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Food taboos: their origins and purposes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Food taboos are known from virtually all human societies. Most religions declare certain food items fit and others unfit for human consumption. Dietary rules and regulations may govern particular phases of the human life cycle and may be associated with special events such as menstrual period, pregnancy, childbirth, lactation, and – in traditional societies – preparation for the hunt, battle, wedding, funeral, etc. On a comparative basis many food taboos seem to make no...

Meyer-Rochow Victor

2009-01-01

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Food taboos: their origins and purposes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Food taboos are known from virtually all human societies. Most religions declare certain food items fit and others unfit for human consumption. Dietary rules and regulations may govern particular phases of the human life cycle and may be associated with special events such as menstrual period, pregnancy, childbirth, lactation, and – in traditional societies – preparation for the hunt, battle, wedding, funeral, etc. On a comparative basis many food taboos seem to make no sense at all, as t...

2009-01-01

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Sens et enjeux d’un interdit alimentaire dans le judaïsme Food taboos in Judaism: the example of Ashkenazi Jews in London  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cet article porte sur la manière dont la prohibition de mêler nourritures lactées et carnées dans le judaïsme se matérialise par les objets de la cuisine et leurs usages quotidiens, à partir d’une recherche réalisée à Londres auprès de couples juifs ashkénazes qui se définissent presque tous comme orthodoxes (modern orthodox et dont la scolarisation dans des écoles juives a parfois pu contribuer à revivifier les pratiques religieuses. Par delà la diversité des habitudes culinaires et de leurs formes (ex : végétarisme, par delà les éventuelles variations individuelles de l’observance religieuse au cours du cycle de vie, l’interdit alimentaire de mêler lait et viande est respecté par l’ensemble des personnes rencontrées. Il s’agit alors d’en comprendre le sens et la portée. Les conséquences matérielles de cet interdit alimentaire permettent de saisir l’importance de la religion dans le logement et les activités de tous les jours. Elles conduisent à articuler le plan matériel et le plan symbolique en suggérant une interprétation anthropologique de cette prohibition, en lien avec les écrits bibliques et les analyses déjà menées sur le sujet.This article is based upon research on Ashkenazi Jewish families living in London. It deals with the way, in Judaïsm, the prohibition of eating meat and dairy foods together is materialised through the use of kitchen utensils on a day to day basis. Material consequences of this dietary law allow us to understand the importance of religion in the Jewish home and in everyday life. Consequences which lead to the linking of material uses and their symbolic significance by suggesting an anthropological interpretation of this dietary law in accordance with Biblical writings.

Laurence Faure

2010-12-01

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Catfish and mullets: the food preferences and taboos of caiçaras (southern atlantic forest coast, brazil) / BAGRES E MUGILÍDEOS: PREFERÊNCIAS E TABUS ALIMENTARES DE CAIÇARAS (LITORAL SUDESTE DA MATA ATLÂNTICA, BRASIL) / ARIIDAE Y MUGILIDAE: LAS PREFERENCIAS Y LOS TABÚES ALIMENTARIOS DE LOS CAIÇARAS (COSTA ATLÁNTICA MERIDIONAL, BRASIL)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Uma importante característica da dieta humana é a categorização de preferências e aversões alimentares. O objetivo deste artigo é analisar as preferências e tabus alimentares com relação a itens de proteína animal entre três comunidades caiçaras do litoral sudeste brasileiro. A literatura sobre pref [...] erências alimentares quanto ao consumo de pescado aponta para um padrão geral de preferência por peixes com escamas e aversões ou restrições de consumo por peixes sem escamas. Neste estudo, visamos discutir duas particularidades das escolhas alimentares entre caiçaras, especificamente quanto às preferências e aversões sobre o consumo de bagres (Ariidae) e sobre diferentes espécies do gênero Mugil (Mugilidae). Estas preferências e aversões alimentares podem ser explicadas por fatores ecológicos e culturais, como pela disponibilidade do recurso, pela posição da espécie na cadeia alimentar, ou através da importância destas espécies na economia e nas relações sociais dentro da comunidade. Relações entre conservação e tabus alimentares sobre certas espécies de peixe, ou grupos de espécies, parecem ser mais tênues do que as possíveis relações entre tabus de caça e conservação da fauna terrestre. Além disso, os tabus sobre espécies de peixes não resultam em deficiência nutricional nas comunidades estudadas. Abstract in spanish Una característica importante de dietas humanas es el categorizar de alimentos según su preferencia o evitación. La literatura en preferencias alimenticias de los pescadores contempla un patrón general de preferencia por pescados con escamas y una aversión o prohibición de pescados sin escamas. Se a [...] nalizaron las preferencias, evitaciones y tabúes sobre el alimento de origen animal en tres comunidades caiçaras de la costa brasileña del sudeste. Se discuten dos aspectos de la escogencia de alimento de los caiçaras, con respecto a sus preferencias, las aversiones, y los tabúes en el consumo de Ariidae y de varias especies de Mugilidae. Esta clasificación se puede explicar por factores ecológicos y culturales, como la disponibilidad ambiental de la especie, su posición en la cadena alimenticia, o su importancia en la economía y en las relaciones sociales dentro de la comunidad. Una conexión entre la conservación del recurso y los tabúes sobre ciertas especies de peces parecen más tenues que las posibles relaciones entre los tabúes de caza y la conservación de la fauna terrestre. Para las comunidades estudiadas, los tabúes sobre peces no resultaran en deficiencias nutricionales en la población humana. Abstract in english An important feature of human diets is the establishment of food categories according to its preference or avoidance. The literature on fish food preferences points out a general pattern of preference for fish with scales and an avoidance or prohibition of scaleless fish. The food preferences, avoid [...] ances, and taboos on animal protein items among three caiçara communities from the Southeastern Brazilian coast were analyzed. Two aspects of the caiçaras choice of food were discussed, regarding their preferences, avoidances, and taboos on the consumption of catfish (Ariidae) and on different species of mullets (Mugilidae). This categorization can be explained both ecologically and culturally: through the environmental availability of the species, their position in the food web, or their importance in the economy and in the social relations within the community. A connection between resource conservation and food taboos about certain fish species are unlikely when compared to the possible relations between hunting taboos and conservation of the terrestrial fauna. For the studied communities, there was no nutritional deprivation resulting from food taboos on fish species.

Hanazaki, Natalia; Begossi, Alpina.

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A Dialogue on Menstrual Taboo  

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Full Text Available Today in the 21st century, we may boast of gender equality and women empowerment but the truth is somewhat implausible. Today women may have excelled in many spheres of life but, somewhere, she is still struggling to get out of her veil. In the name of tradition a women is always told to follow the rules what the society has set for her. A look at major religions of the world shows that, without exception, they have placed restrictions on menstruating women. Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism and Buddhism have all made statements about menstruation and its negative effect, leading to prohibitions about attending places of worship, cooking, physical intimacy and sometimes requiring women to live separately at this time. Present paper is a compilation of the information available on the menstrual taboo and various practices regarding it. For this extensive search was done on internet along with personal observations. The present study is carried out in order to provoke the need for increased research on the psychosocial aspects of menstruation by exploring the attitudes of society toward this monthly event.

Manju Kaundal

2014-06-01

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Jeux tabous : littératures Taboo plays: Literature  

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Full Text Available La thèse de Georges Bataille sur l’art comme transgression, et d’abord du tabou concernant la mort, est ici mise à l’épreuve de trois œuvres littéraires du XXe siècle. C’est le tabou des morts en sa violence primitive qui s’y inscrit, mais sans effacer ce qu’il frappe, d’où l’effet libérateur du texte.Georges Bataille’s thesis – art as transgression of taboo, especially taboo regarding death – is tested by three literary works of XXth century. The taboo concerning dead persons is here written, with its primitive violence but what it prohibits is not obliterated. Hence the liberating effect of the text.

Brigitte Galtier

2009-09-01

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Consequences of occupational food-related hand dermatoses with a focus on protein contact dermatitis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background. Protein contact dermatitis is a frequent disorder among hand eczema patients who have occupational food contact. Knowledge about the consequences of having protein contact dermatitis is lacking. Objectives. To investigate the consequences of having occupational skin disease on the hands resulting from food handling, with a focus on protein contact dermatitis. Material and methods. One hundred and seventy-eight patients who were identified as having skin disease related to occupational food exposure and who answered a questionnaire concerning the consequences of their skin disease were included in the study. The patients were consecutively examined at Gentofte Hospital, Denmark between 2001 and 2010. Results. Seventy-five per cent of patients with protein contact dermatitis had to wear gloves at work, and 62.5% reported sick leave lasting for >3 weeks, as compared with 60.2% and 30%, respectively, of the patients with other occupational food-related hand dermatoses (p = 0.02). Sixty-two per cent and 43%, respectively, had to change job because of skin problems (p = 0.02). Atopic dermatitis was equally common in the two groups. Conclusion. We found that the patients with protein contact dermatitis experienced more severe and frequent consequences than patients with other food-related hand dermatoses.

Vester, Lotte; Thyssen, Jacob P

2012-01-01

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Occupational food-related hand dermatoses seen over a 10-year period  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background. Protein contact dermatitis was originally defined in 1976 by Hjorth and Roed-Petersen as a distinct kind of dermatitis seen in patients with occupational food contact. Even though occupational skin diseases are frequent in Denmark, little attention has been paid to protein contact dermatitis, and the frequency is unknown. Objectives. To evaluate the frequency of occupational food-related hand dermatoses and test results in patients occupationally exposed to foods. Materials and Methods. This was a retrospective study based on examinations, including skin prick testing and patch testing, performed at the Department of Dermato-Allergology, Gentofte University Hospital, Denmark between 2001 and 2010. Results. Of all patients (n = 372), 57.0% had irritant contact dermatitis, 22.0% had protein contact dermatitis, 2.4% had contact urticaria, and 1.8% had allergic contact dermatitis. A suggestion for diagnostic criteria is presented. Frequent risk occupations were cooking in restaurants, baking, and kitchen work. Substantially more patients reacted in skin prick testing with fresh foods than with food extracts. Conclusion. Protein contact dermatitis is a frequent disorder among patients who professionally handle foods, and should be considered to be a distinct clinical entity. When diagnosing protein contact dermatitis and in other food-related skin prick testing procedures, it is important to include fresh foods.

Vester, Lotte; Thyssen, Jacob P

2012-01-01

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Transgression and Taboo : The Field of Fan Fiction  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This essay draws upon Georges Batailleâ??s notions of transgression and taboo as co-dependently involved in a play of differences as a framework for discussing agents in the field of fan fiction. More particularly, I outline the way in which fans and authors, or producers of texts, have been conceptualised in ways that recall transgression and taboo.

Kirk, Jens

2011-01-01

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The Relations Among Threatened Species, Their Protection, and Taboos  

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Full Text Available We analyzed the role of taboos for the protection of species listed as "threatened" by the World Conservation Union (IUCN, and also for species known to be endemic and keystone. The study was limited to taboos that totally avoid or prohibit any use of particular species and their populations. We call them specific-species taboos . Through a literature review, 70 currently existing examples of specific-species taboos were identified and analyzed. The species avoided were grouped into biological classes. Threat categories were determined for each species, based on the IUCN Red Data Book. We found that ~ 30% of the identified taboos prohibit any use of species listed as threatened by IUCN. Of the specific-species taboos, 60% are set on reptiles and mammals. In these two classes, ~ 50% of the species are threatened, representing all of the threatened species in our analysis, with the exception of one bird species. Both endemic and keystone species that are important for ecosystem functions are avoided by specific-species taboos. Specific-species taboos have important ecological ramifications for the protection of threatened and ecologically important populations of species. We do not suggest that specific-species taboos are placed on species because they are, or have been, endangered; instead, we emphasize that species are avoided for a variety of other reasons. It is urgent to identify and analyze resource practices and social mechanisms of traditional societies, such as taboos, and to investigate their possible ecological significance. Although it may provide insights of value for conservation, not only of species, but also of ecosystem processes and functions, such information is being lost rapidly.

Carl Folke

1997-06-01

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Taboos and conflicts in decision making  

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Full Text Available Previous studies suggest that choices are perceived as difficult as well as negatively emotion-laden when they tap into moral considerations. However, we propose that the involvement of moral issues and values can also facilitate decisions because people often insistently preclude them from trade-offs with other values. Because such values are treated as inviolable and absolute, they are called sacred values (e.g., Tetlock et al., 2000. Two experiments examined the influence of sacred values (measured by a recent self-report scale and variation of trade-off type (taboo, tragic, routine trade-offs on perceived decision difficulty and negative emotions. As hypothesized, decision difficulty and negative emotions show diverging patterns as a function of sacred values and trade-off types. When the decision situation involved two conflicting sacred values (i.e., tragic trade-off, people perceived the decision task as emotionally stressful and difficult. However, when the decision situation was associated with only one sacred value (i.e., taboo trade-off, people perceived the task as more negatively emotion-laden, but as easier to solve, compared to a situation not involving sacred values (i.e., routine trade-off. These findings suggest that reliance on sacred values may work as a heuristic.

Martin Hanselmann

2008-01-01

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Effect of posture on hand preferences during experimental food reaching in bonobos (Pan paniscus).  

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The effect of posture on hand preferences was examined in an experiment with 5 bonobos (Pan paniscus). To obtain a food reward, the animals had to adopt 1 out of 7 different postures. These postures represented an increasing problem to the maintenance of body equilibrium. It was expected that an increasing demand for equilibrium maintenance would elicit individual preferences and a population-level bias. All animals showed an increasing trend toward left-handedness while shifting to a bipedal posture from a seated posture by way of a quadrupedal posture. The importance of bipedalism in the evolution of left- and right-handedness is discussed briefly. PMID:7758294

De Vleeschouwer, K; Van Elsacker, L; Verheyen, R F

1995-06-01

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Routing Optimization Based on Taboo Search Algorithm for Logistic Distribution  

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Full Text Available Along with the widespread application of the electronic commerce in the modern business, the logistic distribution has become increasingly important. More and more enterprises recognize that the logistic distribution plays an important role in the process of production and sales. A good routing for logistic distribution can cut down transport cost and improve efficiency. In order to cut down transport cost and improve efficiency, a routing optimization based on taboo search for logistic distribution is proposed in this paper. Taboo search is a metaheuristic search method to perform local search used for logistic optimization. The taboo search is employed to accelerate convergence and the aspiration criterion is combined with the heuristics algorithm to solve routing optimization. Simulation experimental results demonstrate that the optimal routing in the logistic distribution can be quickly obtained by the taboo search algorithm

Hongxue Yang

2014-04-01

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Conceptual metaphors in taboo-induced lexical variation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Taboo is deeply woven into every culture and society, which is obviously reflected in vocabulary. Indeed, taboo keeps language users from avoiding the forbidden concept and compels them to preserve or violate it, which leads to endless series of cross varietal synonyms for forbidden concepts. In this process, though metaphor stands out as a potent source for euphemistic and dysphemistic reference, the analysis of conceptual metaphor in the Lakoffian tradition as a X-phemistic device has not b...

Crespo Ferna?ndez, Eliecer

2011-01-01

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Communicate science: an example of food related hands-on laboratory approach  

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The Laboratorio Didattica e Divulgazione Scientifica of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV's Educational and Outreach Laboratory) organized activity with kids to convey scientific knowledge and to promote research on Earth Science, focusing on volcanic and seismic hazard. The combination of games and learning in educational activity can be a valuable tool for study of complex phenomena. Hands-on activity may help in engage kids in a learning process through direct participation that significantly improves the learning performance of children. Making learning fun motivate audience to pay attention on and stay focused on the subject. We present the experience of the hand-on laboratory "Laboratorio goloso per bambini curiosi di scienza (a delicious hands-on laboratory for kids curious about science)", performed in Frascati during the 2013 European Researchers' Night, promoted by the European Commission, as part of the program organized by the Laboratorio Didattica e Divulgazione Scientifica in the framework of Associazione Frascati Scienza (http://www.frascatiscienza.it/). The hand-on activity were designed for primary schools to create enjoyable and unusual tools for learning Earth Science. During this activity kids are involved with something related to everyday life, such as food, through manipulation, construction and implementation of simple experiments related to Earth dynamics. Children become familiar with scientific concepts such as composition of the Earth, plates tectonic, earthquakes and seismic waves propagation and experience the effect of earthquakes on buildings, exploring their important implications for seismic hazard. During the activity, composed of several steps, participants were able to learn about Earth inner structure, fragile lithosphere, waves propagations, impact of waves on building ecc.., dealing with eggs, cookies, honey, sugar, polenta, flour, chocolate, candies, liquorice sticks, bread, pudding and sweets. The activity was successful as more than 500 kids of different ages participated with great enthusiasm, as well as they parents, and gave the chance to explore and manipulate even complex scientific arguments without getting the feeling of having doing this.

D'Addezio, Giuliana; Marsili, Antonella; Vallocchia, Massimiliano

2014-05-01

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Globalization, decision making and taboo in nursing.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is a reflection on the representation of nurses and their practice at a global level. In considering the International Council of Nurses (ICN) conference in Malta (2011), it is clear that certain assumptions have been made about nurses and their practice which assume that globalization is under way for the whole of the profession and that the assumptions can be applied equally around the world. These assumptions appear in many ways to be implicit rather than explicit. The implicitness of the assumptions is examined against the particular decision-making processes adopted by the ICN. An attempt is then made to identify another base for the ongoing global work of the ICN. This involves the exploration of taboo (that which is forbidden because it is either holy or unclean) as a way of examining why nursing is not properly valued, despite years of international representation. The paper concludes with some thoughts on how such a new approach interfaces with the possibilities held out by new information technologies. PMID:22591088

Keighley, T

2012-06-01

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The effects of food safety education on adolescents' hand hygiene behavior: an analysis of stages of change  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The hand hygiene behavior of 400 middle school students (grades 1-3) in Seoul and Gyeonggi-Do was studied to determine how stages of change were affected by food safety education, focusing on hand hygiene and general food safety. Subjects were 51.3% male and 44.3% of study subjects were first graders of middle school. Approximately 40% of subjects were at the stage of action, 42.7% were at the stage of contemplation, and 16.4% were at pre-contemplation. The most important factor that influenc...

Kim, Eun Joo; Pai, Andrew J.; Kang, Nam-e; Kim, Woo Kyoung; Kim, Young Soon; Moon, Hyun-kyung; Ha, Ae Wha

2012-01-01

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Chinese Cultural Taboos That Affect Their Language & Behavior Choices  

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Full Text Available Every culture has its own taboos. Communication works better when the participants share more assumptions and knowledge about each other (Scollon & Scollon, 2000. However, in many cases, participants realize the existence of the rules associated with taboos only after they have violated them. Those who do not observe these social “rules” might face serious results, such as total embarrassment or, as Saville-Troike (1989 puts it, they may be accused of immorality and face social ostracism. This paper reports that certain verbal and non-verbal taboos among Chinese people centuries ago still affect their language and behavior choices. Two types of Chinese possible taboos in language and behavior are introduced and compared with cultures of the Koreans and Americans: (1 gift-giving taboos which are phonologically linked to the “separation” and “death” in Chinese society, and (2 verbal expressions which are linked to the twelve zodiac-animals in Chinese traditional metaphors. This research paper also tries to answer two questions related to Asian culture and history: (1 whether Koreans share more of these phonologically-linked taboos than Americans do because Korean language has very similar sounds to Chinese; and (2 whether Koreans share with Chinese people more of the zodiac-animal-linked metaphors (i.e., the rat, the bull/cow, the tiger, the rabbit, the dragon, the snake, the horse, the sheep/lamb, the monkey, the chicken, the dog, and the pig than Americans do because Korean people also use the same animals as a cycle of every twelve years. Data were collected in two ways: questionnaires and interviews.

Man-ping Chu

2009-07-01

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The allure of the forbidden: breaking taboos, frustration, and attraction to violent video games.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although people typically avoid engaging in antisocial or taboo behaviors, such as cheating and stealing, they may succumb in order to maximize their personal benefit. Moreover, they may be frustrated when the chance to commit a taboo behavior is withdrawn. The present study tested whether the desire to commit a taboo behavior, and the frustration from being denied such an opportunity, increases attraction to violent video games. Playing violent games allegedly offers an outlet for aggression prompted by frustration. In two experiments, some participants had no chance to commit a taboo behavior (cheating in Experiment 1, stealing in Experiment 2), others had a chance to commit a taboo behavior, and others had a withdrawn chance to commit a taboo behavior. Those in the latter group were most attracted to violent video games. Withdrawing the chance for participants to commit a taboo behavior increased their frustration, which in turn increased their attraction to violent video games. PMID:23449844

Whitaker, Jodi L; Melzer, André; Steffgen, Georges; Bushman, Brad J

2013-04-01

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Hesitant hands on changing tables: Negotiating dining patterns in diaspora food culture transfer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Food culture and dining patterns can, in any society, be read with regard to the history of food, social structures, economic choices, culinary techniques, food knowledge and even identities, habits and perception of comfortableness of its members and time. How then do migrants and diaspora communities translate the culinary practice into which they were socialized in their home communities into their new lifestyles and ways of eating? This article starts from the idea that autonomy over food...

Flitsch, Mareile

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Is hippophagy a taboo in constant evolution?  

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Food choice is strongly determined by religious and cultural elements specific to each civilization. Numerous food prescriptions concern meat, beginning with the total or partial ban on meat. Among the numerous animal species concerned by religious or cultural prohibitions, horse meat occupies an original place because the ban on its consumption varies a lot according to places and times. Widely consumed in Eurasia in the Prehistory, horse meat is still eaten by many in the big steppes of Cen...

Leteux, Sylvain

2012-01-01

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Is male homosexuality still a cultural taboo for kidney donation?  

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BACKGROUND: Among the so-called social risk behaviors, male homosexuality is probably one of the most interesting and difficult taboos. Because of changing attitudes of the general population toward irregular sexual behaviors, often considered as markers of unhealthy life styles, there is a need to reconsider at least the most important one-homosexuality. METHODS: A semistructured questionnaire included opinions on homosexuality with respect to kidney donation: Would you consider a male homos...

Geuna, Stefano; Piccoli, Giorgina Barbara

2006-01-01

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Emotion, memory, and attention in the taboo Stroop paradigm.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study tested the binding hypothesis: that emotional reactions trigger binding mechanisms that link an emotional event to salient contextual features such as event location, a frequently recalled aspect of naturally occurring flash-bulb memories. Our emotional events were taboo words in a Stroop color-naming task, and event location was manipulated by presenting the words in different task-irrelevant screen locations. Seventy-two participants named the font color of taboo and neutral words, with instructions to ignore word meaning; in one condition, several words were location consistent (i.e., always occupied the same screen location), whereas in another condition, several colors were location consistent. Then, in a surprise recognition memory test, participants recalled the locations of location-consistent words or colors. Although attention enhanced overall location memory for colors (the attended dimension during color naming), emotion (taboo vs. neutral words) enhanced location memory for words but not colors. These results support the binding hypothesis but contradict the hypothesis that emotional events induce image-like memories more often than non-emotional events. PMID:15660848

MacKay, Donald G; Ahmetzanov, Marat V

2005-01-01

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The Allure of the Forbidden: Breaking Taboos, Frustration, and Attraction to Violent Video Games  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although people typically avoid engaging in antisocial or taboo behaviors, such as cheating and stealing, they may succumb in order to maximize their personal benefit. Moreover, they may be frustrated when the chance to commit a taboo behavior is withdrawn. The present study tested whether the desire to commit a taboo behavior, and the frustration from being denied such an opportunity, increases attraction to violent video games. Playing violent games allegedly offers an outlet for aggression...

2013-01-01

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Fecal contamination of food, water, hands, and kitchen utensils at the household level in rural areas of Peru.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study described in this article evaluated sources of contamination of children's food and drinking water in rural households in the highlands of Peru. Samples from children's meals, drinking water, kitchen utensils, and caregivers' and children's hands were analyzed for total coliforms and E. coli counts using Petrifilm EC. Thermotolerant coliforms in water were measured using DelAgua test kits while diarrheagenic E. coli was identified using polymerase chain reaction methods (PCR). Thermotolerant coliforms were found in 48% of all water samples. E. coli was found on 23% of hands, 16% of utensils, and 4% of meals. Kitchen cloths were the item most frequently contaminated with total coliforms (89%) and E. coli (42%). Diarrheagenic E. coli was found in 33% of drinking water, 27% of meals, and on 23% of kitchen utensils. These findings indicate a need to develop hygiene interventions that focus on specific kitchen utensils and hand washing practices, to reduce the contamination of food, water, and the kitchen environment in these rural settings. PMID:24645420

Gil, Ana I; Lanata, Claudio F; Hartinger, Stella M; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Padilla, Beatriz; Ochoa, Theresa J; Lozada, Michelle; Pineda, Ines; Verastegui, Hector

2014-01-01

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Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 9. Washing and drying of hands to reduce microbial contamination.  

Science.gov (United States)

During various daily activities at home and work, hands quickly become contaminated. Some activities increase the risk of finger contamination by pathogens more than others, such as the use of toilet paper to clean up following a diarrheal episode, changing the diaper of a sick infant, blowing a nose, or touching raw food materials. Many foodborne outbreak investigation reports have identified the hands of food workers as the source of pathogens in the implicated food. The most convenient and efficient way of removing pathogens from hands is through hand washing. Important components of hand washing are potable water for rinsing and soaps to loosen microbes from the skin. Hand washing should occur after any activity that soils hands and certainly before preparing, serving, or eating food. Antimicrobial soaps are marginally more effective than plain soaps, but constant use results in a buildup of the antimicrobial compound on the skin. The time taken to wash hands and the degree of friction generated during lathering are more important than water temperature for removing soil and microorganisms. However, excessive washing and scrubbing can cause skin damage and infections. Drying hands with a towel removes pathogens first by friction during rubbing with the drying material and then by wicking away the moisture into that material. Paper rather than cloth towels should be encouraged, although single-use cloth towels are present in the washrooms of higher class hotels and restaurants. Warm air dryers remove moisture and any surface microorganisms loosened by washing from hands by evaporation while the hands are rubbed together vigorously; however, these dryers take too long for efficient use. The newer dryers with high-speed air blades can achieve dryness in 10 to 15 s without hand rubbing. PMID:21067683

Todd, Ewen C D; Michaels, Barry S; Smith, Debra; Greig, Judy D; Bartleson, Charles A

2010-10-01

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Love Has (NO Boundaries: Researching a Sexual Taboo  

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Full Text Available Sexual and emotional attraction humans feel towards animals, also known as zoophilia, is perhaps the most controversial facet of human-animal relationships. In this article I explore this seemingly ultimate transgression of interspecies boundaries and probe the Israeli cultural encounters with it. I discern how the stated concerns for normative sexuality and animal rights masquerade the underlying factors in the zoophilia taboo, and reveal the cultural implications of human-animal sexual love in Israel. My fieldwork reveals not only the limits of acceptable human-animal love, but also the limits of legitimate research, and the consequences entailed for those who resolve to challenge them.

Dafna Shir-Vertesh

2013-01-01

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Trend Surface Analysis of Hand, Food and Mouth Disease in Sarawak  

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Full Text Available In this study we aim to fit a trend surface model for Hand, Foot And Mouth Disease (HFMD in Sarawak and also check the adequacy of the model obtained. For this, the epidemiological data of year 2012(outbreak year and 2011 are used. Models were built up to second order polynomial based on the idea that number of HFMD cases can be described by regression residual analysis. With Moran I statistic, residuals from all the trend surface models were examined for spatial autocorrelation. All six trend surface models for 2011 data had residuals that were not spatially autocorrelated. However, one model for 2012 data showed spatial autocorrelation. The best model for each year of the two years that represent disease outbreak and non-outbreak situations was selected based on Mallows’ Cp statistic. These models could be used to predict the number of cases for locations of interest.

M.S. Noraishah

2013-06-01

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The Linguistic Taboo between Malays and Ibans of Sarawak, Malaysia  

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This study attempts to determine the Malays’ and Ibans’ perceptions on the use of linguistic taboo in their culture based on the specified domains and to investigate the occurrence of linguistic taboo in different domains. The outcome of this study would provide a useful understanding over the Malays’ and Ibans’ sensitivity over the usage of certain words which are considered taboo in their community. Hence, avoid occurrences of embarrassment or offensiveness by the speakers. Questionnaires were given to 40 Sarawak Malays and 40 Ibans of varying educational background and age in Kuching area. They were selected randomly based on convenience random sampling and the data were analyzed using SPSS 10.0. The findings show that many respondents believed that taboo words should not be spoken publicly or openly where certain topics should not be discussed in candid especially in relation to sex, body parts, bodily functions, death and dying. Nonetheless, the cultural norms, rules and the notion of politeness (and among the Malays the tenets of religion play significant roles in restricting the open use of these taboo words either behaviourally or linguistically. Comparatively, the Iban respondents seemed to be more expressive and candid in using taboo words in expressing their emotions, as compared to the Malays. It is also apparent that the use of taboo words can be acceptable depending on the domains and contexts.

Key words: Linguistic Taboo; Euphemisms; Domains

Résumé: Cette étude tente de déterminer les perceptions des Malais et des Ibans sur l'utilisation de tabou linguistique dans leur culture basée sur les domaines spécifiés et d'enquêter sur l'occurrence de tabou linguistique dans des domaines différents. Le résultat d

Affidah Morni

2009-06-01

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Reframing menstruation in India: metamorphosis of the menstrual taboo with the changing media coverage.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study I hypothesize metamorphosis of the menstrual taboo by examining the image and perception shifts of two social taboos-HIV/AIDS and homosexuality-from estranged taboos to embraced social issues. Trends identified in their media framing and respective image shifts were applied to menstruation in India. Based on my understanding of theory, topic, and geographical location, I construct a metamorphosis. I contribute the hypothesized final stage of metamorphosis, and explain how framing is likely instrumental in bringing about these changes. PMID:24180612

Yagnik, Arpan Shailesh

2014-06-01

31

Hand Anatomy  

Science.gov (United States)

... Conditions Symptom Picker Hand Conditions A-Z Hand Anatomy Find a Hand Surgeon Menu About Hand Surgery ... Conditions Symptom Picker Hand Conditions A-Z Hand Anatomy Find a Hand Surgeon MENU Menu About Hand ...

32

Foods  

... Foods Foods, an international, peer-reviewed Open Access journal. Foods Submit to Foods Login Register MDPI Journals A-Z For Authors For Editors ...Diagnostics Diseases Diversity Econometrics Economies Education Sciences Electronics Energies Entropy Environments Fibers Foods Forests Future Internet Galaxies Games Genes Geosciences Healthcare Humanities Informatics Information ...Project Report Reply Retraction Review Short Note Technical Note Special Issue Page Foods Foods Home About this journal Indexing & Abstracting Instructions for ... 1 (2012) Foods — Editors Journal Contact Foods Editorial Office MDPI AG, Klybeckstrasse 64, 4057 Basel, Switzerland E-Mail: foods@mdpi.com ...

33

How to Break a Taboo? Comment briser un tabou ? ¿Cómo romper un tabú?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Prior to 2001, the word toilet and sanitation was a taboo. Polite society avoided the embarrassment of mentioning it. Academia publications about the issues were viewed as too boring to engage mass media. But avoidance of this agenda manifested into neglect of 2.6 billion people without access to proper sanitation and the death of 1.5 million children through diarrhea annually. Jack Sim broke this taboo through the creation of the World Toilet Organization (WTO). With its unique blend of humo...

Jack Sim

2011-01-01

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Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 11. Use of antiseptics and sanitizers in community settings and issues of hand hygiene compliance in health care and food industries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hand washing with soap is a practice that has long been recognized as a major barrier to the spread of disease in food production, preparation, and service and in health care settings, including hospitals, child care centers, and elder care facilities. Many of these settings present multiple opportunities for spread of pathogens within at-risk populations, and extra vigilance must be applied. Unfortunately, hand hygiene is not always carried out effectively, and both enteric and respiratory diseases are easily spread in these environments. Where water is limited or frequent hand hygiene is required on a daily basis, such as for many patients in hospitals and astronauts in space travel, instant sanitizers or sanitary wipes are thought to be an effective way of preventing contamination and spread of organisms among coworkers and others. Most concerns regarding compliance are associated with the health care field, but the food industry also must be considered. Specific reasons for not washing hands at appropriate times are laziness, time pressure, inadequate facilities and supplies, lack of accountability, and lack of involvement by companies, managers, and workers in supporting proper hand washing. To facilitate improvements in hand hygiene, measurement of compliant and noncompliant actions is necessary before implementing any procedural changes. Training alone is not sufficient for long-lasting improvement. Multiactivity strategies also must include modification of the organization culture to encourage safe hygienic practices, motivation of employees willing to use peer pressure on noncompliant coworkers, a reward and/or penalty system, and an operational design that facilitates regular hand hygiene. PMID:21219754

Todd, Ewen C D; Greig, Judy D; Michaels, Barry S; Bartleson, Charles A; Smith, Debra; Holah, John

2010-12-01

35

Experimental release of hand-reared wolf pups in Tver region (Russia): food habits, movement patterns and fear of humans.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Studying the reintroduction of hand-raised wolves may embrace several interests such as deepening knowledge on wolf biology and allowing a controlled release in isolated populations in need of genetic influx. Studies on hand-raised wild animals, showing successful reintroduction, suggested that young released wolves might be able to survive in the wild without previous fastidious training. Most of their survival behaviours would be instinctive. In this study, nine young wolves were reintroduc...

Fraissard, Camille

2011-01-01

36

Food  

...Food sustainable environment behaviour change waste climate change climate analysis research brook lyndhurst well-being food sustainable environment behaviour change waste climate change climate analysis ...research brook lyndhurst well-being food Home Projects Food Projects | Food Brook Lyndhurst - The Food Issue The Food Issue is ...for England Started: September 2012 Due for completion: December 2013 Defra Defra has commissioned Brook Lyndhurst to carry out an independent evaluation of the AHWBE, ...decreasing discards by thinking inside the box Started: January 2012 Ended: August 2013 Defra Brook Lyndhurst has been contracted, alongside SeaWeb - an international NGO ...

37

The World After Proliferation, Deterrence and Disarmament if the Nuclear Taboo is Broken  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

he nuclear taboo is customarily seen as a black and white norm, separating the world of the familiar from that of an unknowable afterlife.1 Nina Tannenwald argues that 'once the threshold between use and non-use is crossed, one is immediately in a new world with all the unimaginable consequences that could follow'. It is not correct, however, to say that the consequences are 'unimaginable'. They are certainly unpredictable, but one can imagine at least some of the consequences. This article attempts to do so with regard to consequences for proliferation, deterrence and disarmament. If the nuclear taboo were broken, whether by design, accident, miscalculation, or a breakdown of command and control, one of the more easily imagined consequences would be the collapse of the Nuclear Non- Proliferation Treaty (NPT). It is safe to assume that the use of nuclear weapons in war for the first time since 1945 would be a transformational event. But would nuclear use spell the failure of deterrence and doom the prospects of a nuclear-weapons free world, making obsolete much of the current thinking about nuclear disarmament and nuclear deterrence? Not every nuclear use scenario would necessarily break the lock on the nuclear Pandora's Box. A 'demonstration shot', for example, would not have the same impact as nuclear obliteration of a city. Both would be breaches of the taboo, but the use of a single nuclear bomb probably would not disrupt the status quo as thoroughly as would a massive attack or a two-way exchange. Breaching the taboo would not necessarily reverse the powerful norm and tradition that has developed in the last 60+ years against use of nuclear weapons. There is no compelling logic to assume that nuclear weapons would thereby become re-legitimized as instruments of war. The breaking of the nuclear taboo could actually spur either or both of two opposite reactions: an increased salience of nuclear weapons and a stimulus to disarmament. Which impulse prevails will depend on the circumstances, including how the taboo gets broken. This paper first lays out the case for each of these two disparate reactions, noting that history provides limited predictive power for what would be an unprecedented event. The paper then assesses the various circumstances in which nuclear weapons might be used, and how the context of their use would affect the development of new norms. (author)

2009-01-01

38

Offensive Language in Sex and the City : A study of male and female characters’ use of taboo words  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There are words and topics of conversation that are considered taboo and offensive in the English language. Offensive words can be divided into different categories, based on the way they are used and in what situation. Topics of conversation that are considered taboo are for example sexual activity and death. Men and women are said to use language differently, in a number of areas. One of these areas concerns offensive language. It is considered masculine to swear and women are prone to use ...

Skillstro?m Bygg, Madelene

2006-01-01

39

Arguing with the incest taboo? the case of "distorted cognitions" about child sexuality  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper seeks to open up critical reflection on the notion of "cognitive distortion" (CD), as applied to child sex offenders, to a broader anthropological account of children's sexual agency, namely the arguable revitalisation and extension of incest taboos through the post-1970s rubric of child sexual abuse. Sixteen scales that purport to measure CD (1984-2009) are listed, and their gist briefly appreciated against this interpretative background. Pitting social structure against t...

Janssen, Diederik F.

2012-01-01

40

Genetic evolutionary taboo search for optimal marker placement in infrared patient setup  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In infrared patient setup adequate selection of the external fiducial configuration is required for compensating inner target displacements (target registration error, TRE). Genetic algorithms (GA) and taboo search (TS) were applied in a newly designed approach to optimal marker placement: the genetic evolutionary taboo search (GETS) algorithm. In the GETS paradigm, multiple solutions are simultaneously tested in a stochastic evolutionary scheme, where taboo-based decision making and adaptive memory guide the optimization process. The GETS algorithm was tested on a group of ten prostate patients, to be compared to standard optimization and to randomly selected configurations. The changes in the optimal marker configuration, when TRE is minimized for OARs, were specifically examined. Optimal GETS configurations ensured a 26.5% mean decrease in the TRE value, versus 19.4% for conventional quasi-Newton optimization. Common features in GETS marker configurations were highlighted in the dataset of ten patients, even when multiple runs of the stochastic algorithm were performed. Including OARs in TRE minimization did not considerably affect the spatial distribution of GETS marker configurations. In conclusion, the GETS algorithm proved to be highly effective in solving the optimal marker placement problem. Further work is needed to embed site-specific deformation models in the optimization process.

Riboldi, M [TBMLab, Department of Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano University, Plaza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Baroni, G [TBMLab, Department of Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano University, Plaza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Spadea, M F [TBMLab, Department of Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano University, Plaza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Tagaste, B [Medical Physics Department, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan (Italy); Garibaldi, C [Medical Physics Department, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan (Italy); Cambria, R [Medical Physics Department, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan (Italy); Orecchia, R [Radiotherapy Division, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan (Italy); Pedotti, A [TBMLab, Department of Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano University, Plaza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy)

2007-09-21

 
 
 
 
41

Genetic evolutionary taboo search for optimal marker placement in infrared patient setup  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In infrared patient setup adequate selection of the external fiducial configuration is required for compensating inner target displacements (target registration error, TRE). Genetic algorithms (GA) and taboo search (TS) were applied in a newly designed approach to optimal marker placement: the genetic evolutionary taboo search (GETS) algorithm. In the GETS paradigm, multiple solutions are simultaneously tested in a stochastic evolutionary scheme, where taboo-based decision making and adaptive memory guide the optimization process. The GETS algorithm was tested on a group of ten prostate patients, to be compared to standard optimization and to randomly selected configurations. The changes in the optimal marker configuration, when TRE is minimized for OARs, were specifically examined. Optimal GETS configurations ensured a 26.5% mean decrease in the TRE value, versus 19.4% for conventional quasi-Newton optimization. Common features in GETS marker configurations were highlighted in the dataset of ten patients, even when multiple runs of the stochastic algorithm were performed. Including OARs in TRE minimization did not considerably affect the spatial distribution of GETS marker configurations. In conclusion, the GETS algorithm proved to be highly effective in solving the optimal marker placement problem. Further work is needed to embed site-specific deformation models in the optimization process

2007-09-21

42

Genetic evolutionary taboo search for optimal marker placement in infrared patient setup  

Science.gov (United States)

In infrared patient setup adequate selection of the external fiducial configuration is required for compensating inner target displacements (target registration error, TRE). Genetic algorithms (GA) and taboo search (TS) were applied in a newly designed approach to optimal marker placement: the genetic evolutionary taboo search (GETS) algorithm. In the GETS paradigm, multiple solutions are simultaneously tested in a stochastic evolutionary scheme, where taboo-based decision making and adaptive memory guide the optimization process. The GETS algorithm was tested on a group of ten prostate patients, to be compared to standard optimization and to randomly selected configurations. The changes in the optimal marker configuration, when TRE is minimized for OARs, were specifically examined. Optimal GETS configurations ensured a 26.5% mean decrease in the TRE value, versus 19.4% for conventional quasi-Newton optimization. Common features in GETS marker configurations were highlighted in the dataset of ten patients, even when multiple runs of the stochastic algorithm were performed. Including OARs in TRE minimization did not considerably affect the spatial distribution of GETS marker configurations. In conclusion, the GETS algorithm proved to be highly effective in solving the optimal marker placement problem. Further work is needed to embed site-specific deformation models in the optimization process.

Riboldi, M.; Baroni, G.; Spadea, M. F.; Tagaste, B.; Garibaldi, C.; Cambria, R.; Orecchia, R.; Pedotti, A.

2007-09-01

43

Arguing with the incest taboo? the case of "distorted cognitions" about child sexuality  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This paper seeks to open up critical reflection on the notion of "cognitive distortion" (CD), as applied to child sex offenders, to a broader anthropological account of children's sexual agency, namely the arguable revitalisation and extension of incest taboos through the post-1970s rubric of child [...] sexual abuse. Sixteen scales that purport to measure CD (1984-2009) are listed, and their gist briefly appreciated against this interpretative background. Pitting social structure against the deconstructive and disloyal crime of perversion, the pronouncement of CD shows a deep complicity to the moral status quo, namely the faithful recitation and procedural accreditation of essentially regulatory rubrics, fixtures, and truisms ("sexuality", "sexual trauma", "harm", "consent"). It thus paraphrases the anthropologically expected collapse of nuance between immoral and illogical ideas at the site of social taboos, especially taboos' contemporary predicament of ever more argumentative perverts and ever more decontextualised, and thus erratic, scientific probing. In the end, the perverts are those who, in all nuances of the expression, "don't get it." Circumscribing the "rationalisations, distortions, and blame shifting" of the paraphile remains the - increasingly awkward and panicked - occasion for entrenching society's.

Diederik F, Janssen.

44

Arguing with the incest taboo? the case of "distorted cognitions" about child sexuality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper seeks to open up critical reflection on the notion of "cognitive distortion" (CD, as applied to child sex offenders, to a broader anthropological account of children's sexual agency, namely the arguable revitalisation and extension of incest taboos through the post-1970s rubric of child sexual abuse. Sixteen scales that purport to measure CD (1984-2009 are listed, and their gist briefly appreciated against this interpretative background. Pitting social structure against the deconstructive and disloyal crime of perversion, the pronouncement of CD shows a deep complicity to the moral status quo, namely the faithful recitation and procedural accreditation of essentially regulatory rubrics, fixtures, and truisms ("sexuality", "sexual trauma", "harm", "consent". It thus paraphrases the anthropologically expected collapse of nuance between immoral and illogical ideas at the site of social taboos, especially taboos' contemporary predicament of ever more argumentative perverts and ever more decontextualised, and thus erratic, scientific probing. In the end, the perverts are those who, in all nuances of the expression, "don't get it." Circumscribing the "rationalisations, distortions, and blame shifting" of the paraphile remains the - increasingly awkward and panicked - occasion for entrenching society's.

Diederik F Janssen

2012-01-01

45

Tabus alimentares em região do Norte do Brasil Alimentary taboos in the North Region of Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foi realizado um inquérito sobre tabus alimentares em duas localidades do Município de Marabá, PA, Brasil: São Félix e Murumuru, tendo sido estudadas, respectivamente, 90 e 35 famílias. Dos tabus alimentares encontrados, foi grande a restrição feita à ingestão simultânea de leite com várias frutas, especialmente com manga, laranja, cajú e abacaxi; também a ingestão simultânea de ovos com frutas foram referidas como hábitos que devem ser evitados, assim como a mistura de carne de mamíferos com peixes. Quanto à ingestão simultânea de frutas, destaca-se a proibição de uma fruta regional, o açaí, com outras 10 frutas. Foi mais elevado o número de restrições alimentares durante a lactação do que durante a gravidez, principalmente de carne de caça e de peixes, abundantes na região estudada. Os motivos mais citados para justificar os tabus alimentares foram: "faz mal", "mata", "congestão" e "vômito".A study was carried out into alimentary taboos in two localities (São Félix and Mummuru in the county of Marabá, State of Pará, Brazil. Ninety families were studied in São Félix and thirty-five in Murumuru. As regards the feeding taboos found, the most frequent was that prohibiting the simultaneous ingestion of milk and various types of fruit, including especially mango, orange, cashew and pineapple. The ingestion of eggs with fruit was also considered harmful as well as the eating of mammalian flesh at the same time as fish. Restrictions based on taboos were more frequent during breast feeding than during pregnancy, especially those regarding game flesh and fish that abound in the region under study. The most frequently mentioned reasons for the restrictions were: "the combination causes harm", "the combination kills", "the combination causes congestion" and "it causes vomiting".

Marlene Trigo

1989-12-01

46

Totem e Tabu: uma "semiologia psicanalítica" em Freud? / Totem and Taboo: a Freud's "psychoanalytical semiology"?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O tema deste artigo é a pesquisa de revisão sobre a seguinte questão: quais seriam os fundamentos freudianos para uma "semiologia psicanalítica" e para o método de pesquisa de revisão de literatura em psicanálise? Foi discutida a hipótese de que "Totem e Tabu" constituiu a primeira semiologia psican [...] alítica de Freud, pois, ainda que Freud não tenha nessa obra se utilizado dessa expressão, pareceu ter ali feito a prática da semiologia psicanalítica dos dois signos: "Totem" e "Tabu". Concluiu-se que, para manter uma ótica psicanalítica freudiana num estudo semiológico, seria necessário enfatizar a análise radical dos universais da linguagem - reveladores da natureza humana profunda -, do psiquismo inconsciente do homem, extraindo tais universais, num primeiro tempo, dos totens e mitos, mas, também, num segundo tempo, dos tabus e das religiões. A demanda pelo exame de "escritos" pareceu, assim, justificar o método de revisão de literatura em psicanálise. Abstract in english This paper focus is a review about the Freudian issues about a psychoanalytical semiology and a research method of lecture review. The hypothesis that "Totem and Taboo" is the first Freud's psychoanalytical semiology has been discussed. Though Freud did not use such a term, it was argued that Freud [...] did in this book the psychoanalytical semiology of the two signs: "Totem" and "Taboo". This paper concluded that in order to do a semiological study, it would be necessary to emphasize the analysis of the universal language patterns which reveal the deepest human nature and the unconscious psychism. Such analysis should be done in two different phases: the first one, seeking those patterns within the totems and myths; the second one, seeking the same patterns within the taboos and religions. This kind of study requires writings survey, and justifies the use of literature review as psychoanalytical method in.

Victor Eduardo Silva, Bento.

47

Tabus alimentares em região do Norte do Brasil / Alimentary taboos in the North Region of Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foi realizado um inquérito sobre tabus alimentares em duas localidades do Município de Marabá, PA, Brasil: São Félix e Murumuru, tendo sido estudadas, respectivamente, 90 e 35 famílias. Dos tabus alimentares encontrados, foi grande a restrição feita à ingestão simultânea de leite com várias frutas, [...] especialmente com manga, laranja, cajú e abacaxi; também a ingestão simultânea de ovos com frutas foram referidas como hábitos que devem ser evitados, assim como a mistura de carne de mamíferos com peixes. Quanto à ingestão simultânea de frutas, destaca-se a proibição de uma fruta regional, o açaí, com outras 10 frutas. Foi mais elevado o número de restrições alimentares durante a lactação do que durante a gravidez, principalmente de carne de caça e de peixes, abundantes na região estudada. Os motivos mais citados para justificar os tabus alimentares foram: "faz mal", "mata", "congestão" e "vômito". Abstract in english A study was carried out into alimentary taboos in two localities (São Félix and Mummuru) in the county of Marabá, State of Pará, Brazil. Ninety families were studied in São Félix and thirty-five in Murumuru. As regards the feeding taboos found, the most frequent was that prohibiting the simultaneous [...] ingestion of milk and various types of fruit, including especially mango, orange, cashew and pineapple. The ingestion of eggs with fruit was also considered harmful as well as the eating of mammalian flesh at the same time as fish. Restrictions based on taboos were more frequent during breast feeding than during pregnancy, especially those regarding game flesh and fish that abound in the region under study. The most frequently mentioned reasons for the restrictions were: "the combination causes harm", "the combination kills", "the combination causes congestion" and "it causes vomiting".

Marlene, Trigo; Maria José, Roncada; Glacilda Telles de Menezes, Stewien; Isabel Maria Teixeira Bicudo, Pereira.

48

Tabus alimentares em região do Norte do Brasil / Alimentary taboos in the North Region of Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foi realizado um inquérito sobre tabus alimentares em duas localidades do Município de Marabá, PA, Brasil: São Félix e Murumuru, tendo sido estudadas, respectivamente, 90 e 35 famílias. Dos tabus alimentares encontrados, foi grande a restrição feita à ingestão simultânea de leite com várias frutas, [...] especialmente com manga, laranja, cajú e abacaxi; também a ingestão simultânea de ovos com frutas foram referidas como hábitos que devem ser evitados, assim como a mistura de carne de mamíferos com peixes. Quanto à ingestão simultânea de frutas, destaca-se a proibição de uma fruta regional, o açaí, com outras 10 frutas. Foi mais elevado o número de restrições alimentares durante a lactação do que durante a gravidez, principalmente de carne de caça e de peixes, abundantes na região estudada. Os motivos mais citados para justificar os tabus alimentares foram: "faz mal", "mata", "congestão" e "vômito". Abstract in english A study was carried out into alimentary taboos in two localities (São Félix and Mummuru) in the county of Marabá, State of Pará, Brazil. Ninety families were studied in São Félix and thirty-five in Murumuru. As regards the feeding taboos found, the most frequent was that prohibiting the simultaneous [...] ingestion of milk and various types of fruit, including especially mango, orange, cashew and pineapple. The ingestion of eggs with fruit was also considered harmful as well as the eating of mammalian flesh at the same time as fish. Restrictions based on taboos were more frequent during breast feeding than during pregnancy, especially those regarding game flesh and fish that abound in the region under study. The most frequently mentioned reasons for the restrictions were: "the combination causes harm", "the combination kills", "the combination causes congestion" and "it causes vomiting".

Marlene, Trigo; Maria José, Roncada; Glacilda Telles de Menezes, Stewien; Isabel Maria Teixeira Bicudo, Pereira.

49

Doença mão-pé-boca no adulto: a propósito de um caso clínico / Hand, food and mouth disease in the adult: case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Introdução: A doença mão-pé-boca (DMPB) é a segunda infeção viral mais frequente (logo a seguir às infeções respiratórias comuns) e é causada pelo grupo dos enterovírus, incluindo o vírus Coxsackie A e o Enterovirus 71. É mais comum nas crianças entre os três e os dez anos de idade, sendo rara nos a [...] dultos. A maioria dos casos é autolimitada mas podem surgir complicações cardíacas e neurológicas potencialmente fatais. Descrição do caso: Relata-se o caso de um homem de 35 anos de idade que recorreu à consulta do seu médico de família por queixas de febre, dor, parestesias nas extremidades das mãos e pés, odinofagia e lesões ulceradas na cavidade oral que não melhoraram após vários ciclos de antibioterapia. Por forte suspeita de um quadro viral, foram solicitados exames complementares de diagnóstico que confirmaram a DMPB e permitiram uma abordagem terapêutica adequada e a vigilância das possíveis complicações. Comentário: Sendo a DMPB uma doença rara na idade adulta, mesmo as manifestações clínicas típicas, por serem inespecíficas numa primeira fase, podem induzir ao diagnóstico errado. Uma forte suspeita clínica pode garantir uma abordagem e vigilância corretas. Abstract in english Introduction: Hand, food and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common infection caused by the Enteroviruses group, including Coxsackievirus A and Enterovirus 71. It usually affects children between the ages of three and ten years old and is rare in adults. In most cases it is self-limited but cardiac and ne [...] urological complications or even death may ensue. Case Report: We report the case of a 35 year old man who went to his general practitioner with complaints of fever, pain, paresthesias of the hands and feet, odynophagia, and ulcerated lesions in the oral cavity that did not improve with antibiotic treatment. Suspecting a viral disease, the physician ordered tests that confirmed the diagnosis of HFMD, allowing for appropriate management and follow-up. Comment: HMFD is rare in adults and even typical manifestations can be misdiagnosed. Maintaining a strong clinical suspicion can ensure correct management and follow-up.

Dantas, Ana; Oliveira, Maria João; Lourenço, Olena; Coelho, Paulo Baptista.

50

Hand Washing  

Science.gov (United States)

... or from animals and animal waste. Continue Defensive Hand Washing Did you know that an estimated 1 ... bathroom. Yuck! Back Continue How to Wash Your Hands Correctly There's a right way to wash your ...

51

Claw hand  

Science.gov (United States)

Claw hand is a condition that causes curved or bent fingers. This makes the hand appear like the claw of an animal. See ... Claw hand can be something that someone is born with (congenital) or that they develop because of certain disorders, ...

52

Agreed but not preferred: expert views on taboo options for biodiversity conservation, given climate change.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent research indicates increasing openness among conservation experts toward a set of previously controversial proposals for biodiversity protection. These include actions such as assisted migration, and the application of climate-change-informed triage principles for decision-making (e.g., forgoing attention to target species deemed no longer viable). Little is known however, about the levels of expert agreement across different conservation adaptation actions, or the preferences that may come to shape policy recommendations. In this paper, we report findings from a web-based survey of biodiversity experts that assessed: (1) perceived risks of climate change (and other drivers) to biodiversity, (2) relative importance of different conservation goals, (3) levels of agreement/disagreement with the potential necessity of unconventional-taboo actions and approaches including affective evaluations of these, (4) preferences regarding the most important adaptation action for biodiversity, and (5) perceived barriers and strategic considerations regarding implementing adaptation initiatives. We found widespread agreement with a set of previously contentious approaches and actions, including the need for frameworks for prioritization and decision-making that take expected losses and emerging novel ecosystems into consideration. Simultaneously, this survey found enduring preferences for conventional actions (such as protected areas) as the most important policy action, and negative affective responses toward more interventionist proposals. We argue that expert views are converging on agreement across a set of taboo components in ways that differ from earlier published positions, and that these views are tempered by preferences for existing conventional actions and discomfort toward interventionist options. We discuss these findings in the context of anticipating some of the likely contours of future conservation debates. Lastly, we underscore the critical need for interdisciplinary, comparative, place-based adaptation research. PMID:24834740

Hagerman, Shannon M; Satterfield, Terre

2014-04-01

53

Tabud ja reeglid. Sissevaateid eesti laagriromaani / Taboos and Rules. Insights into Prison Camp Novels by Estonian Writers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article concentrates on Estonian novels depicting Soviet prison camps in the 1940s and 1950s. The goal is to map themes, motifs and characteristics in such novels, concentrating on various taboos and rules in the prison camp environment. For a long time the Soviet prison camp theme was not publicly discussed in Estonia due to political reasons. Texts dealing with prison camps could appear in print only outside the Soviet Union; the way Estonians saw these historical events and hellish experiences were depicted mostly in exile novels. Most notable are the novels by Arved Viirlaid (b. 1922, e.g., Kes tappis Eerik Hormi? (Who Killed Eerik Horm? (1974, Surnud ei loe (The Dead do not Read (1975, Vaim ja ahelad (Mind and Chains (1961.Estonian prison camp novels can be seen as “the literature of testimony”, to use the term by Leona Toker. Dramatic historical events are written down to record the events and to show the inhumane nature of Soviet society. These records of the dramatic past follow certain patterns and create certain self- and hetero-images.A prison camp is a closed territory within a closed territory; prison camps can be seen as small models of Soviet society. Prison camp novels give a detailed view of the environment of the prison camp, its inhabitants and activities. Two central aspects are labour and food; the life of the prisoner whirls around these. The most important thing is to survive, which often leads to moral decline, e.g., stealing, cheating. However, there are lines Estonians do not cross, e.g., cannibalism or homosexual relationships with superiors. Estonians are always depicted as political prisoners (not common criminals and heterosexuals, while Russians are portrayed mainly as criminals and often also as homosexuals. Another important component of the image of the Estonians is their enterprising spirit and ability to manage even under very difficult conditions. Therefore, several oppositions can be identified, e.g., Estonians vs. Russians; political prisoners vs. criminals; heterosexuals vs. homosexuals; civilized vs. barbaric, etc.

Anneli Kõvamees

2013-12-01

54

Holiday Food Safety  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... these easy steps: C LEAN: Wash hands and surfaces often SEPARATE: Separate raw meats from other foods COOK: Cook to the right temperature CHILL: Refrigerate food promptly Holiday Food Safety Video ( ...

55

Taboo thoughts and doubt/checking: a refinement of the factor structure for obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this report was to improve upon earlier factor analyses of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptom categories by minimizing the heterogeneity in the aggressive obsessions category. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted on data from 293 adults with primary OCD. The resulting five factors (Symmetry/Ordering, Hoarding, Doubt/Checking, Contamination/Cleaning, and Taboo Thoughts) are phenomenologically more homogeneous than prior category-based factors and are consistent ...

Pinto, Anthony; Eisen, Jane L.; Mancebo, Maria C.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Stout, Robert L.; Rasmussen, Steven A.

2007-01-01

56

Robotic Hand  

Science.gov (United States)

The Omni-Hand was developed by Ross-Hime Designs, Inc. for Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. The multiple digit hand has an opposable thumb and a flexible wrist. Electric muscles called Minnacs power wrist joints and the interchangeable digits. Two hands have been delivered to NASA for evaluation for potential use on space missions and the unit is commercially available for applications like hazardous materials handling and manufacturing automation. Previous SBIR contracts resulted in the Omni-Wrist and Omni-Wrist II robotic systems, which are commercially available for spray painting, sealing, ultrasonic testing, as well as other uses.

1993-01-01

57

Hand Battery  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity about chemistry and electricity, learners form a battery by placing their hands onto plates of different metals. Learners detect the current by reading a DC microammeter attached to the metal plates. Learners experiment with different metals to find out what combination produces the most current as well as testing what happens when they press harder on the plates or wet their hands. Learners also investigate what happens when they wire the plates to a voltmeter.

Exploratorium, The

2011-12-05

58

Hands-On, Demonstration, and Videotape Laboratories for Non-Science Majors in a Food Science Course: Achievement, Attitude, and Efficiency  

Science.gov (United States)

Student achievement, attitude, and instructional efficiency were determined for hands-on and for live and videotape demonstration laboratories for nonscience majors. Each of 3 laboratory sections experienced 3 different teaching methods for one 4-wk unit. No significant difference in achievement was found among the laboratory methods. An attitude…

Johnson, H. L.; Trout, B. L.; Brekke, C. J.; Luedecke, L. O.

2004-01-01

59

Cleft hand.  

Science.gov (United States)

Definition, incidence, genetics, and etiology of typical cleft hand are discussed in this paper. Cleft hand, central polydactyly, and osseous syndactyly were induced experimentally when the same teratogenic factors acted on the embryos at the same developmental stage. Typical cleft hand, central polydactyly, and syndactyly should be classified together as manifestations of the same entity, that is, failure of induction of finger rays. Typical cleft hand may be further subdivided into five types on the basis of the number of defective finger rays. Treatment of the typical cleft hand involves cosmetic and functional considerations. Reduction of the wide interdigital space is performed primarily for cosmetic reasons, while separation of syndactyly between thumb and index finger and correction of deviation of the thumb is performed for functional improvement. A zigzag incision with a small triangular flap is recommended for reduction of the interdigital space. If metacarpal remnants or cross bones prevent drawing the metacarpals together, they should be removed. The deep transverse metacarpal ligament should be reconstructed by ligamentous flap made out of the flexor tendon sheaths of the index and ring fingers to prevent later spreading of the fingers. A dorsal-based rotation flap fashioned from the skin of the cleft is recommended for the treatment of cleft hand with partial syndactyly of the thumb and index finger. Deviation of the thumb is often caused by a delta phalanx by a trapezoidal-shaped extra phalanx. Deviation of the thumb is corrected by removing the delta phalanx or osteotomy of the trapezoidal phalanx. When the cleft is closed at approximately 1 year of age, spontaneous correction of the flexion deformity of the ring finger is sometimes observed. PMID:2176655

Ogino, T

1990-11-01

60

Combination therapies with oxaliplatin and oral capecitabine or intravenous 5-FU show similar toxicity profiles in gastrointestinal carcinoma patients if hand-food syndrome prophylaxis is performed continuously  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of anticancer drugs in palliative settings is often limited by their severe toxic effects. In gastrointestinal carcinomas the 5-fluorouracil-based palliative regimen FOLFOX-4 is often preferred to the equally effective, but more convenient oral capecitabine-based regimen XELOX. This preference is mainly based on the fact that the highly effective oral agent capecitabine induces hand-foot syndrome (HFS). In this study, we investigated whether the continuous administration of skin proph...

Wehler, Thomas C.; Cao, Yang; Galle, Peter R.; Theobald, Matthias; Moehler, Markus; Schimanski, Carl C.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

How to Break a Taboo? Comment briser un tabou ? ¿Cómo romper un tabú?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Prior to 2001, the word toilet and sanitation was a taboo. Polite society avoided the embarrassment of mentioning it. Academia publications about the issues were viewed as too boring to engage mass media. But avoidance of this agenda manifested into neglect of 2.6 billion people without access to proper sanitation and the death of 1.5 million children through diarrhea annually. Jack Sim broke this taboo through the creation of the World Toilet Organization (WTO. With its unique blend of humor and facts, WTO called a spade a spade and took the global media by storm advocating for better toilets, sanitation and hygiene conditions for people all over the world. This article explains how he did it with a shoe-string budget and went on to mobilize everyone to change the world of sanitation and toilets.Avant 2001, les mots « toilettes » et « assainissement » étaient tabous. Il n’était pas de bon ton de les prononcer. Les publications universitaires sur le sujet étaient considérées comme trop ennuyeuses pour pouvoir susciter l'intérêt des médias grand public. Cependant, le fait de se désintéresser du sujet revenait à laisser à l’écart 2,6 milliards de personnes qui n’avaient pas accès à des systèmes d’assainissement corrects et à ignorer le décès de 1,5 million d’enfants dû à une diarrhée chaque année. Jack Sim a brisé ce tabou en créant la World Toilet Organization (WTO. Avec son mélange unique d’humour et de données factuelles, la WTO a appelé un chat un chat et a investi les médias internationaux afin de sensibiliser le maximum de personnes à la nécessité de mettre en place des systèmes de toilettes et d’assainissement plus efficaces et de meilleures conditions d’hygiène dans le monde entier. Cet article explique comment Jack Sim a réussi, avec un budget très limité, à inciter chacun à faire évoluer l’univers des systèmes d’assainissement et de toilettes.Antes de 2001, los términos “retrete” e “instalación sanitaria” eran un tabú. La sociedad educada evitaba mencionarlos por vergüenza, y las publicaciones académicas sobre el tema se consideraban demasiado aburridas para ser tratadas en los medios de comunicación de masas. Sin embargo, esta omisión hace que cada año haya 2.600 millones de personas sin acceso a una instalación sanitaria adecuada y 1,5 millones de niños mueran a causa de la diarrea. Jack Sim rompió con este tabú a través de la creación de la Organización Mundial del Retrete (World Toilet Organization, o WTO. Con una combinación exclusiva de datos fehacientes y humor, la WTO empezó a llamar a las cosas por su nombre e hizo temblar a los medio de comunicación globales abogando por una mejora en los retretes, las instalaciones sanitarias y las condiciones higiénicas para la gente en todo el mundo. En este artículo explica cómo lo hizo con un presupuesto más que ajustado y cómo consiguió movilizar a todos para cambiar el mundo de los inodoros y las instalaciones sanitarias.

Jack Sim

2011-12-01

62

Hand Allotransplantation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the past decade, more than 100 different composite tissue allotransplantation (CTA) procedures have been performed around the world including more than 50 hand and 8 facial transplants with encouraging graft survival and excellent functional outcomes. Broader clinical application of CTA, however, continues to be hampered by requirement for long-term, high-dose, multidrug maintenance immunosuppression to prevent graft rejection mediated particularly by composite tissue allograft's highly im...

Brandacher, Gerald; Gorantla, Vijay S.; Lee, W. P. Andrew

2010-01-01

63

SEXUALIDADE NA ADOLESCÊNCIA: MITOS E TABUS SEXUALIDAD EN LA ADOLESCENCIA: MITOS Y TABÚES SEXUALITY IN ADOLESCENCE: MYTHS AND TABOOS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A adolescência é uma fase da vida humana em que a sexualidade se insere como uma redescoberta, trazendo certa vulnerabilidade, principalmente decorrente de mitos e tabus. Este trabalho teve como objetivo identificar alguns tabus e mitos relativos à sexualidade, vivenciados pelos adolescentes de Cuiabá-MT. Pesquisa quantitativa, cuja população de estudo foi composta por estudantes do primeiro ano do ensino médio do ensino público de Cuiabá. Os dados foram coletados por instrumento fechado e processados eletronicamente, com análises simples e bivariadas (pLa adolescencia es una fase de la vida humana en que la sexualidad se manifiesta como un redescubrimiento, provocando cierta vulnerabilidad, resultante principalmente de mitos y tabúes. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo identificar algunos tabúes y mitos en relación con la sexualidad, vivenciados por los adolescentes de Cuiabá-MT. Investigación cuantitativa, cuya población de estudio estuvo integrada por estudiantes de primer año de enseñanza secundaria pública de Cuiabá. Los datos fueron recogidos por instrumentos de respuesta cerrada y procesados electrónicamente, por análisis simples y bivariadas (pAdolescence is a phase of human life in which sexuality appears as a rediscovery, causing certain vulnerability mainly due to myths and taboos. This study aimed to identify some taboos and myths regarding sexuality, experienced by adolescents in Cuiabá-MT. Quantitative research, whose study population was composed by students from the frst year of Cuiabá public high school education. Data were collected by a closed answer instrument and electronically processed, with simple and bivariate analysis (p<0.05. Adolescents believe that alcohol and drugs increase sexual desire, do not relate the possibility of pregnancy to the practice of intercrural sex without protection, they believe there is no risk of pregnancy during the menstrual period; those without sexual experience could not tell what infuences the pleasure of sexual intercourse; among those sexually active there have been responses like “the bigger the boy’s penis the greater the pleasure of the girls” and “a boy will always feel more pleasure than girls”; for a sexual relation to happen one must love the partner (for girls and just feel attraction (for boys; boys prefer to marry a virgin. The gender differences in behavior indicate taboos rooted in the cultural cradle of society, in which sexual education, repressive in nature, contributes to maintain men and women roles and sexual values frmly set even today, although the new generations have started to introduce new behaviors. It becomes urgent to guarantee the adolescent orientation on the development of their sexuality, in order to prevent risk behaviors resulting from the taboos and myths.

Christine Baccarat de Godoy Martins

2012-01-01

64

Artificial hand:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Artificial hand (1) suitable for robotic applications or as a prosthesis, comprising a frame (2) with a thumb (3) and at least two fingers (4,5), and having a motor drive (6) for adjusting the thumb and the fingers with respect to the frame, wherein the motor drive has a housing (7) and an axle (8) which is rotatably positioned within the housing, and wherein the housing is mounted in a first bearing (9') supported by the frame to enable that the housing may rotate with regard to the frame, a...

Wisse, M.; Wilbers, F.; Meijneke, C.

2011-01-01

65

Food Prices and Diabetes  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... the lower right-hand corner of the player. Food Prices and Diabetes HealthDay February 14, 2014 Related ... face a big obstacle, new research reveals: high food prices. A fresh analysis published in the American ...

66

Combination therapies with oxaliplatin and oral capecitabine or intravenous 5-FU show similar toxicity profiles in gastrointestinal carcinoma patients if hand-food syndrome prophylaxis is performed continuously.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of anticancer drugs in palliative settings is often limited by their severe toxic effects. In gastrointestinal carcinomas the 5-fluorouracil-based palliative regimen FOLFOX-4 is often preferred to the equally effective, but more convenient oral capecitabine-based regimen XELOX. This preference is mainly based on the fact that the highly effective oral agent capecitabine induces hand-foot syndrome (HFS). In this study, we investigated whether the continuous administration of skin prophylaxis (10% urea, panthenol, bisabolol, vitamin A, C and E) is capable of protecting against capecitabine-induced HFS and allowing a more convenient oral therapeutic option. In this retrospective analysis, the toxicity profiles, according to NCI CTCAE 3.0 criteria, of 54 patients with gastrointestinal cancer who received either XELOX (34 patients) or FOLFOX-4 (20 patients) were compared using Fisher tests. The treatment protocols that were compared, herein, did not differ significantly in the majority of the analyzed items, with the exception of increased nausea (XELOX-70), fatigue (XELOX-130) and tumor pain (XELOX-70 and XELOX-130). No significant differences were observed among the various groups with regard to emesis, diarrhea, mucositis, exanthema, alopecia, loss of weight and the incidence of infections. In particular, no significant differences in toxicity levels occurred in terms of dose, and HFS was limited if skin prophylaxis was performed continuously. XELOX-based palliative regimens provide an equally effective and comparably toxic therapeutic alternative to FOLFOX-4 if HFS prophylaxis is performed continuously. Since the oral administration of capecitabine is a more convenient method of application, it provides patients with a quality of life-preserving therapeutic alternative. PMID:22783416

Wehler, Thomas C; Cao, Yang; Galle, Peter R; Theobald, Matthias; Moehler, Markus; Schimanski, Carl C

2012-06-01

67

SEXUALIDADE NA ADOLESCÊNCIA: MITOS E TABUS / SEXUALITY IN ADOLESCENCE: MYTHS AND TABOOS / SEXUALIDAD EN LA ADOLESCENCIA: MITOS Y TABÚES  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A adolescência é uma fase da vida humana em que a sexualidade se insere como uma redescoberta, trazendo certa vulnerabilidade, principalmente decorrente de mitos e tabus. Este trabalho teve como objetivo identificar alguns tabus e mitos relativos à sexualidade, vivenciados pelos adolescentes de Cuia [...] bá-MT. Pesquisa quantitativa, cuja população de estudo foi composta por estudantes do primeiro ano do ensino médio do ensino público de Cuiabá. Os dados foram coletados por instrumento fechado e processados eletronicamente, com análises simples e bivariadas (p Abstract in spanish La adolescencia es una fase de la vida humana en que la sexualidad se manifiesta como un redescubrimiento, provocando cierta vulnerabilidad, resultante principalmente de mitos y tabúes. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo identificar algunos tabúes y mitos en relación con la sexualidad, vivenciados por [...] los adolescentes de Cuiabá-MT. Investigación cuantitativa, cuya población de estudio estuvo integrada por estudiantes de primer año de enseñanza secundaria pública de Cuiabá. Los datos fueron recogidos por instrumentos de respuesta cerrada y procesados electrónicamente, por análisis simples y bivariadas (p Abstract in english Adolescence is a phase of human life in which sexuality appears as a rediscovery, causing certain vulnerability mainly due to myths and taboos. This study aimed to identify some taboos and myths regarding sexuality, experienced by adolescents in Cuiabá-MT. Quantitative research, whose study populati [...] on was composed by students from the frst year of Cuiabá public high school education. Data were collected by a closed answer instrument and electronically processed, with simple and bivariate analysis (p

Christine, Baccarat de Godoy Martins; Fabiana Maria, De Almeida; Lidiane Cristina, Alencastro; Karla, Fonseca De Matos; Solange, Pires Salomé De Souza.

68

TRADITIONAL FOOD HABITS OF THE BODOS OF NORTH EAST INDIA: A FIELD STUDY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is a brief overview of the traditional food habits of the Bodos North East India. Food is the culture and the culture is the identity of any communities. The traditional system of fooding, preparing, rituals, taboos or health care varies community wise. But the significance of the word TRADITION is decreasing day by day, in short the word tradition itself changing traditionally due to the global impact of globalization and as well as due to socio-economic development of the society

GUDDU PRASAD BASUMATARY

2012-12-01

69

Food Chain & Food Web  

Science.gov (United States)

What are the differences and similarities between food chain and food web? Print (2) Garden Gate Print (1) Venn Diagram Garden Gate Venn Diagram Let's learn about the food chain and food web.Read the notes.Food Chain 4 Also, view more notes on food chain and food web. Go to the 7th title Food Chain which is before the Habitats and food chain title of the webpage.Food Chain Power Point Presentation Record what you learn ...

B, Ms.

2011-10-27

70

Healthy and green diets go hand in hand | EurActiv  

...Healthy and green diets go hand in hand | EurActiv food system which can be summed up as “out of sight, out of mind”.... cap,health,sustainability,diet,Food,fruit and vegetables,sustainable consumption and production EU news & policy debates- across languages - en Click ...Network Sign up to our newsletters »Monday 24 February 2014 BROWSE ALL SECTIONS Agriculture & Food Section homepage CAP 2014-2020: A long road to reform Intensive ... Food, drinks and the environment [Archived] Development Policy EU Elections 2014 Section homepage European elections 2014: Different this time?...

71

Rethinking Elder Abuse in Canada and Why It Matters - Keynote Address - 22nd Annual John K. Friesen Conference - Taboo Topics in Residential Care (2013)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This video clip is the Free Public Lecture, “Rethinking Elder Abuse in Canada and Why It Matters,” presented by Lynn McDonald (Director, Institute for Life Course and Aging, University of Toronto) at the 22nd Annual John K. Friesen Conference, "Taboo Topics in Residential Care," MAY 27-28, 2013, Vancouver, BC.   The Simon Fraser University Gerontology Research Centre (GRC) and the associated Gerontology Department in cooperation with Fraser Health, the Public Guardian and Trust...

Mcdonald, Lynn

2013-01-01

72

Fast Food and Childhood Obesity  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... hand corner of the player. Fast Food and Childhood Obesity HealthDay January 24, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Child Nutrition Obesity in Children Weight Control Transcript Fast food is to blame ...

73

Fast Food and Childhood Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

... hand corner of the player. Fast Food and Childhood Obesity HealthDay January 24, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Child Nutrition Obesity in Children Weight Control Transcript Fast food is to blame ...

74

Fast Food and Childhood Obesity  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... lower right-hand corner of the player. Fast Food and Childhood Obesity HealthDay January 24, 2014 Related ... Nutrition Obesity in Children Weight Control Transcript Fast food is to blame for rising rates of childhood ...

75

Hand and Arm Conditions  

Science.gov (United States)

... Hand Conditions A-Z Hand Anatomy Find a Hand Surgeon Amputation and Prosthetics Animal Bites Arthritis - Base of the Thumb Arthritis - MP Joint Arthritis - Osteoarthritis Arthritis - Rheumatoid Brachial Plexus ... Tunnel Syndrome Cold Hand Disease Complex Regional Pain Syndrome - CRPS Congenital Hand ...

76

Osteoarthritis of the Hand  

Science.gov (United States)

... Z Hand Anatomy Find a Hand Surgeon Arthritis - Osteoarthritis Email to a friend * required fields From * To * ... common forms of arthritis in the hand are osteoarthritis, post-traumatic arthritis (after an injury), and rheumatoid ...

77

Hand hygiene strategies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hand hygiene is one of the major players in preventing healthcare associated infections. However, healthcare workers compliance with hand hygiene continues to be a challenge. This article will address strategies to help improving hand hygiene compliance.

Eskandar Alex Yazaji

2011-01-01

78

Put Your Hands Together  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... More Information Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives Hand Hygiene in Healthcare Settings Ounce of Prevention Campaign Downloads ... Disease Detectives Release Date: 9/20/2010 Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Release Date: 8/4/2010 Higiene ...

79

Arthritis of the Hand  

Science.gov (United States)

... American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Arthritis of the Hand The hand and wrist have multiple small joints that work ... Arthritis can occur in many areas of the hand and wrist and can have more than one ...

80

Seasonal Hand Injuries  

Science.gov (United States)

... Media ACEP in Social Media Take Care Seasonal Hand Injuries Studies show that many people visit the ... the ladder. BREAKING A FALL WITH AN OUTSTRETCHED HAND Use both hands to help catch yourself so ...

 
 
 
 
81

Proper hand washing (image)  

Science.gov (United States)

... handwashing include: Take off any jewelry Hold your hands pointing down under warm water for 15 to ... Steps for proper hand washing include: Take off any jewelry. Hold your hands pointing down under warm water for 15 to 30 seconds. ...

82

Revisitando os Tabus: as cautelas rituais do povo de santo / Revisiting taboos: ritualistic cautions among the "povo de santo"  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente artigo propõe uma reflexão sobre o papel das interdições rituais pessoais, chamadas de quizilas, no contexto do candomblé da Bahia (Jeje-Nagô). A pesquisa de campo levou à hipótese de que, para além das proibições profiláticas e dos tabus de cunho coletivo, existem interdições pessoais ba [...] seadas em sensibilidades negativas, notadamente em ojerizas ou alergias alimentares, que guiam o iniciado numa relação particular com os orixás. A constatação de que a sensibilidade corporal desempenha um papel importante nesse tipo de gesto ritual indica, portanto, a importância de uma prática etnográfica debruçada sobre a noção de "corpo que sente". Abstract in english This article proposes a reflection about the role played by personal ritual prohibitions, known as quizilas, in the context of the candomblé of Bahia (Jeje-Nagô). My fieldwork led to the following hypothesis: besides a system of prophylactic prohibitions and besides collective taboos, there is a sys [...] tem of personal prohibitions based on negative sensitivities -on disgust feelings or on alimentary allergic reactions- and which built an especial relationship of the initiate with the orixás. As such, the ethnography of this kind of ritual behavior should arguably be based on somatic issues and on the concept of the "feeling body".

Francesca, Bassi.

83

Hand preference depends on posture in common marmosets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Postural conditions are known to affect hand use in many primate species. It remains to be examined how posture and task differences modulate, or interact with, hand use in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Three experimental conditions were introduced to assess the occurrence of preferential hand use as a function of posture and size of aperture for the subjects to grasp and retrieve the food item bi- or unimanually: ground level condition for requiring quadrupedal posture with enough space for food reaching with both hands, large hole (4 cm in diameter) condition for requiring upright posture with available space for both hands, and small hole (2 cm in diameter) condition for requiring upright posture with available space for only one hand. While the distribution of hand preference did not significantly differ among the three conditions at the group level, eight out of twelve marmosets did not change hands when identical upright postures were required in large and small hole conditions. Some marmosets simultaneously used both hands when both hands were free to reach the food items; however, the number of left hand users increased when the marmosets were forced to use either hand to pass through the reduced hole size. Significant correlations in hand use between the upright posture conditions were observed, whereas no correlation was observed between the different posture conditions. These results suggest that, although preferential hand use was not found at group level, posture, but not size of aperture, has effects on hand use in individual common marmosets. PMID:23578761

Hashimoto, Teruo; Yamazaki, Yumiko; Iriki, Atsushi

2013-07-01

84

Holiday Food Safety  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... how to store, prepare, and serve food safely to prevent foodborne illness from ruining the holidays. Follow these easy steps: C LEAN: Wash hands and surfaces often SEPARATE: Separate ...

85

4 Basic Steps to Food Safety at Home  

Science.gov (United States)

4 Basic Steps to Food Safety at Home 1. Clean Always wash your food, hands, counters and cooking tools. • Wash hands in warm soapy water for at least ... microwave • Marinate foods in the fridge. OVER 2012 Food Safety at Home Why should you care about food safety? Each ...

86

Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 10. Alcohol-based antiseptics for hand disinfection and a comparison of their effectiveness with soaps.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alcohol compounds are increasingly used as a substitute for hand washing in health care environments and some public places because these compounds are easy to use and do not require water or hand drying materials. However, the effectiveness of these compounds depends on how much soil (bioburden) is present on the hands. Workers in health care environments and other public places must wash their hands before using antiseptics and/or wearing gloves. However, alcohol-based antiseptics, also called rubs and sanitizers, can be very effective for rapidly destroying some pathogens by the action of the aqueous alcohol solution without the need for water or drying with towels. Alcohol-based compounds seem to be the most effective treatment against gram-negative bacteria on lightly soiled hands, but antimicrobial soaps are as good or better when hands are more heavily contaminated. Instant sanitizers have no residual effect, unlike some antimicrobial soaps that retain antimicrobial activity after the hygienic action has been completed, e.g., after hand washing. Many alcohol-based hand rubs have antimicrobial agents added to them, but each formulation must be evaluated against the target pathogens in the environment of concern before being considered for use. Wipes also are widely used for quick cleanups of hands, other body parts, and surfaces. These wipes often contain alcohol and/or antimicrobial compounds and are used for personal hygiene where water is limited. However, antiseptics and wipes are not panaceas for every situation and are less effective in the presence of more than a light soil load and against most enteric viruses. PMID:21219730

Todd, Ewen C D; Michaels, Barry S; Holah, John; Smith, Debra; Greig, Judy D; Bartleson, Charles A

2010-11-01

87

Plantas relacionadas con tabúes del ciclo reproductivo de los Guaraníes de Misiones, Argentina Plants related to taboos of the reproductive cycle of guaranies from Misiones, Argentina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los guaraníes de las parcialidades Mbya y Ava Chiripa observan normas de conducta específicas durante la etapa reproductiva de los miembros de sus comunidades. Algunas de estas reglas implican tabúes que se relacionan con plantas, las cuales son tratadas en la presente contribución. El manuscrito es ilustrado mediante fotografías de algunas de las especies mencionadas.Guaranis of Mbya and Ava Chiripa groups, observes norms of specific conduct during the reproductive stage of the members of his communities. Someone of these rules imply taboos related with plants, these plants are treated in the present contribution. The manuscript is illustrated by means photographies of someone of the mentioned species.

Héctor A Keller

2010-06-01

88

Hand and Finger Exercises  

Science.gov (United States)

... vision and language needs, call (614) 293-3191. Hand and Finger Exercises ? Place your palm flat on ... times for ____ seconds. ? Pick up objects with your hand. Start out with larger objects. Repeat ____ times for ____ ...

89

Put Your Hands Together  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Put Your Hands Together Source: National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic ... London estimate that if everyone routinely washed their hands, a million deaths a year could be prevented. ...

90

Hand Injuries and Disorders  

Science.gov (United States)

... for a living, you are always using your hands. When there is something wrong with them, you ... not be able to do your regular activities. Hand problems include Carpal tunnel syndrome - compression of a ...

91

Hand Hygiene Saves Lives  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... would you mind cleansing your hands before you begin? Oh, I washed them right before I came ... would you mind cleansing your hands before you begin? Oh, I washed them right before I came ...

92

Fast Food and Childhood Obesity  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... hand corner of the player. Fast Food and Childhood Obesity HealthDay January 24, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Child ... food is to blame for rising rates of childhood obesity right? Maybe not! New research suggests fast food ...

93

Food Poisoning  

Science.gov (United States)

... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ... and store foods properly. Continue Do I Have Food Poisoning? Someone who has food poisoning might: have ...

94

The alien hand syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 77-year-old woman presented with the complaint of observing her left hand moving without her knowledge while watching television. Her left hand stroked her face and hair as if somebody was controlling it. These movements lasted only half an hour but on recovery, she had left hemiparesis. Alien hand syndrome as the presentation of cardioembolic stroke is extremely rare but can be terrifying to patients. PMID:24982566

Panikkath, Ragesh; Panikkath, Deepa; Mojumder, Deb; Nugent, Kenneth

2014-07-01

95

21 CFR 872.4565 - Dental hand instrument.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Dental hand instrument. 872.4565 Section 872.4565 Food and...depth gauge instrument, plastic dental filling instrument, dental instrument handle, surgical tissue scissors, mouth...

2009-04-01

96

21 CFR 872.4565 - Dental hand instrument.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental hand instrument. 872.4565 Section 872.4565 Food and...depth gauge instrument, plastic dental filling instrument, dental instrument handle, surgical tissue scissors, mouth...

2010-04-01

97

The taboo that isn'  

...forced sterilization, forced family planning, plus the fears from some of contraception, abortion, and sex.” The online forum will be open through ... In lieu of a viable argument she simply repackages imperial myths with a ‘new’ sustainable façade, facilitating the neoliberal onslaught on the ... Anti-Malthusian arguments are compelling and easy to come up with. It makes you wonder - Cui bono? - Who benefits? ...Failure so to do will mean that those who make the simplistic argument that the problem lies in the third world will continue to ...

98

Posterior alien hand in a left-handed person.  

Science.gov (United States)

Posterior alien hand syndrome usually involves the non-dominant hand with lesions usually in the right hemisphere. This is the first case in a left-handed person, involving the dominant hand. PMID:22802483

Terazzi, Emanuela; Mittino, Daniela; Monaco, Francesco

2010-01-01

99

Surgical Robot Hand.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been demonstrated that a small robotic hand working with Bowden pulleys and SME shape memory elements is possible below the range of 10 mm in diameter and movement of nearly 3 Hz speed. The robot hand can be sterilized and used for medical applicat...

W. Daum

1998-01-01

100

Hand Hygiene Saves Lives  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... but there's one simple thing you and your family can do to help prevent these infections – wash your hands and make sure that everyone who touches you – including your doctor – cleanses their hands too. Patients and their loved ones who take an active role and become involved in their treatment may have ...

 
 
 
 
101

Hand Hygiene Saves Lives  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... you want it. New to podcasting? See Podcast Help and RSS Help Features Browse Search Subscribe Listen/Watch Hand Hygiene ... and visitors. It emphasizes two key points to help prevent infections: the importance of practicing hand hygiene ...

102

Preparation and evaluation of hand rub disinfectant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present work is to formulate effective hand rub disinfectant by selecting broad-spectrum antimicrobial and antifungal agents. Increased need of easy-to-use hand rub disinfectant in pharmaceutical, food processing industry, hospitals, and in clinical labs necessitated development of the best possible product. Formulations were prepared using Benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine gluconate as potent disinfectants along with alcohol 70%. In low concentration they were highly effective without leaving any toxic effect on the user?s skin. A synergistic effect was observed when ethyl alcohol 70% was used in combination. Suitable emollient and skin conditioning agents were used to avoid possible dehydrating effect on the user?s skin. Excellent volatility of the preparation was observed after use, leaving a thin antimicrobial film on the user?s hand. The use of suitable excipient brought effective removal of after the use leaving a soothening effect on the skin. The aim of present work is to develop hand rub formulation which evaporates quickly after applications leaving no trace on hands as in case of hand rub gels. The present formulation was found to be effective when compared with marketed liquid hand rub.

Padsalgi Amol

2008-01-01

103

Simple Reaching Is Not So Simple: Association Between Hand Use and Grip Preferences in Captive Chimpanzees  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We assessed the relationship between grip preference and hand use in chimpanzees in 2 experiments. In experiment 1, we evaluated consistency in hand use and grip preference across 4 food types. The chimpanzees showed population-level right-handedness and there are significant positive associations for both hand and grip use across food types. In experiment 2, we assessed validity of hand use in relation to grip preference in 2 colonies of chimpanzees via the same methodology. Differences in h...

Hopkins, William D.; Russell, Jamie L.; Hook, Michelle; Braccini, Stephanie; Schapiro, Steven J.

2005-01-01

104

Food safety regulations in Australia and New Zealand Food Standards.  

Science.gov (United States)

Citizens of Australia and New Zealand recognise that food security is a major global issue. Food security also affects Australia and New Zealand's status as premier food exporting nations and the health and wellbeing of the Australasian population. Australia is uniquely positioned to help build a resilient food value chain and support programs aimed at addressing existing and emerging food security challenges. The Australian food governance system is fragmented and less transparent, being largely in the hands of government and semi-governmental regulatory authorities. The high level of consumer trust in Australian food governance suggests that this may be habitual and taken for granted, arising from a lack of negative experiences of food safety. In New Zealand the Ministry of Primary Industries regulates food safety issues. To improve trade and food safety, New Zealand and Australia work together through Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and other co-operative agreements. Although the potential risks to the food supply are dynamic and constantly changing, the demand, requirement and supply for providing safe food remains firm. The Australasian food industry will need to continually develop its system that supports the food safety program with the help of scientific investigations that underpin the assurance of what is and is not safe. The incorporation of a comprehensive and validated food safety program is one of the total quality management systems that will ensure that all areas of potential problems are being addressed by industry. PMID:24638225

Ghosh, Dilip

2014-08-01

105

Plantas relacionadas con tabúes del ciclo reproductivo de los Guaraníes de Misiones, Argentina / Plants related to taboos of the reproductive cycle of guaranies from Misiones, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los guaraníes de las parcialidades Mbya y Ava Chiripa observan normas de conducta específicas durante la etapa reproductiva de los miembros de sus comunidades. Algunas de estas reglas implican tabúes que se relacionan con plantas, las cuales son tratadas en la presente contribución. El manuscrito es [...] ilustrado mediante fotografías de algunas de las especies mencionadas. Abstract in english Guaranis of Mbya and Ava Chiripa groups, observes norms of specific conduct during the reproductive stage of the members of his communities. Someone of these rules imply taboos related with plants, these plants are treated in the present contribution. The manuscript is illustrated by means photograp [...] hies of someone of the mentioned species.

Keller, Héctor A.

106

Grip Morphology and Hand Use in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Evidence of a Left Hemisphere Specialization in Motor Skill  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Three experiments on grip morphology and hand use were conducted in a sample of chimpanzees. In Experiment 1, grip morphology when grasping food items was recorded, and it was found that subjects who adopted a precision grip were more right-handed than chimpanzees using other grips. In Experiment 2, the effect of food type on grasping was assessed. Smaller food items elicited significantly more precision grips for the right hand. In Experiment 3, error rates in grasping foods were compared be...

Hopkins, William D.; Cantalupo, Claudio; Wesley, Michael J.; Hostetter, Autumn B.; Pilcher, Dawn L.

2002-01-01

107

Dyshidrotic Dermatitis (Hand Eczema)  

Science.gov (United States)

Types of Eczema Dyshidrotic Dermatitis Occurring only on the palms of the hands, sides of the fingers, and soles of the feet, this common eczema typically causes a burning or itching sensation and ...

108

Mutilated hand injuries.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors provide a review of treatment of the mutilated hand, discussing the effect of injury on soft tissue loss, intrinsic and extrinsic musculature, paravascular structures, tendons, and the bony skeleton. The authors review functional loss and restoration. PMID:22032584

Hegge, Theresa; Neumeister, Michael W

2011-10-01

109

Hand Hygiene Saves Lives  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... the hospital to get well, but you should know that each year in the United States patients ... before and after they touch you. Healthcare providers know to practice hand hygiene, but sometimes they forget. ...

110

Radioactivity and foods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this article is to describe and contrast two relationships between radiation and food--on the one hand, beneficial preservation of food by controlled exposure to ionizing radiation; and, on the other, contamination of food by accidental incorporation of radioactive nuclides within the food itself. In food irradiation, electrons or electromagnetic radiation is used to destroy microorganisms and insects or prevent seed germination. The economic advantages and health benefits of sterilizing food in this manner are clear, and numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undersirable changes or induced radioactivity is produced in the irradiated food. An altogether different situation is presented by exposure of food animals and farming areas to radioactive materials, as occurred after the major Soviet nuclear reactor accident at Chenobyl. This article furnishes the basic information needed to understand the nature of food contamination associated with that event and describes the work of international organizations seeking to establish appropriate safe limits for levels of radioactivity in foods.

Olszyna-Marzys, A.E. (Unified Lab. of Food and Drug Control, Guatemala City (Guatemala))

1991-01-01

111

[New food allergies].  

Science.gov (United States)

RISING INCIDENCE OF FOOD ALLERGIES: Food allergies are becoming more and more common, concerning 3 to 4% of the general population. One out of four persons allergic to nuts, the most frequent food allergen, have severe signs and symptoms. A CLASSICAL DIAGNOSIS: Certain diagnosis of food allergy is established on the basis of labial and oral tests. The dose required to induce a reaction is established by the oral test, giving information about the severity of the allergy and its progression. OTHER ALLERGENS: "Emerging" food allergens include spices and condiments, exotic fruits (kiwi, avocado, cashew and pecan nuts, Brazil nuts), sesame seeds, psyllium, sunflower seeds. Endurance exercise following ingestion of a food allergen can lead to severe anaphylactic reactions. Allergen associations "food-pollen", "latex-food", "mitessnails" have been described. INDISPENSABLE PREVENTION: Avoiding contact is essential. Many allergens are "masked" within prepared foods. Precise labeling, with particular attention to nut content, must be reinforced. Individualized counseling on food allergies should be available for school children. Persons with severe allergies should keep at hand an emergency kit with antihistamines, injectable rapid action corticoids and adrenalin (1 mg/ml). PMID:10526567

Dutau, G; Rittié, J L; Rancé, F; Juchet, A; Brémont, F

1999-09-25

112

Pet Food  

Science.gov (United States)

... Title 21, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Pet Food The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates that ... 113 (21 CFR 113). FDA Regulation of Pet Food There is no requirement that pet food products ...

113

Food Groups  

Science.gov (United States)

Choose a Food Group MyPlate illustrates the five food groups that are the building blocks for a healthy diet using a ... half your grains whole. >> See Grains Group Protein Foods Go lean with protein. >> See Protein Foods Group ...

114

The diabetic hand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic condition characterized by persistent hyperglycaemia with resultant morbidity and mortality related to its microvascular and macrovascular complications. In addition diabetes is also associated with several musculoskeletal disorders of the hand, that can be debilitating. There is increased incidence of these abnormalities in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes compared with the general population, related to disease duration but not to the age or sex. Typical diabetes associated hand condition include the palmar flexor tenosynovitis, Dupuytren’s contracture, syndrome of limited joint mobility, carpal tunnel syndrome, Charcot arthropathy and reflex sympathetic dystrophy. Maintaining good glycaemic control by exercise, diet and drugs improves or prevents the development of these hand rheumatic condition. In this brief report we review the rational therapeutic approach to these disorders.

C. Circhetta

2011-09-01

115

Hands-On Astrophysics  

Science.gov (United States)

Hands-On Astrophysics is a flexible set of hands-on educational materials, activities, and investigations. These materials are based on the AAVSO's unique electronic database of variable star measurements. By carrying out all aspects of the research process, students can develop and integrate skills in science, math, computing, and other areas. Units include Planets and Stars, Introducing the Sky, Observing Variable Stars, The Message of Light and Analysis of Variable Stars. Units are available for download in PDF format, including teacher guides.

2011-01-04

116

[Hands cutaneous exam].  

Science.gov (United States)

There are four different areas to consider: palms, back of the hands, fingers, periungual folds (and nails). Palmoplantar keratodermas are a group of inherited or acquired disorders. Dysidrosis is a peculiar form of eczema on the palms and lateral aspects of the fingers. SAPHO syndrome (Synovitis - Acne - Pustulosis - Hyperostosis - Osteomyelitis) presents pustules on palms. Photo-ageing is frequently noticed on the back of the hands. Paraneoplastic acrokeratosis (Bazex syndrome) affects the nose, ears, and periungual folds of fingers and toes. Spontaneous blue finger syndrome can be a benign process that resolves rapidly. PMID:24157184

Lorette, Gérard; Samimi, Mahtab

2013-12-01

117

Food Prices and Diabetes  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Search MedlinePlus Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Cool Tools To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. For closed captioning, click the CC button on the lower right-hand corner of the player. Food Prices and ...

118

Division of labor in hand usage in free-ranging bonnet macaques, Macaca radiata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Primates exhibit laterality in hand usage either in terms of (a) hand with which an individual solves a task or while solving a task that requires both hands, executes the most complex action, that is, "hand preference," or (b) hand with which an individual executes actions most efficiently, that is, "hand performance." Observations from previous studies indicate that laterality in hand usage might reflect specialization of the two hands for accomplishing tasks that require maneuvering dexterity or physical strength. However, no existing study has investigated handedness with regard to this possibility. In this study, we examined laterality in hand usage in urban free-ranging bonnet macaques, Macaca radiata with regard to the above possibility. While solving four distinct food extraction tasks which varied in the number of steps involved in the food extraction process and the dexterity required in executing the individual steps, the macaques consistently used one hand for extracting food (i.e., task requiring maneuvering dexterity)-the "maneuvering" hand, and the other hand for supporting the body (i.e., task requiring physical strength)-the "supporting" hand. Analogously, the macaques used the maneuvering hand for the spontaneous routine activities that involved maneuvering in three-dimensional space, such as grooming, and hitting an opponent during an agonistic interaction, and the supporting hand for those that required physical strength, such as pulling the body up while climbing. Moreover, while solving a task that ergonomically forced the usage of a particular hand, the macaques extracted food faster with the maneuvering hand as compared to the supporting hand, demonstrating the higher maneuvering dexterity of the maneuvering hand. As opposed to the conventional ideas of handedness in non-human primates, these observations demonstrate division of labor between the two hands marked by their consistent usage across spontaneous and experimental tasks requiring maneuvering in three-dimensional space or those requiring physical strength. Am. J. Primatol. 76:576-585, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24375912

Mangalam, Madhur; Desai, Nisarg; Singh, Mewa

2014-06-01

119

Hand Biometrics Technology  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners explore how engineers incorporate biometric technologies into products as well as the challenges of engineers who must weigh privacy, security and other issues when designing a system. Learners examine different biometric techniques, find their own hand geometry biometrics, and then work in teams of "engineers" to design a high-tech security system for a museum.

Ieee

2014-03-10

120

Mechanical cornpicker hand injuries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mechanical cornpicker hand injuries are not frequent in comparison to general hand trauma, but they have a specific mechanism of occurrence and are very severe. This investigation included 221 hand injuries. The sex distribution shows a general male dominance (85.25% in their active age (84.44%. These are, seasonal injuries mostly occurring in October (75.11%. By type of injuries, mutilating crush injuries are most frequent (64.25%. After completing the treatment, in most cases the functional result were estimated as bad (50.68%. Data concerning education and training for operating agricultural machines (96.38% - patients without training and carrying out safety measures (63.35% of injured patients did not apply any protection measures are devastating. The number of these injuries, as well as consequent permanent disabilities, may be considerably reduced by preventive measures, including public health services and media. Use of contemporary agricultural machinery, as well as obligatory training for operating these machines and application of protective measures, may also reduce the incidence of hand injuries during corn picking.

Mom?ilovi? Dragan

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Put Your Hands Together  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Salt Matters: Preserving Choice, Protecting Health Release Date: 4/20/2011 Your Wake-Up Call Release Date: 4/1/2011 Fighting Flu Release Date: 3/8/ ... 2010 Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Release Date: 8/4/2010 Higiene De Las Manos Salva Vidas Release ...

122

Rotationally Actuated Prosthetic Hand  

Science.gov (United States)

Prosthetic hand attached to end of remaining part of forearm and to upper arm just above elbow. Pincerlike fingers pushed apart to degree depending on rotation of forearm. Simpler in design, simpler to operate, weighs less, and takes up less space.

Norton, William E.; Belcher, Jewell G., Jr.; Carden, James R.; Vest, Thomas W.

1991-01-01

123

Moving Hands, Moving Entities  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study we investigated with a priming paradigm whether uni and bimanual actions presented as primes differently affected language processing. Animals' (self-moving entities) and plants' (not self-moving entities) names were used as targets. As prime we used grasping hands, presented both as static images and videos. The results showed an…

Setti, Annalisa; Borghi, Anna M.; Tessari, Alessia

2009-01-01

124

Put Your Hands Together  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

In this podcast, learn how to help stop the spread of infection and stay healthy. It's easy when you 'Put Your Hands Together.'.  Created: 3/24/2011 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID) and National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 3/24/2011.

2011-03-24

125

Terminologie alimentaire (Food Terminology).  

Science.gov (United States)

Translations and descriptions are given in French for a number of English food terms: convenience foods, fast foods, fast foods industry, fast foods restaurant, frozen foods, deep frozen foods, fast frozen foods, quick frozen foods, dry frozen foods. (MSE)

Pelletier, Jean-Francois

1980-01-01

126

Food allergy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant allergens (class 2 food allergy. Allergenicity of food is largely determined by structural aspects, including cross-reactivity and reduced or enhanced allergenicity with cooking that convey allergenic characteristics to food. Management of food allergy currently focuses on dietary avoidance of the offending foods, prompt recognition and treatment of allergic reactions, and nutritional support. This review includes definitions and examines the prevalence and management of food allergies and the characteristics of food allergens.

Youngshin Han

2012-05-01

127

Hand Segmentation for Hand-based Biometrics in Complex Environments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hand-basedbiometric techniques, such as the ones based on palmprint, hand vein and handshape, is becoming more important because of their convenience and highperformance. Hand segmentation is one of the most important steps in thesetechniques. It is a challenge task to accurately segment hand in complex environment because of the complex background,varying illuminance and other unexpected interference factors. This paperproposes a novel approach to segment hand in complex environment using co...

Wei Bu; Kuanquan Wang; Xiangqian Wu; Xin Cui; Qiushi Zhao

2013-01-01

128

Pediatric hand fractures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pediatric hand fractures are common childhood injuries. Identification of the fractures in the emergency room setting can be challenging owing to the physes and incomplete ossification of the carpus that are not revealed in the radiographs. Most simple fractures can be treated with appropriate immobilization through buddy taping, finger splints, or casting. If correctly diagnosed, reduced, and immobilized, these fractures usually result in excellent clinical outcomes. PMID:24209954

Nellans, Kate W; Chung, Kevin C

2013-11-01

129

Hands-on-CERN  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the Hands-On CERN project is to increase understanding of the most fundamental processes inside matter, and to explain modern research about particle collisions. The site includes many lab activities, interactive resources, and background information for teachers and learners. CERN is the European Organization for Nuclear Research. It's primary function is to provide the particle accelerators and other infrastructure needed for high-energy physics research. Its laboratory houses the LHC (Large Hadron Collider).

2011-09-13

130

Compact Dexterous Robotic Hand  

Science.gov (United States)

A compact robotic hand includes a palm housing, a wrist section, and a forearm section. The palm housing supports a plurality of fingers and one or more movable palm members that cooperate with the fingers to grasp and/or release an object. Each flexible finger comprises a plurality of hingedly connected segments, including a proximal segment pivotally connected to the palm housing. The proximal finger segment includes at least one groove defining first and second cam surfaces for engagement with a cable. A plurality of lead screw assemblies each carried by the palm housing are supplied with power from a flexible shaft rotated by an actuator and output linear motion to a cable move a finger. The cable is secured within a respective groove and enables each finger to move between an opened and closed position. A decoupling assembly pivotally connected to a proximal finger segment enables a cable connected thereto to control movement of an intermediate and distal finger segment independent of movement of the proximal finger segment. The dexterous robotic hand closely resembles the function of a human hand yet is light weight and capable of grasping both heavy and light objects with a high degree of precision.

Lovchik, Christopher Scott (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

131

Food Allergy  

Science.gov (United States)

... allergies to particular foods. Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome (FPIES) , sometimes referred to as a delayed food allergy, is a severe condition causing vomiting and diarrhea. In some cases, symptoms can progress to dehydration and shock brought ...

132

Food additives  

Science.gov (United States)

... herbs or spices to foods Pickling foods in vinegar Using salt to preserve meats Indirect food additives ... this list are: guar gum, sugar, salt, and vinegar. The list is re-checked regularly. Some substances ...

133

Food Labels  

Science.gov (United States)

Food Allergy Fact EPINEPHRINE IS THE FIRST LINE TREATMENT FOR ANAPHYLAXIS Home About Us About FARE Leadership ... Giving Matching Gifts Donate Stock Donate Your Vehicle Food Labels The Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection ...

134

Food Allergies  

Science.gov (United States)

... cow's milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies occur when your immune system ... had a serious reaction. Back Continue How Are Food Allergies Treated? There is no special medicine for ...

135

Left-handed Ferromagnet  

CERN Document Server

The dynamics of the total magnetization in metallic ferromagnet is studied theoretically taking into account the relativistic spin-orbit interaction. It is found that its quantum dynamics is seriously influenced by the band crossings near the Fermi energy, and sometimes the direction of the precession can be reversed from what expected from the commutation relation $[S^{x},S^{y}]= i\\hbar S^{z}$ ($h = 2\\pi \\hbar$: Planck constant), i.e., the left-handed ferromagnet can be realized.

Onoda, M; Nagaosa, N; Onoda, Masaru; Mishchenko, Andrei S.; Nagaosa, Naoto

2007-01-01

136

Assessing food safety and associated food handling practices in street food vending.  

Science.gov (United States)

Street vendors in the city of Bloemfontein were investigated in order to assess the microbiological quality of the food being sold as well as the level of hygiene conditions under which these food stalls operate. The food samples which were collected included beef, chicken and gravy, while surface samples were taken from the food preparation tables and the hands of the vendors. A structured questionnaire and checklist were used in interviews to determine the status of the vending sites and associated food handling practices. The overall microbiological quality of the foods served by the street vendors was found to be within acceptable safety limits, although the presence of specific microorganisms such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella and yeasts is indicative of a degree of ignorance on the part of the food handlers towards proper hygienic practices. PMID:16990173

Lues, Jan F R; Rasephei, Mpeli R; Venter, Pierre; Theron, Maria M

2006-10-01

137

Kinesin Moves by an Asymmetric Hand-Over-Hand Mechanism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Kinesin is a double-headed motor protein that moves along microtubules in 8-nanometer steps. Two broad classes of model have been invoked to explain kinesin movement: hand-over-hand and inchworm. In hand-over-hand models, the heads exchange leading and trailing roles with every step, whereas no such exchange is postulated for inchworm models, where one head always leads. By measuring the stepwise motion of individual enzymes, we find that some kinesin molecules exhibit a marked alternation in...

Asbury, Charles L.; Fehr, Adrian N.; Block, Steven M.

2003-01-01

138

Hand preference, performance abilities and hand selection in children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is widely know that the pattern of human handedness is such that approximately 90% of the population is right handed with the remainder being left handed, at least in the adult population. What is less well understood is how handedness develops and at what age adult-like handedness patterns emerge. Quantified in terms of both preference and performance, a plethora of different behavioural assessments are currently in use with both children and adults. Handedness questionnaires are commonly used; however, these possess inherent limitations, considering their subjective nature. Hand performance measures have also been implemented; however, such tasks appear to measure different components of handedness. In addition to these traditional measures, handedness has been successfully assessed through observation of hand selection in reaching, which has proven to be a unique and effective manner in understanding the development of handedness in children. Research over the past several decades has demonstrated that young children display weak, inconsistent hand preference tendencies and are slower with both hands. Performance differences between the hands are larger for young children, and consistency improves with age. However, there remains some controversy surrounding the age at which hand preference and hand performance abilities can be considered fully developed. The following paper will provide a review of the literature pertaining to hand preference, performance abilities and hand selection in children in an attempt to ascertain the age at which adult-like patterns of hand preference and performance emerge.

SaraMarieScharoun

2014-02-01

139

Hands Up: Attentional Prioritization of Space Near the Hand  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explored whether hand location affected spatial attention. The authors used a visual covert-orienting paradigm to examine whether spatial attention mechanisms--location prioritization and shifting attention--were supported by bimodal, hand-centered representations of space. Placing 1 hand next to a target location, participants detected…

Reed, Catherine L.; Grubb, Jefferson D.; Steele, Cleophus

2006-01-01

140

Evaluation of presenting conserved foods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Food, it's production and preserving has been one of the most important problems in human life. Limitation of production due to climatic, geographic and papulational situations and conservation due to providance and prosecting for solution of one of the most fundamental human needs, has been discussed much. Difference between the lands, temperature, humidity and rainfall on one hand and texture and accumulation of papulation on the other hand, not only has limited the amount and kind of food production but also has improved the preserving methods as much as possible. Extra production in fertile lands and confirmed need for receiving food in deserts and dry areas, makes the need of exchanging and transfer of food inevitable because of economic and ethical matters and sanitation of food. Avoidance of being contaminated and resistance against decay seems very important and vital. So process of preserving and conserving of eaw or cooked food became a fundamental problem. In previous 200 years, many advanced methods have been designed for preserving food in which the role of conserving and packing in vital often. Because of industrial production, conserved food have a great influence on sanitation of people nutrition, and herefor the rate of diseases from consumption of contaminated food has been reduced in industrial countries and the tensancy of people to use conventional food has been decreased gradually. Because of high cost of industrial conserved food production some people produce conserved foods in the way which is not hygienic. That may have a high risk when ingested. In this article we discuss about unwarranted conserved foods productions.

Asl Soleimani H

1998-08-01

 
 
 
 
141

Food Packaging  

Science.gov (United States)

This lesson focuses on how food packages are designed and made. Students will learn three of the main functions of a food package. They will learn what is necessary of the design and materials of a package to keep food clean, protect or aid in the physical and chemical changes that can take place in a food, and identify a food appealingly. Then, in the associated activity, the students will have the opportunity to become packaging engineers by designing and building their own food package for a particular type of food.

Engineering K-Ph.d. Program

142

Psoriatic Arthritis of the Hand  

Science.gov (United States)

... Snowblowers Pumpkin Carving Gardening Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Hand and Arm Conditions Symptom Picker Hand ... DESCRIPTION Psoriasis is a skin disease in which patients have dry, red and scaly skin rashes that can occur on ...

143

Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button CDC Features Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Language: English Español (Spanish) Share Compartir Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a contagious viral illness. It commonly affects ...

144

Hand-foot-mouth disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Hand-foot-mouth disease is a common viral infection that most often begins in the throat. ... Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is most commonly caused by a virus called coxsackievirus A16. Children ...

145

Replantation (Finger, Hand, or Arm)  

Science.gov (United States)

... your collection. DESCRIPTION “Replantation” refers to the surgical reattachment of a finger, hand, or arm that has ... AND SYMPTOMS TREATMENT Replantation refers to the surgical reattachment of a finger, hand, or arm that has ...

146

Food preservation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of irradiation in food preservation is reviewed. After an introduction of the general effects of irradiation on food, examples of low, medium and high radiation dose applications of food irradiation are given. The legislation of food irradiation is discussed including wholesomeness aspects of approvals given to countries for various foods. The technical problems of irradiation, the economy of the process and consumer acceptance as aspects of a possible commercialization are also considered. (U.K.)

1984-01-01

147

Special Foods  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Special foods include all foods that have been modified to meet either a real or perceived health need. They include enriched foods which are so readily available that they are generally no longer considered special foods. More recently, calorie-reduced, carbohydrate-reduced, low-fat, high fiber and other types of modified foods have been introduced to the market in response to several sets of dietary guidelines which recommend specific dietary changes for the general public. More specialized...

1984-01-01

148

The human hand as an inspiration for robot hand development  

CERN Document Server

“The Human Hand as an Inspiration for Robot Hand Development” presents an edited collection of authoritative contributions in the area of robot hands. The results described in the volume are expected to lead to more robust, dependable, and inexpensive distributed systems such as those endowed with complex and advanced sensing, actuation, computation, and communication capabilities. The twenty-four chapters discuss the field of robotic grasping and manipulation viewed in light of the human hand’s capabilities and push the state-of-the-art in robot hand design and control. Topics discussed include human hand biomechanics, neural control, sensory feedback and perception, and robotic grasp and manipulation. This book will be useful for researchers from diverse areas such as robotics, biomechanics, neuroscience, and anthropologists.

Santos, Veronica

2014-01-01

149

Scar contractures of the hand.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article discusses scar contracture of the hand. It contains a brief outline of the anatomy of the hand and upper extremities and the types of injuries involved. Hand reconstruction, including examination, nonoperative treatment, surgery, excision and skin grafting, flaps, postoperative management, and complications, are covered. PMID:22032588

Hegge, Theresa; Henderson, Megan; Amalfi, Ashley; Bueno, Reuben A; Neumeister, Michael W

2011-10-01

150

An automatic procedure for high-resolution earthquake locations: a case study from the TABOO near fault observatory (Northern Apennines, Italy)  

Science.gov (United States)

The characterization of the geometry, kinematics and rheology of fault zones by seismological data depends on our capability of accurately locate the largest number of low-magnitude seismic events. To this aim, we have been working for the past three years to develop an advanced modular earthquake location procedure able to automatically retrieve high-resolution earthquakes catalogues directly from continuous waveforms data. We use seismograms recorded at about 60 seismic stations located both at surface and at depth. The network covers an area of about 80x60 km with a mean inter-station distance of 6 km. These stations are part of a Near fault Observatory (TABOO; http://taboo.rm.ingv.it/), consisting of multi-sensor stations (seismic, geodetic, geochemical and electromagnetic). This permanent scientific infrastructure managed by the INGV is devoted to studying the earthquakes preparatory phase and the fast/slow (i.e., seismic/aseismic) deformation process active along the Alto Tiberina fault (ATF) located in the northern Apennines (Italy). The ATF is potentially one of the rare worldwide examples of active low-angle (times, P-wave first motion polarities and the maximum waveform amplitude for local magnitude calculation; iii) both linearized iterative and non-linear global-search earthquake location algorithms to compute accurate absolute locations of single-events in a 3D geological model (see Latorre et al. same session); iv) cross-correlation and double-difference location methods to compute high-resolution relative event locations. This procedure is now running off-line with a delay of 1 week to the real-time. We are now implementing this procedure to obtain high-resolution double-difference earthquake locations in real-time (DDRT). We show locations of ~30k low-magnitude earthquakes recorded during the past 4 years (2010-2013) of network operation, reaching a completeness magnitude of the catalogue of 0.2. The spatiotemporal seismicity distribution has an almost constant and high rate of r = 24.30e?04 eqks/day*km2, interrupted by low to moderate magnitude seismic sequences such as the 2010 Pietralunga sequence (M L 3.8) and the still ongoing 2013 Gubbio sequence (M L 4.0 on 22nd December 2013). Low-magnitude seismicity images the fine scale geometry of the ATF: an E-dipping plane at low angle (15°) from 4 km down to ~15 km of depth. While in the ATF hanging-wall we observe the activation of high-angle minor synthetic and antithetic normal faults (4-5 km long) confined at depth by the detachment. Both seismic sequences activated up to now only these high-angle fault segments.

Valoroso, Luisa; Chiaraluce, Lauro; Di Stefano, Raffaele; Latorre, Diana; Piccinini, Davide

2014-05-01

151

Unimanual SNARC Effect: Hand Matters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A structural representation of the hand embedding information about the identity and relative position of fingers is necessary to counting routines. It may also support associations between numbers and allocentric spatial codes that predictably interact with other known numerical spatial representations, such as the mental number line. In this study, 48 Western participants whose typical counting routine proceeded from thumb-to-little on both hands performed magnitude and parity binary judgments. Response keys were pressed either with the right index and middle fingers or with the left index and middle fingers in separate blocks. 24 participants responded with either hands in prone posture (i.e. palm down and 24 participants responded with either hands in supine (i.e. palm up posture. When hands were in prone posture, the counting direction of the left hand conflicted with the direction of the left-right mental number line, whereas the counting direction of the right hand was consistent with it. When hands were in supine posture, the opposite was true. If systematic associations existed between relative number magnitude and an allocentric spatial representation of the finger series within each hand, as predicted on the basis of counting habits, interactions would be expected between hand posture and a unimanual version of the Spatial-Numerical Association of Response Codes (SNARC effect. Data revealed that with hands in prone posture a unimanual SNARC effect was present for the right hand, and with hands in supine posture a unimanual SNARC effect was present for the left hand. We propose that a posture-invariant body structural representation of the finger series provides a relevant frame of reference, a within-hand directional vector, that is associated to simple number processing. Such frame of reference can significantly interact with stimulus-response correspondence effects that have been attributed to the mapping of numbers on a mental number line.

MariannaRiello

2011-12-01

152

Effect of Hand care Education on Hand Deformities and Motion Disorders in Hand Burn Patients  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: Hand burn is a common and considerable cause of chronic disabilities, since it mostly causes functional disorders like a range of motion defects in hands. Therefore, this study aims to examine the effect of education regarding hand-burn caring on deformity as well as the range of motion disorders in hand- burn patients admitted to Shahid Motahari hospital in Tehran. Methods: This study is a clinical trial conducted on sixty burn patients. The subjects were randomly assigned into...

2013-01-01

153

Hand Segmentation for Hand-based Biometrics in Complex Environments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hand-basedbiometric techniques, such as the ones based on palmprint, hand vein and handshape, is becoming more important because of their convenience and highperformance. Hand segmentation is one of the most important steps in thesetechniques. It is a challenge task to accurately segment hand in complex environment because of the complex background,varying illuminance and other unexpected interference factors. This paperproposes a novel approach to segment hand in complex environment using colorand boundary information. In the proposed approach, the hand skin color model(HSCM is firstly constructed by using artificial neural network (ANN. Thenthe HSCM is used to generate a probability map (PM and the hand is roughlysegmented from the complex background by thresholding PM. After that, the handboundary is extracted from the original image by edge detecting and votingtechniques. Finally, the hand boundary is employed to cut the roughly segmentedhand to get the final segmented hand. The experimental results show that theproposed approach can effectively segment hand in complex environment.

Wei Bu

2013-10-01

154

Hand held radiation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A hand-held radiation detector is described for measuring localized radiation at extremely low levels, the detector comprising: a housing including two peripherally engaged, axially extending, tubular members, one of the members being entirely insulative, the other of the members being metallic; a radiation window at one end of the metallic tubular member, the window including a metallic portion in electrical contact with the metallic tubular member; a sealed chamber defined by the housing, the chamber being filled with gas; a needle within the chamber serving as an anode, the metallic tubular member and the metallic portion of the radiation window serving as a cathode; a voltage means connected between the anode and cathode; the point of the needle being located entirely within the portion of the chamber defined by the insulative tubular member and axially spaced from the other end of the metallic tubular member such that the electric field lines emanating from the radiation window, including those at the periphery, are forced into the amplifying region. Efficient electron multiplication occurs responsive to radiation entering the chamber

1984-01-01

155

Prosthetic helping hand  

Science.gov (United States)

A prosthetic device for below-the-elbow amputees, having a C-shaped clamping mechanism for grasping cylindrical objects, is described. The clamping mechanism is pivotally mounted to a cuff that fits on the amputee's lower arm. The present invention is utilized by placing an arm that has been amputated below the elbow into the cuff. The clamping mechanism then serves as a hand whenever it becomes necessary for the amputee to grasp a cylindrical object such as a handle, a bar, a rod, etc. To grasp the cylindrical object, the object is jammed against the opening in the C-shaped spring, causing the spring to open, the object to pass to the center of the spring, and the spring to snap shut behind the object. Various sizes of clamping mechanisms can be provided and easily interchanged to accommodate a variety of diameters. With the extension that pivots and rotates, the clamping mechanism can be used in a variety of orientations. Thus, this invention provides the amputee with a clamping mechanism that can be used to perform a number of tasks.

Vest, Thomas W. (inventor); Carden, James R. (inventor); Norton, William E. (inventor); Belcher, Jewell G. (inventor)

1992-01-01

156

Food justice and Christian ethics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article dealt with the moral and political problem of international food justice in which the deep contradiction between the present situation of malnourishment and starvation in large parts of the global population on the one hand and the biblical notion of the preferential option for the poor on the other hand was described. This ecumenically widely accepted notion was clarified in several aspects. How deeply this is rooted in the history of Christian social thought was shown by Martin ...

Heinrich Bedford-Strohm

2012-01-01

157

Evaluation of presenting conserved foods  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Food, it's production and preserving has been one of the most important problems in human life. Limitation of production due to climatic, geographic and papulational situations and conservation due to providance and prosecting for solution of one of the most fundamental human needs, has been discussed much. Difference between the lands, temperature, humidity and rainfall on one hand and texture and accumulation of papulation on the other hand, not only has limited the amount and kind of ...

1998-01-01

158

Food allergies.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Adverse reactions to foods are commonly implicated in the causation of ill health. However, foreign antigens, including food proteins and commensal microbes encountered in the gastrointestinal tract, are usually well tolerated. True food allergies, implying immune-mediated adverse responses to food antigens, do exist, however, and are especially common in infants and young children. Allergic reactions to food manifest clinically in a variety of presentations involving the gastrointestinal, cutaneous, and respiratory systems and in generalized reactions such as anaphylaxis. Both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated immune mechanisms are recognized. Important advances in the clinical features underlying specific food hypersensitivity disorders are reviewed.

O'Leary, Paula F G

2012-02-03

159

ARCHIVE: Defra, UK - Farming - Sustainable farming & food ...  

May 1, 2003 ... ARCHIVE: Sustainable food procurement initiative - National School Fruit \\Scheme ... Child's hand to mouth (consumption and changing eating habits) ... \\fruit was good; The majority of children were positive about the Scheme ...

160

Dynamic Hand Gesture Recognition Using the Skeleton of the Hand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper discusses the use of the computer vision in the interpretation of human gestures. Hand gestures would be an intuitive and ideal way of exchanging information with other people in a virtual space, guiding some robots to perform certain tasks in a hostile environment, or interacting with computers. Hand gestures can be divided into two main categories: static gestures and dynamic gestures. In this paper, a novel dynamic hand gesture recognition technique is proposed. It is ba...

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Dynamic Hand Gesture Recognition Using the Skeleton of the Hand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper discusses the use of the computer vision in the interpretation of human gestures. Hand gestures would be an intuitive and ideal way of exchanging information with other people in a virtual space, guiding some robots to perform certain tasks in a hostile environment, or interacting with computers. Hand gestures can be divided into two main categories: static gestures and dynamic gestures. In this paper, a novel dynamic hand gesture recognition technique is proposed. It is based on t...

2005-01-01

162

FOOD SECURITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The assurance of food security at the individual level doesn’t implicitly provide for the one at family level as the concepts of hunger, malnutrition and food insecurity are the steps of the same process of access restricted to a sufficient supply of food. In order to achieve food security at the individual level the following is necessary: ensuring food availability (production, reserve stocks; redistribution of food availability within the country or out through international exchanges; effective access of the population to purchase food consumer goods, by ensuring its effective demand as required. Food security of families (FFS is required for assuring individual food security (IFS, but it is not sufficient because the food available may be unevenly distributed between family members. National food security (NFS corresponds to the possibilities that different countries have to ensure both FFS and IFS without sacrificing other important objectives. Under the name of GAS is defined the global food security which represents permanent access for the entire population of the globe to the necessary food for a healthy and active life.

Dorina Ardelean

2013-12-01

163

On the hand-over-hand mechanism of kinesin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present here a simple theoretical model for conventional kinesin. The model reproduces the hand-over-hand mechanism for kinesin walking to the plus end of a microtubule. A large hindering force induces kinesin to walk slowly to the minus end, again by a hand-over-hand mechanism. Good agreement is obtained between the calculated and experimental results on the external force dependence of the walking speed, the forward/backward step ratio, and dwell times for both forward and backward steps...

Shao, Qiang; Gao, Yi Qin

2006-01-01

164

"Osseous tumors of the hand "  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The majority of osseous tumors of the hand are benign. The surgeon who evaluates and treats osseous tumors of the hand has to be familiar with limb anatomy, tumor biology, various presentations of the tumors and the range of treatment possibilities and their limitations. Lesions in the hand more often present earlier in their course than those at other sites, just because they are more likely to superficial and easily noticed. A review of all cases of osseous tumors of the hand, seen by a hand surgeon over the last 10 years, at Imam Khomeini hospital was performed. Among 55 cases with osseous tumors of hand, 48 primary benign bone tumors, 3 primary malignant bone tumors, and 4 metastatic bone tumors were found. Enchondroma was the most common benign bone tumor followed by osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, aneurismal bone cyst, giant cell tumor, epidermoid cyst, and osteochondroma. There were two chondrosarcoma and one Ewing’s sarcoma as primary malignant bone tumors. Metastasis to the hand from colon, esophagus, and breast were also found. There were also two cases with Brown tumor secondary to hyperparathyroidism, we conclude that a variety of osseous tumors could occur in the hand, and usually they are benign. Although malignant neoplasms in the hand that arise from tissues other than the skin are very rare, the hand may be the site of distant breast, lung, kidney, esophagus, or colon adenocarcinoma metastases, most of which have a predilection for the distal phalanges.

"Farzan M

2002-08-01

165

Effect of Hand care Education on Hand Deformities and Motion Disorders in Hand Burn Patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Hand burn is a common and considerable cause of chronic disabilities, since it mostly causes functional disorders like a range of motion defects in hands. Therefore, this study aims to examine the effect of education regarding hand-burn caring on deformity as well as the range of motion disorders in hand- burn patients admitted to Shahid Motahari hospital in Tehran. Methods: This study is a clinical trial conducted on sixty burn patients. The subjects were randomly assigned into experimental and control groups. A systematic education program was implemented on the experimental group regarding how to care hand burn. The research data was gleaned by an observational checklist of hand deformity as well as a demographic questionnaire. The research data was analyzed via SPSS software version 10. Results: Majority of patients were male aged 15-25 years with primary education who were village residents in a low economic status. The most common cause of burning was benzene with total burn surface %45- 36% . The study results revealed that the implementation of hand care educational program for hand burn patients was statistically effective on the hand deformity. Conclution: Implementing programs of hand burn is recommended to reduce the functional problems of the hand after burning. Therefore, the nurses need to attend to education in caring of these patients.

H Haghni

2013-03-01

166

Food taxes: a new holy grail?  

Science.gov (United States)

In an effort to reduce the growing prevalence of overweight and obesity, food taxes have been introduced in several European countries, the so-called 'obesitax'. As yet little evidence is at hand, policy measures are being taken to counterweight the consumption of unhealthy food or the increasing diet-related diseases. Several questions need to be discussed, starting from a general perspective: can food taxes become an appropriate and just policy measure to reduce overweight and obesity and therefore increase consumer's health? The implementation of an effective and fair food tax is an exercise riddled with uncertainty. Not only is there a need for evidence on the health and economic impact of food taxes, we also have to think about a conceptual and ethical discussion concerning the balance between health imperatives and public health on the one hand, and social and ethical standards on the other hand. PMID:24596843

Devisch, Ignaas

2013-08-01

167

Food Taxes: A New Holy Grail?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In an effort to reduce the growing prevalence of overweight and obesity, food taxes have been introduced in several European countries, the so-called ‘obesitax’. As yet little evidence is at hand, policy measures are being taken to counterweight the consumption of unhealthy food or the increasing diet-related diseases. Several questions need to be discussed, starting from a general perspective: can food taxes become an appropriate and just policy measure to reduce overweight and obesity and therefore increase consumer’s health? The implementation of an effective and fair food tax is an exercise riddled with uncertainty. Not only is there a need for evidence on the health and economic impact of food taxes, we also have to think about a conceptual and ethical discussion concerning the balance between health imperatives and public health on the one hand, and social and ethical standards on the other hand.

Ignaas Devisch

2013-01-01

168

Food Chain  

Science.gov (United States)

This video segment from IdahoPTV's D4K describes how energy moves through nature. You will learn about the food chain, and its members: producers, consumers, scavengers. It shows where humans fit into the food chain.

Ptv, Idaho

2011-09-04

169

Food Allergy  

Science.gov (United States)

... Food Allergy Top Banner Content Area Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area NIAID is the ... immunology to clinical trials that are testing new strategies to treat and prevent food allergy. Understanding What ...

170

Food Allergies  

Science.gov (United States)

... Itchiness or tingling in the mouth A metallic taste in the mouth Coughing, trouble breathing or wheezing ... associated with food allergies are eczema and asthma. Food allergy can be ... to breathe. Fast treatment with a medicine called epinephrine (say: "epp- ...

171

Food Webs  

Science.gov (United States)

The representation depicts 4 different food webs: Antarctica, the African Grasslands, the Australia Grasslands and a Marine environment. A separate food web for scavengers and decomposers is present in the African Grasslands section. Viewers must first build the web by moving boxes with the organism's picture and name to the appropriate spot on a grid. Clues describing food requirements are given as the boxes are moved. When the boxes are correctly placed a complete food web (with arrows) is displayed.

172

Hand Anthropometry and SMS Satisfaction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of hand anthropometry on Short Message Service (SMS satisfaction was investigated using structured questionnaire interviews with 110 subjects, aged between 17-25 years old. Hand size was measured to assess its effect on mobile phone design factors satisfaction whereas thumb circumference and length were measured for keypad design factors. Small hand-sized subjects were found to be more satisfied with mobile phone dimensions than large hand-sized subjects. Thumb circumference significantly affects users` satisfaction towards key size and space between keys whereas thumb length significantly affects keypad layout satisfaction. Both thumb circumference and length significantly correlate negatively with the corresponding keypad design factors. Results confirm that hand anthropometry do affect users messaging satisfaction. These findings should prove useful to mobile phone designers who could look into the possibility of designing customized mobile phones that cater to large hand and thumb sized users, so as to increase their subjective satisfaction.

Vimala Balakrishnan

2008-01-01

173

Food Safety  

Science.gov (United States)

... container with plastic wrap, try to keep the plastic wrap from touching the food. If a food comes packaged in a foam ... microwaving. The heat can make foam trays and plastic wrapping melt. And don't ... dinners or other foods. If you're using the microwave to defrost ...

174

Food jags  

Science.gov (United States)

Refusal to eat; Fear of new foods ... caregiver, it is your role to provide healthy food and drink choices. You can also help your ... mealtimes positive. Children should be allowed to choose foods based on their likes and dislikes and their ...

175

Fried foods  

Science.gov (United States)

Fried foods may taste good, but they can have terrible effects on your body if you eat too many of them. Someone who has bulimia would be likely to binge eat these fried foods. Bulimia is an eating disorder in which the person afflicted binge eats and then purges, or gets rid of, all of the food they just ate.

Sakurai Midori (None;)

2006-10-31

176

Unusual case of cleft hand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a case of a six-year-old male child with cleft hand deformity involving the dominant right hand. It was a rare case of atypical cleft hand with no missing tissue but cleft extending to metacarpal level and associated hypoplasia of thumb and index finger. As per Manske?s classification of cleft hand our patient belongs to the Class III variety. There was associated malposition of the index finger with absence of first web space and syndactly of thumb and index finger at the m...

Sahasrabudhe Parag; Kulkarni Madhuri

2007-01-01

177

Degloving injuries of the hand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Avulsion of skin from the hand or fingers is an injury that has a dramatic presentation. The entire musculo-skeletal unit of the finger is intact, and the patient can often move the parts of his naked hand quite normally. The challenge for the reconstructive surgeon lies in resurfacing the hand or finger with a good quality pliable sensate skin cover while preserving the movements and function of the hand. Traditionally, skin grafting has been the standard method of reconstruction in such inj...

Krishnamoorthy, R.; Karthikeyan, G.

2011-01-01

178

Multi-fingered robotic hand  

Science.gov (United States)

A robotic hand is presented having a plurality of fingers, each having a plurality of joints pivotally connected one to the other. Actuators are connected at one end to an actuating and control mechanism mounted remotely from the hand and at the other end to the joints of the fingers for manipulating the fingers and passing externally of the robot manipulating arm in between the hand and the actuating and control mechanism. The fingers include pulleys to route the actuators within the fingers. Cable tension sensing structure mounted on a portion of the hand are disclosed, as is covering of the tip of each finger with a resilient and pliable friction enhancing surface.

Ruoff, Carl F. (inventor); Salisbury, Kenneth, Jr. (inventor)

1990-01-01

179

Hand in Hand: Media Literacy and Internet Safety  

Science.gov (United States)

Internet safety cannot be effectively taught without also teaching media literacy. The two go hand in hand, and both are necessary, but neither is sufficient. To understand why, it is important to first appreciate what the real risks to children are. Many of the early Internet safety programs were based on a fear of predators. Predators turned out…

Gallagher, Frank

2011-01-01

180

Dynamic Hand Gesture Recognition Using the Skeleton of the Hand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper discusses the use of the computer vision in the interpretation of human gestures. Hand gestures would be an intuitive and ideal way of exchanging information with other people in a virtual space, guiding some robots to perform certain tasks in a hostile environment, or interacting with computers. Hand gestures can be divided into two main categories: static gestures and dynamic gestures. In this paper, a novel dynamic hand gesture recognition technique is proposed. It is based on the 2D skeleton representation of the hand. For each gesture, the hand skeletons of each posture are superposed providing a single image which is the dynamic signature of the gesture. The recognition is performed by comparing this signature with the ones from a gesture alphabet, using Baddeley's distance as a measure of dissimilarities between model parameters.

Coquin Didier

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This popular-level article emphasizes that the ultimate health effects of irradiated food products are unknown. They may include vitamin loss, contamination of food by botulism bacteria, mutations in bacteria, increased production of aflatoxins, changes in food, carcinogenesis from unknown causes, presence of miscellaneous harmful chemicals, and the lack of a way of for a consumer to detect irradiated food. It is claimed that the nuclear industry is applying pressure on the Canadian government to relax labeling requirements on packages of irradiated food in order to find a market for its otherwise unnecessary products

1989-01-01

182

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Food can be provided with extra beneficial properties by physical processing. These benefits include a reduced possibility of food poisoning, or an increased life of the food. We are familiar with pasteurisation of milk, drying of vegetables, and canning of fruit. These physical processes work because the food absorbs energy during treatment which brings about the changes needed. The energy absorbed in these examples is heat energy. Food irradiation is a less familiar process. It produces similar benefits to other processes and it can sometimes be applied with additional advantages over conventional processing. For example, because irradiation causes little heating, foods may look and taste more natural. Also, treatment can take place with the food in its final plastic wrappers, reducing the risk of re-contamination. (author). 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab

1997-01-01

183

Hand it to the Animals  

Science.gov (United States)

In this lesson, learners examine X-ray images of the "hands" of different animals and then determine the function of each hand from its form. The images are viewed and analyzed with a Web-based customized version of ImageJ.

184

Robot Forearm and Dexterous Hand  

Science.gov (United States)

An electromechanical hand-and-forearm assembly has been developed for incorporation into an anthropomorphic robot that would be used in outer space. The assembly is designed to offer manual dexterity comparable to that of a hand inside an astronaut s suit; thus, the assembly may also be useful as a prosthesis or as an end effector on an industrial robot.

Lovchik, Christopher S.

2005-01-01

185

Gage for evaluating rheumatoid hands  

Science.gov (United States)

Two-axis goniometer accurately measures movements of fingers about knuckle joints, diagnosing hands structurally changed by rheumatoid arthritis. Instrument measures lateral movement which is small in normal knuckles but increased in diseased joints. Goniometer is two connected protractors that simultaneously measure angles in perpindicular planes. Dials are offset to clear bony protuberances; extension and offset adjustments span any hand size.

Houge, J. C.; Plautz, K. A.

1981-01-01

186

Intravascular lesions of the hand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Intravascular lesions of the hand comprise reactive and neoplastic entities. The clinical diagnosis of such lesions is often difficult, and usually requires pathologic examination. We present the largest series to date of intravascular lesions affecting the hand. Methods A retrospective review of intravascular (arterial and venous lesions involving the hand was conducted. Data regarding clinicopathologic findings were analyzed. Results We identified 10 patients with intravascular lesions of their hands including thromboemboli (n = 3, reactive intravascular conditions such as papillary endothelial hyperplasia or Masson's tumor (n = 2 and fasciitis (n = 1, as well as vascular neoplasms including pyogenic granuloma (n = 2 and angioleiomyoma (n = 2. Conclusion Blood vessel injury and/or venous thrombosis may predispose to several intravascular lesions of the hand. Recognition of reactive entities from neoplastic conditions is important.

Duke Wayne H

2008-05-01

187

Using food as a tool to teach science to 3rd grade students in Appalachian Ohio  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. In 2007–2008, a foods curriculum developed by professionals in nutrition and education was implemented in 10 3rd-grade classrooms in Appalachian Ohio; teachers in these classrooms implemented 45 hands-on foods activities that covered 10 food topics. Subjects included measurement; food safety; vegetables; fruits; milk a...

Duffrin, Melani W.; Hovland, Jana; Carraway-stage, Virginia; Mcleod, Sara; Duffrin, Christopher; Phillips, Sharon; Rivera, David; Saum, Diana; Johanson, George; Graham, Annette; Lee, Tammy; Bosse, Michael; Berryman, Darlene

2010-01-01

188

Food Taxes: A New Holy Grail?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In an effort to reduce the growing prevalence of overweight and obesity, food taxes have been introduced in several European countries, the so-called ‘obesitax’. As yet little evidence is at hand, policy measures are being taken to counterweight the consumption of unhealthy food or the increasing diet-related diseases. Several questions need to be discussed, starting from a general perspective: can food taxes become an appropriate and just policy measure to reduce overweight and obesity a...

2013-01-01

189

Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD)  

Science.gov (United States)

... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD) Hand, foot, and ... mouth sores, and a skin rash. Read more ... Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Topics About Hand, Foot, ...

190

Food irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Food irradiation has become a matter of topical interest also in the Federal Republic of Germany following applications for exemptions concerning irradiation tests of spices. After risks to human health by irradiation doses up to a level sufficient for product pasteurization were excluded, irradiation now offers a method suitable primarily for the disinfestation of fruit and decontamination of frozen and dried food. Codex Alimentarius standards which refer also to supervision and dosimetry have been established; they should be adopted as national law. However, in the majority of cases where individual countries including EC member-countries so far permitted food irradiation, these standards were not yet used. Approved irradiation technique for industrial use is available. Several industrial food irradiation plants, partly working also on a contractual basis, are already in operation in various countries. Consumer response still is largely unknown; since irradiated food is labelled, consumption of irradiated food will be decided upon by consumers.

Gruenewald, T.

1985-01-01

191

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Food irradiation has become a matter of topical interest also in the Federal Republic of Germany following applications for exemptions concerning irradiation tests of spices. After risks to human health by irradiation doses up to a level sufficient for product pasteurization were excluded, irradiation now offers a method suitable primarily for the disinfestation of fruit and decontamination of frozen and dried food. Codex Alimentarius standards which refer also to supervision and dosimetry have been established; they should be adopted as national law. However, in the majority of cases where individual countries including EC member-countries so far permitted food irradiation, these standards were not yet used. Approved irradiation technique for industrial use is available. Several industrial food irradiation plants, partly working also on a contractual basis, are already in operation in various countries. Consumer response still is largely unknown; since irradiated food is labelled, consumption of irradiated food will be decided upon by consumers. (orig.)

1985-01-01

192

Hand Recognition for Augmented Reality  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, Augmented Reality (AR) becomes the focus of attention as a technology for obtaining some information. Most AR systems have used some markers to display any information. However, since markerless AR systems can be used intuitively, they are researched actively. In this paper, we study about the AR system based on the hand recognition as a markerless system. The reason why we used a hand is that we don't need to prepare or carry on any tool, and can easy to watch any information on a hand. Taehee Lee et al. introduced HandyAR which employ the hand recognition. In this method, there are some problems. At first, when the method learns skin model, it needs many learning data. This is because it uses RGB color model. Secondly, it is difficult to get hand because hand images which are extracted by the skin model have noise. Thirdly, the method uses finger positions to estimate the hand coordinate. Therefore it is sensitive to finger state. We improved HandyAR to solve these problems. Experimental result showed that our method had higher performance than conventional methods.

Tanaka, Ryuji; Yoshioka, Michifumi

193

Hairdressers - hand eczema, hair dyes and hand protection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hand eczema is a well-known problem in occupations that involve largely manual work, in combination with long periods of wet exposure and skin contact with chemicals. Hairdressing involves dermal exposure to a number of skin damaging substances. Hair cosmetic products such as hair dyes, permanent wave solutions and bleaches can cause contact allergy and extensive wet work can cause irritant contact dermatitis (ICD). In this thesis the occurrence of hand eczema was studied i...

Lind, Marie-louise

2006-01-01

194

Biased hand use in captive emperor tamarins (Saguinus imperator).  

Science.gov (United States)

Comparing forelimb use across primates can improve the understanding of the mechanisms and functions of brain asymmetry. We broadened the comparative framework by investigating hand use biases across spontaneous behaviors in 11 captive emperor tamarins of 2 family groups. We found a right preference across 58% of pooled unimanual bouts and 60% of all tasks. The maximum biases for a single task were 88% right-hand use and 78% left-hand use. On an individual basis, for most tasks, 6 tamarins preferred their right hand, 2 tamarins the left, and 2 animals were ambidextrous. Only a single tamarin did not switch between left and right hand bias according to task, but displayed a consistent right-hand bias. Our accompanying review of the 2 dozen previous callitrichid hand use studies confirms this picture. Across the board, these report hand preferences for single tasks. Task specialization is found in less than half of the studies, hand specialization in less than a third, whereas population level handedness is almost never reported. Importantly, right-hand use is preponderant, but very rarely consistent across tasks or subjects. This might be attributable to the fact that often-employed simple (food-reaching) tasks may not be coupled to a specialized hemisphere and therefore not constrain forelimb use. A better understanding of what causes directional forelimb use in callitrichids and other animals is currently hampered by a lack of standardized methods including measurement criteria, task difficulty, and social setting as well as a dearth of taxonomic diversity and field studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24491176

Olsen, Katharina; Sommer, Volker

2014-05-01

195

Corner Detection of Hand Gesture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper studies the methods of corner detection of hand gesture, and mainly introduces the orthogonal three-direction chain code (3OT and uses it in corner detection of hand gesture. The study is discussed from four aspects: the techniques used in corner detection, the techniques of Freeman chain code, the main idea of 3OT, the process of corner detection with 3OT and the experiments on corner detectors used for hand gesture images of 26 letters in American Sign Language are described in detail. Experiment results show that the 3OT has well performance with exact corner detection rate and least false corner’s number.

Lili Zhang

2012-12-01

196

Hand Gesture Detection & Recognition System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The project introduces an application using computer vision for Hand gesture recognition. A camera records a live video stream, from which a snapshot is taken with the help of interface. The system is trained for each type of count hand gestures (one, two, three, four, and five) at least once. After that a test gesture is given to it and the system tries to recognize it.A research was carried out on a number of algorithms that could best differentiate a hand gesture. It was found that the dia...

2012-01-01

197

Radiation cancer on the hand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty-two patients with radiodermatitis on the hand have been seen at Kyushu University Hospital during the past 20 years. Six of them developed radiogenic squamous cell carcinoma. Malignant change occurred in three physicians who had been carelessly exposed while employing X-ray machines and in three patients who had received radiation for benign conditions, two for hand eczema and one for tinea infection of the hand. Of the six patients, one showed clinically and microscopically positive axillary metastasis in the lymph nodes. He had an axillary lymph node dissection and upper arm amputation. There were no deaths attributable to radiation cancer during the follow-up period, which averaged five years. In conclusion, I have emphasized the importance of early preventive surgical treatment, because the incidence of malignant neoplasms increases with the passage of time, as well as the importance of continuous follow-up for patients with chronic radiodermatitis on the hand. (author)

1986-01-01

198

Animal Bites of the Hand  

Science.gov (United States)

... osteomyelitis, which is infection in the bone. Animal bites to the hand require meticulous cleansing. Your doctor or other medical personnel will wash the wound and might trim away any devitalized (dead) tissue, damaged skin, blood clots, ...

199

Nonlinear left-handed metamaterials  

CERN Document Server

We analyze nonlinear properties of microstructured materials with negative refraction, the so-called left-handed metamaterials. We demonstrate that the hysteresis-type dependence of the magnetic permeability on the field intensity allows changing the material properties from left- to right-handed and back. Using the finite-difference time-domain simulations, we study wave transmission through the slab of nonlinear left-handed material, and predict existence of temporal solitons in such materials. We demonstrate also that nonlinear left-handed metamaterials can support both TE- and TM-polarized self-trapped localized beams, spatial electromagnetic solitons. Such solitons appear as single- and multi-hump beams, being either symmetric or antisymmetric, and they can exist due to the hysteresis-type magnetic nonlinearity and the effective domains of negative magnetic permeability.

Shadrivov, I V; Zharova, N A; Kivshar, Yu S; Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Zharov, Alexander A.; Zharova, Nina A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

2004-01-01

200

Pediatric hand and wrist injuries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the last 40 years, childhood hand and wrist injuries have become progressively more common as children have become heavier and more active in high impact sports. The majority of children with such injuries do well, but treatment is not always straightforward. Distal radius fractures, scaphoid fractures, metacarpal and phalangeal fractures, nailbed injuries, and amputations are among the pediatric hand and wrist injuries most often seen by orthopedists. These are all discussed, with a focu...

Williams, Ariel A.; Lochner, Heather V.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Factitious Lymphedema of the Hand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: To report the case of a 39- year old unmarried female with factitious edema of the right hand two weeks after being struck by her brother and following self injury of the right arm. Method: A 39-year old unmarried female with severe edema of the right hand and forearm diagnosed as factitious lymphedema was admitted to Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital. After hospitalization, with elevation of affected limb, the edema had lessened. Thereafter, she was observed at ward rounds with a cloth...

Ali Ahmadi Abhari, S.; Nooshin Alimalayeri; Sina Ahmadi Abhari, S.; Khadijeh Omidi Nobijari

2006-01-01

202

Middle East food safety perspectives.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food safety and quality assurance are increasingly a major issue with the globalisation of agricultural trade, on the one hand, and intensification of agriculture, on the other. Consumer protection has become a priority in policy-making amongst the large economies of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries following a number of food safety incidents. To enhance food safety, it is necessary to establish markets underpinned by knowledge and resources, including analysis of international rejections of food products from MENA countries, international laboratory accreditation, improved reporting systems and traceability, continued development and validation of analytical methods, and more work on correlating sensory evaluation with analytical results. MENA countries should develop a national strategy for food safety based on a holistic approach that extends from farm-to-fork and involves all the relevant stakeholders. Accordingly, food safety should be a regional programme, raising awareness among policy- and decision-makers of the importance of food safety and quality for consumer protection, food trade and economic development. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:24415527

Idriss, Atef W; El-Habbab, Mohammad S

2014-08-01

203

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the Federal Republic of Germany it is prohibited by law to treat food with ionizing radiation Food and (Commodities Act of August 15, 1974) with the proviso to grant permits (section 13), which never happened so far. The prohibition also applies to imports according to section 45 of the Federal Act. (HP)

1983-05-17

204

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and The World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19 MeV, 1 kW) and industrial unit Electronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for irradiation for; spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables. (author)

1995-01-01

205

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The proposed use of gamma radiation from cobalt 60 and cesium 137 for food irradiation in the United Kingdom is discussed, with particular reference to the possible dangers and disadvantages to the safety and wholesomeness of the food. (U.K.)

1985-01-01

206

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A beneficent use and little understood of the radiation it is the one that allows to try to the foods to avoid that they break down. This lengthens their shelf life and it allows to lower the costs in the commercialization of foods. (Author)

2004-01-01

207

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Definition and significance of food irradiation were described. The details of its development and present state were also described. The effect of the irradiation on Irish potatoes, onions, wiener sausages, kamaboko (boiled fish-paste), and mandarin oranges was evaluated; and healthiness of food irradiation was discussed. Studies of the irradiation equipment for Irish potatoes in a large-sized container, and the silo-typed irradiation equipment for rice and wheat were mentioned. Shihoro RI center in Hokkaido which was put to practical use for the irradiation of Irish potatoes was introduced. The state of permission of food irradiation in foreign countries in 1975 was introduced. As a view of the food irradiation in the future, its utilization for the prevention of epidemics due to imported foods was mentioned. (Serizawa, K.)

1976-01-01

208

Food porn.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the term first appeared, food porn has typically referred to watching others cook on television or gazing at unattainable dishes in glossy magazines without actually cooking oneself. This forum seeks to revisit this notion of food porn that is mostly taken for granted in both popular and scholarly literature. It offers a brief perspective of the appearance and use of the term food porn to examine how it came to be a term used mostly by commentators rather than by people actively engaged in the world of cooking. Practitioners (chefs and a food television producer) and academics address whether or not food porn exists, what shape it might take, what purpose it might serve, and/or what usefulness it might have, showing that these contentious issues are more complex than the ease with which the term is used might let on. PMID:21539050

McBride, Anne E

2010-01-01

209

Hand development in trisomy 21.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate hand size and maturity in fetuses with trisomy 21 (Down syndrome). Twenty-five fetuses, crown-rump length (CRL) 55-222 mm, foot length (FL) 8-42 mm, were included in the study. After whole-body radiography (Hewlett Packard Faxitron), special radiographs of the hand and foot were taken. Hand length was measured as the length of the third finger from the distal tip of the distal phalanx to the proximal tip of the metacarpal bone, the digital-metacarpal length (DML). The lengths of the proximal phalangeal bone (PPL) and the metacarpal bone (MCL) of the third finger were also measured. The DML, PPL, and MCL values of each fetus were related to CRL and FL. The individual hand bones were evaluated with regard to time of appearance on radiographs, sequence in comparison with the normal sequence of appearance, and morphology. The hand length is normal during the first half of the fetal period, whereas the length of individual bones in the third finger is reduced. The normal sequence of ossification, with the middle phalanx of the fifth finger last to ossify, also occurred in Down syndrome; however, this bone appeared later in Down syndrome. In four of the fetuses it did not appear. PMID:9779798

Kjaer, M S; Keeling, J W; Andersen, E; Fischer Hansen, B; Kjaer, I

1998-10-12

210

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review of recent developments in the field of wholesomeness research and legal clearances is presented. The work of the International Project in the Field of Food Irradiation, the decisions of the 1976 meeting of the FAO/IAEA/WHO Joint Expert Committee on Food Irradiation, and the steps taken by the Codex Alimentarius Commission are mentioned in some detail. On the basis of the developments which have taken place at the international level it is concluded that the chances of world-wide commercial application of food irradiation have improved considerably since this topic was reviewed at the First International Meeting on Radiation Processing. (author)

1978-10-26

211

Is It Food Allergy or Food Intolerance?  

Science.gov (United States)

... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Food Allergy Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Is it Food Allergy or Food Intolerance? Food allergy is sometimes ...

212

Hand injuries in agricultural accidents  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of hand injuries due to farming accidents in a defined population with a representative mixture of agricultural activities. During a 12-month period all agricultural accidents treated at the five hospitals in the County of Ringkøbing, Denmark were prospectively registered. Follow-up was done by telephone interview 4 months after the accident. Of the 260 persons injured in agricultural accidents, 117 (45%) had lesions of the upper extremity and 73 persons (28%) had hand injuries. The most common injuries were lacerations and amputations (45%) followed by fractures (36%). Mean sick leave was 25 days, and mean work impairment was 31 days in patients with hand injuries.

Hansen, Torben Bæk; Carstensen, O

1999-01-01

213

Hand-Based Biometric Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Hand-based biometric analysis systems and techniques provide robust hand-based identification and verification. An image of a hand is obtained, which is then segmented into a palm region and separate finger regions. Acquisition of the image is performed without requiring particular orientation or placement restrictions. Segmentation is performed without the use of reference points on the images. Each segment is analyzed by calculating a set of Zernike moment descriptors for the segment. The feature parameters thus obtained are then fused and compared to stored sets of descriptors in enrollment templates to arrive at an identity decision. By using Zernike moments, and through additional manipulation, the biometric analysis is invariant to rotation, scale, or translation or an input image. Additionally, the analysis uses re-use of commonly seen terms in Zernike calculations to achieve additional efficiencies over traditional Zernike moment calculation.

Bebis, George

2013-01-01

214

Peptides and food intake.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food intake, whereas the other subpopulation coexpresses pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript that inhibits food intake. AgRP antagonizes the effects of the POMC product, ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH). Both populations project to areas important in the regulation of food intake, including the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, which also receives important inputs from other hypothalamic nuclei. PMID:24795698

Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

2014-01-01

215

Peptides and Food Intake  

Science.gov (United States)

The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food intake, whereas the other subpopulation coexpresses pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript that inhibits food intake. AgRP antagonizes the effects of the POMC product, ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH). Both populations project to areas important in the regulation of food intake, including the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, which also receives important inputs from other hypothalamic nuclei.

Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aranzazu; Puebla Jimenez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

2014-01-01

216

Diagnostic imaging of the hand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With its complex anatomy and specialized biomechanics, the human hand has always presented physicians with a unique challenge when it comes to diagnosing and treating the diseases that afflict it. And while recent decades have seen a rapid increase in the number of therapeutic options, many diseases and injuries of the hand are still commonly misinterpreted. In diagnostic imaging of the hand, an interdisciplinary team, comprisingspecialists in radiology, surgery, and rheumatology, presents a comprehensive,reliable guide to this topographically intricate area. Highlights include: - More than 1000 high-quality illustrations - All state-of-the-art imaging modalities-including multidetector CT, with 2D displays and 3D reconstructions, and contrast-enhanced MRI with multi-channel, phased-array coils - An overview of all currently used methods of examination - A detailed presentation of the anatomic and functional foundations necessary for diagnosis - Full coverage of all disorders of the hand - Systematic treatment of each disease's definition, pathogenesis, and clinical symptoms, according to a graduated diagnostic plan - Easy-to-use format, featuring crisp images and line drawings seamlessly integrated with concise text, summary tables, and handy checklists - A heavily cross-referenced appendix of differential diagnosis tables - Emphasis on interdisciplinary consultation throughout designed to help both radiologists and clinicians develop the most efficient and effective strategies for evaluating and treating patients, Diagnostic imaging of the hand will leave specialists of all levels with a fresh appreciation for - and a richer understanding of - the expanding array of cutting-edge alternatives for diagnosing and treating disorders of the hand. (orig.)

2008-01-01

217

Diagnostic imaging of the hand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With its complex anatomy and specialized biomechanics, the human hand has always presented physicians with a unique challenge when it comes to diagnosing and treating the diseases that afflict it. And while recent decades have seen a rapid increase in the number of therapeutic options, many diseases and injuries of the hand are still commonly misinterpreted. In diagnostic imaging of the hand, an interdisciplinary team, comprisingspecialists in radiology, surgery, and rheumatology, presents a comprehensive,reliable guide to this topographically intricate area. Highlights include: - More than 1000 high-quality illustrations - All state-of-the-art imaging modalities-including multidetector CT, with 2D displays and 3D reconstructions, and contrast-enhanced MRI with multi-channel, phased-array coils - An overview of all currently used methods of examination - A detailed presentation of the anatomic and functional foundations necessary for diagnosis - Full coverage of all disorders of the hand - Systematic treatment of each disease's definition, pathogenesis, and clinical symptoms, according to a graduated diagnostic plan - Easy-to-use format, featuring crisp images and line drawings seamlessly integrated with concise text, summary tables, and handy checklists - A heavily cross-referenced appendix of differential diagnosis tables - Emphasis on interdisciplinary consultation throughout designed to help both radiologists and clinicians develop the most efficient and effective strategies for evaluating and treating patients, Diagnostic imaging of the hand will leave specialists of all levels with a fresh appreciation for - and a richer understanding of - the expanding array of cutting-edge alternatives for diagnosing and treating disorders of the hand. (orig.)

Schmitt, Rainer [Hospital for Cardiovascular Diseases, Bad Neustadt an der Saale (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Lanz, Ulrich [Perlach Hospital, Munich (Germany). Dept. of Hand Surgery

2008-07-01

218

Evaluating hand in systemic sclerosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Articular symptoms are common in SSc and joint pain is a frequent presenting feature of this disease. Hand involvement is often the first clinical manifestation of SSc and could be resulted from fibrosis or synovitis or an overlap syndrome with rheumatoid arthritis (RA); though, the latter is a controversy in practice. To define the clues when identifying the nature of the hand arthropathy in SSc. In order to determine the hand arthropathy, serological tests, hand radiography, finger-to-palm (FTP) distance and other clinical features, disease activity and functional scoring parameters were assessed. Twenty-eight consecutive SSc patients and 43 controls (21 rheumatoid arthritis and 22 healthy controls) were included. Radiographic findings in SSc patients were: Erosions 25%, joint space narrowing 17.9%, arthritis 10.7%, radiological demineralisation 42.9%, acro-osteolysis 25%, flexion contracture 28.6% and calcinosis 17.9%. Anti-CCP antibody and RF positivity were as follows: In SSc group: 3 (11%) and 7 patients (25%); In RA group: 13 (62%) and 19 patients (90.5%); In healthy control group: 1 (4%) and 3 persons (13.6%), respectively. Two patients (7.14%) were regarded as RA overlap, whom both had positive RF and positive anti-CCP results and their radiographs revealed arthritis. Seventeen patients (61%) were regarded as SSc arthropathy; all were negative for RF and anti-CCP but revealed nonarthritic radiological findings. (Among them, only one patient had positive anti-CCP result). The remainder (9 patients) had no radiological or serological finding positive for arthropathy. Arthritis was found to have correlation with heart involvement and FTP was correlated with lung involvement. Hand involvement in SSc is a challenge in rheumatology practice; Radiographic testing when evaluated with RF and anti-CCP will be a helpful tool to discriminate SSc arthropathy from RA-SSc overlap. Hand arthropathy should increase the interest in the serious internal organ involvements of SSc. PMID:22090005

Arslan Tas, Didem; Erken, Eren; Sakalli, Hakan; Yucel, A Eftal

2012-11-01

219

Food neophobia and its relation with olfaction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Food neophobia, that is the reluctance to try novel foods, is an attitude that dramatically affects human feeding behavior in many different aspects among which food preferences and food choices appear to be the most thoroughly considered. This attitude has an important evolutionary meaning since it protects the individual from ingesting potentially dangerous substances. On the other hand, it fosters an avoidance behavior that can extend even toward useful food elements. A strong link exists between food neophobia and both the variety in one person’s diet and previous exposures to different foods. In this review, the more recent findings about food neophobia will be concisely described. Given the suggested connection between the exposure to different foods and food neophobia, this review will focus on the relation between this attitude and human chemosensory abilities. Olfaction, in particular, is a sensory modality that has a central role in flavor perception and in food preference acquisition. Therefore, the latest evidences about its relation with food neophobia will be discussed along with the applied and cognitive implications.

M. LuisaDemattè

2014-02-01

220

Food Engineering within Sciences of Food  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to clarify the identity of food engineering in sciences of food. A short historical description of the evolution of the branch in the Anglo Saxon and the Continental educational systems is given. Furthermore, the distinction of basic definitions such as food science, food science and technology, food technology, and food engineering is made. Finally, the objectives of food engineering within the branch of sciences of food are described.

Athanasios Kostaropoulos

2012-10-01

 
 
 
 
221

Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 7. Barriers to reduce contamination of food by workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contamination of food and individuals by food workers has been identified as an important contributing factor during foodborne illness investigations. Physical and chemical barriers to prevent microbial contamination of food are hurdles that block or reduce the transfer of pathogens to the food surface from the hands of a food worker, from other foods, or from the environment. In food service operations, direct contact of food by hands should be prevented by the use of barriers, especially when gloves are not worn. Although these barriers have been used for decades in food processing and food service operations, their effectiveness is sometimes questioned or their use may be ignored. Physical barriers include properly engineered building walls and doors to minimize the flow of outside particles and pests to food storage and food preparation areas; food shields to prevent aerosol contamination of displayed food by customers and workers; work clothing designated strictly for work (clothing worn outdoors can carry undesirable microorganisms, including pathogens from infected family members, into the work environment); and utensils such as spoons, tongs, and deli papers to prevent direct contact between hands and the food being prepared or served. Money and ready-to-eat foods should be handled as two separate operations, preferably by two workers. Chemical barriers include sanitizing solutions used to remove microorganisms (including pathogens) from objects or materials used during food production and preparation and to launder uniforms, work clothes, and soiled linens. However, laundering as normally practiced may not effectively eliminate viral pathogens. PMID:20819372

Todd, Ewen C D; Michaels, Barry S; Greig, Judy D; Smith, Debra; Holah, John; Bartleson, Charles A

2010-08-01

222

Local flaps of the hand.  

Science.gov (United States)

A local flap consists of skin and subcutaneous tissue that is harvested from a site near a given defect while maintaining its intrinsic blood supply. Local skin flaps can be a used as a reliable source of soft tissue replacement that replaces like with like. Flaps are categorized based on composition, method of transfer, flap design, and blood supply, but flap circulation is considered the most critical factor for the flap survival. This article reviews the classification of local skin flaps of the hand and offers a practical reconstructive approach for several soft tissue defects of the hand and digits. PMID:24731606

Rehim, Shady A; Chung, Kevin C

2014-05-01

223

Lionfish envenomation of the hand.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lionfish (Pterois volitans) envenomation of the hand causes excruciating pain and occurs in three grades: (1) erythematous reaction, (2) blister formation, and (3) dermal necrosis. The initial treatment in all cases is to soak the hand in nonscalding water (45 degrees C) until the pain subsides by denaturing the thermolabile venom proteins. The blisters should be immediately excised to prevent dermal necrosis, inasmuch as the blister fluid contains residual active venom. To prevent a hypersensitivity reaction, any further contact with the fish should be avoided. PMID:8515029

Patel, M R; Wells, S

1993-05-01

224

Norms for hand grip strength.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Norms for hand grip strength of healthy children are presented. Sex and age specific centiles for age 5 to 18 years have been determined using a portable strain gauge dynamometer with an accuracy of 0.5 N. The test group comprised 1417 healthy, urban school children from a middle class suburb of Brisbane. Mean maximum grip strength (of four tests, two with each hand) and mean peak grip strength (best of four tests) were recorded. Mean values of peak grip strength were 10 to 15% higher than th...

Newman, D. G.; Pearn, J.; Barnes, A.; Young, C. M.; Kehoe, M.; Newman, J.

1984-01-01

225

Food processing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper discusses the processes involved in food preparation for consumption and technological processing that could be used to reduce contamination of foodstuffs. The food processing transfer parameters - food processing retention factor, processing efficiency and the food processing factor - are defined and their relationships discussed. Data are presented for vegetables, fruit, cereals, dairy products, meat (mammals, birds and fish-edible fraction), fungi, seafoods and drinks. Processing procedures considered includes: simple washing and boiling for fruit, vegetables and mushrooms, boiling and milling for cereals, cooking and curing for meats, butter and cheese productions for dairy products and washing and cooking for seafoods. Storage times for foodstuffs have also been considered. A wide range of chemical elements are considered, with the majority of data presented caesium, strontium and iodine, stable element databases have been reviewed and relevant data used to extend the data set. A discussion of application of the data is presented with consideration of areas where cautions is needed. (author)

2009-05-01

226

Gastrointestinal food allergy in infants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food allergies are classified into three types, "IgE-mediated," "combined IgE- and cell-mediated" and "cell-mediated/non-IgE-mediated," depending on the involvement of IgE in their pathogenesis. Patients who develop predominantly cutaneous and/or respiratory symptoms belong to the IgE-mediated food allergy type. On the other hand, patients with gastrointestinal food allergy (GI allergy) usually develop gastrointestinal symptoms several hours after ingestion of offending foods; they belong to the cell-mediated/non-IgE-mediated or combined IgE- and cell-mediated food allergy types. GI allergies are also classified into a number of different clinical entities: food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES), food protein-induced proctocolitis (FPIP), food protein-induced enteropathy (Enteropathy) and eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGID). In the case of IgE-mediated food allergy, the diagnostic approaches and pathogenic mechanisms are well characterized. In contrast, the diagnostic approaches and pathogenic mechanisms of GI allergy remain mostly unclear. In this review, we summarized each type of GI allergy in regard to its historical background and updated clinical features, offending foods, etiology, diagnosis, examinations, treatment and pathogenesis. There are still many problems, especially in regard to the diagnostic approaches for GI allergy, that are closely associated with the definition of each disease. In addition, there are a number of unresolved issues regarding the pathogenic mechanisms of GI allergy that need further study and elucidation. Therefore, we discussed some of the diagnostic and research issues for GI allergy that need further investigation. PMID:23974876

Morita, Hideaki; Nomura, Ichiro; Matsuda, Akio; Saito, Hirohisa; Matsumoto, Kenji

2013-09-01

227

Food-Based Science Curriculum Increases 4th Graders Multidisciplinary Science Knowledge  

Science.gov (United States)

Health professionals and policymakers are asking educators to place more emphasis on food and nutrition education. Integrating these topics into science curricula using hand-on, food-based activities may strengthen students' understanding of science concepts. The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is…

Hovland, Jana A.; Carraway-Stage, Virginia G.; Cela, Artenida; Collins, Caitlin; Díaz, Sebastián R.; Collins, Angelo; Duffrin, Melani W.

2013-01-01

228

Hand-held medical robots.  

Science.gov (United States)

Medical robots have evolved from autonomous systems to tele-operated platforms and mechanically-grounded, cooperatively-controlled robots. Whilst these approaches have seen both commercial and clinical success, uptake of these robots remains moderate because of their high cost, large physical footprint and long setup times. More recently, researchers have moved toward developing hand-held robots that are completely ungrounded and manipulated by surgeons in free space, in a similar manner to how conventional instruments are handled. These devices provide specific functions that assist the surgeon in accomplishing tasks that are otherwise challenging with manual manipulation. Hand-held robots have the advantages of being compact and easily integrated into the normal surgical workflow since there is typically little or no setup time. Hand-held devices can also have a significantly reduced cost to healthcare providers as they do not necessitate the complex, multi degree-of-freedom linkages that grounded robots require. However, the development of such devices is faced with many technical challenges, including miniaturization, cost and sterility, control stability, inertial and gravity compensation and robust instrument tracking. This review presents the emerging technical trends in hand-held medical robots and future development opportunities for promoting their wider clinical uptake. PMID:24927713

Payne, Christopher J; Yang, Guang-Zhong

2014-08-01

229

Hands-On Nuclear Physics  

Science.gov (United States)

Nuclear science is an important topic in terms of its application to power generation, medical diagnostics and treatment, and national defense. Unfortunately, the subatomic domain is far removed from daily experience, and few learning aids are available to teachers. What follows describes a low-tech, hands-on method to teach important concepts in…

Whittaker, Jeff

2013-01-01

230

Unusual case of cleft hand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present a case of a six-year-old male child with cleft hand deformity involving the dominant right hand. It was a rare case of atypical cleft hand with no missing tissue but cleft extending to metacarpal level and associated hypoplasia of thumb and index finger. As per Manske?s classification of cleft hand our patient belongs to the Class III variety. There was associated malposition of the index finger with absence of first web space and syndactly of thumb and index finger at the metacarpal level. A modified Snow-Littler procedure was planned. The surgical plan involved closure of cleft, release of thumb and index finger syndactly and reconstruction of the first web space. The functional outcome was good considering hypoplasia of the index finger and thumb. Depending upon the function of the thumb tendon transfers can be planned to augment thumb function at a later date along with correction of rotational deformities of the index and middle finger.

Sahasrabudhe Parag

2007-01-01

231

Venous lakes of the hands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Following pharmacologic vasodilation, multiple vascular lakes were observed on angiograms of the hand in 55 patients. Most had no history of vascular anomalies or disease. The authors believe that these lakes are venous structures and that their filling is a physiologic phenomenon.

Levy, J.M.; Hessel, S.J.; Joseph, R.B.; Bodell, L.S.

1985-09-01

232

Replantation (Finger, Hand, or Arm)  

Science.gov (United States)

... than a replantation. See section on “Amputations and Prosthetics.” Replantation is usually recommended when the replanted part will work at least as well as a prosthesis or completion amputation. Generally, a missing hand or finger would not be replanted knowing that ...

233

Prosthetic Hand Lifts Heavy Loads  

Science.gov (United States)

Prosthetic hand designed to enable amputee to lift diverse heavy objects like rocks and logs. Has simple serrated end effector with no moving parts. Prosthesis held on forearm by system of flexible straps. Features include ruggedness, simplicity, and relatively low cost.

Carden, James R.; Norton, William; Belcher, Jewell G.; Vest, Thomas W.

1991-01-01

234

Holiday Food Safety  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... holidays happy. On this page: Holiday Food Safety Success Kit Holiday Food Safety Video Ready-to-Cook Foods Additional Information Holiday Food Safety Success Kit The Holiday Food Safety Success Kit , developed ...

235

Holiday Food Safety  

Science.gov (United States)

... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Home Food Resources for You Consumers Section Contents ... Fightbac.org Food Safety and Inspection Service - Holiday Food Safety Many people don't realize that food ...

236

Holiday Food Safety  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Home Food Resources for You Consumers Section Contents ... Fightbac.org Food Safety and Inspection Service - Holiday Food Safety Many people don't realize that food ...

237

An analysis of national and cross-national consumer segments using the food-related lifestyle instrument in Denmark, France, Germany and Great Britain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Executive summary 1. Food markets are claimed to be characterized by two opposing tendencies. On the one hand, food culture seems to be a domain of increasingly transnational character. On the other hand, there is substantial evidence that food culture has considerable inertia. This paper reports a series of studies aimed at investigating whether cross-national food consumer segments can be found. 2. Food consumer segments are derived using the food-related lifestyle instrument, which charact...

Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.; Bredahl, Lone

2005-01-01

238

Die Sprache der Hande zu den Handen sprechen (Talking the Language of the Hands to the Hands). DB-LINK.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the importance of hands for the person who is deafblind, reviews hand development, and identifies specific teaching skills that facilitate hand development and expressiveness in persons who are deafblind. It notes that the hands of a deafblind individual serve not only as tools but also as sense organs (to compensate for their…

Miles, Barbara

239

Clinical anatomy of the hand.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reviews the underlying anatomy of trigger finger and thumb (fibrous digital pulleys, sesamoid bones), flexor tenosynovitis, de Quervain's syndrome, Dupuytren's contracture, some hand deformities in rheumatoid arthritis, the carpal tunnel syndrome and the ulnar nerve compression at Guyon's canal. Some important syndromes and structures have not been included but such are the nature of these seminars. Rather than being complete, we aim at creating a system in which clinical cases are used to highlight the pertinent anatomy and, in the most important part of the seminar, these pertinent items are demonstrated by cross examination of participants and teachers. Self learning is critical for generating interest and expanding knowledge of clinical anatomy. Just look at your own hand in various positions, move it, feel it, feel also your forearms while you move the fingers, do this repeatedly and inquisitively and after a few tries you will have developed not only a taste, but also a lifelong interest in clinical anatomy. PMID:23219083

Vargas, Angélica; Chiapas-Gasca, Karla; Hernández-Díaz, Cristina; Canoso, Juan J; Saavedra, Miguel Ángel; Navarro-Zarza, José Eduardo; Villaseñor-Ovies, Pablo; Kalish, Robert A

240

SaniTwice: a novel approach to hand hygiene for reducing bacterial contamination on hands when soap and water are unavailable.  

Science.gov (United States)

The risk of inadequate hand hygiene in food handling settings is exacerbated when water is limited or unavailable, thereby making washing with soap and water difficult. The SaniTwice method involves application of excess alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS), hand "washing" for 15 s, and thorough cleaning with paper towels while hands are still wet, followed by a standard application of ABHS. This study investigated the effectiveness of the SaniTwice methodology as an alternative to hand washing for cleaning and removal of microorganisms. On hands moderately soiled with beef broth containing Escherichia coli (ATCC 11229), washing with a nonantimicrobial hand washing product achieved a 2.86 (±0.64)-log reduction in microbial contamination compared with the baseline, whereas the SaniTwice method with 62 % ethanol (EtOH) gel, 62 % EtOH foam, and 70 % EtOH advanced formula gel achieved reductions of 2.64 ± 0.89, 3.64 ± 0.57, and 4.61 ± 0.33 log units, respectively. When hands were heavily soiled from handling raw hamburger containing E. coli, washing with nonantimicrobial hand washing product and antimicrobial hand washing product achieved reductions of 2.65 ± 0.33 and 2.69 ± 0.32 log units, respectively, whereas SaniTwice with 62 % EtOH foam, 70 % EtOH gel, and 70 % EtOH advanced formula gel achieved reductions of 2.87 ± 0.42, 2.99 ± 0.51, and 3.92 ± 0.65 log units, respectively. These results clearly demonstrate that the in vivo antibacterial efficacy of the SaniTwice regimen with various ABHS is equivalent to or exceeds that of the standard hand washing approach as specified in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Code. Implementation of the SaniTwice regimen in food handling settings with limited water availability should significantly reduce the risk of foodborne infections resulting from inadequate hand hygiene. PMID:21219752

Edmonds, Sarah L; Mann, James; McCormack, Robert R; Macinga, David R; Fricker, Christopher M; Arbogast, James W; Dolan, Michael J

2010-12-01

 
 
 
 
241

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conference was a combined event and at the same time was a meeting of the FAIR programme of the EU, under the responsibility of the General Directorate XII, participating countries including Iceland, Norway, Hungary, and Switzerland in addition to the 15 EU member states. Under this roof, research work is sponsored in the fields of food technology, fishing industry, agriculture, forestry, and water resources management. Also, financial support is available for the mid-range food and agricultural industry, or for projects promoting rural development. There currently are over 120 transnational FAIR projects, involving more than 2000 researchers in 233 EU-sponsored research projects devoted to food aspects, some having been presented at the conference. (orig./CB)

1998-11-11

242

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation processing of food is based on irradiation by gamma radiation from a 60Co source or X-ray with energy < 5 MeV or electron beam with energy < 10 MeV. This technique is now completely mastered. About 30 countries use this technique to extend the storage life of food but the total quantity processed is weak, only 30000 tons a year for France. Some countries like Morocco or Tunisia have launched technical programmes about the radiation processing of dates and vegetable oil. These programmes may lead to the creation of a quality label. A joint laboratory between CEA and the Aix-Marseille-3 university is working on the detection of food irradiation in order to fight the fraud. 3 techniques are being investigated: thermoluminescence, electronic paramagnetism resonance and a chemical method. (A.C.)

1998-04-01

243

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Food treatment by means of ionizing energy, or irradiation, is an innovative method for its preservation. In order to treat important volumes of food, it is necessary to have industrial irradiation installations. The effect of radiations on food is analyzed in the present special work and a calculus scheme for an Irradiation Plant is proposed, discussing different aspects related to its project and design: ionizing radiation sources, adequate civil work, security and auxiliary systems to the installations, dosimetric methods and financing evaluation methods of the project. Finally, the conceptual design and calculus of an irradiation industrial plant of tubercles is made, based on the actual needs of a specific agricultural zone of our country. (Author)

1991-01-01

244

Osteoid osteomas of the hand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Osteoid osteoma is infrequently locallized to the hand. Initially the lesion causes unspecific symptoms, and the radiographic changes are discrete. Three cases were seen during a period of 5 years. Bone scintigraphy was a useful diagnostic tool, and CT facilitated the identification of the nidus. One of the lesions was a double nidus osteoid osteoma of the scaphoid bone. Only 12 instances of multifocal osteoid osteomas have been reported, none of which was localized to the carpal bones. (orig.)

1991-01-01

245

Tendon injuries of the hand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tendon injuries are the second most common injuries of the hand and therefore an important topic in trauma and orthopedic patients. Most injuries are open injuries to the flexor or extensor tendons, but less frequent injuries, e.g., damage to the functional system tendon sheath and pulley or dull avulsions, also need to be considered. After clinical examination, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging have proved to be important diagnostic tools. Tendon injuries mostly require surgical repa...

Volker Schöffl; Andreas Heid; Xfc Pper, Thomas K.

2012-01-01

246

The hands of the projectionist.  

Science.gov (United States)

This essay considers the work of projection and the hand of the projectionist as important components of the social space of the cinema as it comes into being in the nineteenth century and the early decades of the twentieth. I bring the concept ofMaurice Merleau-Ponty on the place of the body as an entity that applies itself to the world "like a hand to an instrument" into a discussion of the pre-cinematic projector as an instrument that we can interpret as evidence of the experience of the work of the projectionist in the spirit of film theory and media archaeology, moving work on instrumentation in a different direction from the analysis of the work of the black box in laboratory studies. Projection is described as a psychological as well as a mechanical process. It is suggested that we interpret the projector not simply in its activity as it projects films, but in its movement from site to site and in the workings of the hand of its operator behind the scenes. This account suggests a different perspective on the cinematic turn of the nineteenth century, a concept typically approached through the study of the image, the look, the camera, and the screen. PMID:21995224

Cartwright, Lisa

2011-09-01

247

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first part of this data is relative to the study of chemical modifications induced by gamma radiations ("6"0Co, "1"3"7Cs) on macromolecules of food and their contaminates with the help of two examples: starch and nucleic acids. Then the second part shows what are the consequences of irradiation on food and their preservation; we make distinction between useful effects (for instance germination inhibition of tubercules, destruction of insects or micro-organisms) and the results which are contingently bad for nutritional, technological and above all toxicologic aspects. The last part is relative to a short restatement of the problems inherent in the industrialization of this treatment

1977-10-28

248

On robustness in food supply chain networks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose: Today's business environment is characterized by challenges of strong global competition where companies tend to achieve leanness and maximum responsiveness to customer demand. Lean supply chain networks are vulnerable to all kind of disruptions. For food supply chain networks (FSCNs), due to their inherent characteristics on the one hand and increased level of complexity, dynamics and uncertainty on the other hand, this vulnerability is even stronger. Therefore, methods are needed ...

Vlajic, J. V.; Vorst, J. G. A. J.; Hendrix, E. M. T.

2010-01-01

249

Nutrition - Food Guide Pyramid - Physical Activity  

Science.gov (United States)

Students will learn about the food guide pyramid, nutrition, physical activity and ways to implement it into their lives. Materials Needed: Computer, print outs as instructed below, paper and pencil. #1 What\\'s your food guide pyramid? Go to the following website. MyPyramid.gov Click on My Pyramid Plan on the right hand side. Enter your information and click submit. Your results will show. Print a PDF of your results and a Meal Tracking ...

King, Stacey M.

2007-11-30

250

Rubber hands do not cross the midline.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rubber hand illusion (RHI) occurs when a person misattributes a fake hand as his or her own hand. Previously, the RHI has been examined with both the rubber hand and the participant's real hand uncrossed with regards to the participant's midline. The present study examined the strength of the illusion when the real hand, the fake hand or both hands are placed across the body midline. The illusion was induced by stroking the rubber hand and the real hand simultaneously. Asynchronous brushing served as a comparable condition since the RHI is not seen under these circumstances. Participants indicated where they felt their real hand was located by marking a sheet of paper under the table on which their unseen hand was placed. A significant RHI was observed with both the hands uncrossed. In contrast, no RHI was present when either hand was crossed over the midline. Additionally, a shift in hand judgment towards the midline was observed when participants crossed their real hand. These results indicate the importance of the midline in understanding representations of the body. PMID:21945649

Cadieux, Michelle L; Whitworth, Katelyn; Shore, David I

2011-10-31

251

Future Perspectives for Hand Transplant in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hand transplant program is a communion of physicians and researchers during the current de¬cade. 72 hands and digits were transplanted in 53 patients over the past 13 years. Unlike a solid organ transplant, hand transplantation involves various tissues, so it is called “composite tissue allotransplantation.” This article discusses the plans for performing the first hand transplant in Iran.

M. J. Fatemi

2011-10-01

252

Food preservation by ionising radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The process of food preservation by ionising radiation is an alternative, or a complement, to the traditional methods of heating, refrigerating, freezing or using chemical additives. The study and development of this technique has started on the beginning of the fifties but it is based on the radiation killing effect on micro-organisms discovered by the end of last century. Foodstuffs are treated in appropriate plants: isotopic facilities (gamma radiation) and accelerated electron beams produced by machines called accelerators. The FAO and WHO in close cooperation with the IAEA have played an important role on the development of the process and on the increment of the industrial application of food irradiation. Over the world there are about 37 countries trading foods treated by ionising radiation. However, governments have been slow to clear the utilization of this process. The main reason of this attitude is in general due to the fact that the advantages of the technique are not clearly understood. Therefore, the dissemination of the information could on one hand clarify who has to take decisions and on the other hand support the choice of those foods by the consumers. This is the unique way to dynamize the application of this process

1996-12-01

253

Differences in social and vocal behavior between left- and right-handed common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) show either a left- or right-hand preference for reaching to pick up food and they retain the same preference throughout adult life. We compared the behavior of 10 right-handed and 10 left-handed marmosets, matched for age and sex. They were presented with live crickets both when alone and when in their social group. The marmosets captured more crickets and the latency to capture the first cricket was shorter when they were in a group than when they were alone. This effect of social facilitation was significantly greater for right- than left-handed individuals. The number of vocalizations (tsik, crackle, very brief whistle, cough, and phee) produced by the left- and right-handed marmosets differed significantly: right-handed marmosets produced an increased number of all of these calls when the crickets were presented, whereas left-handed marmosets did not show a change from pretesting levels. The right-handed marmosets also produced more tsik (mobbing) calls than left-handed marmosets when they were presented with a fear-inducing stimulus and performed more head cocking and parallax movements than the left-handed marmosets. Hence, hand preference is associated with differences in exploratory and social behavior, the latter including vocal communication. PMID:20853949

Gordon, Dianne J; Rogers, Lesley J

2010-11-01

254

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two letters comment on a previous editorial (Lancet, Feb. 28 1987). The following points are discussed: 1) Stated doses can be exceeded without detection. 2) The hazards and problems of detection of 'food renovation'. 3) Enforcement of labelling regulations. 4) Fraud on consumers. (U.K.)

1987-04-04

255

Food Science.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents food science experiments designed for high school science classes that aim at getting students excited about science and providing them with real-life applications. Enables students to see the application of chemistry, microbiology, engineering, and other basic and applied sciences to the production, processing, preservation, evaluation,…

Barkman, Susan J.

1996-01-01

256

Food Safety and Hyienic Practices of Street Food Vendors in Owerri, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper examines the food safety and hygienic practices of street food vendors in Owerri, Nigeria. It argues that although street foods play an important role in meeting the food demands of urban dwellers, there are several health hazards associated with them. The study found that women made up 66.67% of the vendors while males made up 33.33%. The average age group was 31-40 years. 23.81% of the vendors prepared food in unhygienic conditions. 42.86% did not use aprons; 47.62% handled food with bare hands and 52.38% wore no hair covering while 61.90% handled money while serving food. 19.05% wore jewelry while serving food and 28.57% blew air into polythene bag before use. 9.52% of the vendors stored food for serving openly in the stalls while 23.81% stored them in the wheelbarrows. 42.86% had leftovers for serving the next day with poor storage facilities. 47.62% of the vendors washed their utensils with dirty water which is recycled and used severally in 28.57% despite the fact that only 9.52% of them complained of water shortages. Thr paper recommends that there is need for health education of these vendors in order to ensure food safety for the consumers. Keywords: food safety; hygienic; street food; vendors; Owerri Nigeria

Comfort O. Chukuezi

2010-06-01

257

Acute Dorsal Hand Burns in Children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hand burns in children, whether isolated or part of massive burns, require special attention. A crucial element in this respect is the preservation and full restoration of hand function. Most cases of severe sequelae after burns are associated with hand burns. From January 2002 to November 2004, 125 children with hand burns and other body burns were treated at the Centre of Burns and Plastic Surgery in Sofia, Bulgaria. This review presents our experience with 71 children with 89 burned hands ...

Argirova, M.; Hadzhiyski, O.

2006-01-01

258

Does body posture influence hand preference in an ancestral primate model?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The origin of human handedness and its evolution in primates is presently under debate. Current hypotheses suggest that body posture (postural origin hypothesis and bipedalism hypothesis have an important impact on the evolution of handedness in primates. To gain insight into the origin of manual lateralization in primates, we studied gray mouse lemurs, suggested to represent the most ancestral primate condition. First, we investigated hand preference in a simple food grasping task to explore the importance of hand usage in a natural foraging situation. Second, we explored the influence of body posture by applying a forced food grasping task with varying postural demands (sit, biped, cling, triped. Results The tested mouse lemur population did not prefer to use their hands alone to grasp for food items. Instead, they preferred to pick them up using a mouth-hand combination or the mouth alone. If mouth usage was inhibited, they showed an individual but no population level handedness for all four postural forced food grasping tasks. Additionally, we found no influence of body posture on hand preference in gray mouse lemurs. Conclusion Our results do not support the current theories of primate handedness. Rather, they propose that ecological adaptation indicated by postural habit and body size of a given species has an important impact on hand preference in primates. Our findings suggest that small-bodied, quadrupedal primates, adapted to the fine branch niche of dense forests, prefer mouth retrieval of food and are less manually lateralized than large-bodied species which consume food in a more upright, and less stable body posture.

Leliveld Lisette

2011-02-01

259

Food irradiation and food packaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The advantages and disadvantages of the use of ionising radiations as a process for food preservation are considered. Tests are summarized which have been carried out on food packaging materials (plastics, glass, metals, wood and waxes) for irradiation processing suitability with doses both below 1Mrad and also with higher doses as required for long-term storage. Results of extraction tests are tabulated. The results of searches for the most effective packaging, where sterilisation by radiation is to be used, are given and methods of carrying out the relevant tests are discussed. (UK)

1979-05-19

260

Quantitative microbial risk assessment of antibacterial hand hygiene products on risk of shigellosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are conflicting reports on whether antibacterial hand hygiene products are more effective than nonantibacterial products in reducing bacteria on hands and preventing disease. This research used new laboratory data, together with simulation techniques, to compare the ability of nonantibacterial and antibacterial products to reduce shigellosis risk. One hundred sixtythree subjects were used to compare five different hand treatments: two nonantibacterial products and three antibacterial products, i.e., 0.46% triclosan, 4% chlorhexidine gluconate, or 62% ethyl alcohol. Hands were inoculated with 5.5 to 6 log CFU Shigella; the simulated food handlers then washed their hands with one of the five products before handling melon balls. Each simulation scenario represented an event in which 100 people would be exposed to Shigella from melon balls that had been handled by food workers with Shigella on their hands. Analysis of experimental data showed that the two nonantibacterial treatments produced about a 2-log reduction on hands. The three antibacterial treatments showed log reductions greater than 3 but less than 4 on hands. All three antibacterial treatments resulted in statistically significantly lower concentration on the melon balls relative to the nonantibacterial treatments. A simulation that assumed 1 million Shigella bacteria on the hands and the use of a nonantibacterial treatment predicted that 50 to 60 cases of shigellosis would result (of 100 exposed). Each of the antibacterial treatments was predicted to result in an appreciable number of simulations for which the number of illness cases would be 0, with the most common number of illness cases being 5 (of 100 exposed). These effects maintained statistical significance from 10(6) Shigella per hand down to as low as 100 Shigella per hand, with some evidence to support lower levels. This quantitative microbial risk assessment shows that antibacterial hand treatments can significantly reduce Shigella risk. PMID:24680068

Schaffner, Donald W; Bowman, James P; English, Donald J; Fischler, George E; Fuls, Janice L; Krowka, John F; Kruszewski, Francis H

2014-04-01

 
 
 
 
261

Washing Food: Does It Promote Food Safety?  

Science.gov (United States)

... Forms FSIS Forms Administrative Forms Standard Forms FSIS Food Safety and Inspection Service United States Department of ... Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Washing Food: Does it Promote Food Safety? Historically, we equate ...

262

Hand-Held Power Clamp  

Science.gov (United States)

Tool furnishes large pushing or pulling forces. Device includes two clamping blocks, two clamping plates, and a motor-driven linear actuator with selflocking screw shaft. Power clamp exerts opening or closing force at push of switch. Tool approximately 1 m long. Originally designed to secure payload aboard Space Shuttle, operated with one hand to apply opening or closing force of up to 1,000 lb (4,400 N). Clamp has potential applications as end effector for industrial robots and in rescue work to push or pull wreckage with great force.

Clancy, J. P.

1985-01-01

263

Hand protection from ultraviolet exposure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Full text of publication follows: A number of industrial applications and public services involve exposure to ultraviolet radiation (U.V.R.) from a variety of lamps and lasers, for example, in forensic examination, biological trans-illuminators, dentistry, laser material processing, microelectronics, etc. The proposed European Union Directive on Optical Radiation would place specific requirements on employers to provide adequate safety measures to reduce exposure to U.V.R., including gloves for hand protection. The selection of gloves should be based on a risk assessment and on the performance characteristics of the gloves for the task. However, current International and national standards do not describe evaluation procedures of disposable gloves for hand protection against non-ionising radiation. A methodology for assessment of the UV protection level for disposable gloves and a simple measurement protocol are proposed, based on a common approach with UV protection by clothing and sunscreens. Glove Ultraviolet Protection Factor is defined as a time-scale increase in exposure permitted for the hand protected by a glove with respect to an unprotected hand. However, the wide variety of U.V.R. sources and the real-life conditions of glove use (stretching and wetting the surface by liquids) bring substantial challenges to the assessment method. Our study of {approx} 50 samples of widely used disposable gloves made of different materials (nitrile, vinyl, latex and chloroprene) showed that for all tested gloves a change in U.V.R. attenuation with stretching is characteristic for the type of glove material and can be included as a scaling factor in the definition of U.V.R. protection. Glove material has a bigger effect on U.V.R. protection level than variations in the glove thickness or its colour. The following approaches are suggested to overcome the problem of variable U.V.R. sources: - Worst case scenario minimal protection level, most restrictive case - Application specific UV protection factor - Lamp-type specific protection factor, for group of U.V.R. sources with similar spectral characteristics. Examples of assessment of the 'worst case scenario' are compared with the protection level against a number of the sources, together with guidance on a simplified evaluation protocol. An application specific assessment, illustrated for 'Smart Water' forensic examinations and biological trans-illuminators, demonstrates that some gloves provide inadequate protection against occupational ultraviolet exposure. (authors)

Khazova, M.; O' Hagan, J.B. [Health Protection Agency, Radiation Protection Division, Chilton, Did cot (United Kingdom)

2006-07-01

264

Food deficits, food security and food aid : concepts and measurement  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The concepts of food deficit, hunger, undernourishment and food security are discussed. Axioms and indices for the assessment of nutrition of individuals and groups are suggested. Furthermore a measure for food aid donor performance is developed and applied to a sample of bilateral and multilateral donors providing food aid for African countries.

Gabbert, Silke; Weikard, Hans-peter

1998-01-01

265

Food Anxieties: Issues for the Food Sector  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

People have become obsessed with the harmful effects of eating (Rozin, 1999) and are experiencing ‘food anxiety’, a by-product of modern food. The aim of this research was to explore the nature of food anxiety in Ireland and the potential implications for the food sector. The research objectives were to determine the range of issues causing food anxiety in Irish consumers; to investigate the impact of food anxiety on food choice behaviour; to examine the potential of food anxiety as a seg...

2009-01-01

266

Factitious Lymphedema of the Hand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To report the case of a 39- year old unmarried female with factitious edema of the right hand two weeks after being struck by her brother and following self injury of the right arm. Method: A 39-year old unmarried female with severe edema of the right hand and forearm diagnosed as factitious lymphedema was admitted to Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital. After hospitalization, with elevation of affected limb, the edema had lessened. Thereafter, she was observed at ward rounds with a cloth bandage wrapped around her arm. The edema had recurred. Physical Examination as well as right upper extremity X ray was normal. In mental state examination, patient's mood was dysphonic, rather anxious, and denied tourniquet application; otherwise no prominent psychiatric symptoms were detected. Patient underwent psychotherapy and 20 my fluoxetetine on daily basis was administered. Results: Patient's symptoms relieved within eight weeks and discharged while accepted to adjust herself with the situations. Conclusion: Factitious etiology may be presuming in any patient with unilateral limb lymphedema when venous or lymphatic Pathology were missing. The patient may be suffering from emotional conflicts.

S. Sina Ahmadi Abhari

2006-08-01

267

European Hands-on Universe  

Science.gov (United States)

Hands-on Universe is a project born at UC@Berkeley. A project devoted to enrich the teaching of Astronomy within the classroom environment with a different approach, more connected to the new technologies. Its main goals are not only to promote the use of such technologies but also to reawaken on students the taste for STEM (Science, technologies, engineering and math) related issues and also to increase their scientific culture. Eight countries in Europe decided to adopt the method and, funded by MINERVA, formed the European Hands-on Universe. Several resources were produced and a data reduction software developed http://www.euhou.net/.Other European countries are interested and should join this coordinated effort in the near future. At an international level there are 20 countries using this approach. There are plans to develop scientific cooperation among these countries. Pilot scientific research projects in schools are being tested in EU-HOU schools, Russia and USA. There is also a game being developed to be used as a new tool for teaching scientific content in the classroom environment. An effort to develop an international network of scientific / educational collaboration is the next step.

Doran, Rosa; Ferlet, Roger; Gómez de Castro, Ana I.; Hill, Robert; Horellou, Cathy; Mankiewicz, Lech; Melchior, Anne-Laure; Metaxa, Margarita; Zanazzi, Alessandra

2007-08-01

268

Holiday Food Safety  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Administration A to Z Index Follow FDA En Español Enter Search terms Home Food Drugs Medical Devices ... food promptly Holiday Food Safety Video (English) (en español) Ready-to-Cook Foods: Follow Directions to Keep ...

269

Food Allergies in Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

... to... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Food Allergies in Schools Food allergies are a growing ... Allergy Guidelines FAQs [PDF - 163KB] What is a Food Allergy? A food allergy occurs when the body ...

270

Food Allergy Diagnosis  

Science.gov (United States)

... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Food Allergy Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content ... diagnosis of food allergy. back to top Oral food challenge Caution Because oral food challenges can cause ...

271

Best Food Choices  

Science.gov (United States)

... A A A Listen En Español The Best Food Choices Today we know more about nutrition than ... Healthy Food Ideas? - 2014-june-diabetes-superfood.html Food & Fitness Need Some Healthy Food Ideas? Check out ...

272

Food Choice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper illustrates the connection found between food choices, and the influences from society and the digital Media, more specifically television commercials. We have covered different aspects of social and psychological theories, aiming to explain how the individual is affected by social factors. We have drawn conclusions on how the individual is inflicted by society when concerning choice making, as well as covering the psychological aspects that are relevant in connection to this. Last...

Ehlers Bloksted, Josephine; Knudsen, Anna Althea; Boie Hvid, Amanda; Bang Christensen, Andrea; Ali Ismail, Mohamed Ahmed

2012-01-01

273

Food Irradiation In Vietnam And Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2008, Japan Atomic Energy Commission of Cabinet Office performed the study of current status of food irradiation in the world. The results showed that the total quantity of irradiated foods in 2005 was 405,000 tons. Seven main countries for food irradiation were China, USA, Ukraine, Brazil, South Africa, Vietnam and Japan. In Japan, only the potato irradiation for sprout inhibition is continued more than 35 years since 1974 but the quantity is decreasing. On the other hand, the food irradiation of Vietnam has been developed rapidly in a short time to export the frozen seafood and fruit. This paper shows the status of food irradiation in Vietnam and Japan, and the progress in both countries after 2005. (author)

2011-01-01

274

Employing the Hand as an Interface Device  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We propose algorithms and applications for using the hand as an interface device in virtual and physical spaces. In virtual drawing, by tracking the hand in 3-D and estimating a virtual plane in space, the intended drawing of user is recognized. In a virtual marble game, the instantaneous orientation of the hand is simulated to render a graphical scene of the game board. Real-time visual feedback allows the user to navigate a virtual ball in a maze. In 3-D model construction, the system tracks the hand motion in space while the user is traversing edges of a physical object. The object is then rendered virtually by the computer. These applications involve estimating the 3-D absolute position and/or orientation of the hand in space. We propose parametric modelling of the central region of the hand to extract this information. A stereo camera is used to first build a preliminary disparity map of the hand. Then, the best fitting plane to the disparity points is computed using robust estimation. The 3-D hand plane is calculated based on the disparity plane and the position and orientation parameters of the hand. Tracking the hand region over a sequence of frames and coping with noise using robust modelling of the hand motion enables estimating the trajectory of the hand in space. The algorithms are real-time and experiments are presented to demonstrate the proposed applications of using the hand as an interface device.

Larry S. Davis

2006-11-01

275

Policy Manual - Employee Precautions - Hand Hygiene  

Science.gov (United States)

All healthcare workers shall practice good hand hygiene to reduce the risk of transmission of organisms to patients, themselves, and coworkers. General hand hygiene practices are listed in the Infection Control Policy of this notebook. See previous section.

276

A Framework for Virtual Hand Haptic Interaction  

Science.gov (United States)

Virtual hand interactions play key roles in virtual environments. The recent addition of force feedback to virtual reality simulations has enhanced their realism, especially when dexterous manipulation of virtual objects is concerned. However, though there exist many works on virtual hand modeling regarding computer animation and interaction applications, much less attention is paid on haptic modeling of virtual hand. In this paper, we propose a framework for virtual hand haptic interaction. The modeling of a sophisticated virtual hand for haptic interactions is investigated with special attention paid on issues of visual realism, motion realism as well as force sensation. Specifically, our virtual hand model simulates natural anatomy in its appearance, motion and deformation, and reflects the feature of force feedback datagloves. Besides, virtual hand interactions based on the constructed virtual hand model are discussed. The proposed framework has been tested on a PC with a force feedback dataglove.

Han, Xiaoxia; Wan, Huagen

277

Left and Right Hand Congruency effects on Mental Rotation of Hands  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Previous research suggests that mental rotation of hands involves both visual and motor processes; when we mentally rotate visually presented stimuli of hands, we imagine moving our own corresponding hands to match the presented stimuli.

Oliver, Zoe

2011-01-01

278

Theorizing Food Sovereignty: An analysis of public and academic discourse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Food is at the nexus of a truly striking range of the global political, environmental, economic and human rights issues we face today, from climate change and water scarcity to poverty and economic stability. The consolidation of each step of food production in the hands of just a few companies has siphoned value and wealth from rural areas, edging out small producers and forcing farmers to becoming a part of the corporate production system. The food sovereignty movement has become one of the...

Winsauer, Emily A.

2012-01-01

279

Analysis of Swedish consumers’ attitude to Chinese food  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this research is to find out what’s attitude Swedish consumers have to Chinese food. The questionnaires based on the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) are handed out to 100 Swedish respondents in order to investigate their motivation on Chinese food choice. 78 questionnaires which were filled completely were selected for this study. Eleven factors involved in the questionnaire are labeled health, mood, convenience, sensory appeal, natural content, price, weight control, familiarity...

Chen, Jie

2010-01-01

280

A hand-hygiene behaviour monitoring system:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The invention relates to a hand-hygiene behaviour monitoring system, comprising: means for detecting the occurrence of an event specified in a hand-hygiene rule, wherein the event involves a person; means for updating behaviour data that is related to acts according to the hand-hygiene rule, wherein said means for determining whether the person performs an act that is relevant for the hand-hygiene rule is at least one first hidden sensor.

Schie, M.; Wiesman, R. F. F.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Unilateral Cleft Hand with Cleft Foot  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Congenital anomalies of the hand form an important class of congenital malformations. They have a huge functional importance because of the part played by the hand in the daily activities of a person. The deformities also have significant cosmetic significance and may also be associated with other anomalies. Amongst the congenital anomalies, central deficiency or cleft hand is relatively rare. The association of cleft foot with cleft hand is an even more rare occurance. We present a case repo...

Baba, Asif Nazir; Bhat, Yasmeen J.; Ahmed, Sheikh Mushtaq; Nazir, Abid

2009-01-01

282

Air Muscle Actuated Low Cost Humanoid Hand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The control of humanoid robot hands has historically been expensive due to the cost of precision actuators. This paper presents the design and implementation of a low-cost air muscle actuated humanoid hand developed at Curtin University of Technology. This hand offers 10 individually controllable degrees of freedom ranging from the elbow to the fingers, with overall control handled through a computer GUI. The hand is actuated through 20 McKibben-style air muscles, each supplied by a pneumatic...

Peter Scarfe; Euan Lindsay

2008-01-01

283

World Food Situation: World Food Situation  

...org Media FAO Media Centre Financial Times - The Rising Cost of Food IRIN: Humanitarian News and Analysis - Food Security Reuters Alertnet: Food and Hunger Contact us Analyses and Reports Short-term: Food Outlook Crop Prospects and Food Situation Crop and Food Supply Assessment Reports Oilseeds Monthly Price and Policy Update FAO Rice Market Monitor Medium to long-term: OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook 2011-2020 Long-term global perspective studies Commodities and Markets Grains Rice Dairy Meat Oilseeds Sugar Fish Fertilizer Prices Rice Meat Dairy Oilseeds International Commodity Prices Database GIEWS Food Price Data and Analysis Tool ...

284

Hand-Controlled Brazing-Paste Dispenser  

Science.gov (United States)

Hand control proven superior to foot control. Hand-operated switch added to hand-held brazing-alloy-paste dispenser yields improved, more consistent brazing-alloy beads. Dispenser used to apply paste between adjacent tubes in heat exchanger. Switch reliable and safe, and removed and reattached easily.

Gilbert, Jeffrey L.

1994-01-01

285

Why Am I Left-Handed?  

Science.gov (United States)

KidsHealth > Kids > Q&A > Q & A > Why Am I Left-Handed? Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? (click to view) What Makes a Person Left- ( ... Left- (or Right-) Handed? Scientists aren't sure why some people turn out to be left-handed. ...

286

ARE LEFT HANDED SURGEONS LEFT OUT?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Being a left-handed surgeon, more specifically a left-handed ENT surgeon, presents a unique pattern of difficulties.This article is an overview of left-handedness and a personal account of the specific difficulties a left-handed ENT surgeon faces.

SriKamkshi Kothandaraman

2012-08-01

287

Food justice and Christian ethics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article dealt with the moral and political problem of international food justice in which the deep contradiction between the present situation of malnourishment and starvation in large parts of the global population on the one hand and the biblical notion of the preferential option for the poor on the other hand was described. This ecumenically widely accepted notion was clarified in several aspects. How deeply this is rooted in the history of Christian social thought was shown by Martin Luther’s writings on the economy which have remained relatively unknown in the churches and in the scholarly world. The article then presented three models of Christian economic ethic: the technical economic model, the utopian economic model and the public theological economic model. On the basis of the public theological model seven challenges for international food justice were presented. The basis for these challenges is an understanding of globalisation which guarantees just participation for everyone and deals with nature in an ecologically sustainable way. The interests of small farmers are the basis for judging the activities of big agro-corporations. Public theology is the background for an active involvement of the churches as agents of a global civil society to promote international food justice.

Heinrich Bedford-Strohm

2012-12-01

288

What Foods Are in the Protein Foods Group?  

Science.gov (United States)

... Foods What Foods Are in the Protein Foods Group? All foods made from meat, poultry, seafood, beans ... sodium intake low. Resources for Nutrition & Health Food Groups & Related Topics Fruits Vegetables Grains Protein Foods Dairy ...

289

Food, Globalization and Sustainability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Food is increasingly traded internationally, thereby transforming the organisation of food production and consumption globally and influencing most food-related practices. This transition is generating unfamiliar challenges related to sustainability of food provision, the social impacts of international trade and global food governance. Distance in time and space between food producers and consumers is increasing and new concerns are arising. These include the environmental impact of food pro...

Oosterveer, P. J. M.; Sonnenfeld, D. A.

2011-01-01

290

Food preservation by irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The process of food irradiation involves exposing the food to ionizing radiation so that a prescribed quantity is absorbed. Radiation sources used for food irradiation are gamma rays from Co/sub 60/ or Cs/sub 137/, x-rays, or electron beams. Some highlights in food irradiation are improvement of food hygiene, decontamination of food, guarantine treatments, irradiation of dried and cured fish, and shelf-stable foods. (ACR)

van Kooij, J.

1981-09-01

291

Food Allergies: Reducing the Risks  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... between food allergies and food intolerance. - For More Information Food Allergies: Reducing the Risks Food Safety Alerts ... FoodSafety.gov: Your Gateway to Federal Food Safety Information - Page Last Updated: 12/07/2013 Note: If ...

292

[Food allergy, food intolerance or functional disorder?].  

Science.gov (United States)

The term "food allergy" is widely misused for all sorts of symptoms and diseases caused by food. Food allergy (FA) is an adverse reaction to food (food hypersensitivity) occurring in susceptible individuals, which is mediated by a classical immune mechanism specific for the food itself. The best established mechanism in FA is due to the presence of IgE antibodies against the offending food. Food intolerance (FI) are all non-immune-mediated adverse reactions to food. The subgroups of FI are enzymatic (e.g. lactose intolerance due to lactase deficiency), pharmacological (reactions against biogenic amines, histamine intolerance), and undefined food intolerance (e.g. against some food additives). The diagnosis of an IgE-mediated FA is made by a carefully taken case history, supported by the demonstration of an IgE sensitization either by skin prick tests or by in vitro tests, and confirmed by positive oral provocation. For scientific purposes the only accepted test for the confirmation of FA/FI is a properly performed double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). A panel of recombinant allergens, produced as single allergenic molecules, may in future improve the diagnosis of IgE-mediated FA. Due to a lack of causal treatment possibilities, the elimination of the culprit "food allergen" from the diet is the only therapeutic option for patients with real food allergy. PMID:19340768

Wüthrich, B

2009-04-01

293

Inexpensive and Time-Efficient Hand Hygiene Interventions Increase Elementary School Children's Hand Hygiene Rates  

Science.gov (United States)

Routine hand hygiene has been cited by the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a cost-effective and important hygiene measure in preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Several studies have explored children's hand hygiene habits, effects of scheduled hand hygiene, hand hygiene environmental…

Snow, Michelle; White, George L.; Kim, Han S.

2008-01-01

294

Inspections of Hand Washing Supplies and Hand Sanitizer in Public Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

Hand washing and hand antisepsis are proven infection control measures in the school setting, yet barriers such as lack of soap, paper towels, and hand sanitizer can hinder compliance. This pilot study measured the prevalence of hand cleaning supplies in public schools. Ten school districts (93 schools) participated in school nurse inspections. In…

Ramos, Mary M.; Blea, Mary; Trujillo, Rebecca; Greenberg, Cynthia

2010-01-01

295

Comparison of traditional hand wash with alcoholic hand rub in ICU setup  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Nosocomial infection rate are often higher for intensive care unit (ICU than other units of hospitals, and hands of health-care workers (HCWs play a major role in the transmission of the infections. Aim: To compare the efficacy of conventional hand wash with the hand rub in reducing the transient bacterial flora on the hands of nurses in ICU. Subject and Methods: The 34 nurses posted in our ICU during January-March 2003 were included. A total of 204 samples were collected for the residual bacterial flora on fingers using impression method on MacConkey agar plates. The subjects then used alcoholic hand rub or conventional hand wash and the residual bacterial flora rechecked by testing impression of fingers on MacConkey agar. Results: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., nonlactose fermenting Gram-negative bacilli, staphylococci, and streptococci formed the transient bacterial flora on the hands. Moderate to heavy bacterial density was seen in more than 92.2% of the hands before washing or hand rub application. Conventional hand wash resulted in drastic reduction in the transient bacterial flora on hands in 50% cases whereas alcoholic hand rub achieved the effect in 95% of the samples. Conclusion: Compared with conventional hand wash, alcoholic hand rub is far more efficient in reducing transient bacterial flora on the hands of HCWs and it is more convenient and time saving. It is recommended as a hand hygiene practice in critical areas such as ICU.

Maliekal Mona

2005-01-01

296

Hygienic Practices among Food Vendors in Educational Institutions in Ghana: The Case of Konongo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the booming street food industry in the developing world there is an urgent need to ensure food vendors adhere to hygienic practices to protect public health. This study assessed the adherence to food hygiene practices by food vendors in educational institutions in Konongo, Ghana. Structured questionnaires, extensive observation and interviews were used for the study involving 60 food vendors from 20 basic schools. Attributable to the influence of school authorities and the level of in-training of food vendors, the study points out that food vendors in educational institutions generally adhered to good food hygiene practices, namely, regular medical examination (93%, protection of food from flies and dust (55%; proper serving of food (100%; good hand hygiene (63%; and the use of personal protective clothing (52%. The training of food vendors on food hygiene, instead of the level of education had a significant association (p < 0.05 with crucial food hygiene practices such as medical examination, hand hygiene and protection of food from flies and dust. Further, regulatory bodies legally mandated to efficiently monitor the activities of food vendors lacked the adequate capacity to do so. The study proposes that efforts should be geared towards developing training programmes for food vendors as well as capacity building of the stakeholders.

Isaac Monney

2013-07-01

297

Analysis of training experience of military men to hand-to-hand combat in the foreign countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is shown the main systems of hand-to-hand combat on the bases of hand-to-hand military men training in the world leading countries armies. Summarized the experience of hand-to-hand combat training. It is analyzes the main existing systems hand-to-hand training of servicemen of foreign armies. The analysis of publications, guidance documents, manuals, statutes which display the contents of hand-to-hand combat training of servicemen of foreign armies. Defined views, concerns and tendencies of hand-to-hand training to develop guidelines an advanced hand-to-hand combat training of servicemen.

Marakushyn A.I.

2011-02-01

298

Functional food acceptance in the food chain  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This thesis analyses consumer acceptance of functional foods and food manufacturers' decision to develop functional foods. The thesis sets up four key research questions: (1) How consumers accept functional foods enriched with omega-3? (2) How the intention of purchasing carrier ingredient combinations is explained by general attitudes to functional foods, consumers' health concerns, and the perceived fit of a particular carrier ingredient combination? (3) How food manufacturers decide to develop functional foods? (4) What are the determinants and drivers of food manufacturers' decision to develop functional foods? Research question 1 The health benefit of a functional food product is in fact limited if it is not eaten regularly and thus is not part of the healthy diet. For that reason it is highly relevant to look at the dietary change research when studying functional food acceptance. The purpose of paper 1 was to understand the process by which people choose healthy foods enriched with omega-3 ingredientas a case. The Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) (Schwarzer, 1992) was applied as the theoretical framework. The qualitative study has demonstrated partial usefulness of the HAPA model as an appropriate theoretical framework for consumers' choice of foods enriched with omega-3, fish oil supplements and to a lesser extent fatty fish naturally rich in omega-3. Self-efficacy and the outcome expectancy played a major role in choosing among the above mentioned options. Consumers' risk perception, as far as the choice of fatty fish and functional foods is concerned, are limited, which is why risk perception is the least useful one among all the three HAPA constructs. Research question 2 In paper 2, consumers' acceptance of different ingredients in selected foods was researched. The main aim of the paper was to determine which functional ingredients consumers would accept in selected product categories. Yoghurt, muesli bars, fish balls, tuna salad, baby meals, rye bread and bacon liver pâté were examined. Determinants of the acceptance of carrier ingredient combinations were another central issue of the paper. Results revealed that the general attitudes towards functional foods are related to the purchase intention with regard to functional foods described by their carrier/ingredient combinations. Consumers' attitudes towards specific carrier ingredient combinations define consumers' acceptance of functional foods. Research question 3 An extensive literature review was conducted and the theoretical framework of food manufacturers' decision to develop innovative functional foods by food manufacturers was developed as a part of paper 3. The paper discusses factors that possibly influence food manufacturers' decision making with regards to production of functional foods. Internal factors such as organisational characteristics, innovation characteristics, and external factors such as functional food ingredient suppliers' marketing efforts, collaboration between suppliers and food manufacturers and participation invarious networks are discussed as they are all expected to influence food manufacturers' decision to develop new functional foods. The research presented in paper 3 relies on a detailed review of relevant innovation management and food marketing literature. Research question 4 Food manufacturers' view on what are the key drivers of product development in functional food companies was the main focus of paper 4. This is a firm survey that identifies some of the key drivers for product development in functional food companies in Europe and North America. The results show that food ingredient suppliers' marketing efforts are one of the key influential factors for developing functional foods. Food manufacturers prefer long-term relationships with suppliers and they see suppliers' competencies in R&D as a bridge to consumer acceptance. Last but not least, results revealed that firm' internal factors, such as managerial initiative towards innovations and employees' competences, were important factors in deciding to de

Krutulyte, Rasa

2010-01-01

299

Climate change and food security  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dynamic interactions between and within the biogeophysical and human environments lead to the production, processing, distribution, preparation and consumption of food, resulting in food systems that underpin food security. Food systems encompass food availability (production, distribution and exchange), food access (affordability, allocation and preference) and food utilization (nutritional and societal values and safety), so that food security is, therefore, diminished when food systems are...

2005-01-01

300

Networked Haptic Interaction to Implement “Hand in Hand” Human Motor Skill Training for Tank Gunnery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The “hand in hand” approach has been validated as effective in human motor skill training, such as handwriting, drawing, driving and so on. This paper proposes a networked haptic interaction system to simulate the “hand in hand” training scheme for tank gunnery which requires tank gunners to complete tasks accurately and quickly. In the haptic?based training system, a network connecting two haptic devices plays the role of putting hands together, based on which the algorithms of hap...

Guanyang Liu; Keke Lu; Yuru Zhang; Lingzhi Liu

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Left hand, but not right hand, reaching is sensitive to visual context  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recently, it has been reported that grasping with the left hand is more vulnerable to visual size illusions than grasping with the right hand. The present study investigated whether this increased sensitivity of the left hand for visual context extends to reaching. Left- and right-handed participants reached for targets embedded in two different visual contexts with either left or right hands. Visual context was manipulated by presenting targets either in a blank field or within an array of p...

Adam, Jos J.; Mu?skens, Rick; Hoonhorst, Susan; Pratt, Jay; Fischer, Martin H.

2010-01-01

302

Hand coordination following capsular stroke.  

Science.gov (United States)

Motor outcome following stroke of the internal capsule is variable and its determinants are poorly understood. While many patients fully regain their abilities, recovery of motor functions remains incomplete in others. We analysed functional motor tasks of the upper limb to determine the pattern of focal disability after a small infarct of the internal capsule ('pure motor stroke') in the chronic stage (mean 2.4 years after stroke) with kinematic recordings of a reaching-to-grasp movement, with a quantitative analysis of the precision grip, and with clinical rating scales. The location of the lesions within the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) in 18 patients was determined from neuroimages obtained in the acute stage (5-20 days after the insult). Involvement of the PLIC was assessed at the level of the basal ganglia, approximately 8 mm above the anterior commissure-posterior commissure level. The distance between the posterior edge of the internal capsule and the centre of gravity of the lesion was determined. Chronic disabilities affected dextrous movements, while paresis was mild and sensitivity for light touch or passive finger flexion was almost normal. For both the reaching-to-grasp movement and the precision grip paradigm, the slowness of movement or force development was confined to the phases when grip formation and stabilization occur, while the onset of hand transport and of the vertical lifting force were not delayed. Grip forces were increased. We observed a close correlation between posterior location within the PLIC and the altered measures of timing and precision grip force. The more posterior the acute lesion was located within the PLIC, the more pronounced were the chronic motor deficits, as seen both in the quantitative measures and in the rating scales. The present study demonstrates for the first time that the amount and quality of chronic motor deficits of dextrous movements are related to a simple measure drawn from routine neuroimaging in the acute stage in patients with capsular stroke. The poor motor outcome in lesions involving the most posterior parts of the PLIC could be due to the condensed organization of corticofugal projections and the density of pyramidal fibres from the primary motor cortex in this subsector. Even small infarcts of this strategic area can disrupt many of the projections from the motor cortices and could thereby limit recovery strategies between homolateral motor representations. PMID:15471902

Wenzelburger, Roland; Kopper, Florian; Frenzel, Annika; Stolze, Henning; Klebe, Stephan; Brossmann, Achim; Kuhtz-Buschbeck, Johann; Gölge, Mukaddes; Illert, Michael; Deuschl, Günther

2005-01-01

303

Holiday Food Safety  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ... - Holiday Food Safety Many people don't realize that food safety is the most important ingredient in preparing food for the holidays. Below are ...

304

Diabetes food pyramid (image)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Diabetes Food Pyramid divides food into six groups, which vary in size to show relative amounts of servings for each group. ... Pyramid released by the USDA. In the Diabetes Food Pyramid, the groups are based on protein content and ...

305

National Food Survey 1998  

The National Food Survey (NFS) has provided information on household food ... \\by age and gender with comparison of nutrient intakes from home supplies and \\...... resources available for food than the traditional head-of-household income.

306

Food and kitchen waste  

Feb 5, 2003 ... WRAP have been running 'Love Food Hate Waste' the consumer facing ... in \\order to reduce food waste and ensure consumers are aware of food safety ... \\There is a home composting exemption for situations where the ...

307

Pet Food Labels  

Science.gov (United States)

Pet Food Labels - General Updated March 2010 Pet food labeling is regulated at two levels. The federal regulations, enforced by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), establish standards applicable for ...

308

Food reform movements  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Defining "food reform" as the zealous drive to change the way Americans eat or grow foods, this note explores the history of food reform movements in the United States from the Jacksonian Era to the present.

Larchet, Nicolas

2012-01-01

309

Food Label and You  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Home Food Ingredients, Packaging & Labeling Labeling & Nutrition Section ... Nutrition Labeling Information for Restaurants & Retail Establishments - The Food Label and You — Video FDA presents an entertaining ...

310

Food Label and You  

Science.gov (United States)

... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Home Food Ingredients, Packaging & Labeling Labeling & Nutrition Section ... Nutrition Labeling Information for Restaurants & Retail Establishments - The Food Label and You — Video FDA presents an entertaining ...

311

Food Label and You  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Road Food (Finding Nutrition Information on the Road) Game Show Review (Are You Smarter Than A Food Label?) The Food Label & You (full video) Introduction back to menu CSI (Calorie Scene Investigators) ...

312

Hand washing Compliance - Is It A Reality?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Transmission of microorganisms from the hands of health care workers is the main source of cross-infection in hospitals and can be prevented by hand washing. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of noncompliance with hand washing during routine patient care.Materials And Methods: This is an observational study. The participants in the study were Health Care Workers (HCWs. Doctors, nurses and ward aides working in different wards of the hospital who were observed for compliance with hand washing.Results: In 270 observed opportunities for hand washing, average compliance was 63.3%. Noncompliance was highest among doctors followed by nurses. Ward aides were most compliant. Conclusions: Compliance with hand washing was moderate. Variation across the hospital ward and type of HCW suggests that targeted educational programs may be useful. Noncompliance suggests that understaffing may decrease quality of patient care.

Suchitra JB

2007-03-01

313

Hand specific representations in language comprehension  

Science.gov (United States)

Theories of embodied cognition argue that language comprehension involves sensory-motor re-enactments of the actions described. However, the degree of specificity of these re-enactments as well as the relationship between action and language remains a matter of debate. Here we investigate these issues by examining how hand-specific information (left or right hand) is recruited in language comprehension and action execution. An fMRI study tested self-reported right-handed participants in two separate tasks that were designed to be as similar as possible to increase sensitivity of the comparison across task: an action execution go/no-go task where participants performed right or left hand actions, and a language task where participants read sentences describing the same left or right handed actions as in the execution task. We found that language-induced activity did not match the hand-specific patterns of activity found for action execution in primary somatosensory and motor cortex, but it overlapped with pre-motor and parietal regions associated with action planning. Within these pre-motor regions, both right hand actions and sentences elicited stronger activity than left hand actions and sentences—a dominant hand effect. Importantly, both dorsal and ventral sections of the left pre-central gyrus were recruited by both tasks, suggesting different action features being recruited. These results suggest that (a) language comprehension elicits motor representations that are hand-specific and akin to multimodal action plans, rather than full action re-enactments; and (b) language comprehension and action execution share schematic hand-specific representations that are richer for the dominant hand, and thus linked to previous motor experience.

Moody-Triantis, Claire; Humphreys, Gina F.; Gennari, Silvia P.

2014-01-01

314

Underactuated hands: fundamentals, performance analysis and design:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is an emerging need to apply adaptive robotic hands to substitute humans in dangerous, laborious, or monotonous work. The state-of-the-art robotic hands cannot fulfill this need, because they are expensive, hard to control and they consist of many vulnerable motors and sensors. It is aimed to develop simple, adaptive hands that are capable of grasping and holding a large variety of objects. To achieve these properties, the concept of underactuation (i.e. having fewer actuators than inde...

Kragten, G. A.

2011-01-01

315

Management of post burn hand deformities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The hand is ranked among the three most frequent sites of burns scar contracture deformity. One of the major determinants of the quality of life in burns survivors is the functionality of the hands. Burns deformities, although largely preventable, nevertheless do occur when appropriate treatment is not provided in the acute situation or when they are part of a major burns. Reconstructive procedures can greatly improve the function of the hands. Appropriate choice of procedures and timing of s...

2010-01-01

316

Hand infections secondary to fish bone injuries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hand injuries associated with fish bones and fin spines are not common but can cause morbidity out of proportion to the original injury. This is because such injuries often leave residual fragments of foreign organic matter in the tissues, leading to troublesome secondary infections. This report details 1 year's experience with nine hand infections after fish bone injury in a busy regional hand surgery referral centre. There were five males and four females with an average age of 45 years. Ra...

Strover, R. M.

1994-01-01

317

The alien hand and related signs.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Alien limb sign includes failure to recognise ownership of one's limb when visual cues are removed, a feeling that one body part is foreign, personification of the affected body part, and autonomous activity which is perceived as outside voluntary control. Although the hand is most frequently affected, any limb or combination of limbs may fulfil the alien limb criteria. Alien hand sign should be reserved for cases in which the hand feels foreign together with observable involuntary motor acti...

1992-01-01

318

Modelling natural and artificial hands with synergies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We report on recent work in modelling the process of grasping and active touch by natural and artificial hands. Starting from observations made in human hands about the correlation of degrees of freedom in patterns of more frequent use (postural synergies), we consider the implications of a geometrical model accounting for such data, which is applicable to the pre-grasping phase occurring when shaping the hand before actual contact with the grasped object. To extend applicability of the syner...

2011-01-01

319

Enlarged hands and feet - Not always acromegaly  

Science.gov (United States)

Pachydermoperiostosis maybe mistaken for acromegaly as it can present with progressive enlargement of hands and feet. We describe a 32 year old male with enlargement of hands and feet and extensive keloid formation. Family history was positive for similar complaints. X ray imaging showed normal heel pad thickness with acroosteolysis and subperiosteal new bone formation in hands and feet. IGF-1 was normal and glucose suppressed GH values were normal.

Ghatnatti, Vikrant; Sarma, Dipti; Saikia, Uma

2012-01-01

320

Food we eat  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper on the 'food we eat' includes a suggestion that food irradiation may prove invaluable to the future food industry. The use of food irradiation to inactivate or destroy micro-organisms is described - irradiation would not be used on all foods, it would complement existing methods of reducing contamination by micro-organisms. The chemical changes in spoiled food and chemical additives are also discussed. (U.K.).

Campbell-Platt, G.

1988-05-19

 
 
 
 
321

Introduction: from local food to localised food  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Local food has captured the interest of a number of academic disciplines and many of them are represented in this special issue of Anthropology of Food, based on a European Scientific Foundation exploratory workshop where European researchers met to discuss the concept of local food (see part 2. Through a pluridisciplinary perspective, this issue deepens the problematic and adds to research questions on local food in both empirical and theoretical ways, while raising an uncertainty about the...

Georgina Holt

2007-04-01

322

Rising food costs & global food security: key issues & relevance for India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rising food costs can have major impact on vulnerable households, pushing those least able to cope further into poverty and hunger. On the other hand, provided appropriate policies and infrastructure are in place, higher agricultural prices can also raise farmers' incomes and rural wages, improve rural economies and stimulate investment for longer-term economic growth. High food prices since 2007 have had both short-term impacts and long-term consequences, both good and bad. This article reviews the evidence of how rising costs have affected global food security since the food price crisis of 2007-2008, and their impact on different categories of households and countries. In light of recent studies, we know more about how households, and countries, cope or not with food price shocks but a number of contentious issues remain. These include the adequacy of current estimates and the interpretation of national and household food and nutrition security indicators. India is a particularly important country in this regard, given the high number of food insecure, the relative weight of India in global estimates of food and nutrition insecurity, and the puzzles that remain concerning the country's reported declining per capita calorie consumption. Competing explanations for what is behind it are not in agreement, but these all point to the importance of policy and programme innovation and greater investment necessary to reach the achievable goal of food and nutrition security for all. PMID:24135190

Gustafson, Daniel J

2013-09-01

323

Common methodologies in the evaluation of food allergy: pitfalls and prospects of food allergy prevalence studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Global and regional studies on the prevalence of food allergies are plagued by inconsistent methodologies, variations in interpretation of results, and non-standardized study design. Hence, it becomes difficult to compare the prevalence of food allergies in different communities. This information would be useful in providing critical data that will enhance research to elucidate the nature of food allergies, and the role of gene-environment interactions in the sensitization of children and adults to foods. Testing methodologies range from questionnaires to objective in vitro and in vivo testing, to the gold standard, double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). Although considered the most accurate and reliable method in detecting the prevalence of food allergy, DBPCFC is not always practical in epidemiological studies of food allergy. On the other hand, multiple logistic regression studies have been done to determine predictability of the outcome of food challenges, and it appears that skin prick testing and in vitro-specific serum IgE are the best predictors. Future studies directed towards confirming the validity of these methods as well as developing algorithms to predict the food challenge outcomes are required, as they may someday become accessory tools to complement DBPCFC. PMID:23179516

Shu, Shang-an; Chang, Christopher; Leung, Patrick S C

2014-06-01

324

[The Apert's syndrome hand: therapeutic management].  

Science.gov (United States)

Apert's syndrome is the most common among acrocephalosyndactylies with complex malformations of the hands. Treatment of the Apert hand is complex and numerous procedures are required. The aim of this study is to propose a strategy for hand management. Sixteen Apert syndrome hands were submitted to early surgery which included opening of the first web, separation of the fingers, realignment of the thumb and correction of the clinodactylies. We performed an average of six operations per child. Treatment of the first web depended on the classification of Upton: for the severe stages, we used a dorsal hand flap. Radical clinodactyly was treated by osteotomy of the delta phalanx and Z-plasty. We treated nine hands with four fingers and seven hands with five fingers. There was always bilateral opposition and symphalangism, excluding the fifth finger. All of the children have a rudimentary but functional pinch grip. Revision of the webs was necessary in 16% of the cases. The Apert hand requires early and specialised treatment that aims to provide a functional hand before two or three years, with the least surgical complications. The functional prognosis is darkened by symphalangism. PMID:18842437

Salazard, B; Casanova, D

2008-12-01

325

Automatic computer analysis of hand radiographs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hand radiographs provide a valuable index of disease in arthritis and other generalized diseases such as secondary hyperparathyroidism and osteoporosis. However, visual analysis of hand radiographs is not quantitative and is compromised by both interobserver and intraobserver variation. The key problem is automatic segmentation of the hand anatomy; that is recognizing the pixels that correspond to specific imaged bones and joints. The authors' approach incorporates computer-represented hand models in addition to more traditional image-processing algorithms. The authors' techniques use a combination of predictive models and image-processing evidence to find bone and tissue boundaries automatically and identify specific bones and joints

1989-12-01

326

Tissue equivalent material for hand phantoms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We suggest that to best reproduce the interaction between a handheld wireless transceiver and the hand holding it, the dielectric properties of the hand phantom should be similar to those of the palm of the hand. The proposed target permittivity and conductivity values are presented and tabulated at a number of frequencies of interest. We have developed suitable phantom hand materials based on carbon-loaded silicones and demonstrated that it was possible to match the proposed dielectric properties in the frequency range 600-6000 MHz

2007-07-21

327

The prospect of food irradiation and the contribution of radiation chemistry to enact the hygienic safety standard of irradiated foods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Now, it is said that we are at the dawn of food irradiation application both nationally and internationally. However, referring to the acceptability of customers the labeling of irradiated foods has been a nightmare to the food processors. On the other hand the recommended international standard has the shortcomings of thinking in absolute terms. In this paper a proposal which puts special emphasis on enacting hygienic safety standard of individual irradiated food is recommended. The hygienic safety standard of the irradiated food may be classified in three classes: 1) its hygienic safety standard is similar to that of common food; 2) the maximum permissible quantities of harmful compounds induced by radiation must be controlled; and 3) the quantity of unique radiolysis products may by dutermined. Radiation chemistry plays an important role in enacting the hygienic safety standard of irradiated foods. For international cooperation in this field some suggestions are made

1986-01-01

328

Food Label and You  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Home Food Ingredients, Packaging & Labeling Labeling & Nutrition Section Contents Menu Ingredients, ...

329

Food irradiation: Its role in food safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document provides a brief overview of the process of food irradiation and describes the potential for food irradiation in the Asia-Pacific region. The advantages in controlling food-borne diseases and in promoting trade are discussed. 4 tabs

1985-11-26

330

Big Food, Food Systems, and Global Health  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In an article that forms part of the PLoS Medicine series on Big Food, guest editors David Stuckler and Marion Nestle lay out why more examination of the food industry is necessary, and offer three competing views on how public health professionals might engage with Big Food.

2012-01-01

331

Research on detection method for electron beam irradiation perishable foods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To develop an applicable detection method and a new detection method the measuring method of the absorbed dose in the food system is examined for perishable foods to which the electron beam is irradiated. It was understood that ESR was a useful detection method, and it had ability enough for the detection of the irradiation food containing a lot of sugar. On the other hand, it is necessary to consider the coverage enough since the ESR signal is easily influenced in the preservation environment for the food. (H. Katsuta)

2004-02-01

332

Left hand, but not right hand, reaching is sensitive to visual context.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, it has been reported that grasping with the left hand is more vulnerable to visual size illusions than grasping with the right hand. The present study investigated whether this increased sensitivity of the left hand for visual context extends to reaching. Left- and right-handed participants reached for targets embedded in two different visual contexts with either left or right hands. Visual context was manipulated by presenting targets either in a blank field or within an array of placeholders marking possible target locations. Regardless of handedness, the presence of placeholders affected left hand, but not right hand, reaching by improving end-point accuracy and reducing movement speed. Furthermore, left hand reaching was more accurate for far than near targets, whereas right hand reaching showed the opposite pattern. We discuss two possible hemispheric lateralization accounts of these findings. PMID:20300930

Adam, Jos J; Müskens, Rick; Hoonhorst, Susan; Pratt, Jay; Fischer, Martin H

2010-05-01

333

Preliminary Investigation of Food Guarding Behavior in Shelter Dogs in the United States  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A survey given to animal shelters across the US reported food bowl guarding as one of the most common reasons for euthanasia and only 34% attempted to modify this guarding behavior. This study identified 96 dogs that guarded their food bowl during an assessment, and then placed them into a home on a modification program. Food guarding behavior was identified as stiffening, gulping, growling, freezing, and/or biting a fake hand during the SAFER® food bowl assessment. Do...

Heather Mohan-Gibbons; Emily Weiss; Margaret Slater

2012-01-01

334

International standards and agreements in food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The economies of both developed and developing countries have been effected by their exported food and agricultural products. Trading policies of food and agricultural products are governed by international agreement as well as national regulations. Trade in food and agricultural commodities may be affected by both principal Agreements within the overall World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, though neither specifically refers to irradiation or irradiated foods. The principal Agreements are the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement and the Sanitary and Phyto sanitary (SPS) Agreement. The SPS of the WTO requires governments to harmonize their sanitary and phyto sanitary measures on as wide basis as possible. Related standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard setting bodies such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission (food safety); the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (plant health and quarantine); and International Office of Epizootic (animal health and zoo noses) should be used in such a harmonization. International Standards for Phyto sanitary Measures (ISPM) no.18 was published under the IPPC by FAO (April 2003, Rome-Italy). ISPM standard provides technical guidance on the specific procedure for the application of ionizing radiation as a phyto sanitary treatment for regulated pests or articles. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods (Stand 106-1983) and Recommended International Code of Practice were first published in 1983 and revised in March 2003. Scope of this standard applies to foods processed by ionizing radiation that is used in conjunction with applicable hygienic codes, food standards and transportation codes. It does not apply to foods exposed to doses imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes. Codex documents on Principles and Guidelines for the Import/Export Inspection and Certification of Foods have been prepared to guide international trade.On the other hand national regulations should take account of internationally agreed Codes and Guidelines regarding the irradiation facilities and radiation processing. (author)

2004-10-01

335

International standards and agreements in food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The economies of both developed and developing countries have been effected by their exported food and agricultural products. Trading policies of food and agricultural products are governed by international agreement as well as national regulations. Trade in food and agricultural commodities may be affected by both principal Agreements within the overall World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, though neither specifically refers to irradiation or irradiated foods. The principal Agreements are the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement and the Sanitary and Phyto sanitary (SPS) Agreement. The SPS of the WTO requires governments to harmonize their sanitary and phyto sanitary measures on as wide basis as possible. Related standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard setting bodies such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission (food safety); the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (plant health and quarantine); and International Office of Epizootic (animal health and zoo noses) should be used in such a harmonization. International Standards for Phyto sanitary Measures (ISPM) no.18 was published under the IPPC by FAO (April 2003, Rome-Italy). ISPM standard provides technical guidance on the specific procedure for the application of ionizing radiation as a phyto sanitary treatment for regulated pests or articles. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods (Stand 106-1983) and Recommended International Code of Practice were first published in 1983 and revised in March 2003. Scope of this standard applies to foods processed by ionizing radiation that is used in conjunction with applicable hygienic codes, food standards and transportation codes. It does not apply to foods exposed to doses imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes. Codex documents on Principles and Guidelines for the Import/Export Inspection and Certification of Foods have been prepared to guide international trade.On the other hand national regulations should take account of internationally agreed Codes and Guidelines regarding the irradiation facilities and radiation processing

2004-10-01

336

Hand-assisted laparoscopic radical nephrectomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Laparoscopic radical nephrectomy is the standard of care for the management of most renal cancers. The hand-assisted approach has bridged the gap between open nephrectomy and a pure laparoscopic approach. Hand-assisted laparoscopic nephrectomy allows tactile feedback, thus shortening the learning curve for some surgeons and allowing more experienced laparoscopists to perform more complex and challenging procedures. PMID:21254933

Patel, Sutchin R; Nakada, Stephen Y

2011-02-01

337

Illness representations in patients with hand injury.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Differences in illness perception about hand injury may partly explain the variation in health behaviours such as adherence to post-operative therapy, coping strategy, emotional response and eventual clinical outcome. This study examined the illness perception of patients with hand injuries in the acute trauma setting.

Chan, Jeffrey C Y

2009-07-01

338

Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

newsletter | contact Share | Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease A parent's guide for infants and babies A A A This image displays grouped blisters ... fingers typical of a herpes virus infection. Overview Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is a common illness ...

339

Emotions affect the recognition of hand postures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The body is closely tied to the processing of social and emotional information. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a relationship between emotions and social attitudes conveyed through gestures exists. Thus we tested the effect of pro-social (i.e. happy face and anti-social (i.e. angry face emotional primes on the ability to detect socially relevant handpostures (i.e. pictures depicting an open/closed hand. In particular, participants were required to establish, as quickly as possible, if the test stimulus (i.e. a hand posture was the same or different, compared to the reference stimulus (i.e. a hand posture previously displayed in the computer screen. Results show that facial primes, displayed between the reference and the test stimuli, influence the recognition of hand postures, according to the social attitude implicitly related to the stimulus. We found that perception of pro-social (i.e. happy face primes resulted in slower RTs in detecting the open hand posture as compared to the closed hand posture. Vice-versa, perception of the anti-social (i.e. angry face prime resulted in slower RTs in detecting the closed hand posture compared to the open hand posture. These results suggest that the social attitude implicitly suggested by the displayed stimuli might represent the conceptual link between emotions and gestures.

CarmeloMarioVicario

2013-12-01

340

Guidelines for hand hygiene in hospital  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The appropriate compliance of rules regarding hand hygiene, have been and continue to be, one of the basic points of all prevention programs of nosocomial infections. Aim: The aim of the present study was the presentation of guidelines for hand hygiene by nurses. Method and material: Study of international and Greek literature from electronic databases Medline, PubMed and scientific journals, KEELPNO mainly from the last three years. The keywords used were: nosocomial infections, hand hygiene, antiseptics and guidelines. Results: There are numerous studies that demonstrate the central role of hand hygiene of employees in transmission of microorganisms in the hospital environment. Hand hygiene is a process, which should not be omitted or replaced by the use of antiseptics. The professionals position in the hospital, the workplace and staff shortages, in conjunction with the large number of hospitalized patients seem to be the main factors that negatively affect the compliance with hand hygiene. The staff working in the hospital, especially with high-risk patients (ICU, surgery should not wear artificial nails, nail polish and jewelry - rings and should not have inflammation or infection on their hands. Conclusions: Hand hygiene should be applied before and after contact with each patient. Nurses have to comply with these guidelines, in order for the effective prevention and control of nosocomial infections.

Christina Sotnikova

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
341

Hand-Clap Songs across the Curriculum  

Science.gov (United States)

This teaching tip focuses on using hand-clapping to teach content area material across the curriculum. We begin with a brief history of hand-clap songs, followed by a rationale for using them in content area literacy. Then, we describe the instructional lesson, share samples that resulted, and discuss lesson extensions. Our goal is to have…

Batchelor, Katherine E.; Bintz, William P.

2012-01-01

342

Monitor of contamination of hands uaand clothes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An instrument was designed for measuring alpha and beta contamination of hands and of beta contamination of clothing and working surfaces. Proportional flow counters and GM counters, respectively, are used as detectors. The design allows simultaneous measurement of the contamination of both hands, this even with low-energy beta radionuclides, such as carbon 14. (Ha)

1981-01-01

343

Hand-Eye Calibration Using Active Vision  

Science.gov (United States)

The project described in this paper designed and implemented a hand-eye calibration method for manipulators under observation by stereo cameras. This method has been utilized on Johnson Space Center's Robonaut, and on a planetary manipulator mock-up at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The intent of this calibration is to improve the manipulator's hand-eye coordination.

Nickels, Kevin; Huber, Eric; DiCicco, Matthew

2007-01-01

344

Rheumatoid arthritis in the hand. Chapter 9  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rheumatoid arthritis is primarily a disease of the synovial membrane. To demonstrate synovial changes it is necessary to show adequate detail of the soft tissue. This is best obtained by using industrial film and by hand-processing. The anatomy of the hand and the radiological appearance of rheumatoid arthritis are described. (author)

1979-01-01

345

How well can hand size predict height?  

Science.gov (United States)

This activity is deigned to introduce the concepts of bivariate relationships. It is one of the hands-on activities of the ‘real-time online hands-on activities’. Students collect their own data, enter and retrieve the data in real time. Data are stored in the web database and are shared on the net.

Lee, Carl

346

Slow food, fast food and the control of food intake  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This Perspective focuses on two elements of our food supply and eating environment that facilitate high energy intake: a high eating rate and distraction of attention from eating. These two elements are believed to undermine our body's capacity to regulate its energy intake at healthy levels because they impair the congruent association between sensory signals and metabolic consequences. The findings of a number of studies show that foods that can be eaten quickly lead to high food intake and...

Graaf, C.; Kok, F. J.

2010-01-01

347

Mechanism and computer simulation of a new robot hand for potential use as an artificial hand.  

Science.gov (United States)

A prosthetic hand is essential to provide rehabilitation for individuals who lose a hand. A prosthetic hand serves two purposes: cosmetic and functional. In this paper, a prototype of the artificial hand with an emphasis on the functionality purpose is presented. A new mechanism, the NTU-Hand (NTU-Hand, patent number 107115, Taiwan, R.O.C.), which has 5 fingers with 17 degrees of freedom, has been designed and fabricated in our laboratory. Due to the special design of the mechanism, the hand has an uncoupled configuration in which each finger and joint are all individually driven. The size of the hand is almost the same as a human hand. All actuators, mechanical parts, and sensors are on the hand. The compact design makes it feasible to adapt the hand to the injured wrist. A computer simulation with three-dimensional graphics was also built to evaluate the manipulative range of the artificial hand. From the results of this simulation, the relationship between the hand and the grasped object in a specific viewpoint can be obtained. PMID:9012908

Lin, L R; Huang, H P

1997-01-01

348

Survey Of Food Handlers For Dermatological Problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Occupational health problem in food handlers have become increasingly common in the recent years. Forty three workers, cooks and bakers were surveyed for work related problems. We noticed watering and burning of eyes in 18%, running nose in 13.95%, burning sensation of hands in 11.6%, excessive sweating in 4.65%, chronic paronychia in 11.6%, palmar hyperkeratosis in 9.3%, fissuring of distal finger tips, nail dystrophy, multiple warts in 6.9%, scaling of hands, prurigo simplex in 2.3%.

Davis Suraj V

2003-01-01

349

Hand safety for specialty crop production workers: a pilot study investigating frequencies of minor open-wound hand injuries and presence of pathogenic bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to quantify the presence of minor open-wound hand injuries in addition to Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, coliforms, and Escherichia coli on the hands of farm workers who hand-harvest fruit crops in Utah. Data collection was conducted on four farms without USDA Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) certification and on two farms with GAP certification. This study identified essential safety issues that need to be addressed for improving the effectiveness of safety training for migrant farm workers. Farms that have a food safety audit program in place are less likely to have farm workers exposed to pathogenic bacteria and open-wound injuries to their hands. High frequency of S. aureus may indicate a potentially higher risk for wound infection within this worker population. This could lead to infections that are resistant to the antibiotics commonly used to treat ordinary staph infections, resulting in greater work loss time and medical expenses for these workers. Higher frequencies of bacterial presence on workers' hands on non-certified farms indicate a need to identify essential practices to improve worker hygiene habits and on-farm management practices to promote healthy hygiene. Open-wound injuries to migrant farm workers during hand-harvesting could create additional health problems with the possibility of infection and the spread of diseases. Continued research is needed to understand workers' acceptance of these injuries and barriers to personal protection. PMID:24673033

Pate, M L; Nummer, B

2013-10-01

350

Comparative roentgenometry of the senile Hand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Increasing age is a risk factor for the development of osteoarthrosis of the joints of the hand in adults between 21 and 60 years of age. Only in the very old (?80 years) is osteoarthrosis of the hand part of the age related degeneration. The literature contains different parameters and indices correlating the amounts of minerals and ashes of metacarpal bones. Our results peak in favour of the presumptions published by Exton-Smith et al. (1969 b) that bone mass belongs among the biological characteristics of old age. Our investigations of hand roentgenograms reveal that remodeling of the joint socket as described by pathologists is not a general but an elective phenomenon. With age the wrist shows only an increasing angle of the radial joint surface (males, right hand) and there is a variation of form in the medial sesamoid bone at the first metacarpus (males, left hand). (orig.)

1996-09-01

351

Air Muscle Actuated Low Cost Humanoid Hand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The control of humanoid robot hands has historically been expensive due to the cost of precision actuators. This paper presents the design and implementation of a low-cost air muscle actuated humanoid hand developed at Curtin University of Technology. This hand offers 10 individually controllable degrees of freedom ranging from the elbow to the fingers, with overall control handled through a computer GUI. The hand is actuated through 20 McKibben-style air muscles, each supplied by a pneumatic pressure-balancing valve that allows for proportional control to be achieved with simple and inexpensive components. The hand was successfully able to perform a number of human-equivalent tasks, such as grasping and relocating objects.

Peter Scarfe

2008-11-01

352

The Importance of Nurses Hand Hygiene  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Nurses are aware of the rationale for hand hygiene procedures. Nurses represent a large working group that performs the greatest amount of direct patient care in Health Services. Handhygiene is one of the most effective measures to prevent hospital acquired infections.Aim: to point out the importance of nurses’ hand hygieneMethod: a review of articles with key words “hand, hygiene, hand, contamination, nurse, and guideline”.Results: Infectious diseases are a particular risk to the very young, the elderly, those with a pre-existing disease, and people with a compromised immune system. Nurses washing their hands not onlyprevent them from getting sick, but it also reduces the risk of infecting others.

Maria Malliarou

2013-01-01

353

Ethical food standard schemes and global trade : paralleling the WTO?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Global food trade embodies a range of different interpretations of the nature of food and its role in society. On the one hand, the WTO food regulation regime, in particular the SPS agreement, is based upon a somewhat instrumental value of food consumption in which food is seen as a commodity to be traded in accordance with international trade rules. At the same time, a number of private standards, such as GlobalG.A.P and various organic standards, are emerging which embody broadly postmaterialist values that suggest that food purchasing and consumption are also social, ethical and perhaps even political activities. This paper analyses the relationship between the WTO food trade regime on the one hand and the GlobalG.A.P and organic food trade regimes on the other. We suggest that competing values can co-exist in parallel institutions and in a commensalistic relationship which protects the values base of each institution while giving expression to both materialist and postmaterialist understandings of the nature of food.

Daugbjerg, Carsten; Botterill, Linda Courtenay

2012-01-01

354

Color-Removal by Microorganisms Isolated from Human Hands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Microorganisms are essential for human life. Microorganisms decompose the carbon compounds in dead animals and plants and convert them into carbon dioxide. Intestinal bacteria assist in food digestion. Some vitamins are produced by bacteria that live in the intestines. Sewage and industrial wastewater are treated by activated sludge composed of microbial communities. All of these are due to the ability of microbes to produce many enzymes that can degrade chemicals. How do teachers make students understand that microorganisms are always associated with humans, and that microorganisms have the ability to degrade chemicals? The presence of microorganisms on humans can be shown by incubating agar plates after they are touched by the hands of students. The ability of microorganisms to degrade chemicals can be shown by an analytical measurement of the degradation of chemicals. When the chemicals are dyes (colorants in water, microbial activity on degradation of dyes can be demonstrated by observing a decreasing degree of color as a result of the enzymatic activity (e.g., azoreductase. Dyes are widely used in the textile, food, and cosmetic industries. They are generally resistant to conventional biological wastewater treatment systems such as the activated sludge process (4. The discharge of wastewater containing dye pollutes surface water. The ability of microorganisms to decolorize and degrade dyes has been widely investigated to use for bioremediation purposes (5. The goal of this tip is to understand the presence of bacteria on human skin and the ability of bacteria to degrade colorant chemicals (decolorization. In this tip, students first cultivate and isolate bacteria on their hands, and then examine potential decolorization activity of each bacterium by observing the degree of color of the liquid in tubes in which bacteria isolated from students’ hands were inoculated. Decolorization activity of bacterial isolates from human skin has been reported recently (6. To date this author has frequently obtained colorant-degrading bacterial isolates from human hands as a result of work on a scientific education project. This tip does not require analytical measurements. Students can examine a number of bacterial isolates simultaneously. Therefore, it is appropriate for high school and introductory level college courses.

Tsukasa Ito

2013-12-01

355

Hand Functioning in Children with Cerebral Palsy  

Science.gov (United States)

Brain lesions may disturb hand functioning in children with cerebral palsy (CP), making it difficult or even impossible for them to perform several manual activities. Most conventional treatments for hand dysfunction in CP assume that reducing the hand dysfunctions will improve the capacity to manage activities (i.e., manual ability, MA). The aim of this study was to investigate the directional relationships (direct and indirect pathways) through which hand skills influence MA in children with CP. A total of 136 children with CP (mean age: 10?years; range: 6–16?years; 35 quadriplegics, 24 diplegics, 77 hemiplegics) were assessed. Six hand skills were measured on both hands: touch-pressure detection (Semmes–Weinstein esthesiometer), stereognosis (Manual Form Perception Test), proprioception (passive mobilization of the metacarpophalangeal joints), grip strength (GS) (Jamar dynamometer), gross manual dexterity (GMD) (Box and Block Test), and fine finger dexterity (Purdue Pegboard Test). MA was measured with the ABILHAND-Kids questionnaire. Correlation coefficients were used to determine the linear associations between observed variables. A path analysis of structural equation modeling was applied to test different models of causal relationships among the observed variables. Purely sensory impairments did seem not to play a significant role in the capacity to perform manual activities. According to path analysis, GMD in both hands and stereognosis in the dominant hand were directly related to MA, whereas GS was indirectly related to MA through its relationship with GMD. However, one-third of the variance in MA measures could not be explained by hand skills. It can be concluded that MA is not simply the integration of hand skills in daily activities and should be treated per se, supporting activity-based interventions.

Arnould, Carlyne; Bleyenheuft, Yannick; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

2014-01-01

356

Hand eczema guidelines based on the Danish guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of hand eczema  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background. Classification of hand eczema has traditionally been based both on aetiology and clinical appearance. For 20% of cases, the aetiology is unknown. Objectives. To suggest a classification based on well-defined aetiology as well as on predefined clinical patterns and on the dynamics of hand eczema. Methods. Literature studies and discussions among members of the Danish Contact Dermatitis Group. Results. Criteria are given for the aetiological diagnoses of allergic contact dermatitis of the hands, irritant contact dermatitis of the hands, protein contact dermatitis of the hands, atopic hand eczema and aetiologically unclassifiable hand eczema. Six different clinical patterns are described and illustrated. Suggestions for general treatment principles are given. Conclusion. Operational guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of hand eczema are described.

Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

2011-01-01

357

Family Food 2002  

Oct 30, 2003 ... 2: Nutritional Content of Household Food and drinks. ..... Survey but has been \\extended to record detailed information on food and ... The weight of food is \\measured as it enters the household, not at the point of ... Part of the strategy \\involves the Food and Health Action Plan, being ... its purchase weight.

358

Food Business Entrepreneurship  

Science.gov (United States)

Though not a very traditional career path for food scientists, one option is to go into business for yourself by starting a food business. Food business entrepreneurship is a difficult career that entails long work hours, extensive decision making, and tasks that require knowledge beyond food science. However, there is high potential for rewards, including financial rewards, career progression, and personal flexibility.

Weber, Peter

359

Refrigeration and Food Safety  

Science.gov (United States)

... that cause foods to deteriorate and develop unpleasant odors, tastes, and textures. Pathogenic bacteria can grow rapidly in ... be rapidly chilled in an ice or cold water bath before refrigerating. Cover foods ... them from picking up odors from other foods. A large pot of food ...

360

Food-regime(s) at a crossroad : The future of present and future of Danish food  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Food production and consumption in Denmark stands at a crossroad. Multiple conflicting developments and logic point in radically different directions, and the pressures of globalization are making the tensions even more present and solutions more pressing. Danish agriculture has excelled in creating an industrialized foodregime, based on Northern European values of hygiene and homogeneity. Yet, pressures of global competition, consumer trends focusing on quality and uniqueness, and issues of animal welfare and disease control are questioning this logic. On the other hand, Nordic food and Nordic chefs are enjoying somewhat more than fifteen minutes of fame with a new interpretation of Nordic produce in combination with state of the art cooking techniques. Yet, the New Nordic food trend emphasizes the uniqueness of local Nordic terroirs and presses for less industrialized production, in a manner not entirely unlike the organics movement. Optimistic policy makers dream of food as a new export success for Denmark, yet this seems to entail a transformation of the traditional food production in Denmark. Finally, local and grassroots inspired food producers are beginning to take matters into their own hands. Creating localized food systems with direct contact with costumers, mostly bypassing, but occasionally integrating with supermarkets based distribution. In this presentation we will discuss the present fragmentation of the food-regime in Denmark, focusing on the conflicting tensions of localization-globalization, craftsmanship-industrialization, homogeneity-uniqueness, mass-niche, optimization-environmentalism etc. We also sketch what we believe to be the promising development and potential challenges for food production and consumption in Denmark.

Noe, Egon; Korsgaard, Steffen

 
 
 
 
361

Tips for Managing Food Allergies  

Science.gov (United States)

Food Allergy Fact EIGHT FOODS ACCOUNT FOR 90 PERCENT OF ALL FOOD ALLERGY REACTIONS Home About Us About FARE ... Stock Donate Your Vehicle Tips for Managing Food Allergies To successfully manage your food allergy, you’ll ...

362

Stigmatization of Repetitive Hand Use in Newspaper Reports of Hand Illness  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Failure to provide a balanced evidence-based consideration of the role of activity in illness can stigmatize individuals and their activities. We assessed the prevalence of language that stigmatized repetitive hand use and those that use their hand repetitively in newspaper coverage of common hand illnesses. The LexisNexis Academic database was used to search five major US newspapers for articles containing keywords about common hand illnesses during a 3-year period. Article language was asse...

Anthony, Shawn; Lozano-calderon, Santiago; Ring, David

2008-01-01

363

Genetic modified food  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The genetically modified foods controversy is a dispute over the relative advantages and disadvantages of food derived from genetically modified organisms, genetically modified crops used to produce food and other goods, and other uses of genetically modified organisms in food production. The dispute involves consumers, biotechnology companies, governmental regulators, non-governmental organizations and scientists. The key areas of controversy related to genetically modified (GM) food are: ri...

2013-01-01

364

The hand-reversal illusion revisited  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The hand-reversal illusion is a visuomotor illusion that is commonly seen in children’s play. When participants attempt to lift a designated finger while their hands are cross-folded, they are likely to erroneously lift the matched finger of the other hand; however, such errors are rare when subjects close their eyes. Based on the fact that the illusion disappears without visual input, researchers previously concluded that the illusion depends upon visual and proprioceptive conflict (Van Riper, 1935. Here, we reevaluated this visual-proprioceptive conflict hypothesis by obtaining reaction time measurements because, in the original study, subjects might have relied on a strategy of responding more slowly to minimize making errors. We found that the impairment due to cross-folding one’s hand persisted in the absence of the visual input, as evidenced by delayed response times. Further, we found that such impairment occurred when the fingers of only one hand were tested, indicating that the impairment was not due to left-right confusions of the hands during tactile identification or response selection. Based on these results, we suggest that the illusion is not solely due to the conflict between visual and proprioceptive information. Instead, we propose that the unusual configuration itself that involves a reversal of the left and right hands in external space also contributes to the impaired motor response.

Sang WookHong

2012-09-01

365

Hand hygiene among health care workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Healthcare-associated infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients worldwide. Transmission of health care associated pathogens generally occurs via the contaminated hands of health care workers. Hand hygiene has long been considered one of the most important infection control measures to prevent health care-associated infections. For generations, hand washing with soap and water has been considered a measure of personal hygiene. As early as 1822, a French pharmacist demonstrated that solutions containing chlorides of lime or soda could eradicate the foul odor associated with human corpses and that such solutions could be used as disinfectants and antiseptics. This paper provides a comprehensive review of data regarding hand washing and hand antisepsis in healthcare settings. In addition, it provides specific recommendations to uphold improved hand-hygiene practices and reduce transmission of pathogenic microorganisms to patients and personnel in healthcare settings. This article also makes recommendations and suggests the significance of hand health hygiene in infection control.

Mani Ameet

2010-01-01

366

Specificities of hand trauma in agriculture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background/Aim. Hand injuries in agriculture are characterized by massive destruction of all tissues, frequent amputations of finger, hand and often the whole extremity. These injuries are mutilant and can cause death. The aim of this paper was to show the specificities of hand injuries in agriculture in regard to hand injuries of other etiology. Methods. We analyzed patients that were treated in the Department for Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Clinical Center Vojvodina, during a five-year period (2003-2007 because of hand injuries. Results. In a five-year period there were 366 patients hospitalized because of hand injuries, out of whom 36 injuries were related to agricultural machinery use. In both groups the number of patients trended to increased, with male gender being dominant. Most of the patients were young or middle-aged men. In agricultural injuries most of the patients were in the group of 41-50-year old (30%, while in the other group, the patients were younger (21-30-year old. Hand injuries in agriculture resulted in finger amputation in 92%, while in the other group that number was much smaller (13%. Skin defect reconstruction in agricultural injuries required complex methods of skin grafting or skin flaps in more than 71%, while this was necessary in only 10% of other hand injuries. Conclusion. Hand injuries in agriculture are very mutilant and often result in conquassation and finger amputation. A possibility to preserve tissue damaged in this way is very limited, and skin closer usually requires complex methods.

Nikoli? Jelena

2009-01-01

367

ASL Based Hand Gesture Recognition System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available American Sign Language (ASL is a well developed and standard way of communication for hearing impaired people living in Englishspeaking communities. Since the advent of modern technology, different intelligent computer-aided application have been developed that can recognize hand gesture and hence translates gestures into understandable forms. In this proposed system, ASL based hand gesture system is presented that uses evolutionary programming technique called SIFT algorithm. Hand gestures images representing different English alphabets are used as an input to the system and then it is tested for a different set of images. The sign recognition accuracy obtained will be up to the mark.

Mr. Swapnil A. Bobade

2013-05-01

368

Hand Gesture Recognition: A Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hand gesture recognition system received great attention in the recent few years because of itsmanifoldness applications and the ability to interact with machine efficiently through human computerinteraction. In this paper a survey of recent hand gesture recognition systems is presented. Key issues ofhand gesture recognition system are presented with challenges of gesture system. Review methods of recentpostures and gestures recognition system presented as well. Summary of research results of hand gesturemethods, databases, and comparison between main gesture recognition phases are also given. Advantagesand drawbacks of the discussed systems are explained finally

Rafiqul Zaman Khan

2012-08-01

369

Alien hand syndrome in left posterior stroke.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alien hand syndrome is a rare neurological disorder characterized by involuntary and uncontrollable motor behaviour, usually of an arm or hand. The patient perceives the affected limb as alien, and may personify it. The case of a 61-year-old right-handed woman who developed right posterior AHS after ischaemic stroke in the left posterior cerebral artery territory is reported. Neuroimaging studies disclosed no frontal or parietal involvement, while a posterior thalamic lesion was detected. A possible role of the thalamus in the genesis of AHS is discussed. PMID:21327399

Bartolo, Michelangelo; Zucchella, C; Pichiecchio, A; Pucci, E; Sandrini, G; Sinforiani, E

2011-06-01

370

Fast Food Facts: Interactive Food Finder  

Science.gov (United States)

Before grabbing a quick bite at a fast food eatery, curious diners may want to check this site, provided by Olen Publishing, and based on the Fast Food Facts handbook, which is published by the Minnesota Attorney General's Office. Food Finder allows users to search any of nineteen fast food restaurants from Arby's to White Castle. Any or all restaurants can be searched on food names, maximum calories, percent calories from fat, and maximum sodium, fat, and cholesterol. Then simply "fire up the deep fryer." To browse all products of all restaurants, simply fire up the deep fryer without entering any search terms. This fun and informative (if slightly frightening) site tallies the cost of that next fast food meal to your health.

1998-01-01

371

Are there excitability changes in the hand motor cortex during speech in left-handed subjects?  

Science.gov (United States)

Hemispheric dominance was investigated in left-handed subjects using single transcranial magnetic stimulation to assess the possible effect of forced change in the dominant hand. Single transcranial magnetic stimuli were delivered randomly over the hand area of the left or right motor cortex of 8 Japanese self-declared left-handed adult volunteers. Electromyographic responses were recorded in the relaxed first dorsal interosseous muscle while the subjects read aloud. Laterality quotient calculated by the Edinburgh Inventory ranged from -100 to -5.26 and laterality index calculated from motor evoked potentials ranged from -86.2 to 38.8. There was no significant correlation between laterality quotient and laterality index. Mean data values across all 8 subjects indicated significant increases only in the left hand. Our ratio analysis of facilitation of the hand motor potentials showed that 2 each of the 8 self-declared left-handers were right- and left-hand dominant and the other 4 were bilateral-hand dominant. Speech dominancy was localized primarily in the right cerebral hemisphere in left-handed subjects, but some individuals exhibited bilateral or left dominance, possibly attributable to the forced change of hand preference for writing in childhood. Our findings suggest changes in the connections between the speech and hand motor areas. PMID:22450479

Tokimura, Hiroshi; Tokimura, Yoshika; Arita, Kazunori

2012-01-01

372

Model-based visual hand posture tracking for guiding a dexterous robotic hand  

Science.gov (United States)

Visual hand gesture based interfaces have been widely used for navigation of virtual environments and control of a robot arm in robotic systems. In fact, hand movement has abundant powers of expression with complex finger joint motions. In this paper, the full degree-of-freedom hand motion is tracked in a vision-based mode towards natural and intuitive control of a dexterous robotic hand. The main obstacle to handle human hand posture tracking is the high dimensionality. A novel three-dimensional model-based approach is proposed. It utilizes a genetic algorithm-based global optimization procedure after each particle-filtering step, which deals with the tracking in high-dimensional and multi-modal state space reasonably well. Experimental results show that present approach improves performance of hand posture tracking significantly and provides a feasible solution for guiding a dexterous hand.

Cui, Jinshi; Sun, Zengqi

2004-05-01

373

Relationship between hand function and grip force control in women with hand osteoarthritis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hand osteoarthritis (OA usually results in decreased strength and function of the hand and deficits in motor control. However, no data exists on the relationship among these symptomatological features of hand OA. Ten females with hand OA and ten matched, nondisabled control subjects participated in this study. The outcomes of the Moberg Pickup Test (MPUT and other functional hand tests were correlated with the measures of grip force control obtained during the performance of a functional task of lifting and transporting a handheld object. Strong correlations existed between the MPUT and parameters of grip force control, such as latency (r = 0.85 and force at the moment of liftoff (r = 0.72, seen in these patients. The established strong correlation between the MPUT and parameters of grip force control might help researchers and clinicians better understand how deficits in controlling grip forces affect hand function in patients with hand OA.

Paula Martins Nunes, PT

2012-08-01

374

Identifying Key Risk Behaviors Regarding Personal Hygiene and Food Safety Practices of Food Handlers Working in Eating Establishments Located Within a Hospital Campus in Kolkata  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Hospital canteens cater to a large population group and personal hygiene and food safety practices of food handlers assume immense importance to prevent food borne disease outbreaks. Objectives: To assess the self-reported behaviour of food handlers on personal hygiene and food safety practices and to find out their morbidity profile. Methods: An observational study was conducted by interviewing 67 consenting food handlers working in different eateries inside a hospital campus, using a pretested, predesigned schedule. Results: Majority (46.3% of food handlers were educated upto primary level. Only 14.9% foodhandlers received preplacement training and 10.5%, preplacement medical checkup. Though practices of hand washing after going to toilet (95.5% and before preparing food (79.1% was reported to be quite high but for most other practices, hygiene was found to be low. Cuts/injuries on hands was reported as the most common morbidity in 44.8% but 11.9% continued work without any treatment. Conclusion: Preplacement training and in-service education on personal / food hygiene should be provided to all food handlers. Periodic medical checkups and routine sanitary inspection can improve their adherence to personal hygiene and food safety practices and prevent outbreak of food borne illnesses

Prianka Mukhopadhyay*, Gautam Kr. Joardar, Kanad Bag, Amrita Samanta, Sonali Sain and Sesadri Koley

2012-01-01

375

A motorized hand piece for injectable lenses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Foldable lenses represent a major breakthrough in the effort to achieve ever smaller incisions. The plate-haptic or "taco-style" lenses are folded and implanted by a device called an injector. Although customized for each manufacturer's lens, the injectors all have a common design principle: the intraocular lens (IOL) is folded within a funnel-like structure of the tip and is advanced by a plunger that pushes and delivers the lens. To maintain optimal hand stabilization and injector management, both hands are usually required. This does not leave a hand to help with IOL positioning. To improve handling, a simple, mechanized system has been created for a new injector system that allows the delivery of the plate-haptic lens with one hand, in a pen-like fashion. PMID:9189959

Scialdone, A; Gobbi, P G; Brancato, R

1997-06-01

376

Robot hand tackles jobs in hazardous areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A robot hand and arm designed to mimic the operation of its human counterpart, developed at the University of Southampton for use in a standard industrial glovebox, is described. It was specifically designed for use in a radioactive environment moving high dosage components around. As dosage limits go down, there is a legal requirement to remove people from that environment. The nine-axis arm is for use in a glove designed for a human hand. Drive for the motors used to power the hand is from three-phase MOSFET inventor cards, the switching pattern controlled by the Hall effect communication sensors integral to each motor. The computer software for the arm allows the hand to be positioned using a joystick on a control box, with three levels of command for grip, pinch and touch. (author)

1989-01-01

377

Personal Authentication System using Hand Vein Biometric  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With an increasing emphasis on security, automated personal identification using hand vein biometric feature is becoming a very active topic in both research and practical applications. The objective of this work is to present a biometric authentication system for high security physical access control based on hand vein pattern. Hand vein biometric is selected, as it is foolproof, offers higher security and reliable for identification.The feature extraction stage consists of removal of the noise inherent using various filtering techniques and extraction of the most discriminating information present in the images using Discrete Wavelet Transform and Adaptive Thresholding techniques. The proposed recognition system makes use of hausdorff distance as matching parameter. The biometric system developed was tested on WASET hand vein image database of Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of Automation is used and the system is implemented in MATLAB. The proposed approach found to report higher verification accuracy of 99.5%.

G. Sathish

2012-01-01

378

A REVIEW ON HAND GETSURE RECOGNITION SYSTEMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gesture recognition is a topic in computerscience and language technology with the goal ofinterpreting human gestures via mathematicalalgorithms. Gestures can originate from any bodilymotion or state but commonly originate from the faceor hand. Current focuses in the field include emotionrecognition from the face and hand gesture recognition.Many approaches have been made using cameras andcomputer vision algorithms to interpret sign language.However, the identification and recognition of posture,gait and human behaviors is also the subject of gesturerecognition techniques. This paper handles the casestudy on the different hand gesture recognition systemsand also the devices with data glove and vocalizersystem. These systems are beneficial for disable peopleand their hands will speak having worn the gesturevocalizer data glove.

Mr. Prashant Chaudhari,Prof. G. R. Phulay,Mr. Ravindra Patil

2013-01-01

379

[Enchondroma of the hand (cases and results)].  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors, after an accurate revision of their cases, suggests the more adequate treatment in enchondroma of the hand. They obtain best results with the bone graft and the use of "colla di fibrina". PMID:6395985

Pisetti, A; Tammaro, V

1984-06-01

380

Lightweight, Hand-Operated Brackish Water Purifier.  

Science.gov (United States)

In response to a need expressed by US Military personnel operating in coastal areas, a lightweight, hand-operated brackish water purifier has been developed. This system utilizes a reverse osmosis cellulose acetate membrane for desalination. T total of 15...

D. R. Fort J. L. Richardson J. V. Peck L. Gapsun R. H. Williams

1974-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

38 CFR 4.69 - Dominant hand.  

Science.gov (United States)

...AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.69 Dominant hand. Handedness for the purpose of a dominant rating will be determined by the evidence of record, or by testing on VA...

2009-07-01

382

Miniature Force Sensor for Prosthetic Hands.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tactile sensing is an important part of the development of new prosthetic hands. A number of approaches to establishing an afferent pathway back to the patient for tactile information are becoming available including tactors and direct stimulation of the ...

R. Platt M. Chu M. Diftler T. Martin M. Valvo

2006-01-01

383

Attributing illness to food  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Identification and prioritization of effective food safety interventions require an understanding of the relationship between food and pathogen from farm to consumption. Critical to this cause is food attribution, the capacity to attribute cases of foodborne disease to the food vehicle or other source responsible for illness. A wide variety of food attribution approaches and data are used around the world including the analysis of outbreak data, case-control studies, microbial subtyping and source tracking methods, and expert judgment, among others. The Food Safety Research Consortium sponsored the Food Attribution Data Workshop in October 2003 to discuss the virtues and limitations of these approaches and to identify future options for collecting food attribution data in the United States. We summarize workshop discussions and identify challenges that affect progress in this critical component of a risk-based approach to improving food safety.

Batz, M. B.; Doyle, M. P.

2005-01-01

384

Food preservation by irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty-five years of development work on the preservation of food by irradiation have shown that this technology has the potential to reduce post-harvest losses and to produce safe foods. The technological feasibility has been established but general acceptance of food irradiation by national regulatory bodies and consumers requires attention. The positive aspects of food preservation by irradiation include: the food keeps its freshness and its physical state, agents which cause spoilage (bacteria, etc.) are eliminated, recontamination does not take place, provided packaging materials are impermeable to bacteria and insects. It inhibits sprouting of root crops, kills insects and parasites, inactivates bacteria, spores and moulds, delays ripening of fruit, improves the technological properties of food. It makes foods biologically safe, allows the production of shelf-stable foods and is excellent for quarantine treatment, and generally improves food hygiene. The dose ranges needed for effective treatment are given

1981-01-01

385

Food nanotechnology – an overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bhupinder S SekhonInstitute of Pharmacy and Department of Biotechnology, Punjab College of Technical Education, Jhande, Ludhiana, IndiaAbstract: Food nanotechnology is an area of emerging interest and opens up a whole universe of new possibilities for the food industry. The basic categories of nanotechnology applications and functionalities currently in the development of food packaging include: the improvement of plastic materials barriers, the incorporation of active components that can deliver functional attributes beyond those of conventional active packaging, and the sensing and signaling of relevant information. Nano food packaging materials may extend food life, improve food safety, alert consumers that food is contaminated or spoiled, repair tears in packaging, and even release preservatives to extend the life of the food in the package. Nanotechnology applications in the food industry can be utilized to detect bacteria in packaging, or produce stronger flavors and color quality, and safety by increasing the barrier properties. Nanotechnology holds great promise to provide benefits not just within food products but also around food products. In fact, nanotechnology introduces new chances for innovation in the food industry at immense speed, but uncertainty and health concerns are also emerging. EU/WE/global legislation for the regulation of nanotechnology in food are meager. Moreover, current legislation appears unsuitable to nanotechnology specificity.Keywords: nanotechnology, nanofood, food packaging, nanoparticles, nanoencapsulation

Bhupinder S Sekhon

2010-05-01

386

Hand hygiene - patient and staff protection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hygienic hand disinfection must be conducted after every contact with or step performed on the patient where the risk of contamination is given, i.e., after every change of wound dressing, manipulation of catheters, contact with contaminated surfaces near the patient, and taking off protective gloves, and before aseptic tasks such as changing wound dressings. The agents of choice are alcohol-based hand disinfectants. The declared length of application must be strictly observed, because effica...

2006-01-01

387

Dermatoses of the hand-an observation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

After going through 1000 case files of patients registered in the skin department of K.M.C. Hospital, it was found that 166 (16.6%) of them had dermatoses restricted to their hands. Based on the clinical findings and clinical diagnosis recorded, the various dermatoses were tabulated and evaluated. Ninety-two males and 74 females had dermatoses of hands. Warts and eczemas formed the major chunk of cases. Females out numbered males among patients with warts and eczemas.

Kumar Pramod; Rao Gatha; Kuruvilla Maria

1999-01-01

388

Hand Gesture Recognition: A Literature Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hand gesture recognition system received great attention in the recent few years because of itsmanifoldness applications and the ability to interact with machine efficiently through human computerinteraction. In this paper a survey of recent hand gesture recognition systems is presented. Key issues ofhand gesture recognition system are presented with challenges of gesture system. Review methods of recentpostures and gestures recognition system presented as well. Summary of research results of...

2012-01-01

389

A REVIEW ON HAND GETSURE RECOGNITION SYSTEMS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gesture recognition is a topic in computerscience and language technology with the goal ofinterpreting human gestures via mathematicalalgorithms. Gestures can originate from any bodilymotion or state but commonly originate from the faceor hand. Current focuses in the field include emotionrecognition from the face and hand gesture recognition.Many approaches have been made using cameras andcomputer vision algorithms to interpret sign language.However, the identification and recognition of post...

2013-01-01

390

Hand Gesture Recognition via Covariance Method  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gesture is a powerful form of communication amonghumans. This paper presents simple as well as effective methodof realizing hand gesture recognition using Covariance Method.First an image database is created which constitutes variousstatic hand gesture images. These images are a subset ofAmerican Sign Language (ASL). Preprocessing of the image isdone so as to reduce the amount of noise present in the image.Eigen values of the Eigen vectors are calculated. A patternrecognition system is used t...

2013-01-01

391

Right handed Neandertals: Vindija and beyond  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Seven Vindija (Croatia) Neandertal teeth, dated ~32,000 years ago, were analyzed to determine patterning of scratches on the anterior teeth. Oblique scratches exclusively on the labial faces of incisors and canines represent a distinctive pattern, characteristic of hand directed, non-masticatory activities. At Vindija and elsewhere these scratches reveal activities, which were performed primarily with the right hand. The late Neandertals from Vindija, combined with other studies, show that Eu...

2010-01-01

392

Design and Development of Robot Hand System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Research on robot hand design is being carried out to accommodate a variety of tasks such as grasping and manipulation of objects in the field of industrial applications, service robots and rehabilitation robots. Problem statement: To design and develop a microcontroller-based four fingered robotic hand with a simple and minimal control strategy to pick and place application with object detection by simple IR sensor logic. Approach: The m...

Panchumarthy Seetharamaiah; Rao, Mandapati V.; Satyanarayana, Geddapu V.

2011-01-01

393

Design and Development of Robot Hand System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research on robot hand design is being carried out to accommodate a variety of tasks such as grasping and manipulation of objects in the field of industrial applications, service robots and rehabilitation robots. Problem statement: To design and develop a microcontroller-based four fingered robotic hand with a simple and minimal control strategy to pick and place application with object detection by simple IR sensor logic. Approach: The methodology is based on anthropomorphic design with three fingers and an opposing thumb. Each finger has three links and three double revolute joints. Each finger is actuated by a single opposing pair of tendons. The robot hand system is interfaced to microcontroller with software control by means of 14 independent commands for the motion of joints: close and open for fore finger, middle finger, ring finger and thumb finger and wrist up and down, base clockwise and counter clockwise, pick and place and home position. The tendoning system and wireless feedback logic provide the hand with the ability to confirm to object topology and therefore providing the advantage of using a simple control structure. Results: Reliable grasping and releasing is achieved with simple control mechanisms and IR sensors/push-button switches. The hand can pick a variety of objects with different surface characteristics and shapes without having to reconstruct its surface description. Picking of the object is successfully completed as long as the object is within the workspace of the hand and placed the object at the desired position within the workspace by relevant software control using keyboard commands. Conclusion: Hardware and software development of microcontroller-based four-fingered robotic hand is addressed. Details of hand control software for mainly pick and place applications are presented. Results of the experimental work for pick and place application of different objects is enumerated.

Panchumarthy Seetharamaiah

2011-01-01

394

Hand, foot and mouth disease in Nagpur  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a viral infection of children caused by Coxsackie virus-A16, a type of enterovirus closely related with the virus that causes herpangina. Although seen worldwide, it is not common in India. Hand, foot and mouth disease is sporadically reported from India as a mild illness. This report describes four cases of HFMD from Nagpur, Central India, seen between September 2005 and April 2006. All patients presented with a mild febrile prodrome followed by ...

Saoji Vikrant

2008-01-01

395

Managing Human Bite Infections of the Hand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Human bite injuries of the hand may become complicated and therefore demand an organized approach to management. Thirty-two patients with human bites to the hand, admitted to Toronto's Wellesley Hospital between 1981 and 1985, were analyzed. The history and etiology, delay before presentation, microbiology results versus time from injury, and treatment regimens were reviewed. Streptococci appeared to be early pathogens and staphylococci later pathogens. However, a prospective study with seria...

Cartotto, Robert C.

1986-01-01

396

Hand Replantation with Proximal Row Carpectomy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study is to present our operative technique and postoperative results of the hand replantation with proximal row carpectomy in cases of complete amputation at the level of wrist joint. From May 2003 to April 2005, five patients suffered from complete amputation of the hand due to industrial trauma. Amputation level was radiocarpal joint in three cases and midcarpal joint in two cases. Three cases represented guillotine type and two cases with local crush type injuries. All...

Woo, Sang-hyun; Lee, Young-keun; Lee, Hang-ho; Park, Ji-kang; Kim, Joo-yong; Dhawan, Vikas

2009-01-01

397

Surgical hand scrub: Lots of water wasted  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background : Surgical hand scrub (SHS) is an important antisepsis measure before participating in surgical operation. It reduces the risk of microbial contamination of the surgical wound by skin flora. SHS is usually performed in a scrub sink with taps that have hand operated handles. During the scrub process large volume of water is wasted. The aim of this study was to determine the volume of water used during SHS in comparison to the actual volume necessary. Method ...

Ahmed A

2007-01-01

398

The pathophysiology of focal hand dystonia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Focal hand dystonia is a disabling movement disorder, often task-specific, that leads to impaired hand use. In addition to a genetic predisposition, environmental risk factors including repetitive use and musculoskeletal constraints are contributory. Although the underlying cause is unknown, recent studies have identified several key mechanisms that may play a part in its genesis. Failure of inhibition, abnormal sensorimotor integration, and maladaptive plasticity seem to be important. Unders...

Lin, Peter T.; Hallett, Mark

2009-01-01

399

The hand: a window to arthritis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hand joint involvement in rheumatic diseases is often precocious and predominant as compared to other skeletomuscular regions. Clinical examination not always allows for easy detection of fluid outpouring and synovial involvement, and undoubtedly does not allow to diagnose pathognomonic bone alterations of several rheumatic conditions. Articular ultrasonography is an innocuous methodology, easily reproducible and directly applied by a rheumatologist. The aim of this vignette is to present ultrasonography elementary lesions of the hand for a prompt diagnosis.

M. Galeazzi

2011-09-01

400

Hand Hygiene Saves Lives: Patient Admission Video  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This podcast is for hospital patients and visitors. It emphasizes two key points to help prevent infections: the importance of practicing hand hygiene while in the hospital, and that it's appropriate to ask or remind healthcare providers to practice hand hygiene.  Created: 5/1/2008 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID).   Date Released: 6/19/2008.

2008-05-01

 
 
 
 
401

Sweden promotes climate-friendly food choices | EurActiv  

... 'Eating less meat, and making careful choices about what you eat, is therefore the smartest environmental choice you can make,' the authorities state. In addition to information on climate and the environment, the guidelines list the health aspects related to different foodstuffs, their recommended daily intake and the consequences of over-consumption. 'With a few exceptions, healthy food choices can also go hand in hand with choices that are good for the environment,' the guidelines read. Foods covered include meat, fish, seafood, fruits, ...

402

A new concept for surgical hand disinfection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the development of and justification for a different procedure in surgical hand disinfection based on results of our own studies and data from the literature. An overview of the importance of hand disinfection, outstanding persons who substantially contributed to its development, and fundamentals of its implementation are also presented.Focussing on the resident flora as the target of surgical hand disinfection, the microflora of the hand is addressed. Consequences for disinfection are discussed as a result of this analysis. Results of our own studies on reducing spore load through social handwashing, on alcohol concentration and bacterial count in worn-glove juice, and on the comparison of the effectivity of standard handwashing methods vs. alcoholic hand disinfections vs. disinfection alone without handwashing vs. disinfection alone plus additional brushing-in of the tested (European Standard DIN prEN12791 disinfectant ethanol 79% v/v, 60% v/v propan-1-ol or 60% v/v propan-2-ol around the fingernails are also discussed. To summarize, disinfection alone and disinfection in conjunction with brushing-in of alcohol tend to be superior to the standard method with a previous washing with soap. From a dermatological and microbiological hygienic point of view, it is recommended that handwashing with soap should be performed to remove bacterial spores at least 10 minutes prior to hand disinfection, in order to optimize skin tolerance and to prevent reducing the efficacy of the disinfection.

Kramer, Axel

2006-08-01

403

Surface EMG in advanced hand prosthetics.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the major problems when dealing with highly dexterous, active hand prostheses is their control by the patient wearing them. With the advances in mechatronics, building prosthetic hands with multiple active degrees of freedom is realisable, but actively controlling the position and especially the exerted force of each finger cannot yet be done naturally. This paper deals with advanced robotic hand control via surface electromyography. Building upon recent results, we show that machine learning, together with a simple downsampling algorithm, can be effectively used to control on-line, in real time, finger position as well as finger force of a highly dexterous robotic hand. The system determines the type of grasp a human subject is willing to use, and the required amount of force involved, with a high degree of accuracy. This represents a remarkable improvement with respect to the state-of-the-art of feed-forward control of dexterous mechanical hands, and opens up a scenario in which amputees will be able to control hand prostheses in a much finer way than it has so far been possible. PMID:19015872

Castellini, Claudio; van der Smagt, Patrick

2009-01-01

404

Personal authentication through dorsal hand vein patterns  

Science.gov (United States)

Biometric identification is an emerging technology that can solve security problems in our networked society. A reliable and robust personal verification approach using dorsal hand vein patterns is proposed in this paper. The characteristic of the approach needs less computational and memory requirements and has a higher recognition accuracy. In our work, the near-infrared charge-coupled device (CCD) camera is adopted as an input device for capturing dorsal hand vein images, it has the advantages of the low-cost and noncontact imaging. In the proposed approach, two finger-peaks are automatically selected as the datum points to define the region of interest (ROI) in the dorsal hand vein images. The modified two-directional two-dimensional principal component analysis, which performs an alternate two-dimensional PCA (2DPCA) in the column direction of images in the 2DPCA subspace, is proposed to exploit the correlation of vein features inside the ROI between images. The major advantage of the proposed method is that it requires fewer coefficients for efficient dorsal hand vein image representation and recognition. The experimental results on our large dorsal hand vein database show that the presented schema achieves promising performance (false reject rate: 0.97% and false acceptance rate: 0.05%) and is feasible for dorsal hand vein recognition.

Hsu, Chih-Bin; Hao, Shu-Sheng; Lee, Jen-Chun

2011-08-01

405

Focal hand lesions: review and radiological approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Focal hand lesions are commonly encountered in clinical practice and are often benign. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the imaging modality of choice in evaluating these lesions as it can accurately determine the nature of the lesion, enhancement pattern and exact location in relation to surrounding tissues. However, while MR features of various soft tissue lesions in the hand have been well described, it is often still difficult to differentiate between benign and malignant lesions. We review the MR imaging features of a variety of focal hand lesions presenting at our institution and propose a classification into "benign", "intermediate grade" (histologically benign but locally aggressive with potential for recurrence) and frankly "malignant" lesions based on MR findings. This aims to narrow down differential diagnoses and helps in further management of the lesion, preoperative planning and, in cases of primary malignancy, local staging. Teaching Points • Hand lesions are often benign and MR is essential as part of the workup. • MR features of various hand lesions are well described but are often non-specific. • Certain MR features may help for the diagnosis but histological examination is usually required. • We aim to classify hand lesions based on MR features such as margin, enhancement and bony involvement. • Classifying these lesions can help narrow down differential diagnoses and aid management. PMID:24838840

Lee, Chau Hung; Tandon, Ankit

2014-06-01

406

Functional Foods for Women's Health.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes functional foods for women's health (foods or food ingredients that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition), explaining that both whole and modified foods can be included as functional foods. The paper discusses the history, regulation, and promotion of functional foods; consumer interest in functional foods; how to incorporate…

Lindeman, Alice K.

2002-01-01

407

Greening Food Processing Industries in Vietnam: Opportunities and Constraints  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The food processing sector in Vietnam plays a vital role in its economic development, but its rapid growth seems to go hand-in-hand with environmental deterioration. Several decades of applying the conventional end-of-pipe approach made clear that it only deals with treating the symptoms. It is necessary to combine technological (end-of-pipe) solutions to overcome urgent pollution problems with ways to prevent wastes from being generated or to reuse their valuable material. This article prese...

Tran Thi My Dieu

2006-01-01

408

Product and Process Innovation in the Italian Food Industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The driving factors of innovation in the Italian food sector could be identified either in internal and in external dynamics. On one hand, the responses to the competition with new actors coming from emerging countries and the reaction to high-tech products demand evolution. On the other hand, endogenous dynamics appear to become more important for the strategic behaviour of the firms: a higher qualification of the human capital, a more clear orientation for high quality products, organizatio...

Capitanio, F.; Coppola, A.; Pascucci, S.

2010-01-01

409

Home Hearth Food  

Science.gov (United States)

Home Hearth Food is primarily for people who grow or raise their own foods, depending on prepackaged and/or convenience foods as little as possible. Topics include butchering, preserving, smoking, culinary herbs, sausage, household formulas, homemade soda pop and other beverages, baking, equipment and supplies, solutions to food allergies, and allowable foods for those with other illnesses, intertwined with family chit-chat. Religious and political discussions are considered off-topic unless directly food-related in a preparatory, historical, or cultural sense.

1999-01-01

410

Perspectives of food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Food preservation by means of ionizing radiation has been technically feasible for more than a decade. Its utilization could increase food safety, extend the transport and shell life of foods, cut food losses, and reduce dependence upon chemical additives. The prime obstacles have been the strict safety requirements set by health authorities to this preservation method and the high costs of the long-term animal tests necessary to fulfil these requirements. An International Food Irradiation Project, expected to establish the toxicological safety of 10 foods by about 1976, is described in some detail. (author)

1973-08-21

411

Food packaging and radiation sterilization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation sterilization has several merits that it is a positively effective sterilization method, it can be used to sterilize low heat-resistant containers and high gas barrier films, and there is no possibility of residual chemicals being left in the packages. It has been commercially used in 'Bag in a Box' and some food containers. The ? ray and an electron beam are commonly used in radiation sterilization. The ? ray can sterilize large size containers and containers with complex shapes or sealed containers due to its strong transmission capability. However, since the equipment tends to be large and expensive, it is generally used in off production lines. On the other hand, it is possible to install and electron beam system on food production lines since the food can be processed in a short time due to its high beam coefficient and its ease of maintenance, even though an electron beam has limited usage such as sterilizing relatively thin materials and surface sterilization due to the weak transmission. A typical sterilization dose is approximately 10-30 kGy. Direct effects impacting packaging materials, particularly plastics, include scission of polymer links, cross-linkage between polymers, and generating radiolysis products such as hydrogen, methane, aliphatic hydrocarbons, etc. Furthermore, under the existence of oxygen, the oxygen radicals generated by the radiation will oxidize and peroxidize polymer chains and will generate alcohol and carbonyl groups, which shear polymer links, and generate oxygen containing low molecular compounds. As a result, degradation of physical strength such as elongation and seal strength, generating foreign odor, and an increase in global migration values shown in an elution test are sometimes evident. The food packages have different shapes, materials, additives, number of microorganisms and purpose. Therefor the effects of radiation, the optimum dose and so on must be investigated on the individual package. (J.P.N.)

1998-12-08

412

Adolescents´ perceptions of food trends.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aims. Generous supply of food has made it difficult to perform everyday food choices. There are heterogeneous food trends which may define what to eat and how the public discussion about food and nutrition is comprised. Media, parents and peers are major influences on adolescents´ food choices. The taste and the familiarity of food are emphasized over healthiness of or information about food when selecting food. The aim of this study is to find out how the complexity of choosing food is mani...

2012-01-01

413

Analytical detection methods for irradiated foods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present publication is a review of scientific literature on the analytical identification of foods treated with ionizing radiation and the quantitative determination of absorbed dose of radiation. Because of the extremely low level of chemical changes resulting from irradiation or because of the lack of specificity to irradiation of any chemical changes, a few methods of quantitative determination of absorbed dose have shown promise until now. On the other hand, the present review has identified several possible methods, which could be used, following further research and testing, for the identification of irradiated foods. An IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on Analytical Detection Methods for Irradiation Treatment of Food ('ADMIT'), established in 1990, is currently investigating many of the methods cited in the present document. Refs and tab

1991-01-01

414

Osteogenesis imperfecta: a case with hand deformities.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a 51-year-old woman with a history of fractures and dislocations after low intensity trauma in childhood, intensive blue sclera, short stature, and hearing loss, the diagnosis of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) was suspected. She was referred to our clinic with hand deformities and left knee pain and stiffness. She had difficulty in walking and reported a history of immobilization for 6 months because of knee pain. She had bilateral flexion contracture of the elbows which occurred following dislocations of the elbows in childhood. She had Z deformity of the first phalanges, reducible swan-neck deformity of the third finger of the left and the second finger of the right hand, flexion contracture of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the fifth finger of the left hand, and syndactyly of the third and fourth fingers of the right hand. Flexion contractures of both knees were observed. Pes planus and short toes were the deformities of the feet. Acute phase reactants of the patient were normal. She had no history of arthritis or morning stiffness. Bone mineral density evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) showed severe osteoporosis of the femur and lumbar vertebrae. She had radiographic evidence of healed fractures of the left fibula, the third metacarpal, and the fourth and fifth middle phalanges of the right hand. OI, affecting the type I collagen tissue of the sclera, skin, ligaments, and skeleton, presenting with ligament laxity resulting in subluxations and hand deformities may be misdiagnosed as hand deformities of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:15856364

Oz, Bengi; Olmez, Nese; Memis, Asuman

2005-09-01

415

Economic benefits from food recovery at the retail stage: An application to Italian food chains.  

Science.gov (United States)

The food supply chain is affected by losses of products near to their expiry date or damaged by improper transportation or production defects. Such products are usually poorly attractive for the consumer in the target market even if they maintain their nutritional properties. On the other hand undernourished people face every day the problem of fulfilling their nutritional needs usually relying on non-profit organizations. In this field the food recovery enabling economic benefits for donors is nowadays seen as a coherent way to manage food products unsalable in the target market for various causes and thus destined to be discarded and disposed to landfill thus representing only a cost. Despite its obvious affordability the food recovery is today not always practiced because the economic benefits that could be achieved are barely known. The paper aims at presenting a deterministic mathematical model for the optimization of the supply chain composed by retailers and potential recipients that practice the food recovery, taking into account the benefits recognized to donors and the management costs of the food recovery. The model determines the optimal time to withdraw the products from the shelves as well as the quantities to be donated to the non-profit organizations and those to be sent to the livestock market maximizing the retailer profit. The results show that the optimal conditions ensuring the affordability of the food recovery strategy including the tax reliefs and cost saving for the retailers outperforms the profit achievable in absence of such a system. PMID:24685399

Giuseppe, Aiello; Mario, Enea; Cinzia, Muriana

2014-07-01

416

A storage model with random release rate for modeling exposure to food contaminants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper is devoted to present and study a specific continuous-time piecewise-deterministic Markov process for describing the temporal evolution of exposure to a given food contaminant. The quantity X of food contaminant present in the body evolves through its accumulation after repeated dietary intakes on the one hand and the pharmacokinetics behavior of the chemical on the other hand. In the dynamic modeling considered here, the accumulation phenomenon is modeled by a simple marked point ...

Bertail, Patrice; Cle?menc?on, Ste?phan; Tressou, Jessica

2007-01-01

417

Holiday Food Safety  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Consumers Selected Health Topics For Women Kids & Teens ? - Resources for You Foodsafety.gov Fightbac.org Food Safety ... the holidays. Below are some helpful food safety resources to keep your holidays happy. On this page: ...

418

Food 2030 summary  

we can make informed choices about what food we ... 2030 – Government's new \\food strategy. – the first of its ... promote high standards of animal health and \\welfare,. – protect ... clear, consistent advice and information. It would be ..... safe, \

419

Lead intake from food  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The food components of the English national diet were monitored for lead. Analyses of food samples representative of the average diet indicated a mean Pb concentration in the diet of 0.13 mg/kg, from which it was estimated that the daily intake of the average person in the United Kingdom amounts to about 200 micrograms of Pb. There was no food or food category which was a major source of Pb. More Pb was present in canned food than in the corresponding fresh food, although this was of minor significance in the diet except possibly for babies consuming relatively large amounts of canned baby foods. Some of the Pb in the food may have come from industrial Pb deposition, Pb fallout from vehicle emissions, Pb in sewage sludge used on agricultural land, and Pb discharges into the water.

Tolan, A.; Elton, G.A.H.

1973-05-01

420

Food irradiation in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, the author discussed the recent situation of food irradiation in China, its history, facilities, clearance, commercialization, and with emphasis on market testing and public acceptance of irradiated food. (author)

1994-02-02

 
 
 
 
421

Food Label and You  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Labeling Information for Restaurants & Retail Establishments - The Food Label and You — Video FDA presents an entertaining and ... help consumers understand and use the Nutrition Facts Label to make informed food choices. You can view ...

422

Food Allergies and Travel  

Science.gov (United States)

... Allergies, Asthma & the Immune System > Food Allergies and Travel Print A A A Text Size What's in ... Get Your Plan Ready (continued) Gillian loves to travel, and she's determined not to let her food ...

423

Holiday Food Safety  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Holidays and remember to BE FOOD SAFE! - Additional Information Consumer Update: Food Safety Tips for Healthy Holidays [ ... 13/2014 Note: If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading ...

424

Food Label and You  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Requirements Nutrition Facts Label Programs & Materials Nutrition Labeling Information for Restaurants & Retail Establishments - The Food Label and ... Gametime/Play By Play) Road Food (Finding Nutrition Information on the Road) Game Show Review (Are You ...

425

Food Prices and Diabetes  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... for healthy foods go up, so do blood sugar levels among people with diabetes. The finding comes ... food habits, while noting key indicators of blood sugar status. The study team also examined the cost ...

426

Food Label and You  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Restaurants & Retail Establishments - The Food Label and You — Video FDA presents an entertaining and educational tool to ... informed food choices. You can view the new video in its entirety or select on any of ...

427

Food Label and You  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Materials Nutrition Labeling Information for Restaurants & Retail Establishments - The Food Label and You — Video FDA presents an ... educational tool to help consumers understand and use the Nutrition Facts Label to make informed food choices. ...

428

Food Label and You  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Finding Nutrition Information on the Road) Game Show Review (Are You Smarter Than A Food Label?) The ... TV for CFSAN. back to menu Game Show Review (Are You Smarter Than A Food Label?) Spoof ...

429

Apollo food technology  

Science.gov (United States)

Large improvements and advances in space food systems achieved during the Apollo food program are discussed. Modifications of the Apollo food system were directed primarily toward improving delivery of adequate nutrition to the astronaut. Individual food items and flight menus were modified as nutritional countermeasures to the effects of weightlessness. Unique food items were developed, including some that provided nutritional completeness, high acceptability, and ready-to-eat, shelf-stable convenience. Specialized food packages were also developed. The Apollo program experience clearly showed that future space food systems will require well-directed efforts to achieve the optimum potential of food systems in support of the physiological and psychological well-being of astronauts and crews.

Smith, M. C., Jr.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Rambaut, P. C.; Rapp, R. M.; Wheeler, H. O.; Huber, C. S.; Bourland, C. T.

1975-01-01

430

Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... variety of nutrients from a variety of food groups. A balanced approach is best. Narrator: Dietary guidelines ... your daily calorie level. Each of the food groups contains a variety of beneficial nutrients. For example, ...

431

Food Label and You  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Products Food Home Food Ingredients, Packaging & Labeling Labeling & Nutrition Section Contents Menu Ingredients, Packaging & Labeling Labeling & Nutrition Front-of-Package Labeling Initiative Label Claims Menu & ...

432

Fast food tips (image)  

Science.gov (United States)

... challenge to eat healthy when going to a fast food place. In general, avoiding items that are deep ... challenge to eat healthy when going to a fast food place. In general, avoiding items that are deep ...

433

Food Prices and Diabetes  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... prices for healthy foods go up, so do blood sugar levels among people with diabetes. The finding comes ... American food habits, while noting key indicators of blood sugar status. The study team also examined the cost ...

434

What Are Functional Foods?  

Science.gov (United States)

... Shop Find a Registered Dietitian Home > Public Your Food and Nutrition Source It's About Eating Right In ... Celiac disease. Plates with Purpose What Are Functional Foods? Reviewed by Sharon Denny, MS, RDN Magazine articles ...

435

Food Chains: Nature's Restaurant  

Science.gov (United States)

In these life science activities, students will participate in field observations of living things & do research of animals they observe to create a food chain & present it to the class. Students will participate in a food web simulation game.

Schaffran, Jane

436

Fast food (image)  

Science.gov (United States)

Fast foods are quick, reasonably priced, and readily available alternatives to home cooking. While convenient and economical for a busy lifestyle, fast foods are typically high in calories, fat, saturated fat, ...

437

Food Label and You  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Home Food Ingredients, Packaging & Labeling Labeling & Nutrition Section Contents Menu Ingredients, Packaging & Labeling Labeling & Nutrition Front-of-Package Labeling Initiative ...

438

Food Product Dating  

Science.gov (United States)

... Forms FSIS Forms Administrative Forms Standard Forms FSIS Food Safety and Inspection Service United States Department of ... Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Food Product Dating "Sell by Feb 14" is a ...

439

Food Label and You  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... use the Nutrition Facts Label to make informed food choices. You can view the new video in its ... two sites, comparing serving sizes, ingredients and overall food choices in this "Battle of the Dueling Dinner Parties". ...

440

Food ?Security? in? Iceland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The concept of food security applies in both poor and rich societies and concerns the steady availability of food in the right quantity and quality, at the right price. Globally, policies to assure it remain confused and world food prices are rising. Despite large exports of fish, Iceland produces only around half of its inhabitants’ nutritional needs and relies significantly on imports, also for food production inputs like fodder and seeds. Icelandic supplies are affected by oligopoly in t...

Bailes, Alyson J. K.; Orri Jóhannsson

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
441

Food Security in Iceland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The concept of food security applies in both poor and rich societies and concerns the steady availability of food in the right quantity and quality, at the right price. Globally, policies to assure it remain confused and world food prices are rising. Despite large exports of fish, Iceland produces only around half of its inhabitants’ nutritional needs and relies significantly on imports, also for food production inputs like fodder and seeds. Icelandic supplies are affected by oligopoly in t...

Bailes, Alyson J. K.; Orri Jóhannsson 1979

2011-01-01

442

Etiology of Food Addiction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Food addiction is a new topic of focus in the scientific literature. Food intake might be concerned as food addiction in some cases, especially in obese cases and over-eaters. Addiction like behaviours are commonly observed mong these people. Recent animal, epidemiological, clinical and genetic studies partly shows the clinical validity of food addiction while the neurobiological studies focused on the similarity between the reward systems present in obesity and drug addiction. However some s...

2012-01-01

443

Street foods in Accra, Ghana: how safe are they?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the microbial quality of foods sold on streets of Accra and factors predisposing to their contamination. METHODS: Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 117 street vendors on their vital statistics, personal hygiene, food hygiene and knowledge of foodborne illness. Standard methods were used for the enumeration, isolation, and identification of bacteria. FINDINGS: Most vendors were educated and exhibited good hygiene behaviour. Diarrhoea was defined as the passage of > or = 3 stools per day by 110 vendors (94.0%, but none associated diarrhoea with bloody stools; only 21 (17.9% associated diarrhoea with germs. The surroundings of the vending sites were clean, but four sites (3.4% were classified as very dirty. The cooking of food well in advance of consumption, exposure of food to flies, and working with food at ground level and by hand were likely risk factors for contamination. Examinations were made of 511 menu items, classified as breakfast/snack foods, main dishes, soups and sauces, and cold dishes. Mesophilic bacteria were detected in 356 foods (69.7%: 28 contained Bacillus cereus (5.5%, 163 contained Staphylococcus aureus (31.9% and 172 contained Enterobacteriaceae (33.7%. The microbial quality of most of the foods was within the acceptable limits but samples of salads, macaroni, fufu, omo tuo and red pepper had unacceptable levels of contamination. Shigella sonnei and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli were isolated from macaroni, rice, and tomato stew, and Salmonella arizonae from light soup. CONCLUSION: Street foods can be sources of enteropathogens. Vendors should therefore receive education in food hygiene. Special attention should be given to the causes of diarrhoea, the transmission of diarrhoeal pathogens, the handling of equipment and cooked food, hand-washing practices and environmental hygiene.

Mensah Patience

2002-01-01

444

Hand dermatitis in beauticians in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One hundred and sixty-one beauticians and hairdressers (146 women and 15 men were examined for the presence of hand dermatitis and those with hand eczema were patch tested with a battery of antigens standardised for beauticians. Forty-two (26.1% subjects were found to have hand dermatitis and of these, in 31 (69.3% the patch tests were positive; the following antigens elicited a positive response; paraphenylene diamine (35.5%, rubber antigens (22.6%, nickel (22.6%, shampoos (12.9%, ammonium thioglycollate (9.7%, ammonium persulphate (3.2%, henna mixture (3.2% and detergents (6.5%. In addition, irritant reaction was seen in 7; in 5 patients it was to shampoos and in 2 to ammonium persulphate. Of the 8 patients who, on questioning, had a history of atopy, 7 (87.5% had hand eczema, while 1 (12.5% did not, and this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001, suggesting that beauticians with a history of atopy were more likely to develop hand eczema.

Khanna Neena

1997-01-01

445

The reconstruction of the mutilated hand.  

Science.gov (United States)

The challenging reconstructive treatment of defects in the upper extremity requires a sound working knowledge of a variety of flaps. As the hand surgeon weighs the pros and cons of each possible flap to obtain definitive closure, he or she must also integrate the priorities of function, contour, and stability as well as the anticipation of further reconstructive surgery in choosing the flap of choice. This review describes the various flaps available for closure of soft tissue defects of the upper extremity. The principles of management of wounds of the upper extremity is described to guide hand surgeons in the early treatment of massive wounds that will eventually need free tissue coverage. Currently used flaps include fasciocutaneous, fascial, musculocutaneous, muscle, and osteocutaneous flaps. Flap selection is based on the characteristics of the defect including size, shape, and location, the availability of donor sites, and the goals of reconstruction. Improved techniques of microsurgery and an ever increasing repertoire of flaps provide the framework for hand surgeons to offer the most appropriate flap based on donor site, thickness, amount of tissue needed, and composition. A discussion of the selection of ideal flaps for any given defect should enable the reconstructive hand surgeon to provide the most appropriate coverage of wounds to the hand and upper extremity. PMID:21286307

Neumeister, Michael; Hegge, Thersa; Amalfi, Ashley; Sauerbier, Michael

2010-02-01

446

Dental education of left-handed students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Asymmetrical activity of brain hemispheres is projected through laterality e.g. the dominance of one of the paired organs. A very important way of laterality manifestation is left-handedness. The lef-handed must solve various conflicts with their environment, so mild left-handedness usually shifts into dominant right-handedness in the early childhood, fortunately with no difficulties. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the number and distribution of left-handed dental students, check the possibilities and propose measures for solving the problem in their education. Material and methods: The study was conducted at Belgrade University School of Dentistry, dept. of restorative dentistry and endodontics. During two academic years, six generations of senior dental students (III, IV and V year students completed a questionnaire, i.e. 1385 individuals were included in the survey. Results: The questionnaire revealed that out of the total number or students involved in the study 62 (4.48% students were left-handed. The distribution of left-handed students is relatively uniform and concentrated between 4-6% of the sample. Conclusion: Even though the number of left-handed students is small, it is necessary to change conditions for their education and enable their proper development.

Grga ?urica

2006-01-01