravity field, deep seismic sounding and nature of continental crust underneath NW Himalayas  

Science.gov (United States)

A large number of earth scientists believe that the Himalayas have evolved as a result of collision of the Indian and Eurasian plates, sometime during cretaceous to Eocene times [Gansser, 1964, 1977; Dewey and Bird, 1973; Powell and Conaghan, 1973]. As a result of the collision, an estimated crustal shortening of the order of at least 300 Km took place apparently through movements along major Himalayan thrusts, such as the Main Central Thrust (MCT), the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) and several others. These movements have resulted in thickening of the crust to 65-75 Km as shown by Gupta and Narain [1967], Kaila et al. [1982, 1984]. A vital question concerning the Himalayas is how the crustal thickening has taken place.

Verma, R. K.; Prasad, K. A. V. L.

267

Phylogeography of microbial phototrophs in the dry valleys of the high Himalayas and Antarctica  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

High-elevation valleys in dry areas of the Himalayas are among the most extreme, yet least explored environments on Earth. These barren, rocky valleys are subjected to year-round temperature fluctuations across the freezing point and very low availability of water and nutrients, causing previous workers to hypothesize that no photoautotrophic life (primary producers) exists in these locations. However, there has been no work using modern biogeochemical or culture-independent molecular methods...

Schmidt, S. K.; Lynch, R. C.; King, A. J.; Karki, D.; Robeson, M. S.; Nagy, L.; Williams, M. W.; Mitter, M. S.; Freeman, K. R.

2011-01-01

268

Tourism in the global periphery:A case study from Manang, Nepal Himalaya  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examines the impacts of tourism in a small mountain village in the Nepal Himalayas. During the 1980s, especially, there was a strong global increase in tourism to “remote” places. This increase consequently led to a concomitant increase in writings on tourism and its effects on local places. In this thesis, I aim to engage critically in these theories, adapting some of them to my specific case study. In particular, writings with background in globalization theories are central....

Ska?lholt, Asgeir

2006-01-01

269

Braving the attitude of altitude: Caragana jubata at work in cold desert of Himalaya  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present work was conducted to understand the basis of adaptation in Caragana jubata in its niche environment at high altitude cold desert of Himalaya. Molecular data showed predominance of genes encoding chaperones and those involved in growth and development at low temperature (LT), a major cue operative at high altitude. Importantly, these genes expressed in C. jubata in its natural habitat. Their homologues in Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, and Glycine max did not exhibit similar ...

Bhardwaj, Pardeep Kumar; Kapoor, Ritu; Mala, Deep; Bhagwat, Geetika; Acharya, Vishal; Singh, Anil Kumar; Vats, Surender Kumar; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh; Kumar, Sanjay

2013-01-01

270

Constituents of Artemisia gmelinii Weber ex Stechm. from Uttarakhand Himalaya: A Source of Artemisia Ketone  

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The essential oils isolated from the aerial parts of two different populations of Artemisia gmelinii growing in Uttarakhand Himalaya region were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in order to determine the variation of concentration in their constituents. Artemisia ketone was detected as a major constituent in both the populations i.e., Niti valley and Jhelum samples. Niti oil was found to have considerably greater amounts of artemesia ketone (53.3...

Haider, S. Z.; Andola, H. C.; Mohan, M.

2012-01-01

271

Joint spatial variability of aerosol, clouds and rainfall in the Himalayas from satellite data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Satellite-based precipitation, Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), Cloud Optical Depth (COD), and Aerosol Index (AI) data were used to characterize the linkages among landform and the intra-annual variability of aerosols, cloudiness and rainfall in the Himalayas using Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis. The first modes of AOD and AI show the presence of two branches of dust aerosol: over the Indus River basin and the Thar Desert with a sharp west-east gradient parallel to the southe...

Shrestha, P.; Barros, A. P.

2010-01-01

272

Joint spatial variability of aerosol, clouds and rainfall in the Himalayas from satellite data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Satellite-based precipitation, Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), Cloud Optical Depth (COD), and Aerosol Index (AI) data were used to characterize the linkages among landform and the intra-annual variability of aerosols, cloudiness and rainfall in the Himalayas using empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis. The first modes of AOD and AI show the presence of two branches of dust aerosol: over the Indus river basin and the Thar desert with a sharp west-east gradient parallel to the southern slop...

Shrestha, P.; Barros, A. P.

2010-01-01

273

Similarities and differences of aerosol optical properties between southern and northern slopes of the Himalayas  

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The Himalayas is located at the southern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, and it acts as a natural barrier for the transport of atmospheric aerosols, e.g. from the polluted regions of South Asia to the main body of the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we investigate the seasonal and diurnal variations of aerosol optical properties measured at the three Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites over the southern (Pokhara station and EVK2-CNR station in Nepal) and northern (Qomolangma (Mt. Everes...

Xu, C.; Ma, Y. M.; Yang, K.; Zhu, Z. K.; Wang, J. M.; Amatya, P. M.; Zhao, L.

2013-01-01

274

Treeline and vegetation dynamics in response to environmental changes in Nepal, the central Himalaya  

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Aims: To describe and evaluate patterns of vegetation response to ongoing environmental changes across climate-limited (alpine treeline ecotone) and humanmodified (temperate Himalayan oak forests) ecosystems in Nepal, central Himalaya.

Methods: I used dendroclimatological techniques to examine spatial and temporal changes in tree growth responses (paper I) and recruitment patterns (paper II) to climatic variability across a dry ...

Shrestha, Krishna Babu

2013-01-01

275

Bayesian neural network modeling of tree-ring temperature variability record from the Western Himalayas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A novel technique based on the Bayesian neural network (BNN) theory is developed and employed to model the temperature variation record from the Western Himalayas. In order to estimate an a posteriori probability function, the BNN is trained with the Hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC)/Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulations algorithm. The efficacy of the new algorithm is tested on the well known chaotic, first order autoregressive (AR) and random models and then applied to model the temperature var...

Tiwari, R. K.; Maiti, S.

2011-01-01

276

Planktonic Desmid Flora of South of the Eastern Himalayas: A Systematic Approach on Algae-I  

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Desmids are freshwater algae often considered as indicator of oligotrophic environment for water bodies. There are ample examples of works done by various workers throughout the world. Though desmids are reported from many parts of India, North East India, located in South of the Eastern Himalaya, is lacking behind in the study of this particular microflora in spite of its rich biodiversity. Therefore, an attempt has been made to study the planktonic desmid flora of North East India. Samples ...

2011-01-01

277

Biodiversity Conservation through Traditional Beliefs System: A Case Study from Kumaon Himalayas, India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study was carried out in Malay Nath sacred grove of Kumaon Himalaya, India, in appreciation of its role in biodiversity conservation. The whole grove is dedicated to the local deity “Malay Nath”, and showing semi-temperate type vegetation of the region. Rituals and cultural beliefs of the local peoples of Kumaon are plays significant role in conserving biodiversity. The study aimed at the documentation and inventory of the sacred grove, its phytodiversity, threats and conserv...

2012-01-01

278

Hydrological response to climate change in a glacierized catchment in the Himalayas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The analysis of climate change impact on the hydrology of high altitude glacierized catchments in the Himalayas is complex due to the high variability in climate, lack of data, large uncertainties in climate change projection and uncertainty about the response of glaciers. Therefore a high resolution combined cryospheric hydrological model was developed and calibrated that explicitly simulates glacier evolution and all major hydrological processes. The model was used to assess the future deve...

Immerzeel, Walter W.; Beek, L. P. H.; Konz, M.; Shrestha, A. B.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

2012-01-01

279

Pictorial keys for predominant Bactrocera and Dacus fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) of north western Himalaya  

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A pictorial key for 13 species of fruit flies under 2 genera namely Bactrocera and Dacus of subfamily Dacinae (Diptera: Tephritidae) is presented in this paper based on actual photographs of fruit flies collected from north western Himalaya of India during 2009-2010. Among these, Bactrocera diversa (Coquillett), Bactrocera scutellaris (Bezzi), Bactrocera tau (Walker), Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi), Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), B...

2012-01-01

280

Origin and radiative forcing of black carbon transported to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The remote and high elevation regions of central Asia are influenced by black carbon (BC emissions from a variety of locations. BC deposition contributes to melting of glaciers and questions exist, of both scientific and policy interest, as to the origin of the BC reaching the glaciers. We use the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem model to identify the location from which BC arriving at a variety of locations in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau originates. We then calculate its direct and snow-albedo radiative forcing. We analyze the seasonal variation in the origin of BC using an adjoint sensitivity analysis, which provides a detailed map of the location of emissions that directly contribute to black carbon concentrations at receptor locations. We find that emissions from northern India and central China contribute the majority of BC to the Himalayas, although the precise location varies with season. The Tibetan Plateau receives most BC from western and central China, as well as from India, Nepal, the Middle East, Pakistan and other countries. The magnitude of contribution from each region varies with season and receptor location. We find that sources as varied as African biomass burning and Middle Eastern fossil fuel combustion can significantly contribute to the BC reaching the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. We compute radiative forcing in the snow-covered regions and find the forcing due to the BC induced snow-albedo effect to vary from 5–15 W m?2 within the region, an order of magnitude larger than radiative forcing due to the direct effect, and with significant seasonal variation in the northern Tibetan Plateau. Radiative forcing from reduced snow albedo likely accelerates glacier melting. Our analysis may help inform mitigation efforts to slow the rate of glacial melt by identifying regions that make the largest contributions to BC deposition in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau.

M. Kopacz

2011-03-01

 
 
 
 
281

Origin and radiative forcing of black carbon transported to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The remote and high elevation regions of central Asia are influenced by black carbon (BC emissions from a variety of locations. BC deposition contributes to melting of glaciers and questions exist, of both scientific and policy interest, as to the origin of the BC reaching the glaciers. We use the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem model to identify the location from which BC arriving at a variety of locations in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau originates. We then calculate its direct and snow-albedo radiative forcing. We analyze the seasonal variation in the origin of BC using an adjoint sensitivity analysis, which provides a detailed map of the location of emissions that directly contribute to black carbon concentrations at receptor locations. We find that emissions from northern India and central China contribute the majority of BC to the Himalayas, although the precise location varies with season. The Tibetan Plateau receives most BC from western and central China, as well as from India, Nepal, the Middle East, Pakistan and other countries. The magnitude of contribution from each region varies with season and receptor location. We find that sources as varied as African biomass burning and Middle Eastern fossil fuel combustion can significantly contribute to the BC reaching the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. We compute radiative forcing in the snow-covered regions and estimate the forcing due to the BC induced snow-albedo effect at about 5–15 W m?2 within the region, an order of magnitude larger than radiative forcing due to the direct effect, and with significant seasonal variation in the northern Tibetan Plateau. Radiative forcing from reduced snow albedo accelerates glacier melting. Our analysis can help inform mitigation efforts to slow the rate of glacial melt by identifying regions that make the largest contributions to BC deposition in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau.

M. Kopacz

2010-09-01

282

Biomass and diversity of dry alpine plant communities along altitudinal gradients in the Himalayas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A non-linear relationship between phytodiversity and altitude has widely been reported, but the relationship between phytomass and altitude remains little understood. We examined the phytomass and diversity of vascular plants along altitudinal gradients on the dry alpine rangelands of Ladakh, western Himalaya. We used generalized linear and generalized additive models to assess the relationship between these vegetation parameters and altitude. We found a hump-shaped relationship between above...

Namgail, T.; Rawat, G. S.; Mishra, C.; Wieren, S. E.; Prins, H. H. T.

2012-01-01

283

Sustainability Perspectives of Development in Leh District (Ladakh, Indian Trans-Himalaya): an Assessment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis deals with a human inhabited territory in the Indian Trans-Himalaya: the Leh District, in Ladakh, at a “crossroad of high Asia”, geographically classified “cold desert”. For many centuries the local population has led a self-reliant existence mainly based upon subsistence agriculture, pastoralism and caravan trade. Modernization, due to governmental programs, and the progressive opening to external influence and resources – i.e. globalization – characterize the current...

Pelliciardi, Vladimiro

2012-01-01

284

Population structure and dynamics of Magnaporthe grisea in the Indian Himalayas.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The population genetics of Magnaporthe grisea, the rice blast pathogen, were analyzed in a center of rice diversity (the Uttar Pradesh hills of the Indian Himalayas) using multilocus and single-, or low-copy, DNA markers. Based on DNA fingerprinting with the multilocus probe MGR586 and single-locus probes, 157 haplotypes clustered into 56 lineages (at >/=70% MGR586 band similarity, each with unique single-locus profiles) and high diversity indices were detected among 458 isolates collected fr...

Kumar, J.; Nelson, R. J.; Zeigler, R. S.

1999-01-01

285

Hydrological response to climate change in a glaciated catchment in the Himalayas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The analysis of climate change impact on the hydrology of high altitude glacierized catchments in the Himalayas is complex due to the high variability in climate, lack of data, large uncertainties in climate change projection and uncertainty about the response of glaciers. Therefore a high resolution combined cryospheric hydrological model was developed and calibrated that explicitly simulates glacier evolution and all major hydrological processes. The model was used to assess the future deve...

Immerzeel, W. W.; Beek, L. P. H.; Konz, M.; Shresta, A. B.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

2012-01-01

286

Studies on the impact of local folk on forests of Garhwal Himalaya: Pt. 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

People in the Himalayas have been using fuelwood as the only source of energy for generations. Increasing population and declining forest resources have led to strict environmental laws in the area. The human impact on forests of the region was studied. The present biomass consumption of approximate 442 kg person-1 yr-1 along with cowdung are contributing factors for the present state of forest deforestation in the region. (author)

1993-01-01

287

High Mountain Melt-Down:Local Perceptions of Global Warming in the Andes and Himalayas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Present scientific knowledge about global warming affirms that ice and snow packs in the high mountains of the world are melting at increasing rates (see IPCC 2007 and UNEP 2007). Melting glaciers and receding snowlines jeopardize seasonal stream and river systems in arid regions of the world and threaten the livelihood of farmers who utilize the meltwater for irrigation. This study contrasts two case studies in the Himalayas of Nepal and the Central Andes of Perú to gauge the impacts of the...

2008-01-01

288

High Mountain Melt-Down: Local Perceptions of Global Warming in the Andes and Himalayas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Present scientific knowledge about global warming affirms that ice and snow packs in the high mountains of the world are melting at increasing rates (see IPCC 2007 and UNEP 2007). Melting glaciers and receding snowlines jeopardize seasonal stream and river systems in arid regions of the world and threaten the livelihood of farmers who utilize the meltwater for irrigation. This study contrasts two case studies in the Himalayas of Nepal and the Central Andes of Perú to gauge the impacts of the...

2008-01-01

289

Influence of regional precipitation patterns on stable isotopes in ice cores from the central Himalayas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Several ice cores have been recovered from the Dasuopu Glacier and the East Rongbuk (ER) Glacier in the central Himalayas since the 1990s. Although the distance between the ER and the Dasuopu ice core drilling sites is only ?125 km, the stable isotopic record (?18O or ?D) of the ER core is interpreted as a precipitation proxy while the Dasuopu core as a temperature proxy. Thus, the climatological significance of the stable isotopic records of these Himalayan ice cor...

2013-01-01

290

Black Carbon Flux Across the Himalaya through the Kali Gandaki Valley in Nepal  

Science.gov (United States)

Significant increases in black carbon concentration have been observed in the recent years over the Indo-Gangetic plain, the foothills of the Himalaya, as well as the high Himalaya and the Tibetan Plateau. The concentration of increased black carbon can be significantly correlated to the albedo effect and the warming of atmosphere at high altitudes due to the deposition of black carbon in the snow clad mountains. It is hypothesized that this deposition contributes to increased melting of Himalayan glaciers and snowfields. Satellite images show increasing amounts of aerosol haze over the Indo-Gangetic plains which penetrate into the Himalayan valleys. But how does it reach the high altitude of the Himalayan cryosphere? To date, mechanisms of transport upwind of the valley from the Indo-Gangetic plains up to the Himalaya have not been thoroughly investigated. We hypothesize that wind systems in the deep river valleys that cut across the Himalaya, such as the Arun valley and Kali Gandaki valley, serve as important pathways for pollutant transport. In 2010 the University of Virginia, in collaboration with ICIMOD and Nepal Wireless, established an atmospheric research station in Jomsom, Nepal (28.78N, 83.42E, 2900 m.a.s.l.). The station is equipped to measure black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone concentrations. It also has an automated weather station, a filter sampler, and a NASA Aeronet Sunphotometer. Here we use our observations in Jomsom to present an estimate of the annual flux of black carbon from the Indo-Gangetic plains to the Tibetan Plateau through the Kali Gandaki valley. In this way, we gain insight into the significance of deep valleys and their role as pathways for pollutant transport.

Dhungel, S.; Panday, A. K.; Mahata, K. S.

2013-12-01

291

Influence of regional precipitation patterns on stable isotopes in ice cores from the central Himalayas  

Science.gov (United States)

Several ice cores have been recovered from the Dasuopu (DSP) Glacier and the East Rongbuk (ER) Glacier in the central Himalayas since the 1990s. Although the distance between the DSP and the ER ice core drilling sites is only ~ 125 km, the stable isotopic record (?18O or ?D) of the DSP core is interpreted in previous studies as a temperature proxy, while the ER core is interpreted as a precipitation proxy. Thus, the climatological significance of the stable isotopic records of these Himalayan ice cores remains a subject of debate. Based on analysis of regional precipitation patterns over the region, we find that remarkable discrepancy in precipitation seasonality between the two sites may account for their disparate isotopic interpretations. At the ER core site, the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) precipitation is dominating due to topographic blocking of the moisture from westerlies by the high ridges of Mt. Qomolangma (Everest), which results in a negative correlation between the ER ?18O or ?D record and precipitation amount along the southern slope of the central Himalayas in response to the "amount effect". At the DSP core site, in comparison with the ISM precipitation, the wintertime precipitation associated with the westerlies is likely more important owing to its local favorable topographic conditions for interacting with the western disturbances. Therefore, the DSP stable isotopic record may be primarily controlled by the westerlies. Our results have important implications for interpreting the stable isotopic ice core records recovered from different climatological regimes of the Himalayas.

Pang, H.; Hou, S.; Kaspari, S.; Mayewski, P. A.

2014-02-01

292

Variation of radon levels in spring water with meteorological parameters and seismic events in Garhwal Himalayas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radon is being measured continuously in spring water at Badshahi Thaul Campus, Tehri Garhwal in Himalayan region by using radon emanometer since December 2002. An effort was made to correlate the variance of radon concentration in spring water with meteorological parameters and seismic events in study area. The positive correlation (coefficient = 0.79, 0.53, 0.60 and 0.70) was observed between measured radon concentration and minimum and maximum temperature, relative humidity and water discharge rate from the spring, respectively. However, no correlation was recorded between radon concentration and rain fall in the study area. Sudden increase in radon concentration in spring water were observed before the earthquakes occurred on 24 January 2003 of magnitude 3.4 on Richter scale having epicenter near Uttarkashi in Garhwal Himalaya and on 31 January 2003 of magnitude 3.1 on Richter scale having epicenter almost in same area. Similar changes in radon concentration were recorded before the earthquakes occurred on 4 April 2003 with magnitude 4.0 having epicenter near Almora in Kumaon Himalaya and on 26 May 2003 having magnitude 3.5 in Chamoli region of Garhwal Himalaya. Regular radon anomaly was recorded with micro seismic events from 5th August to 4th September 2003, which is discussed in detail. The impact of non geophysical and geophysical events on radon concentration in spring water is discussed in details. This type of study will help us to develop earthquake alarm model from radon in near future. (author)

2003-10-16

293

Tree ring inferred summer temperature variations over the last millennium in western Himalaya, India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report the first millennium-long reconstruction of mean summer (May-June-July-August) temperature extending back to AD 940 derived from tree-ring width data of Himalayan pencil juniper (Juniperus polycarpos C. Koch) from the monsoon-shadow zone in the western Himalaya, India. Centennial-scale variations in the reconstruction reveal periods of protracted warmth encompassing the 11-15th centuries. A decreasing trend in mean summer temperature occurred since the 15th century with the 18-19th centuries being the coldest interval of the last millennium, coinciding with the expansion of glaciers in the western Himalaya. Since the late 19th century summer temperatures increased again. However, current warming may be underestimated due to a weakening in tree growth-temperature relationship noticeable in the latter part of the 20th century. Mean summer temperature over the western Himalaya shows a positive correlation with summer monsoon intensity over north central India. Low-frequency variations in mean summer temperature anomalies over northwestern India are consistent with tree-ring inferred aridity in western North America. These far-distance linkages reported here for the first time underscore the utility of long-term temperature records from the western Himalayan region in understanding global-scale climatic patterns. (orig.)

Yadav, Ram Ratan [Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow (India); Braeuning, Achim [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Institute of Geography, Erlangen (Germany); Singh, Jayendra [University Greifswald, Ecosystem Dynamics, Institute of Botany and Landscape Ecology, Greifswald (Germany)

2011-04-15

294

Variation in net primary productivity and biomass of forests in the high mountains of Central Himalaya  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study describes the biomass and net primary productivity of the forests of Central Himalaya occurring in areas where vegetation ranges from close-canopy broad-leaved forest to stunted open-canopy timberline vegetation. The forests studied were Acer cappadocicum forest at 2750 m, Betula utilis forest at 3150 m, and Rhododendron campanulatum forest at 3300 m altitude in Central Himalaya. With the rise in altitude the forest biomass decreased from 308.3 ton/ha in Acer forest to 40.5 ton/ha in Rhododendron forest. The decrease in net primary productivity was less steep, from 19.6 ton/ha/yr in Acer forest to 10.0 ton/ha/yr in Rhododendron forest. The production efficiency of leaves (net production per unit leaf weight) in these forests is higher than in low altitude broad-leaved forests of Central Himalaya, i.e. from 2.89 in Acer forest to 3.41 g net production/g leaf biomass/yr, against 0.81-1.55 at lower altitudes. 31 refs, 6 tabs

Garkoti, S.C.; Singh, S.P. [Dept. of Botany, Kumaun Univ., Naini Tal (India)

1995-05-01

295

Influence of regional precipitation patterns on stable isotopes in ice cores from the central Himalayas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several ice cores have been recovered from the Dasuopu Glacier and the East Rongbuk (ER Glacier in the central Himalayas since the 1990s. Although the distance between the ER and the Dasuopu ice core drilling sites is only ?125 km, the stable isotopic record (?18O or ?D of the ER core is interpreted as a precipitation proxy while the Dasuopu core as a temperature proxy. Thus, the climatological significance of the stable isotopic records of these Himalayan ice cores remains a subject of debate. Based on analysis of regional precipitation patterns over the region, we find that the different interpretations of the Dasuopu and Everest isotopic records may not be contradictive. The north–south and west–east seesaws of the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM precipitation are primarily responsible for precipitation falling at the ER site, which results in a negative correlation between the ER ?18O or ?D record and precipitation amount along the southern slope of the central Himalayas, corresponding to the "amount effect". In addition to the ISM precipitation, non-summer monsoonal precipitation associated with winter westerlies also significantly contributes to precipitation falling at the Dasuopu site, which may cause a positive correlation between the Dasuopu stable isotopic record and temperature, in response to the "temperature effect". Our results have important implications for interpreting the stable isotopic ice core records recovered from different climatological regimes of the Himalayas.

H. Pang

2013-05-01

296

Impact of aerosol on surface reaching solar irradiance over Mohal in the northwestern Himalaya, India  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study, for the first time during 2007, is focused to examine the impact of aerosols on surface reaching solar irradiance over Mohal (31.9°N, 77.12°E, 1154 m amsl) in the northwestern part of the Indian Himalaya. The study also aims to estimate shortwave aerosol radiative forcing (SWARF) and its effect on regional climate. The multi-wavelength solar radiometer (MWR) is used to measure aerosol optical depth (AOD) over a wider spectrum, i.e. ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared. The AOD is obtained by analyzing the data from MWR following the Langley technique. The radiative transfer model is used along with Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds model to estimate the SWARF. Aerosol shows a great efficiency to reduce substantial fraction of energy from the surface reaching direct solar beam, i.e. 154 W m-2 ?m-1 per unit AOD at 0.5 ?m. The SWARF at the surface, top of the atmosphere and the atmosphere is estimated to be -18.5±1.7, +0.6±3.7 and +19.1±3.1 W m-2, respectively. The large SWARF at the surface stood during the summer (April-July), while small during the monsoon (August-September). Moderate SWARF is obtained in the autumn (October-November) and winter (December-March). The study estimates a notable extinction in incoming solar radiation relatively with lower atmospheric heating from 0.41 to 0.73 K day-1. The potential effect of aerosol is found relatively higher on high aerosol loading days. On these days, the lower atmospheric heating increases by a factor 1.8 (during dust events) and 1.7 (during biomass burning). This study concludes that aerosols produce significant reduction in incoming solar radiation with substantial increase in lower atmospheric heating, leading to a remarkable effect on the atmospheric stability. In addition, as a subject of future interest, the present study has also important implications on the atmospheric circulation and regional climate.

Guleria, Raj Paul; Kuniyal, Jagdish Chandra; Dhyani, Pitamber Prasad; Joshi, Ranjan; Sharma, Nand Lal

2014-02-01

297

Comparative mutant prevention concentrations of pradofloxacin and other veterinary fluoroquinolones indicate differing potentials in preventing selection of resistance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pradofloxacin (PRA) is an 8-cyano-fluoroquinolone (FQ) being developed to treat bacterial infections in dogs and cats. Its mutant prevention concentrations (MPC) were determined for Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 at 0.225 microg/ml, and for Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 at 0.55 microg/ml. At drug concentrations equal to or above the MPC, growth (implying selective clonal expansion) of first-step FQ-resistant variants, naturally present in large bacterial populations, was inhibited. MPC(90) derived from 10 clinical isolates each of E. coli and Staphylococcus intermedius, the latter species being of greater clinical relevance than S. aureus in companion-animal medicine, amounted to 0.2 to 0.225 and 0.30 to 0.35 microg/ml, respectively. MPCs of other veterinary FQs were assessed to determine relative in vitro potencies. The MPCs of marbofloxacin, enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, sarafloxacin, orbifloxacin, and difloxacin were 1.2-, 1.4-, 2.3-, 2.4-, 5-, and 7-fold higher than the MPC of PRA for E. coli ATCC 8739, and 6-, 6-, 19-, 15-, 15-, and 31-fold higher than the MPC of PRA for S. aureus ATCC 6538, respectively. MPC curves revealed a pronounced heterogeneity in susceptibility within populations of > or =4 x 10(9) CFU employed, extending to 10-fold above the MICs. The duration of incubation and, for S. aureus, inoculum density profoundly affected the MPCs. With appropriate dosing, PRA may combine high therapeutic efficacy with a high potential for restricting the selection for FQ resistance under field conditions in the species analyzed. PMID:16189094

Wetzstein, H-G

2005-10-01

298

Analysis of wind speed data and wind energy potential in three selected locations in south-east Nigeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, the wind speed characteristics and energy potential in selected three locations in south eastern part of Nigeria were investigated using wind speed data that span between 24 and 37 years measured at 10m height. It was shown that the annual mean wind speed at height of 10 m for Enugu, Owerri, and Onitsha are 5.42 m/s, 3.36 m/s, and 3.59 m/s, respectively, while the annual mean power densities are, respectively, 96.98 W/m2, 23.23 W/m2 and 28.34 W/m{sup 2}. It was further shown that the mean annual value of the most probable wind speed are 5.47m/s, 3.72m/s and 3.50m/s for Enugu, Owerri and Onitsha, respectively, while the respective annual value of the wind speed carrying maximum energy 6.48m/s, 4.33m/s, and 3.90m/s.The performance of selected commercial wind turbine models (with rated power between 50kW and 1000kW) designed for electricity generation and a windmill (rated power of 0.36kW) for water pumping located in these sites were examined.The annual energy output and capacity factor for these turbines as well as the water produced by the windmill were determined. The minimum required design parameters for a wind turbine to be a viable option for electricity generation in each location are also suggested. (orig.)

Oyedepo, Sunday O. [Covenant Univ., Ota, Ogun State (Nigeria). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Adaramola, Muyiwa S. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Energy and Process Engineering; Paul, Sunday S. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

2012-07-01

299

Tree-ring-based snowfall record for cold arid western Himalaya, India since A.D. 1460  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding snowfall variations in high-elevation cold arid regions of the western Himalaya is important as snowmelt water is the main source of water to meet the scores of socioeconomic needs. The ground-based observational data, though limited to the last two decades, show decreasing snowfall, raising the concern of looming water scarcity in the region. The tree-ring data of Himalayan cedar from a network of six moisture-stressed sites, where snowmelt water is the sole source of soil moisture for tree growth, were used to develop the November-April snow water equivalent (SWE) extending back to A.D. 1460. The reconstruction revealed persistent severe droughts in the 1780s followed by the 1480s and relatively lesser magnitude droughts in the 1540s-1560s, 1740s, and early twentieth century. The pluvial conditions observed in 1948-1958 and 1986-1996 stand out over any other period of such duration. The SWE reconstruction revealed large-scale spatial coherence with the corresponding month's Palmer Drought Severity Index over the western Himalayan region. Significant relationship observed between SWE reconstruction and January-March Chenab River flow revealed its potential utility in understanding water resource availability in the long-term perspective.

Yadav, Ram R.; Bhutiyani, Mahendra R.

2013-07-01

300

Chemical composition and fungitoxic activity of essential oil of Thuja orientalis L. grown in the north-western Himalaya.  

Science.gov (United States)

The essential oil from fresh leaves of Thuja orientalis L. grown in the north-western Himalaya was isolated by means of hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Twenty-two compounds representing 94.0% of the total oil were identified. The leaf oil contained alpha-pinene (29.2%), Delta-3-carene (20.1%), alpha-cedrol (9.8%), caryophyllene (7.5%), alpha-humulene (5.6%), limonene (5.4%), alpha-terpinolene (3.8%) and alpha-terpinyl acetate (3.5%) as major constituents. The essential oil showed antifungal activity against Alternaria alternata in a direct bioautography assay. Two main bioactive compounds named as b1 (Rf = 0.54) and b2 (Rf = 0.80) were observed and tested for antifungal activity; they produced an inhibition zone of 5 and 10 mm in diameter, respectively. The components b1 and b2 were further purified by preparative thin layer chromatography and their antifungal efficacy was re-tested. The minimum inhibitory amount (MIA) of b1 and b2 against A. alternata was determined as 30.5 and 4.5 microg, respectively, using a bioautography assay. The bioactive constituent corresponding to b1 was determined as alpha-cedrol by using GC/MS analysis. The potential of essential oils as a source of natural biocides is discussed. PMID:18533464

Guleria, Sanjay; Kumar, Ashok; Tiku, Ashok Kumar

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Geochemical characterization of supraglacial debris via in situ and optical remote sensing methods: a case study in Khumbu Himalaya, Nepal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Surface glacier debris samples and field spectra were collected from the ablation zones of Nepal Himalaya Ngozumpa and Khumbu glaciers in November and December 2009. Geochemical and mineral compositions of supraglacial debris were determined by X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. This composition data was used as ground truth in evaluating field spectra and satellite supraglacial debris composition and mapping methods. Satellite remote sensing methods for characterizing glacial surface debris include visible to thermal infrared hyper- and multispectral reflectance and emission signature identification, semi-quantitative mineral abundance indicies and spectral image composites. Satellite derived supraglacial debris mineral maps displayed the predominance of layered silicates, hydroxyl-bearing and calcite minerals on Khumbu Himalayan glaciers. Supraglacial mineral maps compared with satellite thermal data revealed correlations between glacier surface composition and glacier surface temperature. Glacier velocity displacement fields and shortwave, thermal infrared false color composites indicated the magnitude of mass flux at glacier confluences. The supraglacial debris mapping methods presented in this study can be used on a broader scale to improve, supplement and potentially reduce errors associated with glacier debris radiative property, composition, areal extent and mass flux quantifications.

K. A. Casey

2012-01-01

302

Generation of "LYmph Node Derived Antibody Libraries" (LYNDAL) for selecting fully human antibody fragments with therapeutic potential.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of efficient strategies for generating fully human monoclonal antibodies with unique functional properties that are exploitable for tailored therapeutic interventions remains a major challenge in the antibody technology field. Here, we present a methodology for recovering such antibodies from antigen-encountered human B cell repertoires. As the source for variable antibody genes, we cloned immunoglobulin G (IgG)-derived B cell repertoires from lymph nodes of 20 individuals undergoing surgery for head and neck cancer. Sequence analysis of unselected "LYmph Node Derived Antibody Libraries" (LYNDAL) revealed a naturally occurring distribution pattern of rearranged antibody sequences, representing all known variable gene families and most functional germline sequences. To demonstrate the feasibility for selecting antibodies with therapeutic potential from these repertoires, seven LYNDAL from donors with high serum titers against herpes simplex virus (HSV) were panned on recombinant glycoprotein B of HSV-1. Screening for specific binders delivered 34 single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) with unique sequences. Sequence analysis revealed extensive somatic hypermutation of enriched clones as a result of affinity maturation. Binding of scFvs to common glycoprotein B variants from HSV-1 and HSV-2 strains was highly specific, and the majority of analyzed antibody fragments bound to the target antigen with nanomolar affinity. From eight scFvs with HSV-neutralizing capacity in vitro, the most potent antibody neutralized 50% HSV-2 at 4.5 nM as a dimeric (scFv) 2. We anticipate our approach to be useful for recovering fully human antibodies with therapeutic potential. PMID:24256717

Diebolder, Philipp; Keller, Armin; Haase, Stephanie; Schlegelmilch, Anne; Kiefer, Jonathan D; Karimi, Tamana; Weber, Tobias; Moldenhauer, Gerhard; Kehm, Roland; Eis-Hübinger, Anna M; Jäger, Dirk; Federspil, Philippe A; Herold-Mende, Christel; Dyckhoff, Gerhard; Kontermann, Roland E; Arndt, Michaela Ae; Krauss, Jürgen

2014-01-01

303

Joint spatial variability of aerosol, clouds and rainfall in the Himalayas from satellite data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Satellite-based precipitation, Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD, Cloud Optical Depth (COD, and Aerosol Index (AI data were used to characterize the linkages among landform and the intra-annual variability of aerosols, cloudiness and rainfall in the Himalayas using Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF analysis. The first modes of AOD and AI show the presence of two branches of dust aerosol: over the Indus River basin and the Thar Desert with a sharp west-east gradient parallel to the southern slopes of the Himalayas – the southern Branch; and the second against the slopes of the Tian Shan and over the Takla Makan Desert in the Tibetan Plateau – the northern branch. The second EOF mode of AOD accounts for about 10% of overall variance of AOD. It is attached to the foothills of the Himalayas east of the Aravalli range peaking in April-May followed by a sharp decrease between June and July during the first active phase of the monsoon. The first and second EOF modes of COD and precipitation show consistent patterns against the Central and Eastern Himalayas and along the ocean-land boundaries in western India and the Bay of Bengal. The break in cloudiness and rainfall between the winter and the monsoon seasons is captured well by the second EOF mode of COD and rainfall concurrent with the aerosol build up mode (March-April-May over the region depicted by the second mode of AOD. The results show that the Aravalli range separates the two different modes of aerosol variability over northern India with dust aerosols to the west and polluted mixed aerosols to the east consistent with its role in regional circulation and precipitations patterns as per Barros et al. (2004 and Chiao and Barros (2006. The region of spatial overlap of the modes of variability of aerosols, clouds and rainfall is captured by the second EOF of MODIS AOD along the southern slopes of the Himalayas east of the Aravalli. It is proposed that this mode maps the area where the indirect radiative effect of aerosols on cloud properties and rainfall is pronounced.

P. Shrestha

2010-02-01

304

Lower Paleozoic Continuity of the East Gondwanan Margin and Implications for Interpretation of Tectonostratigraphic Zones of the Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

Qualitative and quantitative study of the tectonic and erosional history of the Himalayan orogen requires knowledge of the geology prior to major unroofing. Our studies of sedimentary successions in the Lesser (LH) and Tethyan Himalaya (TH)support depositional and stratigraphic continuity of the lower Paleozoic Indian Gondwanan margin across the various lithotectonic zones of the Himalaya, and along strike, from beyond the western Himalayan syntaxis in Pakistan, to Arunachal Pradesh, adjacent to the eastern syntaxis. Across-strike continuity is supported by (1) the presence of a distinctive Cambrian-Permian unconformity in the Salt Range (south of the Main Boundary Thrust), LH of India, and northern Tethyan part of Pakistan, and (2) correlative Neoproterozoic diamictite units in both the TH and LH. In addition, lithofacies changes support northward deepening across the northern Indian margin from the LH to the TH. Cambrian rocks extended south of the MBT in the Salt Range of Pakistan and are also exposed on cratonic India, south of the Himalayan Frontal Thrust in the Marwar basin of Rajasthan. Correlations indicate that the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian blanket extended far onto the Indian craton, just as on other paleocontinents at this time. Along-strike stratigraphic relationships also support the existence this extensive blanket, from which the outer Lesser Himalaya is a remnant. Similarities in stratigraphic successions, depositional ages, and geochemical deposits (e.g., phosphate) of the LH and TH between the central Himalaya and Pakistan, as well as correlative Neoproterozoic carbonate in Arunachal Pradesh (Buxa Formation), indicate that this blanket extended from west of the western syntax of the Himalaya across to the eastern syntaxis. Detrital zircon age spectra from Cambrian and Ordovician samples across the ancient northern Indian Himalayan margin show uniform signatures that include age ranges from Archean to Ordovician, with dominant of 1.3-0.9 Ga, ~0.7-0.54 Ga, and ~ 0.5 Ga peaks. New detrital zircon age data are presented for three Cambrian deposits: (1) the Tethyan Cambrian Tanawal Formation from the Peshwar Basin, Pakistan, north of the P-K Fault (=MCT), (2) cratonic Indian strata of the Tunklian Sandstone of Rajasthan, and (3) the Quartzite Formation of the Pele La Group of the Black Mountains of Bhutan. The detrital age spectra of these samples match those from Cambrian deposits across the central Himalaya. Thus, these new detrital spectra, in combination with stratigraphic data, demonstrate the continuity of lowermost Paleozoic strata along and across the Himalaya. Such continuity requires similar stratigraphic architecture in the LH, TH, and Greater Himalaya prior to Cenezoic deformation, and requires considerable removal of Neoproterozoic through Cambrian strata from the Lesser Himalaya during Himalayan uplift.

Myrow, P.; Hughes, N.; Fanning, C. M.; Banerjee, D.; Dipietro, J. A.

2009-12-01

305

Contemporary deformation in the Kashmir-Himachal, Garhwal and Kumaon Himalaya: significant insights from 1995-2008 GPS time series  

Science.gov (United States)

We present new insights on the time-averaged surface velocities, convergence and extension rates along arc-normal transects in Kumaon, Garhwal and Kashmir-Himachal regions in the Indian Himalaya from 13 years of high-precision Global Positioning System (GPS) time series (1995-2008) derived from GPS data at 14 GPS permanent and 42 campaign stations between and . The GPS surface horizontal velocities vary significantly from the Higher to Lesser Himalaya and are of the order of 30 to 48 mm/year NE in ITRF 2005 reference frame, and 17 to 2 mm/year SW in an India fixed reference frame indicating that this region is accommodating less than 2 cm/year of the India-Eurasia plate motion (). The total arc-normal shortening varies between along the different transects of the northwest Himalayan wedge, between the Indo-Tsangpo suture to the north and the Indo-Gangetic foreland to the south indicating high strain accumulation in the Himalayan wedge. This convergence is being accommodated differentially along the arc-normal transects; in Lesser Himalaya and 3-4 mm/year in Higher Himalaya south of South Tibetan Detachment. Most of the convergence in the Lesser Himalaya of Garhwal and Kumaon is being accommodated just south of the Main Central Thrust fault trace, indicating high strain accumulation in this region which is also consistent with the high seismic activity in this region. In addition, for the first time an arc-normal extension of has also been observed in the Tethyan Himalaya of Kumaon. Inverse modeling of GPS-derived surface deformation rates in Garhwal and Kumaon Himalaya using a single dislocation indicate that the Main Himalayan Thrust is locked from the surface to a depth of over a width of 110 km with associated slip rate of . These results indicate that the arc-normal rates in the Northwest Himalaya have a complex deformation pattern involving both convergence and extension, and rigorous seismo-tectonic models in the Himalaya are necessary to account for this pattern. In addition, the results also gave an estimate of co-seismic and post-seismic motion associated with the 1999 Chamoli earthquake, which is modeled to derive the slip and geometry of the rupture plane.

Jade, Sridevi; Mukul, Malay; Gaur, V. K.; Kumar, Kireet; Shrungeshwar, T. S.; Satyal, G. S.; Dumka, Rakesh Kumar; Jagannathan, Saigeetha; Ananda, M. B.; Kumar, P. Dileep; Banerjee, Souvik

2014-06-01

306

Animal grazing selectivity and plant chemistry issues impact on the potential of Rhagodia preissii as an anthelmintic shrub  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Rhagodia preissii had shown significant in vitro anthelmintic activity in a previous study, we examined the effect of including this shrub in the diet of sheep infected with Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Worm-infected merino wethers were grazed for 7 weeks on either R. preissii or annual pasture, and faecal egg counts (FECs) were conducted weekly. Plant material was collected weekly from eaten and uneaten plants, and analysed for levels of plant secondary metabolites (tannins, oxalates, saponins) and in vitro anthelmintic activity. While mean FECs were consistently lower in sheep grazing R. preissii compared to pasture (reductions of 20-74%), the differences were not significant. There was no relationship between grazing preference (eaten or uneaten) and in vitro anthelmintic activity of plant extracts. The levels of saponins and oxalates did not correlate with grazing preference or in vitro anthelmintic activity, while tannins were not responsible for the anthelmintic activity. While the identity of the grazing deterrent and in vitro anthelmintic compounds remain unknown, the presence of plants which were both highly preferred by the sheep and showed in vitro anthelmintic activity indicates a potential to develop the species as an anthelmintic shrub through selection of shrub populations dominated by such plants.

Kotze, A C; Zadow, E N

2011-01-01

307

12-Chemokine Gene Signature Identifies Lymph Node-like Structures in Melanoma: Potential for Patient Selection for Immunotherapy?  

Science.gov (United States)

We have interrogated a 12-chemokine gene expression signature (GES) on genomic arrays of 14,492 distinct solid tumors and show broad distribution across different histologies. We hypothesized that this 12-chemokine GES might accurately predict a unique intratumoral immune reaction in stage IV (non-locoregional) melanoma metastases. The 12-chemokine GES predicted the presence of unique, lymph node-like structures, containing CD20+ B cell follicles with prominent areas of CD3+ T cells (both CD4+ and CD8+ subsets). CD86+, but not FoxP3+, cells were present within these unique structures as well. The direct correlation between the 12-chemokine GES score and the presence of unique, lymph nodal structures was also associated with better overall survival of the subset of melanoma patients. The use of this novel 12-chemokine GES may reveal basic information on in situ mechanisms of the anti-tumor immune response, potentially leading to improvements in the identification and selection of melanoma patients most suitable for immunotherapy.

Messina, Jane L.; Fenstermacher, David A.; Eschrich, Steven; Qu, Xiaotao; Berglund, Anders E.; Lloyd, Mark C.; Schell, Michael J.; Sondak, Vernon K.; Weber, Jeffrey S.; Mulé, James J.

2012-10-01

308

The potential influence of far-infrared emission lines on the selection of high-redshift galaxies  

CERN Document Server

We investigate whether strong molecular and atomic emission lines at far-infrared wavelengths can influence the identification and derived properties of galaxies selected from broad-band, far-infrared or submillimetre observations. Several of these lines, e.g. [CII]158um, have been found to be very bright in some high-redshift galaxies, with fluxes of >0.1-1% of the total far-infrared luminosity, and may be even brighter in certain populations at high redshifts. At redshifts where these lines fall in instrument pass-bands they can significantly increase the broad-band flux measurements. We estimate that the contributions from line emission could boost the apparent broad-band flux by >20-40% in the Herschel and SCUBA-2 bands. Combined with the steep source counts in the submillimetre and far-infrared bands, line contamination has potentially significant consequences for the properties of sources detected in flux-limited continuum surveys, biasing the derived redshift distributions and bolometric luminosities. ...

Smail, Ian; Ivison, R J; Ibar, E

2011-01-01

309

Radiosynthesis of [11C]SB-705498, a selective transient receptor potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor antagonist  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows: Objectives: The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor, previously known as the vanilloid receptor 1 (VR1), is a non-selective cation channel activated by a range of noxious stimuli and highly expressed in nociceptive fibres. TRPV1 receptor is involved in pain and sensitisation associated with tissue injury and inflammation and therefore represents a pharmacological target of choice for the development of novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of chronic pain, migraine and gastrointestinal disorders. Among a novel series of pyrrolidinyl ureas recently discovered by GSK, SB-705498 (1, namely 1-(2-bromophenyl)-3-[(R)-1-(5- trifluoromethylpyridin-2-yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl]urea) has been identified as a potent, selective and orally bioavailable TRPV1 antagonist and considered for positron emission tomography studies. SB-705498 (1) has therefore been isotopically labelled with the short-lived positron-emitter carbon-11 (t1/2: 20.38 min) at its urea site using [11C]phosgene in a one-pot two-step process, via the intermediate preparation of 2-bromophenyl [11C]isocyanate. Methods: Carbon-11-labeling of SB-705498 comprises: (A) Trapping of [11C]phosgene (radio-synthesized from cyclotron-produced [11C]methane via [11C]carbon tetrachloride using minor modifications of published processes) at room temperature for 1 to 2 minutes in 250 ?L of acetonitrile containing 0.6 ?mole of 2-bromoaniline (2) giving 2-bromophenyl [11C]isocyanate ([11C]-3), followed by (B) addition of an excess of chiral (R)-1-(5- trifluoromethylpyridin-2-yl)pyrrolidin-3-ylamine (4, 40 ?moles in 500 ?L of acetonitrile) as the second amine and reaction at room temperature for an additional one minute giving the desired urea derivative ([11C]SB-705498 ([11C]-1)), (C) dilution of the crude reaction mixture with water (500 ?L) containing 4% (v:v) of DEA, injection and purification on a semi-preparative Waters SymmetryR C18 HPLC column (eluent: H2O / CH3CN / TFA: 72 / 28 / 0.1 (v/v/v) - flowrate: 8 mL/min), and finally (D) removal of the HPLC solvents using a SepPakR Plus C18 device (recovery of [11C]SB-705498 ([11C]-1) as ethanol solution), sterile-filtration (Millex FG 0.22 ?m filter, Millipore) and final formulation as an i.v. injectable solution. Results: [11C]SB-705498 ([11C]-1) was obtained in 8.9-13.6% non-decay-corrected yields, based on starting [11C]methane. Starting from a 26 GBq cyclotron-produced [11C]methane batch, 2.3 to 3.5 GBq of [11C]SB-705498 ([11C]-1), ? 99% radiochemically pure and ready-to-inject, were obtained in a one-pot two-step process within 30 minutes (including HPLC-purification, Rt: 9-10 min, and formulation). Specific radioactivities ranged from 75 to 150 GBq/?mol. Conclusions: SB-705498 (1) was isotopically labelled with carbon-11 at its urea function using [11C]phosgene. The non-decay-corrected overall yields for the preparation of [11C]SB-705498 were 8.9%-13.6%. Dynamic PET studies in baboons are currently underway to evaluate the potential of [11C]SB-705498 to image central transient receptor potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor in vivo

2011-09-02

310

Studies of the in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials of selected Yemeni medicinal plants from the island Soqotra  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent years have witnessed that there is a revival of interest in drug discovery from medicinal plants for the maintenance of health in all parts of the world. The aim of this work was to investigate 26 plants belonging to 17 families collected from a unique place in Yemen (Soqotra Island for their in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Methods The 26 plants were extracted with methanol and hot water to yield 52 extracts. Evaluation for in vitro anticancer activity was done against three human cancer cell lines (A-427, 5637 and MCF-7 by using an established microtiter plate assay based on cellular staining with crystal violet. Antimicrobial activity was tested against three Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria, one yeast species and three multiresistant Staphylococcus strains by using an agar diffusion method and the determination of MIC against three Gram-positive bacteria with the broth micro-dilution assay. Antioxidant activity was investigated by measuring the scavenging activity of the DPPH radical. Moreover, a phytochemical screening of the methanolic extracts was done. Results Notable cancer cell growth inhibition was observed for extracts from Ballochia atro-virgata, Eureiandra balfourii and Hypoestes pubescens, with IC50 values ranging between 0.8 and 8.2 ?g/ml. The methanol extracts of Acanthospermum hispidum, Boswellia dioscorides, Boswellia socotrana, Commiphora ornifolia and Euphorbia socotrana also showed noticeable antiproliferative potency with IC50 values Acacia pennivenia, Boswellia dioscorides, Boswellia socotrana, Commiphora ornifolia, Euclea divinorum, Euphorbia socotrana, Leucas samhaensis, Leucas virgata, Rhus thyrsiflora, and Teucrium sokotranum with inhibition zones > 15 mm and MIC values ? 250 ?g/ml. In addition, the methanolic extracts of Acacia pennivenia, Boswellia dioscorides, Boswellia socotrana and Commiphora ornifolia showed good antioxidant potential at low concentrations (more than 80% at 50 ?g/ml. Conclusion Our results show once again that medicinal plants can be promising sources of natural products with potential anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidative activity. The results will guide the selection of some plant species for further pharmacological and phytochemical investigations.

Bednarski Patrick J

2009-03-01

311

Darkening of the mid-Himalaya glaciers since 2000 and the potential causes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Himalayan glaciers are a vital water source for people in the high regions of Asia. Their complete melting would be a crisis for approximately 1 billion people. Albedo is one of the key parameters that affect the energy balance of the snow and ice surfaces. Since 2000, albedos have been retrieved from satellite data for eleven representative Himalayan glaciers. It was found that most of the glaciers showed declining trends in the albedo of their upper areas, indicating that they have generally become darker in the past decade. A simulation case study in conjunction with in situ measurements showed that light-absorbing constituents (e.g., black carbon and dust) could be partly responsible for this phenomenon during late springtime; the background regional warming could also be responsible. The current surface radiation absorption in Himalayan glaciers could lead to significant melting, causing most of them to be in danger of rapid mass loss. (letter)

2012-03-01

312

Detrital apatite (U-Th)/He constraints on the exhumational histories of the Arunachal Pradesh Himalaya and the Shillong Plateau  

Science.gov (United States)

Erosion in the Himalaya is driven largely by a strongly coupled system of extreme climatic conditions and active tectonic processes. Spatial and temporal variations in erosion rates along strike are presumably controlled by differences in local climate, seismicity, deformation rates, and lithology. Quantifying the contribution of each of these parameters to the erosional budget of the Himalaya, however, is a nontrivial problem. The easternmost portion of the Himalayan arc offers a natural laboratory to explore the role of climatic influence on erosion rates. Deformation and uplift of the Shillong Plateau since ~8 Ma has created an orographic barrier ~400 km long that shields the eastern Himalaya, in Arunachal Pradesh, India, from a significant proportion of the precipitation carried by the South Asian Monsoon. Long-term exhumation rates derived from the Himalaya west and east of this orographic barrier have been shown to differ by a factor of ~2, a difference ascribed to reduced climatic forcing of erosion in the lee of the Shillong Plateau. Here we present apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology data from modern detrital samples collected from northeast India. Between 18-20 single grain ages from each catchment were analyzed in order to calculate erosion rates on a 106 yr timescale. Recently developed Bayesian techniques for the inverse modeling of detrital data were used to derive time-temperature histories for each sample. Recent erosion rates modeled for a single south-facing catchment on the Shillong Plateau are modest, ~0.25 km Myr-1, and show a clear increase in exhumation rates at ~8 Ma from rates of Shillong Plateau in the Bhutanese Himalaya, the increase in Himalayan exhumation rate coeval with the uplift of the Shillong Plateau is inconsistent with the hypothesis that a reduction in climatic forcing of erosion in the Himalaya accompanies uplift of the Shillong Plateau. Rather, taken together, these data indicate that the easternmost Himalaya, as a whole, experienced a significant increase in exhumation rate in the late Miocene, although the absolute rates are lower than observed throughout the Bhutanese and Nepalese Himalaya. The temporal correlation of this increase suggests a regional cause, possibly reflecting changes in the stress field across the India-Eurasia-Burma plate boundaries, or intensification of the South Asian monsoon.

Staisch, L. M.; Clark, M. K.; Niemi, N. A.; Avdeev, B.

2010-12-01

313

Potential benefit from using the alpha(s1)-casein genotype information in a selection scheme for dairy goats.  

Science.gov (United States)

A stochastic approach is proposed to predict responses to selection when using alpha(s1)-casein genotype information in a selection scheme of a Spanish breed of dairy goats. Two independent selection objectives were considered: protein yield (PY), where the major additive gene CSN1S1, which codes for alpha(s1)-casein, has a small effect, and protein content (P%), where this gene has a large effect on performances. Significant differences in response between using and ignoring information on the major gene were observed only when the major gene has a large effect. The main result was in the case of P%, the total genetic gain obtained in the early generations of selection was maintained in the long-term. Taking account of genotype information either in the evaluation model or in the selection criteria leads to a faster fixation of the favourable allele and a reduction of the total genetic variance over generations. The inbreeding rates varied across generations, the highest rates observed in later generations of selection and when the major gene has a large effect and its genotype was included in the genetic evaluation procedure. It is concluded that inclusion of the casein genotype as an additional selection criteria will improve gains for protein traits, in particular P%. Recommendations are also given in order to optimize the use of this molecular information in dairy goat selection programs. PMID:16130485

Sánchez, A; Ilahi, H; Manfredi, E; Serradilla, J M

2005-02-01

314

Powerful technique to test selectivity of agents acting on cardiac ion channels: the action potential voltage-clamp  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Action potential voltage-clamp (APVC) is a technique to visualize the profile of various currents during the cardiacaction potential. This review summarizes potential applications and limitations of APVC, the properties of the mostimportant ion currents in nodal, atrial, and ventricular cardiomyocytes. Accordingly, the profiles ("fingerprints") of themajor ion currents in canine ventricular myocytes, i.e. in cells of a species having action potential morphology and setof underlying ion curren...

Norbert Szentandra?ssy, De?nes Nagy; Nagy Dénes (1984-) (vegyész)

2011-01-01

315

Impact of Himalayas and Tibetan plateau uplift on regional climate and isotopic lapse rate  

Science.gov (United States)

The Himalayan-Tibet barrier dominates atmospheric circulation over central Asia and influences global climate. The current high Tibetan Plateau owes gradually during the north-northeastward penetration of the Indian subcontinent into the Eurasian continent and in 2 main stages of abrupt uplift due to break of Neo-Tethyan slab ~45 Ma and convective removal of Lhasa lithospheric root ~30-26Ma. Therefore, the northern plateau may have attained its present-day elevation not earlier than ~13Ma. Nevertheless, several studies based on stable-isotope paleoaltimetry call for paleoelevations at ~35Ma comparable with present-day. Understanding variation of isotopic lapse rate through the time and with changing of absolute value of elevations is critical to estimate paleoelevations and consequently carry on reliable paleoclimate reconstructions. For the purpose of simulating changes in isotopic composition of precipitation due to uplift of the Himalayas and Tibetan plateau the atmospheric general circulation model LMDZ-iso has been used. This model captures the spatial and temporal patterns of precipitation ?18O and their relationships with moisture transport from the westerlies and Indian monsoon. Three sensitivity experiments with modern and reduced elevations over the Himalayas-Tibet show changes in precipitation rate, precipitation ?18O, as well as moisture sources over India, East-Southern Asia and Himalaya and Tibetan plateau areas. Moreover, our results allow to capture changing in isotopic lapse rate with shifts of mountains height. This result has implications for the region uplift history, because oxygen isotope paleoaltimetry assumes that the modern ?18O lapse rate is representative of times when the mountains were lower.

Botsyun, Svetlana; Sepulchre, Pierre; Donnadieu, Yannick

2014-05-01

316

ECOLOGICAL FEATURES AND CONSERVATION OF ARNEBIA EUCHROMA. A CRITICALLY ENDANGERED MEDICINAL PLANT IN WESTERN HIMALAYA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Arnebia euchroma (Royle ex Benth. Johnston, commonly known as ‘Ratanjot’ is an important medicinal plant species and is found distributed in the western Himalaya at elevations ranging between 3200 - 4500 m above sea level. Considering its potent medicinal properties, cultural significance, declining population density and critically endangered status of this taxon, the present investigation was carried out for the assessment of its availability in the natural alpine landscapes of the Spiti cold desert of western Himalaya in Himachal Pradesh (India. We focused our study on its ecological features, population dynamics and performance in natural habitats, so as to formulate conservation plans. In order to achieve the objectives of the present study, a total of 620 areas were set by using a random sampling technique at six different locations where A. euchroma was found distributed naturally. The highest population density was recorded in undulating meadows (5.30 individuals/m2 with a maximum circumference (4.18±1.80cm at an elevation of 4240 m above sea level, with maximum frequency of occurrence (100%. Ecological surveys revealed that distribution was restricted in specific habitats rich in soil nutrients with high pH (8.025 - 8.37. The significance of the role of various ecological variables is explained in detail in the present paper. Habitat specificity, low population, and anthropogenic pressure justify the rarity status of this taxon in the Spiti valley. The authors discussed different implications to develop appropriate strategies for a long-term monitoring and sustainability of A. euchroma in the Spiti cold desert of western Himalaya.

Koushalya Nandan SINGH

2012-09-01

317

Climatic forcing of erosion, landscape, and tectonics in the Bhutan Himalayas  

Science.gov (United States)

A fundamental objective in studies of climate-erosion-tectonics coupling is to document convincing correlation between observable indicators of these processes on the scale of a mountain range. The eastern Himalayas are a unique range to quantify the contribution of tectonics and climate to long-term erosion rates, because uniform and steady tectonics have persisted for several million years, while monsoonal precipitation patterns have varied in space and time. Specifically, the rise of the Shillong plateau, the only orographic barrier in the Himalayan foreland, has reduced the mean annual precipitation downwind in the eastern Bhutan Himalaya at the Miocene-Pliocene transition. Apatite fission-track (AFT) analyses of 45 bedrock samples from an E-W transect along Bhutan indicate faster long-term erosion rates outside of the rain shadow in the west (1.0 1.8 mm/yr) than inside of it in the east (0.55 0.85 mm/yr). Furthermore, an AFT vertical profile in the latter segment reveals a deceleration in erosion rates sometime after 5.9 Ma. In this drier segment of Bhutan, there are remnants of a relict landscape formed under a wetter climate that has not yet equilibrated to the present climatic conditions. Uplift and preservation of the paleolandscape are a result of a climate-induced decrease in erosion rates, rather than of an increase in rock uplift rate. This study documents not only a compelling spatial correlation between long-term erosion and precipitation rates, but also a climatically driven erosion-rate change on the scale of the eastern Himalayas, a change that, in turn, likely influences that region's recent tectonic evolution.

Grujic, Djordje; Coutand, Isabelle; Bookhagen, Bodo; Bonnet, Stéphane; Blythe, Ann; Duncan, Chris

2006-10-01

318

Origin and radiative forcing of black carbon transported to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The remote and high elevation regions of central Asia are influenced by black carbon (BC) emissions from a variety of locations. BC deposition contributes to melting of glaciers and questions exist, of both scientific and policy interest, as to the origin of the BC reaching the glaciers. We use the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem model to identify the location from which BC arriving at a variety of locations in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau originates. We then calculate its direct and snow-albed...

Kopacz, M.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Wang, J.; Leibensperger, E. M.; Henze, D. K.; Singh, K.

2010-01-01

319

Origin and radiative forcing of black carbon transported to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The remote and high elevation regions of central Asia are influenced by black carbon (BC) emissions from a variety of locations. BC deposition contributes to melting of glaciers and questions exist, of both scientific and policy interest, as to the origin of the BC reaching the glaciers. We use the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem model to identify the location from which BC arriving at a variety of locations in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau originates. We then calculate its direct and snow-albed...

Kopacz, M.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Wang, J.; Leibensperger, E. M.; Henze, D. K.; Singh, K.

2011-01-01

320

Medicinal flora and ethnoecological knowledge in the Naran Valley, Western Himalaya, Pakistan  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Mountain ecosystems all over the world support a high biological diversity and provide home and services to some 12% of the global human population, who use their traditional ecological knowledge to utilise local natural resources. The Himalayas are the world's youngest, highest and largest mountain range and support a high plant biodiversity. In this remote mountainous region of the Himalaya, people depend upon local plant resources to supply a range of goods and services, including grazing for livestock and medicinal supplies for themselves. Due to their remote location, harsh climate, rough terrain and topography, many areas within this region still remain poorly known for its floristic diversity, plant species distribution and vegetation ecosystem service. Methods The Naran valley in the north-western Pakistan is among such valleys and occupies a distinctive geographical location on the edge of the Western Himalaya range, close to the Hindu Kush range to the west and the Karakorum Mountains to the north. It is also located on climatic and geological divides, which further add to its botanical interest. In the present project 120 informants were interviewed at 12 main localities along the 60 km long valley. This paper focuses on assessment of medicinal plant species valued by local communities using their traditional knowledge. Results Results revealed that 101 species belonging to 52 families (51.5% of the total plants were used for 97 prominent therapeutic purposes. The largest number of ailments cured with medicinal plants were associated with the digestive system (32.76% responses followed by those associated with the respiratory and urinary systems (13.72% and 9.13% respectively. The ailments associated with the blood circulatory and reproductive systems and the skin were 7.37%, 7.04% and 7.03%, respectively. The results also indicate that whole plants were used in 54% of recipes followed by rhizomes (21%, fruits (9.5% and roots (5.5%. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate the range of ecosystem services that are provided by the vegetation and assess how utilisation of plants will impact on future resource sustainability. The study not only contributes to an improved understanding of traditional ethno-ecological knowledge amongst the peoples of the Western Himalaya but also identifies priorities at species and habitat level for local and regional plant conservation strategies.

Khan Shujaul M

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Size Analysis of the Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene Upper Siwalik Sediments, Northwestern Himalaya, India  

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Full Text Available Size analysis of the Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene Upper Siwalik sediments comprising the Pinjor Formation in the type area and adjoining regions reveals that the sediments are bimodal to polymodal in nature, medium to fine grained and are moderately sorted. The inclusive graphic standard deviation and moment standard deviation values suggest the deposition of sediments in shallow to moderately deep fluvial agitated water. The log probability plots reveal that saltation mode is the dominant mode of transportation of detritus. The sediments are continental in character and are derived from crystalline, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks of the Himalaya exposed to the North of the type area Pinjor.

Mahavir Singh

2013-10-01

322

Joint spatial variability of aerosol, clouds and rainfall in the Himalayas from satellite data  

Science.gov (United States)

Satellite-based precipitation, Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), Cloud Optical Depth (COD), and Aerosol Index (AI) data were used to characterize the linkages among landform and the intra-annual variability of aerosols, cloudiness and rainfall in the Himalayas using empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis. The first modes of AOD and AI show the presence of two branches of dust aerosol: over the Indus river basin and the Thar desert with a sharp west-east gradient parallel to the southern slopes of the Himalayas - the Southern Branch; and the second against the slopes of the Tian Shan and over the Takla Makan desert in the Tibetan Plateau-the Northern branch. The third EOF mode of AOD accounts for about 7% of overall variance of AOD. It is attached to the foothills of the Himalayas east of the Aravalli range peaking in April-May-June followed by a sharp decrease in July during the first active phase of the monsoon. The first and second EOF modes of COD and precipitation show consistent patterns against the central and eastern Himalayas and along the ocean-land boundaries in western India and the Bay of Bengal. The break in cloudiness and rainfall between the winter and the monsoon seasons is captured well by the second EOF mode of COD and rainfall concurrent with the aerosol build up mode (April-May) over the region depicted by the third mode of AOD. The results show that the Aravalli range separates the two different modes of aerosol variability over northern India with dust aerosols to the west and polluted mixed aerosols to the east consistent with its role in regional circulation and precipitations patterns as per Barros et al. (2004) and Chiao and Barros (2007). SVD analysis between rainfall, COD and AOD showed a pattern of aerosol loading (resembling EOF3 of MODIS AOD) extending from 80° E~90° E that peaks during the winter and pre-monsoon seasons and decays abruptly during the monsoon: the regions of aerosol buildup during the pre-monsoon season and the areas of high rainfall/cloudiness during the monsoon are collocated and have opposite signs suggesting aerosol-cloud-rainfall interaction. It is proposed that the third EOF of AOD maps the area where aerosol-cloud-rainfall interactions play an important role in the regional hydro-climatology.

Shrestha, P.; Barros, A. P.

2010-09-01

323

Joint spatial variability of aerosol, clouds and rainfall in the Himalayas from satellite data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Satellite-based precipitation, Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD, Cloud Optical Depth (COD, and Aerosol Index (AI data were used to characterize the linkages among landform and the intra-annual variability of aerosols, cloudiness and rainfall in the Himalayas using empirical orthogonal function (EOF analysis. The first modes of AOD and AI show the presence of two branches of dust aerosol: over the Indus river basin and the Thar desert with a sharp west-east gradient parallel to the southern slopes of the Himalayas – the Southern Branch; and the second against the slopes of the Tian Shan and over the Takla Makan desert in the Tibetan Plateau-the Northern branch. The third EOF mode of AOD accounts for about 7% of overall variance of AOD. It is attached to the foothills of the Himalayas east of the Aravalli range peaking in April-May-June followed by a sharp decrease in July during the first active phase of the monsoon. The first and second EOF modes of COD and precipitation show consistent patterns against the central and eastern Himalayas and along the ocean-land boundaries in western India and the Bay of Bengal. The break in cloudiness and rainfall between the winter and the monsoon seasons is captured well by the second EOF mode of COD and rainfall concurrent with the aerosol build up mode (April–May over the region depicted by the third mode of AOD. The results show that the Aravalli range separates the two different modes of aerosol variability over northern India with dust aerosols to the west and polluted mixed aerosols to the east consistent with its role in regional circulation and precipitations patterns as per Barros et al. (2004 and Chiao and Barros (2007. SVD analysis between rainfall, COD and AOD showed a pattern of aerosol loading (resembling EOF3 of MODIS AOD extending from 80° E~90° E that peaks during the winter and pre-monsoon seasons and decays abruptly during the monsoon: the regions of aerosol buildup during the pre-monsoon season and the areas of high rainfall/cloudiness during the monsoon are collocated and have opposite signs suggesting aerosol-cloud-rainfall interaction. It is proposed that the third EOF of AOD maps the area where aerosol-cloud-rainfall interactions play an important role in the regional hydro-climatology.

P. Shrestha

2010-09-01

324

Observations with the High Altitude GAmma-Ray (HAGAR) telescope array in the Indian Himalayas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The High Altitude GAmma-Ray (HAGAR) array is a wavefront sampling array of 7 telescopes, set-up at Hanle, at 4270 m amsl, in the Ladakh region of the Himalayas (Northern India). It constitutes the first phase of the HImalayan Gamma-Ray Observatory (HIGRO) project. HAGAR is the first array of atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes established at a so high altitude, and was designed to reach a relatively low threshold (currently around 200 GeV) with quite a low mirror area (31 m2

Britto, R. J.; Acharya, B. S.; Anupama, G. C.; Bhatt, N.; Bhattacharjee, P.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chitnis, V. R.; Cowsik, R.; Dorji, N.; Duhan, S. K.; Gothe, K. S.; Kamath, P. U.; Koul, R.; Manoharan, J.; Mahesh, P. K.

2011-01-01

325

Seasonal and annual mass balances of Mera and Pokalde glaciers (Nepal Himalaya) since 2007  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the Everest region, Nepal, ground-based monitoring programs were started on the debris-free Mera Glacier (27.7° N, 86.9° E; 5.1 km2, 6420 to 4940 m a.s.l.) in 2007 and on the small Pokalde Glacier (27.9° N, 86.8° E; 0.1 km2, 5690 to 5430 m a.s.l., ? 25 km North of Mera Glacier) in 2009. These glaciers lie on the southern flank of the central Himalaya under the direct influence of the Indian monsoon and receive more than 80% of their annual precipitatio...

Wagnon, P.; Vincent, C.; Arnaud, Y.; Berthier, E.; Vuillermoz, E.; Gruber, S.; Me?ne?goz, M.; Gilbert, A.; Dumont, M.; Shea, J. M.; Stumm, D.; Pokhrel, B. K.

2013-01-01

326

Rauwolfia (Reserpine) As a Potential Antihypertensive Agent: A Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The root of Rauwolfia serpentina Benth has been used in India from century. The genus name was selected in honor of Dr. Leonhard Rauwolf, a 16thcentury German botanist, Physician & explorer. Rauwolfia serpentina is a large climbing/twining herb or shrub, belonging to family Apocynaceae and found in the Assam, Pegu, Himalayas, Java, Tennasserim, Deccan, Peninsula, Bihar and the Malay Peninsula. Reserpine is the principle alkaloid of Rauwolfia serpentina and has its clinical application with su...

2012-01-01

327

The Collision Timing and Subsequent Deformation Phases in the Western Himalaya during the India-Eurasia Collision  

Science.gov (United States)

The western Himalaya differ from the central and eastern Himalaya due to the presence of the Kohistan-Ladakh paleo Island arc (KLA) that separates India from the former Eurasian margin (e.g. Karakoram). The KLA is separated from India by the Indus suture zone in the south, and in the north by the Shyok suture zone from the Karakorum. In an effort to understand the complicated collisional history in the western Himalaya we mapped ~8000 km2 in the western Himalaya in India over the last 4 years, focusing in detail on the intersection of the Shyok suture zone and the Karakoram fault. These results in combination with our previous work and published results from the western Himalaya in Pakistan, and U-Pb Zircon geochronology allows us to constrain the collisional history related to the India-Eurasia collision of this poorly studied region of the Himalayas. Our mapping indicate that the western Himalaya in India is dominated by four major fault zones: (1) the north dipping Indus suture, previously dated at 50 Ma; (2) the Shyok suture an originally south dipping fault zone of essentially unknown age; (3) a north dipping thrusts and reverse fault system likely the equivalent of the Karakoram thrust system described from northern Pakistan; and finally (4) the dextral Karakorum strike-slip fault. The continental Saltoro Molasse composed of conglomerate and sandstones is generally spatially associated in our mapping area with the Shyok suture zone and likely the western equivalent of the Purit formation described in Pakistan. The deposition of the Saltoro molasses postdated the formation of the Shyok suture zones, as serpentinized ultramafic conglomerate clasts are common in the molasse and are likely derived from the near-by ultramafics of the Shyok suture zone. However, both the Shyok suture and the Saltoro molasse are affected by the thrusting along the Karakoram thrust system and the deformation associated with movement of the Karakoram fault. These relative age relationships in combination with precise U-Pb zircon dates of crucial lithologies allow us to establish the detailed timing of deformational events in the western Himalaya. The results indicate that the Shyok suture postdates the formation of the Indus suture by ~10 Ma. Additionally, detrital zircon U-Pb ages of sedimentary rocks from the Saltoro molasses are as young as Miocene providing a maximum depositional age of the molasse and the deformation along the Karakoram thrust and Karakoram fault. Our results from the western Himalaya indicate that the India Eurasia collision was a prolonged event invoking arc-continent and continent-continent collision events. These results conflict with the simply continent-continent collision scenario of the India-Eurasia developed in the eastern and central Himalayas. However, numerous previously poorly understood observations such as the transition of calk-alkaline to alkaline magmatism in the Lhasa block at ~ 40 Ma, and even the detrital zircon record of the non-marine Tethyan sediments can be explained by extrapolating our collision scenario from the western Himalayas towards the east.

Jagoutz, O.; Upadhyay, R.; Bouilhol, P.; Van Buer, N. J.; Hanchar, J. M.

2012-12-01

328

Improvement of Sexual Destination in Atropa acuminata Royle (Solanaceae-A Critically Endangered Medicinal Plant of Northwestern Himalaya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Good seed set is no guarantee of absolute sexual destination in plants. Seed viability and seed vigour are crucial phases in the life cycle of every sexually reproducing plant. The present study was an attempt to improve the sexual destination-the germination and seedling survival of Atropa acuminata Royle (Solanaceae, an endemic and extremely restricted sub-alpine medicinal plant of North West Himalayas under ex situ conditions at (1580 m with an aim to develop a successful germination protocol and agrotechnique in order to revegetate disturbed areas. Among various treatments given to the seeds, GA3, Scarification, warm water treatment and chilling at 4°C for 90 days were found to be most effective with percentage germination of 73.3±18.80, 79.95±9.40, 66.6±6.6, 45±7.07 (X±SE, respectively. The results reveal that the seeds do not germinate unless specific environmental signals or events occur which trigger the genetic and hormonal response of the seeds thereby facilitating their germination. The diversity and the extent of the dormancy mechanisms encountered here suggest that under harsh conditions, natural selection may favour seeds with a genetic system for dormancy and delayed germination. A relation was observed between seed size/weight,%age germination and subsequent seedling survival. Seedling survival is also effected by specific habitat requirement and stiff intra and inter-specific competition particularly the whimsical behaviour of Sambucus wigthiana (an alien species which grows in the vicinity of Atropa is beyond the ken of Atropa, adding fuel to the already burning candle apart from habitat fragmentation and herbivory.

Parvaiz A. Wani

2007-01-01

329

Effect of altitude on picroside content in core collections of Picrorhiza kurrooa from the north western Himalayas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth (Scrophulariaceae), commonly known as Kutki, is a major ingredient of many ayurvedic preparations prescribed in the treatment of various diseases. Picrosides I and II are the active agents responsible for the medicinal effects of Kutki, and the variation in content of these compounds in plants at different altitudes is a major question to be addressed. The picroside I and II content in various plant parts of P. kurrooa collected from different altitudes, viz. Sonemarg (2,740 m a.s.l.), Tangmarg (2,690 m a.s.l.), and Pulwama (1,630 m a.s.l.) in the north-western Kashmir Himalayas was analyzed by HPLC. A considerable degree of variation in picroside content was observed. Picroside I and II was highest in populations collected from Sonemarg followed by Tangmarg, suggesting that picroside accumulation is directly correlated with altitudinal change. More picroside I was found in the rhizome and roots of the Pulwama population as compared to Tangmarg samples, whereas the quantity of Picroside II was reduced in plants from Pulwama compared to the Tangmarg population, suggesting that cultivation of P. kurroa at lower altitude reduces the picroside content. The quantities of picrosides also varied spatially, being highest in rhizome followed by roots, inflorescence and leaves in the populations from all three locations. The study concludes that picroside I and II accumulation depends on altitude, which could help in the selection and collection of superior genotypes with uniform effects for utilization by the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:21347670

Katoch, Meenu; Fazli, I S; Suri, K A; Ahuja, A; Qazi, G N

2011-07-01

330

A method for detecting centres of natural selection in protein structures: potential for predicting the location of functional areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple method has been developed to detect protein microenvironments which are likely to be the focus of natural selection, and thereby important for function. It relies on distinguishing between the probability of an amino acid type arising by genetic mutation and the probability that it will be chosen by natural selection. When applied to proteins of known tertiary structure, the method revealed that major differences exist in the balance between neutral and selected change, and also that functional sites can be highlighted. PMID:3254431

Dufton, M J; Bladon, P

1988-10-01

331

Macro Invertebrate Community from Sonamarg Streams of Kashmir Himalaya  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study analyses a macroinvertebrate community survey for River Sindh and its tributary including Baltal, Yashmarg, Sonamarg and Thajwas Grar considering the extreme hydrological conditions linked with the seasonal low-flow period typical for some streams in this area. This study attempts to provide an overview of the macro invertebrate assemblages and physico-chemical variables of the River Sindh and its important tributary. Four study sites were selected from the River Sindh and its trib...

Bhat, S. U.; Sofi, A. H.; Yaseen, T.; Pandit, A. K.; Yousuf, A. R.

2011-01-01

332

Selection bias in a population survey with registry linkage: potential effect on socioeconomic gradient in cardiovascular risk  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Non-participation in population studies is likely to be a source of bias in many types of epidemiologic studies, including those describing social disparities in health. The objective of this paper is to present a non-attendance analysis evaluating the possible impact of selection bias, when investigating the association between education level and cardiovascular risk factors. Data from the INTERGENE research programme including 3,610 randomly selected individuals aged 25?...

2010-01-01

333

Surface characteristics of debris-covered glacier tongues in the Khumbu Himalaya derived from remote sensing texture analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The delineation of debris-covered glaciers remains a challenge in optical remote sensing, due to the similarity of the spectral signature of debris-covered ice to surrounding lateral moraines, making it difficult to apply standard semi-automated algorithms commonly used for clean ice delineation. Furthermore, supraglacial debris exhibits considerable spatial variability in its characteristics such as debris cover thickness, particle size, thermal resistance and thermal conductivity. These properties are needed in order to map the extent of debris cover and to estimate ice melt under the debris cover or at the surface. In this study we evaluate the potential of texture analysis for detecting surface characteristics of debris-cover glacier tongues in the Khumbu Himalaya, using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and high-resolution Ikonos data. We focus on mapping supra-glacier lakes and exposed ice walls using texture analysis algorithms such as grey-level co-occurrence measures (GLCM), filtering, image segmentation, and particle boundaries. We compare the performance of various existing commercial software suitable for texture analysis such as ERDAS Objective, Aphelion, as well as public domain image display and analysis software used originally for medical analysis, notably Image SXM and ImageJ. Preliminary results based on geostatistics and GLCM measures show differences in surface roughness of debris cover when compared to surrounding ice-free moraines. We expand on these results and aim at developing a quasi-automated algorithm for extracting surface features, which will be used as input in an energy balance model for estimating melting under debris cover as well as surface ice melt.

Racoviteanu, Adina; Arnaud, Yves; Nicholson, Lindsay

2013-04-01

334

Lack of Abuse Potential in a Highly Selective Dopamine D3 Agonist, PF-592,379, in Drug Self-Administration and Drug Discrimination in Rats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dopamine D3-preferring agonists are commonly used to treat Parkinson’s disease and restless leg syndrome; however, laboratory animal studies suggest that they may possess a moderate abuse potential. These studies aimed to compare the highly-selective, full D3 agonist PF-592,379 to that of the less selective D3 agonist 7-OH-DPAT, and the indirect dopamine agonist cocaine in drug self-administration and discrimination assays. Although rats readily acquired high rates of fixed ratio (FR)1 resp...

Collins, Gregory T.; Butler, Paul; Wayman, Chris; Ratcliffe, Sian; Gupta, Paul; Oberhofer, Geoffrey; Caine, S. Barak

2012-01-01

335

Selection of candidate container materials for the conceptual waste package design for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Preliminary selection criteria have been developed, peer-reviewed, and applied to a field of 41 candidate materials to choose three alloys for further consideration during the advanced conceptual design phase of waste package development for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These three alloys are titanium grade 12, Alloy C-4, and Alloy 825. These selections are specific to the particular conceptual design outlined in the Site Characterization Plan. Other design concepts that may be considered in the advanced conceptual design phase may favor other materials choices.

Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Halsey, W.G.; McCright, R.D.; Clarke, W.L. Jr. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Gdowski, G.E. [KMI, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-02-01

336

Changes in Imja Lake and Karda Lake in the Everest Region of Himalaya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Himalaya is a region sensitive to climate change. Changes in the glacial regime are one indicator of global climate changes. There are several studies focusing on analysis of temporal changes of these glacial lakes in the Himalaya region. However, the researches on addressing these trends in relation with surrounding topographical conditions are quite limited. In this study, we analyzed spatio-temporal changes in Imja Lake, located on the southern slope, and Karda Lake, located on the northern slope of the Mt. Everest region, in 1976, 1992, 2000, and 2008. Moreover, we examined whether the topographic conditions differ between the two slopes. Landsat and ASTER GDEM (advanced space borne thermal emission and reflection radiometer, global digital elevation model data were used to identify boundaries of target glacial lakes and to calculate three indices of growth rate compared to year of 1976 (%, GRa, growth rate compared to preceding year (%, GRb, and growth speed (m2/year, GS of the two lakes. The topographic conditions in circular buffer zones from the centroid of the two lakes were analyzed. Although the area of two lakes demonstrated linear increase from 1976 to 2008, growth rate compared to year of 1976 (GRa differed significantly (Kruskal-Wallis test, p squared test for independence on m × n contingency table between 1976, 1992, 2000, and 2008 on growth speed (GS. The two slopes differed in terms of three topographical variables: altitude, aspect, and angle of inclination (Kruskal-Wallis test, p

Wenbo Chen

2013-10-01

337

Bayesian neural network modeling of tree-ring temperature variability record from the Western Himalayas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A novel technique based on the Bayesian neural network (BNN theory is developed and employed to model the temperature variation record from the Western Himalayas. In order to estimate an a posteriori probability function, the BNN is trained with the Hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC/Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC simulations algorithm. The efficacy of the new algorithm is tested on the well known chaotic, first order autoregressive (AR and random models and then applied to model the temperature variation record decoded from the tree-ring widths of the Western Himalayas for the period spanning over 1226–2000 AD. For modeling the actual tree-ring temperature data, optimum network parameters are chosen appropriately and then cross-validation test is performed to ensure the generalization skill of the network on the new data set. Finally, prediction result based on the BNN model is compared with the conventional artificial neural network (ANN and the AR linear models results. The comparative results show that the BNN based analysis makes better prediction than the ANN and the AR models. The new BNN modeling approach provides a viable tool for climate studies and could also be exploited for modeling other kinds of environmental data.

R. K. Tiwari

2011-08-01

338

Longest time series of glacier mass changes in the Himalaya based on stereo imagery  

Science.gov (United States)

Mass loss of Himalayan glaciers has wide-ranging consequences such as declining water resources, sea level rise and an increasing risk of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). The assessment of the regional and global impact of glacier changes in the Himalaya is, however, hampered by a lack of mass balance data for most of the range. Multi-temporal digital terrain models (DTMs) allow glacier mass balance to be calculated since the availability of stereo imagery. Here we present the longest time series of mass changes in the Himalaya and show the high value of early stereo spy imagery such as Corona (years 1962 and 1970) aerial images and recent high resolution satellite data (Cartosat-1) to calculate a time series of glacier changes south of Mt. Everest, Nepal. We reveal that the glaciers are significantly losing mass with an increasing rate since at least ~1970, despite thick debris cover. The specific mass loss is 0.32 ± 0.08 m w.e. a-1, however, not higher than the global average. The spatial patterns of surface lowering can be explained by variations in debris-cover thickness, glacier velocity, and ice melt due to exposed ice cliffs and ponds.

Bolch, T.; Pieczonka, T.; Benn, D. I.

2010-12-01

339

Recovery and Restoration of Some Critically Endangered Endemic Angiosperms of the Kashmir Himalaya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Floristic diversity constitutes an indispensable resource-base for the human livelihood. Plants, being vital components of the biodiversity and the ecosystems they form, are essential for human progress and survival. In the recent past, however, human actions have brought a large number of plant species at the brink of extinction. One of the conservative estimates suggests that 60,000 to 100,000 plant species are threatened worldwide. These include a large number of endemic taxa, which being of considerable phytogeographic importance, need immediate attention of the botanists and conservationists. The Kashmir Himalaya harbours a rich angiosperm-flora, about 152 species of which are endemic exclusively to the Kashmir region. Many of these endemics are of great economic value, especially in food and fodder, local and commercial medicine, etc. Due to over-exploitation, habitat destruction and other anthropogenic activities, together with their innate sensitiveness, many of these endemics have become rare and threatened. This necessitates a thorough study of the threatened endemics of Kashmir so as to pave way for their conservation. The present study aims to dilate upon the taxonomy and the ex situ conservation aspects of five critically endangered endemic flowering-plant species of the Kashmir Himalaya, viz. Aquilegia nivalis, Aconitum kashmiricum, Lagotis cashmeriana, Megacarpaea polyandra and Saussurea costus.

A.R. Dar

2006-01-01

340

A CERN flag is set to wave up in the Himalayas  

CERN Multimedia

On 18 October, Hubert Reymond, from the Industrial Controls and Engineering group of the EN Department, will be leaving to Nepal with a CERN flag in his backpack. He will place it at the highest point of his trek across the Annapurna mountains in the Himalayas, Thorong La pass, at 5,416 m above sea level.   A view of the Annapurna mountains (source: www.flickr.com/minutesalone) “Is there any official CERN flag I can carry with me during my trek through Nepal?” Some days ago, the Press Office was confronted with this unusual (but see box) question from Hubert Reymond. From 18 October to 10 November, Reymond, who works as an industrial computing engineer in the EN Department, will be trekking across the 55 km-long Annapurna massif in the Himalayas, whose highest point lies at 8,091 m (making it the 10th-highest summit in the world). The area is well-known to trekkers from around the world, as it includes several world-class circuits, including the Annapurna circuit which Reym...

Roberto Cantoni

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Planktonic Desmid Flora of South of the Eastern Himalayas: A Systematic Approach on Algae-I  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Desmids are freshwater algae often considered as indicator of oligotrophic environment for water bodies. There are ample examples of works done by various workers throughout the world. Though desmids are reported from many parts of India, North East India, located in South of the Eastern Himalaya, is lacking behind in the study of this particular microflora in spite of its rich biodiversity. Therefore, an attempt has been made to study the planktonic desmid flora of North East India. Samples are collected with the help of planktonic net, wide mouth bottles and natural periphytons. Species are identified with the help of standard literature. In the present investigation, a total no. of 38 taxa of desmids including 8 species of genera Closterium, 10 species of Cosmarium, 5 species of Euastrum, 5 species of Micrasterias, 1 species of Netrium, Tortitaenia and Gonatozygon, 2 species of Pleurotaenium and 5 species of Staurastrum were recorded as phytoplankton during August 2009 to 2010 which are new records from the South of the Eastern Himalayas. Among them Closterium and Cosmarium are found to be more abundant indicating their oligotrophic nature which are need to be conserved.

K.K. Medhi

2011-01-01

342

Verification of GSMaP Rainfall Estimates over the Central Himalayas  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper verifies satellite-based rainfall data GSMaP_MVK+ with gauge observed rainfall over the Nepal Himalayas. Assessment of the accuracy is done at two levels, firstly for the whole country and secondly for physiographic regions. Verification of daily rainfall at a country level shows that the GSMaP_MVK+ captures the spatial distribution of rainfall well but underestimates with a correlation coefficient 0.79, bias -2.6 and RMSE 4.8 mm day-1 and percentage error of -55%. Verification with physiographic regions show that the GSMaP_MVK+ performs well in flatter terrain with a correlation coefficient of higher than 0.8 and prediction accuracy of 70%; however, performance deteriorates with increase in altitude. In the Mid and High Mountain areas the correlation coefficient is 0.4 with prediction of 40% or less. The results indicate the need for improvement of GSMaP_MVK+ estimates by considering orography in the algorithm or bias adjustment before application in the Himalayas.

Shrestha, Mandira; Takara, Kaoru; Kubota, Takuji; Bajracharya, Sagar

343

Analysis of climatic variability and snow cover in the Kaligandaki River Basin, Himalaya, Nepal  

Science.gov (United States)

Various remote sensing products and observed data sets were used to determine spatial and temporal trends in climatic variables and their relationship with snow cover area in the higher Himalayas, Nepal. The remote sensing techniques can detect spatial as well as temporal patterns in temperature and snow cover across the inaccessible terrain. Non-parametric methods (i.e. the Mann-Kendall method and Sen's slope) were used to identify trends in climatic variables. Increasing trends in temperature, approximately by 0.03 to 0.08 °C year-1 based on the station data in different season, and mixed trends in seasonal precipitation were found for the studied basin. The accuracy of MOD10A1 snow cover and fractional snow cover in the Kaligandaki Basin was assessed with respect to the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer-based snow cover area. With increasing trends in winter and spring temperature and decreasing trends in precipitation, a significant negative trend in snow cover area during these seasons was also identified. Results indicate the possible impact of global warming on precipitation and snow cover area in the higher mountainous area. Similar investigations in other regions of Himalayas are warranted to further strengthen the understanding of impact of climate change on hydrology and water resources and extreme hydrologic events.

Mishra, Bhogendra; Babel, Mukand S.; Tripathi, Nitin K.

2014-05-01

344

Application of regional climate models to the Indian winter monsoon over the western Himalayas.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Himalayan region is characterized by pronounced topographic heterogeneity and land use variability from west to east, with a large variation in regional climate patterns. Over the western part of the region, almost one-third of the annual precipitation is received in winter during cyclonic storms embedded in westerlies, known locally as the western disturbance. In the present paper, the regional winter climate over the western Himalayas is analyzed from simulations produced by two regional climate models (RCMs) forced with large-scale fields from ERA-Interim. The analysis was conducted by the composition of contrasting (wet and dry) winter precipitation years. The findings showed that RCMs could simulate the regional climate of the western Himalayas and represent the atmospheric circulation during extreme precipitation years in accordance with observations. The results suggest the important role of topography in moisture fluxes, transport and vertical flows. Dynamical downscaling with RCMs represented regional climates at the mountain or even event scale. However, uncertainties of precipitation scale and liquid-solid precipitation ratios within RCMs are still large for the purposes of hydrological and glaciological studies. PMID:23411117

Dimri, A P; Yasunari, T; Wiltshire, A; Kumar, P; Mathison, C; Ridley, J; Jacob, D

2013-12-01

345

Discovery of a Potent, Selective, and Orally Active Phosphodiesterase 10A Inhibitor for the Potential Treatment of Schizophrenia.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the discovery of a series of imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazine derivatives as novel inhibitors of phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A). In a high-throughput screening campaign we identified the imidazopyrazine derivative 1, a PDE10A inhibitor with limited selectivity versus the other phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Subsequent investigation of 1 and replacement of the trimethoxyphenyl group by a (methoxyethyl)pyrazole moiety maintained PDE10A inhibition but enhanced selectivity against the other PDEs. Systematic examination and analysis of structure-activity and structure-property relationships resulted in the discovery of 2, an in vitro potent and selective inhibitor of PDE10A with high striatal occupancy of PDE10A, promising in vivo efficacy in different rodent behavioral models of schizophrenia, and a good pharmacokinetic profile in rats. PMID:24758746

Bartolomé-Nebreda, José Manuel; Delgado, Francisca; Martín-Martín, María Luz; Martínez-Viturro, Carlos M; Pastor, Joaquín; Tong, Han Min; Iturrino, Laura; Macdonald, Gregor J; Sanderson, Wendy; Megens, Anton; Langlois, Xavier; Somers, Marijke; Vanhoof, Greet; Conde-Ceide, Susana

2014-05-22

346

Deep seismic structure of the Indian shield, western Himalaya, Ladakh and Tibet  

Science.gov (United States)

P and S receiver functions from seismograph stations in the Indian shield, Western Himalaya, Ladakh and Tibet are processed with a method which provides estimates of the P and S velocities and their ratio as a function of depth. The time difference between the P660s and P410s phases in the north of the Indian shield and the Lesser Himalaya is 1.0-1.5 s larger than the normal 24 s. This is an effect of a low temperature with implication that the consumed material of the Indian shield has reached the transition zone. The waveforms of the P410s and S410p phases at some stations in the Indian shield are indicative of a thin (a few tens of kilometers) low S velocity layer atop the 410-km discontinuity, which is usually related to mantle upwelling. The mantle S velocity under the Indian shield at depths less than 180 km is 4.4-4.5 km/s, much lower than the 4.7 km/s, typical for Precambrian shields. We explain this low S velocity mainly by a recent (Tertiary?) metasomatic alteration of the high-velocity mantle keel. Beneath the western Himalaya, Ladakh and western Tibet (but not eastern Tibet) the S velocity in the mantle at depths less than 100-150 km is around 4.7 km/s, Vp/Vs is anomalously low, and we argue that this high-velocity layer is a remnant of the mantle lithosphere of the northern Greater India. At most locations in the Indian shield high S velocities (3.5 km/s and more) are dominant in the middle and lower crusts, and the elevated S velocity is accompanied by an increased Vp/Vs ratio (1.8-2.1 versus the standard 1.73). In the foothills of the Himalaya, the crust is 50-55 km thick and consists almost entirely of a high-S-velocity (3.7 km/s and more) rock with the increased Vp/Vs ratio in the middle and the standard Vp/Vs ratio in the lower crust. This observation suggests that the upper crust of the Indian plate is scraped off in the collision zone, whereas the high-velocity lower crust is subducted jointly with the mantle lithosphere. The high velocities are responsible for the P-wave teleseismic travel time anomaly of ~ 1 s relative to Ladakh. Under the Himalaya the Vp/Vs ratio in the crust is normal, which suggests a change in composition relative to the crust of the Indian shield. Under Ladakh and Tibet the anomalously high Vp/Vs ratio in the crust is observed again. Beneath Tibet our analysis reveals a low-velocity crustal zone of partial melt between the 20-km and 45-km depths. Previously, the 45-km discontinuity was interpreted as the effect of eclogitization.

Oreshin, S. I.; Vinnik, L. P.; Kiselev, S. G.; Rai, S. S.; Prakasam, K. S.; Treussov, A. V.

2011-07-01

347

AN ANALYSIS OF MARKET POTENTIAL ANALYSIS TOWARDS SMALL CAR SEGMENT WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO SELECTED CITIES IN TAMILNADU  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years small segment cars became more popular due to its low price and its attractive features. In Indian market the small segment cars have more welcome from all the parts of India. This research was carried to found the market potential to the small car industry in India For this study the structured questionnaire was carried and the study concluded with the 600 respondents. It shows that market potential for the small car segment in Indian consumers overwhelm and Indian customers are the potential buyers to the small car segment.

V.SUBRAMANIAN

2013-01-01

348

Impact of initial and boundary conditions on regional winter climate over the Western Himalayas: A fixed domain size experiment  

Science.gov (United States)

The Western Himalayas during winter receives precipitation due to the eastward moving low pressure synoptic weather systems, called Western Disturbances (WDs) in Indian meteorological parlance. The complex Himalayan topography, sparse observational data, less understanding of physical processes, etc. form many interesting research questions over this region. One of the important research goals is to study the change in the winter (Dec., Jan. and Feb. - DJF) climate over the Himalayas. In the presented study with modelling efforts having varying initial and boundary conditions (ICBC) with same model physics option is attempted to provide a comment on important physical processes pertaining to precipitation and temperature fields. A 22 year (1980-2001) simulation with Regional Climate Model version 3 (RegCM3) forced with National Centre for Environmental Prediction/National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis 1 (NNRP1), NCEP/NCAR reanalysis 2 (NNRP2) and European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast 40 Year reanalysis (ERA40) as three different ICBC is carried out. The present study focuses on the winter climatology of the main meteorological parameters viz., temperature, precipitation and snow depth and interannual variability of winter seasonal precipitation. The model shows overestimation of seasonal average precipitation and underestimation of seasonal average temperature fields over the Western Himalayas in all the three model simulations. The interannual variability of precipitation and temperature over this region is nicely captured by the model. The model simulation with NNRP2 as the ICBC shows more realistic results. In addition the ensemble mean of the three simulations has shown improved results and is closer to the abovementioned simulation. Precipitation bias explained in terms of the higher vertical integrated moisture flux and transport shows strong convergence zone over and along the southern rim of the Indian Himalayas. The energy balance over the Western Himalayas explains the cause of lower temperature in the model simulation and the cause of lesser convective precipitation and evaporation.

Maharana, P.; Dimri, A. P.

2014-03-01

349

Constraining the Shear Wave Speed Structure Beneath NE India From the Eastern Bengal Basin to the Himalaya  

Science.gov (United States)

We constrain the S-wave velocity structure of the crust and uppermost mantle of NE India using receiver functions from 10 broadband seismographs located along a ~400~km profile extending from the Bengal Basin to the Great Himalaya. Receiver functions from recordings at eight of these stations were previously used to examine the crustal structure but here we discuss analysis of an expanded dataset from the original eight stations plus data from two additional stations, one located on the Bengal Basin and the other located in the Great Himalaya. More importantly, we jointly invert the receiver function data with Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion data for this region to better constrain the crustal structure. Analysis of data from the new southernmost site located at Agartala close to the Bay of Bengal shows a crustal thickness of 38-40~km with a 5~km thick very high velocity layer (S-wave velocity 4.9~km/s) immediately above the Moho, most likely indicating the existence of the oceanic crust south of the Bengal Basin hinge zone. The Moho beneath the Shillong Plateau is 34-36~km deep with a crustal structure typical of the Indian shield. To the north of the plateau the crust thickens to 42-44~km beneath the Brahmaputra Valley, to 48-50~km beneath the Lesser Himalaya, and 55-57~km below our second new site located at Tawang in the Great Himalaya. To the north of the Great Himalaya beneath the southern Tibetan Plateau, the Indian Moho continues to dip northward at ~6° reaching a depth of ~90~km beneath Lhasa.

Mitra, S.; Hazarika, N.; Priestley, K.; Gaur, V. K.

2005-12-01

350

The b-spacing values of white micas and their metamorphic implications in the Lesser Himalaya, central Nepal  

Science.gov (United States)

The Lesser Himalaya in central Nepal exposes a very wide section (>80 km) of very low- to low-grade metamorphic rocks. Metamorphic data from these rocks are relatively rare because of fine-grained nature of the rocks and lack of suitable assemblage for themobarometric calculations. In the present study, b-spacing measurements and compositional analyses were carried out on white micas in very low- to low-grade metapelites collected along the Kali Gandaki river valley and Tansen-Pokhara road sections to determine evidence of polymetamorphism and P-T conditions of metamorphism. The study showed that the Lesser Himalaya experienced at least two metamorphic events, one prior to the Upper Main Central Thrust (Upper MCT) activity (pre-Himalayan? or M 0) and the other during the Upper MCT activity (Neohimalayan or M 2). The M 0 produced celadonite-rich white micas defining the S 1(=S 0) foliation which pre-dates the Upper MCT event. The M 0 white micas were partially or completely re-equilibrated during M 2. The white micas recrystallized during M 2 are relatively celadonite-poor and define S 2 foliation. The M 2 was of an intermediate-P type (Barrovian-type) in the south of the Phalebas Thrust while it was of relatively high-T type in the north near the Upper MCT. The geothermal gradient varied from 22 °C km -1 in the south to 26 °C km -1 in the north. The northward increase in geothermal gradient is thought to be due to the heat transfer from hot Higher Himalaya or shear heating along the Upper MCT as suggested by Le Fort [Le Fort, P., 1975. Himalaya, the collided range: present knowledge of the continental arc. American Journal of Science 275A, 1-44. Arita, K., 1983. Origin of the inverted metamorphism of the Lower Himalayas, central Nepal. Tectonophysics 95, 43-60].

Paudel, Lalu Prasad; Arita, Kazunori

2006-06-01

351

76 FR 27342 - Central Utah Project Completion Act; Notice of Intent To Accept Proposals, Select a Potential...  

Science.gov (United States)

...power purchasing and/or marketing considerations. Interested...Western's purchasing and/or marketing the power may also be obtained...accommodate existing contractual commitments related to operation and maintenance...discuss Western's potential marketing of hydropower. Proposal...

2011-05-11

352

Modelling bed overdeepenings for the glaciers in the Himalaya-Karakoram region using GlabTop2  

Science.gov (United States)

Calculating ice thickness distribution and bed topographies for large glacier samples is an essential task to estimate stored ice volumes with their potential for sea level rise and to model possible future retreat scenarios of glacier evolution under conditions of continued warming. Modelling such bed topographies to become exposed in the near future by continued glacier retreat also enables modelling of future landscapes with their landforms, processes and interactions. As the erosive power of glaciers can form numerous and sometimes large closed topographic bed depressions, many overdeepenings are commonly found in formerly glaciated mountain ranges. Where such overdeepend parts are becoming exposed and filled with water rather than sediments new lakes can come into existence. GlabTop (Glacier bed Topography) has been used to model ice thickness distribution and bed topographies of large glacier samples. It is an ice dynamical approach, based on the assumption of perfect plasticity of ice, which relates glacier thickness to its local surface slope via the basal shear stress estimated for each glacier based on an empirical relation between shear stress and elevation range as a governing factor of mass turnover. From comparison with radio-echo soundings in the Swiss Alps, the uncertainty range of local ice thicknesses calculated with GlabTop is estimated at about ±30%. The spatial variability of ice depths, i.e. the glacier-bed topography, primarily depends on surface slope as provided by DEMs and is quite robust. For the entire Swiss Alps, GlabTop revealed a considerable number (more than 500) of (partly large) overdeepenings in the modelled glacier beds with a total area of about 50-60 km2 and a total volume of about 1.5-2.5 km3. A number of lakes have formed in such modelled overdeepenings during the past years and decades. To calculate bed topographies with their overdeepenings for the 28'100 glaciers of the Himalaya-Karakoram region the GlabTop-approach was modified and named GlabTop2. While the original approach relied on so called glacier branch lines that had to be digitized manually, GlabTop2 is fully automated and requires only a DEM and glacier outlines as an input. The result is the same: ice thickness distribution and bed topographies, which can be used for volume calculations and for model simulations concerning glacier retreat scenarios and future landscapes. According to the model output there are about 15'000 overdeepenings covering an area of about 2000 km2 and having a total volume of about 120 km3 (3-4% of the now existing glacier volume) in the Himalaya-Karakoram region. In a statistical analysis concerning the morphological characteristics of these overdeepenings, mean and maximum values of the parameters surface area, length, width, depth, volume, frontal/adverse slope and their statistical interrelations are determined with their corresponding uncertainty ranges and compared with a corresponding analysis for the Swiss Alps. While the modelled overdeepenings based on model runs with different data input differ in shape, the locations of the overdeepenings are robust and the values for the extracted parameters are comparable.

Linsbauer, Andreas; Frey, Holger; Haeberli, Wilfried; Machguth, Horst

2014-05-01

353

Transport of sediments in Himalaya-Karakorum and its influence on hydropower plants; Sedimenttransportprozesse im Himalaya-Karakorum und ihre Bedeutung fuer Wasserkraftanlagen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the present study the sediment transport processes in alpine mountain areas and their impact on hydropower development projects are investigated. The aim of the present work is to contribute to the understanding of the transport process system, which is characterized by high magnitude-low frequency - events, to ensure an appropriate layout of high head hydropower projects in mountain regions. The sediment transport in large areas in the macro scale is triggered by natural hazards, such as earthquakes, rock slides, earth movements, debris flows, glacial lake outbursts and floods. The basic principle of complex transport processes in this scale is described and explained on the example of the Himalaya-Karakorum-region. The sediment transport process in the smaller scale, so called meso scale, is investigated by means of extensive field measurements at river reaches of 16 different mountain rivers of a 80000 km{sup 2} large project area. The measurements include topographic survey works and measurements of discharge, bed load and suspended load. Since the conditions of mountain rivers in terms of size of bed material as well as available flow velocities can be considered as extreme, an appropriate bed load sampler named B-69 was developed, constructed and used in the field. Moreover the hydraulic as well as the sedimentological efficiency of the sampler was tested in the laboratory tests. Due to the nice performance of the bed load sampler B-69 at high flow velocities it might be useful for flood conditions in gravel-bed rivers in other parts of the world as well. Based on the results of the study the parameter of the river slope can be considered as the most important one for the characteristics of the morphology, the flow conditions, the bed stability as well as the bed load transport in steep mountain rivers. With increasing slope morphological structures in the longitudinal direction will develop from flat bed conditions. The so called step-pool-systems consist of a cascade of staircase local falls. Their distance in-between the falls as well as their height difference at the steps is strongly depending on the river slope. (orig.) [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit beschaeftigt sich mit den Sedimenttransportprozessen in alpinen Gebirgsregionen und deren Auswirkungen auf Wasserkraftanlagen. Ziel der Arbeit ist es, zum Verstaendnis des natuerlichen Sedimenttransportes mit der fuer Gebirgsregionen typischen Charakteristik von 'High Magnitude-Low Frequency - Prozessen' beizutragen, um eine den Transportverhaeltnissen geeignete Auslegung von geplanten Wasserkraftanlagen zu finden. Am Beispiel der Gebirgsregion des Himalaya-Karakorums werden die komplexen Transportvorgaenge im grossraeumigen Raum des Makromassstabes erlaeutert. Dabei wird auf die Massentransporte eingegangen, die durch Naturgefahren wie Erdbeben, Felsgleitungen, Erdrutsche, Muren, Gletscherbrueche und Hochwaesser ausgeloest werden. Der Schwerpunkt der Arbeit liegt in der Durchfuehrung von umfangreichen Naturmessungen im untergeordneten Raum des Mesomassstabes im Bereich von einzelnen Flussabschnitten. Die Naturmessungen umfassen morphologische und topographische Aufnahmen, Abfliessmessungen, Geschiebe- sowie Schwebstoffmessungen an 16 Gebirgsfluessen eines insgesamt 80000 km{sup 2} grossen Projektgebietes im Himalaya-Karakorum. Aufgrund der extremen Verhaeltnisse der Gebirgsfluesse der Region hinsichtlich vorhandener Korngroesse des Bettmaterials sowie die Groessenordnung der Fliessgeschwindigkeiten wurde fuer die Untersuchungen eigens der mobile Geschiebesammler B-69 entwickelt, gebaut und auf seine hydraulische und sedimentologische Effizienz hin geprueft. Der Einsatz des B-69 hat sich im Feld bewaehrt und ist fuer weitere Anwendungen bei Hochwasserereignissen in kiesfuehrenden Fluessen geeignet. Als massgebender Parameter zur Beschreibung der Morphologie, der Stroemung, der Sohlenstabilitaet und des Geschiebetransportes von Gebirgsfluessen im Mesomassstab konnte das Gefaelle I festgestellt werden. Das Gefaelle ist bestimmend fuer die Ausbildung d

Palt, S.M.

2001-07-01

354

Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 1. Data, maps, models and methods used for selection of potential areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings plus different types of material from the research periods) and radioactive waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The Minister for Health and Prevention presented the background and decision plan for the Danish Parliament in January 2009. All political parties agreed on the plan. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. In the present study, the salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included. The present report briefly describes the existing data collections (including databases, maps and models), that are used during the work of selection of ca. 20 potentially suitable areas. Most of the information is stored in GEUS databases: Location of boreholes, borehole data, rock sediment and ground water compounds, maps, geophysical data and much more, but information is also collected from other institutions. The methods are described in more details (chapter 6) and this description is the direct background for the selection process, the characterisation of the 20 areas and for the final selection of the 2 or 3 most potential sites. (LN)

Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

2011-07-01

355

Clinical Evaluation of the Potential Utility of Computational Modeling as an HIV Treatment Selection Tool by Physicians with Considerable HIV Experience  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The HIV Resistance Response Database Initiative (RDI), which comprises a small research team in the United Kingdom and collaborating clinical centers in more than 15 countries, has used antiretroviral treatment and response data from thousands of patients around the world to develop computational models that are highly predictive of virologic response. The potential utility of such models as a tool for assisting treatment selection was assessed in two clinical pilot studies: a prospective stu...

Larder, Brendan A.; Revell, Andrew; Mican, Joann M.; Agan, Brian K.; Harris, Marianne; Torti, Carlo; Izzo, Ilaria; Metcalf, Julia A.; Rivera-goba, Migdalia; Marconi, Vincent C.; Wang, Dechao; Coe, Daniel; Gazzard, Brian; Montaner, Julio; Lane, H. Clifford

2011-01-01

356

Selectivity for grasp in local field potential and single neuron activity recorded simultaneously from M1 and F5 in the awake macaque monkey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The selectivity for object-specific grasp in local field potentials (LFPs) was investigated in two awake macaque monkeys trained to observe, reach out, grasp and hold one of six objects presented in a pseudorandom order. Simultaneous, multiple electrode recordings were made from the hand representations of primary motor cortex (M1) and ventral premotor cortex (area F5). LFP activity was well developed during the observation and hold periods of the task, especially in the beta frequency range ...

Spinks, R. L.; Kraskov, A.; Brochier, T.; Umilta, M. A.; Lemon, R. N.

2008-01-01

357

Determination of the jump in electrostatic potential at the earth's bow shock front by selective measurements of the ion components in the solar wind  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have examined the jumps in velocity and temperature of the proton and alpha-particle components in the solar wind when the wind intersects the Earth's bow shock. The jumps were measured by means of selective detectors of the SKS energy spectrometer on the satellites Prognoz 7 and 8. On the basis of energy balance, we determine the jump in the electrostatic potential at the shock front: on the average, it amounts to about 300 V

1986-07-01

358

Effects of vapour pressure deficit and soil water content on leaf water potential between selected provenances of Eucalyptus microtheca in an irrigated plantation, eastern Kenya.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the study was to compare the behaviour of three selected provenances of Eucalyptus microtheca that were likely to response differently to drought. For this purpose, we studied the effects of vapour pressure deficit and soil water content on leaf water potential in an irrigated plantation at Bura, eastern Kenya. An international provenance trial of Eucalyptus microtheca, established as a part of Finnida-supported Bura Forestry Research Project in eastern Kenya in August 1984, was u...

Tuomela, Kari; Kanninen, Markku

1995-01-01

359

The relevance of corporate social responsibility for a sustainable human resource management: An analysis of organizational attractiveness as a determinant in employees' selection of a (potential) employer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has become a central issue of business management in recent years. This study aims to add to the literature by pointing out the relevance of CSR for a Sustainable Human Resource Management (HRM). In particular this research investigates job seekers' perceptions of CSR. The paper focuses on the importance of CSR with in the process of selecting potential employers by analyzing the impact of four different CSR-dimensions upon organizational attractiveness. ...

Lis, Bettina

2012-01-01

360

Tapping the translation potential of cAMP signalling: molecular basis for selectivity in cAMP agonism and antagonism as revealed by NMR.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eukaryotic CBDs (cAMP-binding domains) control multiple cellular functions (e.g. phosphorylation, guanine exchange and ion channel gating). Hence the manipulation of cAMP-dependent signalling pathways has a high translational potential. However, the ubiquity of eukaryotic CBDs also poses a challenge in terms of selectivity. Before the full translational potential of cAMP signalling can be tapped, it is critical to understand the structural basis for selective cAMP agonism and antagonism. Recent NMR investigations have shown that structurally homologous CBDs respond differently to several CBD ligands and that the