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Sample records for heat-resistant alloy hastelloy

  1. Corrosion resistance of alloys of Hastelloy in chloroaluminate melts

    Karpov, V. V.; Bazhenov, A. V.; Abramov, A. V.; Polovov, I. B.; Rebrin, O. I.

    2015-01-01

    The corrosion of Hastelloy S, Hastelloy X, Haynes 230, Hastelloy N, Hastelloy G35 and Hastelloy C2000 alloys was studied in KCl-AlCl3 melts at 550°С. The rates and the mechanisms of corrosion of the studied materials were determined. The processes taking place during the interaction between alloys and chloroaluminate melts were investigated.

  2. Filler metal development for hastelloy alloy XR

    A method of alloy designing has been proposed and validated to develop the filler metal for Hastelloy alloy XR(nuclear reactor grade of Hastelloy alloy X), which is the candidate material for high temperature structure of High-Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). In the filler metal development for Hastelloy alloy XR, materials of two heats were melted and fabricated with special emphasis placed on manufacturing process. One is the trial products (alloy termed 'C') designed by using multiple regression analysis in the range of the chemical composition specified as Hastelloy alloy X. The other is filler metal (alloy termed 'D') with optimum boron content in the same chemical composition as Hastelloy alloy XR. The results of the tests on several key items may be summarized as follows: (1) Weldments with alloy'C' showed higher strength and ductility at elevated temperatures than those of alloy'D'. (2) Weldments with alloy'D' had more excellent strength characteristics at elevated temperatures than those of the other conventional filler metals. (3) As for weldability, the crater cracks were slightly observed in the FISCO cracking test, but those were out of the problem in the degree of cracking from the viewpoint of practical application. The results of qualification tests on weldability showed good performance for all welding conditions of the present experiments. On the other hand, the mechanism of hot cracking initiation and the controlling factors in hot cracking susceptibility with relation to boron content have been clarified for Hastelloy alloy XR base metal. (author)

  3. Filler metal development for Hastelloy alloy XR

    In order to develop the filler metal for Hastelloy alloy XR structure with thick wall, the weldability and high temperature strength properties of Hastelloy alloy XR weldment were investigated using the filler metals, which were alloy-designed on the basis of multiple regression analysis. The former was examined through the chemical analysis in the deposited metal, bend test, FISCO cracking test, optical microscopy and hardness measurement. The latter was investigated by means of tensile and creep test. It was found from these results that the crack susceptibility in the weldment was apparent to be lowered without degrading the high temperature strength properties. Therefore, it is concluded that these filler metals possess excellent performance as the filler metal for Hastelloy alloy XR structure with thick wall. (author)

  4. Electron beam welding of dissimilar heat resistant alloys

    To the welding of the different heat resistant materials for high temperature gas-cooled reactors, electron beam welding was applied, and the high temperature strength of the weld metal was examined as it is necessary for evaluating the welded joints. As the results, the high temperature strength of the weld metal of Hastelloy X and 2.25 Cr-1Mo steel at 500 degC and that of Hastelloy X and SUS316 at 600 degC showed the nearly intermediate values of both parent materials in both cases. Accordingly, when the high temperature strength of electron beam welded metals is evaluated, it is considered that by evaluating at least with the value of a lower strength parent metal, sufficient safety is ensured. In this study, the electron beam welded joints of typical different heat resistant alloys were made, and the tesile strength, creep rupture strength and low cycle fatique strength of the weld metals at high temperature were determined to compare with those of parent alloys. The tested alloys, welding method and high temperature tests are reported. (Koko, I.)

  5. Thermomechanical treatment of heat-resisting alloys

    Different types of thermomechanical treatment (TMT) are considered in the review. Three schemes which are used for heat resistant ageing alloys are singled out and described in detail: high-temperature thermomechanical treatment (HTMT), mechanico-thermal treatment (MTT) and low-temperature thermomechanical treatment (LTMT). Special attention is paid to perspective LTMT including warm deformation. It is shown that the application of the TMT to concrete alloys permits to increase the strength characteristics in a certain temperature range of the product exploitation without considerable plasticity loss. TMT with the use.of warm deformation in two-phase region looks like the most perspective treatment increasing strength properties, resistance against fatigue destruction and decreasing the sensitivity to the cut

  6. Machining of high alloy steels and heat resistant alloys

    The peculiarities of machining high alloy steels and heat resistant alloys on the base of nickel by cutting are described. The factors worsening the machining of heat resistant materials, namely, the low heat conductivity, strong reverting and high wearing capability, are pointed out. The resign and materials of cutting instruments, providing for high quality machining of heat resistant steels and alloys, are considered. The necessity of regulating thermal processes during cutting with cutting fluids and other coolants (e.g. air with a negative temperature) is noted. The recommended modes of cutting are presented. The efficiency of the conveyer-type method for sawing products and forged intermediate articles is demonstrated by the example of 5KhNM steel

  7. Hydrogen permeation through iron, nickel, and heat resisting alloys at elevated temperatures

    Hydrogen permeabilities of several metals and alloys were measured over the temperature range of 200 - 10000C and some factors affecting the hydrogen permeability were discussed. Materials studied were iron, nickel, 80Ni-20Cr alloy, 50Fe-30Ni-20Cr alloy, HK 40, Incoloy 800, Hastelloy X, and Inconel 600. The hydrogen permeability of nickel was proportional to the square root of the pressure and inversely proportional to the membrane thickness. The activation energy and pre-exponential factor for the hydrogen permeation through these metals and alloys were derived from the temperature coefficient. The hydrogen permeability of nickel was larger than that of iron (γ), and the permeabilities of the heat resisting alloys were between those of nickel and iron (γ). There was a close correlation between the hydrogen permeability and nickel content in the alloys, that is, the permeability increased with the increase of the nickel content in the alloys. The formation of the oxide film on the alloy surface in wet hydrogen resulted in a remarkable reduction of the hydrogen permeability at elevated temperatures. (auth.)

  8. Metal Dusting of Heat-Resistant Alloys

    Al-Meshari, Abdulaziz I.

    2008-01-01

    Metal dusting leads to disintegration of such alloys as iron and nickel-based into a ?dust? of particulate metal, metal carbide, carbon, and/or oxide. It occurs in strongly carburising environments at 400-900?C. Literature survey has shown that alloys behave differently in metal dusting conditions based on their composition and the environment. Metal dusting mechanisms for iron and nickel-based alloys have been proposed but, nevertheless, have not been agreed upon and numerous modifications t...

  9. Heat resistance of multicomponent coatings on the niobium alloys

    Increase in heat resistance of niobium and its alloys by means of diffusion saturation with aluminium together with the elements reducing its mobility, i.e. chromium and silicon is studied. It is shown that the Cr-Al coating can be used for protection of niobium alloys at the temperatures below 1000 deg C or as a sublayer for silicide coatings. Simultaneous saturation with chromium, aluminium and silicon results in formation of a coating consisting of three layers, heat resistance of which increases considerably as compared to the one observed in the case of two-component saturation with chromium and aluminium. The study of the samples with the Cr-Al-Si coating has also shown that oxidation of alloys in this case proceeds less intensely. Possibility of the coating application for practical purposes for niobium alloys protection from oxidation in the air at high temperatures is shown

  10. Cavitation erosion behavior of Hastelloy C-276 nickel-based alloy

    Li, Zhen [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Han, Jiesheng; Lu, Jinjun [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Chen, Jianmin, E-mail: chenjm@lzb.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Cavitation erosion behavior of Hastelloy C-276 was studied by ultrasonic apparatus. • The cavitation-induced precipitates formed in the eroded surface for Hastelloy C-276. • The selective cavitation erosion was found in Hastelloy C-276 alloy. - Abstract: The cavitation erosion behavior of Hastelloy C-276 alloy was investigated using an ultrasonic vibratory apparatus and compared with that of 316L stainless steel. The mean depth of erosion (MDE) and erosion rate (ER) curves vs. test time were attained for Hastelloy C-276 alloy. Morphology and microstructure evolution of the eroded surface were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and the predominant erosion mechanism was also discussed. The results show that the MDE is about 1/6 times lower than that of the stainless steel after 9 h of testing. The incubation period of Hastelloy C-276 alloy is about 3 times longer than that of 316L stainless steel. The cavitation-induced nanometer-scaled precipitates were found in the local zones of the eroded surface for Hastelloy C-276. The selective cavitation erosion was found in Hastelloy C-276 alloy. The formation of nanometer-scaled precipitates in the eroded surface may play a significant role in the cavitation erosion resistance of Hastelloy C-276.

  11. Compatibility of heat resistant alloys with boron carbide, 5

    This paper includes an experimental result of out-of-pile compatibility and capsule design for irradiation test in Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). The compatibility between sheath material and neutron absorber materials for control rod devices (CRD) was examined for potential use in a very high temperature reactor (VHTR) which is under development at JAERI. The purpose of the compatibility tests are preliminary evaluation of safety prior to irradiation tests. Preliminary compatibility evaluation was concerned with three items as follows : 1) Lithium effects on the penetrating reaction of Incoloy 800H alloy in contact with a mixture of boronated graphite and lithium hydroxide powders, 2) Short term tensile properties of Incoloy 800H and Hastelloy XR alloy reacted with boronated graphite and fracture mode analysis, 3) Reaction behavior of both alloys under transient power conditions of a VHTR. It was clear that the reaction rate constant of the Incoloy 800H alloy was accelerated by doping lithium hydroxide into the boron carbide and graphite powder. The mechanical properties of Incoloy 800H and Hastelloy XR alloy reacted with boronated graphite were decreased. Ultimate tensile strength and tensile ductilities at temperatures over 850 deg C were reduced, but there was no change in the proof (yield) stress. Both alloys exhibited a brittle intergranular fracture mode during transient power conditions of a VHTR and also exhibited severe penetration. Irradiation capsules for compatibility test were designed to simulate three irradiation conditions of VHTR: 1) steady state for VHTR, 2) Transient power condition, 3) Service limited life of CRD. Capsule irradiation experiments have been carried out satisfactorily and thus confirm the validity of the capsule design procedure. (author)

  12. Improvement of niobium alloy heat resistance by diffusion coatings

    Changes in the 5VTTs, 5VMTs and 5VMTs4 niobium alloys taking place while interacting with oxidizing medium, were studied along with the possibility to improve heat resistance of the alloys by diffusion coatings laid out from liquid-metal solution. Single-component coatings of Zr, Re, Be, Ni, Y and two-layer ones of Zr-Rd, Re-Rd, Re-Be, Rd-Be were laid. The Zr, Re, Zr-Rd and Re-Rd coatings are shown to provide for the protection of the 5 VTTs alloy from oxidation in vacuum at 1050 deg C. The most effective protection of the 5 VMTs alloy is provided in air by single-layer coatings of Be, Ni, Y, and two-layer ones of Rd-Be and Re-Be. It is noted that Re-containing coatings improve the strength but reduce the plasticity of niobium alloy as a result of alloying due to a significant diffusion mobility of rhenium in niobium

  13. Investigation on corrosion resistance of Hastelloy N alloy after He+ ion irradiation

    Background: The invalidation problems of irradiated Hastelloy N alloy caused by high temperature, intense irradiation and severe corrosion are the key factors to the service life of structural materials of molten salt reactor (MSR). Purpose: The aim is to investigate the effect of absorbed dose on the corrosion resistance of Hastelloy N alloy. Methods: Hastelloy N alloy was irradiated by 4.5-MeV He+ ions, and the absorbed doses were 0 He+·cm-2, 1x1015 He+·cm-2, 5×1015 He+·cm-2 and 1×1016 He+·cm-2 respectively. The virgin and irradiated specimens were immersed into molten fluoride salts at 700℃ for 300 h. Then the corroded specimens were imaged by scanning electron microscopy and analyzed by synchrotron radiation microbeam X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF). Results: The weight-loss results showed that the corrosion generally correlated with the absorbed dose of the alloy. The μ-XRF results indicated that the corrosion was mainly due to the dealloying of alloying element Cr in the matrix. Conclusion: The density of dislocations of Hastelloy N alloy increased with the absorbed dose, which acted as quick paths for Cr element diffusion, and the diffusion of element Cr out of matrix became easier. Finally became weak of the corrosion resistance of Hastelloy N alloy. (authors)

  14. Microstructure and properties of 2618-Ti heat resistant aluminum alloy

    王建华; 易丹青; 王斌

    2003-01-01

    The mechanical properties of alloy 2618 with 0.5%(mass fraction) titanium and its microstructures in different states such as as-cast and quenching-aging were investigated. Titanium was added into the alloy with Al-5%Ti master alloy that was extruded severely. Al3Ti particles in the microstructure of cast alloy 2618-Ti are very small because those of master alloy are also small. When titanium is used as an alloying element, it does not affect the morphology of Al9FeNi phase in cast alloy, but decreases the grain size of as-cast alloy remarkably. The grain size of quenching-aging alloy 2618 decreases apparently due to the existence of a great deal of dispersive Al3Ti particles. Adding 0.5%Ti has no effect on the room temperature tensile properties of alloy 2618, but apparently increases the elevated temperature instantaneous tensile properties and that of the alloy which is exposed at 250 ℃ for 100 h.

  15. Heat-resisting alloys for hard surfacing and sealing pad welding

    R.O. Wielgosz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with heat-resisting alloys used to harden surfaces of elements operating in increased temperatures. It also deals with alloysused to seal cooperating surfaces of elements operating in the conditions of increased temperatures and aggressive utilities. Application methods and properties of thus obtained layers have been presented and adhesion of layers with matrix material has been assessed.

  16. Heat-resisting alloys for hard surfacing and sealing pad welding

    R.O. Wielgosz

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with heat-resisting alloys used to harden surfaces of elements operating in increased temperatures. It also deals with alloysused to seal cooperating surfaces of elements operating in the conditions of increased temperatures and aggressive utilities. Application methods and properties of thus obtained layers have been presented and adhesion of layers with matrix material has been assessed.

  17. Geometrical product specifications heat-resistant cobalt cast alloy

    Lyubimov V.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Geometrical product specification MAR-M509 cast cobalt alloy depend beginning temperature of multilayer ceramic shell moulds (MCS. It has found that go down temperature of MCS from 1000°C to 200°C, the increase surface roughness and its amplitude parameters: Sa, Sz, St, Sq, Sp and Sv.

  18. Geometrical product specifications heat-resistant cobalt cast alloy

    Lyubimov V.; Opiekun Z.; Bonk C.

    2007-01-01

    Geometrical product specification MAR-M509 cast cobalt alloy depend beginning temperature of multilayer ceramic shell moulds (MCS). It has found that go down temperature of MCS from 1000°C to 200°C, the increase surface roughness and its amplitude parameters: Sa, Sz, St, Sq, Sp and Sv.

  19. KTA 625 alloy tube with excellent corrosion resistance and heat resistance

    The problems when seamless tubes are produced by using nickel base 625 alloy (61Ni-22Cr-9Mo-Cb) which is known as a corrosion resistant and heat resistant alloyF were examined, and the confirmation experiment was carried out on its corrosion resistance and heat resistance. Various difficulties have been experienced in the tube making owing to the characteristics due to the chemical composition, but they were able to be solved by the repeated experiments. As for the characteristics of the product, the corrosion resistance was excellent particularly in the environment containing high temperature, high concentration chloride, and also the heat resistance was excellent in the wide temperature range from normal temperature to 1000 deg C. From these facts, the wide fields of application are expected for these alloy tubes, including the evaporation and concentration equipment for radioactive wastes in atomic energy field. Expecting the increase of demand hereafter, Kobe Steel Ltd. examined the problems when seamless tubes are produced from the 625 alloy by Ugine Sejournet process. The aptitude for tube production such as the chemical composition, production process and the product characteristics, the corrosion resistance against chloride, hydrogen sulfide, polythionic and other acids,F the high temperature strength and oxidation resistance are reported. (Kako, I.)

  20. KTA 625 alloy tube with excellent corrosion resistance and heat resistance

    Fujiwara, Kazuo (Kobe Steel Ltd. (Japan). Central Research and Development Lab.); Kadonaga, Toshiki; Kikuma, Seiji

    1982-11-01

    The problems when seamless tubes are produced by using nickel base 625 alloy (61Ni-22Cr-9Mo-Cb) which is known as a corrosion resistant and heat resistant alloy were examined, and the confirmation experiment was carried out on its corrosion resistance and heat resistance. Various difficulties have been experienced in the tube making owing to the characteristics due to the chemical composition, but they were able to be solved by the repeated experiments. As for the characteristics of the product, the corrosion resistance was excellent particularly in the environment containing high temperature, high concentration chloride, and also the heat resistance was excellent in the wide temperature range from normal temperature to 1000 deg C. From these facts, the wide fields of application are expected for these alloy tubes, including the evaporation and concentration equipment for radioactive wastes in atomic energy field. Expecting the increase of demand hereafter, Kobe Steel Ltd. examined the problems when seamless tubes are produced from the 625 alloy by Ugine Sejournet process. The aptitude for tube production such as the chemical composition, production process and the product characteristics, the corrosion resistance against chloride, hydrogen sulfide, polythionic and other acids, the high temperature strength and oxidation resistance are reported.

  1. Energy-force parameters of hot swaging for heat resisting alloys

    The process of drop forging is considered, which includes five blows. The change of the force is shown along during the drop forging of the disc made of heat resistant EhP742 alloy using a hydraulic press with the force of 30000 f. It is found out that pressing permits to decrease considerably energy consumptions mainly at the expense of the excluding additional heatings of articles, and to uduce the technological cycle of pressing, to decrease its labour-consumption

  2. APT characterization of a high strength corrosion-resistant Ni-Cr-Mo HastelloyR C-22HSTM alloy

    Full text: The versatile C-type Ni-Cr-Mo alloys are well known for their corrosion resistance. These alloys have been used for many years in a wide variety of applications such as heat exchangers, scrubbers, reaction vessels, etc. as they exhibit significantly higher strength than most stainless steels. The strength of these alloys may be further increased by cold working. However, this mechanical processing approach limits the size and geometry of the final components. In addition, the high strength is lost in welds and associated heat affective zones. A new high strength corrosion-resistant alloy Ni-21% Cr-17% Mo, HASTELLOY C-22HS, has recently been developed to overcome these problems. This general purpose corrosion-resistant alloy may be used at temperatures of up to at least 600oC. Potential applications for this corrosion resistant high strength alloy include shafting, agitators, fan blades, hubs, springs, fasteners, valves, dies, rings and gaskets. The composition of the HASTELLOY C-22HS alloy used in this study was Ni, 20.6 wt. % Cr, 16.6% Mo, 1.1% Fe, 0.33% Al, 0.29% Mn, 0.11% Nb, 0.004% C and 0.004% B. The microstructure of the HASTELLOY C-22HS alloy was characterized in the age hardened condition - 16 h at 705oC, furnace cooled to 605oC, 32 h at 605oC and air cooled. The microstructure of this age hardened alloy was characterized with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory local electrode atom probe. The corrosion resistance of this alloy in HCl at 52oC and H2SO4 at 79oC was found to be similar to N06022 alloy and better than N07725 alloy. The yield strength of this alloy and N06022 were similar in the mill annealed condition. After the age hardening treatment, the 0.2% yield strength of the HASTELLOY C-22HS alloy increased from 222 to 542 MPa. The tensile elongation and the reduction in area of the age hardened alloy were 40% and 50%, respectively at room temperature and 48% and 66%, respectively at 595oC. Atom probe tomography of the HASTELLOY C-22HS alloy

  3. Corrosion behavior of Hastelloy-N alloys in molten salt fluoride in Ar gas or in air

    The effects of air on the corrosion of Hastelloy-N alloys in molten salt coolant containing fission product elements were investigated to determine the safety of structural materials in high-temperature reactors cooled with fluoride salt. Corrosion tests of Hastelloy-N in the molten fluoride salt FLiNaK in an alumina crucible and a graphite crucible under argon gas or air were performed at 773–923 K for 100 h. The depth of corrosive attack, as well as the extent of chromium and molybdenum depletion, increased with increasing temperature. The extent of Hastelloy-N corrosion in molten salt under air was significantly greater than under argon gas. The effect of adding the impurity cesium iodide to molten salt containing nuclear waste fuel on the corrosion behavior was negligible. (author)

  4. Relationship between carburization and zero-applied-stress creep dilation in Alloy 800H and Hastelloy X

    Typical HTGR candidate alloys can carburize when exposed to simulated service environments. The carbon concentration gradients so formed give rise to internal stresses which could cause dilation. Studies performed with Hastelloy X and Alloy 800H showed that dilations of up to almost 1% can occur at 10000C when carbon pickup is high. Dilation was normally observed only when the carbon increase was >1000 μg/cm2 and ceased when diffusing carbon reached the center of the specimen. (Auth.)

  5. Oxidation of Hastelloy-XR Alloy for Corrosion-Resistant Glass-Coating

    2003-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of Hastelloy-XR alloy was investigated to obtain the optimum surface condition for corrosion-resistant glass-coatings. The surface morphology of oxide scales changed significantly with variation of temperatureand oxygen partial pressure (Po2). The oxidation kinetics was mainly parabolic independent of oxidation conditions.The oxide scales were consisted of inner Cr2O3 and outer spinel layers. The phase component of spinel layers wereMn1.5Cr1.5O4 and (Mn,Ni)(Cr,Fe)2O4 for the oxygen partial pressures Po2 <10 kPa and Po2>10 kPa, respectively.The optimum oxidation condition to obtain an oxide scale for well-adhered glass-coating to the substrate was 1248 Kand Po2 =0.01 kPa for the oxidation time of 43 ks.

  6. Corrosion products and formation mechanism of hastelloy C-276 alloy in supercritical water at 600℃

    The corrosion products of nickel-base alloy Hastelloy C-276 was investigated in supercritical water (SCW) at 600℃/25 MPa through grazing incidence X-ray diffractometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results show that the uniform and complete oxide film was observed in SCW, which was identified to mainly consist of NiO, NiCr2O4, Cr2O3 and MoO2; The oxide films that had duplex structure were in poor in Ni and Mo, but the inner layer was rich in Cr. The loose outer layer lacked of protective, while the compact inner layer was favor of antioxidation. The formation mechanism of corrosion products on alloy C-276 in supercritical water seemed to be similar to that in high temperature water. The Ni(OH)2, NiO outer layer grew by dissolution and precipitation mechanism, while the Cr2O3 inner layer oxide was formed by oxygen diffusing inward and reacting with the retained Cr. (authors)

  7. Laser texturing of Hastelloy C276 alloy surface for improved hydrophobicity and friction coefficient

    Yilbas, B. S.; Ali, H.

    2016-03-01

    Laser treatment of Hastelloy C276 alloy is carried out under the high pressure nitrogen assisting gas environment. Morphological and metallurgical changes in the laser treated layer are examined using the analytical tools including, scanning electron and atomic force microscopes, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Microhardness is measured and the residual stress formed in the laser treated surface is determined from the X-ray data. The hydrophibicity of the laser treated surface is assessed using the sessile drop method. Friction coefficient of the laser treated layer is obtained incorporating the micro-tribometer. It is found that closely spaced laser canning tracks create a self-annealing effect in the laser treated layer and lowers the thermal stress levels through modifying the cooling rates at the surface. A dense structure, consisting of fine size grains, enhances the microhardness of the surface. The residual stress formed at the surface is compressive and it is in the order of -800 MPa. Laser treatment improves the surface hydrophobicity significantly because of the formation of surface texture composing of micro/nano-pillars.

  8. SEM, EDS, EPMA-WDS and EBSD characterization of carbides in HP type heat resistant alloys

    The microstructure of centrifugally cast heat resistant alloys of the HP-series (Fe-35Ni-25Cr-0.4C, wt.%) contains several minor phases, like carbides (M7C3, M23C6 and MC). Several alloys are characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy in back-scattered electron imaging and energy dispersive spectroscopy, of electron probe micro-analysis by X-ray wavelength dispersive spectroscopy, and of electron back-scattered diffraction. On the one hand, scanning electron microscopy imaging in the back-scattered mode, associated with energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis and electron back-scattered diffraction, can lead to the identification of all phases, but with a lack of accuracy in certain cases. On the other hand, electron probe micro-analysis by X-ray wavelength dispersive spectroscopy alone can always provide a strict identification of all phases, with additional precise information on phase composition, including for light elements, which is important in the case of carbides

  9. Corrosion Behavior of Au, Hastelloy C-276 Alloy and Monel 400 Alloy in Molten Lithium Fluoride

    WANG; Chang-shui; GUO; Jun-kang

    2013-01-01

    For searching better corrosion-resistant material in high temperature,we investigated the corrosion behavior of Au,Haynes C-276 alloy and Monel 400 alloy in molten lithium fluoride at 950℃.The corrosion products and fine structures of the corroded specimens were characterized by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS),scanning electron microscope(SEM),energy dispersive

  10. Effects of product form and boron addition on the creep damage in the modified Hastelloy X alloys in a simulated HTGR helium gas environment

    The present paper investigates early-stage-creep damage of Hastelloy XR and XR-II alloys, modified versions of Hastelloy X alloy, which have been developed in Japan as most promising candidate structural alloys for Japanese high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). Creep tests were made on Hastelloy XR forging, tube and XR-II tube at 1,123 to 1,273 K in a simulated HTGR helium gas environment. The tests were interrupted at different strain levels of up to 5 % in order to evaluate creep damage via intergranular voids. The void sizes along grain boundaries and the A-parameter, the ratio of the number of damaged grain boundaries, on which one or more voids are found, to that of the total grain boundaries observed are used in order to evaluate creep damage. Statistical analysis of the A-parameter as well as the void sizes reveals that the values of the parameter show wide variations and follow the Weibull distribution, reflecting spatial randomness of the voids. The void sizes along grain boundaries, on the other hand, follow the log-normal distribution. The maximum void size dmax and the mean value of the A-parameter Am are calculated and plotted against interruption creep strain εint. The resultant dmax vs. εint and Am vs. εint diagrams show that Hastelloy XR forging had suffered more damage than Hastelloy XR tube; nevertheless, the forging has longer interruption life, or the time to reach a given interruption creep strain. The result indicates that grains may have been deformed more easily in Hastelloy XR in the form of tube than in the form of forging. The diagrams also imply that the addition of boron has suppressed the nucleation as well as the growth of voids and thus has brought about longer interruption life of Hastelloy XR-II. (author)

  11. Glow discharge mass spectrometric analysis of nickel-based heat-resisting alloys

    GD-MS analysis of nickel-based heat-resisting alloys has been performed using a VG 9000 glow discharge (GD) mass spectrometer. Concentrations of not only alloying elements (Al, Si, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Y, Nb, Mo and W) but also trace elements (B, C, Mg, P, S, Zn, Ga, As, Zr, Cd, Sn, Sb, Te, Pb and Bi) were successfully determined in disk shaped samples. The examination of spectral interference confirmed the following. The influence of manganese argide (55Mn40Ar+) on the ion beam intensity of 95Mo+ was negligible because manganese content of the alloys is usually less than 1 mass%. Mass spectra of 31P+ and 32S+ may be affected by the spectral interference of 62Ni2+ and 64Ni2+, respectively, due to the matrix element. However, these ion species were sufficiently separated at the mass resolution 5000 (m/Δm, at 5% peak height) used in this study. Relative sensitivity factors (RSFs) were determined by analyzing standard reference materials: JAERI CRMs, a NIST SRM, a BS CRM, BCS CRMs and the alloys prepared in our Institute. The average RSF-values obtained for Ni=1 were 0.436 for Al, 0.826 for Si, 0.281 for Ti, 0.375 for V, 1.480 for Cr, 1.122 for Mn, 0.754 for Fe, 0.653 for Co, 3.321 for Cu, 0.303 for Y, 0.436 for Nb, 0.862 for Mo, 0.935 for Ta and 1.052 for W. The analytical accuracy (σd) obtained was comparable to that of FP-XRF analysis, except for chromium and iron determinations. Relative standard deviations (RSDs) of five replicate measurements were within about 2.5%, except for phosphorus (P; 0.003 mass%, RSD; 3.31%) and sulfur (S; 0.005 mass%, RSD; 3.08%). GD-MS analytical values for ODS MA6000 alloy were obtained using a RSF correction program, and the values were in good agreement with those obtained by FP-XRF and by chemical analysis (author)

  12. Aging of a cast 35Cr–45Ni heat resistant alloy

    Highlights: ► The as-cast microstructure is made of an austenitic matrix and primary carbides. ► The carbides are of two different types: Cr- and Nb-rich. ► The microstructure changes during aging. ► These microstructural changes result in the degradation of mechanical properties. - Abstract: The microstructural evolution during aging and its effect on the mechanical properties of a centrifugally cast 35Cr–45Ni heat resistant alloy was studied by means of optical and electron microscopy, and by mechanical testing in samples aged in air at 750 °C for a period of time of up to 1000 h. The as-cast microstructure consisted of an austenitic matrix and a network of two types of primary carbides that were identified as NbC and M7C3 by their light and dark tones when viewed in backscattered electron mode in a scanning electron microscope. Aging promoted the occurrence of different phenomena such as the transformation of primary M7C3 to M23C6 carbides, precipitation of secondary M23C6 carbides and the transformation of NbC to Nb3Ni2Si. It was found that aging promoted an increase in Vickers microhardness of more than 50%, the increment in tensile strength of around 20% and the reduction in ductility of close to 70%.

  13. Heat treating of a lamellar eutectic alloy (gamma/gamma prime + delta). [heat resistant alloys

    Tewari, S. N.; Dreshfield, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    Eutectic superalloys are being developed at several laboratories for application as aircraft gas turbine airfoils. One such alloy was subjected to several heat treatments to determine if its mechanical properties could be improved. It was found that by partially dissolving the alloy at 1210 C and then aging at 900 C the tensile strength can be increased about 12 percent at temperatures up to 900 C. At 1040 C no change in tensile strength was observed. Times to rupture were measured between 760 and 1040 C and were essentially the same or greater than for as-grown material. Tensile and rupture ductility of the alloy are reduced by heat treatment. Photographs of the microstructure are shown.

  14. Etude expérimentale du soudage par laser YAG de l'alliage base nickel Hastelloy X Experimental study of YAG laser welding of nickel base alloy Hastelloy X

    Graneix Jérémie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Le procédé de soudage laser YAG est envisagé pour remplacer le procédé de soudage TIG manuel pour la réalisation de pièces de turboréacteur en alliage nickel-chrome-molybdène Hastelloy X. Cette étude expérimentale a permis de définir un domaine de soudabilité de cet alliage répondant aux critères spécifiques du secteur aéronautique. The YAG laser welding process is contemplated to replace the manual TIG welding process for the production of parts of turbojet in Hastelloy X. This experimental study has identified the field of weldability of this alloy to meet the specific requirements of the aerospace industry.

  15. Creep behavior for Hastelloy-XR

    Creep-rupture tests for Hastelloy-XR, a Ni-base heat resistent alloy, were conducted in air at the temperature of 650 to 900 deg C. Times to rupture ranged from 1000 to 16000 h. As results of tests, creep curves were observed to vary depending on both temperature and stress, particularly on temperature. Namely, they showed typical classical shapes consisting of primary, secondary and tertiary creep at 650 to 700 deg C. The regions of primary and secondary creep decreased gradually as the temperature became higher and in one case of 900 deg C and high stress, only tertiary creep was observed. Metallurgical observation by optical microscope showed the similar inclination. Some differences were found concerning rupture morphology and void shape between temperatures below 750 deg C and above 850 deg C. (author)

  16. Aging of a cast 35Cr-45Ni heat resistant alloy

    Sustaita-Torres, Ireri A., E-mail: ireri.sustaita@gmail.com [Unidad Academica de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico); Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, 66450 San Nicolas de los Garza (Mexico); Haro-Rodriguez, Sergio, E-mail: haros907@hotmail.com [Unidad Academica de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico); Guerrero-Mata, Martha P., E-mail: martha.guerreromt@uanl.edu.mx [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, 66450 San Nicolas de los Garza (Mexico); Garza, Maribel de la, E-mail: maribeldelagarza@yahoo.com.mx [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, 66450 San Nicolas de los Garza (Mexico); Valdes, Eduardo, E-mail: eduardo.valdes.57@gmail.com [Instituto Tecnologico de Saltillo, 25280 Saltillo (Mexico); Deschaux-Beaume, Frederic, E-mail: deschaux@iut-nimes.fr [Mechanical and Civil Engineering Laboratories, Universite de Montpellier 2, IUT Nimes, 30907 Nimes (France); and others

    2012-04-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The as-cast microstructure is made of an austenitic matrix and primary carbides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The carbides are of two different types: Cr- and Nb-rich. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The microstructure changes during aging. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These microstructural changes result in the degradation of mechanical properties. - Abstract: The microstructural evolution during aging and its effect on the mechanical properties of a centrifugally cast 35Cr-45Ni heat resistant alloy was studied by means of optical and electron microscopy, and by mechanical testing in samples aged in air at 750 Degree-Sign C for a period of time of up to 1000 h. The as-cast microstructure consisted of an austenitic matrix and a network of two types of primary carbides that were identified as NbC and M{sub 7}C{sub 3} by their light and dark tones when viewed in backscattered electron mode in a scanning electron microscope. Aging promoted the occurrence of different phenomena such as the transformation of primary M{sub 7}C{sub 3} to M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides, precipitation of secondary M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides and the transformation of NbC to Nb{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}Si. It was found that aging promoted an increase in Vickers microhardness of more than 50%, the increment in tensile strength of around 20% and the reduction in ductility of close to 70%.

  17. Increase of heat resistance of niobium and its alloys using alumotitanizing

    The mechanism of codeposition of titanium and aluminium on niobium in molten salt media and heat resistance properties of the coatings obtained are studied. It is shown that aluminium-titanium coatings on niobium are suitable only as a substrate for other coatings. As an independent heat resistant coating the aluminium-titanium layers TiAl3 and TiAl containing surface phases can be used

  18. Evaluation on materials performance of hastelloy alloy XR for HTTR uses. 4. Tensile properties of base metals and welded joints

    Tensile properties due to thermal aging on Hastelloy Alloy XR base metals and welded joints were investigated as a series of evaluation test on the base metals and filler metals for the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) components. Tensile test in air was performed at R.T. and then same temperatures as the thermal aging temperatures after the specimens were aged at 800, 900 and 1000degC for 1000hrs. In comparison with the previous data, the present results had no significant difference on the strength characteristics, and were in the previous data band on the ductility. Therefore, it is concluded that these base metals and filler metals for the HTTR components have excellent tensile properties. (author)

  19. Helium dilution effect on hydrogen permeation in 316L stainless steel and nickel-base heat-resistant alloys

    Effects of inert-gas dilution on hydrogen permeation have been investigated in 316L stainless steel, Inconel 600, Inconel 750, Nimonic 80A and Hastelloy X at 1173 K and 1073 K, by employing a gas-flow system. We used gas mixtures of hydrogen and helium, whose hydrogen concentration ranged from 10-5 to 10-1. For the steady-state permeation, the dilution of hydrogen caused no anomalous effects and the permeation rate conformed to Sieverts' law. However, for the transient state, the hydrogen permeation was retarded by the dilution with helium. The retardation effect is discussed in terms of an adsorption model and explained by a decrease in sticking probability at the alloy surface with the dissociative adsorption of hydrogen. (orig.)

  20. Hydrogen diffusion and solution at high temperatures in 316L stainless steel and nickel-base heat-resistant alloys

    Hydrogen-permeation behaviors of 316L stainless steel, Inconel 600, Inconel 750, Nimonic 80A and Hastelloy X at 873 K-1173 K have been investigated under a pressure range of 0.1 MPa-0.7 MPa by using a gas-flow system. Measurements have been carried out by use of a helium-carrier-gas method. It has been proved that this method is good for examining transient-permeation behaviors as well as steady-state permeation if the instrumental time-lag is taken into account. Diffusivity and solubility of hydrogen for the alloys are derived from the transient and steady-state permeation. The γ'-precipitation strengthened alloys - Inconel 750 and Nimonic 80A - show a larger activation energy of diffusion and a smaller solution heat than the other nickel-base alloys. This result is ascribed to the trapping effect due to titanium in the former alloys, i.e. solute titanium atoms and/or γ'-precipitations. (orig.)

  1. Development of heat resistant Pb-free joints by TLPS process of Ag and Sn-Bi-Ag alloy powders

    Ohnuma I.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available TLPS (Transient Liquid Phase Sintering process is a candidate method of heat-resistant bonding, which makes use of the reaction between low-melting temperature powder of Sn-Bi base alloys and reactive powder of Ag. During heat treatment above the melting temperature of a Sn-Bi base alloy, the molten Sn-Bi reacts rapidly with solid Ag particles, which results in the formation of heat-resistant intermetallic compound (IMC. In this study, the TLPS properties between Sn-17Bi-1Ag (at.% powder with its liquidus temperature of 200°C and pure Ag powder were investigated. During differential scanning calorimetry (DSC measurement, an exothermic reaction and an endothermic reaction occurred, which correspond to the formation of the e-Ag3Sn IMC phase and the melting of the Sn-17Bi-1Ag alloy, respectively. After the overall measurement, the obtained reactant consists of the Ag3Sn-IMC and Bi-rich phases, both of which start melting above 250°C, with a small amount of the residual Sn-Bi eutectic phase. These results suggest that the TLPS process can be applied for Pb-free heatresistant bonding.

  2. Effect of yttrium on the oxide scale adherence of pre-oxidized silicon-containing heat-resistant alloy

    Highlights: → AE experiment shows yttrium has a beneficial effect on the pre-oxidized HP40 alloy. → Yttrium facilitates the formation of internal oxide after 10 h of oxidation. → Internal oxide changes the rupture behaviour of the oxide scale. → Twins form in the internal oxide and improve the binding strength of the scale. - Abstract: This paper investigates the effect of the rare earth element yttrium on the rupture behaviour of the oxide scale on the silicon-containing heat-resistant alloy during cooling. After 10 h of oxidation, yttrium is found to facilitate the formation of internal oxides (silica) at the scale-matrix interface. Due to the twinning observed by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) in silica, the critical strain value for the scale failure can be dramatically improved, and the formation of cracks at the scale-matrix interface is inhibited.

  3. Heat-resistant materials

    1997-01-01

    This handbook covers the complete spectrum of technology dealing with heat-resistant materials, including high-temperature characteristics, effects of processing and microstructure on high-temperature properties, materials selection guidelines for industrial applications, and life-assessment methods. Also included is information on comparative properties that allows the ranking of alloy performance, effects of processing and microstructure on high-temperature properties, high-temperature oxidation and corrosion-resistant coatings for superalloys, and design guidelines for applications involving creep and/or oxidation. Contents: General introduction (high-temperature materials characteristics, and mechanical and corrosion properties, and industrial applications); Properties of Ferrous Heat-Resistant Alloys (carbon, alloy, and stainless steels; alloy cast irons; and high alloy cast steels); Properties of superalloys (metallurgy and processing, mechanical and corrosion properties, degradation, and protective coa...

  4. 9%Cr heat resistant steels: Alloy design, microstructure evolution and creep response at 650 deg. C

    Highlights: → 9Cr alloys with varying Ti and C contents were designed, produced and crept at 650 deg. C. → Sub-grain and precipitate distribution and evolution investigated by STEM-HAADF. → Correlations between microstructure evolution and mechanical properties were studied. → Coarsening of sub-grain size was larger for Ti-containing 9Cr alloys. → 9Cr alloy with low C and no Ti showed the highest creep strength of all studied alloys. - Abstract: In this work 9%Cr alloys were designed supported by computational thermodynamic methods. Two sets of alloys were produced: 9%Cr alloys with 0.1%C and 0.05%C and 9%Cr alloys containing ∼0.03% Ti with 0.1%C and 0.05%C (always wt%). Microstructure investigations showed good agreement with the predicted phases of the thermodynamic modeling. The volume fraction of precipitated M23C6 carbides is directly related to the carbon content of the alloys. For Ti-containing alloys the precipitation of nano-sized Ti-rich MX carbonitrides was observed. The microstructure evolution (sub-grain and particle size) during creep at 650 deg. C/100 MPa was investigated by STEM-HAADF. The sub-grain size evolution and the coarsening of precipitates (MX carbonitrides, M23C6 and Laves phase) were more pronounced for Ti-containing alloys. 9Cr alloys without Ti and with low carbon content presented the highest creep strength of all investigated alloys.

  5. Obtaining of plasma sprayed heat resistant coatings for niobium and its alloys

    The paper is concerned with a possibility to obtain a hot-resistant molybdenum disilicide base coating by the plasma method. It is shown that preliminary boriding of sprayed molybdenum disilicide powders permits oxygen penetration to the substrate to be removed due to formation of fluid oxide SiO2-B2O3 film in oxidative media. It is determined that plasma-sprayed coatings produced from such powders are characterized by low temperature of vitrification (700-1000 deg C), porosity absence, strong cohesion of particles, high heat-resistance

  6. 9-12% Cr heat resistant steels. Alloy design, TEM characterisation of microstructure evolution and creep response at 650 C

    This work was carried out aiming to design and characterise 9-12% Cr steels with tailormade microstructures for applications in fossil fuel fired power plants. The investigations concentrated in the design and characterisation of heat resistant steels for applications in high oxidising atmospheres (12% Cr) and 9% Cr alloys for components such as rotors (P91). ThermoCalc calculations showed to be a reliable tool for alloy development. The modeling also provided valuable information for the adjustment of the processing parameters (austenisation and tempering temperatures). Two 12% Cr heat resistant steels with a fine dispersion of nano precipitates were designed and produced supported by thermodynamic modeling (ThermoCalc). A detailed characterisation of the microstructure evolution at different creep times (100 MPa / 650 C / 8000 h) was carried out by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The results of the microstructure analysis were correlated with the mechanical properties in order to investigate the influence of different precipitates (especially M23C6 carbides) on the creep strength of the alloys. Precipitation of Laves phase and Z-phase was observed after several hundred hours creep time. Very few Z-phase of the type Cr(V,Ta)N nucleating from existing (V,Ta)(C,N) was observed. Both alloys show growth and coarsening of Laves phase, meanwhile the MX carbonitrides present a very slow growth and coarsening rate. Alloys containing Laves phase, MX and M23C6 precipitates show best creep properties. The influence of hot-deformation and tempering temperature on the microstructure evolution on one of the designed 12% Cr alloys was studied during short-term creep at 80-250 MPa and 650 C. Quantitative determination of dislocation density and sub-grain size in the initial microstructure and after creep was investigated by STEM combined with the high-angle annular dark-field detector (HAADF). A correlation between microstructure evolution and creep response was

  7. 9-12% Cr heat resistant steels. Alloy design, TEM characterisation of microstructure evolution and creep response at 650 C

    Rojas Jara, David

    2011-03-21

    This work was carried out aiming to design and characterise 9-12% Cr steels with tailormade microstructures for applications in fossil fuel fired power plants. The investigations concentrated in the design and characterisation of heat resistant steels for applications in high oxidising atmospheres (12% Cr) and 9% Cr alloys for components such as rotors (P91). ThermoCalc calculations showed to be a reliable tool for alloy development. The modeling also provided valuable information for the adjustment of the processing parameters (austenisation and tempering temperatures). Two 12% Cr heat resistant steels with a fine dispersion of nano precipitates were designed and produced supported by thermodynamic modeling (ThermoCalc). A detailed characterisation of the microstructure evolution at different creep times (100 MPa / 650 C / 8000 h) was carried out by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The results of the microstructure analysis were correlated with the mechanical properties in order to investigate the influence of different precipitates (especially M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides) on the creep strength of the alloys. Precipitation of Laves phase and Z-phase was observed after several hundred hours creep time. Very few Z-phase of the type Cr(V,Ta)N nucleating from existing (V,Ta)(C,N) was observed. Both alloys show growth and coarsening of Laves phase, meanwhile the MX carbonitrides present a very slow growth and coarsening rate. Alloys containing Laves phase, MX and M{sub 23}C{sub 6} precipitates show best creep properties. The influence of hot-deformation and tempering temperature on the microstructure evolution on one of the designed 12% Cr alloys was studied during short-term creep at 80-250 MPa and 650 C. Quantitative determination of dislocation density and sub-grain size in the initial microstructure and after creep was investigated by STEM combined with the high-angle annular dark-field detector (HAADF). A correlation between microstructure

  8. Improvement of creep strength of TIG welded hastelloy X alloy joint

    The creep strength of the TIG welded joints of Hastelloy X is sometimes weaker than that of the parent material. Especially in the internal pressure creep test using cylindrical test pieces, this phenomenon appears conspicuously. This is because in the case of the cylinders having circumferential joints, the rupture time becomes short due to the enhanced creep phenomenon, in which the welded metal is pulled by the parent material having large creep rate, and its creep rate increases. In order to improve this defect, it was attempted to improve the creep strength of the welded metal by adding B, Zr and rare earth elements to the welding rods. As the result, by adding several tens ppm of B, the weldability was not harmed, and the remarkable effect of improvement was observed. Also it was found that rare earth elements were considerably effective. In the cylindrical test pieces having joints, for which these improved welding rods were used, the joints which broke in the parent material were able to be obtained. As for the case of the cylindrical test pieces having circumferential and longitudinal joints, the comparison of creep strength was carried out, but nearly the same strength was shown, and it was proposed to regard the circumferential joints as important similarly to the longitudinal joints. (Kako, I.)

  9. Production of heat resisting silicon-titanium coatings on 5VMTs niobium alloy in fusible metal environment

    Oxidation of diffusion Si-Ti coatings on 5VMTs niobium alloy during aging in the air at 1300 deg C was investigated. Diffusion saturation was conducted in Na-Si-Ti environment at 1000, 1100 and 1200 deg C. Two oxidation stages were established. Initially the surface layer composed of higher silicides is oxidized with formation of SiO2, Nb2O5, TiO2 oxides and the lower Vb5Si3 silicide. After that the inner layer composed of lower silicides interacts with oxygen with Nb2O5 formation. It is shown that Si-Ti coatings produced at 1200 deg C possess the highest heat resistance

  10. Corrosion performance of heat resistant alloys in Na2SO4-V2O5 molten salts

    The corrosion resistant of three heat resistant alloys in molten vanadium pentoxide (V2O5), sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) and 80(mol%) V2O5-20Na2SO4 has been evaluated using the weight loss technique. Materials included Fe-25Cr-35Ni-0.45C, Fe-35Cr-45Ni with 0.12 and 0.45C alloys. Temperatures included 600, 700 and 800 deg. C for V2O5 and the 80V2O5-20Na2SO4 mixture, and 800, 900 and 1000 deg. C for Na2SO4. The tests were supplemented by detailed electronic microscopy and microanalysis studies. In all cases, the least resistant alloy was the Fe-25Cr-35Ni-0.45C one whereas the most resistant was the Fe-35Cr-45Ni-0.12C one. The results are discussed in terms of the acidic dissolution of the external protective Cr2O3, Al2O3 and SiO2 layers, by the salts and internal sulfidation

  11. Weldability and weld performance of a special grade Hastelloy XR modified for VHTR

    The bead welding test by EB welding and the trans-varestraint test by TIG welding were carried out, and the characteristics of the defects arising in welded parts were clarified, also the range of the correct welding parameters was determined. It was shown that the results obtained were almost similar to those of Hastelloy X. The corrosion test on the welded metal in helium atmosphere was performed, and the weight change, internal oxidation, altered layer and so on were investigated. As the results, it was clarified that the welded metal by EB and TIG weldings showed the similar properties to the parent metal, and was superior to Hastelloy X. As for the creep strength, the creep strength as the joints was evaluated on the basis of respective properties of the parent metal and the welded metal, and it was clarified that the EB joints were superior to the TIG joints. Hastelloy X is the candidate heat-resistant alloy for multi-purpose, high temperature gas-cooled reactors, and it is relatively stable against the effect of impurities in high temperature helium. In order to improve its corrosion resistance further, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has developed Hastelloy XR by increasing Mn content to improve surface film protection, reducing Al and Ti to prevent local oxidation, and reduced Co in view of induced radioactivity. (Kako, I.)

  12. Selection of canister materials: electrochemical corrosion tests of HASTELLOY C4 and other Ni-Cr(-Mo) alloys in chloride containing solutions

    Several Ni-Cr(-Mo) alloys (HASTELLOY C4, INCONEL 625, SANICRO 28, INCOLOY 825, INCONEL 690) were tested by electrochemical methods to characterize their corrosion behaviour in chloride containing solutions at various temperatures and pH-values in respect to their application as canister materials for final radioactive waste storage. Especially, HASTELLOY C4 which proved to have the highest corrosion resistance of all tested alloys was tested by the following electrochemical methods: (1) Poteniodynamic measurements to determine the characteristic potentials, passive current densities and critical pitting potentials. (2) Potentiostatic measurements in order to evaluate the duration of the incubation period at various potentials. (3) Galvanostatic measurements in order to characterize critical pitting potentials. As electrolyte 1 m H2SO4 was used, as parameters temperature, chloride content and pH-value were varied. Variation of temperature gives the following results: an increase in temperature leads to an increase of the critical passivation current density, the passive potential bandwidth decreases slightly and the passive current density increases with rising temperature. The addition of different chloride contents to the H2SO4 solution shows the following effects: the critical passivation current density and the passive current density increase with increasing chloride concentration and both, the critical pitting potentials and the pitting nucleation potentials, shift towards negative values. As third parameter the pH-value was varied. As expected, an increase of the pH-value extends the passive region to more negative values, the passive current density decreases. The variation of the pH-value does not affect the critical pitting potential. All tested alloys showed a clearly limited resistance against pitting corrosion phenomena. However, the best corrosion behaviour is shown by HASTELLOY C4, which has of all tested alloys the lowest passivation current density

  13. Enhanced Heat Resistance of Al-Cu-Mg Alloy by a Combination of Pre-stretching and Underaging

    Wang, Xiaohu; Liu, Zhiyi; Bai, Song; Lin, Lianghua; Ye, Chengwu; Wang, Heng

    2016-06-01

    Enhanced heat resistance of Al-Cu-Mg alloy by employing a combined effect of pre-stretching and underaging has been characterized by thermal exposure, tensile testing, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examination, and quantitative analysis. Tensile testing results showed that the samples subjected to both pre-stretching and underaging processing, presented a high tensile strength up to 440 MPa after thermal exposure at 200 °C for 500 h. This suggests that the long-time application temperature of Al-Cu-Mg alloys, which were normally applied at elevated temperature below 150 °C or even below 100 °C, can be raised to 200 °C by employing a combined effect of pre-stretching and underaging. TEM results showed that a fine and a narrow size distribution range of S' phase was formed by the combined processing of pre-stretching and underaging, as compared to that without pre-stretching. Quantitative analysis results indicated that this narrow range of size distribution greatly reduced the growth rate of S' phase during thermal exposure. It is suggested that this effect was ascribed to the Ostwald ripening mechanism.

  14. Peculiarities of structure transformations of heat resistant nickel alloy during high temperature heating

    By means of direct experiments (using microroentgenospectral analysis, electron microscopy, high-temperature metallography) it is shown that large formations of the exceeding phase in complexly alloyed nickel alloys present eutectic colonies (γ'+γ). Carbide of the N3W3C type is crystallized from the liquid in interaxial spaces close to the eutectics (γ'+γ) as a result of the substitution of the elements forming γ'-phase: Ti, Nb and Hf for tungsten. Using the method of electric resistance temperature range of dissolving of highly disperse γ'-phase of the given alloy in the Ni-Cr-Co-W-Al-Ti-Nb-Hf system is established. A polythermal cross section of a part of pseudodouble diagram (γ-γ') of the alloy studied is plotted on the basis of microroentgenospectral, phase and resistometric analyses. It is shown that solubility curve on the diagram has a point of bending near solidus temperature. At that, the temperature of complete dissolving of the disperse γ'-phase in γ-solid solution is 30 deg lower than Tsub(s)

  15. High temperature strength of hastelloy XR electron beam weld metal

    As for the electron beam welded joints of Hastelloy XR, which is the heat resistant alloy for high temperature gas-cooled reactors, the tensile, creep rupture and low cycle fatigue characteristics at high temperature of the weld metal were determined, and compared with the parent material. As the result, it was found that the strength of the welded joint can be treated as nearly the same as that of the parent metal up to 900 deg C, while at 1000 deg C, the tensile strength and creep rupture strength become lower than those of the parent material, therefore the enough strength-design consideration is indispensable for the application at 1000 deg C. (Kako, I.)

  16. Effect of the Fine-Grained Structure on the Fatigue Properties of the Heat-Resistant Nickel-Iron Alloy Inconel 718

    Mukhtarov, Sh. Kh.; Shakhov, R. V.

    2015-10-01

    It is well known that ultrafine-grained nickel alloys with average grain sizes d = 0.1-1 μm possess improved hot workability and can be used for superplastic forming or rolling. However, microstructure refinement can worsen some performance characteristics of the alloy, for example, heat-resistant or fatigue properties. In the present work, fatigue characteristics of the fine-grained alloy Inconel 718 are investigated. Ultrafine-grained alloys with average grain sizes d = 0.1-1 μm were manufactured by multiple forging with stage-by-stage deformation temperature decrease. During standard heat treatment of the alloy performed to obtain the desired properties, the γ-grain size was controlled by precipitations of δ-phase particles along the boundaries. Results of low-cycle fatigue tests of the fine-grained alloy at room and elevated temperatures are compared with the properties of the coarse-grained alloy.

  17. Erosion resistance in a stationary arc of powder materials on the base of heat resisting alloys

    Minakova, R.V.; Kostenetskaya, L.I.; Krusanova, A.P.; Kukhtikov, V.A.; Smirnov, A.V.; Lugovskaya, E.S. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Problem Materialovedeniya)

    1983-08-01

    Comparison investigations of some properties of the Mo-Cu, Mo-Ni(Co)-Cu materials and the W-Cu, W-Ni-Cu compositions used at the present time as well as contact pairs prepared from them is conducted. It is shown that electroerosion wear of the contacts is connected not only with the material properties but also with features of structural changes in the working layer under effect of arc discharge. It is shown also that directed alloying with respect to the origin of phase transition in the electrode material and the medium effect during current commutation promotes electroerosion resistance.

  18. Evaluation on materials performance of Hastelloy Alloy XR for HTTR uses-6. Tensile and creep properties of heat exchanger tube base materials and its welded-joints

    Tensile and creep properties of heat exchanger tube base materials and its welded-joints were investigated as a series of evaluation tests on Hastelloy Alloy XR heat exchanger tube and filler metal for the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) components. As for tensile properties after thermal aging of base materials and welded joints, ductility was remarkably reduced at room temperature while it was raised at 950degC. On creep properties, the difference between base materials and welded joints in creep rupture strength was relatively small. Creep rupture elongation tended to decrease with increasing rupture time, and rupture elongation of welded joint had a tendency to be lower than that of base material. On the other hand, a comparison of plate with tube on high temperature tensile ductility after thermal aging was found to be higher in tube than in plate while its difference was slight at room temperature. As for creep properties, base materials and welded joints of tube had a tendency to be slightly shorter in rupture time at lower stress and long terms than those of plate. However, it is concluded that this is not problematic in practical uses from the fact that the rupture time in tube is comparable or greater than that of Hastelloy Alloy XR master curve and that it is much longer than that of design creep rupture strength =SR=. (author)

  19. Influence of a simulated HTGR environment on the mechanical properties of a commercial Ni-Cr-Mo-Fe alloy (Hastelloy Alloy X)

    The influence of a simulated advanced-reactor helium environment, containing 500 μatm H2/50 μatm CH4/50 μatm CO/approx. 1 μatm H2O, on the mechanical properties of two heats of Hastelloy Alloy X is discussed. Simultaneous exposures in air and controlled-impurity helium at temperatures in the range of 6500 to 10000C for times of 3000 h or more were performed. A combination of tensile testing, Charpy V-notch impact toughness testing, and creep testing was used to study the effects of reactor helium/metal interactions on the mechanical behavior of this alloy. Carburization was identified as the primary corrosion phenomenon. Increasing exposure time and temperature were observed to increase the depth of carburization. The increase in carbon concentration in the carburized zone suppressed the additional formation of M6C, which is observed in air-aged specimens, and resulted in the precipitation of M23C6, a chromium-rich carbide variant. The precipitation of M23C6 in the carburized zone occurred primarily along grain and twin boundaries; however, matrix precipitation was also observed, the degree of which depended on exposure temperature. Strength and impact toughness properties were found to be controlled primarily by thermal aging reactions, with only a small effect related to the carburization. Although tensile and creep ductilities were decreased as a result of carburization, substantial ductility remained. Variation was observed between the two heats, the finer-grained heat appearing to be weaker in the high-temperature creep tests and also possibly more susceptible to a loss of creep strength as a result of carburization

  20. Forecast of heat resistance and plasticity of steels and alloys on the base of data on the solid solution state and fine structure

    In the case of 12KhM, 15KhM and 12Kh1MF chromium-molybdenum steels, thin or fine structure parameters (e.g. density of dislocations, phase composition, the proportion of alloying elements in a solid solution, size and quantity of carbides have been determined; their influence on the mechanic-al properties has been examined after functioning during 100 thousand hours within the temperature range of 510 to 565 deg C. It has been shown that the greatest influence on the long-term strength and the heat resistance of the steels being examined exert the proportion of molybdenum in the solid solution and the volume proportion of permithe. The strain capacity of the material is determined by the volumetric portion of the strengthening phase, which has been corroborated by the results of examining EI929 heat-resistant nickel alloy. The comparative evaluation of the calculated and experimental values of the plasticity of that alloy has been carried out

  1. Development of Simultaneous Corrosion Barrier and Optimized Microstructure in FeCrAl Heat-Resistant Alloy for Energy Applications. Part 1: The Protective Scale

    Pimentel, G.; Aranda, M. M.; Chao, J.; González-Carrasco, J. L.; Capdevila, C.

    2015-09-01

    Coarse-grained Fe-based oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) steels are a class of advanced materials for combined cycle gas turbine systems to deal with operating temperatures and pressures of around 1100°C and 15-30 bar in aggressive environments, which would increase biomass energy conversion efficiencies up to 45% and above. This two-part paper reports the possibility of the development of simultaneous corrosion barrier and optimized microstructure in a FeCrAl heat-resistant alloy for energy applications. The first part reports the mechanism of generating a dense, self-healing α-alumina layer by thermal oxidation, during a heat treatment that leads to a coarse-grained microstructure with a potential value for high-temperature creep resistance in a FeCrAl ODS ferritic alloy, which will be described in more detail in the second part.

  2. Etude expérimentale du soudage par laser YAG de l'alliage base nickel Hastelloy X Experimental study of YAG laser welding of nickel base alloy Hastelloy X

    Graneix Jérémie; Beguin Jean-Denis; Pardeilhan François; Masri Talal; Alexis Joël

    2013-01-01

    Le procédé de soudage laser YAG est envisagé pour remplacer le procédé de soudage TIG manuel pour la réalisation de pièces de turboréacteur en alliage nickel-chrome-molybdène Hastelloy X. Cette étude expérimentale a permis de définir un domaine de soudabilité de cet alliage répondant aux critères spécifiques du secteur aéronautique. The YAG laser welding process is contemplated to replace the manual TIG welding process for the production of parts of turbojet in Hastelloy X. This experimental...

  3. Intergranular Cracking Susceptibility of 2.25Cr Heat-Resistant Steels Depending on Alloying Elements and Impurities

    Sung, Hyun Je; Heo, Nam Hoe; Kim, Sung-Joon

    2016-05-01

    The intergranular cracking susceptibility of 2.25Cr heat-resistant steels increases with increasing bulk phosphorus content. This is due to the increase in phosphorus segregation concentration of prior austenite grain boundaries (PAGBs) and the prior austenite grain boundary/carbide interfaces (GCIs) with increasing bulk phosphorus content. Moreover, the susceptibility is higher in tungsten-added steels than the molybdenum-added steel. This is attributed to the higher driving force for carbide formation of tungsten which causes more active carbide formation in the tungsten-added steel, the consequent absence of the repulsive segregation between carbon and phosphorus, and the final higher phosphorus segregation concentration at the PAGBs and the GCIs. Additionally, the absence of sulfur segregation at the PAGBs and the GCIs of the molybdenum-added steel, which arises from the repulsive segregation between carbon and sulfur, acts as an additional factor which lowers the intergranular cracking susceptibility.

  4. A study on the creep properties more over 700 C of advanced heat resistant carbon, nitrogen and cobalt free alloys

    Muneki, Seiichi; Okubo, Hiroshi; Abe, Fujio [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    A new attempt has been demonstrated using carbon, nitrogen and cobalt free Fe-12Ni-5Cr-Mo alloys strengthened by Laves phase such as Fe{sub 2}Mo to achieve creep deformation at high temperatures and high stress levels. Creep resistance of Fe-12Ni-5Cr-5Mo-0.005B alloys remarkably increased at elevated temperatures over 700 C. As the transformation temperatures of A{sub c1} and A{sub c3} of these alloys indicated remarkably low, the microstructure of these alloys was reverted austenite during the creep test over 700 C. Creep properties were extremely improved more over 700 C by the addition of boron, which depends on the effect of retardation of the recovery process and that the suppression of recrystallization of these alloys. Creep life of the Fe-12Ni-5Cr-10Mo-0.2Ti-0.1Al-0.005B alloy was drastically extended from 13h at 700 C and 300MPa to 2,100h at 700 C and 200MPa. Creep resistance in the Fe-12Ni alloys depends on the unrecrystallized austenite structure and a fine and uniform distribution of precipitates during creep tests. And that long term stability of microstructure works on the DSS operation effectively in the USC power plant. (orig.)

  5. Investigation into effect of tin and zirconium alloying on high-temperature strength and heat resistance of Ti3Al compound base alloy

    A study is made of the effect of tin and zirconium on the phase composition, high-temperature strength and heat resistance of a Ti3Al compound. The study has been made over the (Ti3Al + 3% Zr)-Sn section, the concentration of tin being varied from 0 to 20 wt%. The high-temperature strength of the materials investigated has been studied by the centrifugal bending method and long-term strength at 700 - 800 deg C. The heat resistance has been evaluated by the results of gravimetric studies of sample oxidation in air at 600, 800 and 1000 deg C. The data of differential thermal and microstructural analyses are used to construct the phase diagram of the (Ti3Al + 3% Zr)-Sn partial section. Doping the Ti3Al intermetallide with tin and zirconium is shown to enhance considerably its high-temperature strength within the entire temperature range under study (from room temperature to 800 deg C) and its heat resistance at 600 deg C. The introduction of tin and zirconium is detrimental to the heat resistance of Ti3Al at 800 deg C and especially at 1000 deg C

  6. Application of Hastelloy X in Gas-Cooled Reactor Systems

    Brinkman, C. R.; Rittenhouse, P. L.; Corwin, W.R.;

    1976-01-01

    Hastelloy X, an Ni--Cr--Fe--Mo alloy, may be an important structural alloy for components of gas-cooled reactor systems. Expected applications of this alloy in the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) are discussed, and the development of interim mechanical properties and supporting data...... extensive amount of information has been generated on this material at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and elsewhere concerning behavior in air, which is reviewed. However, only limited data are available from tests conducted in helium. Comparisons of the fatigue and subcritical growth behavior in air between...... Hastelloy X and a number of other structural alloys are given....

  7. 高硅合金耐热铸铁生产球墨铸铁模具的研制%Research on producing ductile iron mould with high silicon alloy heat resistant cast iron

    梁冰利; 王宏亮; 韩黎

    2012-01-01

    对铸铁模具使用工况进行了分析,采用了高硅合金耐热铸铁为生产球墨铸铁模具的材质,并介绍了高硅合金耐热球墨铸铁模具的消失模铸造工艺、冶炼工艺、热处理工艺以及该材质模具的实际使用效果.实际生产表明:高硅合金耐热球墨铸铁具有优越的综合耐热疲劳性能,大大提高了模具寿命.%The actual operating conditions of cast iron mould were analyzed. The silicon alloy heat resistant cast iron was adopted to produce ductile iron mould, and the lost foam casting process, smelting process, heat treatment process of the high silicon alloy heat resistant ductile iron mould as well as the actual use effect of the mould with this material were introduced. The practical production shows that the high silicon alloy heat resistant cast iron has superior heat-resistant and fatigue properties, which improves the mould life.

  8. Characterization of oxide layers of heat-resisting alloys in oxidizing and oxidizing/sulfidizing atmospheres by deuterium permeation measurement

    Deuterium permeation measurements are suitable to characterize the integrity of layers, which are preoxidized or in-situ oxidized on high temperature alloys. The permeation through metal alloys with a growing oxidized layer is described by a model with a time dependence of the permeation flux related to the growth of the oxide layer. The behaviour of the layers, which are oxidized at different oxidizing atmospheres, are investigated in this work. By permeation test, parabolic rate constants, impeding factors, as well as permeability, diffusivity and the solubility of deuterium for the oxide layers are obtained. The measurement are continued in sulfidizing atmosphere for testing such layers as corrosion barrier. In correlation with microstructural post examinations it is found that permeation measurement can be utilized as a method for investigating high-temperature corrosion. (orig.)

  9. Fixed time integration-emission spectrochemical analysis of nickel-base alloys and heat resisting steels for minor amount of elements

    The emission spectrochemical analysis of nickel-base alloys and heat resisting steels by the fixed time integration method has been developed. Nickel contents of 9 to 76% in the samples were examined in this study. For such samples, the internal standard method was inadequate, while the fixed time integration method gave good accuracy in the determination of minor elements in these samples. Elements analysed were C, P, S, B, Si, Ta, Co, Fe, Mn, Nb, Cu, Ti, Zr and Al. At first, ternary alloys containing a constant amount of cobalt (0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 6.0, 10.0, or 20.0%) with changing amounts of nickel and iron were prepared in order to examine the effect of nickel and iron content on the determination of these elements. It was found that the samples should be classified to two groups according to the nickel content, that is one group corresponding to 9 - 60% nickel and the other to 60 - 76%, and calibration curves had to be made separately. The equations of calibration curves were given in the regression lines of the first order in the determination of minor elements. For correcting the effect of neighbouring lines, coefficients of correction were derived by the multiple regression analysis. The relation between the sensitivity of analysis and the coefficient of correction was examined. As the sensitivity, the gradient of calibration curves was chosen, and it was observed that there was a linear correlation between the gradient and the partial regression coefficient. After all, the relation of hyperbola was concluded to exist between the gradient and the coefficient of correction in the determination of most elements. The gradients of calibration curves in the two groups were almost the same, but the gradients of the group containing more amount of nickel were a little larger than those of the other. (author)

  10. Influence of the brazing parameters on microstructure and mechanical properties of brazed joints of Hastelloy B2 nickel base alloy; Influencia de los parametros de soldeo fuerte en la microestructura y propiedades mecanicas de la union de la aleacion base niquel Hastelloy B2

    Sotelo, J. C.; Gonzalez, M.; Porto, E.

    2014-07-01

    A study of the high vacuum brazing process of solid solution strengthened Hastelloy B2 nickel alloy has been done. A first stage of research has focused on the selection of the most appropriate brazing filler metal to the base material and vacuum furnace brazing process. The influence of welding parameters on joint microstructure constituents, relating the microstructure of the joint to its mechanical properties, has been evaluated. Two gaps of 50 and 200 micrometers, and two dwell times at brazing temperature of 10 and 90 minutes were studied. The braze joint mainly consists of the nickel rich matrix, nickel silicide and ternary compounds. Finally, the results of this study have shown the high bond strength for small gaps and increased dwell times of 90 minutes. (Author)

  11. Production of diffusion heat-resistant coatings on niobium

    A possibility of producing diffusion heat-resistant coatings on the 5VMTs niobium alloy has been investigated. Coating heat-resistance was investigated in the air at 800-1100 deg C. Given are brief characteristics of diffusion coatings produced. It is shown, that the Re and V coatings have satisfactory protective properties

  12. Study on the creep constitutive equation of Hastelloy X, (1)

    In order to carry out the structural design of high temperature pipings, intermediate heat exchangers and isolating valves for a multipurpose high temperature gas-cooled reactor, in which coolant temperature reaches 1000 deg C, the creep characteristics of Hastelloy X used as the heat resistant material must be clarified. In addition to usual creep rupture life and the time to reach a specified creep strain, the dependence of creep strain curves on time, temperature and stress must be determined and expressed with equations. Therefore, using the creep data of Hastelloy X given in the literatures, the creep constitutive equation was made. Since the creep strain curves under the same test condition were different according to heats, the sensitivity analysis of the creep constitutive equation was performed. The form of the creep constitutive equation was determined to be Garofalo type. The result of the sensitivity analysis is reported. (Kako, I.)

  13. Effects of oxidation on the impact energy of Hastelloy S and Hastelloy C-4 Charpy V-notch specimens heated in air at 6000 to 8000C

    The 90SrF2 heat source being developed at PNL utilizes a Hastelloy S or Hastelloy C-4 outer capsule having a 0.5-in.-thick wall to contain the Hastelloy C-276 inner capsule. The primary objective of the study was to demonstrate that the air oxidation of the outer capsule that could occur during heat-source service would not degrade the ductility and Charpy impact strength of the capsule below the licensing requirements given in Section 1.1. The 90SrF2 heat source under development is intended for general-purpose use. Compatibility considerations limit the interface temperature between the 90SrF2 and Hastelloy C-276 inner capsule to a maximum of 8000C. The outer capsule surface temperature will be somewhat less than 8000C, and depending on the service, may be substantially lower. The oxidation tests were therefore carried out at 6000 to 8000C for exposures up to 10,000h to cover the range of temperature the outer capsule might expect to encounter in service. The results showed that the oxidation of Hastelloy S and Hastelloy C-4 in air at 6000 to 8000C is very slow, and both alloys form adherent oxide layers that serve to protect the underlying metal. Subsurface attack of Hastelloy S and Hastelloy C-4 due to oxidation was greater than expected, considering the slow oxidation rates of the two alloys at 6000 to 8000C. Estimates of subsurface attack, determined from micrographs of the oxidized specimens, showed erratic results and it was impossible to assign any type of rate equation to the subsurface attack. A conservative estimate of long-term effects can be made using a linear extrapolation of the test results. There were no significant differences between the room-temperature Charpy impact energy of Hastelloy S and Hastelloy C-4 specimens oxidized in air at 6000 to 8000C and control specimens heated in vacuum

  14. Fundamental studies on electron beam welding of heat-resistant superalloys for nuclear plants, (1)

    The basic investigation and research on the multi-purpose utilization of nuclear reactors have been carried out as the national project. The equipments for high temperature gas-cooled reactors are exposed to severe conditions in helium atmosphere of 1000 deg C, therefore the use of heat-resistant alloys such as Hastelloy, Inconel and Incoloy has been examined. The electron beam welding recently expanding the fields of application has excellent properties, such as the energy density is very high, the power output can be controlled freely as occasion arises, deep penetration can be obtained with small heat input, welding of high precision is feasible because the width of weld is narrow and the distortion due to the welding is small, and the weld of good quality can be obtained as the welding is carried out in vacuum. However, when the welding conditions are improper, the defects peculiar to electron beam welding arise, such as porosity, cold shut, spike phenomenon, and cracking due to welding. In this study, the characteristics of weld beads of respective heat-resistant alloys, especially the penetration mode and the properties of defects, were investigated by changing the parameters of electron beam welding, and the correlation among these was discussed. The range of proper welding conditions was set up for respective materials. Moreover, the correlation among the cracking susceptibility due to electron beam welding, the high temperature ductility of materials and the results of Trans-Varestraint test was investigated, and these testing methods are very useful for the evaluation of cracking susceptibility. (Kako, I.)

  15. The suitability of selected austenitic stainless steels and Hastelloy C276 alloys as substrates for thin film deposition using spray pyrolysis

    Al Khateeb, Shadi [Al-Balqa' Applied Univ., Al-Salt, Jordan (Jordan). Materials Engineering Dept.

    2013-03-15

    To detect the suitability of the American Iron and Steel Institute grade 304, 309, 310, 316L steels and Hastelloy C276 substrates for thin film deposition using spray pyrolysis, the substrates were pre-heated between 400-700 C and soaked for one hour. American Society for Testing and Materials standards A262-A, E and G28-A were then applied. The substrates of 304 heated at 400, 600-700 C, the 310 heated between 450-700 C and the as-received 310 were not found suitable. However it was found that the 304, 309, and 310 substrates were suitable up to 550 C, the 316L up to 700 C and the C276 up to 550 C. (orig.)

  16. Influence of temperature, environment, and thermal aging on the continuous cycle fatigue behavior of Hastelloy X and Inconel 617

    Results are presented for strain-controlled fatigue and tensile tests for two nickel-base, solution-hardened reference structural alloys for use in several High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) concepts. These alloys, Hastelloy X and Inconel 617, were tested from room temperature to 8710C in air and impure helium. Materials were tested in both the solution-annealed and the preaged conditios, in which aging consisted of isothermal exposure at one of several temperatures for periods of up to 20,000 h. Comparisons are given between the strain-controlled fatigue lives of these and several other commonly used alloys, all tested at 5380C. An analysis is also presented of the continuous cycle fatigue data obtained from room temperature to 4270C for Hastelloy G, Hastelloy X, Hastelloy C-276, and Hastelloy C-4, an effort undertaken in support of ASME code development

  17. Grain growth in heat resisting austenitic steels

    Denisova, I.K.; Zakharov, V.N.; Karpova, N.M.; Farber, V.M.

    1985-01-01

    A study was made on kinetics of grain growth in steels of 37Kh12N8G8 type alloyed by V, Nb, Ti, Mo, W. It was concluded that the nature of carbide phase and kinetics of its dissolution in heat resisting austenitic steels dictate steel tendency to grain growth. At the same time decrease of diffusion mobility of atoms in steel matrix during its alloying by titanium aid tungsten results in sufficient decrease of the tendency to grain growth and variation in grain size.

  18. Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance of CrN and CrN/TiN Coated Heat-Resistant Steels in Molten Aluminum Alloy

    LinCS; PengH

    2001-01-01

    The components of the equipment for processing the Al melts into the molded parts can be markedly corroded by the molten Al. In this study, a 4 μm CrN coating or CrN/TiN multilayer coating for providing the physical and chemical barriers between the molten reactive Al and the steel substrate were deposited by Cathodic Arc Evaporation onto 10 mm-thick heat-resistant steel plates. The dipping tests were conducted in a 700℃ A356 melt for 1 to 21 h at intervals of 3 h. The damage of the coated steel was eva...

  19. Nickel Alloy, Corrosion and Heat-Resistant, Sheet, Strip, and Plate 72Ni - 15.5Cr - 0.95 (Cb (Nb) + Ta) - 2.5Ti - 0.70Al - 7.0Fe Consumable Electrode, Remelted or Vacuum Induction Melted, Solution Heat Treated, Precipitation-Hardenable

    SAE Aerospace Standards. London

    2012-01-01

    Nickel Alloy, Corrosion and Heat-Resistant, Sheet, Strip, and Plate 72Ni - 15.5Cr - 0.95 (Cb (Nb) + Ta) - 2.5Ti - 0.70Al - 7.0Fe Consumable Electrode, Remelted or Vacuum Induction Melted, Solution Heat Treated, Precipitation-Hardenable

  20. High temperature low-cycle fatigue strength of Hastelloy-XR

    This paper describes the low-cycle fatigue and creep-fatigue interaction properties of Hastelloy-XR in air and helium containing a small quantity of impurity gas. All tests at temperatures of 700, 800, 900 and 1000 deg. C are carried out at the strain rate of 0.1 and 0.01%/sec under the control of axial strain. Wave forms are triangular for continuous cycling tests and trapezoidal for tension hold time tests. The test results are compared with the fatigue property of Hastelloy-X which is the original alloy of Hastelloy-XR. The applicability of linear damage rule in ASME Code Case N-47 is discussed about creep-fatigue interaction property of Hastelloy-XR in High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor's temperature region. (author). 6 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs

  1. Kinetics of evaporation from the surface of refractory nickel and titanium alloys with heat resistant coatings during their irradiation by high-power pulsed ion beams

    The effect of the irradiating conditions by high-power pulsed ion beams (HPPIB) on the ablation rate was studied. The conditions of irradiation (ions of carbon and protons, ion energy E=300-600 keV, the ion current density in a pulse j=60-500 A·cm-2, pulse duration τ=50-100 ns) were realized in 'Temp' and 'Vera' accelerators. The study of the evaporation kinetics was carried out using targets manufactured from GS26NK nickel super-alloy with NiCrAlY coating and from Vt9 and VT18U titanium alloys with Zr N and TiSiB coatings. It is shown that values of the ablation rate achieve 0.04 μm (TiSiB), 0.4 μm (NiCrAlY), and 1 μm (Zr N) during a pulse under the optimal conditions of HPPIB irradiation

  2. Crack propagation in Hastelloy X

    The fatigue and creep crack growth rates of Hastelloy X were examined both in air and impure helium. Creep crack growth rate is higher in air and impure helium at 6500C. Initial creep crack growth from the original sharp fatigue crack is by an intergranular mode of fracture. As the cracking accelerates at higher stress intensities, growth is by a mixed mode of both intergranular and transgranular fracture. Fatigue crack growth rate increases with increasing temperature and decreasing frequency for the range of stress intensities reported in the literature and is lower in impure helium than in air

  3. Development of Simultaneous Corrosion Barrier and Optimized Microstructure in FeCrAl Heat-Resistant Alloy for Energy Applications. Part II: The Optimized Creep-Resistant Microstructure

    Pimentel, G.; Aranda, M. M.; Chao, J.; González-Carrasco, J. L.; Capdevila, C.

    2015-09-01

    The first part of this two-part study reported the possibility of simultaneously generating a dense, self-healing α-alumina layer by thermal oxidation and a coarse-grained microstructure with a potential goodness for high-temperature creep resistance in a FeCrAl oxide dispersion-strengthened ferritic alloy that was cold deformed after hot rolling and extrusion. In this second part, the factors affecting the formation of the coarse-grained microstructure such as strain gradients induced during the rolling process are analyzed. It is concluded that larger strain gradients lead to more refined and more isotropic grain structures.

  4. Application of Hastelloy X in gas-cooled reactor systems

    Brinkman, C.R.; Rittenhouse, P.L.; Corwin, W.R.; Strizak, J.P.; Lystrup, A.; DiStefano, J.R.

    1976-10-01

    Hastelloy X, an Ni--Cr--Fe--Mo alloy, may be an important structural alloy for components of gas-cooled reactor systems. Expected applications of this alloy in the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) are discussed, and the development of interim mechanical properties and supporting data are reported. Properties of concern include tensile, creep, creep-rupture, fatigue, creep-fatigue interaction, subcritical crack growth, thermal stability, and the influence of helium environments with controlled amounts of impurities on these properties. In order to develop these properties in helium environments that are expected to be prototypic of HTGR operating conditions, it was necessary to construct special environmental test systems. Details of construction and operating parameters are described. Interim results from tests designed to determine the above properties are presented. To date a fairly extensive amount of information has been generated on this material at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and elsewhere concerning behavior in air, which is reviewed. However, only limited data are available from tests conducted in helium. Comparisons of the fatigue and subcritical growth behavior in air between Hastelloy X and a number of other structural alloys are given.

  5. A Study on the High Temperature Oxidation Behavior of Hastelloy X and Inconel 713C

    In order to preserve surface stability and mechanical properties of the substrate materials, coatings are applied to the alloy surfaces for the high temperature applications. Even with the application of coating, the substrate materials must also have its own resistance to the high temperature oxidation because the substrate may be catastrophically degraded when coatings are failed. In this research, Ni-base superalloys, IN 713C and Hastelloy X for the substrate materials of coatings, were examined by the isothermal and cyclic oxidation experiments. In the isothermal oxidation experiments, the dominant protective oxide scale of Hastelloy X was Cr2O3 and that of IN 713C was the Al-rich oxide scale. Both alloys formed protective oxide scales, and showed good isothermal oxidation resistance but IN 713C showed better oxidation resistance than Hastelloy X owing to the formation of Al-rich oxide scales. Also for cyclic oxidation experiments, due to the favorable adhesion between the substrate and oxide scales, IN 713C having thin Al-rich oxide scales showed better oxidation resistance than Hastelloy X throughout the temperature ranges tested. Comparing these two alloys IN 713C had better oxidation resistance but both alloys showed good oxidation resistance up to 1000 .deg. C

  6. Oxidation of Hastelloy C276

    Park, J.-H.; Chen, L.; Goretta, K. C.; Koritala, R. E.; Balachandran, U.

    2002-05-01

    Oxidation of Hastelloy C276 was studied at 300-800 °C in atmospheres that ranged from 0.01 to 100% O2. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy indicated formation of Cr2O3 scales. The oxidation kinetics were approximately parabolic, but, contrary to expectations, there was no clear trend of scale-growth kinetics vs. oxygen partial pressure. This anomalous response was attributed to an extrinsic effect from cation doping of the scale, with a possible contribution from the rough, as-rolled surface finish of most of the coupons that were tested. The scales that formed on polished surfaces at 500 °C were smooth and nanocrystalline; those that formed at 800 °C were dense and consisted of faceted grains with an average size of ≈0.5-1 μm.

  7. Oxidation of Hastelloy C276

    Oxidation of Hastelloy C276 was studied at 300-800 deg. C in atmospheres that ranged from 0.01 to 100% O2. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy indicated formation of Cr2O3 scales. The oxidation kinetics were approximately parabolic, but, contrary to expectations, there was no clear trend of scale-growth kinetics vs. oxygen partial pressure. This anomalous response was attributed to an extrinsic effect from cation doping of the scale, with a possible contribution from the rough, as-rolled surface finish of most of the coupons that were tested. The scales that formed on polished surfaces at 500 deg. C were smooth and nanocrystalline; those that formed at 800 deg. C were dense and consisted of faceted grains with an average size of ≅0.5-1 μm

  8. AC losses in filamentary YBCO/hastelloy

    Full text: The AC hysteresis loss of a long YBCO thin-film superconducting strip in a perpendicular AC magnetic field can be reduced by subdividing the film into narrow parallel strips (filaments). The hysteresis loss depends on the film critical current density Jc, the film thickness d, the filament width 2a and the lateral spacing L between filaments as well as on the AC magnetic field amplitude Hm. In addition, if the film is deposited onto a YSZ/hastelloy substrate to form a flexible tape, eddy current loss occurs in the hastelloy metal. The eddy current loss depends on the resistivity p of the hastelloy, the width 2w and thickness dm of the hastelloy substrate as well as on the frequency f and amplitude Hm. We have calculated the hysteresis and eddy current losses as a function of Jc, d, 2a, L, p, w, dm, f, and Hm to find optimal design parameters for a YBCO/hastelloy tape. As the AC loss is related to the loss component X'' of the AC susceptibility, we have measured X'' at different frequencies f and amplitudes Hm for several filamentary designs of YBCO/hastelloy tapes and compared our experimental results with our model calculations

  9. Phase precipitation and time-temperature-transformation diagram of Hastelloy

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was employed to study the phase precipitation in Hastelloy X heat-treated at 750, 850, and 900 C for 26 and 100 h. Phase identification was made by electron micro-diffraction and energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS) X-ray micro-chemical analysis. In addition to the fcc matrix, four different precipitation phases were observed: M6C, M23C6, σ, and μ. The current observations were combined with literature results to build a time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram for this alloy. This TTT diagram depicted time-temperature regimes where various phases were formed; thus, it provided information about the general precipitation kinetics for the alloy. (orig.)

  10. Creep properties and simulation of weld repaired low alloy heat resistant CrMo and Mo steels at 540 deg C. Sub project 1 - Ex-serviced parent metal and virgin weld metals

    Rui Wu; Storesund, Jan; Borggreen, Kjeld; Weilin Zang

    2006-10-15

    Many existing power generating and process plants, where low alloy heat resistant CrMo(V) steels are extensively used for critical components, have exceeded their design lifetime of usually 100,000 hours. Assessment of residual lifetime and extension of economic life by weld repair have become increasingly important and attractive. This project aims at i) performing weld repair and determining the degree of mismatching, ii) evaluating the creep properties of weld repairs, iii) analysing creep behaviour of weld repair and providing necessary data for further reliable simulations of weld repair creep behaviour in long term service, and iv), simulating and assessing lifetime and creep damage evolution of weld repair. Weld repair using 10 CrMo 9 10, 13 CrMo 4 4 and 15 Mo 3 consumables has been carried out in a service-exposed 10 CrMo 9 10 pipe. Creep specimens have been extracted from the service-exposed 10 CrMo 9 10 parent metal (PM), from the virgin 10 CrMo 9 10 weld metal (WM), from the virgin 13 CrMo 4 4 WM as well as from the virgin 15 Mo 3 WM. Iso-thermal uniaxial creep tests have been performed at 540 deg C in air. Pre- and post-metallography are carried out on the selected samples. FEM simulations using obtained creep data are executed. Pre-test metallography shows normal and acceptable weld repairs at given welding conditions. Creep tests demonstrate that the virgin 10 CrMo 9 10, 13 CrMo 4 4 and 15 Mo 3 WMs have apparently longer creep lifetime than the service-exposed CrMo 9 10 PM at higher stresses than 110 MPa. Among the weld metals, the longest creep lifetime is found in 10 CrMo 9 10. Higher creep strength and lower creep strain rate in the weld metals indicate an overmatch weld. At 95 MPa, however, lifetime of 13 CrMo 4 4 WM is surprisingly short (factors which may shorten lifetime are discussed and one more test will start to verify creep strength at low stress) and tests are still running for other two weld metals. More results regarding low stress

  11. Corrosion behavior of Hastelloy C-276 in supercritical water

    Zhang Qiang [National Key Laboratory for Nuclear Fuel and Materials, Nuclear Power Institute of China, P.O. Box 436, Chendu 610041 (China); Tang Rui [National Key Laboratory for Nuclear Fuel and Materials, Nuclear Power Institute of China, P.O. Box 436, Chendu 610041 (China)], E-mail: xajttr@163.com; Yin Kaiju; Luo Xin [National Key Laboratory for Nuclear Fuel and Materials, Nuclear Power Institute of China, P.O. Box 436, Chendu 610041 (China); Zhang Lefu [College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2009-09-15

    The corrosion behavior of a nickel-based alloy Hastelloy C-276 exposed in supercritical water at 500-600 deg. C/25 MPa was investigated by means of gravimetry, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. An oxide scale with dual-layer structure, mainly consisting of an outer NiO layer and an inner Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}/NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}-mixed layer, developed on C-276 after 1000 h exposure. Higher temperature promoted oxidation, resulting in thicker oxide scale, larger weight gain and stronger tendency of oxide spallation. The oxide growth mechanism in SCW seems to be similar to that in high temperature water vapor, namely solid-state growth mechanism.

  12. Evaluation of Heat Checking and Washout of Heat Resistant Superalloys and Coatings for Die inserts

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Yulong Zhu; Edward Courtright; Harold Adkins

    2005-01-30

    This project had two main objectives: (1) To design, fabricate and run a full size test for evaluating soldering and washout in die insert materials. This test utilizes the unique capabilities of the 350 Ton Squeeze Casting machine available in the Case Meal Casting Laboratory. Apply the test to evaluate resistance of die materials and coating, including heat resistant alloys to soldering and washout damage. (2) To evaluate materials and coatings, including heat resistant superalloys, for use as inserts in die casting of aluminum alloys.

  13. Air oxidation and seawater corrosion of Hastelloy S and Hastelloy C-4

    A program is currently under way at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to develop the data and technology needed to permit the licensing of 90SrF2 as a radioisotope heat source fuel for terrestrial applications. The WESF 90SrF2 storage capsule consists of a Hastelloy C-276 inner capsule (2 in. I.D. x 19 in. long) and a 316L stainless steel outer capsule (2-3/8 in. I.D. x 20 in. long). Preliminary experimental tests and theoretical calculations show that the WESF storage capsule is incapable of meeting current licensing requirements for heat sources that are to be used for terrestrial applications. Therefore, the DOE decision was to develop a new heat source design that would retain the existing WESF Hastelloy C-276 inner capsule and replace the current WESF outer capsule with a new outer capsule capable of meeting current licensing requirements. Based on a number of factors, Hastelloy S was selected as the outer capsule material. Hastelloy C-4 was selected as a backup material in case the Hastelloy S had to be rejected for any reason. This report summarizes the results of studies carried out to determine the effects of both air oxidation at heat source operating temperatures and seawater corrosion on the tensile properties of the outer capsule materials

  14. Creep properties of 20% cold worked hastelloy XR

    Creep properties of Hastelloy XR, in 20% cold worked or solution treated condition, were studied at 800, 900 and 1000degC. The results obtained are as follows: (1) At 800degC, creep rupture time of 20% cold worked Hastelloy XR is longer than that of solution treated one. However, the effect disappears above 900degC. At 1000degC, it becomes shorter than that of solution treated Hastelloy XR. (2) Rupture elongation and reduction of area of 20% cold worked Hastelloy XR are smaller than those of solution treated one. While these values of 20% cold worked Hastelloy XR are lowest at 900degC, they recover considerably at 1000degC. (3) Nonclassical creep curves which have the region with low creep rate at an early stage of creep were observed at high temperatures for Hastelloy XR, in 20% cold worked or solution treated condition. (4) Minimum creep rate, εm, of 20% cold worked Hastelloy XR is decreased by as much at a factor of 20 to 50 at 800 and 900degC. On the other hand, εm of 20% cold worked Hastelloy XR is increased by as much as a factor of 2 at 1000degC. (5) Although 20% cold work enhances creep resistance of Hastelloy XR at 800 and 900degC, the effect becomes detrimental at 1000degC where dynamic recrystallization occurs during creep. (author)

  15. Genetic determinants of heat resistance in Escherichia coli

    Ryan eMercer; Jinshui eZheng; Rigoberto eGarcia-Hernandez; Lifang eRuan; Michael eGänzle; Lynn eMcMullen

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli AW1.7 is a heat resistant food isolate and the occurrence of pathogenic strains with comparable heat resistance may pose a risk to food safety. To identify the genetic determinants of heat resistance, 29 strains of E. coli that differed in their of heat resistance were analyzed by comparative genomics. Strains were classified as highly heat resistant strains, exhibiting a D60-value of more than 6 min; moderately heat resistant strains, exhibiting a D60-value of more than 1 mi...

  16. Application of newly developed heat resistant materials for USC boilers

    This paper describes the research on the development and improvement of new high strength heat resistant steels such as SUPER304H (18Cr-9Ni-3Cu-Nb-N), NF709 (20Cr-25Ni-1.5Mo-Nb-Ti-N) and HR3C (25Cr-20Ni-Nb-N) as boiler tube, and NF616 (9Cr-0.5Mo-1.8W-Nb-V) and HCM12A (11Cr-0.4Mo-2W-Nb-V-Cu) as thick section pipe. The latest manufacturing techniques applied for these steels are introduced. In addition the high temperature strength of Alloy617 (52Ni-22Cr-13Co-9Mo-Ti-Al) that is one of the candidate materials for the next generation 700 □ USC boilers is described. (orig.)

  17. Multiscale modeling and experiment validation of microstructure evolution induced by Ar+ irradiation in hastelloy C276

    The microstructure evolution induced by Ar+ irradiation (room temperature, about 10 dpa) in nickel based alloy Hastelloy C276 was studied using molecular dynamics and cluster dynamics, and a multiscale modeling code Radieff was constructed based on rate theory. The nucleation and growth of interstitial dislocation loops and void were studied by Radieff code. C276 was irradiated by 115 keV Ar+ at room temperature as validation experiment using transmission electron microscope (TEM)-implanter/accelerator interface facility at Wuhan University, and the microstructure evolution was observed by TEM. The size of dislocation loops simulated by Radieff is in good agreement with experiment. (authors)

  18. Heat-resistant ferrochrome slag based concrete

    M.T. Zuginisov; M.M. Myrzahmetov; D.T. Sartayev; Ye.S. Orynbekov

    2014-01-01

    In the construction materials industry, expensive refractories (fire clay, silica, high- aluminous, etc.), are used as the main lining materials which despite their high fire resistance are inefficient for the use in thermal aggregates with an operation temperature up to 1300 °C. The purpose of the research was to develop heat-resistant concrete on the basis of sodium silicate binder and liquid glass with application of ferrochrome slag. Studies on the use of ferrochrome slag to obtain h...

  19. Effect of Mn on oxidation resistance of hastelloy X in simulated VHTR helium environment

    Oxidation behavior of several heats of Ni-base alloy Hastelloy X with different Mn contents was studied. The exposure tests were made with impure helium at 10000C simulating a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) coolant. Characterized by the selective oxidation of some limited number of chemically active minor elements in the alloy in the low potential oxidizing environment, the oxidation resistance was found to be controlled by factors unique to this system. Manganese in particular was shown to be a special element that formed a spinel oxide with Cr in the environment; its effect on kinetics of the surface reactions was studied. The addition of Mn up to 1.3% improve oxidation resistance of Hastelloy X, possibly due to the formation of the outer MnCr2O4 spinel oxide layer outside the inner Cr2O3 oxide layer. Based on the observed increase in the MnCr2O4/Cr2O3 thickness ratio with Mn content, a proposal was made in protecting the alloy by the optimum Mn addition. (author)

  20. Electrochemical impedance spectrometry using 316L steel, hastelloy, maraging, Inconel 600, Elgiloy, carbon steel, TiN and NiCr. Simulation in tritiated water. 2 volumes

    Polarization and electrochemical impedance spectrometry curves are presented and discussed. These curves make it possible to ascertain the corrosion domains and to compare the slow and fast kinetics (voltammetry) of different stainless steel alloys. These corrosion kinetics, the actual or simulated tritiated water redox potentials, and the corrosion potentials provide a classification of the steels studied here: 316L, Hastelloy, Maraging, Inconel 600, Elgiloy, carbon steel and TiN and NiCr deposits. From the results it can be concluded that Hastelloy and Elgiloy have the best corrosion resistance. (author). 49 refs., 695 figs., tabs

  1. Effectiveness of diffusion coatings of noble metals for heat resistance improvement

    To establish the possibility of palladium coatings substitution for platinum ones a study was made on heat resistance of these coatings for 5VMTs niobium alloy at 1150 deg C. Coatings were applied at 950 deg C by diffusion method in lithium melt with addition of 3 mas% palladium or platinum. Heat resistance tests of samples with coatings were conducted in the air during 100 h. The efficiency of protective coatings was evaluated by gravimetric and metallographic methods. It was established that palladium coating thickness changes less intensively as compared to platinum one and is controlled by the process of formation of dense film of hard oxide preventing evaporation of metallic palladium. It was concluded that substitution of niobium alloy palladization for platinization is possible

  2. High temperature corrosion of cast heat resisting steels in CO + CO2 gas mixtures

    Xu, Nan; Monceau, Daniel; Young, David; Furtado, Jader

    2008-01-01

    Two commercial variants of the cast heat resistant grade HP40Nb (Fe–25Cr–35Ni, Nb modified) were exposed to CO/CO2 gases at 982 and 1080 C in order to simulate exposure to the carbon and oxygen potentials realised in steam reformers under normal and overheated conditions. Both alloys developed external chromium-rich oxide scales, intradendritic silica precipitates and interdendritic oxide protrusions where primary, interdendritic carbides were oxidised in situ. Surprisingly, the lower silicon...

  3. Effect of cold work on creep properties of Hastelloy XR

    Creep tests of Hastelloy XR, in 10%, 20% cold worked or solution treated condition, were made at 800 at 1000degC for times up to about 2000 ks in order to investigate the effect of cold work on creep properties. The results obtained are as follows: (1) Below 950degC, creep rupture strength of 10% cold worked Hastelloy XR is beyond the value of solution treated one within this experimental condition. 950degC and cold work of 10% are the highest values experienced in an intermediate heat exchanger of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor(HTTR) under normal condition, respectively. (2) At 800 and 850degC, creep rupture time of 20% cold worked Hastelloy XR is longer than that of solution treated one. However, the effect disappears above 900degC. At 950 and 1000degC, it becomes shorter than that of solution treated Hastelloy XR. (3) Rupture elongation and reduction of area of cold worked Hastelloy XR are smaller than those of solution treated one. While these values of 10% or 20% cold worked material are lowest at 900degC, they recover considerably at 1000degC. (4) Minimum creep rate, εm, of 10% or 20% cold worked Hastelloy XR is decreased by as much as a factor of 20 to 50 at 800 to 900degC. On the other hand, εm of 10% or 20% cold worked material is increased at 1000degC. (5) From the results of microstructure observation of ruptured specimens, decrease in creep rupture strength of cold worked Hastelloy XR is interpreted in terms of extensive recrystallization which occurs during creep at 1000degC. (author)

  4. Niobium effect on structure and heat resistance of Si-Ti-Mo gaseous deposited coatings

    To determine a critical niobium content in protective silicide coatings investigation into niobium effect on the structure, phase composition and heat resistance of scale-resistant alloys of silicon-rich corner of the Si-Ti-Mo system, powders of which are used for production of gaseous deposited protective coatings on niobium and its alloys is conducted. It is stated that Si-Ti-Mo alloying with up to 20 mass% niobium at quantity ratio Csub(Ti)/Csub(Mo)=1:3 and at presence of free silicon Ssub(free) >= 0% does not change phase composition of alloys and it does not practically affect their heat resistance. Niobium is dissolved complex silicide Tisub(0.4-0.95) Mosub(0.6-0.05)-Sisub(2). Rate of oxidation of the mentioned alloys slightly decreases at formation of molybdenum-rich (Ti, Mo)Si2 silicide in the initial structure. Increase of niobium content in Si-Ti-Mo-Nb alloys results in change of oxide film structure under high-temperature oxidation bringing about its active crystallization

  5. Genetic determinants of heat resistance in Escherichia coli

    Ryan eMercer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli AW1.7 is a heat resistant food isolate and the occurrence of pathogenic strains with comparable heat resistance may pose a risk to food safety. To identify the genetic determinants of heat resistance, 29 strains of E. coli that differed in their of heat resistance were analyzed by comparative genomics. Strains were classified as highly heat resistant strains, exhibiting a D60-value of more than 6 min; moderately heat resistant strains, exhibiting a D60-value of more than 1 min; or as heat sensitive. A ~14 kb genomic island containing 16 predicted open reading frames encoding putative heat shock proteins and proteases was identified only in highly heat resistant strains. The genomic island was termed the locus of heat resistance (LHR. This putative operon is flanked by mobile elements and possesses >99% sequence identity to genomic islands contributing to heat resistance in Cronobacter sakazakii and Klebsiella pneumoniae. An additional 41 LHR sequences with >87% sequence identity were identified in 11 different species of β- and γ-proteobacteria. Cloning of the full length LHR conferred high heat resistance to the heat sensitive E. coli AW1.7ΔpHR1 and DH5α. The presence of the LHR correlates perfectly to heat resistance in several species of Enterobacteriaceae and occurs at a frequency of 2% of all E. coli genomes, including pathogenic strains. This study suggests the LHR has been laterally exchanged among the β- and γ-proteobacteria and is a reliable indicator of high heat resistance in E. coli.

  6. Heat resistance of Fe-Al intermetallics in the context of selected heat-resistant and hihg-temperature creep resistant steels

    P. Baranowski

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Results are hereby presented of heat-resistance tests of two Fe3Al and FeAl intermetallic phase-based alloys in the context of St41k-typeboiler steel and 50H21G9N4 high-temperature creep resistant steel. It has been ascertained that heat resistance of the 50H21G9N4 steeland of the Fe3Al and FeAl intermetallic phase-based alloys significantly exceeds that of the boiler steel tested in the air atmosphere and the atmosphere of a flue gas with CO, CO2, SiO2 content alike. Improvement of these properties depends of exposure conditions. The largest differences have been observed when the tests were carried out in temperature 1023 K and in the flue gas atmosphere. The differences have been more and more noticeable as the exposition duration extended. A tendency has been also recorded of smaller mass decrements of the Fe3Al and FeAl intermetallic phase-based alloys as compared to the 50H21G9N4 steel.

  7. Long-term behaviour of heat-resistant steels and high-temperature materials

    This book contains 10 lectures with the following subjects: On the effect of thermal pretreatment on the structure and creep behaviour of the alloy 800 H (V. Guttmann, J. Timm); Material properties of heat resistant ferritic and austenitic steels after cold forming (W. Bendick, H. Weber); Investigations for judging the working behaviour of components made of alloy 800 and alloy 617 under creep stress (H.J. Penkalla, F. Schubert); Creep behaviour of gas turbine materials in hot gas (K.H. Kloos et al.); Effect of small cold forming on the creep beahviour of gas turbine blades made of Nimonic 90 (K.H. Keienburg et al.); Investigations on creep fatigue alternating load strength of nickel alloys (G. Raule); Change of structure, creep fatigue behaviour and life of X20 Cr Mo V 12 1 (by G. Eggeler et al.); Investigations on thermal fatigue behaviour (K.H. Mayer et al.); Creep behaviour of similar welds of the steels 13 Cr Mo 4 4, 14 MoV 6 3, 10 Cr Mo 910 and GS-17 Cr Mo V 5 11 (K. Niel et al.); Determining the creep crack behaviour of heat resistant steels with samples of different geometry (K. Maile, R. Tscheuschner). (orig.,/MM)

  8. Hemispherical total emissivity of Hastelloy N with different surface conditions

    The hemispherical total emissivity of Hastelloy N (a candidate structural material for Next Generation Nuclear Plants (NGNPs), particularly for the molten fluoride cooled reactors) was measured using an experimental set-up that was constructed in accordance with the standard ASTM C835-06. The material surface conditions included: (i) ‘as received’ (original) sample from the supplier; (ii) samples with increased surface roughness through sand blasting; (iii) oxidized surface, and (iv) samples coated with graphite powder. The emissivity of the as received samples varied from around 0.22 to 0.28 in the temperature range of 473 K to 1498 K. The emissivity increased when the roughness of the surface increased compared to an as received sample. When Hastelloy N was oxidized in air at 1153 K or coated with graphite powder, its emissivity increased substantially. The sample sand blasted with 60 grit beads and sprinkled with graphite powder showed an increase of emissivity from 0.2 to 0.60 at 473 K and from 0.25 to 0.67 at 1473 K. The oxidized surface showed a similar behavior: an increase in emissivity compared to an unoxidized sample. This increase in emissivity has strong favorable safety implications in terms of decay heat removal in post-accident environments. The data were compared with another Hastelloy family member, Hastelloy X.

  9. Hemispherical total emissivity of Hastelloy N with different surface conditions

    Gordon, Andrew J.; Walton, Kyle L. [Particulate Systems Research Center, Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Ghosh, Tushar K., E-mail: ghoshT@missouri.edu [Particulate Systems Research Center, Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Loyalka, Sudarshan K.; Viswanath, Dabir S.; Tompson, Robert V. [Particulate Systems Research Center, Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    The hemispherical total emissivity of Hastelloy N (a candidate structural material for Next Generation Nuclear Plants (NGNPs), particularly for the molten fluoride cooled reactors) was measured using an experimental set-up that was constructed in accordance with the standard ASTM C835-06. The material surface conditions included: (i) 'as received' (original) sample from the supplier; (ii) samples with increased surface roughness through sand blasting; (iii) oxidized surface, and (iv) samples coated with graphite powder. The emissivity of the as received samples varied from around 0.22 to 0.28 in the temperature range of 473 K to 1498 K. The emissivity increased when the roughness of the surface increased compared to an as received sample. When Hastelloy N was oxidized in air at 1153 K or coated with graphite powder, its emissivity increased substantially. The sample sand blasted with 60 grit beads and sprinkled with graphite powder showed an increase of emissivity from 0.2 to 0.60 at 473 K and from 0.25 to 0.67 at 1473 K. The oxidized surface showed a similar behavior: an increase in emissivity compared to an unoxidized sample. This increase in emissivity has strong favorable safety implications in terms of decay heat removal in post-accident environments. The data were compared with another Hastelloy family member, Hastelloy X.

  10. Hemispherical total emissivity of Hastelloy N with different surface conditions

    Gordon, Andrew J.; Walton, Kyle L.; Ghosh, Tushar K.; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.; Viswanath, Dabir S.; Tompson, Robert V.

    2012-07-01

    The hemispherical total emissivity of Hastelloy N (a candidate structural material for Next Generation Nuclear Plants (NGNPs), particularly for the molten fluoride cooled reactors) was measured using an experimental set-up that was constructed in accordance with the standard ASTM C835-06. The material surface conditions included: (i) 'as received' (original) sample from the supplier; (ii) samples with increased surface roughness through sand blasting; (iii) oxidized surface, and (iv) samples coated with graphite powder. The emissivity of the as received samples varied from around 0.22 to 0.28 in the temperature range of 473 K to 1498 K. The emissivity increased when the roughness of the surface increased compared to an as received sample. When Hastelloy N was oxidized in air at 1153 K or coated with graphite powder, its emissivity increased substantially. The sample sand blasted with 60 grit beads and sprinkled with graphite powder showed an increase of emissivity from 0.2 to 0.60 at 473 K and from 0.25 to 0.67 at 1473 K. The oxidized surface showed a similar behavior: an increase in emissivity compared to an unoxidized sample. This increase in emissivity has strong favorable safety implications in terms of decay heat removal in post-accident environments. The data were compared with another Hastelloy family member, Hastelloy X.

  11. Machinability of Hastelloy C-276 Using Hot-pressed Sintered Ti(C7N3)-based Cermet Cutting Tools

    XU Kaitao; ZOU Bin; HUANG Chuanzhen; YAO Yang; ZHOU Huijun; LIU Zhanqiang

    2015-01-01

    C-276 nickel-based alloy is a difficult-to-cut material. In high-speed machining of Hastelloy C-276, notching is a prominent fallure mode due to high mechanical properties of work piece, which results in the short tool life and low productivity. In this paper, a newly developed Ti(C7N3)-based cermet insert manufactured by a hot-pressing method is used to machine the C-276 nickel-based alloy, and its cutting performances are studied. Based on orthogonal experiment method, the influence of cutting parameters on tool life, material removal rates and surface roughness are investigated. Experimental research results indicate that the optimal cutting condition is a cutting speed of 50 m/min, depth of cut of 0.4 mm and feed rate of 0.15 mm/r if the tool life and material removal rates are considered comprehensively. In this case, the tool life is 32 min and material removal rates are 3000 mm3/min, which is appropriate to the rough machining. If the tool life and surface roughness are considered, the better cutting condition is a cutting speed of 75 m/min, depth of cut of 0.6 mm and feed rate of 0.1 mm/r. In this case, the surface roughness is 0.59mm. Notch wear, flank wear, chipping at the tool nose, built-up edge(BUE) and micro-cracks are found when Ti(C7N3)-based cermet insert turned Hastelloy C-276. Oxidation, adhesive, abrasive and diffusion are the wear mechanisms, which can be investigated by the observations of scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. This research will help to guide studies on the evaluation of machining parameters to further advance the productivity of nickel based alloy Hastelloy C-276 machining.

  12. Machinability of hastelloy C-276 using Hot-pressed sintered Ti(C7N3)-based cermet cutting tools

    Xu, Kaitao; Zou, Bin; Huang, Chuanzhen; Yao, Yang; Zhou, Huijun; Liu, Zhanqiang

    2015-05-01

    C-276 nickel-based alloy is a difficult-to-cut material. In high-speed machining of Hastelloy C-276, notching is a prominent failure mode due to high mechanical properties of work piece, which results in the short tool life and low productivity. In this paper, a newly developed Ti(C7N3)-based cermet insert manufactured by a hot-pressing method is used to machine the C-276 nickel-based alloy, and its cutting performances are studied. Based on orthogonal experiment method, the influence of cutting parameters on tool life, material removal rates and surface roughness are investigated. Experimental research results indicate that the optimal cutting condition is a cutting speed of 50 m/min, depth of cut of 0.4 mm and feed rate of 0.15 mm/r if the tool life and material removal rates are considered comprehensively. In this case, the tool life is 32 min and material removal rates are 3000 mm3/min, which is appropriate to the rough machining. If the tool life and surface roughness are considered, the better cutting condition is a cutting speed of 75 m/min, depth of cut of 0.6 mm and feed rate of 0.1 mm/r. In this case, the surface roughness is 0.59μm. Notch wear, flank wear, chipping at the tool nose, built-up edge(BUE) and micro-cracks are found when Ti(C7N3)-based cermet insert turned Hastelloy C-276. Oxidation, adhesive, abrasive and diffusion are the wear mechanisms, which can be investigated by the observations of scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. This research will help to guide studies on the evaluation of machining parameters to further advance the productivity of nickel based alloy Hastelloy C-276 machining.

  13. Effect of strain rate on high-temperature low-cycle fatigue behavior of hastelloy X and hastelloy XR

    A series of strain controlled low-cycle fatigue tests at 900 deg C in the simulated HTGR helium environment were conducted on Hastelloy X and its modified version, Hastelloy XR, and the effect of strain rate on high-temperature low-cycle fatigue behavior was investigated. The results of this study provide the following conclusions; (1) Decreasing the strain rate led to notable reductions in the fatigue life. (2) Trends of strain softening and cyclic softening were observed at lower strain rates of 1 x 10-4 s-1 and 2 x 10-5 s-1. (3) Both fracture modes of the transgranular and the intergranular were recognized on the fracture surfaces, with the former mode being predominant at a comparatively high strain rate of 1 x 10-3 s-1. The intergranular fracture mode, however, became predominant at lower strain rates, 1 x 10-4 s-1 and 2 x 10-5 s-1. (4) The cumulative damage rule predicted an excessively coservative value for creep damage. (5) The data obtained lay on the straight line plots when the frequency modified fatigue life method was applied. No significant difference in fatigue behavior was resolved between Hastelloy X and Hastelloy XR under the test conditions employed. (author)

  14. Heat Resistance and Population Stability of Lyophilized Bacillus subtilis Spores

    Odlaug, Theron E.; Caputo, Ross A.; Graham, Gary S.

    1981-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis 5230 spores were lyophilized in 0.067 M phosphate buffer and stored at 2 to 8°C for 9 to 27 months. The lyophilized spores were reconstituted with buffer or 0.9% saline, and the heat resistance was determined in a thermoresistometer. Lyophilization had no effect on the heat resistance of the spores but did result in a slight decrease in population (≤0.3-logarithm reduction). The lyophilized spores maintained heat resistance and population levels over the test periods. The D-...

  15. Development of super heat-resistant turbocharger

    Yoritaka, Masashi; Yamamoto, Yukio; Hasegawa, Yasuaki; Hokari, Tomio

    1987-09-01

    In recent years, the exhaust gas temperature has increased due to high power of motorvehicles, causing such problems as breakage of turbine blades resulting from the shortage of high temperature creep strength, and as for turbine casings, as thermal deformation, cracks and generation of oxide films resulting from the shortages of high temperature creep strength and acid resistance. For these problems, it was tried to adopt Ni-base super-alloy, MAR-M247 for turbine blades and Co-base super-alloy FSX414 for turbine casings. During the above process, the knowledge which is stated hereunder was obtained. Breakage life of turbine blade is related closely to the high temperature stability of ..cap alpha..' phase of the super-alloy concerned. As for the mechanism of breakage, it starts from the elongation of turbine blade, followed by the creation of creepvoid inside which develops to cracks on the outer surface before reaching the breakage stage. Fracturing starts from the inside cristal grains. Stronger blades are made as the unidirectional solidified organization without lateral cristal grains is formed as perfectly as possible. Consequently, it is necessary to control positively the organization formation in order to achieve this unidirectional solidified organization. (16 figs, 3 tabs, 7 refs)

  16. HEAT-RESISTANT COMPOSITES CURED BY ELECTRON BEAM

    Jian-wen Bao; Yang Li; Xiang-bao Chen; Feng-mei Li

    2001-01-01

    Electron beam (EB) curing of composites has many advantages. Heat-resistant EB-curing composites could substitute polyimide composites used in aeronautical engines. In this paper, the effects of catalyst and dose on the cured resin were investigated. The heat-resistance of the resin cured by EB was evaluated by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The experimental results show that the mechanical properties of the composites cured by EB could meet the specifications of aeronautical engines at 250°C.

  17. Mechanisms underlying extreme heat resistance of ascospores of Neosartorya fischeri

    Wyatt, T.T.

    2014-01-01

    Food spoilage causes immense losses of food products worldwide and negatively affects human health due the production of toxic compounds, so-called mycotoxins. Worldwide economic costs related to fungal spoilage amounts billions of euro each year. Mild heat treatments are used to minimize fungal spoilage. As an example, pasteurized food products, especially canned fruit and fruit juices, are still prone to spoilage by fungi that produce extreme heat-resistant ascospores. Heat-resistant ascosp...

  18. Creep properties of Hastelloy X in a carburizing helium environment

    In this work, we investigate the environmental effect on the creep behavior of Hastelloy X at 9000C in helium and air. Since helium coolant in HTGR is expected to be carburizing and very weakly oxidizing for most metals, testings were focused on the effect of carburizing and slight oxidation. Carburization decreases secondary creep strain rate and delays tertiary creep initiation. On the other hand, the crack growth rate on the specimen surface is enhanced due to very weak oxidation in helium, therefore the tertiary creep strain rate becomes larger than that in air. The rupture time of Hastelloy X was shorter in helium when compared with in air. Stress versus rupture time curves for both environments do not deviate with each other during up to 5000 hours test, and a ratio of rupture stress in helium to that in air was about 0.9

  19. Electrochemistry Corrosion Properties of Pulsed Laser Welding Hastelloy C-276

    Ma, G.; Niu, F.; Wu, D.; Qu, Y.

    Based on the welding quality requirement of Hastelloy C276 in the extreme environment, the electrochemistry corrosion property of laser welding Hastelloy C276 was evaluated in the neutral, acid and alkaline solutions, and the corroded surface was observed by the co-focal laser scanning microscope to confirm the corrosion mechanism. The results indicated, the corrosion trend of the weld was weaker than that of base metal in the neutral and acid solutions, but in the alkaline solutions, the corrosion trend of the base metal was weaker. However, the corrosion rate of the weld was much slower than that of base metal in all solutions. At the point of corrosion mechanism, in the acid and alkaline solutions, the base metal and weld showed the uniform corrosion. However, in the neutral solution, the selective corrosion and intergranular corrosion occurred in the base metal and the weld, respectively.

  20. An investigation into crystalline phases and nano structural and mechanical properties of HH heat resistant stainless steels

    M Hosseini; Bahari, A; F Ahmadian

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, the effects of different casting parameters including pouring temperature and cooling rate on stainless steel structures and mechanical properties of heat resistant alloy (HH) were studied. Mo nanoparticles were synthesized through sol-gel method and were coated on the stainless steel device using spin-coating method. The effect of coating layer on the device was studied by using XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) and FT-IR (Fourier Transform Infra red ) and SEM (Scanning Electron M...

  1. Thermal response of heat-resistant layer with pyrolysis

    Huang Haiming

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A model is developed for analyzing the thermal response of the heat-resistant layer composed of high silica fiber reinforced phenolic matrix composites(SiO2/P and aluminum, in which pyrolysis and phase transitions are exsited, such as melt, vaporization and sublimation. Based on this model, the thermal response of the heat-resistant layer with different SiO2/P thickness is calculated under a heat flux by using FORTRAN codes. As indicated in the results, the slope of temperature gets a sudden decline at the pyrolysis interface, which is due to the latent heat of pyrolysis; the thickness of heat-resistant layer has little influence on the heating-surface temperature, however, the back temperature may increase with the decreasing thickness; and the thermal conductivity of carbonized layer is very important to thermal response.

  2. Thermal response of heat-resistant layer with pyrolysis

    Huang Haiming; Xiaoliang Xu; Huang Guo; Zhang Zimao

    2012-01-01

    A model is developed for analyzing the thermal response of the heat-resistant layer composed of high silica fiber reinforced phenolic matrix composites(SiO2/P) and aluminum, in which pyrolysis and phase transitions are exsited, such as melt, vaporization and sublimation. Based on this model, the thermal response of the heat-resistant layer with different SiO2/P thickness is calculated under a heat flux by using FORTRAN codes. As indicated in the results, the slope of temperature gets a ...

  3. Fatigue crack propagation in Hastelloy X weld metal

    The fatigue crack growth rate of Hastelloy X weld metal increased with stress intensity, temperature, and inverse frequency. The results were correlated with the equation da/dN = (ΔK)/sup n/, for constant frequency or constant temperature. The values of A and n were computed with a linear regression algorithm. With decreasing frequency at constant ΔK and constant temperature (5380C) fatigue crack growth rates approach an upper limit. Fatigue crack growth rate of the weld metal was lower than that reported for base metal at 5380C and lower at 6490C for a frequency of 1 Hz

  4. Investigations on the microstructure and mechanical properties of multi-pass pulsed current gas tungsten arc weldments of Monel 400 and Hastelloy C276

    Highlights: • For the first time study on the dissimilar weldments of Monel 400 and Hastelloy C276. • Pensive structure – property relationships of these weldments. • Improved micro-structural features. • Better ductility of the weldments through bend test results. - Abstract: This research article reported the weldability, microstructure and mechanical properties of the dissimilar combinations of nickel alloys such as Monel 400 and Hastelloy C276. Multi-pass pulsed current gas tungsten arc (PCGTA) welding was employed for joining these dissimilar metals using ERNiCrMo-3 filler. Interface microstructures showed the absence of unmixed zone at the HAZ of both the sides. It was evident from the studies that all the tensile failures occurred at Monel 400 side. The average impact toughness portrayed by these dissimilar weldments was found to be 41 J. Bend test results showed that these dissimilar combinations offer augmented ductility. The outcomes of the study substantiated the use of current pulsing for the successful joints of Monel 400 and Hastelloy C276 by correlating the mechanical and metallurgical properties

  5. High temperature strength of hastelloy x welded joints

    In the design of high temperature structures such as ASME Code N-47, the high temperature strength characteristics of welded joints become the problem. Also, the design of the welded parts in high temperature structures in the present state is according to the standard in which the bimetallic behavior of welded parts is not considered, accordingly, it is much problematic. In this paper, the high temperature strength characteristics of Hastelloy X welded joints are described, and the problems in the present design are pointed out, moreover, some comment is given to the evaluation of high temperature strength for the future. In the ASME Code, Case N-47, the strength of welded joints is required to be the same as that of parent metals. Therefore, the data on the high temperature strength of welded joints must be collected. The results of tensile test at room temperature, 700, 800, 900 and 1000 deg C on the parent metal and EB and TIG welded joints of Hastelloy X are shown. Also, the characteristics of mono-axial creep rupture, internal pressure creep rupture, and high temperature, low cycle fatigue are reported. The lowering of strength in the tension, creep and fatigue of welded joints must be examined and evaluated in view of the combined behavior of parent metals and weld metals. (Kako, I.)

  6. High temperature protective silicide coatings for titanium-niobium alloys

    The accomplished investigation of heat resistance of silicide coatings on titanium - (30-50)% niobium alloys has revealed that the coatings ensure reliable corrosion protection up to 1100 deg due to formation of heat resistant disilicides and a silicon dioxide layer on alloy surface. Silicide coatings possess particular ductility

  7. Weldability of the superalloys Haynes 188 and Hastelloy X by Nd:YAG

    Graneix Jérémie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The requirements for welded aircraft parts have become increasingly severe, especially in terms of the reproducibility of the geometry and metallurgical grade of the weld bead. Laser welding is a viable method of assembly to meet these new demands, because of automation, to replace the manual TIG welding process. The purpose of this study is to determine the weldability of Hastelloy X and Haynes 188 alloys by the butt welding process with a Nd:YAG laser. To identify the influential parameters of the welding process (laser power, feed rate, focal diameter and flow of gas while streamlining testing, an experimental design was established with the CORICO software using the graphic correlation method. The position of the focal point was fixed at 1/3 of the thickness of the sheet. The gas flow rate and the power of the beam have a major effect on the mechanical properties and geometry of the weld. The strength of the weld is comparable to that of the base metal. However, there is a significant decrease in the elongation at break of approximately 30%. The first observations of the cross section of the weld by scanning electron microscopy coupled with EBSD analysis show a molten zone presenting dendritic large grains compared to the equiaxed grains of the base metals without a heat affected zone.

  8. Material Data Representation of Hysteresis Loops for Hastelloy X Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Alam, Javed; Berke, Laszlo; Murthy, Pappu L. N.

    1993-01-01

    The artificial neural network (ANN) model proposed by Rumelhart, Hinton, and Williams is applied to develop a functional approximation of material data in the form of hysteresis loops from a nickel-base superalloy, Hastelloy X. Several different ANN configurations are used to model hysteresis loops at different cycles for this alloy. The ANN models were successful in reproducing the hysteresis loops used for its training. However, because of sharp bends at the two ends of hysteresis loops, a drift occurs at the corners of the loops where loading changes to unloading and vice versa (the sharp bends occurred when the stress-strain curves were reproduced by adding stress increments to the preceding values of the stresses). Therefore, it is possible only to reproduce half of the loading path. The generalization capability of the network was tested by using additional data for two other hysteresis loops at different cycles. The results were in good agreement. Also, the use of ANN led to a data compression ratio of approximately 22:1.

  9. Heat resistant driving coil and control rod drive mechanism

    Ceramic materials are used for each part of driving coils and used as the driving coils for a driving shaft. That is, a cylindrical bobbin having outwardly protruding flanges on the entire circumference at the upper and the lower portions is made of stainless steels. Ceramics sheets are appended as necessary to the outer circumferential surface of the bobbin. Then, ceramic electric wires are wound around the outer circumference of the bobbin by a required number of turns to constitute coils. The electric wire is prepared by coating the conductor of nickel-plated copper with ceramic coating material, disposing an insulation material to the outer circumference thereof the further coating the outside with ceramic coating material. This can improve the heat resistance and, since the control rod drives using such heat resistant driving coils can operate at a high temperature. It requires no cooling device and can simplify the reactor and its peripheral structures. (T.M.)

  10. Leather Coated with Mixtures of Humectant and Antioxidants to Improve UV and Heat Resistance

    Ultraviolet (UV) and heat resistance are very important qualities for leather products. We recently developed an environmentally friendly finishing process for improving the UV- and heat resistance of automobile upholstery leather. We previously reported and demonstrated some promising results fro...

  11. The synthesis of thermite heat and heat-resistant steels

    Жигуц, Юрій Юрійович

    2013-01-01

    The present paper the basic solutions to the problem of obtaining heat-resistant steels examined the use of thermite steels, the benefits of combining thermite steels with metallotermic methods of getting is showed. The advantages of metallotermic synthesis methods include: autonomy of processes, independence of energy sources, simplicity of equipment, high-performance process and easy transition from experimental research to industrial production. The need to developed the technology of synt...

  12. Development of heat resistant ion exchange resin. First Report

    In nuclear power stations, as a means of maintaining the soundness of nuclear reactors, the cleaning of reactor cooling water has been carried out. But as for the ion exchange resin which is used as the cleaning agent in the filtrating and desalting facility in reactor water cleaning system, since the heat resistance is low, high temperature reactor water is cooled once and cleaned, therefore large heat loss occurs. If the cleaning can be done at higher temperature, the reduction of heat loss and compact cleaning facilities become possible. In this study, a new ion exchange resin having superior heat resistance has been developed, and the results of the test of evaluating the performance of the developed ion exchange resin are reported. The heat loss in reactor water cleaning system, the heat deterioration of conventional ion exchange resin, and the development of the anion exchange resin of alkyl spacer type are described. The outline of the performance evaluation test, the experimental method, and the results of the heat resistance, ion exchange characteristics and so on of C4 resin are reported. The with standable temperature of the developed anion exchange resin was estimated as 80 - 90degC. The ion exchange performance at 95degC of this resin did not change from that at low temperature in chloride ions and silica, and was equivalent to that of existing anion exchange resin. (K.I.)

  13. AC magnetization losses in striated YBCO-123/Hastelloy coated conductors

    In this work we present experimental results of reductions in AC magnetization losses due to a striation process in YBCO-123/Hastelloy coated conductors. The measurements were carried out in a sinusoidally varying external magnetic field, with amplitudes up to 100 mT, in a frequency range of 8.5-85.4 Hz, and at a temperature of 77 K. The field was oriented perpendicularly to the face of the tapes. Sample tapes were successively patterned into the form of narrow parallel strips, by means of a photoresist lithography and chemical wet etching technique. Experimental results are discussed in the framework of existing theoretical models for energy dissipation in thin films in perpendicular AC magnetic fields

  14. Study on the creep constitutive equation of Hastelloy X, (1)

    A creep constitutive equation of Hastelloy X was obtained from available experimental data. A sensitivity analysis of this creep constitutive equation was carried out. As the result, the following were revealed: (i) Variations in creep behavior with creep constitutive equation are not small. (ii) In a simpler stress change pattern, variations in creep behavior are similar to those in the corresponding fundamental creep characteristics (creep strain curve, stress relaxation curve, etc.). (iii) Cumulative creep damage estimated in accordance with ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Case N-47 from a stress history predicted by ''the standard creep constitutive equation'' which predicts the average behavior of creep strain curve data is not thought to be on the safe side on account of uncertainties in creep damage caused by variations in creep strain curve. (author)

  15. Design of martensitic/ferritic heat-resistant steels for application at 650 deg. C with supporting thermodynamic modelling

    Knezevic, V.; Balun, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, 40074 Duesseldorf (Germany); Sauthoff, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, 40074 Duesseldorf (Germany)], E-mail: g.sauthoff@mpie.de; Inden, G.; Schneider, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, 40074 Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2008-03-25

    In view of developing novel heat-resisting steels for applications in conventional power plants with service temperatures of 650 deg. C, a series of martensitic/ferritic model steels with 12 wt.%Cr were studied to achieve an increased creep resistance through additional alloying with various elements for controlled precipitation of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides, MX carbonitrides and intermetallic Laves phase. The alloy design relied on thermodynamic simulation calculations using Thermo-Calc and DICTRA. The mechanical testing concentrated on creep at 650 deg. C for up to 8000 h. The alloy optimization resulted in creep rupture strengths above those of the martensitic/ferritic P92 steel. The work was part of a cooperative project within the German MARCKO program.

  16. Design of martensitic/ferritic heat-resistant steels for application at 650 deg. C with supporting thermodynamic modelling

    In view of developing novel heat-resisting steels for applications in conventional power plants with service temperatures of 650 deg. C, a series of martensitic/ferritic model steels with 12 wt.%Cr were studied to achieve an increased creep resistance through additional alloying with various elements for controlled precipitation of M23C6 carbides, MX carbonitrides and intermetallic Laves phase. The alloy design relied on thermodynamic simulation calculations using Thermo-Calc and DICTRA. The mechanical testing concentrated on creep at 650 deg. C for up to 8000 h. The alloy optimization resulted in creep rupture strengths above those of the martensitic/ferritic P92 steel. The work was part of a cooperative project within the German MARCKO program

  17. Koch–Haaf reaction of adamantanols in an acid-tolerant hastelloy-made microreactor

    Takahide Fukuyama

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Koch–Haaf reaction of adamantanols was successfully carried out in a microflow system at room temperature. By combining an acid-tolerant hastelloy-made micromixer, a PTFE tube, and a hastelloy-made microextraction unit, a packaged reaction-to-workup system was developed. By means of the present system, the multigram scale synthesis of 1-adamantanecarboxylic acid was achieved in ca. one hour operation.

  18. Koch–Haaf reaction of adamantanols in an acid-tolerant hastelloy-made microreactor

    Mukai, Yu

    2011-01-01

    Summary The Koch–Haaf reaction of adamantanols was successfully carried out in a microflow system at room temperature. By combining an acid-tolerant hastelloy-made micromixer, a PTFE tube, and a hastelloy-made microextraction unit, a packaged reaction-to-workup system was developed. By means of the present system, the multigram scale synthesis of 1-adamantanecarboxylic acid was achieved in ca. one hour operation. PMID:21977213

  19. Studying microstructure of heat resistant steel deoxidized by barium ferrosilicon

    A. Z. Issagulov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper examined the nature and distribution of non-metallic inclusions in the heat-resistant steel 12H1MF (0,12 % С, 1 % Сr, 0,5 - 0,6 Mo, 0,5 % V, ferrosilicobarim. As a reference, used by steel, deoxidized silicon. Melting was carried out in a laboratory, research-metallic inclusions, their shape and distribution, pollution index were studied according to conventional methods. Studies have shown that ferrosilicobarim deoxidation in an amount of 0,1 - 0,2 %, reduce the overall pollution index of non-metallic inclusions and change the nature of their distribution.

  20. Heat-resistant mechanism of transgenic rape by 45Ca isotope tracer

    The Ca2+ uptake differences of the rape with heat-resistant gene and the general rape were investigated by 45Ca isotope tracer. The results showed that the rape with heat-resistant gene can strengthen the regulation of calcium absorption. The calcium regulation ability of the heat-resistant genes may be able to play in the rape aspect of the mechanism of resistance. (authors)

  1. Heat Resistance of TiN Coated HSS Tools

    周兰英; 周焕雷; 贾庆莲

    2003-01-01

    The cutting friction, cutting deformation, producing heat, conducting heat, temperature field of TiN coated HSS tools in the cutting process are discussed profoundly. In order to make clear the heat property of TiN coated tools, from the micromechanism angle, the relationship of the heat property and the crystal structure of TiN compound is analyzed, and the regularity of TiN compound crystal structure changing with temperature rising is sought. The difference of the wear resistance and heat resistance of TiN coated tools deposited by c1 and c2 depositing techniques is proved by tests. The conclusions will offer the theoretical basis for correct design of geometrical parameters of TiN coated tools, rational selection of cutting regimes and optimization of the depositing technique.

  2. Applying Tep Measurements to Assess the Response of Hastelloy to Long Time Aging

    Ifergane, S.; Gelbstein, Y.; Dahan, I.; Pinkas, M.; Landau, A.

    2009-03-01

    Hastelloy C-276 service temperature is restricted due to precipitation of the intermetallic compound μ. Time-temperature curves indicate that the highest precipitation rate is obtained at about 870° C. Thermoelectric Power (TEP) measurements were applied to monitor the precipitation kinetics during aging at 870° C. The TEP was found to be well correlated with the amount of μ phase formed during aging and with the reduction in impact energy and ductility. It was demonstrated that TEP measurements could be used to monitor aging of Hastelloy C-276.

  3. Effect of Aluminium and Silicon on High Temperature Oxidation Resistance of Fe-Cr-Ni Heat Resistant Steel

    WANG Haitao; ZHAO Qi; YU Huashun; ZHANG Zhenya; CUI Hongwei; MIN Guanghui

    2009-01-01

    Fe-Cr-Ni heat resistant steels with different contents of Al and Si were cast in intermediate frequency induction furnace with non-oxidation method. With oxidation weight gain method, the oxidation resistance of test alloys was examined at 1 200℃ for 500 h. The effects of Al and Si on oxidation resistance were studied through analyses of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). It is shown that the composition of oxide scales is a decisive factor for the oxidation resistance of heat resistant steels. The compounded scale composed of Cr2O3, ar-Al2O3, SiO2 and Fe(Ni)Cr2O4, with flat and compact structure, fine and even grains, exhibits complete oxidation resistance at 1 200℃ Its oxidation weight gain rate is only 0.081 g/(m2·h). By the criterion of standard Gibbs formation free energy, a model of nucleation and growth of the compounded scale was established. The formation of the compounded scale was the result of the competition of being oxidated and reduction among Al, Si, and the matrix metal elements of Fe, Cr and Ni. The protection of the compounded scale was analyzed from the perspectives of electrical conductivity and strength properties.

  4. Studies Concerning Heat-Resisting Additives for Bitumens

    Livia Groll

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of causeway’s bitumen adhesiveness is becoming a current practice in our country, especially when is used acid (siliceous aggregate. One of the most important properties of bitumen is its adhesiveness to aggregate, and this property determine the using of bitumen in causeways area. Usually the adhesiveness is defined as the capacity of a binder to cover an aggregate without dispersing itself when touching the water or the traffic aggressions. Therefore, the adhesiveness additives are products that improve the adhesiveness of the bitumen to a certain aggregate. The used additives – ADETEN type (A01 and A03 have a high stocking stability, a low toxicity degree toward the amine, diamine, polyamine-based additives and are liquid products perfectly compatible with all bitumens and easy to use, in comparison to the paste or solid additives, which must be made liquid to be used. But a very important condition, which must be fulfilled by these promoters is the heat-resisting condition.

  5. Heat-Resistant Crack-Free Superhydrophobic Polydivinylbenzene Colloidal Films.

    Wang, Zefeng; Ye, Weiwei; Luo, Xinran; Wang, Zhonggang

    2016-03-29

    Highly cross-linked poly(divinylbenzene) (PDVB) spherical colloidal particles with nano-, submicron-, and micron-sizes of 157.2 nm, 602.1 nm, and 5.1 μm were synthesized through emulsion and dispersion polymerization methods. The influences of particle size on the surface morphology, roughness, superhydrophobicity, and critical cracking thickness of colloidal films were studied in detail. The results show that PDVB colloidal films possess large water contact angle (CA) over 151°, belonging to superhydrophobic materials. Moreover, it is interesting to observe that the highly cross-linked network structure leads to PDVB film's excellent heat-resistance. The CA and rough surface morphology remain nearly unchanged after thermal-treatment of films at 150 °C for 24 h. In addition, no cracks were observed in films with thicknesses up to 8.1 μm, exceeding most of polymer and inorganic particle films reported in the literature. The simple and scalable preparation method, low-cost, superhydrophobicity, and excellent thermal stability endow the PDVB colloidal films with promising applications in advanced coating fields, especially when employed in the high-temperature service environment. PMID:26986041

  6. Change of heat resistance on spore forming bacteria after irradiation

    The effect of heat resistance of endospores after gamma-irradiation were investigated for application to decontaminate microorganisms in spices or other dried food materials. D10 values of endospores dried on glass fiber filter with additives of 2% peptone + 1% glycerin were obtained to be 1.8 kGy for Bacillus pumilus, 1.1 kGy for B. cereus, 2.2 kGy for Clostridium botulinum Type A and 2.4 kGy for Cl. botulinum Type E, respectively. Non-irradiated endospores of B. pumilus and B. cereus were inactivated with 40 min of heat treatment at 100degC in water. When endospores were irradiated with 5 kGy, these bacteria were inactivated below 20 min of heating at 100degC in water. In the case of Cl. botulinum Type A and Type E, non-irradiated endospores were inactivated with 30 min of heat treatment at 100degC in water, and irradiated endospores at 5 kGy were inactivated below 15 min of heating. However, all of these bacteria could not inactivate endospores even after heating more than 2 hours at 100degC in dry condition or 80degC in water, and decreased a little of necessary times for inactivation of heat treatment after irradiation at 5 kGy. (author)

  7. An investigation into crystalline phases and nano structural and mechanical properties of HH heat resistant stainless steels

    M Hosseini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the effects of different casting parameters including pouring temperature and cooling rate on stainless steel structures and mechanical properties of heat resistant alloy (HH were studied. Mo nanoparticles were synthesized through sol-gel method and were coated on the stainless steel device using spin-coating method. The effect of coating layer on the device was studied by using XRD (X-Ray Diffraction and FT-IR (Fourier Transform Infra red and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy techniques. The obtained results indicated an enhancement of corrosion, surface abrasion protection without changing metal surface structure, and a reduction of leakage current through the stainless steel device. Furthermore, pouring temperature and cooling rate increase caused a fine grain structure to be acquired with less carbides and better distribution in the austenitic matrix.

  8. Reduction in mechanical anisotropy through high temperature heat treatment of Hastelloy X processed by Selective Laser Melting (SLM)

    Etter, T.; Kunze, K.; Geiger, F.; Meidani, H.

    2015-04-01

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing technology used to directly produce metallic parts from thin powder layers. To evaluate the anisotropic mechanical properties, tensile test specimens of the Ni-base alloy Hastelloy X were built with the loading direction oriented either parallel (z-specimens) or perpendicular to the build-up direction (xy- specimens). Specimens were investigated in the “as-built” condition and after high temperature heat treatment. Tensile tests at room temperature and at 850°C of “as-built” material have shown different mechanical properties for z- and xy-specimens. The anisotropy is reflected in the Young's modulus, with lower values measured parallel to the build-up direction. It is shown that the anisotropy is significantly reduced by a subsequent recrystallization heat treatment. The characterization of microstructural and textural anisotropy was done by Electron Back Scatter Diffraction (EBSD) analysis. Predictions of Young's modulus calculated from the measured textures compare well with the data from tensile tests.

  9. Analyzing the effect of cutting parameters on surface roughness and tool wear when machining nickel based hastelloy - 276

    Machining parameters has an important factor on tool wear and surface finish, for that the manufacturers need to obtain optimal operating parameters with a minimum set of experiments as well as minimizing the simulations in order to reduce machining set up costs. The cutting speed is one of the most important cutting parameter to evaluate, it clearly most influences on one hand, tool life, tool stability, and cutting process quality, and on the other hand controls production flow. Due to more demanding manufacturing systems, the requirements for reliable technological information have increased. For a reliable analysis in cutting, the cutting zone (tip insert-workpiece-chip system) as the mechanics of cutting in this area are very complicated, the chip is formed in the shear plane (entrance the shear zone) and is shape in the sliding plane. The temperature contributed in the primary shear, chamfer and sticking, sliding zones are expressed as a function of unknown shear angle on the rake face and temperature modified flow stress in each zone. The experiments were carried out on a CNC lathe and surface finish and tool tip wear are measured in process. Machining experiments are conducted. Reasonable agreement is observed under turning with high depth of cut. Results of this research help to guide the design of new cutting tool materials and the studies on evaluation of machining parameters to further advance the productivity of nickel based alloy Hastelloy - 276 machining.

  10. Modification Approach of Fuzzy Logic Model for Predicting of Cutting Force When Machining Nickel Based Hastelloy C-276

    BASIM A. KHIDHIR; Bashir Mohamed; Mahmoud A.A. Younis

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Most Nickel based Hastelloy C-276 is a difficult-to-machine material because of its low thermal diffusive property and high strength at high temperature. Machinability consideration of nickel based Hastelloy C-276 in turning operations has been carried out using ceramic inserts under dry conditions. Approach: This study described a modification approach applied to a fuzzy logic based model for predicting cutting force where the machining parameters for c...

  11. Principles of alloying of Ni superalloys resistant to high-temperature corrosion

    The effect of alloying elements (Cr, Ti, Al, Co, W, Nb) on resistance against high-temperature corrosion of the nickel alloys, applied in the gas turbine building, is studied. The diagram of the alloys heat resistance level dependence on the alloying elements concentration is plotted, wherein three areas are separated: 1) the area of improved heat resistance due to the solid solution and dispersion strengthening; 2) the area of decreasing heat resistance due to formation of the carbide net by the grain boundaries; 3) the area of catastrophic decrease in the heat resistance by separation of the embrittlement topologically close-packed phases. The class of the high-temperature corrosion-resistant nickel alloys with different chromium content (13-30%), the Ti/Al > 1 concentration ratio and balanced content of high-melting and rare earth elements is created

  12. Creep-rupture tests of internally pressurized Hastelloy-X tubes

    Gumto, K. H.; Colantino, G. J.

    1973-01-01

    Seamless Hastelloy-X tubes with 0.375-in. outside diameter and 0.025-in. wall thickness were tested to failure at temperatures from 1400 to 1650 F and internal helium pressures from 800 to 1800 psi. Lifetimes ranged from 58 to 3600 hr. The creep-rupture strength of the tubes was from 20 to 40 percent lower than that of sheet specimens. Larson-Miller correlations and photomicrographs of some specimens are presented.

  13. Creep test of Hastelloy X for use as the components of OGL-1 in helium environment

    Hastelloy X is used for inner and flow tubes of OGL-1 (Oarai Gas Loop No.1) installed in JMTR. The tubes were produced by a special procedure, BTA (Boring and Trepanning Association), because of their form of thin wall thickness and large diameter. By this procedure the central part of a forged bar was hollowed out. Creep rupture data for the tube material have been obtained up to 15,000 hr in the longest test period in air. In practice, since the tubes were to be exposed to helium gas, the material was tested in a simulated helium environment. The results obtained were compared with the air data and also the other set of creep data accumulated with Hastelloy XR. The latter data contain those on tube and bar materials and have been provided for design of HTGR. The results obtained by the test at 900 deg C in helium to the maximum test duration up to 10,000 hr yielded the following conclusions; (1) Hastelloy X for OGL-1 (OGL-HX hereafter) showed longer rupture life accompanied by smaller cracks in helium than that tested in air. (2) Rupture life was shorter in the following order; the tube material of Hastelloy HR (HR hereafter), the bar material of XR and OGL-HX. (3) Rupture elongation was the highest in the bar material of XR and minimum in tube material of XR. The value OGL-HX was middle of the two. (4) Creep rate was lowest for OGL-HX, however in the lower stresses range the value of the tube material of XR approached to that of OGL-HX. The results were discussed from the view point of minor impurities, production processes and microstructure eg. annealing twin. (author)

  14. Microstructures, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of Hastelloy C22 coating produced by laser cladding

    Wang, Qin-Ying; Zhang, Yang-Fei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, HEDPS, Center for Applied Physics and Technology, LTCS, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Bai, Shu-Lin, E-mail: slbai@pku.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, HEDPS, Center for Applied Physics and Technology, LTCS, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Liu, Zong-De [Key Laboratory of Condition Monitoring and Control for Power Plant Equipment of Ministry of Education, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Hastelloy C22 coatings were prepared by diode laser cladding technique. ► Higher laser speed resulted in smaller grain size. ► Size-effect played the key role in the hardness measurements by different ways. ► Coating with higher laser scanning speed displayed higher nano-scratch resistance. ► Small grain size was beneficial for improvement of coating corrosion resistance. -- Abstract: The Hastelloy C22 coatings H1 and H2 were prepared by laser cladding technique with laser scanning speeds of 6 and 12 mm/s, respectively. Their microstructures, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance were investigated. The microstructures and phase compositions were studied by metallurgical microscope, scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction analysis. The hardness and scratch resistance were measured by micro-hardness and nanoindentation tests. The polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were tested by electrochemical workstation. Planar, cellular and dendritic solidifications were observed in the coating cross-sections. The coatings metallurgically well-bonded with the substrate are mainly composed of primary phase γ-nickel with solution of Fe, W, Cr and grain boundary precipitate of Mo{sub 6}Ni{sub 6}C. The hardness and corrosion resistance of steel substrate are significantly improved by laser cladding Hastelloy C22 coating. Coating H2 shows higher micro-hardness than that of H1 by 34% and it also exhibits better corrosion resistance. The results indicate that the increase of laser scanning speed improves the microstuctures, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of Hastelloy C22 coating.

  15. Microstructural Features and Properties of High-hardness and Heat-resistant Dispersion Strengthened Copper by Reaction Milling

    YAN Peng; LIN Chenguang; CUI Shun; LU Yanjie; ZHOU Zenglin; LI Zengde

    2011-01-01

    The oxide dispersion strengthened copper alloys are attractive due to their excellent combination of thermal and electrical conductivities,high-temperature strength and microstructure stability.To date,the state-of-art to fabrication of them was the intemal oxidation (IO) process.In this paper,alumina dispersion strengthened copper (ADSC) powders of nominal composition of Cu-2.5 vo1%Al2O3 were produced by reaction milling (RM) process which was an in-situ gas-solid reaction process.The bulk ADSC alloys for electrical and mechanical properties investigation were obtained by sintering and thereafter hot extrusion.After the hot consolidation processes,the fully densified powder compacts can be obtained.The single y-Al2O3 phase and profile broaden effects are evident in accordance with the results of X-ray diffraction (XRD); the HRB hardness of the ADSC can be as high as 95; the outcomes should be attributed to the pinning effect ofnano γ-Al2O3 on dislocations and grain boundaries in the copper matrix.The electrical conductivity of the ADSC alloy is 55%IACS (International Annealing Copper Standard).The room temperature hardness of the hot consolidated material was approximately maintained after annealing for l h at 900 ℃ in hydrogen atmosphere.In terms of the above merits,the RM process to fabricating ADSC alloys is a promising method to improve heat resistance,hardness,electrical conductivity and wear resistance properties etc.

  16. Heat-resistant protein expression during germination of maize seeds under water stress.

    Abreu, V M; Silva Neta, I C; Von Pinho, E V R; Naves, G M F; Guimarães, R M; Santos, H O; Von Pinho, R G

    2016-01-01

    Low water availability is one of the factors that limit agricultural crop development, and hence the development of genotypes with increased water stress tolerance is a challenge in plant breeding programs. Heat-resistant proteins have been widely studied, and are reported to participate in various developmental processes and to accumulate in response to stress. This study aimed to evaluate heat-resistant protein expression under water stress conditions during the germination of maize seed inbreed lines differing in their water stress tolerance. Maize seed lines 91 and 64 were soaked in 0, -0.3, -0.6, and -0.9 MPa water potential for 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h. Line 91 is considered more water stress-tolerant than line 64. The analysis of heat-resistant protein expression was made by gel electrophoresis and spectrophotometry. In general, higher expression of heat-resistant proteins was observed in seeds from line 64 subjected to shorter soaking periods and lower water potentials. However, in the water stress-tolerant line 91, a higher expression was observed in seeds that were subjected to -0.3 and -0.6 MPa water potentials. In the absence of water stress, heat-resistant protein expression was reduced with increasing soaking period. Thus, there was a difference in heat-resistant protein expression among the seed lines differing in water stress tolerance. Increased heat-resistant protein expression was observed in seeds from line 91 when subjected to water stress conditions for longer soaking periods. PMID:27525950

  17. Corrosion of high nickel alloys in combined fluoride solutions for nuclear fuel reprocessing

    The chemical reprocessing of fuel from the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Core 2, Seed 1 and 2, requires hydrofluoric acid, nitric acid, and sulfuric acid singly and in mixtures. High nickel alloys tested in scoping tests at the boiling point in PWR process solutions included Hastelloy C-276, Hastelloy C-4, Hastelloy S, Hastelloy G, Inconel 625, Inconel 690 and Incoloy 825. Evaluations of weld performance including some metallographic examinations are included. Different methods of welding and different heats of alloys were investigated. The effect of varying compositions and concentration of process solutions were examined in order to select conditions which would minimize corrosion. Corrosion results are also presented for two Hastelloy C276 corrosion test vessels fabricated from 3-inch welded pipe with welded nozzles. These vessels have been exposed to PWR process solution for several months. They have provided valuable information on the performance of welds, the attack at the vapor-liquid interface, and the mode of attack to be expected in process service. (U.S.)

  18. Creep Behavior at 1273 K (1000 °C) in Nb-Bearing Austenitic Heat-Resistant Cast Steels Developed for Exhaust Component Applications

    Zhang, Yinhui; Li, Mei; Godlewski, Larry A.; Zindel, Jacob W.; Feng, Qiang

    2016-05-01

    A series of Nb-bearing austenitic heat-resistant cast steels with variations of N/C ratios were investigated, and the morphological change of Nb(C,N) from faceted blocks, mixed flake-blocks to "Chinese-script" was observed as N/C ratios decreased. The creep behavior of these alloys was studied at 1273 K (1000 °C), and the longest creep life and lowest creep rate occurred in model alloys with script Nb(C,N). Residual δ-ferrites and (Cr,Fe)23C6 were adverse to creep properties. This work indicates that the control of N/C ratio is required for the as-cast microstructural strengthening.

  19. Production of heat-resistant metal-ceramic coatings on the basis of titanium silicide and nitride by thermoreactive electrospark surface strengthening

    Coatings on the basis of Ti5Si3 titanium silicide have been produced using the Thermoreactive Electrospark Surface Strengthening (TRESS) method. Their formation took place by applying a charge exothermic layer of specified composition (Ti-Si, Ti-Si3N4) onto a substrate and the subsequent chemical conversion in it that is maintained by energy of pulsed discharges. A series of investigations of structure, composition and properties (microhardness, thickness, integrity, and wear-resistance) of TRESS-coatings on OT4-1 titanium alloy was carried out. A dependence of depth of chemical conversion in charge layers on energy processing mode was found. It was established that the coatings produced during optimal processing mode (E = 0,3 J) facilitate an increase in microhardness, wear-resistance and heat-resistance of OT4-1 alloy

  20. Creep Behavior at 1273 K (1000 °C) in Nb-Bearing Austenitic Heat-Resistant Cast Steels Developed for Exhaust Component Applications

    Zhang, Yinhui; Li, Mei; Godlewski, Larry A.; Zindel, Jacob W.; Feng, Qiang

    2016-07-01

    A series of Nb-bearing austenitic heat-resistant cast steels with variations of N/C ratios were investigated, and the morphological change of Nb(C,N) from faceted blocks, mixed flake-blocks to "Chinese-script" was observed as N/C ratios decreased. The creep behavior of these alloys was studied at 1273 K (1000 °C), and the longest creep life and lowest creep rate occurred in model alloys with script Nb(C,N). Residual δ-ferrites and (Cr,Fe)23C6 were adverse to creep properties. This work indicates that the control of N/C ratio is required for the as-cast microstructural strengthening.

  1. The one-parameter-model - a constitutive equation applied to a heat resistant alloy

    In the present work a constitutive model earlier developed and used to predict experimental results of hot tests and fatigue tests from creep experiments of metallic materials were modified to comply with the properties of a high temperature resistant material. The improved model accounts for the properties of a material developing a density and a structure of dislocation lines which are capable of interactions with particles (carbides) from a second phase. The time and temperature dependent evolution of the carbide structure has been described by an equation which explains the formation of seeds as well as their growths (Ostwald ripening). The extended model was applied to Incoloy 800H which is known to develop a carbide structure. Therefore hot tensile and fatigue tests, creep and relaxation experiments using the heats ADU and BAK (KFA specifications) at temperature between 800deg C and 900deg C were performed including both solution treated specimens and specimens heat treated for 10, 100 and 1000 hours. As compared with the results from tensile tests where the carbide structures play a subordinated role, alternately, these structures have a decisive influence on the creep properties of specimens during the primary creep phase, i.e. low stresses and high temperatures. (orig.)

  2. New progress in the theory and practice of heat-resisting concretes

    The main properties of heat-resistant cellular, light and heavy concretes based on high-alumina-, alumina- and Portland cements, liquid glass, alumo-phosphate binder and other binding materials containing different fine-ground additives and fillers are considered. The data of foreign and national investigations are presented concerning the effect of heating and mineral composition of cements and fine-ground mineral additions on the phase composition and structure of the cement stone and tensile properties of concretes. The foreign and national experience in the utilization of heat-resistant concretes when constructing thermal units in various branches of industry is described, as well as the economic effectiveness obtained herewith

  3. Structure optimization and damage behaviour of heat-resistant CrMoV-steels

    The object of the investigations was to optimize the heat treatment conditions of steel 12 CrMoV 4 3 (around 0,12% C; 1% Cr; 0,3% Mo; 0,25% V) on the basis of known structure-property relations of heat resistant steel-CrMoV in such way that the performance of this steel relating to its long-term heat resistance is completely utilized. Further, the influence of heat treatment or of the initial structure was analyzed as well as of further factors on the evolution of damages by formation of pores due to creep. (orig.)

  4. Study of heat resistance in the materials under high-speed heating

    The method and installation to determine heat resistance in materials at high heating rates (up to 106 K/s) according to the temperautre gradient between the surface and the core of the specimen which results in the destruction of the material tested are described. The temperature gradient occurs because of the skin effect when a high-frequency current pulse passes through the specimen. Using the method suggested investigation of molybdenum and tantalum heat resistance is carried out. It is shown that under conditions of pulse heating tantalum heat resistsance is higher

  5. Importance of billet microstructure in the hot extrusion of 2% Ti-Hastelloy N

    Braski, D. N.; McDonald, R. E.

    1977-05-01

    The successful hot extrusion of billets of Ti-Hastelloy N (13 percent Mo, 7 percent Cr, 2 percent Ti, 0.06 percent C, 87.94 percent Ni) into tube shells and followed by cold drawing into 19-mm-OD (0.75-in.) tubing depends largely on the billet microstructure. It was imperative that the preheat annealing treatment given directly before hot extrusion be designed to uniformly dissolve most of the MC-type carbide particles. A 101.6-mm-diam x 304.8-mm-long (4 x 12-in.) billet required a preheat of 4 hr at 1533/sup 0/K.

  6. Fatigue crack growth characteristic of hastelloy X in air at elevated temperature

    Fatigue crack growth tests on Hastelloy X were conducted in air at 7500C and 9000C. Varied contribution of creep was given by choosing the stress ratio levels between 0 to 1. Three fracture modes were observed, i.e. transgranular fatigue mode, intergranular creep mode and transition from transgranular to intergranular mode, according to the degree of contribution of creep effect. In handling of the crack growth rate data with fracture mechanical parameter, da/dN-ΔK relation, da/dN-ΔJ relation and da/dt-j relation were found to be appropreate for the three modes respectively. (author)

  7. Corrosion tests of 316L and Hastelloy C-22 in simulated tank waste solutions

    MJ Danielson; SG Pitman

    2000-02-23

    Both the 316L stainless steel and Hastelloy{reg_sign} C-22 gave satisfactory corrosion performance in the simulated test environments. They were subjected to 100 day weight loss corrosion tests and electrochemical potentiodynamic evaluation. This activity supports confirmation of the design basis for the materials of construction of process vessels and equipment used to handle the feed to the LAW-melter evaporator. BNFL process and mechanical engineering will use the information derived from this task to select material of construction for process vessels and equipment.

  8. Nd:YAG laser cladding of marine propeller with hastelloy C-22

    Kim, J.D.; Kang, K.H.; Kim, J.N. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, Yonghyundong 253, Namku, 402-751, Incheon (Korea)

    2004-09-01

    Nd:YAG laser cladding with automatic wire feeding (Hastelloy C-22) has been done to increase the lifetime of marine propellers made of HBsC1. The effects of processing parameters on the quality of clad layer have been investigated and clad layers have analyzed by optical microscopy and Vickers hardness tester. The method to overcome the drop transfer problem during the wire feeding has been introduced. A cladding speed that is too fast or too slow influenced the shape of clad. The good clad layer without cracks and with low dilution has been obtained with the optimum processing parameters. (orig.)

  9. Heat resistance of carbon steel with chromium-based gas-thermal sprayed coatings

    Heat resistance of steel with chromium-base plasma sprayed coating is studied in comparison with chromium coating and base material. The specimens were oxidized at the air under 1250 K during 48 h. Investigations into steel-chromium coating interface were carried out and the structure of cinder was studied. Refs. 7, figs. 2

  10. Creep fatigue behavior of heat resistant steels under service-type strain cycling at high temperature

    On three typical heat resistant steels the creep fatigue behaviour is investigated up to about 10000 h test duration using a service-type strain cycle. In a creep fatigue life analysis the cyclic deformation behaviour and the applicability of the generalized damage accumulation rule are investigated and possibilities of long-term creep fatigue prediction are studied. (orig.)

  11. Microstructural stability of 9-12%Cr ferrite/martensite heat-resistant steels

    Wei YAN; Wei WANG; Yi-Yin SHAN; Ke YANG

    2013-01-01

    The microstructural evolutions of advanced 9-12%Cr ferrite/martensite heat-resistant steels used for power generation plants are reviewed in this article. Despite of the small differences in chemical compositions, the steels share the same microstructure of the as-tempered martensite. It is the thermal stability of the initial microstructure that matters the creep behavior of these heat-resistant steels. The microstructural evolutions involved in 9-12%Cr ferrite heat-resistant steels are elabo- rated, including (1) martensitic lath widening, (2) disappearance of prior austenite grain boundary, (3) emergence of subgrains, (4) coarsening of precipitates, and (5) formation of new precipitates, such as Laves-phase and Z-phase. The former three microstructural evolutions could be retarded by properly disposing the latter two. Namely improving the stability of precipitates and optimizing their size distribution can effectively exert the beneficial influence of precipitates on microstructures. In this sense, the microstructural stability of the tempered martensite is in fact the stability of precipitates during the creep. Many attempts have been carried out to improve the microstructural stability of 9-12%Cr steels and several promising heat-resistant steels have been developed.

  12. Clothing evaporative heat resistance - Proposal for improved representation in standards and models

    Havenith, G.; Holmér, I.; Hartog, E.A. den; Parsons, K.C.

    1999-01-01

    Clothing heat and vapour resistances are important inputs for standards and models dealing with thermal comfort, heat- and cold-stress. A vast database of static clothing heat resistance values is available, and this was recently expanded with correction equations to account for effects of movement

  13. Quantifying variety-specific heat resistance and the potential for adaptation to climate change.

    Tack, Jesse; Barkley, Andrew; Rife, Trevor W; Poland, Jesse A; Nalley, Lawton Lanier

    2016-08-01

    The impact of climate change on crop yields has become widely measured; however, the linkages for winter wheat are less studied due to dramatic weather changes during the long growing season that are difficult to model. Recent research suggests significant reductions under warming. A potential adaptation strategy involves the development of heat resistant varieties by breeders, combined with alternative variety selection by producers. However, the impact of heat on specific wheat varieties remains relatively unstudied due to limited data and the complex genetic basis of heat tolerance. Here, we provide a novel econometric approach that combines field-trial data with a genetic cluster mapping to group wheat varieties and estimate a separate extreme heat impact (temperatures over 34 °C) across 24 clusters spanning 197 varieties. We find a wide range of heterogeneous heat resistance and a trade-off between average yield and resistance. Results suggest that recently released varieties are less heat resistant than older varieties, a pattern that also holds for on-farm varieties. Currently released - but not yet adopted - varieties do not offer improved resistance relative to varieties currently grown on farm. Our findings suggest that warming impacts could be significantly reduced through advances in wheat breeding and/or adoption decisions by producers. However, current adaptation-through-adoption potential is limited under a 1 °C warming scenario as increased heat resistance cannot be achieved without a reduction in average yields. PMID:26577840

  14. Simple bond-order-type interatomic potential for an intermixed Fe-Cr-C system of metallic and covalent bondings in heat-resistant ferritic steels

    It is known that M23C6(M = Cr/Fe) behavior in heat-resistant ferritic steels affects the strength of the material at high temperature. The ability to garner direct information regarding the atomic motion using classical molecular dynamics simulations is useful for investigating the M23C6 behavior in heat-resistant ferritic steels. For such classical molecular dynamics calculations, a suitable interatomic potential is needed. To satisfy this requirement, an empirical bond-order-type interatomic potential for Fe-Cr-C systems was developed because the three main elements to simulate the M23C6 behavior in heat-resistant ferritic steels are Fe, Cr, and C. The angular-dependent term, which applies only in non-metallic systems, was determined based on the similarity between a Finnis-Sinclair-type embedded-atom-method interatomic potential and a Tersoff-type bond-order potential. The potential parameters were determined such that the material properties of Fe-Cr-C systems were reproduced. These properties include the energy and lattice constants of 89 crystal structures; the elastic constants of four realistic precipitates; the bulk moduli of B1, B2, and B3 crystals; the surface energies of B1 and B2 crystals; and the defect-formation energies and atomic configurations of 66 Fe-Cr-C complexes. Most of these material properties were found to be reproduced by our proposed empirical bond-order potentials. The formation energies and lattice constants of randomly mixed Fe-Cr alloys calculated using the interatomic potentials were comparable to those obtained through experiments and first-principles calculations. Furthermore, the energies and structures of interfaces between Cr carbide and α-Fe as predicted through first-principles calculations were well reproduced using these interatomic potentials

  15. FY 1997 report on the study on solidification process of high-temperature melt of heat resistant metals; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (tainetsu kinzoku koon yueki no gyoko katei no kenkyu)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Study was made on a solidification process of metal melt under micro-gravity condition in an underground non-gravity experiment center, considering that improvement of the heat resistance of turbine blades for jet engines and power generation gas turbines contributes to prevention of global warming through improvement of thermal engine efficiencies and consumption reduction of precious fossil fuel. Study was made on a simulation program and precise measurement of thermal properties for precision casting of heat-resistant alloy members. Study was also made on Al and Zn alloys and their welding for production and evaluation technologies of new metal textures by supercooling solidification. Some issues for strongly desired improvement of a simulation program for precision casting were clarified. In addition, since thermal property data of practical heat-resistant polyalloy members are poor, data and measurement method for precision casting were clarified. It was also suggested that basic elucidation of the solidification process under micro- gravity condition is possible. 34 refs., 41 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Extreme Heat Resistance of Food Borne Pathogens Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium on Chicken Breast Fillet during Cooking

    de Jong, Aarieke E I; van Asselt, Esther D; Zwietering, Marcel H;

    2012-01-01

    cooking enlarged the heat resistance of the food borne pathogens. Additionally, a high challenge temperature or fast heating rate contributed to the level of heat resistance. The data were used to assess the probability of illness (campylobacteriosis) due to consumption of chicken fillet as a function of...

  17. The Kinetics of Metadynamic Recrystallization in a Ni-Cr-Mo-Based Superalloy Hastelloy C-276

    Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Liwen; Shen, Wenfei; Liu, Cuiru; Xia, Yingnan

    2016-02-01

    The metadynamic recrystallization (MDRX) behavior of a typical Ni-Cr-Mo-based superalloy Hastelloy C-276 was investigated using two-stage isothermal compression tests on a Gleeble thermal-mechanical simulator in the temperature range of 1050-1200 °C, the strain rate range of 0.1-5.0 s-1, the strains of 0.32, 0.45, and 0.6 at the first stage of compression, and the interval times of 0.5-30 s. The results show that the microstructure and the stress-strain relation of the studied superalloy vary during the interruption period due to the occurrence of MDRX. The MDRX softening fraction and recrystallized grain size increase rapidly with the increasing of interval time, deformation temperature, and strain rate. The effect of strain at the first stage of compression on MDRX is less pronounced. The kinetics of MDRX softening was established based on the flow stress curves, and the apparent activation energy of MDRX of Hastelloy C-276 is evaluated as 241 kJ/mol.

  18. Enhanced microwave absorbing properties and heat resistance of carbonyl iron by electroless plating Co

    Wang, Hongyu; Zhu, Dongmei; Zhou, Wancheng; Luo, Fa

    2015-11-01

    Co coated carbonyl iron particles (Co (CI)) are fabricated through electroless plating method, and the electromagnetic microwave absorbing properties are investigated in the frequencies during 8.2-12.4 GHz. The complex permittivity of CI particles after electroless plating Co is higher than that of raw CI particles due to improvment of the polarization process. Furthermore, according to the XRD and TG results, the Co layer can enhance the heat resistance of CI particles. The bandwidth below -10 dB can reach 3.9 GHz for the Co(CI) absorbent. The results indicate that the electroless plating Co not only enhances the absorbing properties but also improves the heat resistance of CI.

  19. Fabrication and characterization of superhydrophobic and superlipophilic silica nanofibers mats with excellent heat resistance

    Gao S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A kind of silica nanofibers (SNF mats with superhydrophobicity and superlipophilicity as well as excellent heat resistance, had been prepared by modifying of 1, 1, 1, 3, 3, 3-hexamethyldisilazane on electrospun SNF mats. The effects of heat treatment time on properties of modified SNF mats were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen absorption analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and contact angle measurement. With high specific surface area 240.1 m2/g, the optimal modified SNF mat approached water contact angle (WCA 153.2° and fuel contact angle (FCA 0°, furthermore, even after annealing by 450°C in air for 1h , WCA remained at 135.5° and FCA kept at 3.8°, which opened a new way to improve heat resistance of fuel-water filter paper.

  20. Influence of Dispersed Heat-Resistant Additives on Ignition and Combustion of Heterogeneous Systems

    Arkhipov V.A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of experimental studies of the effect of dispersion of heat-resistant additives powders on ignition and combustion of heterogeneous condensed systems. The method of measuring the time delay ignition conductive and radiant heating, and combustion rate at atmospheric pressure. The effect of additives powders of boron, silicon and titanium dioxide on the ignition and combustion of heterogeneous condensed systems.

  1. Influenced prior loading on the creep fatigue damage accumulation of heat resistant steels

    On two heat resistant power plant steels the influence of prior strain cycling on the creep rupture behaviour and the influence of prior creep loading on the strain cycling behaviour is investigated. These influences concern the number of cycles to failure and the rupture time being the reference values of the generalized damage accumulation rule and they are used for a creep fatigue analysis of the results of long term service-type strain cycling tests. (orig.)

  2. Heat resistance of bacterial spores correlated with protoplast dehydration, mineralization, and thermal adaptation.

    Beaman, T C; Gerhardt, P

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-eight types of lysozyme-sensitive spores among seven Bacillus species representative of thermophiles, mesophiles, and psychrophiles were obtained spanning a 3,000-fold range in moist-heat resistance. The resistance within species was altered by demineralization of the native spores to protonated spores and remineralization of the protonated spores to calcified spores and by thermal adaptation at maximum, optimum, and minimum sporulation temperatures. Protoplast wet densities, and there...

  3. Durability of welded joints of heat resistant steels with crack-similar defects

    Estimation of the effect of cracks and crack-similar defects on supporting power of welded joints is important for estimation of workability and substantiation of control periodicity of welded joints of responsible elements of power equipment operating under creep. High-temperature welded joints of heat resistant steels of Cr-Mo-V system are shown to be characterized by low sensitivity to stress concentration

  4. Significant effect of Ca2+ on improving the heat resistance of lactic acid bacteria.

    Huang, Song; Chen, Xiao Dong

    2013-07-01

    The heat resistance of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been extensively investigated due to its highly practical significance. Reconstituted skim milk (RSM) has been found to be one of the most effective protectant wall materials for microencapsulating microorganisms during convective drying, such as spray drying. In addition to proteins and carbohydrate, RSM is rich in calcium. It is not clear which component is critical in the RSM protection mechanism. This study investigated the independent effect of calcium. Ca(2+) was added to lactose solution to examine its influence on the heat resistance of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ZY, Lactobacillus casei Zhang, Lactobacillus plantarum P8 and Streptococcus thermophilus ND03. The results showed that certain Ca(2+) concentrations enhanced the heat resistance of the LAB strains to different extents, that is produced higher survival and shorter regrowth lag times of the bacterial cells. In some cases, the improvements were dramatic. More scientifically insightful and more intensive instrumental study of the Ca(2+) behavior around and in the cells should be carried out in the near future. In the meantime, this work may lead to the development of more cost-effective wall materials with Ca(2+) added as a prime factor. PMID:23617813

  5. Corrosion aspects of compatible alloys in molten salt (FLiNaK) medium for Indian MSR program in the temperature range of 550-750 °C using electrochemical techniques

    Corrosion behaviours of different alloys were evaluated in fluoride eutectic FLiNaK in the temperature range of 550-750 °C under static and dynamic conditions. Electrochemical polarization and impedance techniques were used to estimate corrosion rate. The results showed that the corrosion process was controlled by activation and in some cases by formation of passive layer. In static mode, the corrosion rates followed the order : Inconel 625 > Inconel 617 > Inconel 600 > Incoloy 800 > Ni 220 > Hastelloy N > Incoloy 800HT. In dynamic mode, Hastelloy N and Incoloy 800HT showed better corrosion resistance in comparison to other alloys. (author)

  6. A possibility of enhancing Jc in MgB2 film grown on metallic hastelloy tape with the use of SiC buffer layer

    We have grown MgB2 on SiC buffer layer by using metallic Hastelloy tape as the substrate. Hastelloy tape was chosen for its potential practical applications, mainly in the power cable industry. SiC buffer layers were deposited on Hastelloy tapes at 400, 500, and 600 degrees C by using a pulsed laser deposition method, and then by using a hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition technique, MgB2 films were grown on the three different SiC buffer layers. An enhancement of critical current density values were noticed in the MgB2 films on SiC/Hastelloy deposited at 500 and 600 degrees C. From the surface analysis, smaller and denser grains of MgB2 tapes are likely to cause this enhancement. This result infers that the addition of SiC buffer layers may contribute to the improvement of superconducting properties of MgB2 tapes.

  7. Formation Mechanism of Type IV Failure in High Cr Ferritic Heat-Resistant Steel-Welded Joint

    Liu, Y.; Tsukamoto, S.; Shirane, T.; Abe, F.

    2013-10-01

    The mechanism of type IV failure has been investigated by using a conventional 9Cr ferritic heat-resistant steel Gr.92. In order to clarify the main cause of type IV failure, different heat treatments were performed on the base metal in order to change the prior austenite grain (PAG) size and precipitate distribution after applying the heat-affected zone (HAZ) simulated thermal cycle at the peak temperature of around A c3 ( A c3 HAZ thermal cycle) and postweld heat treatment (PWHT). The microstructural evolution during the A c3 HAZ thermal cycle and PWHT was investigated by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). It was found that M23C6 carbides were scarcely precipitated at the newly formed fine PAG, block, and lath boundaries in A c3 HAZ-simulated Gr.92, because the carbide forming elements such as Cr and C were segregated at the former PAG and block boundaries of the base metal. On the other hand, if all the boundaries were covered by sufficient M23C6 carbides by homogenization of the alloying elements prior to applying the HAZ thermal cycle, the creep strength was much improved even if the fine PAG was formed. From these results, it is concluded that fine-grained microstructure cannot account for the occurrence of type IV failure, and it only has a small effect during long-term creep. The most important factor is the precipitate formation behavior at various boundaries. Without sufficient boundary strengthening by precipitates, the microstructure of A c3 HAZ undergoes severe changes even during PWHT and causes premature failure during creep.

  8. Heat resistance of gametes of marine invertebrates in relation to temperature conditions under which the species exist

    Andronikov, V.B.

    1975-04-30

    The possible role of the heat resistance level of mature gametes and embryos of poikilotherms in the adaptation of a species to environmental temperature conditions was investigated. Within a species, heat resistance of gametes does not undergo any recognizable change even in the presence of significant fluctuations in temperature. Evidence in support of this statement was obtained on gametes of invertebrates belonging to different populations of the same species collected in different seasons, and on invertebrates maintained under different temperatures. The heat resistance of gametes is correlated with the degree of thermophily of the species concerned. Species living under similar temperature conditions exhibit minimal, if any, differences in heat resistance. Hence, the heat resistance level of their gametes is a function of temperature conditions of formation and existence of the species as a whole. During the ontogenesis of poikilotherms, eggs, zygotes and early stages of embryonic development are most susceptible to heat injury. The upper thermal limit for the normal development of eggs and embryos is only 1 to 3/sup 0/C higher than the temperatures encountered under natural conditions. It is concluded that the heat resistance level of gametes and embryos represents an adjustment to temperatures at which spawning, fertilization and earlier embryonal development occur. Temperatures which, throughout the year, exceed the upper thermal limit or remain below the lower thermal limit for the development of embryos, act as limiting factors for the species' distribution.

  9. VARIATION OF SUBSTRUCTURES OF PEARLITIC HEAT RESISTANT STEEL AFTER HIGH TEMPERATURE AGING

    R.C.Yang; K.Chen; H.X.Feng; H.Wang

    2004-01-01

    The observations of dislocations, substructures and other microstructural details were conducted mainly by means of transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) for 12Cr1Mo V pearlitic heat-resistant steel. It is shown that during the high temperature long-term aging, the disordered and jumbled phasetransformed dislocations caused by normalized cooling are recovered and rearranged into cell substructures, and then the dislocation density is reduced gradually. Finally a low density linear dislocation configuration and a stabler dislocation network are formed and ferritic grains grow considerably.

  10. Assessment of molybdenum influence on long-term heat resistance of selected austenitic steel grades

    Analysis gave evidence that an increase in the long-term heat resistance by addition of approximately 2.5% molybdenum is, in the long run, more efficient in unstabilized austenitic CrNiMo(N) steels of the AISI 316 type than in stabilized X 6 CrNiMoTi 17 12 steel. The effect of molybdenum can be intensified or reduced by factors such as the stabilization ratio and grain size in stabilized CrNiMoTi steels, and the boron, nitrogen and carbon contents in unstabilized CrNiMo(N) steels. (Z.S.). 6 tabs., 6 figs., 62 refs

  11. Production of Heat Resistant Composite based on Siloxane Elastomer and Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes

    Bessonov, I. V.; Karelina, N. V.; Kopitsyna, M. N.; Morozov, A. S.; Reznik, S. V.; Skidchenko, V. Yu.

    2016-02-01

    Development of a new generation of composite with unique thermal properties is an important task in the fields of science and technology where material is operated at high temperatures and exposure to a short-wave radiation. Recent studies show that carbon nanomaterials (fullerenes and carbon nanotubes) could improve the thermal, radiation and thermal-oxidative stability of the polymer matrix. In this article the development of a new heat resistant composite based on elastomer and carbon nanotubes (CNT) was performed and physicochemical properties of final product were evaluated.

  12. Corrosion behavior of Hastelloy C4 in a MgCl2 rich brine under gamma irradiation

    Corrosion studies performed until now on a number of materials in salt brines have shown that besides the unalloyed steels and Ti 99.8-Pd, also Hastelloy C4 is a promising material for HLW packagings serving as a barrier in a rock salt repository. In order to characterize the corrosion behavior of Hastelloy C4 in more detail, additional corrosion studies under gamma-irradiation were performed. The corrosion medium was a salt brine (Q-brine) rich in MgCl2 which is relevant for accident scenarios in a repository. The test temperature was 90 degree C, the applied dose rates 1 Gy/h, 10 Gy/h and 100 Gy/h and the testing time 1 year at the maximum. The corrosion studies revealed that Hastelloy C4 is susceptible to local corrosion at gamma-dose rates higher than 1 Gy/h. This means that if this material is used for HLW packagings an adequate gamma-shielding will be required

  13. Development of Semi-Stochastic Algorithm for Optimizing Alloy Composition of High-Temperature Austenitic Stainless Steels (H-Series) for Desired Mechanical and Corrosion Properties.

    Dulikravich, George S.; Sikka, Vinod K.; Muralidharan, G.

    2006-06-01

    The goal of this project was to adapt and use an advanced semi-stochastic algorithm for constrained multiobjective optimization and combine it with experimental testing and verification to determine optimum concentrations of alloying elements in heat-resistant and corrosion-resistant H-series stainless steel alloys that will simultaneously maximize a number of alloy's mechanical and corrosion properties.

  14. Study on Curing Kinetics of Heat-resistant Flexible Polyamide Modified Epoxy Resin Adhesive

    Hua Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of numerous variables affecting the reaction rate of heat-resistant flexible modified epoxy resin adhesive, the curing kinetics of polyamide modified epoxy resin was studied. The heat-resistant flexible modified epoxy resin adhesive cured at room-temperature was prepared with epoxy resin, polysulfide rubber and organosilicone as adhesive component, polyamide as main curing agent and addition of different modified filler and the curing agent containing benzene ring structure. The curing kinetics of polyamide modified epoxy resin was studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC at different heating speeds and the characteristic temperatures of the curing process were analyzed and confirmed. the kinetics parameters of activation energy was calculated using Flynn-Wall-Ozawa equation and Kissinger equation, respectively, then the kinetic model of curing reaction was built as d&alpha/dt = 4.38×107 exp (-57740/RT (1-&alpha0.93, the results show that the two-parameter model is adequate to represent the curing reaction process, the model can well describe the curing reaction process of the studied resin. The DSC curves obtained using the experimental data show a good agreement with that theoretically calculated. The research results will provide theoretical basis for the choice of manufacturing process and the optimization of processing window.

  15. Enhanced microwave absorbing properties and heat resistance of carbonyl iron by electroless plating Co

    Co coated carbonyl iron particles (Co (CI)) are fabricated through electroless plating method, and the electromagnetic microwave absorbing properties are investigated in the frequencies during 8.2–12.4 GHz. The complex permittivity of CI particles after electroless plating Co is higher than that of raw CI particles due to improvment of the polarization process. Furthermore, according to the XRD and TG results, the Co layer can enhance the heat resistance of CI particles. The bandwidth below −10 dB can reach 3.9 GHz for the Co(CI) absorbent. The results indicate that the electroless plating Co not only enhances the absorbing properties but also improves the heat resistance of CI. - Highlights: • The Co-coated carbonyl iron Co(CI) particles were prepared by electroless plating. • The electromagnetic wave absorbing properties of Co(CI) particles were studied. • The heat treatment on the absorbing property of Co(CI) particles was studied. • The Co(CI) particles have good absorbing property when compared with CI

  16. Effect of pH on Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum DSM 571 growth, spore heat resistance and recovery.

    Mtimet, Narjes; Guégan, Stéphanie; Durand, Lucile; Mathot, Anne-Gabrielle; Venaille, Laurent; Leguérinel, Ivan; Coroller, Louis; Couvert, Olivier

    2016-05-01

    Thermophilic spore-forming bacteria are potential contaminants in several industrial sectors involving high temperatures (40-65 °C) in the manufacturing process. Among those thermophilic spore-forming bacteria, Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum, called "the swelling canned food spoiler", has generated interest over the last decade in the food sector. The aim of this study was to investigate and to model pH effect on growth, heat resistance and recovery abilities after a heat-treatment of T. thermosaccharolyticum DSM 571. Growth and sporulation were conducted on reinforced clostridium media and liver broth respectively. The highest spore heat resistances and the greatest recovery ability after a heat-treatment were obtained at pH condition allowing maximal growth rate. Growth and sporulation boundaries were estimated, then models using growth limits as main parameters were extended to describe and quantify the effect of pH on recovery of injured spores after a heat-treatment. So, cardinal values were used as a single set of parameters to describe growth, sporulation and recovery abilities. Besides, this work suggests that T. thermosaccharolyticum preserve its ability for germination and outgrowth after a heat-treatment at a low pH where other high resistant spore-forming bacteria like Geobacillus stearothermophilus are unable to grow. PMID:26742617

  17. Development and properties of new 10Cr-2Mo-V-Nb heat resisting steel

    For the development of a new ferritic heat resisting steel which shows excellent characteristics in creep rupture strength, weldability, resistance to oxidation, and corrosion resistance to sodium and steam at the service temperature of 5000 to 6000C, extensive studies have been carried out. The main results are as follows: (1) 0.05C-10Cr-2Mo-0.1V-0.05Nb steel is obtained, whose creep rupture strength at 6000C is superior to that of SUS 304 (18-8 stainless steel). (2) This steel comprises two phases: delta-ferrite and tempered martensite. Main precipitates after longer term at 6000 to 7000C are M23C6 and Fe2Mo. Fe2Mo, a stable precipitate in ferrite, contributes to the creep rupture strength at longer term. (3) Ferritic heat resisting steel of this type is promising not only for the boiler tube use but for the fast breeder reactor steam generator use, since it has excellent high temperature strength and the resistance to oxidation and corrosion. (author)

  18. Enhanced microwave absorbing properties and heat resistance of carbonyl iron by electroless plating Co

    Wang, Hongyu, E-mail: wanghongyu07010310@163.com; Zhu, Dongmei; Zhou, Wancheng; Luo, Fa

    2015-11-01

    Co coated carbonyl iron particles (Co (CI)) are fabricated through electroless plating method, and the electromagnetic microwave absorbing properties are investigated in the frequencies during 8.2–12.4 GHz. The complex permittivity of CI particles after electroless plating Co is higher than that of raw CI particles due to improvment of the polarization process. Furthermore, according to the XRD and TG results, the Co layer can enhance the heat resistance of CI particles. The bandwidth below −10 dB can reach 3.9 GHz for the Co(CI) absorbent. The results indicate that the electroless plating Co not only enhances the absorbing properties but also improves the heat resistance of CI. - Highlights: • The Co-coated carbonyl iron Co(CI) particles were prepared by electroless plating. • The electromagnetic wave absorbing properties of Co(CI) particles were studied. • The heat treatment on the absorbing property of Co(CI) particles was studied. • The Co(CI) particles have good absorbing property when compared with CI.

  19. Performance of a Heating Block System Designed for Studying the Heat Resistance of Bacteria in Foods.

    Kou, Xiao-Xi; Li, Rui; Hou, Li-Xia; Huang, Zhi; Ling, Bo; Wang, Shao-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of bacteria's heat resistance is essential for developing effective thermal treatments. Choosing an appropriate test method is important to accurately determine bacteria's heat resistances. Although being a major factor to influence the thermo-tolerance of bacteria, the heating rate in samples cannot be controlled in water or oil bath methods due to main dependence on sample's thermal properties. A heating block system (HBS) was designed to regulate the heating rates in liquid, semi-solid and solid foods using a temperature controller. Distilled water, apple juice, mashed potato, almond powder and beef were selected to evaluate the HBS's performance by experiment and computer simulation. The results showed that the heating rates of 1, 5 and 10 °C/min with final set-point temperatures and holding times could be easily and precisely achieved in five selected food materials. A good agreement in sample central temperature profiles was obtained under various heating rates between experiment and simulation. The experimental and simulated results showed that the HBS could provide a sufficiently uniform heating environment in food samples. The effect of heating rate on bacterial thermal resistance was evaluated with the HBS. The system may hold potential applications for rapid and accurate assessments of bacteria's thermo-tolerances. PMID:27465120

  20. Effect that radiation exerts to insulation breakdown of heat resistant polymer materials

    Artificial satellites are always exposed to cosmic rays which contain the radiations which do not reach the ground, therefore, the radiation resistance of the polymer insulators for cables and others used in such environment becomes a problem. Also the polymer insulator materials used for nuclear facilities require excellent radiation resistance. It is important to examine the effect that radiation exerts to electric insulation characteristics from the viewpoint of material development. In this paper, the insulation breakdown characteristics of heat resistant polymer films and the mini-cables made for trial of heat resistant polymer materials in the case without irradiation and in the case of gamma ray irradiation, and the results of the structural analysis are reported. The specimens tested, the experimental method and the results are described. The insulation breakdown strength of PFA and FEP films lowered from 0.15-0.2 MGy, but that of PEEK film did not change up to 5 MGy. It was found that fluorine group resins were apt to deteriorate by oxidation as dose increased. (K.I.)

  1. The heat resistance of a polyurethane coating filled with modified nano-CaCO3

    Li, Bin; Li, Song-Mei; Liu, Jian-Hua; Yu, Mei

    2014-10-01

    The modification of polyurethane coating by adding surface-modified CaCO3 nanoparticles (nano-CaCO3) was investigated in this paper. To improve interfacial interaction between the nano-CaCO3 and the polyurethane (PU) matrix, a silane coupling agent (KH560) was used to modify the nano-CaCO3. The grafting of KH560 on the nano-CaCO3 surfaces was characterized by the TEM, FTIR and TGA techniques. The modification of the nano-CaCO3 surfaces with KH560 was demonstrated to improve the dispersity of nano-CaCO3. FTIR, SEM and AFM were used to characterize the polyurethane coating. The FTIR spectrum indicated that the modification of nano-CaCO3 does not influence the chemical structure of the PU matrix. The roughness and gloss of the nanocomposite coatings containing various amount of nano-CaCO3 were evaluated using a roughness tester and a brightness meter. The heat resistance of the polyurethane coating containing various amounts of nano-CaCO3 was evaluated using the TGA technique. The results revealed that nano-CaCO3 treatment with KH560 improves the nanoparticle dispersion and heat-resistance of polyurethane coating.

  2. The microstructure and its impact on the high-temperature properties of the heat-resistant cast steel G-X 40 NiCr 35 25

    The report explains the influence of the elements Mo, W, Nb and Ti on the microstructure and thus on the high-temperature properties of the heat-resistant cast steel G-X 40 NiCr 35 25. The creep-rupture tests carried out at temperatures between 900deg C and 1100deg C for 2000 hours suggest that the interdendritic carbide skeleton as a non-creeping fiber reinforcement has a strong effect on the minimum creep rate. Especially the elements Nb and Ti have been found to reduce the minimum creep rate. Oxidation experiments have shown that the alloys with the lowest concentrations of the four elements varied in the alloying composition exhibit the least mass increases within the duration of the experiments. But enhanced concentrations of the dissolved elements Nb and Ti in the matrix have been found to reduce the solubility of the matrix with regard to carbon, and thus protect the material from carburization. (orig.) With 66 figs., 16 tabs

  3. Study on microstructure of pulse laser welding on dissimilar materials hastelloy C-276 and 316L

    To estimate the reliability of laser welding components of AP1000 and study the distribution of elements and microstructure of dissimilar weld of Hastelloy C-276 and 316L welded by Nd: YAG pulse laser, the microstructure, element distribution and phase of the weld were systematically analyzed by optical microscope, electron probe x ray micro-analyser and other analysis, measuring and test instruments. The results show that the gain of microstructure of weld is refined, and tiny equiaxed grains are in the center and columnar grains are near the weld edge. Heat-affected zones are very narrow on two sides of the weld joint. According to macro distribution of elements, there are three zones in the weld. Element compositions vary drastically on two sides of the weld and become uniform in the center. Micro-segregation of elements exists and Mo enriched at the grain boundary of the weld is observed. Austenite is the main microstructure of the weld and little delta ferrite is found. (authors)

  4. Biaxially aligned YSZ and CeO2 buffer layers on hastelloy prepared by magnetron IBAD

    Full text: The development of high-current, flexible superconducting YBCO tapes is based on a metal substrates overcoated with a biaxially aligned oxide buffer layer to serve as a template for the epitaxial growth of c-axis oriented Yba2Cu3O7 thin films. A secondary function of the buffer is to act as a diffusion barrier to metal species to prevent them from poisoning the superconducting film. Widely studied oxide buffer layers include yttria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ) and cerium oxide (CeO2) produced by ion-beam-assisted deposition (IBAD). We have combined IBAD with magnetron sputtering to deposit biaxially aligned YSZ and CeO2 on Hastelloy C276 substrates held at room temperature. The ion beam is directed at 55deg to the normal of the film plane. In addition, we achieved room temperature epitaxial growth of CeO2 films on IBAD YSZ films by bias sputtering to form biaxially aligned CeO2/YSZ bilayers. The crystalline quality and inplane orientation of the films (200 nm thick) were investigated by x-ray diffraction techniques including ω and φ scans and pole figures. The IBAD YSZ and CeO2 films have a (111) pole in the ion beam direction with a full width at half maximum, FWHM = 24 - 30 deg; the CeO2/YSZ bilayer is similarly aligned with FWHM = 32 deg

  5. Scorpion venom heat-resistant protein decreases immunoreactivity of OX-42-positive microglia cells in MPTP-treated mice

    Shengming Yin; Deqin Yu; Xi Gao; Yan Peng; Yanhui Feng; Jie Zhao; Yiyuan Tang; Wanqin Zhang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microglia function as the immune surveyors of the brain under normal physiological conditions. However, microglia become activated in response to brain injuries and immunological stimulation. OBJECTIVE: To explore the influence of scorpion venom (SV) heat-resistant protein on frontal cortex and hippocampal microglia cells in a mice model of Parkinson's disease. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Randomized, controlled, cellular immunity study. The experiment was performed at the Physiology Department Laboratory in Dalian Medical University between June 2005 and July 2008. MATERIALS: Ninety-six healthy, C57BI/6 mice; 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) from Sigma, USA; SV heat-resistant protein (Experimental Base Institute in Dalian Medical University). The mice were randomly divided into tour groups (n = 24): normal control, negative control, model, and SV heat-resistant protein. METHODS: Mice in the model and SV heat-resistant protein groups were subcutaneously injected with MPTP (20 mg/kg) to model Parkinson's disease, while the normal control and negative control groups were injected with physiological saline in the neck for 8 successive days. In addition, mice in the model and normal control groups were intraperitoneally injected with physiological saline 2 hours following administration, while SV heat-resistant protein and negative control groups were injected SV heat-resistant protein (0.01 mg/kg). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Immunoreactivity of microglia cells in MPTP-treated mice. RESULTS: Compared with normal control mice, MPTP-treated mice displayed increased OX-42 expression in the brain. However, in the SV heat-resistant protein-treated mice, OX-42 expression was decreased, compared to the model group. In the model mouse group, the number of OX-42-positive microglia was increased in the frontal cortex, caudatum, and hippocampal hilus, compared to the normal control mice (P < 0.01). However, in the SV heat-resistant protein-treated mice

  6. Research of structural concept to heat-resistant airframe of HOPE. HOPE tainetsu kozo gainen no kenkyu

    Yamamoto, M.; Matsushita, T.; Atsumi, M. (National Space Development Agency, Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-11-05

    This paper states the concept of a heat-resistant structure of the HOPE airframe having a 10 ton weight when lifting off and also the research situation of heat-resistant structural materials. To study the structure, established are design conditions for lift-off, reentry to the atmosphere and landing. As to the load condition, the load at the time of lift-off is most critical. Relating to the temperature environment condition, thermal analysis is made of the time when a HOPE is on the orbit (low-temperature range) and reenters the atmosphere (high-temperature range), when the temperature environment is critical. The analysis shows that the temrerature environment is in a {minus}80-1700{degree}C (range). The heat-resistant structural materials are developed so as to meet these conditions. The paper describes distribution of the airframe surface temperature by aerodynamic heating at the reentry, conceptual figures of the airframe structure and structural materials. Results of the study of heat-resistant structural materials indicate an outlook for fabrication technique of a small-size component. Using thermal/temperature environment conditions, strucutre patterns and characteristics values of applied materials, a structure conceptual design model (a finite element model) is made, the analyses of the structure and heat resistance are conducted and a possibility of formation of the model is obtained. 4 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. High-temperature gas-cooled reactor helium compatibility studies: results of 10,000-hour exposure of selected alloys in simulated reactor helium

    Lechtenberg, T.A.; Stevenson, R.D.; Johnson, W.R.

    1980-05-01

    Work on the HTGR Helium Compatibility Task accomplished during the period March 31, 1977 through September 30, 1979, is documented in this report. Emphasis is on the results and analyses of creep data to 10,000 h and the detailed metallurgical evaluations performed on candidate alloy specimens tested for up to 10,000 h. Long-term creep and unstressed aging data in controlled-impurity helium and in air at 800, 900, and 1000/sup 0/C are reported for alloys included in the program in FY-76, including the wrought solid-solution-strengthened alloys, Hastelloy X, Hastelloy S, RA 333, and HD 556, and the centrifugally cast austenitic alloys, HK 40, Supertherm, Manaurite 36X, Manaurite 36XS, and Manaurite 900.

  8. High-temperature gas-cooled reactor helium compatibility studies: results of 10,000-hour exposure of selected alloys in simulated reactor helium

    Work on the HTGR Helium Compatibility Task accomplished during the period March 31, 1977 through September 30, 1979, is documented in this report. Emphasis is on the results and analyses of creep data to 10,000 h and the detailed metallurgical evaluations performed on candidate alloy specimens tested for up to 10,000 h. Long-term creep and unstressed aging data in controlled-impurity helium and in air at 800, 900, and 10000C are reported for alloys included in the program in FY-76, including the wrought solid-solution-strengthened alloys, Hastelloy X, Hastelloy S, RA 333, and HD 556, and the centrifugally cast austenitic alloys, HK 40, Supertherm, Manaurite 36X, Manaurite 36XS, and Manaurite 900

  9. 哈氏合金C4材料焊接工艺%Research on Welding Process of Hastelloy C4

    赵瑞辉

    2014-01-01

    To prevent from the corrosion of the medium,hastelloy C4 material belonging nickel -based corrosion resistant alloy of Ni-Cr-Mo type with single-phase austenite was selected and adapt as the bottom of residual liquid tanks.With TIG welding method and ERNiCrMo -7 welding filler,the tech-niques were adapt such as groove design,pre-weld cleaning,temperature control between channels and lower welding heat.welding procedure qualification test has been passed and the metallographic micro-structures analysis of welded joints were conducted.The results show that the welding process can ensure the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of welded joints.%为防止介质腐蚀,残液罐产品底部选用了哈氏合金C4材料,该材料属于Ni-Cr-Mo类型镍基耐蚀合金、单相奥氏体组织,具有镍基耐蚀合金的焊接特性。采用氩弧焊方法,选用ERNiCrMo-7焊丝,通过设计坡口、焊前清理、控制道间温度、选择较小焊接热输入等工艺措施,经焊接工艺评定试验和焊接接头金相组织分析,结果表明所制定的焊接工艺可以保证焊接接头的力学性能和耐蚀性能。

  10. Analysis of cyclic plastic response of heat resistant Sanicro 25 steel at ambient and elevated temperatures

    Polák, Jaroslav; Petráš, Roman; Heczko, Milan; Kruml, Tomáš; Chai, G.

    Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2014 - (Gulagliano, M.; Vergani, L.), s. 68-73. (Procedia Engineering. 74). ISSN 1877-7058. [ICMFM 2014 International Colloquium on Mechanical Fatigue of Metals /17./. Verbania (IT), 25.06.2014-27.06.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-23652S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : heat resistant steel * Sanicro 25 * cyclic plasticity * dislocation structure * effect of temperature Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics http://ac.els-cdn.com/S1877705814007966/1-s2.0-S1877705814007966-main.pdf?_tid=8150a71a-543c-11e4-b10e-00000aab0f27&acdnat=1413358137_888616b4b84bb7ddf28dfaee5358a90a

  11. Multiplexed Optical Transmission System For Automobiles Using Polymer Fiber With High Heat Resistance

    Sasayama, Takao; Asano, Hideki; Taketani, Noriaki

    1989-02-01

    A multiplexed optical transmission system for automobiles utilizing newly developed polymer fiber has been proposed. The system is composed with a star-shaped optical network, in which the ootical signals can be transmitted bi-directionally through polymer optical fiber and optical branches with the central and local controllers. The polymer fiber has been developed for this purpose in order to overcome the conventional problems which prevented its wide use for a long time. The new polymer fiber is fabricated with a thereto-setting resin for core which is pushed out from heating furnace after the process of polymerization. The fiber shows the desirable characteristics for this application, that is, the heat resistance is as high as 200°C, and the transmission loss is as low as 0.5003/m at 660 nm wavelength.

  12. Preparation of flexible and heat-resisting conductive transparent film by the pyrosol process

    A pyrosol process was successfully applied for the preparation of a flexible, conductive, and transparent inorganic film, a tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) film lined with a thin mica layer. This flexible heat-resistant ITO-mica film exhibited high conductivity and transparency, comparable to ITO deposited on glass substrate. The minimum radius of bending for the film, without any recognizable change in the conductivity and appearance, was 8 mm. The ITO deposited on mica showed a large (222) diffraction peak with a smaller (400) peak, in contrast to ITO deposited with (400) orientation on an ordinary glass substrate. Using the ITO-mica film, a prototype model of a flexible organic light emitting diode was fabricated

  13. Development of halogen-free, heat-resistant, low-voltage wire for automotive use

    The environmental load of our motorized society is of major concern, and includes considerations of recycling of automotive parts as the industrial wastes. The total average length of AV, AVX (electrical wire insulated with PVC, cross-linked PVC), and AEX (electrical wire insulated with cross-linked polyolefin) wires required for the harnesses in modern automobiles is approximately 2,000-3,000 meters per unit. However these electrical wires contain a large amount of halogen, which can generate the smoke and corrosive gas. In response to this problem the authors have developed the electron beam irradiated halogen-free, heat-resistant, low-voltage electrical wire which does not contain any halogen based polymer or flame retardants. The developed wire features the reliability equivalent to AEX wire with minimum environmental load. (Author)

  14. Estimating the Condition of the Heat Resistant Lining in an Electrical Reduction Furnace

    Jan G. Waalmann

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a system for estimating the condition of the heat resistant lining in an electrical reduction furnace for ferrosilicon. The system uses temperature measured with thermocouples placed on the outside of the furnace-pot. These measurements are used together with a mathematical model of the temperature distribution in the lining in a recursive least squares algorithm to estimate the position of 'the transformation front'. The system is part of a monitoring system which is being developed in the AIP-project: 'Condition monitoring of strongly exposed process equipment in thc ferroalloy industry'. The estimator runs on-line, and results arc presented in colour-graphics on a display unit. The goal is to locate the transformation front with an accuracy of +- 5cm.

  15. Improving deformability of stainless and heat resisting two-phase steels in cold or hot rolling

    The effect is studied of the polymorphous α→γ - transformation occurring in the deformation zone under the action of deformation itself, in martensitic-ferritic steels, on the position of the critical brittleness temperature (Tsub(c)). As this transformation develops, the level of Tsub(c) in these steels shifts to the lower-temperature region. The formation of the optimal phase composition in the process of hot plastic deformation itself may be one of the possible ways for enhancing the deformability of two-phase martensitic ferritic steels during the subsequent cold rolling, as well as of austenitic-ferritic steels during hot deformation. Optimal conditions for the proposed technology of high-temperature mechanical treatment as applied to two-phase corrosion and heat-resistant steels have been developed

  16. Microstructural Characterization for Structural Health Monitoring of Heat-Resisting Rotor Steels

    The typical heat-resisting rotor steels such as 2.25CrMo, 9CrMo and 12CrW steel were experimentally studied in order to understand their materials degradation under high temperature and pressure during the long-term service, and then use the basic studies for the structural health monitoring. In order to monitor the materials degradation, it was conducted by the isothermal aging for 2.25CrMo steel, creep-fatigue for 9CrMo steel and creep for 12Cr steel with the incremental step test. The ultrasonic wave properties, electrical resistivity and coercivity were interpreted in relation to microstructural changes at each material and showed strong sensitivity to the specific microstructural evolution

  17. HEAT-RESISTANT PYRIDINE-BASED POLY(ETHER-ESTER)S: SYNTHESIS,CHARACTERIZATION AND PROPERTIES

    Shahram Mehdipour-Ataei; Ali Mahmoodi

    2013-01-01

    A pyridine-based diacid was synthesized via nucleophilic substitution reaction of 4-hydroxy benzoic acid with 2,6-dichloropyridine in the presence of potassium carbonate.The diacid was characterized using FT-IR and 1H-NMR spectroscopic methods and also with elemental analysis.Polycondensation reaction of the diacid with different diols including 1,4-dihydroxy benzene,1,5-dihydroxy naphthalene,bis-phenol A and bis-phenol-P resulted in preparation of pyridine-based poly(ether-ester)s.The polymers were characterized and their physical and thermal properties including inherent viscosity,molecular weight,solubility,thermal stability,thermal behavior and crystallinity were studied.They revealed high heat-resistance and improved solubility in polar solvents.Structure-property relations for the prepared polyester were also studied.

  18. Adriamycin resistance, heat resistance and radiation response in Chinese hamster fibroblasts

    Previous investigators have demonstrated synergistic interaction between hyperthermia and radiation or Adriamycin (ADR), using cell lines that are sensitive to heat or ADR alone. The authors investigated the effect of heat, radiation or ADR on Chinese hamster fibroblasts (HA-1), their heat resistant variants and their ADR resistant variants. Heat for ADR resistance did not confer cross resistance to radiation. Cells resistant to heat did show cross resistance to ADR. While cells selected for ADR resistance were not cross resistant to heat, they did not exhibit drug potentiation by hyperthermia, characteristic of ADR sensitive cells. Cytofluorometric measurement showed decreased ADR uptake in both heat and ADR resistant cells. The possibility of cross resistance between heat and ADR should be considered when designing combined modality trials

  19. Evaluating the effectiveness of heat-resistant cast steel filtration from the results of structure examinations

    Asłanowicz M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Filtration guarantees castings characterised by high quality and free from any non-metallic inclusions, which are formed at the stage of melting and pouring of liquid metal. This article discusses the problem of the effectiveness of filtration process taking as an example heat-resistant cast steel poured into ceramic moulds. In investigations, foamed zircon filters made by FerroTerm Sp. z o.o. The effectiveness of filtration was described and examined using the results of metallographic examinations, including macro- and micro-structure examinations of metal and of cast metal/ceramic filter interface, and measurements of the content of non-metallic inclusions. The methods of investigations were presented, the obtained results were described, and relevant conclusions were drawn, all of them unmistakably indicating a very beneficial effect that filtration has on molten metal quality. Łódź, Poland, were used.

  20. Heat resistance and phase composition of Ti-Si coatings on niobium

    Specific features of formation of Ti-Si diffusion coatings on refractory metal substrates were investigated with the aim of enhancement of their heat resistance in the air. For niobium coating the mixtures of titanium with titanium silicides and fluoride activators served as diffusion sources. Diffusion saturation was carried out int he range of 1000-1200 deg C. It is shown that when using diffusion sources with high Si activity the diffusion layer on niobium fits the composition of (Nb, Ti)Si2 and can be both single phase and heterophase depending on activity ratio of components. The maximal operating temperature of Ti-Si system coatings in the air reaches 2000 deg C. 3 refs.; 2 figs

  1. Structure and heat-resisting properties of slurry-diffusion coating on niobium

    The Fe-Ti-Si coatings of niobium obtained by slurry-diffusion method are studied for their phase composition and heat- resistance in the air up to 1300 deg C. A multilayer structure of the coating consists of a zone of niobium silicides Nb5Si3 and NbSi2; separated by a layer of binary silicide Nb7Fe3Si6, as well as of the zone of titanium and iron silicides. It is established that the coatings are high-resistant due to a specific structure of films formed under their oxidation. The films consist of the SiO2 matrix and fillers, simple and binary Ti, Nb and Fe oxides. The loss of protecting properties by coatings is connected with the consumption of the titanium and iron silicides external layer

  2. Heat resistance of dermatophyte's conidiospores from athletes kits stored in Nigerian University Sport's Center.

    Essien, J P; Jonah, I; Umoh, A A; Eduok, S I; Akpan, E J; Umoiyoho, A

    2009-03-01

    The incidence and heat resistance of conidiospores produced by dermatophytes isolated from athlete's kits (canvasses, stockings and spike shoes) stored in Nigerian University Sport's Centre were investigated. Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum oudouinii, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton concentricum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum were isolated and their incidence on the athlete's kits varied with the species and type of kits. Among the isolates T. mentagrophytes, T. rubrum and E. floccosum with 25%, 23% and 20% prevalence rates respectively, were the most common isolates, and are often associated with tinea pedis (athletes foot). Canvasses with the highest incidence of dermatophytes (25 out of 34 fungal isolates) were the most contaminated kits and could serve as effective articles for the transmission of tinea pedis among athletes in Nigeria. The common etiological agents screened, produced asexual spores (conidiospores) that exhibited high resistance to heat treatment at 80 degrees C. Of the three isolates, E. floccosum, with a decimal reduction time (D-value) of D80 = 4.4 min was the most resistant followed by T. mentagrophytes with D80 = 4.0 min and then T. rubrum with D80 = 3.2 min. The spores elimination pattern indicates that increasing the heating duration would decrease the decimal reduction time and possibly denature the fungal propagules but may damage the skin during treatment with hot water compresses. The findings have shown that the use of hot water compresses is palliative but heat treatment especially vapour-heat treatment offers adequate preventive measures if applied for periodic treatment of contaminated kits. However, determining the correct condition for effective decontamination will require detailed understanding of the heat resistance of fungal spores. Otherwise treatment of kits with detergent and chaotropic agent such as urea and guanidinium salt is preferred to heat treatment. PMID:19388558

  3. Data on post irradiation experiments of heat resistant ceramic composite materials. PIE for 97M-13A

    The research on the radiation damage mechanism of heat resistant ceramic composite materials is one of the research subjects of the innovative basic research in the field of high temperature engineering, using the High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). Three series of irradiation tests on the heat resistant ceramic composite materials, first to third irradiation test program, were carried out using the Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR). This is a summary report on the first irradiation test program; irradiation induced dimensional change, thermal expansion coefficient, X-ray diffraction and γ-ray spectrum are reported. (author)

  4. Experience of application of a heat-resistant coating to protect billets in heating for metal forming

    Radyuk, A. G.; Titlyanov, A. E.; Glukhov, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the work is to search for heat-resistant coatings for titanium and steel billets upon heating for metal forming. A water-based heat-resistant coating, which has an operating temperature of 1200°C and a binder consisting of an acrylic emulsion with additions of colloidal graphite, bentonite, and an aluminum powder, is studied. This coating favors a decrease in the thickness of the defective surface layer that forms when titanium and steel billets are heated for metal forming.

  5. Data on post irradiation experiments of heat resistant ceramic composite materials. PIE for 97M-13A

    Baba, Shin-ichi; Ishihara, Masahiro; Souzawa, Shizuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Sekino, Hajime [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    The research on the radiation damage mechanism of heat resistant ceramic composite materials is one of the research subjects of the innovative basic research in the field of high temperature engineering, using the High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). Three series of irradiation tests on the heat resistant ceramic composite materials, first to third irradiation test program, were carried out using the Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR). This is a summary report on the first irradiation test program; irradiation induced dimensional change, thermal expansion coefficient, X-ray diffraction and {gamma}-ray spectrum are reported. (author)

  6. Creep crack growth behavior of several structural alloys

    Sadananda, K.; Shahinian, P.

    1983-07-01

    Creep crack growth behavior of several high temperature alloys, Inconel 600, Inconel 625, Inconel X-750, Hastelloy X, Nimonic PE-16, Incoloy 800, and Haynes 25 (HS-25) was examined at 540, 650, 760, and 870 °C. Crack growth rates were analyzed in terms of both linear elastic stress intensity factor and J*-integral parameter. Among the alloys Inconel 600 and Hastelloy X did not show any observable crack growth. Instead, they deformed at a rapid rate resulting in severe blunting of the crack tip. The other alloys, Inconel 625, Inconel X-750, Incoloy 800, HS-25, and PE-16 showed crack growth at one or two temperatures and deformed continuously at other temperatures. Crack growth rates of the above alloys in terms ofJ* parameter were compared with the growth rates of other alloys published in the literature. Alloys such as Inconel X-750, Alloy 718, and IN-100 show very high growth rates as a result of their sensitivity to an air environment. Based on detailed fracture surface analysis, it is proposed that creep crack growth occurs by the nucleation and growth of wedge-type cracks at triple point junctions due to grain boundary sliding or by the formation and growth of cavities at the boundaries. Crack growth in the above alloys occurs only in some critical range of strain rates or temperatures. Since the service conditions for these alloys usually fall within this critical range, knowledge and understanding of creep crack growth behavior of the structural alloys are important.

  7. Etude expérimentale du soudage par laser YAG de l'alliage base nickel Hastelloy X

    Graneix, Jérémie; Béguin, Jean-Denis; Pardeilhan, François; Masri, Talal; Alexis, Joël

    2013-01-01

    Le procédé de soudage laser YAG est envisagé pour remplacer le procédé de soudage TIG manuel pour la réalisation de pièces de turboréacteur en alliage nickel-chrome-molybdène Hastelloy X. Cette étude expérimentale a permis de définir un domaine de soudabilité de cet alliage répondant aux critères spécifiques du secteur aéronautique.

  8. Influencia de la pulpa lixiviada sobre el desgaste de una aleación del tipo Hastelloy C 276

    Dayanis Alcántara-Borges; Tomás Fernández-Columbié; Isnel Rodríguez-González

    2016-01-01

    Las bombas usadas en la industria niquelera cubana para trasegar pulpas lixiviadas se fabrican de una aleación del tipo Hastelloy C 276. Se hicieron análisis macroscópicos del cuerpo de la voluta para determinar defectos superficiales de la misma por efecto de la corrosión. En otras muestras se realizaron ensayos microscópicos y de microdureza. Las microestructuras revelan que la voluta sufre un proceso de abrasión por arranque y pérdida de material de la superficie interna de la misma, con l...

  9. Effect of mixed heat-resistances on the optimal configuration and performance of a heat-engine cycle

    The finite-time thermodynamic performance of a generalized Carnot-cycle, under the condition of mixed heat-resistances, is studied. The optimal configuration and the fundamental optimal relation between power and efficiency of the cycle are derived. The results provide some guidance for the design of practical engines

  10. Physiological quality and gene expression related to heat-resistant proteins at different stages of development of maize seeds.

    Andrade, T; Von Pinho, E V R; Von Pinho, R G; Oliveira, G E; Andrade, V; Fernandes, J S

    2013-01-01

    We quantified and characterized the expression of heat-resistant proteins during seed development of maize lines with distinct levels of tolerance to high drying temperature. A corn field was planted for multiplication of seeds of different lines, two tolerant and two non-tolerant to high drying temperatures. Harvest of the seeds was carried out at various stages of development and they were then subjected to tests of moisture content, germination, first count of germination, accelerated aging, and cold test. The seeds were stored in a freezer for later analysis of expression of heat-resistant proteins by means of real-time PCR, electrophoresis, and spectrophotometry. We observed that heat-resistant proteins are expressed in a differential manner in seeds from different lines and at different stages of development. The expression of heat-resistant proteins was earlier in lines tolerant to high drying temperatures. Greater germination and vigor values was found for seeds collected at the last stage of development. PMID:24085427

  11. Microstructure and texture evolution of CeO{sub 2} buffer layers prepared via dip-coating sol-gel method on IBAD-YSZ/Hastelloy substrates

    Du, P. [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)], E-mail: honey00@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn; Wang, S.S.; Chen, H.; Wang, Z.; Sun, J.C.; Han, Z. [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Schmidt, W.; Neumuller, H.W. [Siemens AG, CT PS 3, Erlangen 91052 (Germany)

    2007-10-01

    We have fabricated CeO{sub 2} buffer layers on IBAD-YSZ/Hastelloy substrates via dip-coating sol-gel method using inorganic salts as starting materials. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scanning probe microscope (SPM) were applied to investigate the influential factors in film formation and texture evolution. Flat, crack-free CeO{sub 2} films with sharp (0 0 2) c-axis orientation and good texture were obtained by carefully controlling the precursor solution quality, dip-coating and heating process. Compared with IBAD-YSZ/Hastelloy substrates, textures of CeO{sub 2} films were effectively improved.

  12. Molybdenum-boron-silicon coating on VN-3 niobium alloy

    Heat resistance of the complex molybdenum-boron-silicon coating on VN-3 niobium alloy is studied. The coating phase composition in the initial state and after heating in air at 1200 deg C during 100-1300 h is determined using X-ray diffraction, electron diffraction and X-ray spectrum analyses. It is shown that high heat resistance of the coating is ensured due to formation of an external film of silicon oxide and a boride sublayer between the metal and coating

  13. Microstructural evolution in austenitic heat-resistant cast steel 35Cr25Ni12NNbRE during long-term service

    The microstructural evolution of austenitic heat-resistant cast steel 35Cr25Ni12NNbRE during aging and long-term service was investigated using optical microscope (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The microstructure of the as cast steel consists of the dendritic austenite, the block-like eutectic carbide M7C3 spreaded among austenitic dendrite, and a small quantity of M23C6 carbide. The microstructure of the steel aged at 600 deg. C consists of eutectic carbide M23C6 transformed from eutectic carbide M7C3 and dendritic austenite in which fine secondary carbide particles M23C6 precipitated. The precipitated carbide M23C6 kept a cubic-cubic orientation relationship (OR) with austenite matrix. There existed a carbide precipitation free zone (PFZ) around the eutectic carbide. For the long-term serviced samples, the secondary carbide precipitated in the austenite strikingly increased and the PFZ disappeared. Part of the M23C6 transformed into M6C, which always kept a twin OR, [114]M6C//[110]A//[110]M23C6, with the austenite and the M23C6 secondary carbide. In addition, a small quantity of σ phase FeCr and ε-Cr2N were also identified. The effects of alloy composition and service condition on the microstructural evolution of the steel were discussed.

  14. Effects of alpha-tocopherol addition to polymeric coatings on the UV and heat resistance of a fibrous collagen material--chrome-free leather

    UV and heat resistance are very important qualities of leather because most leather products are constantly exposed to outdoor environments. In recent years, we have focused on using environmentally friendly antioxidants that will improve the UV and heat resistance of chrome-free leather. Tocopher...

  15. Investigation of the isothermal precipitation behaviour of nickel-base alloys using electrochemical phase extraction

    Electrochemical phase extraction methods have been developed empirically for the selective separation of the precipitates in metallic materials. A detailed description of the process has been undertaken to allow optimization for various nickel-base alloys. For this part of the investigation, 16 model alloys were prepared as test electrodes and the electrolyte composition was varied over a wide range. The results enabled a series of effects to be explained on the basis of electrochemical data. The large number of test parameters limited the scope of the preliminary experiments and the range of model alloys used. In the nickel-base alloys, titanium carbo-nitride and primary M6C precipitates were identified. During isothermal ageing, M23C6 (except in Alloy KSN), Ni3Al (in INCONEL 617), Laves phases (in Hastelloy X and INCONEL 617), M12C (in HASTELLOY X and INCONEL 617) and α-tungsten (in the tungsten-containing alloys) were precipitated. The precipitation behaviour changed in the alloys investigated from intracrystalline to intercrystalline with increasing ageing temperature. The intracrystalline secondary precipitations affect the microhardness, structure and the solid-solution lattice. (orig.)

  16. Deformation behaviour in advanced heat resistant materials during slow strain rate testing at elevated temperature

    Mattias Calmunger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, slow strain rate tensile testing at elevated temperature is used to evaluate the influence of temperature and strain rate on deformation behaviour in two different austenitic alloys. One austenitic stainless steel (AISI 316L and one nickel-base alloy (Alloy 617 have been investigated. Scanning electron microscopy related techniques as electron channelling contrast imaging and electron backscattering diffraction have been used to study the damage and fracture micromechanisms. For both alloys the dominante damage micromechanisms are slip bands and planar slip interacting with grain bounderies or precipitates causing strain concentrations. The dominante fracture micromechanism when using a slow strain rate at elevated temperature, is microcracks at grain bounderies due to grain boundery embrittlement caused by precipitates. The decrease in strain rate seems to have a small influence on dynamic strain ageing at 650°C.

  17. Modification Approach of Fuzzy Logic Model for Predicting of Cutting Force When Machining Nickel Based Hastelloy C-276

    Basim A. Khidhir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Most Nickel based Hastelloy C-276 is a difficult-to-machine material because of its low thermal diffusive property and high strength at high temperature. Machinability consideration of nickel based Hastelloy C-276 in turning operations has been carried out using ceramic inserts under dry conditions. Approach: This study described a modification approach applied to a fuzzy logic based model for predicting cutting force where the machining parameters for cutting speed ranges, feed rate, depth of cut and approach angle are not overlapping. For this study, data were selected depending on the design of experiments. Response surface methodology was applied to predict the cutting force and to examine the fuzzy logic based model. Results: The modification approach fuzzy logic based model produced the cutting force data providing good correlation with response surface data. In this situation the cutting force data were superimposed and results were adjusted according to their own ranges. Conclusion: A review of literatures on optimization techniques revealed that there were, in particular, successful industrial applications of design of experiment-based approaches for optimal settings of process variables.

  18. Spatial fluxes and energy distributions of reactor fast neutrons in two types of heat resistant concretes

    Measurements have been carried out to study the spatial fluxes and energy distributions of reactor fast neutrons transmitted through two types of heat resistant concretes, serpentine concrete and magnetic lemonite concrete. The physical, chemical and mechanical properties of these concretes were checked by well known techniques. In addition, the effect of heating at temperatures up to 500deg C on the crystaline water content was checked by the method of differential thermal analysis. Measurements were performed using a collimated beam of reactor neutrons emitted from a 10 MW research reactor. The neutron spectra transmitted through concrete barriers of different thickness were measured by a scintillation spectrometer with NE-213 liquid organic scintillator. Discrimination against undesired pulses due to gamma-rays was achieved by a method based on pulse shape discrimination technique. The operating principle of this technique is based on the comparison of two weighted time integrals of the detector signal. The measured pulse amplitude distribution was converted to neutron energy distribution by a computational code based on double differentiation technique. The spectrometer workability and the accuracy of the unfolding technique were checked by measuring the neutron spectra of neutrons from Pu-α-Be and 252Cf neutron sources. The obtained neutron spectra for the two concretes were used to derive the total cross sections for neutrons of different energies. (orig.)

  19. IMPROVEMENT OF TYPE IV CRACKING RESISTANCE OF 9Cr HEAT RESISTING STEEL WELDMENT BY BORON ADDITION

    M.Tabuchi; M.Kondo; T.Watanabe; H.Hongo; F.Yin; F.Abe

    2004-01-01

    Creep lives of high Cr ferritic heat resisting steel weldments decrease due to Type IV fracture, which occurs as a result of formation and growth of creep voids and cracks on grain boundaries in fine-grained heat affected zone (HAZ). Because boron is considered to suppress the coarsening of grain boundary precipitates and growth of creep voids, we have investigated the effect of boron addition on the creep properties of 9Cr steel weldments. Four kinds of 9Cr3W3CoVNb steels with boron content varying from 4.7×10-5 to 1.8×10-4 and with nitrogen as low as 2.0×10-5 were prepared.The steel plates were welded by gas tungsten arc welding and crept at 923K. It was found that the microstructures of HAZ were quite different from those of conventional high Cr steels such as P91 and P92, namely the fine-grained HAZ did not exist in the present steel weldments. Boron addition also has the effect to suppress coarsening of grain boundary carbides in HAZ during creep. As a result of these phenomena,the welded joints of present steels showed no Type IV fractures and much better creep lives than those of conventional steels.

  20. Characterization and radiation response of a heat-resistant variant of V79 cells

    A thermoresistant variant of the established cell line V79-S171-W1 was isolated after treatment with nitrosoguanidine and repeated heat treatments at 42.6 to 43 degrees C, and showed an enhanced ability to survive at 42.6, 43.5, and 44.5 degrees C. The rates of inactivation of the normal and heat-resistant lines differed by approximately a factor of 2 over this temperature range. This level of thermoresistance was stable for the first 80 doublings, but was lost by 120 doublings. This may have been due to a reversion to the normal V79 line since there was no continuous selection pressure and the thermoresistant variant, which was designated at HR7, had a longer average doubling time. Transient thermotolerance was induced in both the V79 and HR7 cells by a 10-min exposure to 44.5 degrees C. After 3 hr incubation at 37 degrees C, both cell lines had an identical sensitivity to further exposure to 44.5 degrees C. Thus the long-term thermoresistance of the HR7 cells may be due to a permanent induction of a low level of thermotolerance. The (ionizing) radiation survival curves and the ability to repair sublethal radiation damage were identical for the thermoresistant variant and the parent cell line

  1. Characterization and radiation response of a heat-resistant variant of V79 cells

    A thermoresistant variant of the established cell line V79-S171-W1 was isolated after treatment with nitrosoguanidine and repeated heat treatments at 42.6 to 430C, and showed an enhanced ability to survive at 42.6, 43.5, and44.50C. The rates of inactivation of the normal and heat-resistant lines differed by approximately a factor of 2 over this temperature range. This level of thermoresistance was stable for the first 80 doublings, but was lost by 120 doublings. This may have been due to a reversion to the normal V79 line since there was no continuous selection pressure and the thermoresistant variant, which was designated at HR7, had a longer average doubling time. Transient thermotolerance was induced in both the V79 and HR7 cells by a 10-min expsure to 44.50C. After 3 hr incubation at 370C, both cell lines had an identical sensitivity to further exposure to 44.50C. Thus the long-term thermoresistance of the HR7 cells may be due to a permanent induction of a low level of thermotolerance. The (ionizing) radiation survival curves and the ability to repair sublethal radiation damage were identical for the thermoresistance variant and the parent cell line

  2. Design of improved heat resistant materials by use of computational thermodynamics

    Schaffernak, B.; Cerjak, H. [Graz University of Technology Institute for Materials Science, Welding and Forming, Graz (Austria)

    2001-07-01

    Ferritic-martensitic steels are widely used for high temperature applications. Compared with austenitic materials they own a better thermal conductivity, lower thermal expansion coefficient, lower costs and a better resistance against stress corrosion cracking. In this contribution the modelling of the microstructure based on thermodynamic calculations has been used for the description and further alloy design for this steel group. The results are phase diagrams showing the precipitates to be expected as well as driving forces, phase compositions and diffusion coefficients as base for further modelling activities. A calculation model based on the determination of the (calculated) transformation temperatures A{sub e1}, and A{sub e3}; and the diffusion coefficients is proposed, which can help to predict the microstructural stability and the creep strength from the chemical composition. Based on this model test melts for some new alloys has been produced. First creep tests of these alloys confirm the presented approach. (orig.)

  3. Study on functional heat-resistant ceramics SiC using small angle neutron scattering

    The mechanical properties of functional heat-resistant silicon carbide SiC ceramics are significantly influenced by the concentration and dimensions of pores. 3 SiC samples with different densities were sintered with different kind and amount of additives (such as Al2O3, B4C and C) using different sintering conditions of the Department of Material Science and Engineering at the University of Science and Technology in Beijing. Small angle neutron scattering measurements for 3 SiC samples were carried out at C1-2 SANS instrument of the University of Tokyo in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The neutron data with 8 and 16 in of secondary flight path and 10 and 7 A of neutron wave length respectively have been obtained. After deduction of background measurement and transmission correction, both neutron data were linked up with each other. The cubic patterns of 3 neutron data with Q range from 0.0028 - 0.05 A-1 are almost with axial symmetry. It shows that the shape of pores, whose dimensions are relative to the Q range, is almost spherical. For spherical particles (or pores) we can obtain an expression of size distribution directly, using Mellin Transform (J. Appl. Phys. 45, 1974, 46.). According to our calculating program for the expression, the size distribution of pores for 3 samples were obtained. The average size (∼ 190 A) of pores for hot-pressed SiC sample with more density is smaller than others (∼ 210 A). It seems to be the reason why the density of hot-pressed SiC sample is higher than no-hot-pressed sample. (author)

  4. Efficacy of Traditional Almond Decontamination Treatments and Electron Beam Irradiation against Heat-Resistant Salmonella Strains.

    Cuervo, Mary P; Lucia, Lisa M; Castillo, Alejandro

    2016-03-01

    Two outbreaks of salmonellosis were linked to the consumption of raw almonds from California in 2001 and 2004. As a result, federal regulations were developed, which mandate that all almonds grown in California must be treated with a process that results in a 4-log reduction of Salmonella. Because most of the technologies approved to treat almonds rely on the application of heat to control Salmonella, an evaluation of alternative technologies for inactivating heat-resistant Salmonella Enteritidis PT30 and Salmonella Senftenberg 775W was needed. In this study, almonds were inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis PT30 and Salmonella Senftenberg 775W and then treated with an electron beam (e-beam) or by blanching or oil roasting. The irradiation D10-values for Salmonella Enteritidis PT30 and Salmonella Senftenberg 775W treated with e-beam were 0.90 and 0.72 kGy, respectively. For heat treatments, thermal D10-values for Salmonella Enteritidis PT30 and Salmonella Senftenberg 775W strains were 15.6 and 12.4 s, respectively, when subjected to blanching at 88°C and 13.2 and 10.9 s, respectively, when roasted in oil at 127 ± 2°C. No significant differences in irradiation and thermal treatment results were observed between Salmonella Enteritidis PT30 and Salmonella Senftenberg 775W (P > 0.05), indicating that e-beam irradiation may be a feasible technology for reducing Salmonella in almonds. However, the sensory changes resulting from irradiating at the doses used in this study must be evaluated before e-beam irradiation can be used as a nonthermal alternative for decontamination of almonds. PMID:26939646

  5. Sustainable, heat-resistant and flame-retardant cellulose-based composite separator for high-performance lithium ion battery

    Jianjun Zhang; Liping Yue; Qingshan Kong; Zhihong Liu; Xinhong Zhou; Chuanjian Zhang; Quan Xu; Bo Zhang; Guoliang Ding; Bingsheng Qin; Yulong Duan; Qingfu Wang; Jianhua Yao; Guanglei Cui; Liquan Chen

    2014-01-01

    A sustainable, heat-resistant and flame-retardant cellulose-based composite nonwoven has been successfully fabricated and explored its potential application for promising separator of high-performance lithium ion battery. It was demonstrated that this flame-retardant cellulose-based composite separator possessed good flame retardancy, superior heat tolerance and proper mechanical strength. As compared to the commercialized polypropylene (PP) separator, such composite separator presented impro...

  6. Identification and characterization of a heat-resistant protease from Serratia liquefaciens isolated from Brazilian cold raw milk.

    Machado, Solimar Gonçalves; Heyndrickx, Marc; De Block, Jan; Devreese, Bart; Vandenberghe, Isabel; Vanetti, Maria Cristina Dantas; Van Coillie, Els

    2016-04-01

    The cold storage of raw milk before heat treatment in dairy industry promotes the growth of psychrotrophic microorganisms, which are known for their ability to produce heat-resistant proteolytic enzymes. Although Pseudomonas is described as the main causative genus for high proteolytic spoilage potential in dairy products, Serratia liquefaciens secretes proteases and may be found in raw milk samples as well. However, at the present there is no information about the proteolytic spoilage potential of S. liquefaciens in milk after heat-treatment. The main aim of this research was to assess the proteolytic spoilage potential of S. liquefaciens isolated from Brazilian raw milk and to characterize the involved protease. S. liquefaciens was shown to secrete one heat-resistant spoilage metalloprotease of, approximately, 52kDa encoded by the ser2 gene. The heat-resistance of Ser2 was similar to the aprX encoded metalloprotease produced by Pseudomonas. Although the ser2 gene was detected in all S. liquefaciens isolates tested in this study, the proteolytic activity of the isolates in milk was highly heterogeneous. Since nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of ser2 of all tested isolates are identical, this heterogeneity may be attributed to differences in enzyme expression levels or post-translational modifications. PMID:26874224

  7. Environmental temperature and physiological polymorphism of populations. II. The relation of changes in the organismal heat resistance to its initial level during heat acclimation

    Ushakov, B.P.; Amosova, I.S.; Chernokozheva, I.S.; Dregolskaya, I.N.; Pashkova, I.M.; Skholl, E.D.

    1977-01-01

    Study was made of the changes in the organismal heat resistance level and average values were obtained for clones and siblings of Hydra oligactis, Asellus acquaticus, Drosophila melanogaster, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (embryos) and Rana temporaria (tadpoles) during short-term heat acclimation (sibacclimation method). In all the species studied a negative correlation was observed between the initial heat resistance level of clones and siblings and its increase during heat acclimation. Reaction norm during temperature resistance acclimation of poikilotherms depends on the initial organismal heat resistance inherent in each genotype.

  8. Collect Available Creep-Fatigue Data and Study Existing Creep-Fatigue Evaluation Procedures for Grade 91 and Hastelloy XR

    Tai Asayama; Yukio Tachibana

    2007-09-30

    This report describes the results of investigation on Task 5 of DOE/ASME Materials Project based on a contract between ASME Standards Technology, LLC (ASME ST-LLC) and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). Task 5 is to collect available creep-fatigue data and study existing creep-fatigue evaluation procedures for Grade 91 steel and Hastelloy XR. Part I of this report is devoted to Grade 91 steel. Existing creep-fatigue data were collected (Appendix A) and analyzed from the viewpoints of establishing a creep-fatigue procedure for VHTR design. A fair amount of creep-fatigue data has been obtained and creep-fatigue phenomena have been clarified to develop design standards mainly for fast breeder reactors. Following this, existing creep-fatigue procedures were studied and it was clarified that the creep-fatigue evaluation procedure of the ASME-NH has a lot of conservatisms and they were analyzed in detail from the viewpoints of the evaluation of creep damage of material. Based on the above studies, suggestions to improve the ASME-NH procedure along with necessary research and development items were presented. Part II of this report is devoted to Hastelloy XR. Existing creep-fatigue data used for development of the high temperature structural design guideline for High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) were collected. Creep-fatigue evaluation procedure in the design guideline and its application to design of the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) for High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) was described. Finally, some necessary research and development items in relation to creep-fatigue evaluation for Gen IV and VHTR reactors were presented.

  9. Modifications in membrane fatty acid composition of Salmonella typhimurium in response to growth conditions and their effect on heat resistance.

    Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Fernández, Ana; López, Mercedes; Arenas, Ricardo; Bernardo, Ana

    2008-04-30

    The effects of growth temperature (in the range 10-45 degrees C) and acidification up to pH 4.5 of the culture medium (Brain Heart Infusion, BHI) with different organic acids (acetic, citric and lactic) and hydrochloric acid on membrane fatty acid composition and heat resistance of Salmonella typhimurium CECT 443 were studied. The heat resistance was maximal in cells grown at 45 degrees C (cells grown in non-acidified BHI showed a D58-value of 0.90 min) and decreased with decreasing growth temperature up to 10 degrees C (D58-value of 0.09 min). The growth of cells in acidified media caused an increase in their heat resistance. In general, acid adapted cells showed D-values of between 1.5 and 2 times higher than the corresponding for non-acid adapted control cells. This cross-protection response, which has important implications in food processing, was not dependent on the pH value and the acid used to acidify the growth medium. A membrane adaptation corresponding to an increase in the unsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio (UFA/SFA) and membrane fluidity was observed at low growth temperature. Moreover, the acidification of the growth medium caused a decrease in UFA/SFA ratio and in the C18:1 relative concentration, and an increase in cyclopropane fatty acids (CFA) content mainly due to the increase in cyc19 relative concentration. Thus, acid adapted cells showed CFA levels 1.5 times higher than non-acid adapted control cells. A significant proportion of unsaturated fatty acids were converted to their cyclopropane derivatives during acid adaptation. These changes in membrane fatty acid composition result in cells with decreased membrane fluidity. A clear relation between membrane fatty acid composition and heat resistance was observed. In general, D-values were maximum for cells with low UFA/SFA ratio, and, consequently, with low membrane fluidity. Moreover, CFA formation played a major role in protecting acid adapted cells from heat inactivation. However

  10. Oxidation protection for niobium and its alloys at high temperature

    Problems, related to increasing heat resistance of niobium and niobium-base alloys, are considered. It is mentioned, that when developing coatings to protect niobium and niobium alloy products against oxidation, one should preliminarily create a butter layer, preventing matrix interaction with the coating components, at metallic base - protective coating boundary. Depending on the temperature regime and the product application conditions, the coating can be formed on the basis of molybdenum disilicide or high-melting alloyed silicides. Besides, a composition, containing a low-melting component and high-melting filler, can be used for its creation

  11. Wettability and interface considerations in advanced heat-resistant Ni-base composites

    Oxide fiber-reinforced Ni-base composites have long been considered as attractive heat-resistant materials. After several decades of active research, however, interest in these materials began to decline around mid-1990's due chiefly to 1) a lack of manufacturing technology to grow inexpensive single-crystal oxide fibers to be used in structural composites, and 2) fiber strength loss during processing due to chemical interactions with reactive solutes in the matrix. The cost disadvantage has been mitigated to a large extent by the development of innovative fiber fabrication processes such as the Internal Crystallization Method (ICM) that produces monocrystalline oxide fibers in a cost-effective manner. Fiber strength loss has been an equally restrictive issue but recent work has shown that it may be possible to design creep-resistant composites even when fiber surface reconstruction from chemical interactions has degraded the strength of extracted fibers tested outside the matrix. The key issue is the optimization of the composite- and interface structure. Reaction-formed defects may be healed by the matrix (or a suitable coating material) so that the fiber residing in the matrix may exhibit diminished sensitivity to flaws as compared to fibers extracted from the matrix and tested in isolation of the matrix. Generally, the Ni-base/Al2O3 composites exhibit acceptable levels of wettability and interface strength (further improved with the aid of reactive solutes), which are required for elevated-temperature creep-resistance. In order to harness the full potential of these composites, the quality of the interface as manifested in the fiber/matrix wettability, interface composition, interphase morphology, and interface strength must be designed. We identify key issues related to the measurement of contact angle, interface strength, and chemical and structural properties at the fiber/matrix interface in the Ni/alumina composites, and present the current state-of the

  12. Modelling the influence of palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic and oleic acids on apparent heat resistance of spores of Bacillus cereus NTCC 11145 and Clostridium sporogenes Pasteur 79.3

    Mvou Lekogo, Brice; Coroller, Louis; Mathot, Anne Gabrielle; Mafart, Pierre; Leguérinel, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Heat resistance of spores is affected by many factors such as temperature, pH, water activity (aw) and others. Previous studies have reported that free fatty acids can affect the germination and growth of bacterial spores. In this study, we investigated the influence of free fatty acids in heating medium or in recovery medium on the heat resistance of spores of Bacillus cereus NTCC 11145 and Clostridium sporogenes Pasteur 79.3. Four free fatty acids were studied: palmitic, palmitoleic, steari...

  13. Evaluation of Ni-Cr-base alloys for SOFC interconnect applications

    Yang, Zhenguo; Xia, Guan-Guang; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    To further understand the suitability of Ni-Cr-base alloys for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) interconnect applications, three commercial Ni-Cr-base alloys, Haynes 230, Hastelloy S and Haynes 242 were selected and evaluated for oxidation behavior under different exposure conditions, scale conductivity and thermal expansion. Haynes 230 and Hastelloy S, which have a relatively high Cr content, formed a thin scale mainly comprised of Cr 2O 3 and (Mn,Cr,Ni) 3O 4 spinels under SOFC operating conditions, demonstrating excellent oxidation resistance and a high scale electrical conductivity. In contrast, a thick double-layer scale with a NiO outer layer above a chromia-rich substrate was grown on Haynes 242 in moist air or at the air side of dual exposure samples, indicating limited oxidation resistance for the interconnect application. With a face-centered-cubic (FCC) substrate, all three alloys possess a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) that is higher than that of candidate ferritic stainless steels, e.g. Crofer22 APU. Among the three alloys, Haynes 242, which is heavily alloyed with W and Mo and contains a low Cr content, demonstrated the lowest average CTE at 13.1 × 10 -6 K -1 from room temperature to 800 °C, but it was also observed that the CTE behavior of Haynes 242 was very non-linear.

  14. Magnesium Cermets and Magnesium-Beryllium Alloys

    The paper describes some results of work on the development of magnesium-magnesium oxide cermets and of super heat-resistant magnesiumberyllium alloys produced by powder metallurgical methods. The introduction of even a minute quantity of finely dispersed magnesium oxide into magnesium results in a strengthening of the material, the degree of which increases with increased magnesium oxide concentration, although variation of this concentration within the limits of 0.3 to 5 wt.% has a comparatively slight effect on the corresponding variation in the short-term strength over the whole range of temperatures investigated. At 20oC, in the case of the cermets, σβ = 28 to 31 kg/mm2 and δ = 3 .5 to 4.5%; at 500oC σβ = 2.6 to 3.2 kg/mm2 and δ =30 to 40%. The positive effect of the finely dispersed oxide phase is particularly evident in protracted tests. For magnesium cermets, σ (300)/100 = 2.2 kg/mm2. Characteristic of the mixtures is the high thermal stability of the strength properties, linked chiefly with the thermodynamic stability of the strength-giving oxide phase in the metal matrix. The use of powder metallurgical methods has yielded super heat-resistant magnesium-beryllium alloys containing heightened concentrations of beryllium (PMB alloys). In their strength characteristics PMB alloys are close to Mg-MgO cermets, but the magnesium-beryllium alloys have a degree and duration of resistance to high temperature oxidation which exceeds the corresponding qualities of the magnesium alloys at present known. Thus, in air of 580oC, PMB alloys with 2 to 5% beryllium maintain a high resistance to oxidation for a period of over 12000 to 14000 h. This long-term heat resistance is chiefly a result of the amount of beryllium in the alloy, and increases with increasing beryllium content. PMB alloys are also marked by high resistance to short bursts of overheating. Magnesium cermets and magnesium-beryllium alloys, with their enhanced high-temperature stability, are capable

  15. Wrought stainless steel compositions having engineered microstructures for improved heat resistance

    Maziasz, Philip J [Oak Ridge, TN; Swindeman, Robert W [Oak Ridge, TN; Pint, Bruce A [Knoxville, TN; Santella, Michael L [Knoxville, TN; More, Karren L [Knoxville, TN

    2007-08-21

    A wrought stainless steel alloy composition includes 12% to 25% Cr, 8% to 25% Ni, 0.05% to 1% Nb, 0.05% to 10% Mn, 0.02% to 0.15% C, 0.02% to 0.5% N, with the balance iron, the composition having the capability of developing an engineered microstructure at a temperature above 550.degree. C. The engineered microstructure includes an austenite matrix having therein a dispersion of intragranular NbC precipitates in a concentration in the range of 10.sup.10 to 10.sup.17 precipitates per cm.sup.3.

  16. Phase composition and structure of NiAl base alloys of Ni-Al-Co-M systems where M-Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo

    A study was made into the effect of transition metals (0.27-23 at.% of Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo) on phase composition and microstructure of (β + γ)-alloys of the Ni-Al-Co system. It is concluded that for designing heat resistant nickel base alloys with the density not exceeding 7.3 g/cm3 the two-phase (β + γ) alloys can be taken as a basis. In alloys of the (29-43) Ni-(20-25)Al-(32-34)Co compositions with 1-1.8 at%Mo, Ta, Nb or V the occurrence of gamma'-phase secondary precipitations is shown to be possible. Ti and Cr contents may reach 3 and 12 at.% respectively. Alloying elements promote an increase of main strengthening element (Co) content in β-phase and enhance heat resistance of Ni-Al-Co alloys. 3 refs.; 6 figs

  17. Fiber reinforced superalloys, ceramics, and refractory metals, and directionally solidified eutectics (heat-resistant composites)

    High-temperature composites have been shown to have excellent elevated-temperature tensile and stress-rupture strengths and specific strengths. Tungsten alloy fiber reinforced superalloys have been demonstrated to have stress rupture strengths at 20000F superior to superalloys and sufficient impact resistance for gas turbines. Recently developed tungsten alloy fibers should permit production of composites with use-temperatures (gas turbine blades, vanes) as high as 24000F. Their main problem is associated with the direction and perfection of growth of strong whiskers or lamina in irregularly shaped components. Artificially made whisker composites are believed to warrant serious consideration. Use-temperatures of refractory metal matrix composites can be as much as 25000F for Nb matrix composites and over 30000F for W matrix composites. Ceramic matrix composites with use-temperatures ranging from 18000F to over 30000F are possibilities. Stationary, large, turbines for power generation may make use of refractory fiber/superalloy matrix, ceramic matrix, and coated refractory matrix composites. Such an application may capitalize on the high-temperature strength and high use-temperatures of the composites, which, in turn, will enhance engine performance. (127 references, 62 fig, 22 tables) (U.S.)

  18. Fractal analysis and atomic force microscopy measurements of surface roughness for Hastelloy C276 substrates and amorphous alumina buffer layers in coated conductors

    Feng, F.; Shi, K.; Xiao, S.-Z.; Zhang, Y.-Y. [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhao, Z.-J. [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Wang, Z., E-mail: wangzhi@bit.edu.cn [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Wei, J.-J.; Han, Z. [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2012-02-01

    In coated conductors, surface roughness of metallic substrates and buffer layers could significantly affect the texture of subsequently deposited buffer layers and the critical current density of superconductor layer. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is usually utilized to measure surface roughness. However, the roughness values are actually relevant to scan scale. Fractal geometry could be exerted to analyze the scaling performance of surface roughness. In this study, four samples were prepared, which were electro polished Hastelloy C276 substrate, mechanically polished Hastelloy C276 substrate and the amorphous alumina buffer layers deposited on both the substrates by ion beam deposition. The surface roughness, described by root mean squared (RMS) and arithmetic average (R{sub a}) values, was analyzed considering the scan scale of AFM measurements. The surfaces of amorphous alumina layers were found to be fractal in nature because of the scaling performance of roughness, while the surfaces of Hastelloy substrates were not. The flatten modification of AFM images was discussed. And the calculation of surface roughness in smaller parts divided from the whole AFM images was studied, compared with the results of actual AFM measurements of the same scan scales.

  19. Fractal analysis and atomic force microscopy measurements of surface roughness for Hastelloy C276 substrates and amorphous alumina buffer layers in coated conductors

    Feng, F.; Shi, K.; Xiao, S.-Z.; Zhang, Y.-Y.; Zhao, Z.-J.; Wang, Z.; Wei, J.-J.; Han, Z.

    2012-02-01

    In coated conductors, surface roughness of metallic substrates and buffer layers could significantly affect the texture of subsequently deposited buffer layers and the critical current density of superconductor layer. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is usually utilized to measure surface roughness. However, the roughness values are actually relevant to scan scale. Fractal geometry could be exerted to analyze the scaling performance of surface roughness. In this study, four samples were prepared, which were electro polished Hastelloy C276 substrate, mechanically polished Hastelloy C276 substrate and the amorphous alumina buffer layers deposited on both the substrates by ion beam deposition. The surface roughness, described by root mean squared (RMS) and arithmetic average (Ra) values, was analyzed considering the scan scale of AFM measurements. The surfaces of amorphous alumina layers were found to be fractal in nature because of the scaling performance of roughness, while the surfaces of Hastelloy substrates were not. The flatten modification of AFM images was discussed. And the calculation of surface roughness in smaller parts divided from the whole AFM images was studied, compared with the results of actual AFM measurements of the same scan scales.

  20. Fractal analysis and atomic force microscopy measurements of surface roughness for Hastelloy C276 substrates and amorphous alumina buffer layers in coated conductors

    In coated conductors, surface roughness of metallic substrates and buffer layers could significantly affect the texture of subsequently deposited buffer layers and the critical current density of superconductor layer. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is usually utilized to measure surface roughness. However, the roughness values are actually relevant to scan scale. Fractal geometry could be exerted to analyze the scaling performance of surface roughness. In this study, four samples were prepared, which were electro polished Hastelloy C276 substrate, mechanically polished Hastelloy C276 substrate and the amorphous alumina buffer layers deposited on both the substrates by ion beam deposition. The surface roughness, described by root mean squared (RMS) and arithmetic average (Ra) values, was analyzed considering the scan scale of AFM measurements. The surfaces of amorphous alumina layers were found to be fractal in nature because of the scaling performance of roughness, while the surfaces of Hastelloy substrates were not. The flatten modification of AFM images was discussed. And the calculation of surface roughness in smaller parts divided from the whole AFM images was studied, compared with the results of actual AFM measurements of the same scan scales.

  1. Effect of NaCl on Heat Resistance, Antibiotic Susceptibility, and Caco-2 Cell Invasion of Salmonella

    Hyunjoo Yoon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of NaCl on heat resistance, antibiotic susceptibility, and Caco-2 cell invasion of Salmonella. Salmonella typhimurium NCCP10812 and Salmonella enteritidis NCCP12243 were exposed to 0, 2, and 4% NaCl and to sequential increase of NaCl concentrations from 0 to 4% NaCl for 24 h at 35°C. The strains were then investigated for heat resistance (60°C, antibiotic susceptibility to eight antibiotics, and Caco-2 cell invasion efficiency. S. typhimurium NCCP10812 showed increased thermal resistance (P<0.05 after exposure to single NaCl concentrations. A sequential increase of NaCl concentration decreased (P<0.05 the antibiotic sensitivities of S. typhimurium NCCP10812 to chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and oxytetracycline. NaCl exposure also increased (P<0.05 Caco-2 cell invasion efficiency of S. enteritidis NCCP12243. These results indicate that NaCl in food may cause increased thermal resistance, cell invasion efficiency, and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella.

  2. Heat resistance of Salmonella enterica is increased by pre-adaptation to peanut oil or sub-lethal heat exposure.

    Fong, Karen; Wang, Siyun

    2016-09-01

    Cross-protection represents a considerable challenge in the food industry where hurdled interventions are often employed to reduce Salmonella contamination. The heat resistance of Salmonella strains from five serotypes (i.e., Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Tennessee, Thompson and Hartford) at 70 °C was determined by measurement of viable cell populations before and after adaptation to two common stresses employed in low-water activity food processing, desiccation and sub-lethal heat treatment. Survival of Salmonella at 70 °C significantly increased (p day incubation in peanut oil (aw 0.52 ± 0.00) and/or the exposure to a sub-lethal heat treatment at 45 °C for 3 min. Quantitative PCR revealed upregulation of two desiccation stress-related genes, fadA and otsB, following the peanut oil incubation, whereas heat treatment induced upregulation of a heat-resistance gene, dnaK. Invasion gene invA and alternative sigma factor rpoE were downregulated following either of the treatments. Interestingly, different Salmonella strains yielded different transcriptional profiles. The strain-specific resistance phenotypes and transcriptional profiles provided further insights into the mechanisms employed to tolerate desiccation and heat stresses in the food industry. PMID:27217370

  3. Microstructural analysis as the indicator for suitability of weld repairing of the heat resistant Cr - Ni steel

    Metallurgical evaluation was performed on a fractured column tube of the reformer furnace in an ammonia plant. The tubes were manufactured from centrifugally cast heat resistant steel HK 40. Optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used for microstructural and fracture analysis. For composition determination of the micro constituents energy dispersive X ray spectroscopy (EDS) was used. To evaluate mechanical properties, hardness and microhardness measurements were performed. Investigations based on the microstructural features with the idea to indicate suitability of weld repair of the column were performed in this study. It was observed that the crack initiation, caused by oxidation/corrosion and thermal stresses induced by temperature gradient, appeared in the inner side of the tube wall and propagation occurred along grain boundaries. The results clearly showed the presence of an irregular microstructure which contributed to crack propagation through the tube wall. An occurrence of precipitated needle-shaped carbides/carbonitrides and brittle s phase was also identified in the microstructure. Results of the microstructural and fracture analysis clearly indicate that reformer furnace columns made of heat resistant steel HK 40 were unsuitable for weld repair. (Author)

  4. The effect of alloying on the ordering processes in near-alpha titanium alloys

    The substructure of near-alpha Ti–Al–Sn–Zr–Mo–Si alloys containing up to 12.5 at% aluminum was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was shown that long-range order sections are formed at aging temperatures up to 500 °C in alloys, high in aluminum, and the ordered phase is formed by the nucleation and growth mechanism at 700 °C aging temperatures. Causes of changing the phase transformation mechanism have been discussed, and the relationship between the structure and properties of alloys, depending on modes of heat treatment has been analyzed. Also the influence of aluminides and silicides precipitation on the mechanical alloy properties after aging was examined. It was shown that the aluminide formation led to a slight hardening and a significant viscosity decrease. The silicide particles formation reduced the heat resistance properties, due to the depletion of the solid solution by silicon

  5. The effect of alloying on the ordering processes in near-alpha titanium alloys

    Popov, Artemiy, E-mail: p.artemii@mail.ru [Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, 19 Mira Street, Ekaterinburg 620002 (Russian Federation); Rossina, Natalya [Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, 19 Mira Street, Ekaterinburg 620002 (Russian Federation); Popova, Maria, E-mail: pmaria777@mail.ru [Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, 19 Mira Street, Ekaterinburg 620002 (Russian Federation)

    2013-03-01

    The substructure of near-alpha Ti–Al–Sn–Zr–Mo–Si alloys containing up to 12.5 at% aluminum was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was shown that long-range order sections are formed at aging temperatures up to 500 °C in alloys, high in aluminum, and the ordered phase is formed by the nucleation and growth mechanism at 700 °C aging temperatures. Causes of changing the phase transformation mechanism have been discussed, and the relationship between the structure and properties of alloys, depending on modes of heat treatment has been analyzed. Also the influence of aluminides and silicides precipitation on the mechanical alloy properties after aging was examined. It was shown that the aluminide formation led to a slight hardening and a significant viscosity decrease. The silicide particles formation reduced the heat resistance properties, due to the depletion of the solid solution by silicon.

  6. On the correlation between heat resistance and durable heat strength os steels

    In determining the high-temperature properties of metallic materials a combined evaluation of thermal stability and high-temperature strength is recommended, based on a comparison of limiting temperatures calculated from the parameteric thermal stability diagram and the temperature dependence of the stress-rupture strength. Criteria are proposed for harmonic alloying of materials designed for high-temperature operation in oxidizing gaseous media under static loads. Calculations based on experimental data indicate that the pearlitic steels 12X1MF, 12X2MFSR and 12X1MFB do not have satisfactory thermal stability, whereas medium- and high-chromium steels and chromium-nickel austenitic steels are characterized by a favourable thermal stability to high-temperature strength ratio. Increasing the high-temperature strength of steels improves the relationship between thermal stability and high-temperature strength. (author)

  7. Rolling contact fatigue behaviour of heat resistant bearing steels at high operational temperatures

    An approach was made to estimate the endurance limit in rolling contact fatigue in dependence of the operational conditions for the bearing steels M50 (AMS 6491), M50 NiL (AMS 6278) and the nitrogen-alloyed Cronidur 30 (AMS 5898) by investigating the changes in the residual stress profiles after 5 million cycles of over-rolling. Real main shaft bearings with a pitch diameter of 168 mm have been tested. To simulate the heat generated in the turbine engines even under boundary operational conditions oil inlet temperatures between 80 and 210 C have been applied, the rotational speed has been varied between 2500 and 14000 r/min and the interference fit has been changed to produce different hoop stress levels. (orig.)

  8. Substructure of hot deformed molybdenum and its influence on the heat resistance

    Investigated was substructural strengthening of the Mo-0.6% V-0.03%C and Mo-1.2% V-0.03%C alloy, obtained in the result of preliminary deformation: pressing at 1100 deg C and compression in a wide range of temperatures and rates of deformation. Specimens with different subgrain sizes were tested on creep and short-term strength with determination of yield limit σsub(0.2). Substructural strengthening effect depends on relationship of the reduced rates of preliminary deformation to deformation at mechanical tests. Temperature dependence of the petch equation coefficients within 0.4-0.65 Tsub(m) temperature interval was determined. Investigation results were presented in the form of a generalized diagram of substructural strengthening, plotted in T-lgsub(epsilon) coordinates

  9. Creep-rupture behaviour of four high temperature alloy weldments at 850 and 950 deg C

    Creep tests were conducted on weldments made with Hastelloy X (matching filler), Nimonic 86 (Inconel 112 filler), Inconel 617 (Inconel 112 filler) and Alloy 800H (Thermanit 21/33 filler) at 850 and 950 deg C in air and in controlled impurity helium. Plain and notched samples were used, the notch being in the weld metal. At 850 deg C, the welds achieved rupture strengths close to those expected for the parent materials. At 950 deg C, however, shortfalls in expected strength were found for the Hastelloy X and Inconel 617 welds. In Hastelloy X, welding reduced the rupture strength of the parent material but in the Inconel 617 weld, failure reflected inadequate strength of the filler. Various failure types were noted but failure often occurred near a structural or strength transition. In particular, a heat affected zone type of failure was promoted by a combination of strong filler and weaker parent. Notched samples achieved or exceeded rupture lives of their companion plain samples. Environmental effects were small, producing no consistent effect on rupture life although oxidation rates and surface crack nucleation were greater in air. Oxidation resistance of Thermanit 21/33 in air at 950 deg C was poor. (author)

  10. Corrosion studies and recommendation of alloys for an incinerator of glove-boxes wastes

    In the framework of the development of an incineration process for high chlorinated wastes, commercial alloys have been investigated by means of parametric laboratory tests in HCl containing gas mixtures and also in field tests. Recommendations may be formulated for the three main components i.e. pyrolyser, calciner and cooler. In very low oxygen-potential atmospheres, the alloys Hastelloy C276 and Inconel 625 present the best behaviours. For the calciner, alloy Inconel 601 is more satisfactory than AISI 310 steel. As for the cooler, only the alloy Haynes 214 appears acceptable at 1100 deg C. Because of the very low stress level affecting the components, thermomechanical properties do not modify these recommendations based on corrosion behaviour

  11. Thermogravimetric Study of Oxidation-Resistant Alloys for High-Temperature Solar Receivers

    Olivares, Rene I.; Stein, Wes; Marvig, Paul

    2013-12-01

    Three special alloys likely to be suitable for high-temperature solar receivers were studied for their resistance to oxidation up to a temperature of 1050°C in dry atmospheres of CO2 and air. The alloys were Haynes HR160, Hastelloy X, and Haynes 230, all nickel-based alloys with greater than 20% chromium content. The oxidation rate of specimens cut from sample master alloys was followed by thermogravimetry by continuously monitoring the weight change with a microbalance for a test duration of 10 h. The corrosion resistance was deduced from the total weight increase of the specimens and the morphology of the oxide scale. The surface oxide layer formed (scale) was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and in all cases was found to be chromia. Oxidation was analyzed by means of parabolic rate law, albeit in some instances linear breakaway corrosion was also observed. For the temperature range investigated, all alloys corroded more in CO2 than in air due to the formation of a stronger and more protective oxide scale in the presence of air. At 1000°C, the most resistant alloy to corrosion in CO2 was Haynes 230. Alloy Haynes HR160 was the most oxidized alloy at 1000°C in both CO2 and air. Hastelloy X oxidized to a similar extent in CO2 at both 900°C and 1000°C, but in air, it resisted oxidation better at 1000°C than either at 900°C or 1000°C.

  12. Study on high temperature design methodology of heat-resistant materials for GEN-IV systems

    Ryu, Woo Seog; Kim, D. W.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, W. G.; Kim, J. H.; Park, D. G.; Yoon, J. H.; Lee, H. Y.; Hing, J. H

    2005-08-15

    Analysis of the existing high temperature design and assessment codes such as US(ASME-NH,Draft Code Case for Alloy 617), France(RCC-MR), UK(R5), Japan(BDS/DDS/FDS) for Gen IV reactor structure has been carried out. In addition the scope and fields for research and development is needed in the future have been defined. For assessing the high temperature creep cracks, time dependent fracture mechanics (TDFM) parameters of the C and Ct were analyzed. The creep propagation data were obtained from the creep crack growth tests for type 316LN stainless steels, and creep crack growth testing machine for Gen-IV system up to 950 .deg. C was set up. Damage mechanism and causes for creep-fatigue were investigated. The difference between prediction creep-fatigue life and experimental life were investigated. Material properties for analysis creep-fatigue damage were recommended. The assessment procedure (Draft) on creep-fatigue crack initiation has been developed based on the technical appendix A16 of French RCC-MR code. Ultrasonic wave signal against creep ruptured specimens of type 316LN stainless steel was obtained. It was identified that creep damage can be evaluated by ultrasonic method. The NDT techniques evaluated include Barkhausen noise, magnetic hysteresis parameters, positron annihilation, X-ray diffraction and small angle neutron scattering. Experimental procedure and evaluation method of material integrity were developed through the fracture toughness test of Cr-Mo steel.

  13. Study on high temperature design methodology of heat-resistant materials for GEN-IV systems

    Analysis of the existing high temperature design and assessment codes such as US(ASME-NH,Draft Code Case for Alloy 617), France(RCC-MR), UK(R5), Japan(BDS/DDS/FDS) for Gen IV reactor structure has been carried out. In addition the scope and fields for research and development is needed in the future have been defined. For assessing the high temperature creep cracks, time dependent fracture mechanics (TDFM) parameters of the C and Ct were analyzed. The creep propagation data were obtained from the creep crack growth tests for type 316LN stainless steels, and creep crack growth testing machine for Gen-IV system up to 950 .deg. C was set up. Damage mechanism and causes for creep-fatigue were investigated. The difference between prediction creep-fatigue life and experimental life were investigated. Material properties for analysis creep-fatigue damage were recommended. The assessment procedure (Draft) on creep-fatigue crack initiation has been developed based on the technical appendix A16 of French RCC-MR code. Ultrasonic wave signal against creep ruptured specimens of type 316LN stainless steel was obtained. It was identified that creep damage can be evaluated by ultrasonic method. The NDT techniques evaluated include Barkhausen noise, magnetic hysteresis parameters, positron annihilation, X-ray diffraction and small angle neutron scattering. Experimental procedure and evaluation method of material integrity were developed through the fracture toughness test of Cr-Mo steel

  14. New structural high strength rationally alloyed steels

    New developments in high strength structural steels are reported. Properties and perspective fields of application are described for the following materials: austenitic chromium steels with ultra equilibrium nitrogen content, steels with nitrogen martensite structure, microalloyed ferritic-pearlitic steels with decreased concentrations of Mn and Ni, high ductility heat resisting steels, nonmagnetic chromium free Mn-Ni-Cu-V-C steels and iron powder alloys with superhard carbon phases. Steel 02Kh12G14N4YuM is recommended to be used for parts and assemblies of nuclear power plants

  15. Effect of tempering treatment before aging on the microstructure and mechanical properties of ferritic heat-resistant steels

    This study investigated the effect of the tempering before aging on the precipitation of Laves phase and mechanical properties of 10Cr-6W and 10Cr-6W-3Co ferritic heat-resistant steels. Laves phase was precipitated by aging, which increased tensile strength but decreased elongation and impact value. Toughness was rapidly decreased by the presence of the very fine disk-like Laves phase precipitated at early aging stage. Strength and impact value were decreased by tempering treatment and that is due to the increase of the particle number per unite area and to larger particle size of Laves phase. Laves phase increased by adding Co, and consequently strength was increased and elongation and toughness were decreased

  16. Preparation and characterization of Fe–Al intermetallic layer on the surface of T91 heat-resistant steel

    A Fe–Al intermetallic layer was formed on the surface of T91 heat-resistant steel by a molten aluminum hot-dipping and heat diffusion treatment. It is shown that the layer was composed of Al, FeAl3 and Fe2Al5 phases in the as-dipped state while only Fe3Al phase retained after the heat treatment. The intermetallic layer exhibited typical columnar grain structure after the heat treatment, and the thickness of aluminizing layer was increased from 55 μm at 760 °C to around 100 μm at 1050 °C heat treatment. Such a phase composition and grain morphology are favorable for the oxidation and corrosion resistance of T91 steel

  17. Microstructure and mechanical properties of heat-resistant 12% Cr ferritic-martensitic steel EK-181 after thermomechanical treatment

    Polekhina, N. A.; Litovchenko, I. Yu.; Tyumentsev, A. N.; Astafurova, E. G.; Chernov, V. M.; Leontyeva-Smirnova, M. V.

    2015-10-01

    The effect of high-temperature thermomechanical treatment (TMT) with the deformation in the austenitic region on the features of microstructure, phase transformations and mechanical properties of low-activation 12% Cr ferritic-martensitic steel EK-181 is investigated. It is established, that directly after thermomechanical treatment (without tempering) the sizes and density of V(CN) particles are comparable with those after a traditional heat treatment (air quenching and tempering at 720°C, 3 h), where these particles are formed only during tempering. It causes the increasing of the yield strength of the steel up to ≈1450 MPa at room temperature and up to ≈430 MPa at the test temperature T = 650°C. The potential of microstructure modification by this treatment aimed at improving heat resistance of steel is discussed.

  18. First Results of Saturation Curve Measurements of Heat-Resistant Steel Using GEANT4 and MCNP5 Codes

    Hoang, Duc-Tam; Tran, Thien-Thanh; Le, Bao-Tran; Tran, Kim-Tuyet; Huynh, Dinh-Chuong; Vo, Hoang-Nguyen; Chau, Van-Tao

    A gamma backscattering technique is applied to calculate the saturation curve and the effective mass attenuation coefficient of material. A NaI(Tl) detector collimated by collimator of large diameter is modeled by Monte Carlo technique using both MCNP5 and GEANT4 codes. The result shows a good agreement in response function of the scattering spectra for the two codes. Based on such spectra, the saturation curve of heat-resistant steel is determined. The results represent a strong confirmation that it is appropriate to use the detector collimator of large diameter to obtain the scattering spectra and this work is also the basis of experimental set-up for determining the thickness of material.

  19. New Weldoble and Heat Resistant Shop Primer%耐高温可焊车间底漆

    张双喜

    2013-01-01

    Energy saving, cost reduction, environmental protection and safety are the important problems for shipbuilding and paint industry. A new weldable and heat resistant shop primer was developed. Through the comparison with conventional shop primer, test this new shop primer showed an excellent heat resistance (up to 1 200 ℃) , less burnt extention and u-nique welding performance which could reduce the re - rust - removing workload and the manufacture. This new shop primer was comparatively simple and convenient to apply and environmentally friendly, as well as harmless to the operator. It will bring a prospective market and vast economic and social efficiency.%节能降本、绿色环保和健康安全是造船业、涂料业面临的大问题.本研究阐述了新一代耐高温可焊性车间底漆的制备过程,并且与传统型、第一代车间底漆之间进行了系统的比较,发现其耐高温,烧延面积小,焊接性能好,大大减少了二次除锈重涂的工作量,在很大程度上降低了制造成本;新一代耐高温车间底漆施工操作简单、方便、环保,并且采用醇类溶剂作为稀释剂,对操作工人身体无毒害,具有广阔的市场前景和很高的经济效益及社会效益.

  20. [Properties of the enzymes of energy supply in the common frog under various physiological states. II. Changes in the heat resistance of adenosine triphosphatases and succinate dehydrogenase].

    Glushankova, M A; Ivanova, G I; Pisareva, L N

    1986-05-01

    The heat resistance of SDG, Na, K-ATPase and Mg-ATPase of the grass frog was determined in January, March and May, the number of animals examined being 30-40 in either experiment. It was found that the average level of the heat resistance of the enzymes studied shows significant, often differently directed changes, which depend on the physiological state of an organism. Negligible correlation between the thermal sensitivity of different enzymes of an organism during hibernation, completely disappear during the activity state. PMID:3016954

  1. Solute Transport Proteins and the Outer Membrane Protein NmpC Contribute to Heat Resistance of Escherichia coli AW1.7▿

    Ruan, Lifang; Pleitner, Aaron; Gänzle, Michael G.; McMullen, Lynn M.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to elucidate determinants of heat resistance in Escherichia coli by comparing the composition of membrane lipids, as well as gene expression, in heat-resistant E. coli AW1.7 and heat-sensitive E. coli GGG10 with or without heat shock. The survival of E. coli AW1.7 at late exponential phase was 100-fold higher than that of E. coli GGG10 after incubation at 60°C for 15 min. The cytoplasmic membrane of E. coli AW1.7 contained a higher proportion of saturated and cyclopropane fat...

  2. Ion irradiation induced disappearance of dislocations in a nickel-based alloy

    Chen, H. C.; Li, D. H.; Lui, R. D.; Huang, H. F.; Li, J. J.; Lei, G. H.; Huang, Q.; Bao, L. M.; Yan, L.; Zhou, X. T.; Zhu, Z. Y.

    2016-06-01

    Under Xe ion irradiation, the microstructural evolution of a nickel based alloy, Hastelloy N (US N10003), was studied. The intrinsic dislocations are decorated with irradiation induced interstitial loops and/or clusters. Moreover, the intrinsic dislocations density reduces as the irradiation damage increases. The disappearance of the intrinsic dislocations is ascribed to the dislocations climb to the free surface by the absorption of interstitials under the ion irradiation. Moreover, the in situ annealing experiment reveals that the small interstitial loops and/or clusters induced by the ion irradiation are stable below 600 °C.

  3. Corrosion Behavior of Alloys in Molten Fluoride Salts

    Zheng, Guiqiu

    The molten fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature nuclear reactor (FHR) has been proposed as a candidate Generation IV nuclear reactor. This reactor combines the latest nuclear technology with the use of molten fluoride salt as coolant to significantly enhance safety and efficiency. However, an important challenge in FHR development is the corrosion of structural materials in high-temperature molten fluoride salt. The structural alloys' degradation, particularly in terms of chromium depletion, and the molten salt chemistry are key factors that impact the lifetime of nuclear reactors and the development of future FHR designs. In support of materials development for the FHR, the nickel base alloy of Hastelloy N and iron-chromium base alloy 316 stainless steel are being actively considered as critical structural alloys. Enriched 27LiF-BeF2 (named as FLiBe) is a promising coolant for the FHR because of its neutronic properties and heat transfer characteristics while operating at atmospheric pressure. In this study, the corrosion behavior of Ni-5Cr and Ni-20Cr binary model alloys, and Hastelloy N and 316 stainless steel in molten FLiBe with and without graphite were investigated through various microstructural analyses. Based on the understanding of the corrosion behavior and data of above four alloys in molten FLiBe, a long-term corrosion prediction model has been developed that is applicable specifically for these four materials in FLiBe at 700ºC. The model uses Cr concentration profile C(x, t) as a function of corrosion distance in the materials and duration fundamentally derived from the Fick's diffusion laws. This model was validated with reasonable accuracy for the four alloys by fitting the calculated profiles with experimental data and can be applied to evaluate corrosion attack depth over the long-term. The critical constant of the overall diffusion coefficient (Deff) in this model can be quickly calculated from the experimental measurement of alloys' weight

  4. A low dose pre-irradiation induces radio- and heat-resistance via HDM2 and NO radicals, and is associated with p53 functioning

    Takahashi, A.; Ohnishi, T.

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this work was to clarify the effect of low dose pre-irradiation on radio- and heat-sensitivity. Wild-type (wt) p53 and mutated (m) p53 cells derived from the human lung cancer H1299 cell line were used. The parental H1299 cell line is p53-null. Cellular sensitivities were determined with a colony-forming assay. When wtp53 cells were exposed to a low dose X-irradiation, induction of radio- and heat-resistance was observed only in the absence of RITA (an inhibitor of p53-HDM2 interactions), aminoguanidine (an iNOS inhibitor) and c-PTIO (an NO radical scavenger). In contrast, the induced radio- and heat-resistance was not observed under similar conditions in mp53 cells. Moreover, heat-resistance as well as radio-resistance developed when wtp53 cells were treated with ISDN (an NO generating agent) alone. These findings suggest that NO radicals are an initiator of radio- and heat-resistance, and function through the activation of HDM2 and the depression of p53 accumulation.

  5. Tensile properties of a nickel-base alloy subjected to surface severe plastic deformation

    A surface severe plastic deformation (S2PD) method has been applied to bulk specimens of HASTELLOY C-2000 alloy, a nickel-base alloy. The mechanical properties of the processed C-2000 alloy were determined via tensile tests and Vickers hardness measurements, whereas the microstructure was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffractometry. The improved tensile strength was related to the nanostructure at the surface region, the residual compressive stresses, and the work-hardened surface layer, all of which resulted from the S2PD process. To understand the contributions of these three factors, finite element modeling was performed. It was found that the improved tensile strength could be interpreted based on the contributions of nano-grains, residual stresses, and work hardening

  6. A novel electroless silver depositing method for magnesium alloys

    ZHAO Hui; CUI Jian-zhong

    2006-01-01

    Depositing silver on magnesium alloy by both electroless plating and organic coatings was studied. The organic coating was made by immersing samples in organosilicon heat-resisting varnish. In this method the organic coating acts as interlayer between the substrate and silver film. When the reaction starts, silver deposits directly on the interlayer. X-ray diffraction and SEM analysis were used to determine the composition and morphology of the interlayer and silver film. The potentiodynamic polarization curves for corrosion studies of coated magnesium alloys were performed in a corrosive environment of 3.5% NaCl(mass fraction) at neutral pH (6.9). The results indicate that compared with the substrate, the corrosion resistance of coated magnesium alloys increases greatly. Moreover, the method proposed in this work is environmentally friendly, non-toxic chemicals were used. In addition, it provides a new concept for the corrosion inhibition of magnesium alloys.

  7. Bacillus thermoamylovorans spores with very-high-level heat resistance germinate poorly in rich medium despite the presence of ger clusters but efficiently upon exposure to calcium-dipicolinic acid

    Berendsen, Erwin M; Krawczyk, Antonina O; Klaus, Verena; de Jong, Anne; Boekhorst, Jos; Eijlander, Robyn T; Kuipers, Oscar P; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H J

    2015-01-01

    High-level heat resistance of spores of Bacillus thermoamylovorans poses challenges to the food industry, as industrial sterilization processes may not inactivate such spores, resulting in food spoilage upon germination and outgrowth. In this study, the germination and heat resistance properties of

  8. High temperature corrosion of iron-base and nickel-base alloys for hydrogen production apparatus by thermochemical method in H2O+SO3 atmosphere

    Corrosion tests for ten iron-base and nickel-base alloys at 850degC for 1000h in H2O + SO3 atmosphere were carried out to obtain data for selection of candidate container materials in the thermochemical process which produces hydrogen from water by use of iodine and sulfur as circulating materials. The following results were obtained: (1) Oxidation, spallation of corrosion film, uniform corrosion and grain boundary penetration composed of internal oxidation and sulfuration occur in this atmosphere and the corrosion proceeds by grain boundary penetration. (2) SUS304, SUS316 and Hastelloy C276 are inferior in corrosion resistance and SUS329J4L is superior among ten alloys used in this experiment. Alloys such as Alloy 800H and Hastelloy XR show intermediate corrosion resistance. (3) Oxide films of alloys containing iron and chromium are mostly composed of outer iron-oxide and inner chromium-oxide. Sulfur concentrates at scale/metal interfaces and grain boundary penetration portions, and sulfides form. (4) Corrosion in this atmosphere could be expressed using the parabolic law between the grain boundary penetration depth and time. It is considered that causes of the apparently observed parabolic law were a high concentration of SO3 and change of the gas composition caused by catalytic action of the corrosion film formed with the progress of corrosion. (author)

  9. Deposition of CeO 2/YSZ buffer layer on Hastelloy substrates for MOD process of YBa 2Cu 3O 7- x film

    Fuji, Hiroshi; Honjo, Tetsuji; Nakamura, Yuichi; Izumi, Teruo; Takeshi, Araki; Hirabayashi, Izumi; Shiohara, Yuh; Iijima, Yasuhiro; Takeda, Kaoru

    2001-08-01

    Trifluoroacetate metalorganic deposition (TFA-MOD) process is expected as a low cost process for mass production of coated conductors because it is a non-vacuum process. In order to apply the technique to fabrication of coated conductors, suitable buffer layers have to be considered to achieve a high orientation of superconducting layer and prevention of the reaction with metal substrate. The combination of CeO 2 on IBAD-YSZ is considered as an effective buffer for TFA-MOD process expecting to satisfy a high acid resistivity and high crystal grain alignment. The CeO 2 buffer layer was deposited on IBAD-YSZ/Hastelloy substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. From XRD analysis, the CeO 2 buffer layer showed very good in-plane alignment on YSZ-IBAD buffer layer. In a holding time of 1 h, the suitable maximum heat treatment temperature was found to be from 750°C to 775°C for TFA-Y123 on metal substrate. The Jc- B property of Y123 on CeO 2/YSZ/Hastelloy shows the Jc values of 1.4 MA/cm 2 at 77.3 K, 0 T and more than 10 5 A/cm 2 at 77.3 K, 2 T. The high performance under high magnetic field was confirmed.

  10. Evaluation of the same heat Hastelloy XR as the material used for high-temperature components of the High-Temperature Engineering Test Reactor, 2

    A series of tension, Charpy impact and creep tests was carried out on two sorts of plate materials with 15 mm and 60 mm in thickness obtained from typical one of 30 heats of Hastelloy XR manufactured as the component material of the High-Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). Creep test temperatures were 850, 900, 950 and 1000degC, and the maximum creep test time was 3371.4 h. The results obtained are as follows: (1) Both of plate materials tested exhibit acceptable tensile strength and tensile ductility as the structural material of the high-temperature components of the HTTR. (2) The plate material with 15 mm in thickness exhibits enough toughness, while toughness of the plate material with 60 mm in thickness is inferior to that of the plate material with 15 mm in thickness. (3) Both of plate materials tested possess the creep rupture strength beyond not only the expected minimum stress-to-rupture values, SR, but also the expected mean stress-to-rupture values of the material strength standards of Hastelloy XR. The materials also possess enough creep rupture ductility. (author)

  11. Effects of laser heat treatment on salt spray corrosion of 1Cr5Mo heat resistant steel welding joints

    孔德军; 郭卫

    2015-01-01

    The surface of 1Cr5Mo heat-resistant steel welding joint was processed with CO2 laser, and the corrosion behaviors before and after laser heat treatment (LHT) were investigated in the salt spray corrosion environments. The microstructures, phases, residual stresses and retained austenite content of 1Cr5Mo steel welding joint before and after LHT were analyzed with optical microscope and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The cracking morphologies and chemical compositions of corrosion products after salt spray corrosion were analyzed with field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS), respectively, the polarization curves were measured on a PS-268A type electrochemical workstation, and the mechanism of corrosion resistance by LHT was investigated as well. The results show that the passive film of original sample is destroyed owing to the corrosive media penetrating into the subsurface, resulting in the redox reaction. The content of residual austenite in the surface and the self-corrosion potential are increased by LHT, which is contributed to improving the capability of salt spray corrosion resistance.

  12. MODIFICATION OF CeO2 AND ITS EFFECT ON THE HEAT-RESISTANCE OF SILICONE RUBBER

    Teng-fei Gan; Bao-qing Shentu; Zhi-xue Weng

    2008-01-01

    By means of the wet chemical surface modification, the surface of CeO2 was modified by vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMS). Infrared spectroscopy was used to investigate the structure of the modified CeO2 and the result showed that VTMS has been attached onto the surface of CeO2. Effect of VTMS concentration on the active index of the modified CeO2 was also studied, and the result indicated that the active index of the modified CeO2 increases with the increase of VTMS concentration and the optimal concentration of VTMS is 10 wt%. The effect of the modified CeO2 on the tear strength of silicone rubber before and after aging was studied and it was found that in comparison with the unmodified CeO2 the addition of the modified CeO2 results in the significant increase of the tear strength before ageing due to the increase of the crosslinking density of silicone rubber under the experimental conditions. The tear strength of silicone rubber filled with the modified CeO2 after ageing is higher than that with the unmodified CeO2, indicating that the modification of CeO2 can improve the heat-resistance of silicone rubber.

  13. Screening foods for processing-resistant bacterial spores and characterization of a pressure- and heat-resistant Bacillus licheniformis isolate.

    Ahn, Juhee; Balasubramaniam, V M

    2014-06-01

    This study was carried out to isolate pressure- and heat-resistant indicator spores from selected food matrices (black pepper, red pepper, garlic, and potato peel). Food samples were processed under various thermal (90 to 105°C) and pressure (700 MPa) combination conditions, and surviving microorganisms were isolated. An isolate from red pepper powder, Bacillus licheniformis, was highly resistant to pressure-thermal treatments. Spores of the isolate in deionized water were subjected to the combination treatments of pressure (0.1 to 700 MPa) and heat (90 to 121°C). Compared with the thermal treatment, the combined pressure-thermal treatments considerably reduced the numbers of B. licheniformis spores to less than 1.0 log CFU/g at 700 MPa plus 105°C and at 300 to 700 MPa plus 121°C. The inactivation kinetic parameters of the isolated B. licheniformis spores were estimated using linear and nonlinear models. Within the range of the experimental conditions tested, the pressure sensitivity (zP) of the spores decreased with increasing temperature (up to 121°C), and the temperature sensitivity (zT) was maximum at atmospheric pressure (0.1 MPa). These results will be useful for developing a combined pressure-thermal inactivation kinetics database for various bacterial spores. PMID:24853517

  14. Effect of tempering temperature on the toughness of 9Cr–3W–3Co martensitic heat resistant steel

    Highlights: • Toughness of 9Cr–3W–3Co steel increases with increasing tempering temperature. • Toughness is influenced by hardness of base metal and length of crack propagation path. • Hardness of base metal is influenced by dislocation density and degree of supersaturation of the interstitial atoms. • Length of crack propagation path is influenced by length of the large angle boundaries. - Abstract: Effect of tempering temperature on the toughness of 9Cr–3W–3Co martensitic heat resistant steel was studied on the basis of the microstructures after normalized at 1100 °C for 1 h and then tempered at 740–780 °C for 3 h. With increasing tempering temperature from 740 °C to 780 °C, the absorbed energy of the 9Cr–3W–3Co steel increased greatly from 26 J to 115 J. The change of the toughness with increasing tempering temperature was attributed to the softening of the base metal and the increase of the crack propagation path. The softening of the base metal was caused by the decrease of the dislocation density and the supersaturation of the interstitial atoms. The reason for the increase of the crack propagation path was that the length of the large angle boundaries increased and then the propagation direction of the cleavage crack was deflected more frequently

  15. Effects of cerium microalloying on the structure and properties of heat resistant steel of 4Kh4VMFS

    It is attempted to follow the peculiarity of structural-physical changes under high-temperature heating in subcritical region and on this base possible mechanisms of cerium effect on heat resistance increase of instrumental compos ition (0.42% C; 0.80% Si; 0.37% Mn; 4.0% Cr; 0.98% W; 1.55% Mo; 1.22% V; 0.01% Ca including the variant with 0.08% Ce) is chosen for investigation. Cerium microalloying is shown to result in advisability of precipitations in the 400-500 deg C tempering temperature range of cementite carbides on the boundaries and in the centre of matrix grains that is associated with liquating inhomogeneity by cerium and carbon. The noted inhomogeneity is levelled with the increase of tempering temperature above 500 deg C. Cerium inhibits the process of Fesub(α)-solid solution decomposition under tempering and its depletion by tungsten and molybdenum. Cerium microalloying of 4Kh4VMFS steel restrains carbide phase coagulation at high temperatures of tempering, it promotes inhibiting the recrystallization processes, assures increased fracture toughness

  16. Development of powder metallurgy Al alloys for high temperature aircraft structural applications, phase 2

    Chellman, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    In this continuing study, the development of mechanically alloyed heat resistant aluminum alloys for aircraft were studied to develop higher strength targets and higher service temperatures. The use of higher alloy additions to MA Al-Fe-Co alloys, employment of prealloyed starting materials, and higher extrusion temperatures were investigated. While the MA Al-Fe-Co alloys exhibited good retention of strength and ductility properties at elevated temperatures and excellent stability of properties after 1000 hour exposure at elevated temperatures, a sensitivity of this system to low extrusion strain rates adversely affected the level of strength achieved. MA alloys in the Al-Li family showed excellent notched toughness and property stability after long time exposures at elevated temperatures. A loss of Li during processing and the higher extrusion temperature 482 K (900 F) resulted in low mechanical strengths. Subsequent hot and cold working of the MA Al-Li had only a mild influence on properties.

  17. Aging phenomena of rapidly solidified Al-4mass%Cu-Cr alloys

    The Al-4mass%Cu-(0--4.5)mass%Cr alloys were prepared by chill-casting, and their heat-resisting properties were examined. The amount of solute Cr quenched in Al-4%Cu alloy was about 1.5% at maximum. Resistance to over-aging was markedly increased with increasing amount of solute Cr, when the alloys were subjected to usual heat-treatments: that is, homogenization at 793K after chill-casting, water-quenching, aging at 473K and subsequent over-aging at 623K. This phenomenon would mainly be attributed to the fact that theta' formed during pre-aging became very stable both in the amount and the size, as the amount of solute Cr increased. The chill-cast Al-4%Cu-2%Cr alloy was thought to be superior to commercial heat-resisting 2219 alloy. The over-aged structures of Cr contained alloys were in detail discussed, in comparison with those of Mn contained alloys. (author)

  18. Коррозионная стойкость сплавов семейства «Xастеллой» в хлоралюминатных расплавах

    Karpov, V. V.; Bazhenov, A. V.; Abramov, A. V.; Polovov, I. B.; Rebrin, O. I.; В.В. Карпов; БАЖЕНОВ А.В.; А. В. Абрамов; Половов, И. Б.; Ребрин, О. И.

    2013-01-01

    The corrosion of Hastelloy S, Hastelloy X, Haynes 230, Hastelloy N, Hastelloy G35 and Hastelloy C2000 alloys was studied in KCl–AlCl3 melts at 550 °С. The rates and the mechanisms of corrosion of the studied materials were determined. The processes taking place during the interaction between alloys and chloroaluminate melts were investigated.

  19. Thermodiffusion Mo-B-Si coating on VN-3 niobium alloy

    Protective properties of complex Mo-B-Si-coating on niobium alloy VN-3 (4.7 mass.% Mo, 1.1 mass.% Zr, 0.1 mass.% C) have been studied. It is established, that the complex Mo-B-Si-coating ensures protection from oxidation of niobium alloys in the temperature range of 800-1200 degC for 1000-1500 hr, at 1600 degC - for 10 hr. High heat resistance of Mo-B-Si - coating at 800-1200 degC is determined by the presence of amorphous film of SiOΛ2 over the layer MoSiΛ2 and barrier boride layer on the boundary with the metal protected; decrease in the coating heat resistance at 1600 degC is related to the destruction of boride layer, decomposition of MoSiΛ2 for lower cilicides and loosening of SiOΛ2 film

  20. Effect of impurities on the proneness to temper embrittlement of heat resistant Cr-Mo-V steel

    The authors investigated the effect of most alloying elements which are traditionaly regarded as dangerous in low-alloy structural steels--sulfur, phosphorus, copper, arsenic, antimony, tin--on the proneness to temper embrittlement of steel 25Kh1M1F which is used for making large all-forged rotors of fixed and transport medium-pressure steam turbines. On the basis of the obtained results it may be concluded that from among the investigated alloying elements only phosphorus and antimony have a statistically significant effect on the proneness of fine-grained steel 25Kh1M1F to temper embrittlement, and the embrittling effect of phosphorus is much stronger than the embrittling effect of antimony

  1. Modifying effect of extremal temperature depending on the organism adaptation to this factor on the effect of radiation. 2. Analysis of the potential damages using heat resistance

    It is shown, that the effect of high temperature within the range of 33, 35, 37 and 38 deg C after irradiation (X-rays 3000r) increases the radiation effect, manifesting itself in the loss of X-chromosome of Kanton-C line flies, not adapted to high temperature. It takes place at the expense of reparation process depression and the increase of probability of potential damage realization. The effect on the flies of T-32 line, adapted to high temperature (32 deg C) turned non-effective at the temperature of 33 and 35 deg C. Heat-resistance of reparation ferments in this line is supposed to be higher. The temperature of 37 and 38 deg C has been effective for heat-resistant lines as well as for other lines

  2. Modeling the thermal inactivation kinetics of heat-resistant Salmonella Enteritidis and Oranienburg in 10 percent salted liquid egg yolk.

    Gurtler, Joshua B; Marks, Harry M; Jones, Deana R; Bailey, Rebecca R; Bauer, Nathan E

    2011-06-01

    There is no suitable model for predicting thermal inactivation kinetics of Salmonella spp. for many types of liquid egg products, including salted liquid egg yolk, for use in updating U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) pasteurization guidelines. This is because, in part, of the variations in Salmonella strains and the changes in the processing of liquid egg products over the past 40 years. The objectives of the present study were to determine the thermal inactivation kinetics and to create a general thermal inactivation kinetics model that can be used for estimating log reductions of salmonellae in 10% salted liquid egg yolk for temperatures between 62.2 and 69°C. This model can be used by processors to help ensure adequate pasteurization. This was accomplished by studying the inactivation kinetics of a three-strain composite of heat-resistant Salmonella serovars Enteritidis and Oranienburg, inoculated into commercially processed 10% salted liquid egg yolk. The survival curves were convex, with asymptotic D-values. From these curves, a general model was developed to predict log reductions for given times at specified temperatures. For example, at a temperature of 67.3°C (153.1°F) for 3.5 min, our model predicts a 5-log reduction would be obtained, whereas with the current USDA minimum required pasteurization regimen (63.33°C [146°F] for 3.5 min), our model predicts that a reduction of only 2.7 log would be obtained. The results of this study provide information that can be used by processors to aid in producing safe, pasteurized egg yolk products, and for satisfying USDA pasteurization performance standards and developing industry guidance. PMID:21669063

  3. Heat-resistance of 06Kh16N15Mo3B stainless steel with hydroxide impurity at 973 K

    Stainless steels of class 316 are structural materials for sodium-cooled fast reactors. Up to 973 K reactor-grade sodium causes virtually no change in the mechanical properties of stabilized and unstabilized 316 stainless steels. Sodium contaminated with oxygen (up to 300 ppm) also does not cause changes in the mechanical properties of this steel up to 973 K. The effect of sodium with an increased carbon content on steel of this class slightly increases the heat resistance and reduces the plasticity. No data are available, however, on the effect that sodium with hydroxide has on the mechanical properties of steel at temperatures up to 973 K. It is desirable, therefore, to study the effect of sodium with hydroxide impurity on the long-term strength and creep of 06Kh16N15Mo3B stainless steel at 973 K. It was found that the effect of sodium with 8% hydroxide on 06Kh16N15Mo3B steel under a static load at 973 K causes virtually no loss of long-term strength or increase in the creep rate up to the third stage of creep. In the third stage the creep rate increases abruptly and the time to fracture is reduced in comparison with the case in tests in pure sodium. This effect is probably due to the accelerated development of microcracks in the steel, which reach a critical size, as a result of the decrease in surface energy because of the adsorption of the atoms of the medium

  4. Porous membrane with high curvature, three-dimensional heat-resistance skeleton: a new and practical separator candidate for high safety lithium ion battery

    Junli Shi; Yonggao Xia; Zhizhang Yuan; Huasheng Hu; Xianfeng Li; Huamin Zhang; Zhaoping Liu

    2015-01-01

    Separators with high reliability and security are in urgent demand for the advancement of high performance lithium ion batteries. Here, we present a new and practical porous membrane with three-dimension (3D) heat-resistant skeleton and high curvature pore structure as a promising separator candidate to facilitate advances in battery safety and performances beyond those obtained from the conventional separators. The unique material properties combining with the well-developed structural chara...

  5. Effect of carbon and niobium on the microstructure and impact toughness of a high silicon 12% Cr ferritic/martensitic heat resistant steel

    Ye, Zhongfei [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wang, Pei, E-mail: pwang@imr.ac.cn [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Li, Dianzhong [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zhang, Yutuo [Shenyang Ligong University, 6 Nanping Road, Shenyang 110159 (China); Li, Yiyi [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2014-10-20

    In order to guide the design of 9–12% Cr ferritic/martensitic (F/M) heat resistant steels appropriate for use in accelerator-driven system, the impact toughness and behavior of precipitation of a 12% Cr F/M heat resistant steel containing high C and Si concentrations have been investigated. Particular focus has been given to the interaction of carbon and carbonitride-forming element. Because of the presence of primary NbC and a large amount of M{sub 23}C{sub 6}, the impact toughness of the investigated steel was much lower than that of the commercial 9–12% Cr F/M heat resistant steels. The primary NbC crystallizes directly from liquid metal when the Nb concentration is higher than a critical value. The critical value of Nb decreases with increase in the carbon concentration. In addition, the higher content and faster precipitation kinetics of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} in the investigated steel during the tempering heat treatment also lowers the impact toughness.

  6. Effect of carbon and niobium on the microstructure and impact toughness of a high silicon 12% Cr ferritic/martensitic heat resistant steel

    In order to guide the design of 9–12% Cr ferritic/martensitic (F/M) heat resistant steels appropriate for use in accelerator-driven system, the impact toughness and behavior of precipitation of a 12% Cr F/M heat resistant steel containing high C and Si concentrations have been investigated. Particular focus has been given to the interaction of carbon and carbonitride-forming element. Because of the presence of primary NbC and a large amount of M23C6, the impact toughness of the investigated steel was much lower than that of the commercial 9–12% Cr F/M heat resistant steels. The primary NbC crystallizes directly from liquid metal when the Nb concentration is higher than a critical value. The critical value of Nb decreases with increase in the carbon concentration. In addition, the higher content and faster precipitation kinetics of M23C6 in the investigated steel during the tempering heat treatment also lowers the impact toughness

  7. High-speed growth of YBa2Cu3O7-δ superconducting films on multilayer-coated Hastelloy C276 tape by laser-assisted MOCVD

    Zhao, Pei; Ito, Akihiko; Kato, Takeharu; Yokoe, Daisaku; Hirayama, Tsukasa; Goto, Takashi

    2013-05-01

    The high-speed epitaxial growth of YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) superconducting films on multilayer (CeO2/LaMnO3/MgO/Gd2Zr2O7)-coated Hastelloy C276 tape was demonstrated using laser-assisted metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (laser-assisted MOCVD). The preferred orientation of the YBCO films changed from a-axis to c-axis as the deposition temperature was increased from 769 to 913 K. The c-axis-oriented YBCO film exhibited a high critical temperature of 90 K and a high critical current density of 0.5 MA cm-2 even at a high deposition rate of 55 μm h-1.

  8. Results from investigations with an instrumented impact machine on a molybdenum base alloy, nickel base alloys, and Incoloy 800

    Experiments were performed on the molybdenum base alloy TZM, the nickel base alloys Nimocast 713 LC, Inconel 625, Nimonic 86, Hastelloy S, and the iron base alloy Incoloy 800 with an instrumented impact machine. The results are discussed in terms of absorbed impact energies and dynamic fracture toughness. In all cases the agreement between the energy determined by the dial reading and the energy determined by the integration of the load vs. load point displacement diagram was excellent. A procedure for the determination of the dynamic fracture toughness for load vs. load point displacement diagrams exhibiting high oscillations using an averaged curve is proposed. Using this procedure a pronounced influence of the experiments with tup and chisel (5.0 m/s and 0.1 m/s respectively) on the dynamic fracture toughness is not detectable. Using half the drop height, i.e. halving the total energy, lowers the dynamic fracture toughness values for these types of alloys. Low absorbed impact energies are often combined with high fracture toughness values. In these cases there is no or only a small reserve in deformation and/or stable crack growth. (Auth.)

  9. High temperature corrosion of iron-base and nickel-base alloys for hydrogen production apparatus by thermochemical method in H{sub 2}O+SO{sub 3} atmosphere

    Kurata, Yuji; Suzuki, Tomio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Shimizu, Saburo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    Corrosion tests for ten iron-base and nickel-base alloys at 850degC for 1000h in H{sub 2}O + SO{sub 3} atmosphere were carried out to obtain data for selection of candidate container materials in the thermochemical process which produces hydrogen from water by use of iodine and sulfur as circulating materials. The following results were obtained: (1) Oxidation, spallation of corrosion film, uniform corrosion and grain boundary penetration composed of internal oxidation and sulfuration occur in this atmosphere and the corrosion proceeds by grain boundary penetration. (2) SUS304, SUS316 and Hastelloy C276 are inferior in corrosion resistance and SUS329J4L is superior among ten alloys used in this experiment. Alloys such as Alloy 800H and Hastelloy XR show intermediate corrosion resistance. (3) Oxide films of alloys containing iron and chromium are mostly composed of outer iron-oxide and inner chromium-oxide. Sulfur concentrates at scale/metal interfaces and grain boundary penetration portions, and sulfides form. (4) Corrosion in this atmosphere could be expressed using the parabolic law between the grain boundary penetration depth and time. It is considered that causes of the apparently observed parabolic law were a high concentration of SO{sub 3} and change of the gas composition caused by catalytic action of the corrosion film formed with the progress of corrosion. (author)

  10. Thermodynamic analysis of metals and alloys interaction with nitrogen oxides

    Interaction thermodynamic analysis of Fe, Cr, Ni, Mo, Mn, Ti (taking into account thermodynamic activity in steels and alloys) and atmospheres, containing different quantities of NsOk (N2O4, NO2, NO) is conducted. Thermodynamic characteristic analysis of nitrogen oxide interaction with metals allows one to give a number of recommendations, concerning metal protection against corrosion in gaseous atmospheres, containing NsO=k: utilization of pure metals or doped steels and alloys as structural materials, working in contact with NsOk, does not substantially change the picture of the material thermodynamic resistance: any of the materials under consideration is thermodynamically reactive at PNs-Ok >> 10-1 MPa. However, steels and alloys, containing Cr, Si may produce heat-resistant oxidonitride surface films. Corrosion resistance of a metal product, containing with NsOk, can be increased both by preliminary nitration and oxidation of its surface

  11. Study of ν'-phase dissolution aging resisting nickel alloys

    Dissolution processes of strengthening ν'-phase in the KhN77TYuR and KhN70VMTYu commercial heat-resisting ageing alloys have been investigated by the method of contact difference of potentiats (CDP). Graphs were plotted and empirical dependences of CDP values and atloy hardness on the time of their hold-up at overheating temperatures were found. Decrease of ν'-phase content in alloys results in CDP increase. Intensity of CDP change in the above alloys during their heating above temperatures of phase transformations depends on the quantity and stability of ν'-phase. The CDP method is recommended as a method of nondestructive testing to reveal the overheating of the avobove aitoys

  12. Study of nucleation, growth and coarsening of precipitates in a novel 9%Cr heat resistant steel: Experimental and modeling

    Nucleation, growth and coarsening of three different precipitates (NbC, M23C6 and V(C,N)) in a novel 9%Cr heat resistant steel designed by the authors were investigated. The microstructure evolution after tempering (780 °C/2 h) and after creep (650 °C/100 MPa) was characterized using transmission electron microscopy in the scanning mode (STEM). Thermodynamic and kinetic modeling was carried out using the softwares Thermo-Calc, DICTRA and TC-PRISMA. The Thermo-Calc software predicted formation of NbC, V(C,N) and M23C6 carbides at the tempering temperature of 780 °C. STEM investigations revealed that M23C6 precipitated on prior austenite grain boundaries and lath or block boundaries whereas NbC and V(C,N) were located within sub-grains. Simulations by TC-PRISMA showed that M23C6, NbC and V(C,N) particles nucleation begins as soon as the tempering treatment starts and it is completed in a very short time, reaching the equilibrium volume fraction after 40 s for M23C6, 100 s for NbC and 80 s for V(C,N). Best agreement between simulations and experimental investigations was found for low interfacial energy values of 0.1 J m−2. Both STEM measurements as well as DICTRA simulations indicate very low coarsening rate for both kind of precipitates. Creep tests up to 4000–5000 h suggest that this special combination of NbC, V(C,N) and M23C6 may provide increased pinning of dislocations reducing boundary migration therefore enhancing creep strength. - Highlights: • Nucleation, growth and coarsening of NbC and M23C6 precipitates were investigated. • The microstructure was characterized using transmission electron microscopy (STEM). • Modeling was carried out using the softwares Thermo-Calc, DICTRA and TC-PRISMA. • M23C6 and NbC nucleation begins as soon as the solution treatmentinitiates. • Best agreement modeling/experiments was found for low interfacial energy values of 0.1 J m−2

  13. Study of nucleation, growth and coarsening of precipitates in a novel 9%Cr heat resistant steel: Experimental and modeling

    Prat, O., E-mail: oprat@udec.cl [Universidad de Concepción, Departamento de Ingeniería de Materiales, Edmundo Larenas 270, Concepción (Chile); García, J. [AB Sandvik Coromant R and D, Lerkrogsvägen 19, 12680 Stockholm (Sweden); Rojas, D.; Sanhueza, J.P.; Camurri, C. [Universidad de Concepción, Departamento de Ingeniería de Materiales, Edmundo Larenas 270, Concepción (Chile)

    2014-01-15

    Nucleation, growth and coarsening of three different precipitates (NbC, M{sub 23}C{sub 6} and V(C,N)) in a novel 9%Cr heat resistant steel designed by the authors were investigated. The microstructure evolution after tempering (780 °C/2 h) and after creep (650 °C/100 MPa) was characterized using transmission electron microscopy in the scanning mode (STEM). Thermodynamic and kinetic modeling was carried out using the softwares Thermo-Calc, DICTRA and TC-PRISMA. The Thermo-Calc software predicted formation of NbC, V(C,N) and M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides at the tempering temperature of 780 °C. STEM investigations revealed that M{sub 23}C{sub 6} precipitated on prior austenite grain boundaries and lath or block boundaries whereas NbC and V(C,N) were located within sub-grains. Simulations by TC-PRISMA showed that M{sub 23}C{sub 6}, NbC and V(C,N) particles nucleation begins as soon as the tempering treatment starts and it is completed in a very short time, reaching the equilibrium volume fraction after 40 s for M{sub 23}C{sub 6}, 100 s for NbC and 80 s for V(C,N). Best agreement between simulations and experimental investigations was found for low interfacial energy values of 0.1 J m{sup −2}. Both STEM measurements as well as DICTRA simulations indicate very low coarsening rate for both kind of precipitates. Creep tests up to 4000–5000 h suggest that this special combination of NbC, V(C,N) and M{sub 23}C{sub 6} may provide increased pinning of dislocations reducing boundary migration therefore enhancing creep strength. - Highlights: • Nucleation, growth and coarsening of NbC and M{sub 23}C{sub 6} precipitates were investigated. • The microstructure was characterized using transmission electron microscopy (STEM). • Modeling was carried out using the softwares Thermo-Calc, DICTRA and TC-PRISMA. • M{sub 23}C{sub 6} and NbC nucleation begins as soon as the solution treatmentinitiates. • Best agreement modeling/experiments was found for low interfacial energy

  14. Constitutive equations for the creep behaviour of nickel-base alloys for HTR components in the temperature range 1023-1273 K

    The applicability and modification of constitutive equations for describing the creep and relaxation behaviour of the nickel-base alloys INCONEL 617, NIMONIC 86 and HASTELLOY S have been investigated. Creep tests at stresses in range 10-150 MPa and temperatures in the range 1023-1273 K were carried out for the three alloys and in addition for INCONEL 617 and HASTELLOY S relaxation and stress dip tests in the stress range 10-170 MPa and temperature range 1073-1223 K were performed. The fitting of various creep equations to the measured creep curves showed that the best description of the primary and secondary creep regions was given by the equation formulated by Li. Under the experimental conditions used, dislocation climb was the dominant deformation mechanism. Using the internal stress concept to account for the resistance to deformation, a Norton creep law exponent of 3 for INCONEL 617 was derived which is in agreement with the value calculated by Weertman for dislocation climb controlled screep in solid solutions. For HASTELLOY S a lower value was observed. The dependence of the internal stress in the temperature and stress range on creep strain, applied stress, deformation prior to testing, temperature and alloy composition was determined. Relaxation and stress dip tests showed two separate time dependent relationships for the reduction of stress or anelastic backstrain. A rapid decrease at the start of the test due to back glide of dislocations and a much slower decrease associated with recovery were observed. Calculation of the stress relaxation behaviour based on the Norton creep law alone led to a time dependence which was not reflected in the experimental results. However, taking into account the internal stress which decreases during the relaxation test due to recovery processes, it was possible to describe satisfactorily the experimentally determined relaxation curves. (orig.)

  15. Cast heat-resistant austenitic steel with improved temperature creep properties and balanced alloying element additions and methodology for development of the same

    Pankiw, Roman I; Muralidharan, Govindrarajan; Sikka, Vinod Kumar; Maziasz, Philip J

    2012-11-27

    The present invention addresses the need for new austenitic steel compositions with higher creep strength and higher upper temperatures. The new austenitic steel compositions retain desirable phases, such as austenite, M.sub.23C.sub.6, and MC in its microstructure to higher temperatures. The present invention also discloses a methodology for the development of new austenitic steel compositions with higher creep strength and higher upper temperatures.

  16. 9-12% Cr heat resistant steels : alloy design, TEM characterisation of microstructure evolution and creep response at 650oC

    Rojas Jara, David

    2011-01-01

    Diese Arbeit handelt sich um die Legierungsentwicklung von 9-12%Cr kriechbeständigen Stählen für Kraftwerkskomponente. Computerunterstützte Thermodynamik wurde für das Design der neuen Legierungen verwendet, vor allen der Einfluss verschiedener Legierungselementen auf die Gefügebildung. Insbesondere die Zusammenhänge zwischen Mikrostrukturentwicklung und Kriechverhalten bei 650oC und 100 MPa wurden untersucht. Das Gefüge (unter anderen Ausscheidungen, Versetzungsdichte, Subkörn...

  17. Low temperature oxidation of niobium alloy with silicon-aluminium coating

    Using the gravimetry methods heat resistance of niobium-titanium-aluminium alloy in the air and at 700 deg C in the initial state and when it is protected by silicide-aluminium coatings (with variable content of aluminium) is investigated. Using X-ray diffraction and micro X-ray diffraction analyses, mechanisms of the alloy oxidation and the coating protective effect are studied. The role of aluminium in the formation of coatings is analyzed and according to bend tests the plasticity of the coatings is evaluated

  18. Predictive model for the reduction of heat resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in ground beef by the combined effect of sodium chloride and apple polyphenols.

    Juneja, Vijay K; Altuntaş, Evrim Güneş; Ayhan, Kamuran; Hwang, Cheng-An; Sheen, Shiowshuh; Friedman, Mendel

    2013-06-01

    We investigated the combined effect of three internal temperatures (57.5, 60, and 62.5°C) and different concentrations (0 to 3.0 wt/wt.%) of sodium chloride (NaCl) and apple polyphenols (APP), individually and in combination, on the heat-resistance of a five-strain cocktail of Listeria monocytogenes in ground beef. A complete factorial design (3×4×4) was used to assess the effects and interactions of heating temperature, NaCl, and APP. All 48 combinations were tested twice, to yield 96 survival curves. Mathematical models were then used to quantitate the combined effect of these parameters on heat resistance of the pathogen. The theoretical analysis shows that compared with heat alone, the addition of NaCl enhanced and that of APP reduced the heat resistance of L. monocytogenes measured as D-values. By contrast, the protective effect of NaCl against thermal inactivation of the pathogen was reduced when both additives were present in combination, as evidenced by reduction of up to ~68% in D-values at 57.5°C; 65% at 60°C; and 25% at 62.5°C. The observed high antimicrobial activity of the combination of APP and low salt levels (e.g., 2.5% APP and 0.5% salt) suggests that commercial and home processors of meat could reduce the salt concentration by adding APP to the ground meat. The influence of the combined effect allows a reduction of the temperature of heat treatments as well as the salt content of the meat. Meat processors can use the predictive model to design processing times and temperatures that can protect against adverse effects of contaminated meat products. Additional benefits include reduced energy use in cooking, and the addition of antioxidative apple polyphenols may provide beneficial health affects to consumers. PMID:23587714

  19. ИОННО-ПЛАЗМЕННАЯ ТЕХНОЛОГИЯ ФОРМИРОВАНИЯ ПОКРЫТИЙ НА ЛОПАТКАХ ТУРБИНЫ ГТД ИЗ ЖАРОСТОЙКИХ НИКЕЛЕВЫХ СПЛАВОВ Ion-plasma technology of deposition heat-resistant coatings for GTE turbine blades from resistant nickel alloys

    А. М. Смыслов

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Рассматривается возможность получения нанослойных жаростойких покрытий с использованием технологий, основанных на высокоэнергетических ионно-имплантационных и ионно-плазменных методах защитно-упрочняющей обработки и нанесения покрытий. Приводятся результаты исследования жаростойкости и предела выносливости деталей из никелевых жаропрочных сплавов.The possibility of obtaining heat-resistant coatings using “nano-technology” based on high-energy ion-implantation and ion-plasma methods, protective and strengthening treatment and coating. The results of the study the heat resistance and fatigue strength of parts made of nickel-base superalloys.

  20. The abnormal segregation behavior of solutes under tensile stress and its effect on carbide reactions in 2.25Cr–1.5W heat-resistant steels

    The phosphorus segregation concentration at grain boundary/carbide interfaces of 2.25Cr–1.5W heat-resistant steels under tensile stress shows a broad convex profile in a log time versus segregation concentration plot. The decrease in phosphorus segregation concentration after the maximum in the convex profile is due to the formation of new equilibrium MC carbides on the surface of the pre-formed M23C6 carbides and its partitioning effect of the phosphorus segregated at the M23C6 carbide interface to the interface of the new MC carbides

  1. Study of superficial films and of electrochemical behaviour of some nickel base alloys and titanium base alloys in solution representation of granitic, argillaceous and salted ground waters

    The corrosion behaviour of the stainless steels 304, 316 Ti, 25Cr-20Ni-Mo-Ti, nickel base alloys Hastelloy C4, Inconel 625, Incoloy 800, Ti and Ti-0.2% Pd alloy has been studied in the aerated or deaerated solutions at 200C and 900C whose compositions are representative of interstitial ground waters: granitic or clay waters or salt brine. The electrochemical techniques used are voltametry, polarization resistance and complexe impedance measurements. Electrochemical data show the respective influence of the parameters such as temperature, solution composition and dissolved oxygen, addition of soluble species chloride, fluoride, sulfide and carbonates, on which depend the corrosion current density, the passivation and the pitting potential. The inhibition efficiency of carbonate and bicarbonate activities against pitting corrosion is determined. In clay water at 900C, Ti and Ti-Pd show very high passivation aptitude and a broad passive potential range. Alloying Pd increases cathodic overpotential and also transpassive potential. It makes the alloy less sensitive to the temperature effect. Optical Glow Discharge Spectra show three parts in the composition depth profiles of surface films on alloys. XPS and SIMS spectrometry analyses are also carried out. Electron microscopy observation shows that passive films formed on Ti and Ti-Pd alloy have amorphous structure. Analysis of the alloy constituents dissolved in solutions, by radioactivation in neutrons, gives the order of magnitude of the Ni base alloy corrosion rates in various media. It also points out the preferential dissolution of alloying iron and in certain cases of chromium

  2. Spray pyrolysis of MgO templates on Hastelloy C276 and 310-austenitic stainless steel substrates for Y Ba2Cu3O7 (YBCO) deposition by pulsed laser deposition

    MgO thin films were deposited on Hastelloy C276 (HC) and 310 austenitic stainless steel by the spray pyrolysis technique, using magnesium nitrate and magnesium acetate as precursors. Thermogravimetrical analysis of the decomposition of the precursors was used to provide a guideline temperature for the thin film deposition. It was suggested that an amorphous MgO thin film was deposited on both 310-stainless steel and Hastelloy C-276 when using low concentration of the magnesium nitrate precursor. Higher concentrations were needed to obtain (200) oriented MgO films on C276. However, 310-stainless steel was found to not be a suitable substrate for MgO thin film deposition due to surface instability. A (200) oriented MgO thin film was grown on Hastelloy C276 using a magnesium acetate precursor at a much lower concentration compared to the nitrate precursor. The characterization of the thin films was done using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction 2θ-scans, rocking curves (ω-scans), and pole figure measurements. MgO was found to have a very weak in-plane texture.

  3. Spray pyrolysis of MgO templates on Hastelloy C276 and 310-austenitic stainless steel substrates for Y Ba2Cu3O7 (YBCO) deposition by pulsed laser deposition

    Khateeb, Shadi Al; Button, T. W.; Abell, J. S.

    2010-09-01

    MgO thin films were deposited on Hastelloy C276 (HC) and 310 austenitic stainless steel by the spray pyrolysis technique, using magnesium nitrate and magnesium acetate as precursors. Thermogravimetrical analysis of the decomposition of the precursors was used to provide a guideline temperature for the thin film deposition. It was suggested that an amorphous MgO thin film was deposited on both 310-stainless steel and Hastelloy C-276 when using low concentration of the magnesium nitrate precursor. Higher concentrations were needed to obtain (200) oriented MgO films on C276. However, 310-stainless steel was found to not be a suitable substrate for MgO thin film deposition due to surface instability. A (200) oriented MgO thin film was grown on Hastelloy C276 using a magnesium acetate precursor at a much lower concentration compared to the nitrate precursor. The characterization of the thin films was done using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction 2θ-scans, rocking curves (ω-scans), and pole figure measurements. MgO was found to have a very weak in-plane texture.

  4. Spray pyrolysis of MgO templates on Hastelloy C276 and 310-austenitic stainless steel substrates for Y Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO) deposition by pulsed laser deposition

    Al Khateeb, Shadi; Button, T W; Abell, J S, E-mail: icytecry@yahoo.co [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-15

    MgO thin films were deposited on Hastelloy C276 (HC) and 310 austenitic stainless steel by the spray pyrolysis technique, using magnesium nitrate and magnesium acetate as precursors. Thermogravimetrical analysis of the decomposition of the precursors was used to provide a guideline temperature for the thin film deposition. It was suggested that an amorphous MgO thin film was deposited on both 310-stainless steel and Hastelloy C-276 when using low concentration of the magnesium nitrate precursor. Higher concentrations were needed to obtain (200) oriented MgO films on C276. However, 310-stainless steel was found to not be a suitable substrate for MgO thin film deposition due to surface instability. A (200) oriented MgO thin film was grown on Hastelloy C276 using a magnesium acetate precursor at a much lower concentration compared to the nitrate precursor. The characterization of the thin films was done using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction 2{theta}-scans, rocking curves ({omega}-scans), and pole figure measurements. MgO was found to have a very weak in-plane texture.

  5. Investigation of weldability and property changes of high pressure heat-resistant cast stainless steel tubes used in pyrolysis furnaces after a five-year service

    Highlights: → To investigate the weldability and property changes of high pressure heat-resistant cast stainless steel (HP) tubes. → Welding was done by gas-tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process. → Composition of precipitates was characterized by means of SEM and EDS analyses. → The solution treatment was used to recover the properties of tubes. → To investigate mechanical strength of specimens, tensile tests were carried out at room temperature. -- Abstract: High pressure heat-resistant cast stainless steel (HP steel) tubes produced by centrifugal casting are used in petrochemical industries for pyrolysis furnaces. They have appropriate ductility and weldability in as-cast conditions. These steels lose their ductility and weldability after being used in service and, hence, require repair. In the present study, the effect of metallurgical changes on weldability and ductility was investigated. The life span of the studied tubes was 5 years. Using electrodes with a chemical composition close to the base metal analysis, welding was done by gas-tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process. Solution treatment was used to recover the properties of tubes which can be useful, depending on metallurgical changes.

  6. Microstructure and Wear Behavior Of as Cast Al-25mg2si-2cu-2ni Alloy

    1Geetanjali.S.Guggari ,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable feature of the Aluminium is its low density and ability to withstand corrosion effect due to phenomenon of passivation. Structural components made from Aluminium and its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry and are important in other areas of transportation and structural materials. The oxides and sulphate are useful compounds of Aluminium based on its weight. In this work, an attempt has been made to utilize the combined effect of high cooling rate solidification, unique micro structural evolution mechanism of T6 heat treatment the advantages of hypereutectic Al-Si system alloyed with other elements such as Cu, Fe and Mg. In the present investigation, the binary alloys in the hypereutectic range viz. Al25Mg2Si has been selected as heat resistant Al-Si alloys. A systematic approach has been carried out to explore the micro structural features, mechanical and wear properties of as cast alloys.

  7. Effect of glass-ceramic-processing cycle on the metallurgical properties of candidate alloys for actuator housings

    Weirick, L.J.

    1982-01-01

    This report summarizes the results from an investigation on the effect of a glass ceramic processing cycle on the metallurgical properties of metal candidates for actuator housings. The cycle consists of a 980/sup 0/C sealing step, a 650/sup 0/C crystallization step and a 475/sup 0/C annealing step. These temperatue excursions are within the same temperature regime as annealing and heat treating processes normally employed for metals. Therefore, the effect of the processing cycle on metallurgical properties of microstructure, strength, hardness and ductility were examined. It was found that metal candidates which are single phase or solid solution alloys (such as 21-6-9, Hastelloy C-276 and Inconel 625) were not affected whereas multiphase or precipitation hardened alloys (such as Inconel 718 and Titanium ..beta..-C) were changed by the processing cycle for the glass ceramic.

  8. Influence of laser power on the orientation and microstructure of CeO 2 films deposited on Hastelloy C276 tapes by laser chemical vapor deposition

    Zhao, Pei; Ito, Akihiko; Tu, Rong; Goto, Takashi

    2010-08-01

    CeO 2 films were prepared on LaMnO 3/MgO/Gd 2Zr 2O 7 multi-coated Hastelloy C276 tapes by laser chemical vapor deposition at different laser power ( PL) from 46 to 101 W. Epitaxial (1 0 0) CeO 2 films were prepared at PL = 46-93 W (deposition temperature, Tdep = 705-792 K). Epitaxial CeO 2 films had rectangular-shaped grains at PL = 46-77 W ( Tdep = 705-754 K), while square-shaped grains were obtained at PL = 85-93 W ( Tdep = 769-792 K). CeO 2 films showed a columnar microstructure. Epitaxial (1 0 0) CeO 2 films with rectangular grains exhibited full width at half maximum of ω-scan on (2 0 0) reflection and ϕ-scan on (2 2 0) reflection of 3.4-3.2° and 6.0-7.2°, respectively. The deposition rate of the epitaxial (1 0 0) CeO 2 films had a maximum of 4.6 μm h -1 at PL = 77 W ( Tdep = 754 K).

  9. Carburization of austenitic alloys by gaseous impurities in helium

    The carburization behavior of Alloy 800H, Inconel Alloy 617 and Hastelloy Alloy X in helium containing various amounts of H2, CO, CH4, H2O and CO2 was studied. Corrosion tests were conducted in a temperature range from 649 to 10000C (1200 to 18320F) for exposure time up to 10,000 h. Four different helium environments, identified as A, B, C, and D, were investigated. Concentrations of gaseous impurities were 1500 μatm H2, 450 μatm CO, 50 μatm CH4 and 50 μatm H2O for Environment A; 200 μatm H2, 100 μatm CO, 20 μatm CH4, 50 μatm H2O and 5 μatm CO2 for Environment B; 500 μatm H2, 50 μatm CO, 50 μatm CH4 and 2O for Environment C; and 500 μatm H2, 50 μatm CO, 50 μatm CH4 and 1.5 μatm H2O for Environment D. Environments A and B were characteristic of high-oxygen potential, while C and D were characteristic of low-oxygen potential. The results showed that the carburization kinetics in low-oxygen potential environments (C and D) were significantly higher, approximately an order of magnitude higher at high temperatures, than those in high-oxygen potential environments (A and B) for all three alloys. Thermodynamic analyses indicated no significant differences in the thermodynamic carburization potential between low- and high-oxygen potential environments. It is thus believed that the enhanced carburization kinetics observed in the low-oxygen potential environments were related to kinetic effects. A qualitatively mechanistic model was proposed to explain the enhanced kinetics. The present results further suggest that controlling the oxygen potential of the service environment can be an effective means of reducing carburization of alloys

  10. Research and development of steel and alloy tubes and pipe for nuclear services

    This company has been engaged in the research and development of steel and alloy tubes and pipe for nuclear services, among which the results for four products will be described as follows: (1) Zircaloy tubes for nuclear fuel cladding : the improvement of manufacturing and inspection techniques, the research on improvement in quality of the product (corrosion resistance, texture, hydride precipitation characteristics, mechanical properties, etc.), and irradiation test. (2) Steam generator tubes for a high temperature gas cooled reactor for power generating : high temperature strength, structure change, and oxidation resistance and weldability of Fe-32Ni-20Cr-Ti-Al alloy. (3) Heat resistant alloys for heat exchanger tubes in nuclear steel-making : high temperature strength and oxidation resistance of several kinds of heat resistant alloys, and the introduction of newly installed helium circulating loop system for material testing. (4) Ultra-high strength steel pipe for manufacturing equipment of nuclear fuel material : results of research on improvement in quality of 300ksi and 350ksi grade maraging steels. (auth.)

  11. Study on the Epoxy Resin Heat Resistance Modified by Polyamide Acid%聚酰胺酸改性环氧树脂耐热性的研究

    周浩然; 孔德忠; 刘达

    2009-01-01

    The epoxy resin heat resistance was prepared with epoxy modified with PAA, and DDS as curing after the pre-reacting and curing. The effects of the amount of PAA, the amount of curing agent, curing condition, reaction time on the heat resistance of epoxy resin were studied. A better formula and appropriate conditions for curing were chosen. The heat resistance of modified epoxy resin was measured with TG in different proportions, pre-reaction time and different curing conditions. Then, the surface morphology and the fracture morphology of the curing epoxy modified were analyzed with SEM. The result has shown that better curing process conditions of modified epoxy resin are as follows: 120 ℃,1 h→150 ℃,1 h→170 ℃,2 h→200 ℃,2 h→250 ℃,2 h,the proportion is 3h. The decomposition temperature of modified epoxy resin is 411 ℃ after the pre-reacting and curing, which is increased by 80 ℃, compared with the decomposition temperature of non-modified epoxy resin. There is no distinct two-phase structure in EP/PAA/DDS system after the pre-reacting and curing, which indicates that the resin has a good compatibility.%用4, 4′-二氨基二苯基砜(DDS)做固化剂,采用聚酰胺酸(PAA)对环氧树脂(EP)进行改性,研究了PAA用量、固化剂用量和反应时间对环氧树脂耐热性的影响,采用TG测定不同配比、预反应时间及不同固化温度下改性EP的耐热性,利用SEM对最佳配比固化后样品的表面和断面形貌进行了分析.结果表明,改性树脂最佳固化工艺条件为:120 ℃,1 h→150 ℃,1 h→170 ℃,2 h→200 ℃,2 h→250 ℃,2 h;改性树脂配比为mEP∶mPAA∶mDDS=1∶0.75∶0.08;预反应时间3 h,改性EP的热分解温度为411 ℃,比未改姓EP提高了近80 ℃以上;EP/PAA/DDS固化后样品无明显的两相结构,树脂的相容性较好.

  12. 高温胁迫下11份瓠瓜材料的耐热性分析%Heat Resistance of 11 Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Stand Germplasms

    许端祥; 高山; 林碧英; 傅睿清

    2011-01-01

    以11份瓠瓜种质为材料,通过人工气候箱模拟高温胁迫,测定并分析瓠瓜种质在高温胁迫下的热害指数、相对电导率、MDA、POD、SOD、Pro等生理生化变化,并通过6个生理生化指标的相关分析和主成分分析,进而进行系统聚类分析,对其耐热性进行研究.结果表明:在人工模拟环境下,持续7d的高温胁迫处理,能够有效区分瓠瓜种质的耐热性;通过6个生理生化指标测定结果的相关分析、主成分分析,得到能够反映瓠瓜耐热性的4个新变量,利用新变量采用最短距离法计算种质间的欧氏距离进行系统聚类分析,从而对瓠瓜种质的耐热性进行有效评价;系统聚类分析筛选出热敏感种质4份、较耐热种质6份、耐热种质1份.%Using 11 gourd germplasms, the simulated heat stress experimentation was carried out in an artificial climate chamber. Heat damage to the gourd germplasms as indicated by the heat stress index, relative conductivity, MDA, POD, SOD, Pro and other physiological and biochemical changes was evaluated. Through 6 physiological and biochemical correlation, principal component and cluster analyses, the heat resistance of these germplasms was determined. The results showed that (a) in 7 days under artificial treatment, the heat-resistance of the germplasms could be effectively differentiated; (b) it was possible to apply analyses using the 6 physiological and biochemical parameters yielded 4 variables for the Euclidean distance cluster analysis for further evaluation of the differences on gourd's heat resistance; and (c) the cluster analysis identified 4 heat-sensitive, 6 moderate heat-tolerant and one heat-tolerant germplasm.

  13. Investigation of corrosion and analysis of passive films concerning some nickel alloys and stainless steels in reconstructed geological environments

    This research thesis addresses the corrosion behaviour of materials which might be used for the fabrication of radioactive waste containers. After a bibliographical study on films formed on Fe-Cr-Ni alloys, this research concentrates on passivation and de-passivation phenomena of three nickel-base alloys among the most resistant to corrosion and which also meet processing and economic criteria: Hastelloy C4, Inconel 625 and ZICNDU 25-20. Titanium and Ti-Pd alloy are also studied. Parameters governing pitting corrosion are notably studied. After a recall of knowledge on passive films formed on Fe-Cr-Ni alloys, and a presentation of experimental and technical conditions, the author reports and discussed the results obtained by electrochemical studies, reports the determination of factors governing alloy passivation in geological waters. The influence of some soluble impurities is notably studied. The author reports the analysis by glow discharge optical emission spectrometry to determine the composition of passive films with respect to geological water nature, the immersion duration and the electrode potential. Additional surface analyses are performed by X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS or ESCA) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Finally, the author uses a dosing method by neutron radio-activation of alloy elements to determine dissolution mechanisms

  14. Detection of violations in thermal cycle of electric arc welding of heat resistant steel 12Kh1MF using magnetic properties of a heat affected zone

    The studies on the magnetic characteristics of the 12Kh1M1F heat resistant steel are carried out in the zones of melting and thermal effect by different modes of the electric are welding and the new approach to calculating and forecasting the longevity of service of the steam pipe welded joints is proposed on the basis of the magnetic structuroscopy. The local step-by-step (with the 1-2 mm interval) measurement of the metal residual magnetization after magnetization through the point pole method is accomplished in the welded joint area after the removal of the weld reinforcement. The evaluating of the welding modes violations and the joint longevity forecast are given in the basis of the maximum and minimum measurement results or their distribution along the measurement line

  15. Porous membrane with high curvature, three-dimensional heat-resistance skeleton: a new and practical separator candidate for high safety lithium ion battery.

    Shi, Junli; Xia, Yonggao; Yuan, Zhizhang; Hu, Huasheng; Li, Xianfeng; Zhang, Huamin; Liu, Zhaoping

    2015-01-01

    Separators with high reliability and security are in urgent demand for the advancement of high performance lithium ion batteries. Here, we present a new and practical porous membrane with three-dimension (3D) heat-resistant skeleton and high curvature pore structure as a promising separator candidate to facilitate advances in battery safety and performances beyond those obtained from the conventional separators. The unique material properties combining with the well-developed structural characteristics enable the 3D porous skeleton to own several favorable properties, including superior thermal stability, good wettability with liquid electrolyte, high ion conductivity and internal short-circuit protection function, etc. which give rise to acceptable battery performances. Considering the simply and cost-effective preparation process, the porous membrane is deemed to be an interesting direction for the future lithium ion battery separator. PMID:25653104

  16. Heat resistance mediated by a new plasmid encoded Clp ATPase, ClpK, as a possible novel mechanism for nosocomial persistence of Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Bojer, Martin Saxtorph; Struve, Carsten; Ingmer, Hanne;

    2010-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important opportunistic pathogen and a frequent cause of nosocomial infections. We havecharacterized a K. pneumoniae strain responsible for a series of critical infections in an intensive care unit over a two-year period. The strain was found to be remarkably...... Clp ATPases in acquired environmental fitness and highlights the challenges of mobile genetic elements in fighting nosocomial infections...... resistant to lethal heat shock. Furthermore, one third of a collection of nosocomial K. pneumoniae isolates carry clpK and exhibit a heat resistant phenotype. The discovery of ClpK as a plasmid encoded factor and its profound impact on thermal stress survival sheds new light on the biological relevance of...

  17. Heat Resistance Mediated by a New Plasmid Encoded Clp ATPase, ClpK, as a Possible Novel Mechanism for Nosocomial Persistence of Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Bojer, Martin Saxtorph; Struve, Carsten; Ingmer, Hanne;

    2010-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important opportunistic pathogen and a frequent cause of nosocomial infections. We have characterized a K. pneumoniae strain responsible for a series of critical infections in an intensive care unit over a two-year period. The strain was found to be remarkably...... Clp ATPases in acquired environmental fitness and highlights the challenges of mobile genetic elements in fighting nosocomial infections....... resistant to lethal heat shock. Furthermore, one third of a collection of nosocomial K. pneumoniae isolates carry clpK and exhibit a heat resistant phenotype. The discovery of ClpK as a plasmid encoded factor and its profound impact on thermal stress survival sheds new light on the biological relevance of...

  18. Heat resistance mediated by a new plasmid encoded Clp ATPase, ClpK, as a possible novel mechanism for nosocomial persistence of Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Bojer, Martin Saxtorph; Struve, Carsten; Ingmer, Hanne;

    2010-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important opportunistic pathogen and a frequent cause of nosocomial infections. We have characterized a K. pneumoniae strain responsible for a series of critical infections in an intensive care unit over a two-year period. The strain was found to be remarkably...... Clp ATPases in acquired environmental fitness and highlights the challenges of mobile genetic elements in fighting nosocomial infections....... resistant to lethal heat shock. Furthermore, one third of a collection of nosocomial K. pneumoniae isolates carry clpK and exhibit a heat resistant phenotype. The discovery of ClpK as a plasmid encoded factor and its profound impact on thermal stress survival sheds new light on the biological relevance of...

  19. Heat resistance of the nuclear-quality hydroxide-form highly basic (type 1) anion exchange resin Varion AT-N

    The heat resistance of the Hungarian made nuclear-quality hydroxide-form highly basic (type 1) anion exchange resin Varion AT-N was studied under static conditions at temperatures 40 deg C, 60 deg C and 80 deg C. Subject to examinations was the deterioration of the resin grains as well as the change in capacity and replaceable chloride content as a function of the temperature and time. Conclusions in respect to the very slight changes in the resin were drawn from the analytical results of the aqueous extract. The results have shown that the deterioration of the anion exchange resin Varion AT-N(OH) is not significant even at 80 deg C. The magnitude of the calculated disintegration-rate constants agrees with the literature data. (author)

  20. Effect of rare earth element yttrium addition on microstructures and properties of a 21Cr-11Ni austenitic heat-resistant stainless steel

    Research highlights: → Applications of Y in 21Cr-11Ni austenitic heat-resistant stainless steel. → Sensible characteristics of microstructure and properties have been observed. → Y has been found be effective in improving hot ductility of 21Cr-11Ni steel. → Inhibitory effect of Y on S segregation to the grain boundary has been observed. -- Abstract: In this comparative study, the microstructure and the mechanical properties of a 21Cr-11Ni austenitic heat-resistant stainless steel with and without addition of rare earth (RE) element yttrium have been investigated. The results show that a number of fine spherical yttrium-rich oxide particles are not uniformly distributed in the matrix of steel with yttrium; instead, they are aligned along the rolling direction. The grains surrounding the alignment are nearly one order of magnitude smaller than those farther away from the alignment. The approximate calculation results indirectly show that the grain refinement may be mainly attributed to the stimulation for nucleation of recrystallization rather than to pinning by particles. Furthermore, the alignment has resulted in significant loss in transverse impact toughness and tensile elongation at room temperature. There is a trough in the hot ductility-temperature curve, which is located between 973 and 1173 K. The ductility trough of steel with yttrium becomes shallow within a certain temperature range, especially around 1073 K, indicating that improvement on hot ductility is achieved by yttrium addition. The results may be attributed to the increase of grain boundary cohesion indicated by the effective improvement on intergranular failure tendency, and the inhibitory effect of yttrium on sulfur segregation to grain boundaries is believed to be an important cause.

  1. Precipitation of Icosahedral Quasicrystalline Phase, R-phase and Laves Phase in Ferritic Alloys

    Keisuke Yamamoto; Yoshisato Kimura; Yoshinao Mishima

    2004-01-01

    Ferritic heat resistant steels involving precipitation of intermetallic phases have drawn a growing interest for the enhancement of creep strength, while the brittleness of the intermetallic phases may lower the toughness of the alloy.Therefore, it is necessary to optimize the dispersion characteristics of the intermetallics phase through microstructural control to minimize the trade-off between the strength and toughness. The effects of α-Fe matrix substructures on the precipitation sequence, morphology, dispersion characteristics, and the stability of the intermetallic phases are investigated in Fe-Cr-W-Co-Si system. The precipitates of the Si-free Fe-10Cr-1.4W-4.5Co (at%) alloy aged at 873K are the R-phase but those of the Si-added Fe-10Cr-1.4W-4.5Co-0.3Si (at%) alloy are the icosahedral quasicrystalline phase. The precipitates in both the Si-free and Si-added alloys aged at 973K are the Laves phase. Matrix of the alloys is controlled by heat treatments as to provide three types of matrix substructures; ferrite, ferrite/martensite mixture and martensite. The hardening behavior of the alloys depends on the matrix substructures and is independent of the kinds of precipitates. In the alloys with ferrite matrix, the peak of hardness during aging at 873K shifts to longer aging time in comparison with that in the alloys with lath martensite matrix which contain numbers of nucleation sites.

  2. Fatigue properties of nickel-base high temperature alloys for HTGRs

    A series of strain controlled low-cycle fatigue tests were conducted at temperatures ranging from room temperature (RT) to 900 deg. C on nickel-base high-temperature alloys, namely Hastelloy X and its modified versions Hastelloy XR and Hastelloy XR-II, which are candidate alloys for HTGR applications. The tests were conducted in the simulated HTGR helium environment with the exception of those conducted in air at RT. In those tests the examination was made on the effects of strain rate, hold time, aging and test temperature on fatigue properties. Decreasing the strain rate led to notable decreases in the fatigue life. Based on the stress-strain curves and the crack morphology, it was suggested that a considerable contribution of creep damage was included at lower strain rates. In the experiments with the trapezoidal strain waveform with different holding types, the fatigue life was found to be reduced most effectively in tensile hold-time experiments. From the observations of the crack morphology the strain holding in the compressive side was suggested to play the role of suppressing the initiation and the growth of internal cracks and/or cavities, and to cause crack branching. The fatigue lives of the aged (900 deg. C, 1000h) specimens were shorter than those of the solution annealed ones at test temperatures ranging from RT to 700 deg. C. The tendency became more pronounced under higher strain range conditions. The reduction in the fatigue life due to aging treatment, observed through the tests conducted at and below 700 deg. C, was closely related with the loss of tensile ductility, which was attributed to the precipitation of M6C carbide along the grain boundaries which occurred during the aging. Fractographic features and crack morphology of the aged specimens fatigued at and below 700 deg. C were of brittle nature relative to those of the solution annealed ones fatigued in the same temperature range. The fatigue lives estimated from the tensile properties

  3. Behaviour of metals and alloys in molten fluoride media

    Fluoride salts are contemplated for Generation IV nuclear systems which structural materials need to resist corrosion at high temperatures. Corrosion of metals in molten fluorides has been investigated in support of the Molten Salt Reactor's development and led to an optimized alloy, Hastelloy-N, but it lacked fundamentals data for the comprehension of materials' degradation mechanisms. The main objective of this work is then to help with the understanding of the corrosion behaviour of nickel and its alloys in fluoride salts. An experimental method was built up using electrochemical techniques and enabled to investigate the thermochemical conditions of the media and the influence of different parameters (media, temperature and quantity of impurities) on the behaviour of the materials. Most tests were performed in LiF-NaF mixtures between 800 and 1000 C. Pure metals can be classified as follows: Cr ≤ Fe ≤ Ni ≤ Mo ≤ W in increasing stability order and two specific behaviours were evidenced: Cr and Fe corrode in the melt, whereas Ni, Mo and W are stable, underlining the significance level of the redox couple controlling the reactions in the mixture. Moreover, corrosion current densities increase with temperature, fluoro-acidity and the quantity of dissolved oxide in the melt. Binary Ni-Cr alloys were also tested; selective attack of Cr is first observed before both elements are oxidized. Combining thermochemical calculations and experimental results enables to propose an approach to establish an optimized composition for a stable alloy. Immersion tests were finally achieved in addition to the electrochemical tests: interpretations of both methods were compared and completed. (author)

  4. Investigation of the structure and properties of the titanium alloy of the Ti-Al-Mo-V-Fe-Cu-Zr-Sn system

    The alloys of martensitic type in the Ti-Al-Mo-V-Fe-Cu-Zr-Sn system after heat treatment are investigated. To determine the composition of the titanium alloy methods of mathematical planning of the experiment are applied. Results of mechanical tests of the alloys are presented, as well as coefficients of models for the properties, calculated according to these data. The investigation establishes the composition of a high-strength titanium alloy of a martensitic type, containing 4.5-60 % Al, 2.0-4.0 % Mo, 0.5-1.9 % V, 0.3-1.5 % Fe, 0.3-1.5 % Cu, 1.5-3.0 % Sn, 2.0-4.0 % Zr. The semiproducts, produced by deformation in β-field, after heat treatment have an ultimate strength >=120 kg/mm2, satisfactory ductility and reliability. The alloy possesses rather a high heat resistance and can be operated at 400-500 deg C

  5. Compatibility of graphite with a martensitic-ferritic steel, an austenitic stainless steel and a Ni-base alloy up to 1250 C

    To study the chemical interactions between graphite and a martensitic-ferritic steel (1.4914), an austenitic stainless steel (1.4919; AISI 316), and a Ni-base alloy (Hastelloy X) isothermal reaction experiments were performed in the temperature range between 900 and 1250 C. At higher temperatures a rapid and complete liquefaction of the components occurred as a result of eutectic interactions. The chemical interactions are diffusion-controlled processes and can be described by parabolic rate laws. The reaction behavior of the two steels is very similar. The chemical interactions of the steels with graphite are much faster above 1100 C than those for the Ni-base alloy. Below 1000 C the effect is opposite. (orig.)

  6. Electrical Resistance Alloys and Low-Expansion Alloys

    Kjer, Torben

    1996-01-01

    The article gives an overview of electrical resistance alloys and alloys with low thermal expansion. The electrical resistance alloys comprise resistance alloys, heating alloys and thermostat alloys. The low expansion alloys comprise alloys with very low expansion coefficients, alloys with very low...... thermoelastic coefficients and age hardenable low expansion alloys....

  7. Development of cladding materials composed of alloys with high compatibility to each corrosive environment on pressure boundaries in nuclear plants

    Pressure boundary materials used in severe corrosive nuclear environments were developed by means of new alloy designs for attaining the sufficient thermodynamical stability against both heavy irradiations and chemical attacks. Type F5 stainless steel with high austenite phase stability and nickel base silicide dispersed alloy so-called the HWI alloy with the high wear corrosion resistance were developed for core materials in water cooling type nuclear reactors. Three kind of alloys, namely, type 304ULC(EB-SAR), nickel base Cr-W-Si alloy so-called the RW alloy and niobium base alloys which have each different oxidation potential region on these application were developed for vessel materials used in nitric acid environments on reprocessing plants of spent nuclear fuels. The corrosion resistance and the workability of these alloys were improved markedly by means of the electron beam melting for removing harmful impurities in alloy matrixes and the thermomechanical treatment so-called SAR for modifying micro-structures. For improving all-round properties required for pressure boundary materials, cladding technologies between corrosion resistant materials and heat resistant materials were developed by means of diffusion bonding and hydro-isostatic pressing. These cladding process were optimized by both experimentally and theoretically. (author)

  8. Research on High-Altitude Airship Heat-Resistance Ability%关于高空飞艇抗热能力的研究

    江京

    2012-01-01

    The average temperature of helium in the airship is obviously affected by the solar radiation and the low temperature of the stratospheric environment during the fight of day/night alternation.The change of the differential pressure between in and out of the hull of the airship will be caused by this change of average temperature of helium,and will be the basic index for the design of the hull material and structure of the airship at the stage of general design.According to HAA heat-resistance ability simulation calculation and analysis,to fundamentally increase the ability of heat-resistance of the HAA,the premise is improving the strength of the membrane material of the hull;while enlarging the volume of hull/ballonet does not obviously help the increase ofheat-resistance ability,but will result in airship weight increase.%高空飞艇在平流层高度昼夜工作过程中,作为浮升气体的艇体内氦气受太阳能辐射以及艇外低温环境的影响,其平均温度变化范围较大。艇体内氦气平均温度的变化将导致飞艇艇体内外压差的变化,而艇体内外压差的变化是高空飞艇总体设计阶段对囊体材料选取时必须考虑的重要设计依据之一。通过高空飞艇抗热能力仿真计算与分析,指出高空飞艇的抗热能力必须在提高囊体强度的前提下才可以得到根本的提升,而加大副气囊体积对抗热能力影响不大反而将导致飞艇重量的增加。

  9. Opportunities and challenges of spray forming high-alloyed steels

    Spray forming has proven to be a useful tool for generating high-alloyed materials. The metallurgical advantages of high solidification rates are obvious. Shortening of process chains in comparison to powder metallurgy is often discussed. To approach to some of the remaining questions, especially on the influence of process gases on spray forming steels, within this study high-alloyed steels with melt weights up to 150 kg are spray formed and hot worked to semi-finished materials. Properties are analyzed in comparison to products available on the market. Cold-work tool steels with high carbon content can be spray formed to produce materials with good wear resistance and toughness. When reducing the carbon content and the amount of hard carbides, advantage of reduced segregation becomes more apparent. On the other hand, the influence of nitrogen as an alloying element is more effective and means of control are required. When corrosion or heat resistant steels with high non-carbide bonded chromium content or other nitride forming elements are part of the alloy, care has to be taken on controlling the dissolution of process gases and subsequent precipitation and degassing during compaction and further processing. Experiments where melt protection and atomization gas were changed from nitrogen to argon have shown significant influence of process gases on spray forming results and the mechanical properties of the materials in hot worked and finally heat treated condition

  10. Effect of carbon on creep rupture strength and toughness of 9Cr-2Mo heat-resisting steels with V and Nb

    The effect of carbon on creep rupture properties and room-temperature toughness of (9--10)Cr-(1.8--2)Mo heat resisting steels with V and Nb was studied. The amount of carbon content was varied from 0.02% to 0.23% in order to improve toughness without decrease in creep rupture strength. The difference in creep rupture strength and Charpy absorbed energy between 10Cr-2Mo steels and 9Cr-1.8Mo steels was studied with respect to the ratio of delta-ferrite to martensite, the precipitates, and the microstructure. The results indicated that the 9Cr-1.8Mo-0.1V-0.05Nb steels with 0.05--0.14%C tempered at 8000C showed good toughness, and that 104h rupture strength of the steel was as high as that of SUS 316 at 5500C and SUS 304 austenitic stainless steel at 6000C. It was concluded that the optimum amount of delta-ferrite with respect to both creep rupture strength and Charpy absorbed energy was 10--20%. (author)

  11. Effects of carbon on creep-rupture strength and toughness of high Cr-Mo heat resisting steels containing V and Nb

    Effects of carbon on creep-rupture properties and room temperature toughness of high (9 ∼ 10)Cr-(1.8 ∼ 2)Mo ferritic heat resisting steels containing V and Nb were studied. The carbon content was varied from 0.02 to 0.23 % in order to improve toughness without decreasing the creep-rupture strength. Difference existing in creep-rupture strength and in Charpy absorbed energy between 10Cr-2Mo steels and 9Cr-1.8Mo steels were studied with respect to the ratio of delta ferrite to martensite, the precipitates, and the microstructure. The results indicated that the 9Cr-1.8Mo-0.1V-0.05Nb steels with 0.14 % C tempered at 800 deg C showed good toughness, and that 104 h rupture-strength of the steel was as high as that of SUS 316 austenitic stainless steel at 550 deg C and SUS 304 at 600 deg C. It was concluded that the optimum amount of delta ferrite from the point of view of creep-rupture strength and Charpy absorbed energy was 10 ∼ 20 %. (author)

  12. Comparison of Chemical Sensitivity of Fresh and Long-Stored Heat Resistant Neosartorya fischeri Environmental Isolates Using BIOLOG Phenotype MicroArray System.

    Jacek Panek

    Full Text Available Spoilage of heat processed food and beverage by heat resistant fungi (HRF is a major problem for food industry in many countries. Neosartorya fischeri is the leading source of spoilage in thermally processed products. Its resistance to heat processing and toxigenicity makes studies about Neosartorya fischeri metabolism and chemical sensitivity essential. In this study chemical sensitivity of two environmental Neosartorya fischeri isolates were compared. One was isolated from canned apples in 1923 (DSM3700, the other from thermal processed strawberry product in 2012 (KC179765, used as long-stored and fresh isolate, respectively. The study was conducted using Biolog Phenotype MicroArray platforms of chemical sensitivity panel and traditional hole-plate method. The study allowed for obtaining data about Neosartorya fischeri growth inhibitors. The fresh isolate appeared to be much more resistant to chemical agents than the long-stored isolate. Based on phenotype microarray assay nitrogen compounds, toxic cations and membrane function compounds were the most effective in growth inhibition of N. fischeri isolates. According to the study zaragozic acid A, thallium(I acetate and sodium selenate were potent and promising N. fischeri oriented fungicides which was confirmed by both chemical sensitivity microplates panel and traditional hole-plate methods.

  13. The evolution of precipitates of 22Cr-25Ni-Mo-Nb-N heat-resistant austenitic steel in long-term creep

    The microstructural evolution of 22Cr-25Ni-Mo-Nb-N heat-resistant steel after creep under different stresses at 973 K has been systematically investigated. It is found that during short time creep MX and M23C6 predominantly precipitate in the matrix. While with the increase in creep time, Cr3Ni2SiX and σ precipitate in the matrix. MX is the main strengthen precipitate in the matrix after long time creep. Due to a fast coarsening rate, M23C6 in the matrix has a little effect on strengthening the matrix. Comparing the MX and M23C6 in the crept sample with those in the aged sample, it could be found that the creep stress can promote the coarsening rate of MX and has hardly any effect on the coarsening of M23C6. The effect of stress on the coarsening of precipitates focuses on the diffusion of solution atoms. Under the condition of stress, the diffusion of Nb is accelerated, while that of C changes little.

  14. Effect of aging temperature on the microstructures and mechanical properties of ZG12Cr9Mo1Co1NiVNbNB ferritic heat-resistant steel

    Yang, Xue; Sun, Lan; Xiong, Ji; Zhou, Ping; Fan, Hong-yuan; Liu, Jian-yong

    2016-02-01

    The effect of aging on the mechanical properties and microstructures of a new ZG12Cr9Mo1Co1NiVNbNB ferritic heat resistant steel was investigated in this work to satisfy the high steam parameters of the ultra-supercritical power plant. The results show that the main precipitates during aging are Fe(Cr, Mo)23C6, V(Nb)C, and (Fe2Mo) Laves in the steel. The amounts of the precipitated phases increase during aging, and correspondingly, the morphologies of phases are similar to be round. Fe(Cr, Mo)23C6 appears along boundaries and grows with increasing temperature. In addition, it is revealed that the martensitic laths are coarsened and eventually happen to be polygonization. The hardness and strength decrease gradually, whereas the plasticity of the steel increases. What's more, the hardness of this steel after creep is similar to that of other 9%-12%Cr ferritic steels. Thus, ZG12Cr9Mo1Co1NiVNbNB can be used in the project.

  15. XRD and TEM analysis of microstructure in the welding zone of 9Cr–1Mo–V–Nb heat-resisting steel

    Li Yajiang; Wang Juan; Zhou Bing; Feng Tao

    2002-06-01

    Under the condition of tungsten inert gas shielded welding (TIG) + shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) technology, the microstructure in the welding zone of 9Cr–1Mo–V–Nb (P91) heat-resisting steel is studied by means of X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The test results indicate that when the weld heat input () of TIG is 8.5 ∼ 11.7 kJ/cm and the weld heat input of SMAW is 13.3 ∼ 21.0 kJ/cm, the microstructure in the weld metal is composed of austenite and a little amount of ferrite. The substructure of austenite is crypto–crystal martensite, which included angle. There are some spot precipitates in the martensite base. TEM analysis indicates that the fine structure in the heat-affected zone is lath martensite. There are some carbides (lattice constant, 1.064 nm) at the boundary of grain as well as inside the grain, most of which are Cr23C6 and a little amount of (Fe, Me)23C6.

  16. An irradiation test of heat-resistant ceramic composite materials. Interim report on post-irradiation examinations of the first preliminary irradiation test: 97M-13A

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been carrying out the research on radiation damage mechanism of heat-resistant ceramic composite materials, as one of the subjects of the innovative basic research on high temperature engineering using the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). A series of preliminary irradiation tests is being made using the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). The present report describes results of post-irradiation examinations (PIE) so far on specimens irradiated in the first capsule, designated 97M-13A, to fast neutron fluences of 1.2-1.8x1024 m-2 (E>1 MeV) at temperatures of 573, 673 and 843 K. In the PIE, measurements were made on (1) dimensional changes, (2) thermal expansions, (3) X-ray parameters and (4) γ-ray spectra. The results for the carbon/carbon and SiC/SiC composites were similar to those in existing literatures. The temperature monitor effect was observed both for SiC fiber- and particle-reinforced SiC composites as in the case of monolithic SiC. Namely, the curve of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of these specimens showed a rapid drop above a temperature around the irradiation temperature +100 K in the first ramp (ramp rate: 10 K/min), while in the second ramp the CTE curves were almost the same as those of un-irradiated SiC specimens. (author)

  17. An irradiation test of heat-resistant ceramic composite materials. Interim report on post-irradiation examinations of the first preliminary irradiation test: 97M-13A

    Baba, Shin-ichi; Takahashi, Tsuneo; Ishihara, Masahiro; Hayashi, Kimio; Sozawa, Shizuo; Saito, Takashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Suzuki, Yoshio [Nuclear Engineering, Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Saito, Tamotsu; Sekino, Hajime [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been carrying out the research on radiation damage mechanism of heat-resistant ceramic composite materials, as one of the subjects of the innovative basic research on high temperature engineering using the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). A series of preliminary irradiation tests is being made using the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). The present report describes results of post-irradiation examinations (PIE) so far on specimens irradiated in the first capsule, designated 97M-13A, to fast neutron fluences of 1.2-1.8x10{sup 24} m{sup -2} (E>1 MeV) at temperatures of 573, 673 and 843 K. In the PIE, measurements were made on (1) dimensional changes, (2) thermal expansions, (3) X-ray parameters and (4) {gamma}-ray spectra. The results for the carbon/carbon and SiC/SiC composites were similar to those in existing literatures. The temperature monitor effect was observed both for SiC fiber- and particle-reinforced SiC composites as in the case of monolithic SiC. Namely, the curve of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of these specimens showed a rapid drop above a temperature around the irradiation temperature +100 K in the first ramp (ramp rate: 10 K/min), while in the second ramp the CTE curves were almost the same as those of un-irradiated SiC specimens. (author)

  18. Screening and Application of Pakchoi Cultivars with High Quality and Heat Resistance%优质、耐热青菜品种的筛选和应用

    娄丽娜; 蒋利春; 孙莉; 苏小俊

    2014-01-01

    选取9份青菜商品种,对其在自然高温条件下的耐热性进行比较,通过产量、亚硝酸盐含量等指标的测定及耐热性比较,综合考虑,正大青秀F1、青冠、三伏,3个品种的耐热性好,产量较高,且亚硝酸盐含量较低,是适用于夏季高温季节栽培的优质、耐热青菜品种材料。%In this paper, under high temperature stress in nature, the heat resistance of nine pakchoi cultivars were evaluated, and their yield and content of nitrite were measured as well. After comprehensive consideration of these three indexes, three pakchoi cultivars which were Zhengdaqingxiu F1, Qingguan and Sanfu, were found to have good resistance to high temperature stress, high yield and low content of nitrite, thus these three pakchoi cultivars were suitable for summer production.

  19. Comparison of Chemical Sensitivity of Fresh and Long-Stored Heat Resistant Neosartorya fischeri Environmental Isolates Using BIOLOG Phenotype MicroArray System.

    Panek, Jacek; Frąc, Magdalena; Bilińska-Wielgus, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Spoilage of heat processed food and beverage by heat resistant fungi (HRF) is a major problem for food industry in many countries. Neosartorya fischeri is the leading source of spoilage in thermally processed products. Its resistance to heat processing and toxigenicity makes studies about Neosartorya fischeri metabolism and chemical sensitivity essential. In this study chemical sensitivity of two environmental Neosartorya fischeri isolates were compared. One was isolated from canned apples in 1923 (DSM3700), the other from thermal processed strawberry product in 2012 (KC179765), used as long-stored and fresh isolate, respectively. The study was conducted using Biolog Phenotype MicroArray platforms of chemical sensitivity panel and traditional hole-plate method. The study allowed for obtaining data about Neosartorya fischeri growth inhibitors. The fresh isolate appeared to be much more resistant to chemical agents than the long-stored isolate. Based on phenotype microarray assay nitrogen compounds, toxic cations and membrane function compounds were the most effective in growth inhibition of N. fischeri isolates. According to the study zaragozic acid A, thallium(I) acetate and sodium selenate were potent and promising N. fischeri oriented fungicides which was confirmed by both chemical sensitivity microplates panel and traditional hole-plate methods. PMID:26815302

  20. Heat-resistant and rigid-flexible coupling glass-fiber nonwoven supported polymer electrolyte for high-performance lithium ion batteries

    A heat-resistant and rigid-flexible coupling glass-microfiber nonwoven supported cyanoethyl-β-polyvinyl alcohol composite polymer electrolyte membrane (GFMPE) has been successfully fabricated explored for high-performance lithium batteries. It was demonstrated that the GFMPE possessed enhanced mechanical property, superior dimensional thermostability (>200 °C). In addition, Ethylene carbonate (EC)/Dimethyl carbonate (DMC) solvent soaked GFMPE exhibited a superior Li ion transport number of 0.86, wide electrochemical window up to 4.8 V vs Li+/Li and high ionic conductivity of 0.89 mS/cm at 25 °C. Moreover, LiCoO2/graphite cells using such polymer electrolyte with EC:DMC (1:1, v/v) showed excellent cycling stability and superior rate capability at room temperature. It is important to note that the LiFePO4/Li cell using GFMPE/propylene carbonate (PC) can also operate very well at an elevated temperature of 120 °C. These fascinating results would endow GFMPE a very promising polymer electrolyte in high-performance lithium batteries with improved safety and reliablity

  1. Extrusion, Properties, and Failure of Spray-Formed Hypereutectic Al-Si Alloys Based on the Optimization of Fe-Bearing Phase

    Hou, L. G.; Yu, H.; Cui, H.; Cai, Y. H.; Zhuang, L. Z.; Zhang, J. S.

    2013-04-01

    Based on the densification of the spray-formed hypereutectic Al-Si (hyper-AS) alloys, the microstructural evolution, mechanical properties, as well as the failure are studied in this investigation. The appropriate process and parameters for the densification of the deposits are gained from the thermomechanical simulation. Besides of the spray-formed Al-25Si-5Fe-3Cu (3C) alloy, the microstructures of other spray-formed alloys with Mn/Cr addition are stable without coarsening of the refined α-Al(Fe,TM)Si (TM = Mn/Cr/(Mn+Cr)) particles, which can improve the heat resistance. Especially, a great number of the submicrosized α-Al(Fe,TM)Si phases are observed in the hot-extruded TM-containing alloys. The critical ranges of the major parameter TM/Fe mass ratios that can affect the formation of the α-Al(Fe,TM)Si phases in the cast or spray-formed hyper-AS alloys are severally determined. The structure and lattice constant of the refined α-Al(Fe,TM)Si phases also are characterized. The mechanical properties of the current extruded hyper-AS alloys at room or elevated temperatures are close to or higher than some commercial alloys or other published results. Therefore, the hyper-AS alloys can be proposed as new lightweight, heat-resistant, and high-strength alloys, which can be used in the complex working conditions, such as advanced engine systems. The main reason for the enhanced properties would be the formation of a large quantity of microsized/submicrosized α-Al(Fe,TM)Si phases and abundant dislocations, which can greatly reinforce the matrix and transform the brittle fracture of the needle-like Fe-bearing phases into ductile fracture.

  2. Chemical analysis of nickel- and iron-base high-temperature alloys for nuclear reactor

    The Committee studied problems in analysis of alloys used for High-Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor from September 1970 to February 1976. The alloys selected from the standpoint of analytical chemistry are Inconel 600, Incoloy 800, Inconel X750, Inco 713C and Hastelloy X. Nine standard samples (JAERI-R 1 to JAERI-R 9) of the high-temperature alloys were prepared primarily for X-ray fluorescence method. Eighteen research institutions in Japan participated in cooperative analyses of the standard samples for 19 elements (C, Si, Mn, P, S, Ni, Cr, Fe, Mo, Cu, W, V, Co, Ti, Al, B, Nb, Ta, Zr). Prior to analyses of the standard samples, 8 cooperative samples (A-H) were analyzed to develop and evaluate analytical methods. Described in this report are preparation and their characteristics of the standard samples, results of analyses, and 93 analytical methods. The results of the cooperative experiments on atomic absorption spectrophotometry and X-ray fluorescence method are also described. (auth.)

  3. Nitrogen-alloyed martensitic steels

    A report is presented on initial results with pressure-nitrided martensitic steels. In heat-resistant steels, thermal stability and toughness are raised by nitrogen. In cold work steel, there is a more favourable corrosion behaviour. (orig./MM)

  4. The effect of pre-oxidation and the influence of deformation on the corrosion behaviour of two heat resistant steels in a sulphur-oxygen-carbon bearing environment

    The influence of pre-oxidation on the corrosion resistance of the austenitic steels AC 66 (Fe-32Ni-27Cr-0.07Ce) and alloy 800H (Fe-32Ni-20Cr) was studied in a sulphur-oxygen-carbon bearing atmospheric at 700oC. For AC 66 the corrosion resistance was significantly improved by preoxidation, whereas this effect was less marked for Alloy 800H. This can be explained by a much better adherence of the preformed oxide scale for AC 66. The corrosion resistance was shown to decrease by superimposed deformation which leads to deeply penetrating intergranular corrosion paths. (Author)

  5. Radiation and heat resistant mouldings

    Mouldings made of norbornene-ethylene-copolymers can be exposed to a radiation dose limit of 15 MGy, at an operating temperature of 373 K, without their stability values decreasing. Such mouldings can be used in medical engineering, e.g. medical instruments, container and apparatus parts; and in nuclear and radiation technology, e.g. casing parts, control devices and jacketings

  6. Effect of molybdenum content on creep-rupture strength and toughness of 9 % chromium ferritic heat resisting steels containing V and Nb

    The effect of molybdenum content on creep-rupture properties and room-temperature toughness of high chromium ferritic heat resisting steels was investigated. Molybdenum content was varied from 1 to 2 wt%. In order to obtain 9Cr-Mo-V-Nb ferritic steels with both high creep-rupture strength and superior toughness, the amount of delta ferrite was controlled below 25 %, and the optimum tempering condition and mechanical properties after simulated welding have been investigated. The influence of molybdenum content on creep-rupture strength and Charpy absorbed energy was investigated with respect to the ratio of delta ferrite to tempered martensite, the precipitates, and the microstructures. Charpy absorbed energy of the 0.05C-9Cr-1Mo-0.15V-0.05Nb steel tempered at 800deg C and then heated at 600∼650deg C for 104 h was as high as 20∼30 kgf-m. By contrast, Charpy absorbed energy of 0.05C-9Cr-2Mo-0.15V-0.05Nb steel was reduced to about 4kgf-m after heating at 600∼650deg C for 104 h. It is considered that the steel of 1Mo shows superior toughness because of its low carbon content and a single phase of martensite. It was concluded that combination of superior creep-rupture strength and toughness can be obtained by optimum heat treatment for the 9Cr-1Mo-V-Nb steel containing 0.05 wt%C. (author)

  7. Thermophilic spore-forming bacteria isolated from spoiled canned food and their heat resistance. Results of a French ten-year survey.

    André, S; Zuber, F; Remize, F

    2013-07-15

    Thermal processing of Low Acid Canned Foods (LACF), which are safe and shelf-stable at ambient temperature for several years, results in heat inactivation of all vegetative microorganisms and the partial or total inactivation of spores. Good Manufacturing Hygienic Practices include stability tests for managing the pathogen risk related to surviving mesophilic bacterial spores. LACF are also often submitted to additional incubation conditions, typically 55 °C for 7 days, to monitor spoilage by thermophiles. In this study we identified the bacterial species responsible for non-stability after prolonged at 55 °C of incubation of LACF from 455 samples collected from 122 French canneries over 10 years. Bacteria were identified by microsequencing or a recent developed tool for group-specific PCR detection (SporeTraQ™). A single species was identified for 93% of examined samples. Three genera were responsible for more than 80% of all non-stability cases: mostly Moorella (36%) and Geobacillus (35%), and less frequently Thermoanaerobacterium (10%). The other most frequent bacterial genera identified were Bacillus, Thermoanaerobacter, Caldanaerobius, Anoxybacillus, Paenibacillus and Clostridium. Species frequency was dependent on food category, i.e. vegetables, ready-made meals containing meat, seafood or other recipes, products containing fatty duck, and related to the intensity of the thermal treatment applied in these food categories. The spore heat resistance parameters (D or δ and z values) from 36 strains isolated in this study were determined. Taken together, our results single out the species most suitable for use as indicators for thermal process settings. This extensively-documented survey of the species that cause non-stability at 55 °C in LACF will help canneries to improve the management of microbial contamination. PMID:23728430

  8. Scorpion venom heat-resistant peptide (SVHRP enhances neurogenesis and neurite outgrowth of immature neurons in adult mice by up-regulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF.

    Tao Wang

    Full Text Available Scorpion venom heat-resistant peptide (SVHRP is a component purified from Buthus martensii Karsch scorpion venom. Although scorpions and their venom have been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM to treat chronic neurological disorders, the underlying mechanisms of these treatments remain unknown. We applied SVHRP in vitro and in vivo to understand its effects on the neurogenesis and maturation of adult immature neurons and explore associated molecular mechanisms. SVHRP administration increased the number of 5-bromo-2'-dexoxyuridine (BrdU-positive cells, BrdU-positive/neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN-positive neurons, and polysialylated-neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM-positive immature neurons in the subventricular zone (SVZ and subgranular zone (SGZ of hippocampus. Furthermore immature neurons incubated with SVHRP-pretreated astrocyte-conditioned medium exhibited significantly increased neurite length compared with those incubated with normal astrocyte-conditioned medium. This neurotrophic effect was further confirmed in vivo by detecting an increased average single area and whole area of immature neurons in the SGZ, SVZ and olfactory bulb (OB in the adult mouse brain. In contrast to normal astrocyte-conditioned medium, higher concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF but not nerve growth factor (NGF or glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF was detected in the conditioned medium of SVHRP-pretreated astrocytes, and blocking BDNF using anti-BDNF antibodies eliminated these SVHRP-dependent neurotrophic effects. In SVHRP treated mouse brain, more glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP-positive cells were detected. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry revealed increased numbers of GFAP/BDNF double-positive cells, which agrees with the observed changes in the culture system. This paper describes novel effects of scorpion venom-originated peptide on the stem cells and suggests the potential therapeutic values

  9. Milk powder in enterobacteriaceae zanretsuken came through heat resistant research%乳粉中阪崎肠杆菌耐热性的研究

    曾维扬

    2011-01-01

    For a long time,in the edible food by heat treatment before has long been considered a lower risk of food pathogenic microbes in food one of the important means,but at present domestic to enterobacteriaceae proposal came through the research of this aspect is still less.This thesis mainly from came through the training of listed enterbacteriaceae and purification,heat resistance to the key research proposal came through the heat tolerance enterobacteriaceae,for in edible can effectively before heat treatment to reduce the risk of infection was laid a good foundation,and the test can bring great social and economic benefits.%长期以来,在食用食品前进行热处理一直被认为是降低食品中食源性致病菌风险的一个重要手段,但是目前国内对阪崎肠杆菌方面的研究还较少。文中主要从阪崎肠杆菌的培养、分离纯化、耐热性方面着手,重点研究阪崎肠杆菌的热耐受情况,为在食用前能有效地进行热处理以降低该菌的感染风险奠定良好的试验基础,并能够带来极大的社会与经济效益。

  10. Inactivation of chemical and heat-resistant spores of Bacillus and Geobacillus by nitrogen cold atmospheric plasma evokes distinct changes in morphology and integrity of spores.

    van Bokhorst-van de Veen, Hermien; Xie, Houyu; Esveld, Erik; Abee, Tjakko; Mastwijk, Hennie; Nierop Groot, Masja

    2015-02-01

    Bacterial spores are resistant to severe conditions and form a challenge to eradicate from food or food packaging material. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) treatment is receiving more attention as potential sterilization method at relatively mild conditions but the exact mechanism of inactivation is still not fully understood. In this study, the biocidal effect by nitrogen CAP was determined for chemical (hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide), physical (UV) and heat-resistant spores. The three different sporeformers used are Bacillus cereus a food-borne pathogen, and Bacillus atrophaeus and Geobacillus stearothermophilus that are used as biological indicators for validation of chemical sterilization and thermal processes, respectively. The different spores showed variation in their degree of inactivation by applied heat, hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, and UV treatments, whereas similar inactivation results were obtained with the different spores treated with nitrogen CAP. G. stearothermophilus spores displayed high resistance to heat, hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, while for UV treatment B. atrophaeus spores are most tolerant. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed distinct morphological changes for nitrogen CAP-treated B. cereus spores including etching effects and the appearance of rough spore surfaces, whereas morphology of spores treated with heat or disinfectants showed no such changes. Moreover, microscopy analysis revealed CAP-exposed B. cereus spores to turn phase grey conceivably because of water influx indicating damage of the spores, a phenomenon that was not observed for non-treated spores. In addition, data are supplied that exclude UV radiation as determinant of antimicrobial activity of nitrogen CAP. Overall, this study shows that nitrogen CAP treatment has a biocidal effect on selected Bacillus and Geobacillus spores associated with alterations in spore surface morphology and loss of spore integrity. PMID:25481059

  11. Fuel behavior in severe accidents and Mo-alloy based cladding designs to improve accident tolerance

    The severe accidents at TMI-2 and Fukushima-Daiichi led to core meltdown and hydrogen explosions. The main source of energy causing core melting is the decay heat from β-, β+, and γ decays of short-lived isotopes following a power scram. The exothermic reaction of Zr-alloy cladding can further increase the cladding temperature leading to rapid cladding corrosion and hydrogen production. The most effective mitigation to minimize core damage in a severe accident is to extend the duration of heat removal capacity via battery-supported passive cooling for as long as practically possible. Replacing the Zr-alloy cladding with a higher heat resistant cladding with lower enthalpy release rate may also provide additional coping time for accident management. Such a heat resistant cladding may also overcome the current licensing concerns about Zr-alloy hydriding and post quench ductility issues in a design base loss of coolant accident (LOCA). Zr-alloy cladding, while has been optimized for normal operation in high pressure water and steam of light water reactors, will rapidly lose its corrosion resistance and tensile and creep strength in high pressure steam. Evaluation of alternate cladding materials and designs have been performed to search for a new fuel cladding design which will substantially improve the safety margins at elevated temperatures during a severe accident, while maintaining the excellent fuel performance attributes of the current Zr-alloy cladding. The screening criteria for the evaluation include neutronic properties, material availability, adaptability and operability in current LWRs, resistance to melting. The new designs also need to be fabricable, maintain sufficient strength and resist to attack by high pressure steam. Engineering metals, alloys and ceramics which can meet some or most of these requirements are limited. Following review of the properties of potential candidates, it is concluded that molybdenum alloys may potentially achieve the

  12. High-speed growth of YBa2Cu3O7−δ superconducting films on multilayer-coated Hastelloy C276 tape by laser-assisted MOCVD

    The high-speed epitaxial growth of YBa2Cu3O7−δ (YBCO) superconducting films on multilayer (CeO2/LaMnO3/MgO/Gd2Zr2O7)-coated Hastelloy C276 tape was demonstrated using laser-assisted metal–organic chemical vapour deposition (laser-assisted MOCVD). The preferred orientation of the YBCO films changed from a-axis to c-axis as the deposition temperature was increased from 769 to 913 K. The c-axis-oriented YBCO film exhibited a high critical temperature of 90 K and a high critical current density of 0.5 MA cm−2 even at a high deposition rate of 55 μm h−1. (paper)

  13. Interaction of Cr-Ti-Si coating on VN-3 niobium alloy with air environment

    Investigation of heat-resistance, microstructure and phase composition of Cr-Ti-Si coating on VN-3 niobium alloy with air oxidation in the temperature interval of 1200-1600 deg C is conducted. Thermogravimetry, metallography, X-ray diffraction and microprobe analysis methods are used. It is ascertained that the coating is a dense niobium disilicide layer, luriched on the surface with chromium and titanium disilicides and separated and from the protected alloy by a narrow zone of the lowest niobium silicide Nb5Si3. The coating protective junctions are provided by a selective chromium and titanium disilicides oxidation as well as niobium disilicide oxidation at the temperature of 1600 deg C, and by the rates of niobium and silicon diffusion through Nb5SI3 and NbSi2 and oxygen diffusion through the amorphous SiO2

  14. The Change of the Mechanical Properties and of the Structure of the Alloy during Gradual Approach of its Composition from Fe-40Al to Fe-43Al-4C (at. %)

    Kratochvíl, P.; Dobeš, Ferdinand; Milička, Karel; Pešička, J.

    Duebendorf : EMPA - Materials Science and Technology, 2007 - (Palm, M.; Spiegel, M.; Stein, F.; Krein, R.). s. 42-42 [Discussion Meeting on the Development of Innovative Iron Aluminium Alloys /4./. 21.10.2007-24.10.2007, Interlaken] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/05/0409; GA ČR GA106/06/0019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : creep * iron aluminide (FeAl type) * heat-resistant alloy Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy

  15. Performance of Organosilicone Heat Resistant Coating and Its Influencing Factors%有机硅高温涂料耐热性及其影响因素研究

    李烨; 李静; 张家莹; 张玉忠; 张桐; 肇研

    2013-01-01

    以有机硅296和聚碳硅烷为基料,低熔点玻璃粉、BN、SiC、ZrO2和Al2O3为填料,制备了耐高温涂料.通过正交试验,考核了填料体系设计对涂层耐热性的影响规律,制备了耐温达700℃的有机硅高温涂层.结果表明,影响涂料耐热性和附着力的主要因素为低熔点玻璃粉和BN,其次为ZrO2和Al2O3.低熔点玻璃粉在高温下的“二次成膜”作用可以有效提高涂层的耐热性、改善粉化现象,但过多的用量会造成涂层开裂和脱落.BN作为导热填料,与其他填料按一定比例加入到涂料中,可以提高涂层的耐热温度到700℃.ZrO2和Al2O3较大的热膨胀系数减少了涂层和基体的热失配,利于提高其耐热性.%A organosilicone coating with high temperature resistance was prepared with organosilicone 296,polycarbosilane as binder and low melting-point glass powder,BN,SiC,ZrO2 Al2O3 as fillers.By orthogonal test,the effects of coating formulation on heat resistance were studied and organosilicone coating resistant to 700 ℃ was prepared.The results showed that the main influencing factors on the heat resistant performance of the coating were low melting-point glass powder and BN,followed by ZrO2 and Al2O3."Second film" function of low melting-point glass powder had a good effect on reducing the pulverization phenomenon and improving heat resistance of coating,but excessive usage would result in cracking and exfoliation.High thermal conductivity of BN could improve the heat resistance to 700 ℃.High thermal expansion coefficient of ZrO2 and Al2 O3 could improve the heat resistance by reducing the thermal mismatch between coating and base metal.

  16. Коррозионная стойкость сплавов семейства «Hastelloy хастеллой» в хлоралюминатных расплавах

    В.В. Карпов; БАЖЕНОВ А.В.; А. В. Абрамов; Половов, И. Б.; Ребрин, О. И.

    2015-01-01

    Изучена коррозия сплавов Hastelloy S, Hastelloy X, Haynes 230, Hastelloy N, Hastelloy G35 и Hastelloy C2000 в расплавах KCl-AlCl3 при 550 °С. Определены скорости и механизмы коррозии исследуемых материалов в данных условиях. Исследованы процессы, протекающие в ходе контакта сплавов с хлоралюминатными электролитами....

  17. Vanadium alloys: development strategy

    A strategy for the development of vanadium alloys for use in radiation environments is outlined. An attractive reference alloy (V-15Cr-5Ti) has been identified. The critical issues in developing vanadium base alloys are summarized

  18. Substitution of Nickel by Combined Addition of Cobalt and Zirconium in Alloy A 332

    Wüstenhagen, Andreas; Tonn, Babette

    2011-01-01

    nickel. These results prove the development of a heat-resistant, thermally stable alloy without nickel. The mechanical properties and the cost-performance ratio are superior to the standard alloy. The competitiveness of the new piston alloy was improved significantly.

  19. Heat-Resistant Ferritic-Martensitic Steel RUSFER-EK-181 (Fe-12Cr-2W-V-Ta-B) for Fusion Power Reactor

    diagram) of the steel were calculated for the long-term irradiation in neutron spectrum of the fusion reactor DEMO-RF. Obtained data for functional properties of the RAFMS RUSFER-EK-181 characterize it as the nanostructured structural steel with a good heat resistant (up to 700oC), good resistance to low temperature embrittlement, sufficient radiation resistance of the chemical composition and the structure and phase state. (author)

  20. Characterization of complex carbide–silicide precipitates in a Ni–Cr–Mo–Fe–Si alloy modified by welding

    Nickel based alloys of the type Hastelloy-N™ are ideal candidate materials for molten salt reactors, as well as for applications such as pressure vessels, due to their excellent resistance to creep, oxidation and corrosion. In this work, the authors have attempted to understand the effects of welding on the morphology, chemistry and crystal structure of the precipitates in the heat affected zone (HAZ) and the weld zone of a Ni–Cr–Mo–Fe–Si alloy similar to Hastelloy-N™ in composition, by using characterization techniques such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Two plates of a Ni–Cr–Mo–Fe–Si alloy GH-3535 were welded together using a TiG welding process without filler material to achieve a joint with a curved molten zone with dendritic structure. It is evident that the primary precipitates have melted in the HAZ and re-solidified in a eutectic-like morphology, with a chemistry and crystal structure only slightly different from the pre-existing precipitates, while the surrounding matrix grains remained unmelted, except for the zones immediately adjacent to the precipitates. In the molten zone, the primary precipitates were fully melted and dissolved in the matrix, and there was enrichment of Mo and Si in the dendrite boundaries after solidification, and re-precipitation of the complex carbides/silicides at some grain boundaries and triple points. The nature of the precipitates in the molten zone varied according to the local chemical composition. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Ni-based alloy with Cr, Mo, Si, Fe and C was welded, examined with SEM, EBSD, and TEM. • Original Ni2(Mo,Cr)4(Si,C) carbides changed from equiaxed to lamellar shape in HAZ. • Composition and crystal structure remained almost unchanged in HAZ. • Original carbides changed to lamellar Ni3(Mo,Cr)3(Si,C) in some cases in weld metal. • Precipitates were mostly incoherent, but semi-coherent in some cases in weld metal

  1. Characterization of complex carbide–silicide precipitates in a Ni–Cr–Mo–Fe–Si alloy modified by welding

    Bhattacharyya, D., E-mail: dhb@ansto.gov.au; Davis, J.; Drew, M.; Harrison, R.P.; Edwards, L.

    2015-07-15

    Nickel based alloys of the type Hastelloy-N™ are ideal candidate materials for molten salt reactors, as well as for applications such as pressure vessels, due to their excellent resistance to creep, oxidation and corrosion. In this work, the authors have attempted to understand the effects of welding on the morphology, chemistry and crystal structure of the precipitates in the heat affected zone (HAZ) and the weld zone of a Ni–Cr–Mo–Fe–Si alloy similar to Hastelloy-N™ in composition, by using characterization techniques such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Two plates of a Ni–Cr–Mo–Fe–Si alloy GH-3535 were welded together using a TiG welding process without filler material to achieve a joint with a curved molten zone with dendritic structure. It is evident that the primary precipitates have melted in the HAZ and re-solidified in a eutectic-like morphology, with a chemistry and crystal structure only slightly different from the pre-existing precipitates, while the surrounding matrix grains remained unmelted, except for the zones immediately adjacent to the precipitates. In the molten zone, the primary precipitates were fully melted and dissolved in the matrix, and there was enrichment of Mo and Si in the dendrite boundaries after solidification, and re-precipitation of the complex carbides/silicides at some grain boundaries and triple points. The nature of the precipitates in the molten zone varied according to the local chemical composition. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Ni-based alloy with Cr, Mo, Si, Fe and C was welded, examined with SEM, EBSD, and TEM. • Original Ni{sub 2}(Mo,Cr){sub 4}(Si,C) carbides changed from equiaxed to lamellar shape in HAZ. • Composition and crystal structure remained almost unchanged in HAZ. • Original carbides changed to lamellar Ni{sub 3}(Mo,Cr){sub 3}(Si,C) in some cases in weld metal. • Precipitates were mostly incoherent, but semi-coherent in some cases in weld

  2. Translating VDM to Alloy

    Lausdahl, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    specifications. However, to take advantage of the automated analysis of Alloy, the model-oriented VDM specifications must be translated into a constraint-based Alloy specifications. We describe how a sub- set of VDM can be translated into Alloy and how assertions can be expressed in VDM and checked by the Alloy...

  3. 高耐热高耐焊性环氧胶膜的研制%Preparation of High Heat Resistance and Solder Resistance Epoxy Adhesive Film

    邵康宸; 李会录; 韩江凌; 魏弘利; 韩萌

    2015-01-01

    以双酚A型环氧树脂EP638、EP828为基体树脂,丁腈橡胶为增韧剂,酰肼为固化剂,咪唑为固化促进剂,引入导热填料氮化硼、氧化铝,制备了高耐热高耐焊性环氧胶膜。采用单因素试验法优选出制备环氧胶膜的最佳工艺条件,对环氧胶膜的导热性能、介电性能、剪切强度、粘结强度和玻璃化转变温度(Tg)等进行测试。结果表明:制备高耐热高耐焊性环氧胶膜的最佳工艺条件是:m(EP638)∶m(EP828)=1∶1;w(丁腈橡胶)=20%,w(酰肼)=10%,w(咪唑)=5‰,w(填料)=60%,m(A12O3)∶m(BN)=1∶1;固化条件为120℃/1 h+150℃/1 h。此时环氧胶膜的介电常数为5.66,导热系数为0.581 W/(m·K),粘结强度为36.99 MPa,Tg为174.77℃,耐浸焊时间达10 min。%We prepared a high heat resistance and solder resistance epoxy adhesive film using bisphenol A type epoxy resin EP638 and EP828 as matrix resin, nitrile rubber as toughening agent, hydrazide as curing agent, imidazole as curing catalyst, and adding thermal conductive fillers boron nitride and alumi-na. The optimum process condition to prepare the epoxy adhesive film was optimized by single factor experiment method, and its thermal conductivity, dielectric property, shear strength, bonding strength and glass transition temperature(Tg) were tested. The results show that the optimum process condition is that the mass ratio between EP638 and EP828 is 1∶1, the mass fraction of nitrile rubber is 20%, the mass fraction of hydrazide is 10%, the mass fraction of imidazole is 5‰, the mass fraction of fillers is 60%, the mass ratio between A12O3 and BN is 1∶1, and the curing condition is“120 ℃/1 h+150 ℃/1 h”. While, the dielectric constant of the epoxy adhasive film is 5.66, the thermal conductivity is 0.581 W/(m· K), the bonding strength is 36.99 MPa, the Tg is 174.77℃, and the solder resistance time is 10 min.

  4. Effects of Over-burn on Corrosion Resistance of Hastelloy-C-276 Heat Exchanger Tube-sheet Welding%哈氏合金热交换器管板焊接过烧对耐腐蚀性能影响

    魏化中; 熊仲营; 周超

    2011-01-01

    Hastelloy-C-276 is a kind of material with good corrosion resistance, which is gradually applied to the chemical field of key equipment since 1960s.Owing to unreasonable welding process, it is easy to produce an over-burn phenomenon existing in heat exchanger's tube and tube-sheet joints of Hastelloy-C-276 material.In order to find rule of over-burn on corrosion resistance of C-276 and avoid its endangerment, the normal welded tube specimens, over-burn specimens and over-burn repair specimens near welding line have been investigated by means of metallurgical structure comparison and intergranular corrosion test.%Hastelloy-C-276具有较好的抗腐蚀性能,自20世纪60年代以来逐步应用到化工领域的关键设备中.在管板与换热管连接接头的焊接过程中,由于某些原因容易出现连接接头过烧的现象.通过Hastelloy-C-276管板焊接中的正常焊接试件、过烧试件、过烧修补试件焊缝附近的金相组织比较及晶间腐蚀试验,对过烧对哈氏合金耐腐蚀性能的影响进行了简要分析.

  5. Corrosion resistance of Ni-Cr-Mo alloys. Chemical composition and metallurgical condition's effects

    Ni-Cr-Mo alloys offer an outstanding corrosion resistance in a wide variety of highly-corrosive environments. This versatility is due to the excellent performance of nickel in hot alkaline solutions and the beneficial effect of chromium and molybdenum in oxidizing and reducing conditions, respectively. Alloy C-22 (22 % Cr-13 % Mo-3% W) is a well known versatile member of this family. Due to its excellent corrosion resistance in a wide variety of environments, Alloy C-22 has been selected for the fabrication of the corrosion-resistant outer shell of the high-level nuclear waste container. The increasing demand of the industry for corrosion resistant alloys with particular properties of corrosion and mechanical resistance has led to the development of new alloys. Alloy C-22HS (Ni-21 % Cr-17 % Mo) is a new high-strength corrosion resistant material recently developed and introduced into the market. This alloy provides a corrosion resistance comparable with that of other C-type alloys, and it can also be age hardened to effectively double its yield strength. HASTELLOY HYBRID-BC1 (Ni-22 % Mo-15 % Cr) is a new development intended for filling the gap between Ni-Mo and Ni-Cr-Mo alloys. This novel alloy is able to withstand HCl and H2SO4, even in the presence of dissolved oxygen and other oxidizing species. Its resistance to chloride-induced pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking is also remarkable. Thermal aging of Ni-Cr-Mo alloys leads to microstructure changes depending on the temperature range and exposure time at temperature. A Long Range Ordering (LRO) reaction can occur in the range of 350 C degrees to 600 C degrees, producing an ordered Ni2(Cr,Mo) phase. This ordering reaction does not seem to affect the corrosion resistance and produces only a slight loss in ductility. LRO transformation is homogeneous and has proven to be useful to fabricate the age-hard enable Alloy C22-HS. Tetrahedral Close Packed (TCP) phases, like μ, σ and P, may

  6. Alloyed steel

    The composition and properties are listed of alloyed steel for use in the manufacture of steam generators, collectors, spacers, emergency tanks, and other components of nuclear power plants. The steel consists of 0.08 to 0.11% w.w. C, 0.6 to 1.4% w.w. Mn, 0.35 to 0.6% w.w. Mo, 0.02 to 0.07% w.w. Al, 0.17 to 0.37% w.w. Si, 1.7 to 2.7% w.w. Ni, 0.03 to 0.07% w.w. V, 0.005 to 0.012% w.w. N, and the rest is Fe. The said steel showed a sufficiently low transition temperature between brittle and tough structures, a greater depth of hardenability, and better weldability than similar steels. (B.S.)

  7. Effect of additional element and heat treating temperature on micro-structure and mechanical behavior of Ag alloy thin film

    JU Dong-ying; ISHIGURO S; ARIZONO T; HASEGAWA K

    2006-01-01

    For Ag alloy film used for the storage media,it is required to have heat-resistance,anti-constant temperature and anti-constant humidity characteristics,corrosion resistance,while high reflectivity over Al is maintained. An Ag alloy thin film (additive element Pd,Cu,P) was created on glass substrates,and various heat treatment was conducted. Then,fine structure was observed on this thin film using AFM,and fine structure evaluation of the inside was carried out by the in-plane diffractometry and X-ray diffractometry,and in addition,residual stress analysis was carried out. These results were compared and were examined,and fine structure and physical property in a metallic thin film were evaluated,and usefulness of evaluation method was verified.

  8. Solid-liquid state pressure bonding of Si3N4 ceramics with aluminum based alloys and its mechanism

    2001-01-01

    Solid-liquid state pressure bonding of Si3N4 ceramics with aluminum based alloys, which contain a small amount of intermetallic compounds Al3Ti or Al3Zr, was investigated. With this new method, the heat resistant properties of the bonding zone metal are improved, and the joints' strengths at high temperature is increased. The joints' shear strength at room temperature and at 600  ℃ reach 126~133  MPa and 32~34  MPa, respectively, with suitable bonding pressure. The reaction between aluminum and Si3N4 ceramics, which produces Al-Si-N-O type compounds is the dominant interfacial reaction, while the reactions between the second active element Ti or Zr in the aluminum based alloys and Si3N4 ceramics also occur to some extend.

  9. Property and Degradation Analysis of 9Cr Heat-Resistant Steel%9Cr马氏体耐热钢的组织性能分析和失效研究

    袁超; 胡正飞; 武艳君

    2012-01-01

    9Cr martensitic heat-resistant steel, which has such excellent performances as high creep rupture strength and good corrosion resistance under 600 ℃ service condition , is the preferred steel for the equipments of fossil fired power plants. The performance and micrstructure degradation of 9Cr martensitic heat-resistant steel after long-term service have been analyzed. These summarization provide reference for the research in future.%9Cr马氏体耐热钢是目前制造热电厂关键设备的主选钢种,其最大的特点是600℃左右高温服役条件下具有良好的持久强度,较好的抗腐蚀性能.本文主要分析了9Cr马氏体耐热钢的基本结构和性能,对其性能进行了探讨,并进一步分析了长期服役后材料性能、组织退化的特点,为今后的研究提供有益的参考.

  10. Assessment of Embrittlement of VHTR Structural Alloys in Impure Helium Environments

    Crone, Wendy; Cao, Guoping; Sridhara, Kumar

    2013-05-31

    The helium coolant in high-temperature reactors inevitably contains low levels of impurities during steady-state operation, primarily consisting of small amounts of H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2} from a variety of sources in the reactor circuit. These impurities are problematic because they can cause significant long-term corrosion in the structural alloys used in the heat exchangers at elevated temperatures. Currently, the primary candidate materials for intermediate heat exchangers are Alloy 617, Haynes 230, Alloy 800H, and Hastelloy X. This project will evaluate the role of impurities in helium coolant on the stress-assisted grain boundary oxidation and creep crack growth in candidate alloys at elevated temperatures. The project team will: • Evaluate stress-assisted grain boundary oxidation and creep crack initiation and crack growth in the temperature range of 500-850°C in a prototypical helium environment. • Evaluate the effects of oxygen partial pressure on stress-assisted grain boundary oxidation and creep crack growth in impure helium at 500°C, 700°C, and 850°C respectively. • Characterize the microstructure of candidate alloys after long-term exposure to an impure helium environment in order to understand the correlation between stress-assisted grain boundary oxidation, creep crack growth, material composition, and impurities in the helium coolant. • Evaluate grain boundary engineering as a method to mitigate stress-assisted grain boundary oxidation and creep crack growth of candidate alloys in impure helium. The maximum primary helium coolant temperature in the high-temperature reactor is expected to be 850-1,000°C.Corrosion may involve oxidation, carburization, or decarburization mechanisms depending on the temperature, oxygen partial pressure, carbon activity, and alloy composition. These corrosion reactions can substantially affect long-term mechanical properties such as crack- growth rate and fracture

  11. Effects of room-temperature tensile fatigue on critical current and n-value of IBAD–MOCVD YBa2Cu3O7‑x /Hastelloy coated conductor

    Rogers, Samuel; Kan Chan, Wan; Schwartz, Justin

    2016-08-01

    REBa2Cu3O7‑x (REBCO) coated conductors potentially enable a multitude of superconducting applications, over a wide range of operating temperatures and magnetic fields, including high-field magnets, energy storage devices, motors, generators, and power transmission systems (Zhang et al 2013 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 23 5700704). Many of these are AC applications and thus the fatigue properties may be limiting (Vincent et al 2013 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 23 5700805). Previous electromechanical studies have determined the performance of REBCO conductors under single cycle loads (Barth et al 2015 Supercond. Sci. Technol. 28 045011), but an understanding of the fatigue properties is lacking. Here the fatigue behavior of commercial ion beam assisted deposition–metal organic chemical vapor deposition REBCO conductors on Hastelloy substrates is reported for axial tensile strains up to 0.5% and up to 100 000 cycles. Failure mechanisms are investigated via microstructural studies. Results show that REBCO conductors retained I c(ε)/I c0 = 0.9 for 10 000 cycles at ε = 0.35% and ε = 0.45% strain, and ε = 0.5% for 100 cycles. The main cause of fatigue degradation in REBCO conductors is crack propagation that initiates at the slitting defects that result from the manufacturing process.

  12. Alloy Fabrication Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL’s Alloy Fabrication Facility in Albany, OR, researchers conduct DOE research projects to produce new alloys suited to a variety of applications, from gas...

  13. Terbium base alloy

    Composition of terbium-5-7 % gadolinium alloy with high magnetostriction sensitivity (180x10-8 Oe) is suggested. The alloy is designed for usage under cryogenic temperature within 500-1500 Oe fields. Magnetostriction sensitivity of the suggested alloy is by 2-2.5 times higher, than that of well-known before one. 1 tab

  14. F-Alloy: An Alloy Based Model Transformation Language

    Gammaitoni, Loïc; Kelsen, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Model transformations are one of the core artifacts of a model-driven engineering approach. The relational logic language Alloy has been used in the past to verify properties of model transformations. In this paper we introduce the concept of functional Alloy modules. In essence a functional Alloy module can be viewed as an Alloy module representing a model transformation. We describe a sublanguage of Alloy called F-Alloy that allows the specification of functional Alloy modules. Module...

  15. Optimization of the Mg–Al–Zn–Ca–Sr alloy composition based on the parameter A′ in the constitutive equation for the climb-controlled dislocation creep including the stacking fault energy

    In this study, calcium, Ca-, and strontium, Sr-added AZ91 magnesium alloys, which were composed of magnesium, Mg–9 wt.% aluminum, Al–0.8 wt.% zinc, Zn–x wt.% Ca–y wt.% Sr, were formulated and designated as AZXJ91xy alloys. The optimum composition of die-cast AZXJ alloys has been studied by micro-structural analysis and through the application of the constitutive equation of deformation behavior at elevated temperatures that includes the stacking fault energy. The normalized plots of the tensile test results of AZXJ alloys at 448 K by the constitutive equation of deformation behavior indicated that the deformation mechanism of the alloys was climb-controlled dislocation creep. The value of the constant A′ in the constitutive equation differs in the different AZXJ alloys, even though the effect of the solid solution of added elements, which is considered in the stacking fault energy term, was eliminated from A′. Using A′ as an indicator parameter of the creep resistance with the tensile strength at ambient temperature, the optimum composition of the creep-resistant Mg–Al–Zn–Ca–Sr alloy has been determined, and its creep resistance was comparable to those of known heat-resistant magnesium alloys.

  16. A study on fretting fatigue life for the Inconel alloy 600 at high temperature

    Kwon, Jae-do [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Kyongsan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Dae-kyu [Graduate School of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Kyongsan (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Seung-wan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Kyongsan (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Dong-hwan [Graduate School of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Kyongsan (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Ilsup, E-mail: ilchung@yu.ac.k [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Kyongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Fatigue tests of the Inconel 600, a type of nickel-chromium based heat resistant alloy used for steam generator tubes in nuclear power plants, were carried out. Temperature increase to 320 {sup o}C did not change the fatigue strength much, but the fretting condition caused a significant reduction in the fatigue strength. The reduction at 10{sup 7} cycles was about 70% for both of room and the high temperatures. An apparatus to realize the fretting condition has been developed and instrumented to measure the normal and friction forces. The bridge type of contact pad was fabricated of SUS 409 stainless steel. Fracture surfaces and wear scars were observed by electron microscope and the profiles of wear scar were measured by non-contact 3D-profiler.

  17. High frequency fatigue test of IN 718 alloy – microstructure and fractography evaluation

    J. Belan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INCONEL alloy 718 is a high-strength, corrosion-resistant nickel chromium material used at -253 °C to 705 °C for production of heat resistant parts of aero jet engine mostly. The fatigue test provided on this kind materials were done via low frequency loading up to this time. Nowadays, needs of results at higher volume of loading cycles leads to high frequency loading with aim to shorten testing time. Fatigue test of experimental material was carried out at frequency 20 kHz with stress ration R = - 1 (push – pull at room temperature. It was found that this superalloy can still fracture after exceeding 108 cycles. Besides fatigue test were microstructural characterisation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM fractography evaluation done.

  18. Padrão eletroforético de proteínas resistentes ao calor em sementes de milho Electrophorectic pattern of the heat resistant proteins of corn seeds

    Solange Carvalho Barrios Roveri José

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Na aquisição e manutenção da tolerância à dessecação de sementes, há vários mecanismos envolvidos, entre eles a indução das proteínas resistentes ao calor. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar mudanças no padrão eletroforético das proteínas resistentes ao calor de sementes de milho submetidas a alta temperatura de secagem, associando-as à sua tolerância. Foram utilizadas sementes de linhagens, híbridos simples e híbridos recíprocos colhidas com teor de água de aproximadamente 35% e secadas a 45°C. Sementes das linhagens secadas à sombra foram utilizadas como controle e sua qualidade fisiológica foi avaliada por meio do teste de germinação. As proteínas resistentes ao calor foram extraídas de eixos embrionários das sementes em tampão Tris HCl 0,05 M. Não foi possível determinar uma banda específica da fração das proteínas resistentes ao calor que possa servir como marcador da tolerância à alta temperatura de secagem. Houve estabilidade nos padrões de bandas das proteínas provenientes de sementes submetidas à secagem artificial e natural, mesmo quando foram observadas variações nos valores de germinação. Os padrões eletroforéticos das proteínas resistentes ao calor foram semelhantes entre as sementes híbridas e os respectivos recíprocos.Several mechanisms are involved in the acquisition and maintenance of desiccation tolerance by the seeds. One of these mechanisms is related to the induction of heat resitant proteins. The objective of this work was to evaluate changes in the electophorectic patterns of the heat resistant proteins of corn seeds submitted to high drying temperature associating their expression with drying tolerance. Seeds of breeding lines, simple hybrids and respective reciprocals hybrids were utilized. The seeds were harvested with approximately 35% of water content and dried at 45°C. Seeds of lines dried under shadow were used as control and the physiological quality was

  19. An irradiation test of heat-resistant ceramic composite materials (2). Interim report on post-irradiation examinations of the second and third preliminary test: 98M-41A, 99M-30A

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been carrying out the research on radiation damage mechanism of heat-resistant ceramic composite materials, as one of the subjects of the innovative basic research on high temperature engineering using the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). A series of preliminary irradiation tests is being made using the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). The present report describes results of post-irradiation examinations (PIE) so far on specimens irradiated in the second and third capsule, designated 98M-41A and 99M-30A, to fast neutron fluencies of 1.0x1025 m-2 (E > 1 MeV) at temperatures of 973-1173K and 1273-1473K. The PIE were conducted as the fundamental statistic index of the diametral dimensions for irradiated specimen, irradiation induced dimensional change rate and thermal expansion rate. (author)

  20. Effects of heat treatment processes on microstructure and creep properties of a high nitrogen 15Cr-15Ni austenitic heat resistant stainless steel

    Highlights: → CTMT induced elongated clusters of fine (Nb,Cr,Fe)(C,N) particles. → Hot rolling in MTMT induced evenly distributed fine (Nb,Cr,Fe)(C,N). → Number and distribution of Cu precipitates not affected by hot rolling. → Distribution homogeneity of fine (Nb,Cr,Fe)(C,N) promotes creep strength increase. → Finer grain size structure promotes lower creep ductility. - Abstract: Conventional thermo-mechanical treatment (CTMT) and modified thermo-mechanical treatment (MTMT) process were applied for manufacturing a high nitrogen niobium-stabilized 15Cr-15Ni austenitic alloy. CTMT process consists of 5 h of solution treatment at 1270 deg. C followed by water quenching and subsequent aging at 820 deg. C for 50 h. MTMT process differs from CTMT process in hot plastic deformation performed immediately after the solution treatment at 1270 deg. C and longer aging time. Microstructure and creep properties of the steel obtained by both processing routes were investigated. Creep rupture tests at 750 deg. C showed double increase in rupture time brought about by MTMT process. Examination of crept microstructure by transmission electron microscopy revealed that the improved creep properties in MTMT process were mainly due to improved distribution uniformity of fine nano-sized carbonitride precipitates in the austenitic matrix and that MTMT process has no effects on the number density and distribution of copper precipitates present in the steel. However, the creep ductility in MTMT process drastically reduced comparing to CTMT process. The higher density of grain boundaries due to finer grain recrystallized microstructures and the formation of higher volume fraction of coarser M23C6 precipitates at the boundaries are believed to be the main reason for the lower creep ductility in MTMT process.

  1. High strength alloys

    Maziasz, Phillip James; Shingledecker, John Paul; Santella, Michael Leonard; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo; Sikka, Vinod Kumar; Vinegar, Harold J.; John, Randy Carl; Kim, Dong Sub

    2012-06-05

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tublar that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  2. High strength alloys

    Maziasz, Phillip James [Oak Ridge, TN; Shingledecker, John Paul [Knoxville, TN; Santella, Michael Leonard [Knoxville, TN; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; John, Randy Carl [Houston, TX; Kim, Dong Sub [Sugar Land, TX

    2010-08-31

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tubular that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  3. Determination of Lethality Rate Constants and D-Values for Heat-Resistant Bacillus Spores ATCC 29669 Exposed to Dry Heat from 125°C to 200°C

    Schubert, Wayne W.; Beaudet, Robert A.

    2011-04-01

    Exposing flight hardware to dry heat is a NASA-approved sterilization method for reducing microbial bioburden on spacecraft. The existing NASA specification only allows heating the flight hardware between 104°C and 125°C to reduce the number of viable microbes and bacterial spores. Also, the NASA specifications only allow a four log reduction by dry heat microbial reduction because very heat-resistant spores are presumed to exist in a diverse population (0.1%). The goal of this research was to obtain data at higher temperatures than 125°C for one of the most heat-resistant microorganisms discovered in a spacecraft assembly area. These data support expanding the NASA specifications to temperatures higher than 125°C and relaxing the four log reduction specification. Small stainless steel vessels with spores of the Bacillus strain ATCC 29669 were exposed to constant temperatures between 125°C and 200°C under both dry and ambient room humidity for set time durations. After exposures, the thermal spore exposure vessels were cooled and the remaining spores recovered and plated out. Survivor ratios, lethality rate constants, and D-values were determined at each temperature. The D-values for the spores exposed under dry humidity conditions were always found to be shorter than those under ambient humidity. The temperature dependence of the lethality rate constants was obtained by assuming that they obeyed Arrhenius behavior. The results are compared to those of B. atrophaeus ATCC 9372. In all cases, the D-values of ATCC 29669 are between 20 and 50 times longer than those of B. atrophaeus ATCC 9372.

  4. Biocompatibility of dental alloys

    Braemer, W. [Heraeus Kulzer GmbH and Co. KG, Hanau (Germany)

    2001-10-01

    Modern dental alloys have been used for 50 years to produce prosthetic dental restorations. Generally, the crowns and frames of a prosthesis are prepared in dental alloys, and then veneered by feldspar ceramics or composites. In use, the alloys are exposed to the corrosive influence of saliva and bacteria. Metallic dental materials can be classified as precious and non-precious alloys. Precious alloys consist of gold, platinum, and small amounts of non-precious components such as copper, tin, or zinc. The non-precious alloys are based on either nickel or cobalt, alloyed with chrome, molybdenum, manganese, etc. Titanium is used as Grade 2 quality for dental purposes. As well as the dental casting alloys, high purity electroplated gold (99.8 wt.-%) is used in dental technology. This review discusses the corrosion behavior of metallic dental materials with saliva in ''in vitro'' tests and the influence of alloy components on bacteria (Lactobacillus casei and Streptococcus mutans). The test results show that alloys with high gold content, cobalt-based alloys, titanium, and electroplated gold are suitable for use as dental materials. (orig.)

  5. Development of constitutive models for cyclic plasticity and creep behavior of super alloys at high temperature

    Haisler, W. E.

    1983-01-01

    An uncoupled constitutive model for predicting the transient response of thermal and rate dependent, inelastic material behavior was developed. The uncoupled model assumes that there is a temperature below which the total strain consists essentially of elastic and rate insensitive inelastic strains only. Above this temperature, the rate dependent inelastic strain (creep) dominates. The rate insensitive inelastic strain component is modelled in an incremental form with a yield function, blow rule and hardening law. Revisions to the hardening rule permit the model to predict temperature-dependent kinematic-isotropic hardening behavior, cyclic saturation, asymmetric stress-strain response upon stress reversal, and variable Bauschinger effect. The rate dependent inelastic strain component is modelled using a rate equation in terms of back stress, drag stress and exponent n as functions of temperature and strain. A sequence of hysteresis loops and relaxation tests are utilized to define the rate dependent inelastic strain rate. Evaluation of the model has been performed by comparison with experiments involving various thermal and mechanical load histories on 5086 aluminum alloy, 304 stainless steel and Hastelloy X.

  6. The DynAlloy Visualizer

    Bendersky, Pablo; Galeotti, Juan Pablo; Garbervetsky, Diego

    2014-01-01

    We present an extension to the DynAlloy tool to navigate DynAlloy counterexamples: the DynAlloy Visualizer. The user interface mimics the functionality of a programming language debugger. Without this tool, a DynAlloy user is forced to deal with the internals of the Alloy intermediate representation in order to debug a flaw in her model.

  7. Effect of sintering parameters on the density, microstructure and mechanical properties of the niobium-modified heat-resistant stainless steel GX40CrNiSi25-20 produced by MIM technology: Vplivi parametrov sintranja na gostoto, mikrostrukturo in mehanske lastnosti z niobijem legiranga i.e. legiranega ognjevzdržnega jekla GX40CrNiSi25-20, izdelanega z MIM-tehnologijo:

    Butković, Samir; Mehmedović, Muhamed; Oruč, Mirsada; Šarić, Emir

    2012-01-01

    Properties of heat-resistant, stainless-steel parts produced by the metal-injection-molding (MIM) process depend mostly on the sintering parameters. The effect of these sintering parameters on the densification, microstructure, hardness and tensile properties of the niobium-modified, heat-resistant stainless steel GX40CrNiSi25-20 were investigated. The prepared feedstock was injection molded to obtain tensile test specimens (ISO 2740). The debinding of the molded parts was performed using the...

  8. Application of pattern search algorithm for determining heat resistance of ground heat exchanger%模式搜索算法在地埋管换热器热阻确定中的应用

    张长兴; 郭占军; 刘玉峰; 丛晓春; 彭冬根

    2013-01-01

    Ground-coupled heat pump systems (GCHPs) have been recognized as being among the most energy efficient systems for space heating and cooling in residential and commercial buildings. GCHPs consist of a conventional heat pump coupled with a ground heat exchanger (GHE), and the knowledge of underground thermal properties is a prerequisite for the correct design of a GHE. For a GHE, the two important parameters are ground thermal conductivity and borehole thermal resistance, which is decided by borehole diameter, pipe size and configuration, pipe material, and the filling inside the borehole, so that a larger ground thermal conductivity and a small borehole thermal resistance allow the heat to be exchanged at a larger rate for a given borehole. Because of the two important parameters, a ground thermal response test (TRT) experiment is often performed on a test borehole for larger commercial installations, and it has been required in the GCHPs project whose building area is more than 5 000 m2 according to the technical code for GCHPs in China. Based on the relative TRT experimental data, how to calculate the true value of the two important parameters is necessary for GHE design, and the mathematical algorithm becomes one of the important impact factors when the experimental data from a TRT are analyzed and applied. Combining TRT experiments, this paper presents the pattern search algorithm (PSA) for determining ground thermal conductivity and heat resistance of a GHE based on a line source model. As an undetermined parameter, the heat resistance of a GHE is calculated without considering the physical parameters of the GHE, which decreases the calculating workload. In a calculating sample, the conclusion of applying PSA shows the relative errors of ground thermal conductivity and heat resistance of the GHE are respectively 1.42%and 1.73%, and the relative differences of the two parameters calculated by PSA are less, which proves the high precision of PSA. Finally, PSA

  9. Characterization of Alloys with Potential for Application in Cable-in-Conduit Conductors for High-Field Superconducting Magnets

    Since the introduction of the cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) concept, a variety of alloys have been proposed for fabricating the jacket. The jacket provides primary containment of the supercritical helium coolant and is typically also the primary structural component for the magnet. These functions create requirements for strength, toughness, weldability, and fabricability in tubular form. When the CICC uses Nb3Sn, there are additional requirements to accommodate the manufacturing and heat-treatment processes for the superconductor as well as its strain-sensitive performance during operation. Both of the present favorite jacket alloys, Incoloy 908 and modified (ultra-low carbon) 316LN, have both demonstrated acceptable functionality as well as a few undesirable features. In this paper, we present data from cryogenic mechanical tests on a group of heat-resistant, high-strength superalloys that appear to offer equal or better mechanical performance (e.g. strength, toughness, and modulus) while mitigating the undesirable aspects (e.g. SAGBO in the case of I908 and thermal-expansion mismatch with Nb3Sn in the case of 316LN). Data are presented for each alloy in the as-received and aged conditions. These alloys are presently being considered as candidates for use in the next-generation hybrid magnet for the NHMFL but may also be of interest to the fusion and energy storage communities

  10. Superplasticity in titanium alloys

    J. Sieniawski; Motyka, M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper reports characteristic of superplasticity phenomenon in titanium alloys and possibility of its applications.Design/methodology/approach: The main objective of the paper is to show features of superplastic forming of titanium alloys and current research trends aiming at widespread application of this technology.Findings: In the paper characteristic of selected superplastic titanium alloys was presented. The effect of microstructural parameters on superplasticity was consider...

  11. New Methodology to Predict the Long-term Creep Strength of Alloy 617 for a Very High Temperature Reactor

    Alloy 617 is a prime candidate material for the very high temperature gas-cooed reactor(VHTR) components due to its superior creep resistance above 800 .deg. C when compared to other candidate alloys; Haynes 230, Hastelloy-X and Alloy 800. Considerable creep data for Alloy 617 is available in the literature, and a draft Alloy 617 code case and ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel (BPV) Code-Section II have also provided allowable stress values for a 105 h design period at temperatures up to 982 .deg. C. However, the creep and oxidation behaviors for Alloy 617 are not well understood yet, and their long-term creep strength should be predicted for use in a design and analysis. So far, Larson-Miller (LM) parameter method known as a time-temperature parameter (TTP) has been the most commonly used to predict the long-term creep life from short-term creep data. TTP constant C in the LM method is unique for a given set of creep rupture data to be analyzed. Temperature dependency of a rupture life, dlogtr /d(1/T), should not change in the data set. But, this assumption is not always valid, because the C for the rupture life changes from a high value of the short term creep to a low value of the long term creep. So, Maruyama et al. have reported that the multi region analysis for Q in Orr-Sherby-Dorn (OSD) parameter could evaluate the long-term rupture of austenite stainless steels and 9-12% Cr steels accurately. However, an overestimation of the long term rupture in the LM parameter has not been reported for Alloy 617, and furthermore, to avoid it, a multi constant method for the C in the LM parameter has not been demonstrated by others. In this paper, a longer creep life for above 105h at 950 .deg. C was accurately predicted by using a new method with two C values in the LM parameter. Also, oxidation behavior was investigated by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis

  12. Corrosion resistant amorphous alloys

    A review of publication data on corrosion resistance of amorphous alloys and the methods of amorphization of surface layers of massive materials (laser treatment, iron implantation, detonation-gas spraying, cathode and ion sputtering, electrodeposition) was made. A study was made on corrosion properties of Fe66Cr11B10Si4 alloy in cast state and after laser irradiation, rendering the surface amorphous as well as the samples of Arenco iron and steel 20 with ion-plasma coatings of Fe-Cr-Ni-Ti alloy. It was established that amorphous coatings posses much higher corrosion resistance as compared to crystalline alloys on the same base

  13. PhMI-St-AN耐热改性剂的合成及与PVC的共混发泡%Synthesis of PhMI-St-AN Heat-Resistant Modifier and Blending Foaming with PVC

    马莉娜; 齐暑华; 程博; 何栋; 邱华; 尚磊

    2012-01-01

    采用悬浮共聚合法制备N-苯基马来酰亚胺-苯乙烯-丙烯腈( PhMI-St-AN)三元共聚物耐热改性剂,将其与聚氯乙烯(PVC)共混通过模压发泡制备了PVC/PhMI-St-AN泡沫塑料.借助傅里叶变换红外光谱、差示扫描量热分析等手段对PhMI-St-AN三元共聚物进行了表征,研究了共聚物组成对三元共聚物玻璃化转变温度(Tg)及其与PVC相容性的影响,考察了PVC/PhMI-St-AN泡沫塑料的热尺寸稳定性和吸水性.结果表明,PhMI-St-AN具有良好的耐热性能,其Tg随PhMI含量的增加而提高,PhMI-St-AN三元共聚物提高了PVC/PhMI-St-AN泡沫塑料的热尺寸稳定性,降低了吸水率.%N-phenyl maleimide-styrene-acrylonitrile ( PhMI-St-AN ) terpolymer was prepared through suspension copolymerization method, and the terpolymer as heat-resistant modifiers was blended with PVC to prepare PVC/PhMI-St-AN foam plastics by moulding and foaming. Then PhMI-St-AN terpolymer was characterized by the means of FTIR, DSC et al. Effects of the terpolymer composition on the glass transition temperature ( Tg) of PhMI-St-AN terpolymer and the compatibility between PhMI-St-AN terpolymer and PVC were studied. Meanwhile, the thermal dimensional stability and water absorption property of PVC / PhMI-St-AN foam plastics were researched. The results showed that PhMI-St-AN terpolymer had good heat resistance, and it' s Tg improved with the increase of PhMI content in the terpolymer. By adding PhMI-St-AN terpolymer, the thermal dimensional stability of PVC foam plastics was improved and the water absorption rate of foam plastics was reduced.

  14. Thermofluency in zirconium alloys

    A summary is presented about the theoretical and experimental results obtained at present in thermofluency under radiation in zirconium alloys. The phenomenon of thermofluency is presented in a general form, underlining the thermofluency at high temperature because this phenomenon is similar to the thermofluency under radiation, which ocurrs in zirconium alloys into the operating reactor. (author)

  15. High temperature niobium alloys

    Niobium alloys are currently being used in various high temperature applications such as rocket propulsion, turbine engines and lighting systems. This paper presents an overview of the various commercial niobium alloys, including basic manufacturing processes, properties and applications. Current activities for new applications include powder metallurgy, coating development and fabrication of advanced porous structures for lithium cooled heat pipes

  16. Ultrahigh temperature intermetallic alloys

    Brady, M.P.; Zhu, J.H.; Liu, C.T.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Wright, J.L.; Carmichael, C.A.; Walker, L.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

    1997-12-01

    A new family of Cr-Cr{sub 2}X based alloys with fabricability, mechanical properties, and oxidation resistance superior to previously developed Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb and Cr-Cr{sub 2}Zr based alloys has been identified. The new alloys can be arc-melted/cast without cracking, and exhibit excellent room temperature and high-temperature tensile strengths. Preliminary evaluation of oxidation behavior at 1100 C in air indicates that the new Cr-Cr{sub 2}X based alloys form an adherent chromia-based scale. Under similar conditions, Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb and Cr-Cr{sub 2}Zr based alloys suffer from extensive scale spallation.

  17. Alloys in energy development

    The development of new and advanced energy systems often requires the tailoring of new alloys or alloy combinations to meet the novel and often stringent requirements of those systems. Longer life at higher temperatures and stresses in aggressive environments is the most common goal. Alloy theory helps in achieving this goal by suggesting uses of multiphase systems and intermediate phases, where solid solutions were traditionally used. However, the use of materials under non-equilibrium conditions is now quite common - as with rapidly solidified metals - and the application of alloy theory must be modified accordingly. Under certain conditions, as in a reactor core, the rate of approach to equilibrium will be modified; sometimes a quasi-equilibrium is established. Thus an alloy may exhibit enhanced general diffusion at the same time as precipitate particles are being dispersed and solute atoms are being carried to vacancy sinks. We are approaching an understanding of these processes and can begin to model these complex systems

  18. 应用Schaal耐热试验法预测软包装风味鱼的货架期%Application of Schaal heat-resistant method in predicting the shelf life of flexible package flavor fish

    刘晶晶; 周如如; 王雪锋; 韩曜平; 戴阳军

    2012-01-01

    The shelf life of flavor fish was determined with heat-resistant test method. 50℃ , 60 ℃ was selected to accelerate the experiments. Acid value, peroxide value and microorganism activities of the flavor fish were determined at the expermiental temperature. With the combination of organoleptic evaluation, the shelf life was predicted according to the relations between temperature and shelf-life coefficient of fat. The results show that the shelf life of products without preservatives was 80 days or so, the shelf life of products adding 0.0075% potassium sorbet was 160 days or so.%采用高温"Schaal耐热试验法"预测风味鱼的货架期。选取40、60℃2个温度进行加速实验,以加速贮藏过程中产品酸价、过氧化值及微生物的变化为指标,结合产品感官评定,依据温度与油脂货架寿命系数的关系,预测产品货架期。结果表明不添加防腐剂的产品货架期为80d,添加0.0075%山梨酸钾的产品货架期为160d。

  19. Heat-resistant Performance Contrast of Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene Rubber and Hydrogenated Nitrile Rubber%氯磺化聚乙烯橡胶与氢化丁腈橡胶耐热性能对比

    韩雪; 陈丽飞; 金耀程

    2016-01-01

    研究了技术要求、性能相近的两种以氯磺化聚乙烯和氢化丁腈橡胶为主胶的硫化橡胶耐热老化性能情况。通过模拟高温使用环境,对两种硫化橡胶的拉伸强度、拉断伸长率、硬度(邵氏 A)的性能变化情况进行测定,得出了两种硫化橡胶的老化曲线及耐高温使用的能力对比情况。%Heat-resistant performances of chlorosulfonated polyethylene rubber and hydrogenated nitrile rubber were studied. Under simulated high temperature condition, the tensile strength, tensile elongation, hardness (Shaw A) performance of two kinds of rubber were measured, and the changes of two kinds of vulcanized rubber aging curves were drawn, and their high temperature resistant performances were compared.

  20. Brazing with plated alloys

    The use of braze alloy preforms on complex geometry components is at times a very difficult task requiring extensive handling of the parts or even tack welding of the preform to ensure that it is held in place. One method of overcoming these difficulties is the use of plated braze alloys (i.e., filler metals) applied directly to the braze region. Plating helps to avoid the potential for contamination resulting from handling and also ensures that the braze alloy is located properly. Examples are discussed in which an electroplated silver-copper alloy is used as an alternative to the BAg8 preforms and electroless nickel is used as a replacement for an amorphous Ni-P braze alloy foil. A toroidal cooling plate with helical flow channels was fabricated from oxygen-free high conductivity (OFHC) and brazed using the electroplated silver-copper alloy. The silver-copper braze alloy was applied to the copper substrate in a laminated fashion of alternating layers of silver and copper, which in combination approximated the eutectic composition (72% Ag-28% Cu by weight). Examination of the brazed assemblies indicated that in both cases the advantages of using plated braze alloys are numerous. These advantages include decreased labor, improved cleanliness and exactness of braze alloy placement. The primary disadvantage was an increased tendency for solidification defects presumably resulting from contaminants in the plating baths. This last observation is presently being examined in greater detail. The end results is that the assemblies brazed with the plated alloys were acceptable for the intended application and that the use of plating facilitated the successful assembly of these components

  1. FRAUD/SABOTAGE Killing Nuclear-Reactors Need Modeling!!!: ``Super'' alloys GENERIC ENDEMIC Wigner's-Disease/.../IN-stability: Ethics? SHMETHICS!!!

    O'Grady, Joseph; Bument, Arlden; Siegel, Edward

    2011-03-01

    Carbides solid-state chemistry domination of old/new nuclear-reactors/spent-fuel-casks/refineries/jet/missile/rocket-engines is austenitic/FCC Ni/Fe-based (so miscalled)"super"alloys(182/82;Hastelloy-X,600,304/304L-SSs,...690!!!) GENERIC ENDEMIC EXTANT detrimental(synonyms): Wigner's-disease(WD) [J.Appl.Phys.17,857 (46)]/Ostwald-ripening/spinodal-decomposition/overageing-embrittlement/thermal-leading-to-mechanical(TLTM)-INstability: Mayo[Google: fLeaksCouldKill > ; - Siegel [ J . Mag . Mag . Mtls . 7 , 312 (78) = atflickr . comsearchonGiant - Magnotoresistance [Fert" [PRL(1988)]-"Gruenberg"[PRL(1989)] 2007-Nobel]necessitating NRC inspections on 40+25=65 Westin"KL"ouse PWRs(12/2006)]-Lai [Met.Trans.AIME, 9A,827(78)]-Sabol-Stickler[Phys.Stat.Sol.(70)]-Ashpahani[ Intl.Conf. Hydrogen in Metals, Paris(1977]-Russell [Prog.Mtls.Sci.(1983)]-Pollard [last UCS rept.(9/1995)]-Lofaro [BNL/DOE/NRC Repts.]-Pringle [ Nuclear-Power:From Physics to Politics(1979)]-Hoffman [animatedsoftware.com], what DOE/NRC MISlabels as "butt-welds" "stress-corrosion cracking" endpoint's ROOT-CAUSE ULTIMATE-ORIGIN is WD overageing-embrittlement caused brittle-fracture cracking from early/ongoing AEC/DOE-n"u"tional-la"v"atories sabotage!!!

  2. FRAUD/SABOTAGE Killing Nuclear-Reactors!!! ``Super"alloys GENERIC ENDEMIC Wigner's-Disease IN-stability!!!

    Asphahani, Aziz; Siegel, Sidney; Siegel, Edward

    2010-03-01

    Siegel [[J.Mag.Mag.Mtls.7,312(78); PSS(a)11,45(72); Semis.& Insuls.5(79)] (at: ORNL, ANS, Westin``KL"ouse, PSEG, IAEA, ABB) warning of old/new nuclear-reactors/spent-fuel-casks/refineries/ jet/missile/rocket-engines austenitic/FCC Ni/Fe-based (so MIS- called)``super"alloys(182/82;Hastelloy-X; 600;304/304L-SSs; 690 !!!) GENERIC ENDEMIC EXTANT detrimental(synonyms): Wigner's- diseas(WD)[J.Appl.Phys.17,857(46)]; Ostwald-ripening; spinodal- decomposition; overageing-embrittlement; thermomechanical- INstability: Mayo[Google: ``If Leaks Could Kill"; at flickr.com search on ``Giant-Magnotoresistance"; find: [Siegel<<<``Fert"(88) 2007-Nobel/Wolf/Japan-prizes]necessitating NRC inspections on 40+25=65 Westin``KL"ouse PWRs(12/06)]; Lai[Met.Trans.AIME,9A,827 (78)]-Sabol-Stickler[PSS(70)]; Ashpahani[Intl.Conf. H in Metals (77)]; Russell[Prog. Mtls.Sci.(83)]; Pollard[last UCS rept. (9/95)]; Lofaro[BNL/DOE/NRC Repts.]; Pringle[Nuclear-Power:From Physics to Politics(79)]; Hoffman[animatedsoftware.com],...what DOE/NRC MISlabels as ``butt-welds" ``stress-corrosion cracking" endpoint's ROOT-CAUSE ULTIMATE-ORIGIN is WD overageing-embrit- tlement caused brittle-fracture cracking from early/ongoing AEC/DOE-n``u''tional-la``v''atories sabotage!!!

  3. Research concerning textures of high melting point metals and alloys and application

    When the utilization of high melting point metals and alloys as the heat resistant structural materials for fusion reactors and nuclear reactors is considered, it is necessary to accumulate the basic data sufficiently on the texture and recrystallizing behavior directly related to the grain boundary brittleness peculiar to Mo or W and the anisotropy of strength. This study was carried out from such viewpoint, and comprises the following three themes. 1) When sintered Mo round bars were zone-refined, rolled and recrystallized, the recrystallized texture was different corresponding to the number of pass in zone refining. The mechanism of controlling the recrystallized texture by very fine precipitates was examined. 2) From the cold-rolled texture, the recrystallized texture by rapid heating annealing and that by slow heating annealing of Mo and its alloy, the prospect of the control of texture was obtained. 3) The difference in the cold-rolled texture of BCC polyerystalline metals was studied. When the initial grain size was large, the grain boundary strength was lowered by decarbonizing treatment, and the grain boundary restriction was weakened during rolling. (Kako, I.)

  4. Re-formation and re-crystallisation behaviour of γ'-free ODS nickel-based alloy PM 1000

    The aim of this work was the examination of the coarse grain recrystallisation of the γ-free ODS nickel-based alloy PM 1000 depending on the various parameters due to the processing during heat treatment. After isotropic hot compacting (HIP) of the mechanically alloyed powder, one observes a homogeneous sub-microscopic fine grain structure which can coarsen during high temperature heat treatment, due to sufficiently high driving force from the grain boundary energy via abnormal grain growth to 600 times its size. The setting of the elongated high temperature resistant recrystallisation structure is, however, not connected with this. The dependence of the sucess of re-crystallisation on the re-forming parameters (re-forming temperature and degree of re-forming) was shown by a socalled re-forming card. In order to achieve re-crystallisation to a coarse and aligned grain structure, apart from a certain absolute minimum degree of re-forming, the re-forming must occur within a defined temperature window. The factor which considerably affects the grain size of the re-crystallisation structure which is finally achievable via heat treatment, is the primary grain size of the re-forming structure. After setting a corresponding re-forming fine structure by choosing suitable re-forming parameters, the alloy PM 1000 can be successfully converted into a coarse-grained heat-resistant re-crystallisation structure via isothermal heat treatment. (MM)

  5. Experimental Investigation on Heat-Resistant Layer of High Silica Phenolic Composites in Ramjet Chamber%冲压发动机高硅氧/酚醛燃烧室热防护层实验研究

    李志永; 郑日恒; 李立翰; 陈平; 侯昊晟

    2013-01-01

    With the advantage of simple process and low cost, high silica phenolic composite has been used as SRM thermal protection material. In order to investigate its application in ramjet thermal protection, heat-resistant layer of high silica phenolic composites in large scale ramjet chamber has been designed and experimental studied. The results show that high silica phenolic composites is adaptive to work properly up to 300 seconds in the harsh environment of ramjet chamber. Due to non-uniform temperature distribution of ramjet chamber, phenolic carbonization is non-synchronous with high silica fiber fusion, and crack and de-lamination of heat-resistant layer of high silica phenolic composites after working longer time( >300s) can occure. High silica phenolic composites form and performance changes greatly after pyrolysis and carbonization. For these problems, proposals are made and measures are suggested. This research is valuabe for sim-plifing process and reducing cost of the thermal structure in ramjet chamber.%高硅氧/酚醛树脂基复合材料具有成型工艺简单和成本低的特点,被广泛地应作固体火箭发动机的防热材料.为了探索高硅氧/酚醛树脂基复合材料应用于冲压发动机燃烧室被动热防护结构,对高硅氧/酚醛树脂基复合材料大尺度冲压发动机燃烧室热防护层进行了实验研究.研究结果表明,冲压发动机燃烧室热防护层能工作到300s,高硅氧/酚醛热防护层能够适应其恶劣的工作环境要求.同时,通过实验研究也表明,更长工作时间之后,由于冲压发动机燃烧室工作温度的不均匀,导致酚醛树脂基体的分解与增强的高硅氧纤维熔融不同步,且热解、碳化后的形态和性能都会发生较大的变化,由此会导致其尺寸收缩、力学性能降低、导热系数增加,更长时间工作容易产生裂纹、分层等问题.针对这些问题,提出了进一步研究的建议.本项研究对于发展成型工艺简

  6. Synthesis and characterization of heat-resistant and highly adherent copolyimide%高耐热高附着力共聚型聚酰亚胺的合成与表征

    廖海星

    2011-01-01

    以自制的二胺-二(3-胺基苯)-3,5-二(三氟甲基)苯基氧化膦(mDA6FPPO),4,4’-(1,3-苯二醚)二胺( PDODA)和二酐二苯酮四酸二酐(BTDA)进行共聚制得了高耐热高附着力的难溶性聚酰亚胺.测定了其特性粘度为0.414 dL/g;在氮气氛中5%的热分解温度(Td)高达580℃,10%热分解温度(Td)达607℃;附着力实验表明氧膦的引入提高了聚酰亚胺的附着力.%Heat-resistant and highly adherent copolyimide was prepared by using bis(3-aminophenyl)-3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl phosphine oxide(mDA6FPP0) , 4,4'-(1,3-phenyle-nedioxy) dianiline(PDODA) and 3,3' , 4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA). It was found that the solubility was poor in organic solvents. The intrinsic viscosity of the polymer was tested to be 0. 414 dL/g. The thermal decomposition temperature (Td) of 5% loss in N2 was observed to be 580℃ and 10% loss to be 607℃. Adhesiveness test proved that adhesiveness was improved when phosphine oxide was introduced.

  7. Machining of titanium alloys

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a collection of examples illustrating the resent research advances in the machining of titanium alloys. These materials have excellent strength and fracture toughness as well as low density and good corrosion resistance; however, machinability is still poor due to their low thermal conductivity and high chemical reactivity with cutting tool materials. This book presents solutions to enhance machinability in titanium-based alloys and serves as a useful reference to professionals and researchers in aerospace, automotive and biomedical fields.

  8. Refractory alloy component fabrication

    Purpose of this report is to describe joining procedures, primarily welding techniques, which were developed to construct reliable refractory alloy components and systems for advanced space power systems. Two systems, the Nb-1Zr Brayton Cycle Heat Receiver and the T-111 Alloy Potassium Boiler Development Program, are used to illustrate typical systems and components. Particular emphasis is given to specific problems which were eliminated during the development efforts. Finally, some thoughts on application of more recent joining technology are presented. 78 figures

  9. Pareto-optimal alloys

    Bligaard, Thomas; Johannesson, Gisli Holmar; Ruban, Andrei; Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2003-01-01

    cost. In this letter we present a database consisting of the lattice parameters, bulk moduli, and heats of formation for over 64 000 ordered metallic alloys, which has been established by direct first-principles density-functional-theory calculations. Furthermore, we use a concept from economic theory......, the Pareto-optimal set, to determine optimal alloy solutions for the compromise between low compressibility, high stability, and cost....

  10. Texture in low-alloyed uranium alloys

    The dependence of the preferred orientation of cast and heat-treated polycrystalline adjusted uranium and uranium -0.1 w/o chromium alloys on the production process was studied. The importance of obtaining material free of preferred orientation is explained, and a survey of the regular methods to determine preferred orientation is given. Dilatometry, tensile testing and x-ray diffraction were used to determine the extent of the directionality of these alloys. Data processing showed that these methods are insufficient in a case of a material without any plastic forming, because of unreproducibility of results. Two parameters are defined from the results of Schlz's method diffraction test. These parameters are shown theoretically and experimentally (by extreme-case samples) to give the deviation from isotropy. Application of these parameters to the examined samples showes that cast material has preferred orientation, though it is not systematic. This preferred orientation was reduced by adequate heat treatments

  11. WC-3015 alloy (high-temperature alloy)

    WC-3015 Nb alloy containing 28 to 30 Hf, 1 to 2 Zr, 13 to 16 W, 0 to 4 Ta, 0 to 5 Ti, 0.07 to 0.33 C, less than or equal to 0.02 N, less than or equal to 0.03 O, less than or equal to 0.001 H was developed for use at high temperature in oxidizing environments. Its composition can be tailored to meet specific requirements. When WC-3015 is exposed to O at elevated temperature, Hf and Nb oxidized preferentially and HfO2 dissolves in Nb2O5 to form 6HfO-Nb2O5. This complex oxide has a tight cubic lattice which resists the diffusion of O into the substrate. During 24-h exposure to air at 24000F, the alloy oxidizes to a depth of approximately 0.035 in. with a surface recession of 0 to 0.004 in. Oxidation resistance of WC-3015 welds and base material can be further enhanced greatly by applying silicide coatings. WC-3015 alloy can be machined by conventional and electrical-discharge methods. It can be hot worked readily by extrusion, forging or rolling. Cold working can be used at room or elevated temperature. It can be welded by the electron-beam or Tig processes. Physical constants, typical mechanical properties at 75 to 24000F, and effects of composition and heat treatment on tensile and stress-rupture properties of the alloy are tabulated

  12. Titanium alloys. Advances in alloys, processes, products and applications

    Blenkinsop, P.

    1993-01-01

    The last few years have been a period of consolidation of existing alloys and processes. While the aerospace industry remains the principal driving force for alloy development, the paper illustrates examples of new markets being established in "older" alloys, by a combination of product/process development and a re-examination of engineering design parameters. Considerable attention is still being directed towards the titanium aluminide systems, but other more conventional alloy developments ...

  13. Correlation between diffusion barriers and alloying energy in binary alloys

    Vej-Hansen, Ulrik Grønbjerg; Rossmeisl, Jan; Stephens, Ifan; Schiøtz, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the notion that a negative alloying energy may act as a descriptor for long term stability of Pt-alloys as cathode catalysts in low temperature fuel cells.......In this paper, we explore the notion that a negative alloying energy may act as a descriptor for long term stability of Pt-alloys as cathode catalysts in low temperature fuel cells....

  14. INVESTIGATION OF MAGNESIUM ALLOYS MACHINABILITY

    Berat Barıs BULDUM

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium is the lightest structural metal. Magnesium alloys have a hexagonal lattice structure, which affects the fundamental properties of these alloys. Plastic deformation of the hexagonal lattice is more complicated than in cubic latticed metals like aluminum, copper and steel. Magnesium alloy developments have traditionally been driven by industry requirements for lightweight materials to operate under increasingly demanding conditions. Magnesium alloys have always been attractive to designers due to their low density, only two thirds that of aluminium and its alloys [1]. The element and its alloys take a big part of modern industry needs. Especially nowadays magnesium alloys are used in automotive and mechanical (trains and wagons manufacture, because of its lightness and other features. Magnesium and magnesium alloys are the easiest of all metals to machine, allowing machining operations at extremely high speed. All standard machining operations such as turning, drilling, milling, are commonly performed on magnesium parts.

  15. Structural thermodynamics of alloys

    Manenc, Jack

    1973-01-01

    Technical progress has for a very long time been directly dependent on progress in metallurgy, which is itself connected with improvements in the technology of alloys. Metals are most frequently used in the form of alloys for several reasons: the quantity of pure metal in its native state in the earth's crust is very limited; pure metals must be extracted from ores which are themselves impure. Finally, the methods of treatment used lead more easily to alloys than to pure metals. The most typical case is that of iron, where a pure ore may be found, but which is the starting point for cast iron or steel, alloys of iron and carbon. In addition, the properties of alloys are in general superior to those of pure metals and modem metallurgy consists of controlling these properties so as to make them conform to the requirements of the design office. Whilst the engineer was formerly compelled to adapt his designs and constructions to the materials available, such as wood, stone, bronze, iron, cast iron and ordinary st...

  16. INVESTIGATION OF MAGNESIUM ALLOYS MACHINABILITY

    Berat Barıs BULDUM; Aydın SIK; Iskender OZKUL

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium is the lightest structural metal. Magnesium alloys have a hexagonal lattice structure, which affects the fundamental properties of these alloys. Plastic deformation of the hexagonal lattice is more complicated than in cubic latticed metals like aluminum, copper and steel. Magnesium alloy developments have traditionally been driven by industry requirements for lightweight materials to operate under increasingly demanding conditions. Magnesium alloys have always been attra...

  17. Productive Machining of Titanium Alloys

    Čejka, Libor

    2013-01-01

    This diploma thesis is focused on a productive machining of titanium alloys. At the beginning it deals about titanium and its alloys. It describes chip generation mechanism, tool blunting and surface quality. Further it contains modern strategies of efficient titanium alloys machining. Then it analyzes contemporary manufacturing technology of hinge made of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V in Frentech Aerospace s.r.o. company, and at the end finds possibility of savings by inovation of roughing process.

  18. De-alloyed platinum nanoparticles

    Strasser, Peter; Koh, Shirlaine; Mani, Prasanna; Ratndeep, Srivastava

    2011-08-09

    A method of producing de-alloyed nanoparticles. In an embodiment, the method comprises admixing metal precursors, freeze-drying, annealing, and de-alloying the nanoparticles in situ. Further, in an embodiment de-alloyed nanoparticle formed by the method, wherein the nanoparticle further comprises a core-shell arrangement. The nanoparticle is suitable for electrocatalytic processes and devices.

  19. Synthesis, characterization and application of some nanosized mixed metal oxides as high heat resistant pigments: Ca2CuO3, Ca3Co2O6, and NiSb2O6

    Graphical abstract: Mixed metal oxides have been widely used for various applications such as pigments in coatings. This work presents synthesis of a group of mixed metal oxides (Ca2CuO3, Ca3Co2O6 and NiSb2O6) by employing two simple synthesis techniques namely; co-precipitation and solid-state calcinations methods. The prepared pigments were characterized using X-ray diffraction, infra-red spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The obtained XRD results showed that single phase double oxide compounds were the main components in each case. SEM images showed the formation of either platelet or well defined polyhedron crystal structures based on the type of the double oxide and the preparation method. The physical, mechanical, heat and corrosion resistance of dry paint films were also examined. The obtained results revealed that the prepared calcium based pigments showed excellent heat and corrosion resistance and that with copper oxide is the best in performance among others. Highlights: ► Synthesis of single phase mixed metal oxide pigments by two simple methods; co-precipitation and solid state reaction. ► The painted films using the prepared pigments showed high heat resistant up to 600 °C. ► The painted films over mild steel sheets showed high corrosion resistant characteristics in 5% NaCl salt solution for 500 h. - Abstract: Mixed metal oxides have been widely used for various applications such as pigments in coatings. This work presents synthesis of a group of mixed metal oxides (Ca2CuO3, Ca3Co2O6 and NiSb2O6) by employing two simple synthesis techniques namely; co-precipitation and solid-state calcination method. The prepared pigments were characterized using X-ray diffraction, infra-red spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The obtained XRD results showed that single phase double oxide compounds were the main components in each case. SEM images showed the formation of either platelet or well defined polyhedron crystal structures

  20. Simulation and Experimental Study on Welding Temperature and Residual Stress Field of New Heat-resistant Steel%新型耐热钢焊接温度场与应力场仿真及试验研究

    代真; 姜运建; 章建叶; 李伟; 谢航云; 王卫峰

    2013-01-01

    利用Abaqus有限元软件,采用单元生死技术对P92钢的多道焊接过程进行模拟,获得了P92主蒸汽管道焊接温度场和焊接残余应力场的分布,采用红外热像仪和X射线测量系统对P92新型耐热钢主蒸汽管道焊接温度场和焊接残余应力场进行了试验测试.在此基础上分析了新型铁素体耐热钢Ⅳ型裂纹产生的原因.结果表明:温度场和残余应力场的模拟结果与试验结果吻合较好;建立的有限元模型能够准确、可靠地模拟焊接温度场和残余应力场;等效应力(Mises应力和最大主应力)是控制新型铁素体高温焊接构件Ⅳ型蠕变失效的主要原因之一.%Using finite element software Abaqus and the element birth and death technique, the multi-pass welding process for P92 main steam pipeline was simulated so as to obtain the welding temperature field and residual stress field, to which experimental tests were carried out with thermal infrared imager and X-ray diffraction technique. In addition, causes leading to type IV cracking of the new ferrite heat-resistant steel were subsequently analyzed. Results show that for both the welding temperature field and residual stress field, the simulated results agree well with that of the experiment, proving the newly-built finite element model to be accurate and reliable in simulation of the welding temperature field and residual stress field. The equivalent stress (Mises stress and the largest main stress) is found to be the main cause leading to the type IV creep failure of the new ferrite heat-resistnat weld joints.

  1. Hydrogen in titanium alloys

    The titanium alloys that offer properties worthy of consideration for fusion reactors are Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo-Si (Ti-6242S) and Ti-5Al-6Sn-2Zr-1Mo-Si (Ti-5621S). The Ti-6242S and Ti-5621S are being considered because of their high creep resistance at elevated temperatures of 5000C. Also, irradiation tests on these alloys have shown irradiation creep properties comparable to 20% cold worked 316 stainless steel. These alloys would be susceptible to slow strain rate embrittlement if sufficient hydrogen concentrations are obtained. Concentrations greater than 250 to 500 wppm hydrogen and temperatures lower than 100 to 1500C are approximate threshold conditions for detrimental effects on tensile properties. Indications are that at the elevated temperature - low hydrogen pressure conditions of the reactors, there would be negligible hydrogen embrittlement

  2. Welding of refractory alloys

    This review primarily summarizes welding evaluations supported by NASA-Lewis Research Center in the 1960s. A literature search run in preparation for this review indicates that more recent work is modest by comparison. Hence, this review restates these accomplishments briefly and addresses opportunities which have evolved in welding technology (such as lasers) in the intervening decade. Emphasis in this review is given to tantalum- and niobium-base alloys. Considerable work was also done to assure that a consistent comparison was made with tungsten. A wide variety of candidate alloys derived primarily from developments directed at aircraft propulsion applications were available. Early efforts by NASA were directed at screening studies to select promising structural alloys for the space power application. This objective required fine tuning of welding procedures, e.g., the demonstration of stringent standards for control of welding atmosphere to assure good corrosion resistance in liquid alkali metals. 16 figures, 6 tables

  3. Shape Memory Alloys

    Deexith Reddy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Shape memory alloys (SMAs are metals that "remember" their original shapes. SMAs are useful for such things as actuators which are materials that "change shape, stiffness, position, natural frequency, and other mechanical characteristics in response to temperature or electromagnetic fields" The potential uses for SMAs especially as actuators have broadened the spectrum of many scientific fields. The study of the history and development of SMAs can provide an insight into a material involved in cutting-edge technology. The diverse applications for these metals have made them increasingly important and visible to the world. This paper presents the working of shape memory alloys , the phenomenon of super-elasticity and applications of these alloys.

  4. Double Glow Plasma Surface Alloyed Burn-resistant Titanium Alloy

    ZHANG Ping-ze; XU Zhong; HE Zhi-yong; ZHANG Gao-hui

    2004-01-01

    Conventional titanium alloy may be ignited and burnt under high temperature, high pressure and high gas flow velocity condition. In order to avoid this problem, we have developed a new kind of burn-resistant titanium alloy-double glow plasma surface alloying burn-resistant titanium alloy. Alloying element Cr, Mo, Cu are induced into the Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6.5Al-0.3Mo-l.5Zr-0.25Si substrates according to double glow discharge phenomenon, Ti-Cr ,Ti-Mo, Ti-Cu binary burn-resistant alloy layers are formed on the surface of Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6.5Al-0.3Mo-l.5Zr-0.25Si alloys. The depth of the surface burn-resistant alloy layer can reach to above 200 microns and alloying element concentration can reach 90%.Burn-resistant property experiments reveal that if Cr concentration reach to 14%, Cu concentration reach to 12%, Mo concentration reach to 10% in the alloying layers, ignition and burn of titanium alloy can be effectively avoided.

  5. Double Glow Plasma Surface Alloyed Burn-resistant Titanium Alloy

    ZHANGPing-ze; XUZhong; HEZhi-yong; ZHANGGao-hui

    2004-01-01

    Conventional titanium alloy may be ignited and burnt under high temperature, high pressure and high gas flow velocity condition. In order to avoid this problem, we have developed a new kind of burn-resistant titanium alloy-double glow plasma surface alloying burn-resistant titanium alloy. Alloying element Cr, Mo, Cu are induced into the Ti-6A1-4V and Ti-6.5Al-0.3Mo-1.5Zr-0.25Si substrates according to double glow discharge phenomenon, Ti-Cr ,Ti-Mo, Ti-Cu binary burn-resistant alloy layers are formed on the surface of Ti-6A1-4V and Ti-6.5Al-0.3Mo-1.5Zr-0.25Si alloys. The depth of the surface burn-resistant alloy layer can reach to above 200 microns and alloying element concentration can reach 90%. Burn-resistant property experiments reveal that if Cr concentration reach to 14%, Cu concentration reach to 12%, Mo concentration reach to 10% in the alloying layers, ignition and burn of titanium alloy can be effectively avoided.

  6. Machining of Titanium Alloys

    Karásek, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of this work is the analysis of manufacturing costs for the component of wheel´s blower. Followed by setting up the size of specific cutting force for milling operation of the titanium alloy Ti-Al6-Mo2-Cr2-Fe-Si, the used tool was a milling cutter which is made out of sintered carbide with conical and spherical face. The final values which are at intervals of 1500 to 1800 MPa were compared with the values of the Sandvik Coromant firm kc = 1690 MPa, for titanium alloy with the st...

  7. Shape memory effect alloys

    Although the pseudo- or super-elasticity phenomena and the shape memory effect were known since the 1940's, the enormous curiosity and the great interest to their practical applications emerged with the development of the NITINOL alloy (Nickel-Titanium Naval Ordance Laboratory) by the NASA during the 1960's. This fact marked the appearance of a new class of materials, popularly known as shape memory effect alloys (SMEA). The objective of this work is to present a state-of-the-art of the development and applications for the SMEA. (E.O.)

  8. Soldering of aluminium alloys

    A literature survey about soldering in general and aluminium alloys soldering in particular is presented. The existing methods of soldering aluminium alloys are described. These include soldering with flux, soldering after preliminary plating, vacuum brazipressure and temperature (NTP), sample age calculation based on 14C half life of 5570 and 5730 years, age correction for NTP, dendrochronological corrections and the relative radiocarbon concentration. All results are given with one standard deviation. Input data test (Chauvenet's criterion), gas purity test, standard deviation test and test of the data processor are also included in the program. (author)

  9. Pemilihan Bahan Alloy Untuk Konstruksi Gigitiruan

    Medila Dahlan

    2008-01-01

    Pada kedokteran gigi bahan alloy sangat banyak digunakan dalam segala bidang. Dalam pembuatan konstruksi gigitiman biasanya digunakan alloy emas, alloy kobalt kromium, alloy nikei kromium dan alloy stainless steel sebagai komponen gigitiman kerangka logam serta pembuatan mahkota dan jembatan. Pemilihan bahan alloy dapat dilakukan berdasarkan sifat yang dimiiiki oleh masing-masing bahan alloy sehingga akan didapat hasil konstmksi gigitiruan yang memuaskan. Pada pemakaiannya didaiam mulut...

  10. Hydrogen embrittlement of vanadium alloys

    The mechanical properties of several vanadium alloys were measured with the hydrogen concentration high up to 113 mg/kg. The results showed that the alloys with low mechanical strength had better properties against hydrogen embrittlement. Oxygen in the alloy, especially that in the alloys with high strength, could enhance the hydrogen embrittlement. Mechanism analysis was given to show that the brittle fracture was mainly caused by intergranular failure. The effects of oxygen concentration and the strength of the alloy were both resulted from their contributions to the grain strength and the grain boundary strength

  11. Galvanic corrosion in odontological alloys

    Galvanic corrosion can occur when different alloys are placed in direct contact within the oral cavity or within tissues. Concern has been expressed associated with the coupling of selected restorative materials as well as implant material with various alloys used for restorative procedures. This could be critical if the crown or bridge had subgingival finish line with a metallic zone in contact with the tissue, and the implant was made in titanium alloy. The present work shows the results of galvanic coupling studies done on implants of titanium alloy connected to nickel-chromium and cobalt-chromium alloys. (Author)

  12. FRAUD/SABOTAGE Killing Nuclear-Reactors Need Modeling!!!: "Super"alloys GENERIC ENDEMIC Wigner's-Disease/.../IN-stability: Ethics? SHMETHICS!!!

    Asphahani, Aziz; Siegel, Sidney; Siegel, Edward

    2010-03-01

    Carbides solid-state chemistry domination of old/new nuclear- reactors/spent-fuel-casks/refineries/jet/missile/rocket-engines in austenitic/FCC Ni/Fe-based(so miscalled)``super"alloys(182/82; Hastelloy-X,600,304/304L-SSs,...,690!!!) GENERIC ENDEMIC EXTANT detrimental(synonyms): Wigner's-diseas(WD)[J.Appl.Phys.17,857 (1946)]/Ostwald-ripening/spinodal-decomposition/overageing- embrittlement/thermal-leading-to-mechanical(TLTM)-INstability: Mayo[Google:``If Leaks Could Kill"; at flickr.com search on ``Giant-Magnotoresistance"; find: Siegel[J.Mag.Mag.Mtls.7,312 (1978)]<<<``Fert"-"Gruenberg"(1988/89)2007-physics Nobel/Wolf/ Japan-prizes]necessitating NRC-inspections of 40+25 = 65 Westin- ``KLouse PWRs(12/2006)]-Lai[Met.Trans.AIME,9A,827(1978)]-Sabol- Stickler[Phys.Stat.Sol.(1970)]-Ashpahani[Intl.Conf. H in Metals, Paris(1977]-Russell[Prog.Mtls.Sci.(1983)]-Pollard[last UCS rept. (9/1995)]-Lofaro[BNL/DOE/NRC Repts.]-Pringle[Nuclear-Power:From Physics to Politics(1979)]-Hoffman[animatedsoftware.com], what DOE/NRC MISlabels as ``butt-welds" ``stress-corrosion cracking" endpoint's ROOT-CAUSE ULTIMATE-ORIGIN is WD overageing-embritt- lement caused brittle-fracture cracking from early/ongoing AEC/ DOE-n"u"tional-la"v"atories sabotage!!!

  13. Effect of Al added to a NiCrMo alloy on the development of the oxide layer of intermetallic coatings

    Components performance in different environment is strongly dependent on oxides that develop on their surfaces. This study analyzed the oxide layer that develops on coatings processed with mixtures of an atomized Hastelloy C alloy with Al powders. Powder mixtures containing 10, 20 and 30wt%Al were deposited on AISI 1020 and AISI304 steel plates. Coatings were subsequently exposed to 850 deg C for two hours in a low PO2 environment. X-ray diffraction was used to identify the phases that developed in the coating during processing and Raman analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy were used to characterize the oxide layers. The results showed that coatings processed with the richer Al mixtures, 30wt%Al, which developed NiAl aluminides, reduced the development of α alumina when processing was done on AISI 304. Coatings processed on AISI 1020 with the three powder mixtures tested developed the different allotropic forms of alumina, as predicted for the tested temperature. (author)

  14. Ferromagnetic bulk glassy alloys

    This paper deals with the review on the formation, thermal stability and magnetic properties of the Fe-based bulk glassy alloys in as-cast bulk and melt-spun ribbon forms. A large supercooled liquid region over 50 K before crystallization was obtained in Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si), Fe-(Cr, Mo, Nb)-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B) and (Fe, Co, Ni)-Zr-M-B (M=Ti, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo and W) systems and bulk glassy alloys were produced in a thickness range below 2 mm for the Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si) system and 6 mm for the Fe-Co-(Zr, Nb, Ta)-(Mo, W)-B system by copper-mold casting. The ring-shaped glassy Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si) alloys exhibit much better soft magnetic properties as compared with the ring-shaped alloy made from the melt-spun ribbon because of the formation of the unique domain structure. The good combination of high glass-forming ability and good soft magnetic properties indicates the possibility of future development as a new bulk glassy magnetic material

  15. Shape Memory Alloy Actuator

    Baumbick, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention discloses and teaches a unique, remote optically controlled micro actuator particularly suitable for aerospace vehicle applications wherein hot gas, or in the alternative optical energy, is employed as the medium by which shape memory alloy elements are activated. In gas turbine powered aircraft the source of the hot gas may be the turbine engine compressor or turbine sections.

  16. Alloy catalyst material

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel alloy catalyst material for use in the synthesis of hydrogen peroxide from oxygen and hydrogen, or from oxygen and water. The present invention also relates to a cathode and an electrochemical cell comprising the novel catalyst material, and the process use...

  17. High strength ferritic alloy

    A high strength ferritic steel is specified in which the major alloying elements are chromium and molybdenum, with smaller quantities of niobium, vanadium, silicon, manganese and carbon. The maximum swelling is specified for various irradiation conditions. Rupture strength is also specified. (U.K.)

  18. The in-situ Ti alloying of aluminum alloys and its application in A356 alloys

    2005-01-01

    This research has investigated the in-situ Ti alloying of aluminum alloys and its application to A356 alloys and wheels through the evaluation of microstructure and mechanical properties, The results showed that stable titanium content can be obtained by adding a small quantity of TiO2 into electrolyte of pure aluminum. Under this approach, a greater than 95% absorptivity of titanium was achieved, and the microstructure of the specimens was changed to fine equiaxed grains from coarse columnar grains in the pure aluminum. In comparison with the tradition A356 alloys and wheels, the corresponding microstructure in the testing A356 alloys and wheels was finer. Although the tensile strength was similar between the testing and the tradition A356 alloys and wheels, the ductility of the former (testing) is superior to that of the later (tradition), leading to an excellent combination of strength and ductility from the testing alloys and wheels.

  19. Advanced ordered intermetallic alloy deployment

    Liu, C.T.; Maziasz, P.J.; Easton, D.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The need for high-strength, high-temperature, and light-weight materials for structural applications has generated a great deal of interest in ordered intermetallic alloys, particularly in {gamma}-based titanium aluminides {gamma}-based TiAl alloys offer an attractive mix of low density ({approximately}4g/cm{sup 3}), good creep resistance, and high-temperature strength and oxidation resistance. For rotating or high-speed components. TiAl also has a high damping coefficient which minimizes vibrations and noise. These alloys generally contain two phases. {alpha}{sub 2} (DO{sub 19} structure) and {gamma} (L 1{sub 0}), at temperatures below 1120{degrees}C, the euticoid temperature. The mechanical properties of TiAl-based alloys are sensitive to both alloy compositions and microstructure. Depending on heat-treatment and thermomechanical processing, microstructures with near equiaxed {gamma}, a duplex structure (a mix of the {gamma} and {alpha}{sub 2} phases) can be developed in TiAl alloys containing 45 to 50 at. % Al. The major concern for structural use of TiAl alloys is their low ductility and poor fracture resistance at ambient temperatures. The purpose of this project is to improve the fracture toughness of TiAl-based alloys by controlling alloy composition, microstructure and thermomechanical treatment. This work is expected to lead to the development of TiAl alloys with significantly improved fracture toughness and tensile ductility for structural use.

  20. Interphase thermodynamic bond in heterogeneous alloys: effects on alloy properties

    Inconsistency between a conventional thermodynamic description of alloys as a mechanical mixture of phases and a real alloys state as a common thermodynamic system in which there is a complicated physical-chemical phases interaction has been considered. It is supposed that in heterogeneous alloys (eutectic ones, for instance), so called interphase thermodynamic bond can become apparent due to a partial electron levels splitting under phase interaction. Thermodynamic description of phase equilibrium in alloys is proposed taking into account a thermodynamic bond for the system with phase diagram of eutectic type, and methods of the value of this bond estimation are presented. Experimental evidence (Al-Cu-Si, Al-Si-Mg-Cu, U-Mo + Al) of the effect of interphase thermodynamic bond on temperature and enthalpy of melting of alloys are produced as well as possibility of its effects on alloys electrical conduction, strength, heat and corrosion resistance is substantiated theoretically

  1. High-temperature Titanium Alloys

    A.K. Gogia

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of high-temperature titanium alloys has contributed significantly to the spectacular progress in thrust-to-weight ratio of the aero gas turbines. This paper presents anoverview on the development of high-temperature titanium alloys used in aero engines and potential futuristic materials based on titanium aluminides and composites. The role of alloychemistry, processing, and microstructure, in determining the mechanical properties of titanium alloys is discussed. While phase equilibria and microstructural stability consideration haverestricted the use of conventional titanium alloys up to about 600 "C, alloys based on TiPl (or,, E,AINb (0, TiAl (y, and titaniumltitanium aluminides-based composites offer a possibility ofquantum jump in the temperature capability of titanium alloys.

  2. The improved effects by the combinative addition of lanthanum and samarium on the microstructures and the tensile properties of high-pressure die-cast Mg–4Al-based alloy

    Yang, Qiang; Bu, Fanqiang [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Meng, Fanzhi; Qiu, Xin; Zhang, Deping; Zheng, Tian; Liu, Xiaojuan [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Meng, Jian, E-mail: jmeng@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2015-03-25

    The combinative addition of two rare earths of lanthanum and samarium, which have different solid solubilities in magnesium, has improved effects on the microstructures and the tensile properties of the high-pressure die-cast Mg–4Al-based alloy. The microstructural characterizations illustrate that the studied alloy has very fine dendrite cells and four kinds of Al–(La–Sm) intermetallic phases with different morphologies, in which different rare earths are preferred. In addition, the transmission electron microscopy observations reveal that most Al{sub 2}(Sm–La) particles contain (111) twins, whose formation is probably related to the Al{sub 6}(Sm–La)Mn{sub 6} phase which could act as nucleation substrates for the twins during solidification. Finally, the studied alloy has outstanding tensile properties at both room temperature and high temperatures, compared with the conventional heat-resistant die-cast magnesium alloys, due to the cell-refinement strengthening, the intermetallic phase strengthening, and possibly the solid-solution strengthening.

  3. Rare earth ferrosilicon alloy

    In order to obtain RE ferrosilicon alloy with good quality and competitive price, it is essential that proper choice of raw materials, processing technology and equipments should be made based on the characteristics of Bai-Yun-Ebo mineral deposits. Experimental work and actual production practice indicate that pyrometallurgical method is suitable for the extraction and isolation of the rare earths and comprehensive utilization of the metal values contained in the feed material is capable of reducing cost of production of RE ferrosilicon alloy. In the Bai-Yun-Ebo deposit, the fluorite type medium lean ore (with respect to iron content) makes a reserve of considerable size. The average content of the chief constituents are given

  4. Thermodynamic Database for Zirconium Alloys

    Jerlerud Pérez, Rosa

    2006-01-01

    For many decades zirconium alloys have been commonly used in the nuclear power industry as fuel cladding material. Besides their good corrosion resistance and acceptable mechanical properties the main reason for using these alloys is the low neutron absorption. Zirconium alloys are exposed to a very severe environment during the nuclear fission process and there is a demand for better design of this material. To meet this requirement a thermodynamic database is useful to support material desi...

  5. High-temperature Titanium Alloys

    A.K. Gogia

    2005-01-01

    The development of high-temperature titanium alloys has contributed significantly to the spectacular progress in thrust-to-weight ratio of the aero gas turbines. This paper presents anoverview on the development of high-temperature titanium alloys used in aero engines and potential futuristic materials based on titanium aluminides and composites. The role of alloychemistry, processing, and microstructure, in determining the mechanical properties of titanium alloys is discussed. While phase eq...

  6. Structure of ordered alloys

    Recent progress in studying ordered alloys by lattice fringe imaging is reviewed. Firstly the optimum experimental conditions for producing images suitable for interpretation are outlined. Secondly lattice and conventional imaging are compared and the advantages of the former for obtaining atomic level detail and compositional estimates are described. Finally some important results from this program are discussed, particularly the evidence for a microdomain model of short-range order and the fine structure of various ordered lattice defects

  7. Oligocrystalline shape memory alloys

    Ueland, Stian M.; Chen, Ying; Schuh, Christopher A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2012-05-23

    Copper-based shape memory alloys (SMAs) exhibit excellent shape memory properties in single crystalline form. However, when they are polycrystalline, their shape memory properties are severely compromised by brittle fracture arising from transformation strain incompatibility at grain boundaries and triple junctions. Oligocrystalline shape memory alloys (oSMAs) are microstructurally designed SMA structures in which the total surface area exceeds the total grain boundary area, and triple junctions can even be completely absent. Here it is shown how an oligocrystalline structure provides a means of achieving single crystal-like SMA properties without being limited by constraints of single crystal processing. Additionally, the formation of oSMAs typically involves the reduction of the size scale of specimens, and sample size effects begin to emerge. Recent findings on a size effect on the martensitic transformation in oSMAs are compared and a new regime of heat transfer associated with the transformation heat evolution in these alloys is discussed. New results on unassisted two-way shape memory and the effect of loading rate in oSMAs are also reported. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Aluminum alloy impact sparkling

    M. Dudyk

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The cast machine parts are widely used in many branches of industry. A very important issue is gaining the appropriate knowledge relating to the application of castings in places of explosion risks including but not limited to mining, chemical industry and rescue works. A possibility of explosion risks occurrence following the impact sparkling of the cast metal parts is still not solved problem in scientific research. In relation to this issue, in this article, the results of the study are presented, and relating to the tendency to impact sparkling of the aluminium alloys used in machine building. On the grounds of the results obtained, it was demonstrated that the registered impact sparkles bunches of feathers from the analyzed alloys: AlSi7Mg, (AK7; AlSi9Mg, (AK9; AlSi6Cu4, (AK64 and AlSi11, (AK11 show significant differences between each other. The quantitative analysis of the temperature distribution and nuclei surface area performed on the example of the alloy AK9 (subjected to defined period of corrosion allows for the statement that they are dangerous in conditions of explosion risk. Following this fact, designers and users of machine parts made from these materials should not use them in conditions where the explosive mixtures occur.

  9. Amorphous yttrium-iron alloys

    The magnetic properties of amorphous yttrium-iron alloys Ysub(1-x)Fesub(x) have been studied over a wide concentration range 0.32 2Fe17 alloys, lead in the amorphous state to spin-glass behaviour and asperomagnetic order. The dominant positive interactions produce short-range ferromagnetic correlations which persist up to room temperature. However magnetic saturation cannot be achieved for any of the alloys in applied fields of up to 180 kOe, indicating that strong negative interactions are also present. Exchange interactions become increasingly positive with increasing x, and the magnetic properties of iron-rich alloys approach those of a normal ferromagnet. (author)

  10. Titanium and titanium alloy forgings

    The specification covers nine grades of annealed titanium and titanium alloy forgings as follows: Grade F-1, F-2, F-3, and F-4 unalloyed titanium; Grade F-5 titanium alloy (6% aluminum, 4% vanadium); Grade F-6 titanium alloy (5% aluminum, 2.5% tin); Grade F-7 and F-11 unalloyed titanium plus palladium; Grade F-12 titanium alloy (0.3% molybdenum, 0.8% nickel). The specification includes ordering information, manufacture, chemical requirements, mechanical requirements, nondestructive tests, dimensions and permissible variations, finish, certification, packaging, and marking

  11. Electron Theory in Alloy Design

    Pettifor, DG

    1992-01-01

    Presents recent developments in electron theory which have impacted upon the search for novel alloys with improved mechanical or magnetic properties. The ten chapters outline the ability of electron theory to make quantitative predictions (such as heats of formation, planar fault energies, shear moduli and magnetic anisotropy), and to provide simplifying concepts for understanding trends in alloy behaviour.

  12. Mo-Si alloy development

    Liu, C.T.; Heatherly, L.; Wright, J.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The objective of this task is to develop new-generation corrosion-resistant Mo-Si intermetallic alloys as hot components in advanced fossil energy conversion and combustion systems. The initial effort is devoted to Mo{sub 5}-Si{sub 3}-base (MSB) alloys containing boron additions. Three MSB alloys based on Mo-10.5Si-1.1B (wt %), weighing 1500 g were prepared by hot pressing of elemental and alloy powders at temperatures to 1600{degrees}C in vacuum. Microporosities and glassy-phase (probably silicate phases) formations are identified as the major concerns for preparation of MSB alloys by powder metallurgy. Suggestions are made to alleviate the problems of material processing.

  13. Glass formation in eutectic alloys

    We have analyzed the glass forming ability around eutectic composition in terms of the competitive growth/formation of primary dendrites, eutectic and glass. It is concluded that the glass forming ability of a eutectic alloy system depends on the type of the eutectics, i.e. symmetric or asymmetric eutectic coupled zone. For the alloy systems with symmetric eutectic coupled zone, the best glass forming alloys should be at or very close to the eutectic composition. For the alloys with asymmetric eutectic coupled zone, which is associated with the irregular eutectic, the best glass forming alloys should be at off-eutectic compositions, probably towards the side of the faceted phase with a high entropy in the phase diagram. (orig.)

  14. Alloyed pleasures: Multimetallic cocktails

    Ranganathan, S

    2003-01-01

    The English language insists on unalloyed pleasures, thereby implying that the sensation of pleasure must be pure and not admixed with other emotions. Exactly the opposite rules in metallurgy, where pure metals have few uses and can always be improved upon by alloying. It is true that the civilizational journey of mankind began with the discovery of native metals such as gold and copper as pure metals. In fact this love at first sight of gold several millennia ago has persisted till this day ...

  15. Heating uranium alloy billets

    Data were obtained for the surface heat transfer coefficient of uranium and the alloys of uranium-0.75 wt percent titanium, uranium-6 wt percent niobium, and uranium-7.5 wt percent niobium-2.5 wt percent zirconium. Samples were heated to 8500C in both a molten salt bath and an argon-purged air furnace, then the samples were cooled in air. Surface heat transfer coefficients were calculated from the experimental data for both heating and cooling of the metals. 4 fig, 4 tables

  16. Corrosion of aluminum alloys as a function of alloy composition

    A study was initiated which included nineteen aluminum alloys. Tests were conducted in high purity water at 3600C and flow tests (approx. 20 ft/sec) in reactor process water at 1300C (TF-18 loop tests). High-silicon alloys and AlSi failed completely in the 3600C tests. However, coupling of AlSi to 8001 aluminum suppressed the failure. The alloy compositions containing iron and nickel survived tht 3600C autoclave exposures. Corrosion rates varied widely as a function of alloy composition, but in directions which were predictable from previous high-temperature autoclave experience. In the TF-18 loop flow tests, corrosion penetrations were similar on all of the alloys and on high-purity aluminum after 105 days. However, certain alloys established relatively low linear corrosion rates: Al-0.9 Ni-0.5 Fe-0.1 Zr, Al-1.0 Ni-0.15 Fe-11.5 Si-0.8 Mg, Al-1.2 Ni-1.8 Fe, and Al-7.0 Ni-4.8 Fe. Electrical polarity measurements between AlSi and 8001 alloys in reactor process water at temperatures up to 1500C indicated that AlSi was anodic to 8001 in the static autoclave system above approx. 500C

  17. Forming of fine-grained superplastic structures of two types of precipitation in austenite alloys on Ni-Cr and Co-Ni basis

    Full text: Authors of the submitted work carry out research of influence of a high degree of cold rolling deformation on structural-phase transformations at the subsequent ageing industrial dispersion-hardening alloys on Ni-Cr and Mo-Ni basis. By optical metallography and transmission electronic microscopy methods the parameters the dislocations' structure forming by different degrees of deformation and structure formed during precipitation from a solid solution at ageing of were established. The data of researches of thin structure are compared to the data on mechanical properties of a material. Using features of preliminary cold deformation at ageing alloys, it is possible to offer phase and structural transformations easily sold ways of reception of a ultra fine-grained microstructure in alloys 36NKhTYu, 40KhNYu, 67KN5B that will allow to realize in the given alloys transition in a superplastic condition. In this connection acknowledgement of superplastic properties of the given alloys with the various mechanical and thermal processing (MTP) is actual. MTP of alloys 36NKhTYu, 40KhNYu, 67KN5B (industrial dispersion-hardening heat resisting alloys of standard structure) included training on a single-phase solid solution, flattering and ageing in vacuum is no worse 1 Pa. Research of thin structure was carried out on transmission electronic microscope JEM-100 CX (foil). For studying the common character of structure used an optical microscope 'Neophot 21', and diffractometer DRON -3 for studying phase structure of samples. High-temperature test of samples of an alloys 40KhNYu and 67KN5B on a stretching carried out on installation 1246P-2/2500 in an interval of temperatures 1153-1323 K in vacuum with residual pressure not worse 10-2 Pa. Mechanical tests included one axis static tension measurement of breaking point σb, relative fluid limit σ02, relative lengthening till gap δ (%). The fractography a cross break studied on electron-zoned microanalyzer SUPERPROBE

  18. Stable palladium alloys for diffusion of hydrogen

    Patapoff, M.

    1973-01-01

    Literature search on hydrogen absorption effect on palladium alloys revealed existence of alloy compositions in which alpha--beta transition does not take place. Survey conclusions: 40 percent gold alloy of palladium should be used in place of palladium; alloy must be free of interstitial impurities; and metallic surfaces of tube must be clean.

  19. [Prosthetic dental alloys. 1].

    Quintero Engelmbright, M A

    1990-11-01

    A wide variety of restoration materials for prosthetic odontology is now available to the dental surgeon, either of the covalent type (acrylic resins), metallic (alloys), ionic (porcelains), or a combination of them, as in the so-called composites, such as the composite resins, or as ceramics-metals mixtures. An example of the latter is a product called Miracle-Mix, a glass ionomere cement reinforced with an amalgam alloy. In those cases where the blend is done by a synterization process, the material is called Cermet. The above-listed alternatives clearly evidence day-to-day advances in odontology, with researchers and manufacturers engaged the world over in improving existing products or developing new ones to enrich the dentist's armamentarium. As a side effect of this constant renewal, those dentists who have failed to update their knowledge fall behind in their practice as they persist in using products they have known for years, and may be deceived by advertisements of too-often unreliable products. It is, therefore, important to be aware of available products and their latest improvements. PMID:2132464

  20. [Prosthetic dental alloys (2)].

    Quintero Englembright, M A

    1990-12-01

    A wide variety of restoration materials for prosthetic odontology is now available to the dental surgeon, either of the covalent type (acrylic resins), metallic (alloys), ionic (porcelains), or a combination of them, as in the so-called composites, such as the composite resins, or as ceramics-metals mixtures. An example of the latter is a product called Miracle-Mix, a glass ionomere cement reinforced with an amalgam alloy. In those cases where the blend is done by a synterization process, the material is called Cermet. The above-listed alternatives clearly evidence day-to-day advances in odontology, with researchers and manufacturers engaged the world over in improving existing products or developing new ones to enrich the dentist's armamentarium. As a side effect of this constant renewal, those dentists who have failed to update their knowledge fall behind in their practice as they persist in using products they have known for years, and may be deceived by advertisements of too-often unreliable products. It is, therefore, important to be aware of available products and their latest improvements. PMID:2132470

  1. Oxidation resistant alloys, method for producing oxidation resistant alloys

    Dunning, John S.; Alman, David E.

    2002-11-05

    A method for producing oxidation-resistant austenitic alloys for use at temperatures below 800 C. comprising of: providing an alloy comprising, by weight %: 14-18% chromium, 15-18% nickel, 1-3% manganese, 1-2% molybdenum, 2-4% silicon, 0% aluminum and the balance being iron; heating the alloy to 800 C. for between 175-250 hours prior to use in order to form a continuous silicon oxide film and another oxide film. The method provides a means of producing stainless steels with superior oxidation resistance at temperatures above 700 C. at a low cost

  2. Mechanical alloying of aluminium-lithium-magnesium alloy powders

    The production of high-purity aluminium-lithium-magnesium alloy powders, by mechanical alloying through grinding in a vibratory mill under high vacuum at room temperature, is described in details. The source materials for the grinding mixture were: aluminium-lithium alloy powder obtained by thermal vacuum-dehydrogenization of AlLiH4 hydride; magnesium metal powder; and chemically deoxidized aluminium metal powder. The implications which arose from the high reactivity of the component elements are discussed, and the measures taken to overcome them are described. The procedures used for the chemical analysis and powder characterization are given. (orig.)

  3. ZG12Cr9Mo1Co1NiVNbNB耐热钢材料开发应用研究%Applied Research of ZG12Cr9Mo1Co1NiVNbNB Heat-resistant Steel Materials

    张波; 范华; 龙老虎; 高振桓; 张邦强; 聂丽萍

    2016-01-01

    With steam parameters of the ultra-supercritical thermal power unit increase to 28 MPa~30 MPa/600℃/620℃, perfor⁃mance requirements of heat-resistant steel are higher. In this condition, the current heat-resistant steel casting materials can not be long-running, and a new heat-resistant steel material containing Co and B is developed. Chemical composition , organization and phas⁃es of ZG12Cr9Mo1Co1NiVNbNB are calculated by the advanced computing software JMatPro. Test blocks are manufactured based on results of the JMatPro calculation. Conventional mechanical properties, high temperature tensile, fracture mechanics, high temperature lasting-creep properties, organizational stability, phase analysis and conventional mechanical after multiple tempering test are tested and analyzed. It's shown that ZG12Cr9Mo1Co1NiVNbNB material is suitable for high temperature and high pressure components of 620 ℃ultra-supercritical units such as valves and cylinders.%随着火电超超临界机组蒸汽参数提高到28 MPa~30 MPa/600℃/620℃,对耐热钢的性能要求进一步提高,在目前耐热钢铸件材料无法满足该参数长期运行的条件下,开发了一种含Co和B的新型耐热钢材料。利用先进的JMatPro计算软件对ZG12Cr9Mo1Co1NiVNbNB进行成分配比和组织及相的模拟,并按计算确定的成分进行试制,通过对进口试块的常规力学性能、高温瞬时拉伸、断裂力学、高温持久-蠕变性能、组织稳定性及相分析和多回火试验后常规力学等使用性能和工艺性能进行了测试、分析,研究表明ZG12Cr9Mo1Co1NiVNbNB材料可适用于620℃等级超超临界机组阀门、汽缸等高温高压部件。

  4. Density of Liquid Ni-Cr Alloy

    2003-01-01

    The density of liquid Ni-Cr alloy was measured by a modified sessile drop method. The density of liquid Ni-Cr alloywas found to decrease with increasing temperature and Cr concentration in the alloy. The molar volume of liquidNi-Cr alloy increases with increasing the Cr concentration in the alloy. The molar volume of Ni-Cr alloy determinedin the present work shows a positive deviation from the linear molar volume.

  5. Improvement factors for steam generator tubing alloys

    Predictions of reliability gains associated with the use of advanced alloys have been made in the past through the use of improvement factors. Improvement factors for thermally treated Alloy 600 (Alloy 600TT) and thermally treated Alloy 690 (Alloy 690TT) steam generator tubing were previously developed and have been used in the most recent revision of the EPRI Secondary Water Chemistry Guidelines. However, due to the long expected failure times relative to field experience, field-experience-based estimates of these improvement factors continue to be overly conservative (as shown by the absence of wide spread in-service cracking of these materials). A recent study updated the previously developed improvement factors associated with the use of advanced alloys. This paper will discuss the development of relative improvement factors for Alloy 600TT, Alloy 690TT, and Alloy 800 nuclear grade (Alloy 800NG) with respect to mill annealed Alloy 600 (Alloy 600MA) steam generator tubing. The various uses which are appropriate for these improvement factors will be discussed. This presentation focuses on primary side tube degradation (PWSCC), although this project also addressed secondary side tube degradation (ODSCC). The following four techniques were used to assess the performance of the Alloy 600TT, Alloy 690TT, and Alloy 800NG relative to that of Alloy 600MA: Field data on tube degradation were evaluated using statistical techniques, based on plant population Weibull/Weibayes analyses, similar to those employed in the past and reviewed by industry experts as part of the EPRI guidelines revision process. This paper presents updated improvement factors based on further accumulation of operating experience with Alloy 600TT, Alloy 800NG, and Alloy 690TT; Field data on tube degradation were evaluated using alternative statistical techniques which are not as overly conservative as those used in the past; Field data on tube plug cracking were evaluated to compare the performance

  6. Characterization of copper base alloys obtained by mechanical alloying

    The micro and nano structure of mechanical alloys of Cu-Al, Cu-V and Cu-Ti obtained by reactive milling, using an Attritor mill, was analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). In order to study the evolution of the alloys during the manufacturing process and during the period of service, the DSC and XRD were done before the mechanical milling, after 30 hours of milling and after hot extrusion of the alloyed powders. Using the Williamson-Hall and Klug-Alexander methods the size of the crystallites and the density of the dislocations in the prepared alloys were evaluated. In all the milled powder cases, the grain and crystallite size was found to be nanometric, the dispersoids were also nanometric and there was texture in the copper planes (220), in the cases of the milled Cu- Ti and Cu-V powders (au)

  7. Alloying and Casting Furnace for Shape Memory Alloys Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The concept in the proposed project is to create a melting, alloying and casting furnace for the processing titanium based SMA using cold crucible techniques. The...

  8. Laser surface alloying of aluminium-transition metal alloys

    Almeida, A.

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser surface alloying has been used as a tool to produce hard and corrosion resistant Al-transition metal (TM alloys. Cr and Mo are particularly interesting alloying elements to produce stable highstrength alloys because they present low diffusion coefficients and solid solubility in Al. To produce Al-TM surface alloys a two-step laser process was developed: firstly, the material is alloyed using low scanning speed and secondly, the microstructure is modified by a refinement step. This process was used in the production of Al-Cr, Al-Mo and Al-Nb surface alloys by alloying Cr, Mo or Nb powder into an Al and 7175 Al alloy substrate using a CO2 laser. This paper presents a review of the work that has been developed at Instituto Superior Tecnico on laser alloying of Al-TM alloys, over the last years.

    En el presente trabajo se estudia la aleación superficial mediante láser de aluminio con metales de transición. El cromo y el molibdeno son particularmente interesantes porque producen aleaciones de alta resistencia y por el bajo coeficiente de difusión y solución sólida en aluminio. Para producir estas aleaciones se ha seguido un procedimiento desarrollado en dos partes. En primer lugar, el material se alea usando una baja velocidad de procesado y en segundo lugar la estructura se modifica mediante un refinamiento posterior. Este procedimiento se ha empleado en la producción de aleaciones Al-Cr, Al-Mo y Al-Nb mediante aleación con láser de CO2 de polvos de Cr, Mo o Nb en aluminio y la aleación 7175. Este trabajo es una revisión del desarrollado en el Instituto Superior Técnico de Lisboa en los últimos años.

  9. Dislocation Formation in Alloys

    Minami, Akihiko; Onuki, Akira

    2006-05-01

    An interaction between dislocations and phase transitions is studied by a phase field model both in two and three dimensional systems. Our theory is a simple extension of the traditional linear elastic theory, and the elastic energy is a periodic function of local strains which is reflecting the periodicity of crystals. We find that the dislocations are spontaneously formed by quenching. Dislocations are formed from the interface of binary alloys, and slips are preferentially gliding into the soft metals. In three dimensional systems, formation of dislocations under applied strain is studied in two phase state. We find that the dislocation loops are created from the surface of hard metals. We also studied the phase separation above the coexisting temperature which is called as the Cottrell atmosphere. Clouds of metals cannot catch up with the motion of dislocations at highly strained state.

  10. Microstructure and Fracture Morphology of 12Cr1MoV Heat-resistant Steel Welded with ER55-B6 Welding Wire%ER55-B6焊丝焊接12Cr1MoV耐热钢的组织与断口形貌

    罗昌森; 罗宏; 徐晓东; 杨元意

    2011-01-01

    应用ER55-B6焊丝焊接12Cr1MoV耐热钢,焊后进行740℃回火热处理,并对其焊接接头进行了组织分析、强度和维氏硬度测试,以及断口形貌观察.结果表明,回火处理后的焊缝及热影响区组织为铁索体、球化珠光体及均匀分布的第二相质点,相分布合理;断口形貌显示大部分为韧窝,属韧性断裂,抗冲击性好.应用ER55-B6焊丝焊接12Cr1MoV钢,能满足耐热钢焊接性能要求.%ER55-B6 welding wire was used for welding 12CrlMoV heat-resistant steel, the steel was tempered at 740℃ after welding. The strength and hardness of the welding were measured. The morphology of weld fracture was observed by SEM. The results show that the weld seam and heat affected zone after tempering are composed of ferrite, spheroidization of pearlite and uniform distribution of second phase particles, the distribution of second phase is reasonable. The fracture surface shows that most of the dimple is ductile fracture, so with good impact resistance. Using ER55-B6 welding wire welding 12CrlMoV steel can meet the performance requirement of welding heat-resistant steel.

  11. Emissivity measurements on aeronautical alloys

    Campo, L. del, E-mail: leire.del-campo@cnrs-orleans.f [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain); Perez-Saez, R.B., E-mail: raul.perez@ehu.e [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain); Instituto de Sintesis y Estudio de Materiales, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Gonzalez-Fernandez, L. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain); Esquisabel, X.; Fernandez, I. [Industria de Turbo Propulsores, S.A., Planta de Zamudio, Edificio 300, 48170 Zamudio, Bizkaia (Spain); Gonzalez-Martin, P. [Industria de Turbo Propulsores, S.A., Parque empresarial San Fernando, Avda. Castilla 2, 28830 San Fernando de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Tello, M.J. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (Spain); Instituto de Sintesis y Estudio de Materiales, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-01-21

    The emissivity of three Ni and Co based aeronautical alloys is analyzed in this paper. These alloys are employed in high temperature environments whenever good corrosion resistance, high temperature resistance and high strength are essential. Thus, apart from the aeronautical industry, these alloys are also used in other technological applications, as for example, aerospace, nuclear reactors, and tooling. The results in this paper extend the emissivity data for these alloys available in the literature. Emissivity dependence on the radiation wavelength (2-22 {mu}m), sample temperature (200-650 {sup o}C) and emission angle (0-85{sup o}) has been investigated. In addition, the effect of surface finish and oxidation has also been taken into consideration. The data in this paper have several applications, as temperature measurement of a target by pyrometry, low observability of airplanes and thermal radiation heat transfer simulation in airplane nozzles or furnaces.

  12. Auger electron spectroscopy of alloys

    This thesis describes how the surface compositions of some alloys can be determined by Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES). The motivation for this research and the reasons for the choice of alloy systems studied are formulated. The theoretical background of AES is briefly discussed and the apparatus used and the experimental procedures applied are described. Four alloy systems have been investigated in this thesis - Ni-Cu and Pd - Ag (consisting of a component active in most cataytic reactions - Ni and Pd; and a component which is almost inactive for a number of reactions - Cu and Ag) and Pt - Pd and Pt-Ir (consisting of two active components). Knowledge of the surface composition of the various alloy systems is shown to be essential for the interpretation of catalytic results. (Auth./C.F.)

  13. Uranium-Based Cermet Alloys

    The paper describes certain features of dispersion-hardened uranium-based cermets. As possible hardening materials, consideration was given to UO2, UC, Al2O3, MgO and UBe13. Data were obtained on the behaviour of uranium alloys containing the above-mentioned admixtures during creep tests, short-term strength tests and cyclic thermal treatment. The corrosion resistance o f UBe13-based uranium alloys was also studied. )author)

  14. Friction surfacing of aluminium alloys

    Pereira, Diogo Jorge O. A.

    2012-01-01

    Friction surfacing is a solid state joining process that has attracted much interest in the past decades. This technology allows joining dissimilar metallic materials while avoiding the brittle intermetallic formations, involving temperatures bellow melting point and producing like forged metal structures. Much research using different steels has been made but the same does not happen with aluminium alloys, specially using different aluminium alloys. Friction surface coatings using cons...

  15. TEM microstructure investigations of aluminium alloys used for laser alloying

    K. Labisz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this paper there are presented results of Transmission Electron Microscope investigation concerning the structure of the AlSi7Cu4 cast aluminium alloy using for alloying and remelting with the high power diode laser (HPDL. There are also presented the results of the thermo-derivative analysis performed using the UMSA (Universal Metallurgical Simulator and Analyser device, allowing to determine the specific points of the solidifying alloy, what is helpful for phase determination occurred in this alloy. In this work especially the changes of the precipitation type, size and shape were determined.Design/methodology/approach: The investigations were performed using electron microscopy for the microstructure and phases determination. By mind of the transmission electron microscopy, especially selected area diffraction method appliance it was possible to determine the phases occurred in the alloy in the as cast state. The morphology and size of the Mg2Si was also possible to determine as well the lattice parameters for this phase.Findings: : The reason of this work was also to present the laser treatment technology, which will be used for further alloying and remelting with ceramic powders – especially carbides and oxides. Particularly the overview will be directed on the laser power to achieve good layer hardness for protection of this hot work tool steel from losing their work stability and to make the tool surface more resistant to action in external conditions. The structure of the surface laser tray changes in a way, that there are very high roughness of the surface zone and the flatness or geometry changes in an important manner, crucial for further investigation.Research limitations/implications: The aluminium samples were examined metallographically using transmission electron microscope with different image techniques.Practical implications: Developing of new technology with appliance of Al alloys, High Power Diode Laser and

  16. Microstructural studies on Alloy 693

    Halder, R.; Dutta, R.S. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Sengupta, P., E-mail: praneshsengupta@gmail.com [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Samajdar, I. [Dept. of Metall. Engg. and Mater. Sci., Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400 072 (India); Dey, G.K. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2014-10-15

    Superalloy 693, is a newly identified ‘high-temperature corrosion resistant alloy’. Present study focuses on microstructure and mechanical properties of the alloy prepared by double ‘vacuum melting’ route. In general, the alloy contains ordered Ni{sub 3}Al precipitates distributed within austenitic matrix. M{sub 6}C primary carbide, M{sub 23}C{sub 6} type secondary carbide and NbC particles are also found to be present. Heat treatment of the alloy at 1373 K for 30 min followed by water quenching (WQ) brings about a microstructure that is free from secondary carbides and Ni{sub 3}Al type precipitates but contains primary carbides. Tensile property of Alloy 693 materials was measured with as received and solution annealed (1323 K, 60 min, WQ) and (1373 K, 30 min, WQ) conditions. Yield strength, ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and hardness of the alloy are found to drop with annealing. It is noted that in annealed condition, considerable cold working of the alloy can be performed.

  17. Corrosion Behaviour of New Zr Alloys

    Tolksdorf, E.

    1974-01-01

    Corrosion studies have indicated that the most promising replacements for Zicaloy-2 are ZrCrFe, ZrVFe and probably ZrNbTa, provided they are in their optimized condition. These alloys are conventionally manufactured alloys. An internally oxidized ZrMgO alloy is even superior, from the corrosion a...... hydrogen uptake points of view, to the above-mentioned alloys. This alloy is of particular interest because the addition of MgO leads to no neutron penalty and the dispersion-strengthening entails the possibility of tailoring an alloy with the desired mechanical properties....

  18. New Heat-resistant Steel T23's Performance Characteristics and Early Failure%新型耐热钢T23的特性与早期失效分析

    赵慧传; 凌荣华; 贾建民; 赵建仓

    2011-01-01

    T23钢是T22钢经降C和强化而开发的新型锅炉用钢,与我国开发的钢102(12Cr2MoWVTiB)有近似的合金系统和含量,其常温力学性能和高温蠕变断裂强度明显优于T22钢,冷裂纹敏感性比T22钢低,再热裂纹敏感性远高于T22钢,抗蒸汽氧化性能与T22钢相当。但T23钢在超临界锅炉应用中先后出现了过热器管内壁氧化皮剥落导致爆管事件,在超超临界锅炉中又出现了水冷壁焊缝裂纹、泄漏等早期失效问题。基于T23钢的力学性能、蒸汽氧化性能和焊接性能分析及故障件的表面剥落物、爆口或断口的金相分析,找出故障原因,提出改进建议,对未来的超(超)临界锅炉设计和焊接工艺改进均有参考价值。%The T23 steel is based on the T22 steel developed a new type of boiler steel by reducing C and strengthening, it the steel which develops with our country 102 (12Cr2MoWVTiB) has the approximate alloy system and the content, its normal temperature mechanical properties and the high temperature creep fracture intensity surpasses the T22 steel obviously, the cold crack sensitivity is lower than the T22 steel, the heat crack sensitivity is higher than the T22 steel far again, anti-steam oxidation susceptibility and T22 steel quite.But the T23 steel in the application of supercritical boiler superheater tube appears oxide spalling events led to burst pipes, in the application of ultra-supercritical boiler water cooling wall appeared the welding cracks, leaks and so on early failure problems. Based on the T23 steel's mechanical properties, the steam oxidation susceptibility and the welding performance analysis and the breakdown surface scaling, exploded mouth or the fracture metallography analysis, the cause of the malfunction was found out, the improvement suggestion was proposed that, the future ultra (ultra) supercritical boiler design and welding process improvement have reference value.

  19. Study on Degradation of T92 Heat Resistant Steel Used for Thermal Power Stations during Its Engineering Service%火电站用T92耐热钢工程服役退化研究

    郑琳; 刘江南; 高巍; 要玉宏; 王正品; 党琦丹

    2014-01-01

    为了查明超超临界火力发电机组的高温锅炉管道T92耐热钢在高温长时服役过程中的组织及性能变化情况,通过光学显微观察、扫描电镜、EDS能谱分析、透射电镜分析、显微硬度测试,常规拉伸试验和微型杯突试验,研究了原始态及服役两年和三年的T92钢管的显微组织结构和力学性能的变化规律.试验结果表明:高温服役三年后的T92钢组织上仍然保持马氏体板条形态,析出碳化物的数量和尺寸不断增加,且服役两年及三年后组织中除了原始态时的M23C6和MX相,还在原奥氏体晶界及马氏体板条界处析出大量粗化较快的Laves相.材料室温力学性能随服役时间增加整体呈下降趋势,维氏硬度在服役三年后降低了13%,而其屈服强度,抗拉强度分别下降了5.35%和4.19%.SEM断口形貌分析可知随服役年限的增加,断裂特征由韧性断裂向韧脆混合断裂方式转变.%T92 steel has become one of the main candidate alloys for ultra supercritical plants (USC) , therefore it is of great necessity to secure the safe service of generator set by exploring the rules behind the microstructure and mechanical property change under the condition of high temperature service . Metallographic microscopy , scanning electron microscopy , EDS analysis , transmission electron microscopy ,micro hardness test ,conventional tensile test and small punch test are conducted to measure the microstructure and mechanical properties of original state T 92 steel samples and the ones after two year and three year service .Results show :After three year service ,the microstructure of T92 steel still remains lath martensite ,but the number and size of the main precipitates have increased . Besides precipitates M23 C6 and MX ,which already exist in original T92 steel ,there is Laves phase particles emerging at the boundary of martensite and austenite in T 92 steel samples after two

  20. Compensative alloying of Cr-Si low-alloyed steels

    The principle of choosing alloy elements in order to suppress the embrittlement of solid solution strengthening is proposed. In the case of Cr-Si low-alloyed steels, the effects of compensative alloying are studied. The ultimate tensile strength and impact toughness of Cr-Si steels microalloyed with Mo, V, and Ti are determined to prove the aspects. The structure of these steels is studied using optical and transmission electron microscopy techniques after applying the optimum heat treatment. The kinetics of phase transformation after quenching and tempering have been examined by means of measurements of specific electrical resistance and magnetic parameters. It is shown that at the Si-content of about 1 wt% high values of tensile strength and impact toughness are simultaneously obtained. It is established by calculations that, for the indicated steel, long-range distortions of the crystal lattice become close to zero at the Si-content of about 1 wt%.