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Sample records for hand food taboos

  1. Food taboos: their origins and purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer-Rochow Victor

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Food taboos are known from virtually all human societies. Most religions declare certain food items fit and others unfit for human consumption. Dietary rules and regulations may govern particular phases of the human life cycle and may be associated with special events such as menstrual period, pregnancy, childbirth, lactation, and – in traditional societies – preparation for the hunt, battle, wedding, funeral, etc. On a comparative basis many food taboos seem to make no sense at all, as to what may be declared unfit by one group may be perfectly acceptable to another. On the other hand, food taboos have a long history and one ought to expect a sound explanation for the existence (and persistence of certain dietary customs in a given culture. Yet, this is a highly debated view and no single theory may explain why people employ special food taboos. This paper wants to revive interest in food taboo research and attempts a functionalist's explanation. However, to illustrate some of the complexity of possible reasons for food taboo five examples have been chosen, namely traditional food taboos in orthodox Jewish and Hindu societies as well as reports on aspects of dietary restrictions in communities with traditional lifestyles of Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, and Nigeria. An ecological or medical background is apparent for many, including some that are seen as religious or spiritual in origin. On the one hand food taboos can help utilizing a resource more efficiently; on the other food taboos can lead to the protection of a resource. Food taboos, whether scientifically correct or not, are often meant to protect the human individual and the observation, for example, that certain allergies and depression are associated with each other could have led to declaring food items taboo that were identified as causal agents for the allergies. Moreover, any food taboo, acknowledged by a particular group of people as part of its ways, aids in the cohesion of this group, helps that particular group maintain its identity in the face of others, and therefore creates a feeling of "belonging".

  2. Bacterial contamination of the hands of food handlers as indicator of hand washing efficacy in some convenient food industries in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    AA, Lambrechts; IS, Human; JH, Doughari; JFR, Lues

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Hands of ready-to-eat food service employees have been shown to be vectors in the spread of foodborne disease, mainly because of poor personal hygiene and accounting for approximately 97% of food borne illnesses in food service establishments and homes. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of hand washing practices and sanitation before commencing work among food handlers in the convenient food industry in Gauteng, South Africa.

  3. Sexuality: Still a Taboo Subject?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguay, Lucille

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the fact that we are all bombarded with sexual messages every day, the subject of relationship and sexuality education for students with intellectual and developmental disabilities continues to be a taboo one. Generally speaking, the author has found it is not the parents of those young people who are reluctant to have the discussion,…

  4. Tracking sources of Staphylococcus aureus hand contamination in food handlers by spa typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jeffery; Boost, Maureen V; O'Donoghue, Margaret M

    2015-07-01

    We aimed to identify the source of Staphylococcus aureus contaminating hands of food handlers. Nasal samples and direct fingertip imprints were collected on 2 occasions from food handlers and characterized to determine likely sources of hand contamination. Most hand contamination was attributable to nasal isolates of persistently colonized coworkers who had presumably contaminated the environment. Regular handwashing should be supplemented by effective environmental disinfection. PMID:25997877

  5. The use of fish in Ilhabela (São Paulo/Brazil): preferences, food taboos and medicinal indications / O uso de peixes em Ilhabela (São Paulo, Brasil): preferências, tabus alimentares e indicações medicinais

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Milena, Ramires; Matheus Marcos, Rotundo; Alpina, Begossi.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado em três comunidades de pescadores artesanais de Ilhabela, localizadas no litoral norte do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. O objetivo foi analisar as preferências, os tabus e as indicações medicinais dos peixes e, desta forma, representar as interações dos pescadores com os r [...] ecursos pesqueiros, visando entender os aspectos biológicos e culturais envolvidos. A coleta dos dados foi realizada através de entrevistas com o auxílio de questionários semi-estruturados. Foram entrevistadas 25 famílias, das 29 residentes nas três comunidades estudadas durante a coleta de dados, sendo que 5 delas foram realizadas na Praia do Jabaquara, 6 na Praia da Fome e 14 na Praia da Serraria. Foram citadas 18 consideradas preferidas para o consumo, 11 espécies consideradas como tabus, 5 espécies evitadas e 4 indicadas no caso de doenças. As famílias de pescadores preferem consumir peixes de escama e não consomem o baiacu, este último provavelmente devido a sua característica tóxica. Peixes como bonito, espada, cação, sororoca e cavala são evitados em casos como feridas, inflamações, gravidez e pós parto e outros como pirajica, marimba, anchova e garoupa são indicados como peixes medicinais nestas situações. Aspectos relativos ao consumo de pescado fazem parte do corpo de conhecimento dos pescadores e suas famílias e constituem um acervo rico de informações que somadas as informações biológicas são úteis para a conservação dos recursos pesqueiros. Dados como os apresentados nesse estudo, com relação ao uso de animais aquáticos para tratamento de doenças, podem servir de base para estudos futuros sobre substâncias que contenham elementos ativos na cura de doenças. Abstract in english This study was conducted in three communities of artisanal fishermen from Ilhabela, located on the northern coast of São Paulo, Brazil. The objective was to analyze the preferences, taboos and medicinal indications of fish and thus representing one of the interactions of fishermen with fish stocks. [...] Data collection was conducted through interviews with the aid of semi-structured questionnaires. We interviewed 25 families, 29 residents in three communities studied during our fieldwork for data collection. Five interviews were done in Jabaquara Beach, 6 in Fome Beach and 14 Serraria Beach. During the interviews, 18 species were cited as preferred for consumption, 11 species considered to be taboo (food prohibited), 5 species were cited as avoided as food, and 4 species indicated in case of illness. The families of fishermen prefer to consume finfish and do not consume puffer fish, the latter probably due to its toxic characteristic. Fish such as little tunny, largehead hairtail, shark, serra mackerel and king mackerel are avoided by unhealthy people and in cases of wounds, inflammation, pregnancy and postpartum. Other fish, such as sea chubs, silver porgy, bluefish and grouper are reported as medicinal in these situations. Aspects related to fish consumption are part of the knowledge of fishermen and their families and provide a wealth of information that combined to biological information is useful for the conservation of fishery resources. Data such as those presented in this study, regarding the use of aquatic animals for treatment of diseases, could serve as a basis for future studies on substances that contain active elements in curing diseases.

  6. Sens et enjeux d’un interdit alimentaire dans le judaïsme Food taboos in Judaism: the example of Ashkenazi Jews in London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Faure

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article porte sur la manière dont la prohibition de mêler nourritures lactées et carnées dans le judaïsme se matérialise par les objets de la cuisine et leurs usages quotidiens, à partir d’une recherche réalisée à Londres auprès de couples juifs ashkénazes qui se définissent presque tous comme orthodoxes (modern orthodox et dont la scolarisation dans des écoles juives a parfois pu contribuer à revivifier les pratiques religieuses. Par delà la diversité des habitudes culinaires et de leurs formes (ex : végétarisme, par delà les éventuelles variations individuelles de l’observance religieuse au cours du cycle de vie, l’interdit alimentaire de mêler lait et viande est respecté par l’ensemble des personnes rencontrées. Il s’agit alors d’en comprendre le sens et la portée. Les conséquences matérielles de cet interdit alimentaire permettent de saisir l’importance de la religion dans le logement et les activités de tous les jours. Elles conduisent à articuler le plan matériel et le plan symbolique en suggérant une interprétation anthropologique de cette prohibition, en lien avec les écrits bibliques et les analyses déjà menées sur le sujet.This article is based upon research on Ashkenazi Jewish families living in London. It deals with the way, in Judaïsm, the prohibition of eating meat and dairy foods together is materialised through the use of kitchen utensils on a day to day basis. Material consequences of this dietary law allow us to understand the importance of religion in the Jewish home and in everyday life. Consequences which lead to the linking of material uses and their symbolic significance by suggesting an anthropological interpretation of this dietary law in accordance with Biblical writings.

  7. Detection of enterotoxin genes of Staphylococcus SP isolated from nasal cavities and hands of food handlers

    OpenAIRE

    V. L. M. Rall; J.M. SFORCIN; Augustini, V.C.M.; Watanabe, M.T.; A. Fernandes Jr.; Rall, R.; de Silva, M G; Araújo Jr., J.P.

    2010-01-01

    Food handlers, an important factor in food quality, may contain bacteria that are able to cause foodborne disease. The present study aimed to research coagulase-negative (CNS) and -positive staphylococci (CPS) in 82 food handlers, analyzing nasal and hand swabs, with identification of 62 CNS (75.6%) and 20 CPS strains (24.4%). Staphylococcal enterotoxins genes were investigated by PCR. In 20 CPS strains, 19 were positive for one or more genes. The percentage of CNS presenting genes for entero...

  8. Detection of enterotoxin genes of Staphylococcus sp isolated from nasal cavities and hands of food handlers

    OpenAIRE

    V. L. M. Rall; J.M. SFORCIN; Augustini, V.C.M.; Watanabe, M.T.; A. Fernandes Jr.; Rall, R.; de Silva, M G; Araújo Jr., J.P.

    2010-01-01

    Food handlers, an important factor in food quality, may contain bacteria that are able to cause foodborne disease. The present study aimed to research coagulase-negative (CNS) and -positive staphylococci (CPS) in 82 food handlers, analyzing nasal and hand swabs, with identification of 62 CNS (75.6%) and 20 CPS strains (24.4%). Staphylococcal enterotoxins genes were investigated by PCR. In 20 CPS strains, 19 were positive for one or more genes. The percentage of CNS presenting genes for entero...

  9. Catfish and mullets: the food preferences and taboos of caiçaras (southern atlantic forest coast, brazil) / BAGRES E MUGILÍDEOS: PREFERÊNCIAS E TABUS ALIMENTARES DE CAIÇARAS (LITORAL SUDESTE DA MATA ATLÂNTICA, BRASIL) / ARIIDAE Y MUGILIDAE: LAS PREFERENCIAS Y LOS TABÚES ALIMENTARIOS DE LOS CAIÇARAS (COSTA ATLÁNTICA MERIDIONAL, BRASIL)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hanazaki, Natalia; Begossi, Alpina.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Uma importante característica da dieta humana é a categorização de preferências e aversões alimentares. O objetivo deste artigo é analisar as preferências e tabus alimentares com relação a itens de proteína animal entre três comunidades caiçaras do litoral sudeste brasileiro. A literatura sobre pref [...] erências alimentares quanto ao consumo de pescado aponta para um padrão geral de preferência por peixes com escamas e aversões ou restrições de consumo por peixes sem escamas. Neste estudo, visamos discutir duas particularidades das escolhas alimentares entre caiçaras, especificamente quanto às preferências e aversões sobre o consumo de bagres (Ariidae) e sobre diferentes espécies do gênero Mugil (Mugilidae). Estas preferências e aversões alimentares podem ser explicadas por fatores ecológicos e culturais, como pela disponibilidade do recurso, pela posição da espécie na cadeia alimentar, ou através da importância destas espécies na economia e nas relações sociais dentro da comunidade. Relações entre conservação e tabus alimentares sobre certas espécies de peixe, ou grupos de espécies, parecem ser mais tênues do que as possíveis relações entre tabus de caça e conservação da fauna terrestre. Além disso, os tabus sobre espécies de peixes não resultam em deficiência nutricional nas comunidades estudadas. Abstract in spanish Una característica importante de dietas humanas es el categorizar de alimentos según su preferencia o evitación. La literatura en preferencias alimenticias de los pescadores contempla un patrón general de preferencia por pescados con escamas y una aversión o prohibición de pescados sin escamas. Se a [...] nalizaron las preferencias, evitaciones y tabúes sobre el alimento de origen animal en tres comunidades caiçaras de la costa brasileña del sudeste. Se discuten dos aspectos de la escogencia de alimento de los caiçaras, con respecto a sus preferencias, las aversiones, y los tabúes en el consumo de Ariidae y de varias especies de Mugilidae. Esta clasificación se puede explicar por factores ecológicos y culturales, como la disponibilidad ambiental de la especie, su posición en la cadena alimenticia, o su importancia en la economía y en las relaciones sociales dentro de la comunidad. Una conexión entre la conservación del recurso y los tabúes sobre ciertas especies de peces parecen más tenues que las posibles relaciones entre los tabúes de caza y la conservación de la fauna terrestre. Para las comunidades estudiadas, los tabúes sobre peces no resultaran en deficiencias nutricionales en la población humana. Abstract in english An important feature of human diets is the establishment of food categories according to its preference or avoidance. The literature on fish food preferences points out a general pattern of preference for fish with scales and an avoidance or prohibition of scaleless fish. The food preferences, avoid [...] ances, and taboos on animal protein items among three caiçara communities from the Southeastern Brazilian coast were analyzed. Two aspects of the caiçaras choice of food were discussed, regarding their preferences, avoidances, and taboos on the consumption of catfish (Ariidae) and on different species of mullets (Mugilidae). This categorization can be explained both ecologically and culturally: through the environmental availability of the species, their position in the food web, or their importance in the economy and in the social relations within the community. A connection between resource conservation and food taboos about certain fish species are unlikely when compared to the possible relations between hunting taboos and conservation of the terrestrial fauna. For the studied communities, there was no nutritional deprivation resulting from food taboos on fish species.

  10. Norovirus Transmission between Hands, Gloves, Utensils, and Fresh Produce during Simulated Food Handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho, E.; Mikkelä, A.; Ranta, J.; Tuominen, P.; Rättö, M.; Maunula, L.

    2014-01-01

    Human noroviruses (HuNoVs), a leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis worldwide, are easily transferred via ready-to-eat (RTE) foods, often prepared by infected food handlers. In this study, the transmission of HuNoV and murine norovirus (MuNoV) from virus-contaminated hands to latex gloves during gloving, as well as from virus-contaminated donor surfaces to recipient surfaces after simulated preparation of cucumber sandwiches, was inspected. Virus transfer was investigated by swabbing with polyester swabs, followed by nucleic acid extraction from the swabs with a commercial kit and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. During gloving, transfer of MuNoV dried on the hand was observed 10/12 times. HuNoV, dried on latex gloves, was disseminated to clean pairs of gloves 10/12 times, whereas HuNoV without drying was disseminated 11/12 times. In the sandwich-preparing simulation, both viruses were transferred repeatedly to the first recipient surface (left hand, cucumber, and knife) during the preparation. Both MuNoV and HuNoV were transferred more efficiently from latex gloves to cucumbers (1.2% ± 0.6% and 1.5% ± 1.9%) than vice versa (0.7% ± 0.5% and 0.5% ± 0.4%). We estimated that transfer of at least one infective HuNoV from contaminated hands to the sandwich prepared was likely to occur if the hands of the food handler contained 3 log10 or more HuNoVs before gloving. Virus-contaminated gloves were estimated to transfer HuNoV to the food servings more efficiently than a single contaminated cucumber during handling. Our results indicate that virus-free food ingredients and good hand hygiene are needed to prevent HuNoV contamination of RTE foods. PMID:24951789

  11. Norovirus transmission between hands, gloves, utensils, and fresh produce during simulated food handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnqvist, M; Aho, E; Mikkelä, A; Ranta, J; Tuominen, P; Rättö, M; Maunula, L

    2014-09-01

    Human noroviruses (HuNoVs), a leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis worldwide, are easily transferred via ready-to-eat (RTE) foods, often prepared by infected food handlers. In this study, the transmission of HuNoV and murine norovirus (MuNoV) from virus-contaminated hands to latex gloves during gloving, as well as from virus-contaminated donor surfaces to recipient surfaces after simulated preparation of cucumber sandwiches, was inspected. Virus transfer was investigated by swabbing with polyester swabs, followed by nucleic acid extraction from the swabs with a commercial kit and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. During gloving, transfer of MuNoV dried on the hand was observed 10/12 times. HuNoV, dried on latex gloves, was disseminated to clean pairs of gloves 10/12 times, whereas HuNoV without drying was disseminated 11/12 times. In the sandwich-preparing simulation, both viruses were transferred repeatedly to the first recipient surface (left hand, cucumber, and knife) during the preparation. Both MuNoV and HuNoV were transferred more efficiently from latex gloves to cucumbers (1.2% ± 0.6% and 1.5% ± 1.9%) than vice versa (0.7% ± 0.5% and 0.5% ± 0.4%). We estimated that transfer of at least one infective HuNoV from contaminated hands to the sandwich prepared was likely to occur if the hands of the food handler contained 3 log10 or more HuNoVs before gloving. Virus-contaminated gloves were estimated to transfer HuNoV to the food servings more efficiently than a single contaminated cucumber during handling. Our results indicate that virus-free food ingredients and good hand hygiene are needed to prevent HuNoV contamination of RTE foods. PMID:24951789

  12. New technical design of food packaging makes the opening process easier for patients with hand disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensler, Stefanie; Herren, Daniel B; Marks, Miriam

    2015-09-01

    Opening packaged food is a complex daily activity carried out worldwide. Peelable packaging, as used for cheese or meat, causes real problems for many consumers, especially elderly people and those with hand disorders. Our aim was to investigate the possibility of producing meat packaging that is easier for patients with hand disorders to open. One hundred patients with hand osteoarthritis were asked to open a meat package currently available in supermarkets (Type A) and a modified, newly designed version (Type B), and rate their experiences with a consumer satisfaction index (CSI). The mean CSI of the Type B packs was 68.9%, compared with 41.9% for Type A (p open food packages that afford greater consumer satisfaction. Such future packaging would benefit not only people with hand disorders but also the population as a whole. PMID:25959312

  13. Consequences of occupational food-related hand dermatoses with a focus on protein contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Lotte; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2012-01-01

    Background. Protein contact dermatitis is a frequent disorder among hand eczema patients who have occupational food contact. Knowledge about the consequences of having protein contact dermatitis is lacking. Objectives. To investigate the consequences of having occupational skin disease on the hands resulting from food handling, with a focus on protein contact dermatitis. Material and methods. One hundred and seventy-eight patients who were identified as having skin disease related to occupational food exposure and who answered a questionnaire concerning the consequences of their skin disease were included in the study. The patients were consecutively examined at Gentofte Hospital, Denmark between 2001 and 2010. Results. Seventy-five per cent of patients with protein contact dermatitis had to wear gloves at work, and 62.5% reported sick leave lasting for >3 weeks, as compared with 60.2% and 30%, respectively, of the patients with other occupational food-related hand dermatoses (p = 0.02). Sixty-two per cent and 43%, respectively, had to change job because of skin problems (p = 0.02). Atopic dermatitis was equally common in the two groups. Conclusion. We found that the patients with protein contact dermatitis experienced more severe and frequent consequences than patients with other food-related hand dermatoses.

  14. Jeux tabous : littératures Taboo plays: Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Galtier

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available La thèse de Georges Bataille sur l’art comme transgression, et d’abord du tabou concernant la mort, est ici mise à l’épreuve de trois œuvres littéraires du XXe siècle. C’est le tabou des morts en sa violence primitive qui s’y inscrit, mais sans effacer ce qu’il frappe, d’où l’effet libérateur du texte.Georges Bataille’s thesis – art as transgression of taboo, especially taboo regarding death – is tested by three literary works of XXth century. The taboo concerning dead persons is here written, with its primitive violence but what it prohibits is not obliterated. Hence the liberating effect of the text.

  15. Occupational food-related hand dermatoses seen over a 10-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Lotte; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2012-01-01

    Background. Protein contact dermatitis was originally defined in 1976 by Hjorth and Roed-Petersen as a distinct kind of dermatitis seen in patients with occupational food contact. Even though occupational skin diseases are frequent in Denmark, little attention has been paid to protein contact dermatitis, and the frequency is unknown. Objectives. To evaluate the frequency of occupational food-related hand dermatoses and test results in patients occupationally exposed to foods. Materials and Methods. This was a retrospective study based on examinations, including skin prick testing and patch testing, performed at the Department of Dermato-Allergology, Gentofte University Hospital, Denmark between 2001 and 2010. Results. Of all patients (n = 372), 57.0% had irritant contact dermatitis, 22.0% had protein contact dermatitis, 2.4% had contact urticaria, and 1.8% had allergic contact dermatitis. A suggestion for diagnostic criteria is presented. Frequent risk occupations were cooking in restaurants, baking, and kitchen work. Substantially more patients reacted in skin prick testing with fresh foods than with food extracts. Conclusion. Protein contact dermatitis is a frequent disorder among patients who professionally handle foods, and should be considered to be a distinct clinical entity. When diagnosing protein contact dermatitis and in other food-related skin prick testing procedures, it is important to include fresh foods.

  16. Detection of enterotoxin genes of Staphylococcus sp isolated from nasal cavities and hands of food handlers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    V.L.M., Rall; J.M., Sforcin; V.C.M., Augustini; M.T., Watanabe; A., Fernandes Jr.; R., Rall; M.G., Silva; J.P, Araújo Jr..

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Food handlers, an important factor in food quality, may contain bacteria that are able to cause foodborne disease. The present study aimed to research coagulase-negative (CNS) and -positive staphylococci (CPS) in 82 food handlers, analyzing nasal and hand swabs, with identification of 62 CNS (75.6%) [...] and 20 CPS strains (24.4%). Staphylococcal enterotoxins genes were investigated by PCR. In 20 CPS strains, 19 were positive for one or more genes. The percentage of CNS presenting genes for enterotoxins was high (46.8%). Despite of the staphylococcal species, the most common gene was sea (35.4%), followed by seh and sej (29.2%). The detection of new staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) genes showed a higher pathogenic potential in this genus. The presence of these gene points out the importance of CNS not only as contaminant bacteria but also as a pathogen.

  17. Identity, dignity and taboos: beliefs as assets

    OpenAIRE

    Bénabou, Roland; TIROLE, Jean

    2007-01-01

    We analyze social and economic phenomena involving beliefs which people value and invest in, for affective or functional reasons. Individuals are at times uncertain about their own deep values and infer them from their past choices, which then come to define who they are?. Identity investments increase when information is scarce or when a greater endowment of some asset (wealth, career, family, culture) raises the stakes on viewing it as valuable (escalating commitments). Taboos against tran...

  18. Identity, Morals and Taboos: Beliefs as Assets

    OpenAIRE

    R. Benabou; J. Tirole

    2011-01-01

    We develop a theory of moral behavior, individual and collective, based on a general model of identity in which people care about “who they are” and infer their own values from past choices. The model sheds light on many empirical puzzles inconsistent with earlier approaches. Identity investments respond nonmonotonically to recent acts or threats, and taboos on mere thoughts arise to protect beliefs about the “priceless” value of certain social assets. High endowments trigger escal...

  19. Communicate science: an example of food related hands-on laboratory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addezio, Giuliana; Marsili, Antonella; Vallocchia, Massimiliano

    2014-05-01

    The Laboratorio Didattica e Divulgazione Scientifica of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV's Educational and Outreach Laboratory) organized activity with kids to convey scientific knowledge and to promote research on Earth Science, focusing on volcanic and seismic hazard. The combination of games and learning in educational activity can be a valuable tool for study of complex phenomena. Hands-on activity may help in engage kids in a learning process through direct participation that significantly improves the learning performance of children. Making learning fun motivate audience to pay attention on and stay focused on the subject. We present the experience of the hand-on laboratory "Laboratorio goloso per bambini curiosi di scienza (a delicious hands-on laboratory for kids curious about science)", performed in Frascati during the 2013 European Researchers' Night, promoted by the European Commission, as part of the program organized by the Laboratorio Didattica e Divulgazione Scientifica in the framework of Associazione Frascati Scienza (http://www.frascatiscienza.it/). The hand-on activity were designed for primary schools to create enjoyable and unusual tools for learning Earth Science. During this activity kids are involved with something related to everyday life, such as food, through manipulation, construction and implementation of simple experiments related to Earth dynamics. Children become familiar with scientific concepts such as composition of the Earth, plates tectonic, earthquakes and seismic waves propagation and experience the effect of earthquakes on buildings, exploring their important implications for seismic hazard. During the activity, composed of several steps, participants were able to learn about Earth inner structure, fragile lithosphere, waves propagations, impact of waves on building ecc.., dealing with eggs, cookies, honey, sugar, polenta, flour, chocolate, candies, liquorice sticks, bread, pudding and sweets. The activity was successful as more than 500 kids of different ages participated with great enthusiasm, as well as they parents, and gave the chance to explore and manipulate even complex scientific arguments without getting the feeling of having doing this.

  20. Identity, morals, and taboos: beliefs as assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bénabou, Roland; Tirole, Jean

    2011-01-01

    We develop a theory of moral behavior, individual and collective, based on a general model of identity in which people care about “who they are” and infer their own values from past choices. The model sheds light on many empirical puzzles inconsistent with earlier approaches. Identity investments respond nonmonotonically to acts or threats, and taboos on mere thoughts arise to protect beliefs about the “priceless” value of certain social assets. High endowments trigger escalating commitment and a treadmill effect, while competing identities can cause dysfunctional capital destruction. Social interactions induce both social and antisocial norms of contribution, sustained by respectively shunning free riders or do-gooders. PMID:22073409

  1. "Totem and Taboo" in a latency boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkisch, P

    1979-01-01

    Against the background of Freud's "Totem and Taboo" the case of a seven-year-old boy is discusses, focusing on his identification with a cat. Guided by Freud's dialectic thinking and his discussion of the phenomena of patriarchy and matriarchy, one is led to contemplate the totemism of a matriarchally oriented boy. The attempt to understand this child's pathology is based upon the concept of the specificity of a developmental phase. In the light of anthropological data, clinical phenomena are evaluated ontogenetically, in analogy with the recapitulation hypothesis. PMID:489885

  2. The Relations Among Threatened Species, Their Protection, and Taboos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Folke

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the role of taboos for the protection of species listed as "threatened" by the World Conservation Union (IUCN, and also for species known to be endemic and keystone. The study was limited to taboos that totally avoid or prohibit any use of particular species and their populations. We call them specific-species taboos . Through a literature review, 70 currently existing examples of specific-species taboos were identified and analyzed. The species avoided were grouped into biological classes. Threat categories were determined for each species, based on the IUCN Red Data Book. We found that ~ 30% of the identified taboos prohibit any use of species listed as threatened by IUCN. Of the specific-species taboos, 60% are set on reptiles and mammals. In these two classes, ~ 50% of the species are threatened, representing all of the threatened species in our analysis, with the exception of one bird species. Both endemic and keystone species that are important for ecosystem functions are avoided by specific-species taboos. Specific-species taboos have important ecological ramifications for the protection of threatened and ecologically important populations of species. We do not suggest that specific-species taboos are placed on species because they are, or have been, endangered; instead, we emphasize that species are avoided for a variety of other reasons. It is urgent to identify and analyze resource practices and social mechanisms of traditional societies, such as taboos, and to investigate their possible ecological significance. Although it may provide insights of value for conservation, not only of species, but also of ecosystem processes and functions, such information is being lost rapidly.

  3. Taboos and conflicts in decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hanselmann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies suggest that choices are perceived as difficult as well as negatively emotion-laden when they tap into moral considerations. However, we propose that the involvement of moral issues and values can also facilitate decisions because people often insistently preclude them from trade-offs with other values. Because such values are treated as inviolable and absolute, they are called sacred values (e.g., Tetlock et al., 2000. Two experiments examined the influence of sacred values (measured by a recent self-report scale and variation of trade-off type (taboo, tragic, routine trade-offs on perceived decision difficulty and negative emotions. As hypothesized, decision difficulty and negative emotions show diverging patterns as a function of sacred values and trade-off types. When the decision situation involved two conflicting sacred values (i.e., tragic trade-off, people perceived the decision task as emotionally stressful and difficult. However, when the decision situation was associated with only one sacred value (i.e., taboo trade-off, people perceived the task as more negatively emotion-laden, but as easier to solve, compared to a situation not involving sacred values (i.e., routine trade-off. These findings suggest that reliance on sacred values may work as a heuristic.

  4. The effects of food safety education on adolescents' hand hygiene behavior: an analysis of stages of change

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Eun Joo; Pai, Andrew J.; Kang, Nam-E; Kim, Woo Kyoung; Kim, Young Soon; Moon, Hyun-Kyung; Ha, Ae Wha

    2012-01-01

    The hand hygiene behavior of 400 middle school students (grades 1-3) in Seoul and Gyeonggi-Do was studied to determine how stages of change were affected by food safety education, focusing on hand hygiene and general food safety. Subjects were 51.3% male and 44.3% of study subjects were first graders of middle school. Approximately 40% of subjects were at the stage of action, 42.7% were at the stage of contemplation, and 16.4% were at pre-contemplation. The most important factor that influenc...

  5. Sustainable reduction of nasal colonization and hand contamination with Staphylococcus aureus in food handlers, 2002-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, J; Boost, M; O'Donoghue, M

    2015-06-01

    A longitudinal study of nasal colonization and hand contamination of food handlers with Staphylococcus aureus commenced in 2002 prior to the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome. In the follow-up in 2003 when hygiene measures were strictly implemented, significant reductions in carriage were observed. To investigate if this change was sustained, nasal and hand carriage rates were compared between the earlier studies and a further sampling in 2011. The initial nasal carriage rate was 35% and hand contamination 41·2%, decreasing to 23·5% and 11·6%, respectively in 2003 (P hygiene and reinforces its importance for control of disease. PMID:25308539

  6. Routing Optimization Based on Taboo Search Algorithm for Logistic Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxue Yang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Along with the widespread application of the electronic commerce in the modern business, the logistic distribution has become increasingly important. More and more enterprises recognize that the logistic distribution plays an important role in the process of production and sales. A good routing for logistic distribution can cut down transport cost and improve efficiency. In order to cut down transport cost and improve efficiency, a routing optimization based on taboo search for logistic distribution is proposed in this paper. Taboo search is a metaheuristic search method to perform local search used for logistic optimization. The taboo search is employed to accelerate convergence and the aspiration criterion is combined with the heuristics algorithm to solve routing optimization. Simulation experimental results demonstrate that the optimal routing in the logistic distribution can be quickly obtained by the taboo search algorithm

  7. Chinese Cultural Taboos That Affect Their Language & Behavior Choices

    OpenAIRE

    Man-ping Chu

    2009-01-01

    Every culture has its own taboos. Communication works better when the participants share more assumptions and knowledge about each other (Scollon & Scollon, 2000). However, in many cases, participants realize the existence of the rules associated with taboos only after they have violated them. Those who do not observe these social “rules” might face serious results, such as total embarrassment or, as Saville-Troike (1989) puts it, they may be accused of immorality and face social ostracis...

  8. Chinese Cultural Taboos That Affect Their Language & Behavior Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man-ping Chu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Every culture has its own taboos. Communication works better when the participants share more assumptions and knowledge about each other (Scollon & Scollon, 2000. However, in many cases, participants realize the existence of the rules associated with taboos only after they have violated them. Those who do not observe these social “rules” might face serious results, such as total embarrassment or, as Saville-Troike (1989 puts it, they may be accused of immorality and face social ostracism. This paper reports that certain verbal and non-verbal taboos among Chinese people centuries ago still affect their language and behavior choices. Two types of Chinese possible taboos in language and behavior are introduced and compared with cultures of the Koreans and Americans: (1 gift-giving taboos which are phonologically linked to the “separation” and “death” in Chinese society, and (2 verbal expressions which are linked to the twelve zodiac-animals in Chinese traditional metaphors. This research paper also tries to answer two questions related to Asian culture and history: (1 whether Koreans share more of these phonologically-linked taboos than Americans do because Korean language has very similar sounds to Chinese; and (2 whether Koreans share with Chinese people more of the zodiac-animal-linked metaphors (i.e., the rat, the bull/cow, the tiger, the rabbit, the dragon, the snake, the horse, the sheep/lamb, the monkey, the chicken, the dog, and the pig than Americans do because Korean people also use the same animals as a cycle of every twelve years. Data were collected in two ways: questionnaires and interviews.

  9. The allure of the forbidden: breaking taboos, frustration, and attraction to violent video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Jodi L; Melzer, André; Steffgen, Georges; Bushman, Brad J

    2013-04-01

    Although people typically avoid engaging in antisocial or taboo behaviors, such as cheating and stealing, they may succumb in order to maximize their personal benefit. Moreover, they may be frustrated when the chance to commit a taboo behavior is withdrawn. The present study tested whether the desire to commit a taboo behavior, and the frustration from being denied such an opportunity, increases attraction to violent video games. Playing violent games allegedly offers an outlet for aggression prompted by frustration. In two experiments, some participants had no chance to commit a taboo behavior (cheating in Experiment 1, stealing in Experiment 2), others had a chance to commit a taboo behavior, and others had a withdrawn chance to commit a taboo behavior. Those in the latter group were most attracted to violent video games. Withdrawing the chance for participants to commit a taboo behavior increased their frustration, which in turn increased their attraction to violent video games. PMID:23449844

  10. How effective is the invisible hand? Agricultural and food markets in Central and Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Brosig, Stephan; Hockmann, Heinrich

    2005-01-01

    This volume of proceedings, available both as hard copy and pdf , is a compilation of selected contributions to the IAMO Forum 2005, which will be held in Halle (Saale), Germany, at the Institute of Agricultural Development in Central and Eastern Europe from June 16-18, 2005. CONTENTS: Agricultural and food markets in Central and Eastern Europe: An introduction; Stephan Brosig, Heinrich Hockmann. Agricultural markets in CEE - An overview; József Popp. Regoverning agrifood markets in CEEC - P...

  11. Trend Surface Analysis of Hand, Food and Mouth Disease in Sarawak

    OpenAIRE

    Noraishah, M. S.; Krishnarajah, I.; Ibrahim, N. A.; Lye, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    In this study we aim to fit a trend surface model for Hand, Foot And Mouth Disease (HFMD) in Sarawak and also check the adequacy of the model obtained. For this, the epidemiological data of year 2012(outbreak year) and 2011 are used. Models were built up to second order polynomial based on the idea that number of HFMD cases can be described by regression residual analysis. With Moran I statistic, residuals from all the trend surface models were examined for spatial autocorrelation. All six tr...

  12. Trend Surface Analysis of Hand, Food and Mouth Disease in Sarawak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Noraishah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we aim to fit a trend surface model for Hand, Foot And Mouth Disease (HFMD in Sarawak and also check the adequacy of the model obtained. For this, the epidemiological data of year 2012(outbreak year and 2011 are used. Models were built up to second order polynomial based on the idea that number of HFMD cases can be described by regression residual analysis. With Moran I statistic, residuals from all the trend surface models were examined for spatial autocorrelation. All six trend surface models for 2011 data had residuals that were not spatially autocorrelated. However, one model for 2012 data showed spatial autocorrelation. The best model for each year of the two years that represent disease outbreak and non-outbreak situations was selected based on Mallows’ Cp statistic. These models could be used to predict the number of cases for locations of interest.

  13. Is male homosexuality still a cultural taboo for kidney donation?

    OpenAIRE

    Geuna, Stefano; Piccoli, Giorgina Barbara

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Among the so-called social risk behaviors, male homosexuality is probably one of the most interesting and difficult taboos. Because of changing attitudes of the general population toward irregular sexual behaviors, often considered as markers of unhealthy life styles, there is a need to reconsider at least the most important one-homosexuality. METHODS: A semistructured questionnaire included opinions on homosexuality with respect to kidney donation: Would you consider a male homos...

  14. Routing Optimization Based on Taboo Search Algorithm for Logistic Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Hongxue Yang; Lingling Xuan

    2014-01-01

    Along with the widespread application of the electronic commerce in the modern business, the logistic distribution has become increasingly important. More and more enterprises recognize that the logistic distribution plays an important role in the process of production and sales. A good routing for logistic distribution can cut down transport cost and improve efficiency. In order to cut down transport cost and improve efficiency, a routing optimization based on taboo search for logistic distr...

  15. Talking Suicide : Online Conversations about a Taboo Subject

    OpenAIRE

    Westerlund, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The present article discusses intimate conversations about suicide that are pursued on the Internet. Computer-mediated communication has made it possible for participants to remain anonymous and, simultaneously, enter into a public space to share personal thoughts about a stigmatized and taboo subject. This has also created new and unique opportunities to study a type of communication that was previously very difficult to access. Most of the participants on the studied forum are teenagers or ...

  16. Solving touristic trip planning problem by using taboo search approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kadri Sylejmani; Agni Dika

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce an algorithm that automatically plans a touristic trip by considering some hard and soft constrains. Opening and closing hours of POIs, trip duration and trip allocated budget represent the hard constraints, while the satisfaction factors of the POIs and travelling distance in the trip are considered as soft constraints. We use the soft constraints to evaluate the generated solution of the algorithm. The algorithm is developed by utilizing the taboo search method a...

  17. Love Has (NO) Boundaries: Researching a Sexual Taboo

    OpenAIRE

    Dafna Shir-Vertesh

    2013-01-01

    Sexual and emotional attraction humans feel towards animals, also known as zoophilia, is perhaps the most controversial facet of human-animal relationships. In this article I explore this seemingly ultimate transgression of interspecies boundaries and probe the Israeli cultural encounters with it. I discern how the stated concerns for normative sexuality and animal rights masquerade the underlying factors in the zoophilia taboo, and reveal the cultural implications of human-animal sexual love...

  18. The Allure of the Forbidden: Breaking Taboos, Frustration, and Attraction to Violent Video Games

    OpenAIRE

    Whitaker, Jodi L.; Melzer, Andre?; Steffgen, Georges; Bushmann, Brad J.

    2013-01-01

    Although people typically avoid engaging in antisocial or taboo behaviors, such as cheating and stealing, they may succumb in order to maximize their personal benefit. Moreover, they may be frustrated when the chance to commit a taboo behavior is withdrawn. The present study tested whether the desire to commit a taboo behavior, and the frustration from being denied such an opportunity, increases attraction to violent video games. Playing violent games allegedly offers an outlet for aggression...

  19. Evaluating taboo trade-offs in ecosystems services and human well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daw, Tim M; Coulthard, Sarah; Cheung, William W L; Brown, Katrina; Abunge, Caroline; Galafassi, Diego; Peterson, Garry D; McClanahan, Tim R; Omukoto, Johnstone O; Munyi, Lydiah

    2015-06-01

    Managing ecosystems for multiple ecosystem services and balancing the well-being of diverse stakeholders involves different kinds of trade-offs. Often trade-offs involve noneconomic and difficult-to-evaluate values, such as cultural identity, employment, the well-being of poor people, or particular species or ecosystem structures. Although trade-offs need to be considered for successful environmental management, they are often overlooked in favor of win-wins. Management and policy decisions demand approaches that can explicitly acknowledge and evaluate diverse trade-offs. We identified a diversity of apparent trade-offs in a small-scale tropical fishery when ecological simulations were integrated with participatory assessments of social-ecological system structure and stakeholders' well-being. Despite an apparent win-win between conservation and profitability at the aggregate scale, food production, employment, and well-being of marginalized stakeholders were differentially influenced by management decisions leading to trade-offs. Some of these trade-offs were suggested to be "taboo" trade-offs between morally incommensurable values, such as between profits and the well-being of marginalized women. These were not previously recognized as management issues. Stakeholders explored and deliberated over trade-offs supported by an interactive "toy model" representing key system trade-offs, alongside qualitative narrative scenarios of the future. The concept of taboo trade-offs suggests that psychological bias and social sensitivity may exclude key issues from decision making, which can result in policies that are difficult to implement. Our participatory modeling and scenarios approach has the potential to increase awareness of such trade-offs, promote discussion of what is acceptable, and potentially identify and reduce obstacles to management compliance. PMID:26038547

  20. Love Has (NO Boundaries: Researching a Sexual Taboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafna Shir-Vertesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual and emotional attraction humans feel towards animals, also known as zoophilia, is perhaps the most controversial facet of human-animal relationships. In this article I explore this seemingly ultimate transgression of interspecies boundaries and probe the Israeli cultural encounters with it. I discern how the stated concerns for normative sexuality and animal rights masquerade the underlying factors in the zoophilia taboo, and reveal the cultural implications of human-animal sexual love in Israel. My fieldwork reveals not only the limits of acceptable human-animal love, but also the limits of legitimate research, and the consequences entailed for those who resolve to challenge them.

  1. The Linguistic Taboo between Malays and Ibans of Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affidah Morni

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    This study attempts to determine the Malays’ and Ibans’ perceptions on the use of linguistic taboo in their culture based on the specified domains and to investigate the occurrence of linguistic taboo in different domains. The outcome of this study would provide a useful understanding over the Malays’ and Ibans’ sensitivity over the usage of certain words which are considered taboo in their community. Hence, avoid occurrences of embarrassment or offensiveness by the speakers. Questionnaires were given to 40 Sarawak Malays and 40 Ibans of varying educational background and age in Kuching area. They were selected randomly based on convenience random sampling and the data were analyzed using SPSS 10.0. The findings show that many respondents believed that taboo words should not be spoken publicly or openly where certain topics should not be discussed in candid especially in relation to sex, body parts, bodily functions, death and dying. Nonetheless, the cultural norms, rules and the notion of politeness (and among the Malays the tenets of religion play significant roles in restricting the open use of these taboo words either behaviourally or linguistically. Comparatively, the Iban respondents seemed to be more expressive and candid in using taboo words in expressing their emotions, as compared to the Malays. It is also apparent that the use of taboo words can be acceptable depending on the domains and contexts.

    Key words: Linguistic Taboo; Euphemisms; Domains

    Résumé: Cette étude tente de déterminer les perceptions des Malais et des Ibans sur l'utilisation de tabou linguistique dans leur culture basée sur les domaines spécifiés et d'enquêter sur l'occurrence de tabou linguistique dans des domaines différents. Le résultat d

  2. What's the Matter with Food?: A Hands-On Action Research Study on the Effect of Using Food Preparation To Teach Students with Autism about the Three States of Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diller, Nicole

    This investigation studied the effectiveness of using food preparation to teach students with Autism about the three states of matter. A hands-on learning approach was used within the home and careers classroom. One class of five students, three boys and two girls, all diagnosed with Autism, participated in a five day academic unit about the three phases of matter: solid, liquid, and gas. The class received hands-on learning science instruction using food through various differentiated activities. Results indicate that students express focus when using food to learn. In addition, this study acknowledges that hands-on learning in science enhances the learning process of students with Autism. One of the main reasons is that students enjoy learning when this teaching style is used in the classroom, and students that enjoy what they are learning are more likely to be engaged and motivated to learn. After using this approach, all the students in the study increased their scores from the pre-assessments to the post-assessments. Students expressed through actions and words that they enjoyed using hands-on experiences to learn in the classroom. Implications for practice indicate that a variety of manipulatives are needed to teach students with Autism. Future research would help uncover additional information about student motivation and learning in the home and careers classroom.

  3. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 11. Use of antiseptics and sanitizers in community settings and issues of hand hygiene compliance in health care and food industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Ewen C D; Greig, Judy D; Michaels, Barry S; Bartleson, Charles A; Smith, Debra; Holah, John

    2010-12-01

    Hand washing with soap is a practice that has long been recognized as a major barrier to the spread of disease in food production, preparation, and service and in health care settings, including hospitals, child care centers, and elder care facilities. Many of these settings present multiple opportunities for spread of pathogens within at-risk populations, and extra vigilance must be applied. Unfortunately, hand hygiene is not always carried out effectively, and both enteric and respiratory diseases are easily spread in these environments. Where water is limited or frequent hand hygiene is required on a daily basis, such as for many patients in hospitals and astronauts in space travel, instant sanitizers or sanitary wipes are thought to be an effective way of preventing contamination and spread of organisms among coworkers and others. Most concerns regarding compliance are associated with the health care field, but the food industry also must be considered. Specific reasons for not washing hands at appropriate times are laziness, time pressure, inadequate facilities and supplies, lack of accountability, and lack of involvement by companies, managers, and workers in supporting proper hand washing. To facilitate improvements in hand hygiene, measurement of compliant and noncompliant actions is necessary before implementing any procedural changes. Training alone is not sufficient for long-lasting improvement. Multiactivity strategies also must include modification of the organization culture to encourage safe hygienic practices, motivation of employees willing to use peer pressure on noncompliant coworkers, a reward and/or penalty system, and an operational design that facilitates regular hand hygiene. PMID:21219754

  4. Optimal lunar soft landing trajectories using taboo evolutionary programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutyalarao, M.; Raj, M. Xavier James

    A safe lunar landing is a key factor to undertake an effective lunar exploration. Lunar lander consists of four phases such as launch phase, the earth-moon transfer phase, circumlunar phase and landing phase. The landing phase can be either hard landing or soft landing. Hard landing means the vehicle lands under the influence of gravity without any deceleration measures. However, soft landing reduces the vertical velocity of the vehicle before landing. Therefore, for the safety of the astronauts as well as the vehicle lunar soft landing with an acceptable velocity is very much essential. So it is important to design the optimal lunar soft landing trajectory with minimum fuel consumption. Optimization of Lunar Soft landing is a complex optimal control problem. In this paper, an analysis related to lunar soft landing from a parking orbit around Moon has been carried out. A two-dimensional trajectory optimization problem is attempted. The problem is complex due to the presence of system constraints. To solve the time-history of control parameters, the problem is converted into two point boundary value problem by using the maximum principle of Pontrygen. Taboo Evolutionary Programming (TEP) technique is a stochastic method developed in recent years and successfully implemented in several fields of research. It combines the features of taboo search and single-point mutation evolutionary programming. Identifying the best unknown parameters of the problem under consideration is the central idea for many space trajectory optimization problems. The TEP technique is used in the present methodology for the best estimation of initial unknown parameters by minimizing objective function interms of fuel requirements. The optimal estimation subsequently results into an optimal trajectory design of a module for soft landing on the Moon from a lunar parking orbit. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the proposed approach is highly efficient and it reduces the minimum fuel consumption. The results are compared with the available results in literature shows that the solution of present algorithm is better than some of the existing algorithms. Keywords: soft landing, trajectory optimization, evolutionary programming, control parameters, Pontrygen principle.

  5. Children's hands, hands diagnose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plain films of the hands show characteristic findings in several congenital and acquired disorders. We present examples of cases with key radiologic findings on the hands and wrists, for the diagnosis of such disorders

  6. In Search of the Nuclear Taboo. Past, Present, and Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most puzzling - if positive - phenomena of the past half century is the non-use of nuclear weapons. The puzzle relates to the absence of use despite the demonstrated technical effectiveness of the weapon, the enormous size of nuclear weapons stockpiles globally, the spread of nuclear weapons to states in most regions of the world, the centrality of nuclear weapons in the strategic doctrines and operational war plans of a growing number of states with very different cultures, political systems, and military traditions, and the observation of the tradition of non-use despite the lack of international legal prohibitions - unlike those in place with respect to chemical and biological weapons. This essay seeks to probe the underpinnings of nuclear weapons restraint, the strength and durability of the so-called nuclear 'taboo' - especially in light of the rise of non-states actors who covet nuclear weapons for purposes other than deterrence - and the most likely paths by which existing restraints might be breached, broken, or dissolved. Particular emphasis is placed on alternative futures as a number of other studies, including several important new volumes, have explored in depth the sources of non-use. (author)

  7. Solving touristic trip planning problem by using taboo search approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Sylejmani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce an algorithm that automatically plans a touristic trip by considering some hard and soft constrains. Opening and closing hours of POIs, trip duration and trip allocated budget represent the hard constraints, while the satisfaction factors of the POIs and travelling distance in the trip are considered as soft constraints. We use the soft constraints to evaluate the generated solution of the algorithm. The algorithm is developed by utilizing the taboo search method as a meta heuristic. The operators of Swap, Insert and Delete are used to explore the search space. The Swap and Insert operator are used in each iteration of the algorithm loop, while the Delete operator is used whenever the algorithm tends to enter in an endless cycle. The algorithm is developed by using Java programming language, while the data repositories are created in the XML format. The algorithm is tested with 40 instances of POIs of the city of Vienna. Various entry parameters of the algorithm are used to test its performance. The results gained are discussed and compared in respect to the optimal solution.

  8. Hand Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Injuries Procedures & Treatment Español Symptom Picker Videos Hand Anatomy Find a Hand Surgeon Menu About Hand Surgery ... Injuries Procedures & Treatment Español Symptom Picker Videos Hand Anatomy Find a Hand Surgeon MENU Menu About Hand ...

  9. Freud's presentation of 'the psychoanalytic mode of thought' in Totem and taboo and his technical papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, W I

    1998-06-01

    Freud considered 'the psychoanalytic mode of thought' to be an instrument of research. In 'Totem and Taboo', he demonstrated his mode of thinking by applying it to the data of contemporary studies of totemism. While taking the reader along the paths of his selection and weighing of information, he also applied clinical discoveries about mental life in reconstructing 'primitive psychological situations' in the distant past. In the technical papers that appeared concurrently with his book, he applied to the clinical situation the ideas on transference, narcissism, primitive mental mechanisms and unconscious communication that he had explored in 'Totem and Taboo'. In this paper, the author presents material showing the structure of Freud's exposition as a model of analytic exploration. Some of the principles of mental organisation mentioned by Freud are discussed. Examples are given of the close parallels between 'Totem and Taboo' and two technical papers. The author suggests that 'Totem and Taboo' is an important step in Freud's development of his theory of object relations and his ideas about the intersubjectivity of unconscious mental life. PMID:9717096

  10. The World After Proliferation, Deterrence and Disarmament if the Nuclear Taboo is Broken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    he nuclear taboo is customarily seen as a black and white norm, separating the world of the familiar from that of an unknowable afterlife.1 Nina Tannenwald argues that 'once the threshold between use and non-use is crossed, one is immediately in a new world with all the unimaginable consequences that could follow'. It is not correct, however, to say that the consequences are 'unimaginable'. They are certainly unpredictable, but one can imagine at least some of the consequences. This article attempts to do so with regard to consequences for proliferation, deterrence and disarmament. If the nuclear taboo were broken, whether by design, accident, miscalculation, or a breakdown of command and control, one of the more easily imagined consequences would be the collapse of the Nuclear Non- Proliferation Treaty (NPT). It is safe to assume that the use of nuclear weapons in war for the first time since 1945 would be a transformational event. But would nuclear use spell the failure of deterrence and doom the prospects of a nuclear-weapons free world, making obsolete much of the current thinking about nuclear disarmament and nuclear deterrence? Not every nuclear use scenario would necessarily break the lock on the nuclear Pandora's Box. A 'demonstration shot', for example, would not have the same impact as nuclear obliteration of a city. Both would be breaches of the taboo, but the use of a single nuclear bomb probably would not disrupt the status quo as thoroughly as would a massive attack or a two-way exchange. Breaching the taboo would not necessarily reverse the powerful norm and tradition that has developed in the last 60+ years against use of nuclear weapons. There is no compelling logic to assume that nuclear weapons would thereby become re-legitimized as instruments of war. The breaking of the nuclear taboo could actually spur either or both of two opposite reactions: an increased salience of nuclear weapons and a stimulus to disarmament. Which impulse prevails will depend on the circumstances, including how the taboo gets broken. This paper first lays out the case for each of these two disparate reactions, noting that history provides limited predictive power for what would be an unprecedented event. The paper then assesses the various circumstances in which nuclear weapons might be used, and how the context of their use would affect the development of new norms. (author)

  11. Arguing with the incest taboo? the case of "distorted cognitions" about child sexuality

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Diederik F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper seeks to open up critical reflection on the notion of "cognitive distortion" (CD), as applied to child sex offenders, to a broader anthropological account of children's sexual agency, namely the arguable revitalisation and extension of incest taboos through the post-1970s rubric of child sexual abuse. Sixteen scales that purport to measure CD (1984-2009) are listed, and their gist briefly appreciated against this interpretative background. Pitting social structure against the decon...

  12. Welcome and Introduction - 22nd Annual John K. Friesen Conference - Taboo Topics in Residential Care (2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Sixsmith, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This video comprises the welcoming address by Dr. Andrew Sixsmith to the attendees of the 22nd Annual John K. Friesen Conference, "Taboo Topics in Residential Care," held MAY 27-28, 2013, Vancouver, BC.   The Simon Fraser University Gerontology Research Centre (GRC) and the associated Gerontology Department in cooperation with Fraser Health, the Public Guardian and Trustee of British Columbia, the Seniors’ Directorate, Ministry of Health, Province of British Columbia and Vancouve...

  13. Genetic evolutionary taboo search for optimal marker placement in infrared patient setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In infrared patient setup adequate selection of the external fiducial configuration is required for compensating inner target displacements (target registration error, TRE). Genetic algorithms (GA) and taboo search (TS) were applied in a newly designed approach to optimal marker placement: the genetic evolutionary taboo search (GETS) algorithm. In the GETS paradigm, multiple solutions are simultaneously tested in a stochastic evolutionary scheme, where taboo-based decision making and adaptive memory guide the optimization process. The GETS algorithm was tested on a group of ten prostate patients, to be compared to standard optimization and to randomly selected configurations. The changes in the optimal marker configuration, when TRE is minimized for OARs, were specifically examined. Optimal GETS configurations ensured a 26.5% mean decrease in the TRE value, versus 19.4% for conventional quasi-Newton optimization. Common features in GETS marker configurations were highlighted in the dataset of ten patients, even when multiple runs of the stochastic algorithm were performed. Including OARs in TRE minimization did not considerably affect the spatial distribution of GETS marker configurations. In conclusion, the GETS algorithm proved to be highly effective in solving the optimal marker placement problem. Further work is needed to embed site-specific deformation models in the optimization process

  14. Arguing with the incest taboo? the case of "distorted cognitions" about child sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diederik F Janssen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to open up critical reflection on the notion of "cognitive distortion" (CD, as applied to child sex offenders, to a broader anthropological account of children's sexual agency, namely the arguable revitalisation and extension of incest taboos through the post-1970s rubric of child sexual abuse. Sixteen scales that purport to measure CD (1984-2009 are listed, and their gist briefly appreciated against this interpretative background. Pitting social structure against the deconstructive and disloyal crime of perversion, the pronouncement of CD shows a deep complicity to the moral status quo, namely the faithful recitation and procedural accreditation of essentially regulatory rubrics, fixtures, and truisms ("sexuality", "sexual trauma", "harm", "consent". It thus paraphrases the anthropologically expected collapse of nuance between immoral and illogical ideas at the site of social taboos, especially taboos' contemporary predicament of ever more argumentative perverts and ever more decontextualised, and thus erratic, scientific probing. In the end, the perverts are those who, in all nuances of the expression, "don't get it." Circumscribing the "rationalisations, distortions, and blame shifting" of the paraphile remains the - increasingly awkward and panicked - occasion for entrenching society's.

  15. Arguing with the incest taboo? the case of "distorted cognitions" about child sexuality

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diederik F, Janssen.

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to open up critical reflection on the notion of "cognitive distortion" (CD), as applied to child sex offenders, to a broader anthropological account of children's sexual agency, namely the arguable revitalisation and extension of incest taboos through the post-1970s rubric of child [...] sexual abuse. Sixteen scales that purport to measure CD (1984-2009) are listed, and their gist briefly appreciated against this interpretative background. Pitting social structure against the deconstructive and disloyal crime of perversion, the pronouncement of CD shows a deep complicity to the moral status quo, namely the faithful recitation and procedural accreditation of essentially regulatory rubrics, fixtures, and truisms ("sexuality", "sexual trauma", "harm", "consent"). It thus paraphrases the anthropologically expected collapse of nuance between immoral and illogical ideas at the site of social taboos, especially taboos' contemporary predicament of ever more argumentative perverts and ever more decontextualised, and thus erratic, scientific probing. In the end, the perverts are those who, in all nuances of the expression, "don't get it." Circumscribing the "rationalisations, distortions, and blame shifting" of the paraphile remains the - increasingly awkward and panicked - occasion for entrenching society's.

  16. [Avoidance of feudal taboo on emperors' names in perused versions of Yi jin jing (Classic of Changing Tendon) and the time of its transcription and blockprinting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Bin

    2013-11-01

    By studying the avoidance of feudal taboo on emperors' names in the perusal of 48 extant versions of Yi jin jing (Classic of Changing Tendon), together with their contents, it is found that these versions are of valuable editions and 15 of them can be viewed as the early representative works of Yi jin jing, including 8 hand copied versions, and 7 blockprinted versions. No version of the Ming Dynasty can be found. The earliest versions are all transcribed ones, while the earliest extant blockprinted version appeared until the Daoguang reign of the Qing Dynasty. The preface of Shen's checked version doesn't avoid the emperor's name, saying that it was written in the "xin chou" year of Shunzhi, hence, it should be copied in the early Kangxi reign, and is the earliest hand copied version. The hand copied version of Yongzheng reign avoids the word "xuan", yet doesn't avoid the word "hong", also with a preface written in Yongzheng reign, indicating that this one is the earliest next to the previous one. Since the Xidi version avoids both the words "xuan" and "hong", it should be copied during or after the Qianlong reign. The earliest extant blockprinted edition is the one checked and printed by Fu Jin-quan in the third year of Daoguang which might also be the earliest blockprinted edition. That collection by Zhu Wenlan and Laizhangshi might be all later editions. PMID:24524641

  17. Totem e Tabu: uma "semiologia psicanalítica" em Freud? / Totem and Taboo: a Freud's "psychoanalytical semiology"?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Victor Eduardo Silva, Bento.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O tema deste artigo é a pesquisa de revisão sobre a seguinte questão: quais seriam os fundamentos freudianos para uma "semiologia psicanalítica" e para o método de pesquisa de revisão de literatura em psicanálise? Foi discutida a hipótese de que "Totem e Tabu" constituiu a primeira semiologia psican [...] alítica de Freud, pois, ainda que Freud não tenha nessa obra se utilizado dessa expressão, pareceu ter ali feito a prática da semiologia psicanalítica dos dois signos: "Totem" e "Tabu". Concluiu-se que, para manter uma ótica psicanalítica freudiana num estudo semiológico, seria necessário enfatizar a análise radical dos universais da linguagem - reveladores da natureza humana profunda -, do psiquismo inconsciente do homem, extraindo tais universais, num primeiro tempo, dos totens e mitos, mas, também, num segundo tempo, dos tabus e das religiões. A demanda pelo exame de "escritos" pareceu, assim, justificar o método de revisão de literatura em psicanálise. Abstract in english This paper focus is a review about the Freudian issues about a psychoanalytical semiology and a research method of lecture review. The hypothesis that "Totem and Taboo" is the first Freud's psychoanalytical semiology has been discussed. Though Freud did not use such a term, it was argued that Freud [...] did in this book the psychoanalytical semiology of the two signs: "Totem" and "Taboo". This paper concluded that in order to do a semiological study, it would be necessary to emphasize the analysis of the universal language patterns which reveal the deepest human nature and the unconscious psychism. Such analysis should be done in two different phases: the first one, seeking those patterns within the totems and myths; the second one, seeking the same patterns within the taboos and religions. This kind of study requires writings survey, and justifies the use of literature review as psychoanalytical method in.

  18. The Hitting Times with Taboo for a Random Walk on an Integer Lattice

    OpenAIRE

    Bulinskaya, Ekaterina

    2011-01-01

    For a symmetric, homogeneous and irreducible random walk on d-dimensional integer lattice Z^d, having zero mean and a finite variance of jumps, we study the passage times (with possible infinite values) determined by the starting point x, the hitting state y and the taboo state z. We find the probability that these passages times are finite and analyze the tails of their cumulative distribution functions. In particular, it turns out that for the random walk on Z^d, except fo...

  19. Hand Washing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... If soap and water aren't available, waterless hand sanitizers, soaps, or scrubs are a good alternative. They're usually available as a liquid, wipes, spray, or towelettes, and often come in ... or sports bag. Good hand washing is the key to preventing the spread ...

  20. TRADITIONAL FOOD HABITS OF THE BODOS OF NORTH EAST INDIA: A FIELD STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    GUDDU PRASAD BASUMATARY

    2012-01-01

    This is a brief overview of the traditional food habits of the Bodos North East India. Food is the culture and the culture is the identity of any communities. The traditional system of fooding, preparing, rituals, taboos or health care varies community wise. But the significance of the word TRADITION is decreasing day by day, in short the word tradition itself changing traditionally due to the global impact of globalization and as well as due to socio-economic development ...

  1. Hand Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Exploratorium

    2011-12-05

    In this activity about chemistry and electricity, learners form a battery by placing their hands onto plates of different metals. Learners detect the current by reading a DC microammeter attached to the metal plates. Learners experiment with different metals to find out what combination produces the most current as well as testing what happens when they press harder on the plates or wet their hands. Learners also investigate what happens when they wire the plates to a voltmeter.

  2. Right Hand/Left Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    In this activity (1st on the page), learners conduct a series of tests to find out which of their hands is more dominant. In other words, are they right-handed or left-handed? Learners work in pairs and observe each other doing simple tasks like writing, cutting, and throwing a ball. They collect data to draw conclusions about their partner's handedness. This resource also includes two questionnaires about the strength of handedness as well as an online and offline test for handedness.

  3. Study on Post Transportation Vehicle Routing Problem Based on Taboo-Genetic Hybrid algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the operational efficiency of post transportation network, a hybrid post transportation model with center location and vehicle routing problem is proposed. Some important factors, such as pick-up and delivery of packages and multi-type vehicles, are also considered in the presented model. The solution of the model is divided into two stages. In the first stage, the third-level post centers and their regions are determined. Moreover, the deliver tasks between the second-level and the third-level post centers are distributed. In the second stage, the vehicle scheduling problem of each post center is solved. The center distribution method and taboo-genetic hybrid algorithm are employed in second stages, respectively. Finally, the empirical analysis is performed with actual data of Guizhou Post. The results show that the proposed model and algorithm are valid and practical.

  4. Westermarck, Freud, and the incest taboo: does familial resemblance activate sexual attraction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, R Chris; Marks, Michael J

    2010-09-01

    Evolutionary psychological theories assume that sexual aversions toward kin are triggered by a nonconscious mechanism that estimates the genetic relatedness between self and other. This article presents an alternative perspective that assumes that incest avoidance arises from consciously acknowledged taboos and that when awareness of the relationship between self and other is bypassed, people find individuals who resemble their kin more sexually appealing. Three experiments demonstrate that people find others more sexually attractive if they have just been subliminally exposed to an image of their opposite-sex parent (Experiment 1) or if the face being rated is a composite image based on the self (Experiment 2). This finding is reversed when people are aware of the implied genetic relationship (Experiment 3). These findings have implications for a century-old debate between E. Westermarck and S. Freud, as well as contemporary research on evolution, mate choice, and sexual imprinting. PMID:20647594

  5. Survey reveals sexual myths and taboos prevail among Sri Lankan youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    A survey conducted by the Family Planning Association of Sri Lanka in 1986-87 revealed that sexual myths and taboos--not solid information about human physiology and development--dominate young people's knowledge of reproductive health. The survey, which covered 1233 unmarried men and 1233 unmarried women 16-24 years of age, found that the majority of Sri Lankan youth had misconceptions and fears about normal processes such as menstruation, nocturnal emissions, and masturbation. Sex education is not a part of the curriculum in Sri Lankan schools, although 90% of the youth surveyed believed such courses should be offered. Over 75% of the men surveyed said it was important that their future wives be virgins, but only 17% knew that not all women bleed at 1st intercourse. Females reported that their mothers focused on the social rituals associated with menarche (isolation, a special diet, taboos against bathing) and did not explain the physiology of this event. 55% of females indicated they had been frightened by their 1st menstrual period. 69% of the males surveyed had experienced nocturnal emissions; 60% thought these emissions weakened the body and 64% thought they caused weight loss. 66% of males and 5% of females indicated they masturbated; nearly 70% of males and 85% of females thought this practice resulted in physical, mental, and sexual problems. 23% believed masturbation caused mental deterioration. Overall, the results of this survey demonstrate an urgent need for Sri Lankan youth to receive accurate information about sexuality and reproductive health, optimally through the schools. PMID:12281988

  6. Tabud ja reeglid. Sissevaateid eesti laagriromaani / Taboos and Rules. Insights into Prison Camp Novels by Estonian Writers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneli Kõvamees

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article concentrates on Estonian novels depicting Soviet prison camps in the 1940s and 1950s. The goal is to map themes, motifs and characteristics in such novels, concentrating on various taboos and rules in the prison camp environment. For a long time the Soviet prison camp theme was not publicly discussed in Estonia due to political reasons. Texts dealing with prison camps could appear in print only outside the Soviet Union; the way Estonians saw these historical events and hellish experiences were depicted mostly in exile novels. Most notable are the novels by Arved Viirlaid (b. 1922, e.g., Kes tappis Eerik Hormi? (Who Killed Eerik Horm? (1974, Surnud ei loe (The Dead do not Read (1975, Vaim ja ahelad (Mind and Chains (1961.Estonian prison camp novels can be seen as “the literature of testimony”, to use the term by Leona Toker. Dramatic historical events are written down to record the events and to show the inhumane nature of Soviet society. These records of the dramatic past follow certain patterns and create certain self- and hetero-images.A prison camp is a closed territory within a closed territory; prison camps can be seen as small models of Soviet society. Prison camp novels give a detailed view of the environment of the prison camp, its inhabitants and activities. Two central aspects are labour and food; the life of the prisoner whirls around these. The most important thing is to survive, which often leads to moral decline, e.g., stealing, cheating. However, there are lines Estonians do not cross, e.g., cannibalism or homosexual relationships with superiors. Estonians are always depicted as political prisoners (not common criminals and heterosexuals, while Russians are portrayed mainly as criminals and often also as homosexuals. Another important component of the image of the Estonians is their enterprising spirit and ability to manage even under very difficult conditions. Therefore, several oppositions can be identified, e.g., Estonians vs. Russians; political prisoners vs. criminals; heterosexuals vs. homosexuals; civilized vs. barbaric, etc.

  7. Preventing food poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... food poisoning , take the following steps when preparing food: Carefully wash your hands often, and always before cooking or cleaning. Always wash them again after touching raw meat. Clean dishes and utensils that have had any contact with raw meat, ...

  8. Hand Osteoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farzan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Osteoblastoma is one of the rarest primary bone tumors. Although, small bones of the hands and feet are the third most common location for this tumor, the hand involvement is very rare and few case observations were published in the English-language literature. Materials and Methods: In this study, we report five cases of benign osteoblastoma of the hand, 3 in metacarpals and two in phalanxes. The clinical feature is not specific. The severe nocturnal, salicylate-responsive pain is not present in patients with osteoblastoma. The pain is dull, persistent and less localized. The clinical course is usually long and there is often symptoms for months before medical attention are sought. Swelling is a more persistent finding in osteoblastoma of the hand that we found in all of our patients. The radiologic findings are indistinctive, so preoperative diagnosis based on X-ray appearance is difficult. In all of our 5 cases, we fail to consider osteoblastoma as primary diagnosis. Pathologically, osteoblastoma consisting of a well-vascularized connective tissue stroma in which there is active production of osteoid and primitive woven bone. Treatment depends on the stage and localization of the tumor. Curettage and bone grafting is sufficient in stage 1 or stage 2, but in stage 3 wide resection is necessary for prevention of recurrence. Osteosarcoma is the most important differential diagnosis that may lead to inappropriate operation.

  9. Robot Hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    This activity explores how sensing is part of robotics. Learners try tying their shoes with different constraints. After tying shoes normally, learners attempt to tie their shoes while wearing thick gloves or with popsicle sticks taped to their hands so their fingers can't bend. A connection is made to the limitations of the motion of robots, and the role of design in allowing robots to perform different functions.

  10. The relationship between familial resemblance and sexual attraction: an update on Westermarck, Freud, and the incest taboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Debra; Fessler, Daniel M T; Smith, Adam

    2011-09-01

    Foundational principles of evolutionary theory predict that inbreeding avoidance mechanisms should exist in all species--including humans--in which close genetic relatives interact during periods of sexual maturity. Voluminous empirical evidence, derived from diverse taxa, supports this prediction. Despite such results, Fraley and Marks claim to provide evidence that humans are sexually attracted to close genetic relatives and that such attraction is held in check by cultural taboos. Here, the authors show that Fraley and Marks, in their search for an alternate explanation of inbreeding avoidance, misapply theoretical constructs from evolutionary biology and social psychology, leading to an incorrect interpretation of their results. The authors propose that Fraley and Marks's central findings can be explained in ways consistent with existing evolutionary models of inbreeding avoidance. The authors conclude that appropriate application of relevant theory and stringent experimental design can generate fruitful investigations into sexual attraction, inbreeding avoidance, and incest taboos. PMID:21525329

  11. Alcohol, Drugs and Tobacco in Institutional Settings - 22nd Annual John K. Friesen Conference - Taboo Topics in Residential Care (2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Weston, Ely; Cox, Lottie; Steele, Duncan

    2013-01-01

    This video comprises presentations for the topic: “Alcohol, Drugs and Tobacco in Institutional Settings” held at the 22nd Annual John K. Friesen Conference, "Taboo Topics in Residential Care," MAY 27-28, 2013, Vancouver, BC.   Chair: Kelly Acker (Manager, Strategic Planning, Seniors’ Directorate, BC Ministry of Health).   Presentations: Ely Weston (Community Program Manager, Vancouver Coastal Health/Providence Health Care Clinical Smoking Cessation Program); ...

  12. Tabus sexuais entre professores e alunos / Sexual taboos among teachers and students

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antônio, Zuin.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O poder da sexualidade nas relações entre professores e alunos é tão intenso quanto o esforço feito pelos agentes educacionais em negá-lo. O termo tabu representa a exata designação do que tal terminologia suscita: algo misterioso e, principalmente, proibido. De fato, a questão sexual entre professo [...] res e alunos concerne a uma esfera tão proibitiva que sequer é mencionada, haja vista a escassez de pesquisas que versam a esse respeito. Daí o objetivo deste artigo, ou seja, analisar a ambivalência dos sentimentos de amor e de ódio que se objetivam na sexualidade existente entre professores e alunos. Abstract in english The power of sexuality in teacher-student relationships is as intense as the effort made by educational institutions to deny it. The term "taboo"represents the exact designation of what such terminology means: something mysterious and mainly forbidden. In fact, the sexual issue among teachers and st [...] udents concerns such a forbidding sphere that it is hardly mentioned, which explains the little research that has been carried out in this field. Thus, this paper is aimed at analyzing the ambivalence of feelings of love and hate found in the teacher-student sexuality.

  13. Sobre a atualidade dos tabus com relação aos professores Taboos against teachers today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio A. S. Zuin

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Este texto tem como objetivo argumentar que as atuais representações aversivas dos alunos com relação aos seus mestres, os chamados tabus, são decorrentes da violência simbólica que o professor exerce sobre o aluno, com ênfase na universidade. E se a atitude violenta causa inicialmente uma sensação de mal-estar, logo é identificada como algo "inerente" ao processo de ensino-aprendizagem. Tal violência torna-se valorizada tanto pelos professores quanto pelos alunos que se identificam com o professor na figura do agressor, sendo que tais alunos procuram encontrar oportunidades para poder se desforrar do ressentimento que foi engendrado nas relações cotidianas com seus mestres.This paper intends to argue that the current averse representations students have of their teachers, the so called taboos, follow from the symbolic violence teachers exert on them, mainly in the university. If this violent attitude initially causes a sensation of discomfort, it is soon identified as something "inherent" to the teaching and learning process. Therefore, it is often highly prized by teachers and by the students who identify themselves with the professor as an aggressor, while these students look for opportunities to let go of the resentment generated by their daily relationships to their masters.

  14. Tabus sexuais entre professores e alunos Sexual taboos among teachers and students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Zuin

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O poder da sexualidade nas relações entre professores e alunos é tão intenso quanto o esforço feito pelos agentes educacionais em negá-lo. O termo tabu representa a exata designação do que tal terminologia suscita: algo misterioso e, principalmente, proibido. De fato, a questão sexual entre professores e alunos concerne a uma esfera tão proibitiva que sequer é mencionada, haja vista a escassez de pesquisas que versam a esse respeito. Daí o objetivo deste artigo, ou seja, analisar a ambivalência dos sentimentos de amor e de ódio que se objetivam na sexualidade existente entre professores e alunos.The power of sexuality in teacher-student relationships is as intense as the effort made by educational institutions to deny it. The term "taboo"represents the exact designation of what such terminology means: something mysterious and mainly forbidden. In fact, the sexual issue among teachers and students concerns such a forbidding sphere that it is hardly mentioned, which explains the little research that has been carried out in this field. Thus, this paper is aimed at analyzing the ambivalence of feelings of love and hate found in the teacher-student sexuality.

  15. Holiday Food Safety

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This Holiday Food Safety Video shows how to store, prepare, and serve food safely to prevent foodborne illness from ruining the holidays. Follow these easy steps: C LEAN: Wash hands and surfaces often SEPARATE: Separate raw meats from other foods COOK: Cook to the right ...

  16. Anglicismo y tabú: valores axiológicos del anglicismo / Anglicism and taboo: axiological values of the pure anglicism

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eliecer, Crespo-Fernández; Carmen, Luján-García.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available La influencia del inglés en la lengua española en el ámbito del erotismo y la sexualidad ha dado lugar a un número considerable de anglicismos crudos para la designación de conceptos de la esfera sexual. Es el propósito de este trabajo examinar los valores axiológicos que el anglicismo presenta en e [...] l vocabulario sexual en el español europeo. Para ello, analizaremos los valores eufemísticos, disfemísticos y cuasieufemísticos que el anglicismo de naturaleza sexual presenta en un corpus léxico de anglicismos crudos extraídos del Diccionario gay-lésbico (2008) y del Diccionario del sexo y el erotismo (2011). El análisis realizado demuestra que las voces anglicadas utilizadas en la esfera sexual no sólo buscan atenuar los tabúes lingüísticos, sino que también se usan para ofender y degradar e incluso para que un grupo social monopolice una serie de voces alusivas a conceptos vitandos. Abstract in english The influence of English on Spanish within the field of eroticism and sexuality has led to a considerable number of pure anglicisms to designate sex-related concepts. In this regard, it is the aim of this paper to examine the axiological values that anglicisms present in Spanish sexual vocabulary. T [...] o this end, we will explore the euphemistic, dysphemistic and quasieuphemistic values that sex-related anglicisms present in a corpus of pure anglicisms excerpted from two dictionaries: Diccionario gay-lésbico (2008) and Diccionario del sexo y el erotismo (2011). The analysis reveals that English borrowings do not only veil the so called linguistic taboos, but they are also used to disparage and degrade and even as a sign of cohesion within a group.

  17. Taboo search algorithm for item assignment in synchronized zone automated order picking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingying; Wu, Yaohua

    2014-07-01

    The idle time which is part of the order fulfillment time is decided by the number of items in the zone; therefore the item assignment method affects the picking efficiency. Whereas previous studies only focus on the balance of number of kinds of items between different zones but not the number of items and the idle time in each zone. In this paper, an idle factor is proposed to measure the idle time exactly. The idle factor is proven to obey the same vary trend with the idle time, so the object of this problem can be simplified from minimizing idle time to minimizing idle factor. Based on this, the model of item assignment problem in synchronized zone automated order picking system is built. The model is a form of relaxation of parallel machine scheduling problem which had been proven to be NP-complete. To solve the model, a taboo search algorithm is proposed. The main idea of the algorithm is minimizing the greatest idle factor of zones with the 2-exchange algorithm. Finally, the simulation which applies the data collected from a tobacco distribution center is conducted to evaluate the performance of the algorithm. The result verifies the model and shows the algorithm can do a steady work to reduce idle time and the idle time can be reduced by 45.63% on average. This research proposed an approach to measure the idle time in synchronized zone automated order picking system. The approach can improve the picking efficiency significantly and can be seen as theoretical basis when optimizing the synchronized automated order picking systems.

  18. Food Chain & Food Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ms. B

    2011-10-27

    What are the differences and similarities between food chain and food web? Print (2) Garden Gate Print (1) Venn Diagram Garden Gate Venn Diagram Let's learn about the food chain and food web.Read the notes.Food Chain 4 Also, view more notes on food chain and food web. Go to the 7th title Food Chain which is before the Habitats and food chain title of the webpage.Food Chain Power Point Presentation Record what you learn ...

  19. SEXUALIDADE NA ADOLESCÊNCIA: MITOS E TABUS SEXUALIDAD EN LA ADOLESCENCIA: MITOS Y TABÚES SEXUALITY IN ADOLESCENCE: MYTHS AND TABOOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Baccarat de Godoy Martins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A adolescência é uma fase da vida humana em que a sexualidade se insere como uma redescoberta, trazendo certa vulnerabilidade, principalmente decorrente de mitos e tabus. Este trabalho teve como objetivo identificar alguns tabus e mitos relativos à sexualidade, vivenciados pelos adolescentes de Cuiabá-MT. Pesquisa quantitativa, cuja população de estudo foi composta por estudantes do primeiro ano do ensino médio do ensino público de Cuiabá. Os dados foram coletados por instrumento fechado e processados eletronicamente, com análises simples e bivariadas (pLa adolescencia es una fase de la vida humana en que la sexualidad se manifiesta como un redescubrimiento, provocando cierta vulnerabilidad, resultante principalmente de mitos y tabúes. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo identificar algunos tabúes y mitos en relación con la sexualidad, vivenciados por los adolescentes de Cuiabá-MT. Investigación cuantitativa, cuya población de estudio estuvo integrada por estudiantes de primer año de enseñanza secundaria pública de Cuiabá. Los datos fueron recogidos por instrumentos de respuesta cerrada y procesados electrónicamente, por análisis simples y bivariadas (pAdolescence is a phase of human life in which sexuality appears as a rediscovery, causing certain vulnerability mainly due to myths and taboos. This study aimed to identify some taboos and myths regarding sexuality, experienced by adolescents in Cuiabá-MT. Quantitative research, whose study population was composed by students from the frst year of Cuiabá public high school education. Data were collected by a closed answer instrument and electronically processed, with simple and bivariate analysis (p<0.05. Adolescents believe that alcohol and drugs increase sexual desire, do not relate the possibility of pregnancy to the practice of intercrural sex without protection, they believe there is no risk of pregnancy during the menstrual period; those without sexual experience could not tell what infuences the pleasure of sexual intercourse; among those sexually active there have been responses like “the bigger the boy’s penis the greater the pleasure of the girls” and “a boy will always feel more pleasure than girls”; for a sexual relation to happen one must love the partner (for girls and just feel attraction (for boys; boys prefer to marry a virgin. The gender differences in behavior indicate taboos rooted in the cultural cradle of society, in which sexual education, repressive in nature, contributes to maintain men and women roles and sexual values frmly set even today, although the new generations have started to introduce new behaviors. It becomes urgent to guarantee the adolescent orientation on the development of their sexuality, in order to prevent risk behaviors resulting from the taboos and myths.

  20. Division of Labor in Hand Usage Is Associated with Higher Hand Performance in Free-Ranging Bonnet Macaques, Macaca radiata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalam, Madhur; Desai, Nisarg; Singh, Mewa

    2015-01-01

    A practical approach to understanding lateral asymmetries in body, brain, and cognition would be to examine the performance advantages/disadvantages associated with the corresponding functions and behavior. In the present study, we examined whether the division of labor in hand usage, marked by the preferential usage of the two hands across manual operations requiring maneuvering in three-dimensional space (e.g., reaching for food, grooming, and hitting an opponent) and those requiring physical strength (e.g., climbing), is associated with higher hand performance in free-ranging bonnet macaques, Macaca radiata. We determined the extent to which the macaques exhibit laterality in hand usage in an experimental unimanual and a bimanual food-reaching task, and the extent to which manual laterality is associated with hand performance in an experimental hand-performance-differentiation task. We observed negative relationships between (a) the latency in food extraction by the preferred hand in the hand-performance-differentiation task (wherein, lower latency implies higher performance), the preferred hand determined using the bimanual food-reaching task, and the normalized difference between the performance of the two hands, and (b) the normalized difference between the performance of the two hands and the absolute difference between the laterality in hand usage in the unimanual and the bimanual food-reaching tasks (wherein, lesser difference implies higher manual specialization). Collectively, these observations demonstrate that the division of labor between the two hands is associated with higher hand performance. PMID:25806511

  1. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... around you must practice proper hand hygiene. This means that people should wash their hands, either with ... around you must practice proper hand hygiene. This means that people should wash their hands, either with ...

  2. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... should wash their hands, either with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. You ... nurses – either wash their hands with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer every ...

  3. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that people should wash their hands, either with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand ... doctors and nurses – either wash their hands with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand ...

  4. Food Preservation beyond the Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanes, Phyllis

    1992-01-01

    Examines how current scientific knowledge of food preservation emerged from traditions handed down through the generations. Discusses various methods of preservation, their history, and current application. (LZ)

  5. TRADITIONAL FOOD HABITS OF THE BODOS OF NORTH EAST INDIA: A FIELD STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUDDU PRASAD BASUMATARY

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a brief overview of the traditional food habits of the Bodos North East India. Food is the culture and the culture is the identity of any communities. The traditional system of fooding, preparing, rituals, taboos or health care varies community wise. But the significance of the word TRADITION is decreasing day by day, in short the word tradition itself changing traditionally due to the global impact of globalization and as well as due to socio-economic development of the society

  6. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your hands and make sure that everyone who touches you – including your doctor – cleanses their hands too. ... sanitizer every time, both before and after they touch you. Healthcare providers know to practice hand hygiene, ...

  7. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... either with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. You and your loved ones ... hands with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer every time, both before and ...

  8. [On the way to the secret of Freudian psychoanalysis. From Emmy von N. to "Totem and taboo"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, N; Torok, M

    1993-09-01

    The authors approach the work of Sigmund Freud by regarding the theory and history of psychoanalysis in terms of a feature that they have in common, namely secrecy. This proclivity towards secrecy, which stands in contradiction to the psychoanalytic principle of total frankness and demystification, is illustrated by a number of examples-the suggestion made by Jones to Ferenczi and Freud in 1911 for the "formation of a secret committee to supervise the development of psychoanalysis"; the censorship practised by Jones in connection with the use of the Freud Archives; and the case history of Emmy von N., where Freud assumes the role of depositary for the memories communicated by his patient under hypnosis and observes strict secrecy about them. The authors give a particularly detailed account of the evidence of the "secret of psychoanalysis" to be traced in Totem and Taboo, which they elucidate with the aid of a reading of Shakespeare's Tempest. PMID:8210450

  9. SEXUALIDADE NA ADOLESCÊNCIA: MITOS E TABUS / SEXUALITY IN ADOLESCENCE: MYTHS AND TABOOS / SEXUALIDAD EN LA ADOLESCENCIA: MITOS Y TABÚES

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Christine, Baccarat de Godoy Martins; Fabiana Maria, De Almeida; Lidiane Cristina, Alencastro; Karla, Fonseca De Matos; Solange, Pires Salomé De Souza.

    Full Text Available A adolescência é uma fase da vida humana em que a sexualidade se insere como uma redescoberta, trazendo certa vulnerabilidade, principalmente decorrente de mitos e tabus. Este trabalho teve como objetivo identificar alguns tabus e mitos relativos à sexualidade, vivenciados pelos adolescentes de Cuia [...] bá-MT. Pesquisa quantitativa, cuja população de estudo foi composta por estudantes do primeiro ano do ensino médio do ensino público de Cuiabá. Os dados foram coletados por instrumento fechado e processados eletronicamente, com análises simples e bivariadas (p Abstract in spanish La adolescencia es una fase de la vida humana en que la sexualidad se manifiesta como un redescubrimiento, provocando cierta vulnerabilidad, resultante principalmente de mitos y tabúes. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo identificar algunos tabúes y mitos en relación con la sexualidad, vivenciados por [...] los adolescentes de Cuiabá-MT. Investigación cuantitativa, cuya población de estudio estuvo integrada por estudiantes de primer año de enseñanza secundaria pública de Cuiabá. Los datos fueron recogidos por instrumentos de respuesta cerrada y procesados electrónicamente, por análisis simples y bivariadas (p Abstract in english Adolescence is a phase of human life in which sexuality appears as a rediscovery, causing certain vulnerability mainly due to myths and taboos. This study aimed to identify some taboos and myths regarding sexuality, experienced by adolescents in Cuiabá-MT. Quantitative research, whose study populati [...] on was composed by students from the frst year of Cuiabá public high school education. Data were collected by a closed answer instrument and electronically processed, with simple and bivariate analysis (p

  10. Food for Disasters

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-23

    When disaster strikes, you might not have access to food or water. This podcast discusses types of emergency food supplies you should keep on hand in your emergency kit.  Created: 7/23/2012 by Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (PHPR).   Date Released: 7/23/2012.

  11. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... providers – including doctors and nurses – either wash their hands with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand ... providers – including doctors and nurses – either wash their hands with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand ...

  12. Food security: status and concerns of India

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Rajesh; Bagaria, Nidhi; Santra, Swarup

    2014-01-01

    At one hand, various factors like food production, rising food prices, poverty, unemployment, climate changes, efficient public distribution of food, affecting the food security are the major concerns at domestic front, passing of ambitious Food Security Bill in Sep, 2013 by UPA government in India to provide the basic food staples at highly subsidized prices aimed at ensuring the economic access to food for around two-third of its population coupled with India’s obligations of agriculture ...

  13. Preparation and evaluation of hand rub disinfectant

    OpenAIRE

    Padsalgi Amol; Jain Devendra; Bidkar Sanjay; Harinarayana Dommati; Jadhav Vijay

    2008-01-01

    The present work is to formulate effective hand rub disinfectant by selecting broad-spectrum antimicrobial and antifungal agents. Increased need of easy-to-use hand rub disinfectant in pharmaceutical, food processing industry, hospitals, and in clinical labs necessitated development of the best possible product. Formulations were prepared using Benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine gluconate as potent disinfectants along with alcohol 70%. In low concentration they were highly effective ...

  14. Food for tourists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne-Mette; Corigliano, Magda Antolioli

    Eating is a physical necessity, but catering services and food image are also very important ingredients of cultural tourism. Food and tourism are increasingly being combined, e.g. in agri-tourism, wine tours and the sale of food products as souvenirs. However, as this paper illustrates, the development and standards of food for tourists are determined not by tourism policies, but by national economic, agricultural and food policies. A comparison between Denmark and Italy illustrates core elements in food cultures. Particularly in Denmark, food production is a major economic activity, and the power of the agricultural and food processing industries has in many cases severely compromised the quality image. In Italy, on the other hand, food policies and traditions, which give a high priority to freshness, allow consumers to stay in control of food quality to a much larger extent than in Denmark. In both countries, a concentration of tourists in space and time tends to result in a decline of food quality. The paper concludes that only residents are in a position to put a more permanent pressure on food suppliers, and only if they are given the appropriate instruments. Further improvement of the food heritage in both countries (but especially in Denmark) will have to include a reconsideration, and probably changes, in food policies in more global terms.

  15. Food hygienics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with food hygienics with eighteen chapters, which mention introduction on purpose of food hygienics, administration of food hygienics, food and microscopic organism, sanitary zoology, food poisoning, food poisoning by poisonous substance, chronic poisoning by microscopic organism, food and epidemic control , control of parasitic disease, milk hygiene meat hygiene, an egg and seafood hygiene, food deterioration and preservation, food additives, food container and field hygiene, food facilities hygiene, food hygiene and environmental pollution and food sanitation inspection.

  16. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 10. Alcohol-based antiseptics for hand disinfection and a comparison of their effectiveness with soaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Ewen C D; Michaels, Barry S; Holah, John; Smith, Debra; Greig, Judy D; Bartleson, Charles A

    2010-11-01

    Alcohol compounds are increasingly used as a substitute for hand washing in health care environments and some public places because these compounds are easy to use and do not require water or hand drying materials. However, the effectiveness of these compounds depends on how much soil (bioburden) is present on the hands. Workers in health care environments and other public places must wash their hands before using antiseptics and/or wearing gloves. However, alcohol-based antiseptics, also called rubs and sanitizers, can be very effective for rapidly destroying some pathogens by the action of the aqueous alcohol solution without the need for water or drying with towels. Alcohol-based compounds seem to be the most effective treatment against gram-negative bacteria on lightly soiled hands, but antimicrobial soaps are as good or better when hands are more heavily contaminated. Instant sanitizers have no residual effect, unlike some antimicrobial soaps that retain antimicrobial activity after the hygienic action has been completed, e.g., after hand washing. Many alcohol-based hand rubs have antimicrobial agents added to them, but each formulation must be evaluated against the target pathogens in the environment of concern before being considered for use. Wipes also are widely used for quick cleanups of hands, other body parts, and surfaces. These wipes often contain alcohol and/or antimicrobial compounds and are used for personal hygiene where water is limited. However, antiseptics and wipes are not panaceas for every situation and are less effective in the presence of more than a light soil load and against most enteric viruses. PMID:21219730

  17. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to wash their hands. Thank you for your attention and I wish you a speedy and uneventful ... to wash their hands. Thank you for your attention and I wish you a speedy and uneventful ...

  18. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... hands a little while ago, but would you mind washing them again? Sure, Mom. It's important to ... to even ask you this, but would you mind cleansing your hands before you begin? Oh, I ...

  19. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is important that healthcare providers – including doctors and nurses – either wash their hands with soap and water ... feel embarrassed to ask everyone, including doctors and nurses, to wash their hands. They really want to ...

  20. Arthritis of the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2013 by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Arthritis of the Hand The hand and wrist have ... shoelace. When the joints are a? ected by arthritis, activities of daily living can be di? cult. ...

  1. Osteoarthritis of the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infographics Hand Anatomy Find a Hand Surgeon Arthritis - Osteoarthritis Email to a friend * required fields From * To * ... open a jar or turn a key. TREATMENT Osteoarthritis Diagnosis Your doctor will ask you about your ...

  2. Evidence for right-hand feeding biases in a left-handed population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flindall, Jason W; Stone, Kayla D; Gonzalez, Claudia L R

    2015-05-01

    We have recently shown that actions with similar kinematic requirements, but different end-state goals may be supported by distinct neural networks. Specifically, we demonstrated that when right-handed individuals reach-to-grasp food items with intent to eat, they produce smaller maximum grip apertures (MGAs) than when they grasp the same item with intent to place it in a location near the mouth. This effect was restricted to right-handed movements; left-handed movements showed no difference between tasks. The current study investigates whether (and to which side) the effect may be lateralized in left-handed individuals. Twenty-one self-identified left-handed participants grasped food items of three different sizes while grasp kinematics were captured via an Optotrak Certus motion capture array. A main effect of task was identified wherein the grasp-to-eat action generated significantly smaller MGAs than did the grasp-to-place action. Further analysis revealed that similar to the findings in right-handed individuals, this effect was significant only during right-handed movements. Upon further inspection however, we found individual differences in the magnitude and direction of the observed lateralization. These results underscore the evolutionary significance of the grasp-to-eat movement in producing population-level right-handedness in humans as well as highlighting the heterogeneity of the left-handed population. PMID:25256315

  3. Protein Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Non-starchy Vegetables Grains ... org > Food and Fitness > Food > What Can I Eat > Making Healthy Food Choices Share: Print Page Text Size: A ...

  4. Food safety regulations in Australia and New Zealand Food Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Dilip

    2014-08-01

    Citizens of Australia and New Zealand recognise that food security is a major global issue. Food security also affects Australia and New Zealand's status as premier food exporting nations and the health and wellbeing of the Australasian population. Australia is uniquely positioned to help build a resilient food value chain and support programs aimed at addressing existing and emerging food security challenges. The Australian food governance system is fragmented and less transparent, being largely in the hands of government and semi-governmental regulatory authorities. The high level of consumer trust in Australian food governance suggests that this may be habitual and taken for granted, arising from a lack of negative experiences of food safety. In New Zealand the Ministry of Primary Industries regulates food safety issues. To improve trade and food safety, New Zealand and Australia work together through Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and other co-operative agreements. Although the potential risks to the food supply are dynamic and constantly changing, the demand, requirement and supply for providing safe food remains firm. The Australasian food industry will need to continually develop its system that supports the food safety program with the help of scientific investigations that underpin the assurance of what is and is not safe. The incorporation of a comprehensive and validated food safety program is one of the total quality management systems that will ensure that all areas of potential problems are being addressed by industry. PMID:24638225

  5. Preparation and evaluation of hand rub disinfectant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padsalgi Amol

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work is to formulate effective hand rub disinfectant by selecting broad-spectrum antimicrobial and antifungal agents. Increased need of easy-to-use hand rub disinfectant in pharmaceutical, food processing industry, hospitals, and in clinical labs necessitated development of the best possible product. Formulations were prepared using Benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine gluconate as potent disinfectants along with alcohol 70%. In low concentration they were highly effective without leaving any toxic effect on the user?s skin. A synergistic effect was observed when ethyl alcohol 70% was used in combination. Suitable emollient and skin conditioning agents were used to avoid possible dehydrating effect on the user?s skin. Excellent volatility of the preparation was observed after use, leaving a thin antimicrobial film on the user?s hand. The use of suitable excipient brought effective removal of after the use leaving a soothening effect on the skin. The aim of present work is to develop hand rub formulation which evaporates quickly after applications leaving no trace on hands as in case of hand rub gels. The present formulation was found to be effective when compared with marketed liquid hand rub.

  6. Radioactivity and foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this article is to describe and contrast two relationships between radiation and food on the one hand, beneficial preservation of food by controlled exposure to ionizing radiation; and, on the other, contamination of food by accidental incorporation of radioactive nuclides within the food itself. In food irradiation, electrons or electromagnetic radiation is used to destroy microorganisms and insects or prevent seed germination. The economic advantages and health benefits of sterilizing food in this manner are clear, and numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes or induced radioactivity is produced in the irradiated food. An altogether different situation is presented by exposure of food animals and farming areas to radioactive materials, as occurred after the major Soviet nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl. This article furnishes the basic information needed to understand the nature of food contamination associated with that event and describes the work of international organizations seeking to establish appropriate safe limits for levels of radioactivity in foods

  7. Food neophobia and its relation with olfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Demattè, M. Luisa; Endrizzi, Isabella; Gasperi, Flavia

    2014-01-01

    Food neophobia, that is the reluctance to try novel foods, is an attitude that dramatically affects human feeding behavior in many different aspects among which food preferences and food choices appear to be the most thoroughly considered. This attitude has an important evolutionary meaning since it protects the individual from ingesting potentially dangerous substances. On the other hand, it fosters an avoidance behavior that can extend even toward useful food elements. A strong link exists ...

  8. Food additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Additives in food; Artificial flavors and color ... Food Ingredients and Colors. International Food Information Council (IFIC) and U.S. Food and Drug Administration. November 2004; revised April 2010. ...

  9. Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Plans Food-A-Pedia BMI Calculator Portion Distortion Printable Materials Getting Started with MyPlate Dietary Guidelines ... Growth During the Preschool Years Develop Healthy Eating Habits Picky Eating Physical Activity Food Safety Foods to ...

  10. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... food got sick, food poisoning could be the problem. It's one thing to get food poisoning from something in your fridge, but imagine how many people could get sick if a restaurant served food that had these bad germs in ...

  11. Hand and Wrist Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the hand. They include lipomas (fatty tumors), neuromas (nerve tumors), nerve sheath tumors, fibromas, and glomus ... confirm the diagnosis before recommending definitive treatment. Often, surgery is done under a local or regional anesthesia ( ...

  12. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... healthcare providers to practice hand hygiene. Created: 5/1/2008 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and ... be serious and hard to treat, but there's one simple thing you and your family can do ...

  13. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This podcast is for hospital patients and visitors. It emphasizes two key points to help prevent infections: ... hand hygiene while in the hospital, and that it's appropriate to ask or remind healthcare providers to ...

  14. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sanitizer to cleanse his hands. Both of these practices can help prevent the spread of germs. Let's take a look in another patient's room. ... Contact CDC Centers for Disease Control ...

  15. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tell us what you think about CDC podcasts >> Listen/Watch Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hand ... More info on this topic Press Play to listen to this CDC Podcast Running time = 5:29 ...

  16. Second Hand Smoke: Danger

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Second Hand Smoke: Danger! Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Make ... the United States are still exposed to secondhand smoke, even though cigarette smoking rates are dropping and ...

  17. Cognitive bias, hand preference and welfare of common marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Dianne J; Rogers, Lesley J

    2015-07-01

    Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) have hand preferences for grasping pieces of food and holding them while eating and these are stable throughout adult life. We report here that left-handed marmosets have negative cognitive bias compared to right-handed marmosets. Twelve marmosets were trained to expect a food reward from a bowl with a black lid and not from one with a white lid, or vice versa. In probe tests with ambiguous, grey-lidded bowls a left-handed group (N=7) were less likely to remove the lid to inspect the bowl than a right-handed group (N=5). This difference between left- and right-handed marmosets was not dependent on rate of learning, sex or age. In fact, hand-preference was not associated with rate of learning the task. Furthermore, retrospective examination of colony records of 39 marmosets revealed that more aggression was directed towards left- than right-handed marmosets. Hence, hand preference, which can be measured easily, could serve as an indicator of cognitive bias and may signal a need for particular care in laboratory environments. We explain the results by arguing that hand preference reflects more frequent (or dominant) use of the opposite hemisphere and this predisposes individuals to behave differently. PMID:25813746

  18. Put Your Hands Together

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a year could be prevented. From doorknobs to animals to food, harmful germs can live on almost ... Seasonal Flu Release Date: 9/27/2010 Antiviral Drugs: Seasonal Flu Release Date: 9/27/2010 Global ...

  19. Taboos and social contracts: Tools for ecosystem management – lessons from the Manambolomaty Lakes RAMSAR site, western Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jules Mampiandra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional taboos and social contracts played an importantrole in managing the Manambolomaty RAMSAR site. Taboosare defined as a prohibition imposed by social custom as aprotective measure’ and social contracts are – in conservationsense – a common agreement for achieving conservation,sustainable development and development of resourcesobjectives. The Manambolomaty Lakes RAMSAR site, District ofAntsalova in western Madagascar, is composed of four lakes(Soamalipo, Befotaka, Ankerika and Antsamaka surroundedby the Tsimembo deciduous forest. The first three lakes withforest surrounding encompass 14,701 ha and are being managedby two local Associations: FIZAMI (FIkambanana ZanatanyAndranobe MIray and FIFAMA (FIkambanana FAmpandrosoanaMamokatra Ankerika. The associations have used traditionaltaboos and social conventions to manage their local naturalresources by incorporating a GELOSE (GEstion Locale SEcuriséemanagement system to conserve biological diversity, maintainresource sustainability and socio - economic viability. This sitehas the highest concentration of the endemic and criticallyendangered Madagascar fish eagle (Haliaeetus vociferoides,representing 10 % of the global population, and many otherspecies of different faunal groups are also in good conservationstatus such as Decken’s sifaka (Propithecus deckeni andWestern lesser bamboo lemurs (Hapalemur occidentalis andMadagascar flying fox (Pteropus rufus. Culturally, the site isknown as a unique source of the endemic tree Hazomalaniavoyroni (Hernandiaceae, which is used by the Sakalava peoplefor constructing coffins, and being buried in a coffin madeof this wood is a great honour for the Sakalava people. FromManambolomaty’s Lakes fish yields, estimated at 60 - 100 tonsper fishing season, FIZAMI and FIFAMA are one of the fewMalagasy Associations with active bank accounts supportedby management of their natural resources and associatedactivities. Their fisheries management system has increasedthe annual local revenue estimated at more than $ 1,562US / fisherman per season. The tax of fish sales to wholesalefish buyers forms 56 % of the two local Commune’s budgets. Thishas made the Community - Based Wetlands Conservation at theManambolomaty Lakes site well known in the conservation circles within Madagascar and has been modelled by other organizationsand associations. Consequently, the ManambolomatyLakes site is in the process of being added into the System ofProtected Areas of Madagascar (SAPM.

  20. Hands-On Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hands-On Astrophysics is a flexible set of hands-on educational materials, activities, and investigations. These materials are based on the AAVSO's unique electronic database of variable star measurements. By carrying out all aspects of the research process, students can develop and integrate skills in science, math, computing, and other areas. Units include Planets and Stars, Introducing the Sky, Observing Variable Stars, The Message of Light and Analysis of Variable Stars. Units are available for download in PDF format, including teacher guides.

  1. Portable hand hold device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmon, Jr., John W. (Inventor); McQueen, Donald H. (Inventor); Sanders, Fred G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A hand hold device (A) includes a housing (10) having a hand hold (14) and clamping brackets (32,34) for grasping and handling an object. A drive includes drive lever (23), spur gear (22), and rack gears (24,26) carried on rods (24a, 26a) for moving the clamping brackets. A lock includes ratchet gear (40) and pawl (42) biased between lock and unlock positions by a cantilever spring (46,48) and moved by handle (54). Compliant grip pads (32b, 34b) provide compliance to lock, unlock, and hold an object between the clamp brackets.

  2. Food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngshin Han

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant allergens (class 2 food allergy. Allergenicity of food is largely determined by structural aspects, including cross-reactivity and reduced or enhanced allergenicity with cooking that convey allergenic characteristics to food. Management of food allergy currently focuses on dietary avoidance of the offending foods, prompt recognition and treatment of allergic reactions, and nutritional support. This review includes definitions and examines the prevalence and management of food allergies and the characteristics of food allergens.

  3. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The issue of food irradiation has become important in Australia and overseas. This article discusses the results of the Australian Consumers' Association's (ACA) Inquiry into food irradiation, commissioned by the Federal Government. Issues discussed include: what is food irradiation; why irradiate food; how much food is consumer rights; and national regulations

  4. Current trends in hand surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalliainen, Loree K

    2012-06-01

    Hand surgery became an established subspecialty between World Wars I and II. Prior to this time, hand injuries were cared for by various specialists-neurosurgeons, plastic surgeons, orthopedic surgeons, and general surgeons-each of whom would focus on their particular tissue within the hand. With the nearly 90,000 hand injuries sustained during World War II, military hospitals were created to deal solely with hand injuries, and hand specialists began to treat the hand as a single functional organ. This article briefly reviews the origin of the field and discusses current trends in hand surgery. PMID:22866498

  5. The impact of head direction on lateralized choices of target and hand

    OpenAIRE

    DANCAUSE, NUMA; Schieber, Marc H.

    2009-01-01

    We examined choices made by monkeys performing a task in which two food-well targets were positioned on either side of the monkey, and LEDs provided instructions on hand use and food target availability. We have previously reported that when gaze and head direction were unrestricted, lateralized choices were biased primarily by hand preference and secondarily by a preference to retrieve a target ipsilateral to the preferred hand. Here, we used a similar behavioral paradigm, but now during tri...

  6. Hands-On Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Catherine E.; Monroe, Louise Nelson

    2004-01-01

    A professional school and university collaboration enables elementary students and their teachers to explore hydrology concepts and realize the beneficial functions of wetlands. Hands-on experiences involve young students in determining water quality at field sites after laying the groundwork with activities related to the hydrologic cycle,…

  7. Hand and Wrist Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injury to heal without any significant long-term disability. WHAT ARE THE MOST COMMON SPORTS-RELATED HAND AND WRIST INJURIES? There are a ... injury, and over use stress fractures. Long-term disability is less likely to occur ... performance may be significantly diminished. Surgical treatment may ...

  8. Put Your Hands Together

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-03-24

    In this podcast, learn how to help stop the spread of infection and stay healthy. It's easy when you 'Put Your Hands Together.'.  Created: 3/24/2011 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID) and National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 3/24/2011.

  9. Wash Your Hands

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-03-08

    This video shows kids how to properly wash their hands, one of the most important steps we can take to avoid getting sick and spreading germs to others.  Created: 3/8/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 3/8/2010.

  10. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V ... and Prevention. CDC – safer, healthier people. Hello. I'm Dr. John Jernigan from the Centers for Disease ... everyone around you washes their hands. Hi, I'm Gayle. Now that you've been admitted to ...

  11. Hand Biometrics Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    IEEE

    2014-03-10

    In this activity, learners explore how engineers incorporate biometric technologies into products as well as the challenges of engineers who must weigh privacy, security and other issues when designing a system. Learners examine different biometric techniques, find their own hand geometry biometrics, and then work in teams of "engineers" to design a high-tech security system for a museum.

  12. Wash Your Hands

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hands Source: Office of the Associate Director for Communication, Division of Communication Services, Broadcast Services Running Time: (0:30) Release ... 8/2013 Our Cultures Are Our Source of Health Release Date: 2/7/2013 Hidden Sodium Release ...

  13. Making Healthy Food Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miss Fox

    2011-12-15

    Objective: Students will see that food advertisements may not be the best information to use when deciding what to eat. They will investigate several resources for good information about foods and nutrition. Allow several weeks to complete this unit. UEN Core CurriculumStandard 1 Students will develop a sense of self. Objective 1 Describe and practice responsible behaviors for health and safety. a. Practice appropriate personal hygiene (e.g., bathe, wash hands, clean clothes). b. Describe the benefits of eating a variety of nutritious foods. c. Describe the benefits of physical activity. d. Describe substances that are helpful and harmful to the body. e. Practice basic safety and identify hazards. Making Healthy Food Choices #1 Task Definition - ...

  14. Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cow's milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies occur when your immune system ... had a serious reaction. Back Continue How Are Food Allergies Treated? There is no special medicine for ...

  15. Food Timeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynne Olver, Chief Librarian, Morris County Library (NJ)

    The Food Timeline was created as an independent research project on food history and period recipes. The timeline begins before 17,000 B.C. with gatherable foods (shellfish, eggs, mushrooms) and chronicles the appearance of cultivated plants, domesticated food animals, and commercial food products up to the present day. Each type of food is represented by a link to additional information on it, and there are also links to period recipes appearing in chronological order on the timeline.

  16. Food Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering K-PhD Program,

    Students learn how food packages are designed and made, including the three main functions. The packaging design and materials must keep food clean, protect or aid in the physical and chemical changes that can take place in food, and identify a food appealingly. Then, in the associated activity, students act as if they are packaging engineers by designing and creating their own food packages for particular food types.

  17. Food allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Youngshin Han; Jihyun Kim; Kangmo Ahn

    2012-01-01

    Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy) or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant all...

  18. Food allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Youngshin; Kim, Jihyun; Ahn, Kangmo

    2012-01-01

    Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy) or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant allerge...

  19. Food allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Julie; Sampson, Hugh A.

    2011-01-01

    Food allergies affect up to 6% of young children and 3%–4% of adults. They encompass a range of disorders that may be IgE and/or non-IgE mediated, including anaphylaxis, pollen food syndrome, food-protein–induced enterocolitis syndrome, food-induced proctocolitis, eosinophilic gastroenteropathies, and atopic dermatitis. Many complex host factors and properties of foods are involved in the development of food allergy. With recent advances in the understanding of how these factors interact,...

  20. FOOD SECURITY

    OpenAIRE

    Dorina Ardelean

    2013-01-01

    The assurance of food security at the individual level doesn’t implicitly provide for the one at family level as the concepts of hunger, malnutrition and food insecurity are the steps of the same process of access restricted to a sufficient supply of food. In order to achieve food security at the individual level the following is necessary: ensuring food availability (production, reserve stocks); redistribution of food availability within the country or out through internatio...

  1. Pediatric Hand Fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Nellans, Kate W.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric hand fractures are common childhood injuries. Identification of the fractures in the emergency room setting can be challenging owing to the physes and incomplete ossification of the carpus that are not revealed in the xrays. Most simple fractures can be treated with appropriate immobilization through buddy taping, finger splints, or casting. If correctly diagnosed, reduced and immobilized, these fractures usually result in excellent clinical outcomes. However, fractures may require ...

  2. Plantas relacionadas con tabúes del ciclo reproductivo de los Guaraníes de Misiones, Argentina / Plants related to taboos of the reproductive cycle of guaranies from Misiones, Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Héctor A, Keller.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Los guaraníes de las parcialidades Mbya y Ava Chiripa observan normas de conducta específicas durante la etapa reproductiva de los miembros de sus comunidades. Algunas de estas reglas implican tabúes que se relacionan con plantas, las cuales son tratadas en la presente contribución. El manuscrito es [...] ilustrado mediante fotografías de algunas de las especies mencionadas. Abstract in english Guaranis of Mbya and Ava Chiripa groups, observes norms of specific conduct during the reproductive stage of the members of his communities. Someone of these rules imply taboos related with plants, these plants are treated in the present contribution. The manuscript is illustrated by means photograp [...] hies of someone of the mentioned species.

  3. Food Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welcome to the Five Food Groups MyPlate illustrates the five food groups that are the building blocks for a healthy diet using a familiar image – ... half your grains whole. >> See Grains Group Protein Foods Go lean with protein. >> See Protein Foods Group ...

  4. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the need for effective and efficient technologies in improving the food handling system. It defines the basic premises for the development of food handling. The application of food irradiation technology is briefly discussed. The paper points out key considerations for the adoption of food irradiation technology in the ASEAN region (author)

  5. HENRY'S "HAND OF GOD"

    OpenAIRE

    Željko Kalu?erovi?

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the author discusses the views and statements of the French football player Thierry Henry he gave after his illegal play during the playoff match between France and the Republic of Ireland to claim one of the final spots in the World Cup 2010 in South Africa. First, by controlling the ball with his hand before passing it on for the goal Henry has shown disregard for the constitutive rules of football. Then, by stating that he is "not a referee" he demonstrated that for some play...

  6. "I wash my hands of it!?" – Trends in hand hygiene over the past decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotter, Manfred L.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Hand hygiene is the most important measure to protect against the spread of nosocomial infections. With the development of in vitro und in vivo test methods for evaluation of the effect of hand hygiene, there has been a sharp increase over the past 50 years in the body of knowledge relating to effective methods for removal from the hands or killing and inactivation of pathogens. In 1958 the German Society of Hygiene and Microbiology (DGHM published a first “Guidelines for Testing Chemical Disinfectants” and included only those hand disinfection products on its “List of Tested Chemical Disinfectants Found To Be Effective” that had been tested as per the methods cited in the guidelines. The American Society of Testing and Materials (today: ASTM International was next, with the first test protocols for hand disinfection products, which in 1974 were adopted by the US Food and Drug Agency as “Guidelines” in a “Tentative Final Monograph” (TFM and in 1994, having revised it to incorporate new insights, it was published once again.Where the user is concerned, guidelines for hand disinfection containing information on indication and implementation are of course more important than methods dealing with efficacy testing of products. Such guidelines are compiled within the hospitals by the infection control teams set up during the 1970s. Written guidelines were also published by several healthcare institutions, scientific societies and associations. The guidelines formulated by the World Health Organisation (WHO, in an expert committee under the direction of Didier Pittet, proved to be the most successful of the attempts undertaken at global level to enhance hand hygiene. The most remarkable changes appear to be the efforts aimed at improving compliance among medical personnel and the increasing international acceptance of hand disinfection by using alcohols in the form of rubs; whether this will be with lotions or gels remains to be seen.

  7. Food justice and Christian ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Heinrich Bedford-Strohm

    2012-01-01

    The article dealt with the moral and political problem of international food justice in which the deep contradiction between the present situation of malnourishment and starvation in large parts of the global population on the one hand and the biblical notion of the preferential option for the poor on the other hand was described. This ecumenically widely accepted notion was clarified in several aspects. How deeply this is rooted in the history of Christian social thought was shown by Martin ...

  8. Arthritis of the hand - Rheumatoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos Infographics Hand Anatomy Find a Hand Surgeon Rheumatoid Arthritis Email to a friend * required fields From * To * ... snap or lock because of the swelling. Diagnosing Rheumatoid Arthritis The diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis is made based ...

  9. American Association for Hand Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... By-Laws Affiliates LinkedIn Membership Apply to Join Benefits of Membership Members Only Education & Meetings Annual Meeting Calendar Of Events Request for Co-Sponsorship Publications HAND Hand Association News administrative office 500 ...

  10. Animal Bites of the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos Infographics Hand Anatomy Find a Hand Surgeon Animal Bites Email to a friend * required fields From * ... with cat bites a distant second. Other biting animals include rodents, rabbits, ferrets, farm animals, monkeys, snakes, ...

  11. [Prevention of food poisioning in hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custovi?, Amer; Ibrahimagi?, Omer

    2005-01-01

    Epidemic food poisioning caused by food contaminated by microorganisms, its toxins or chemical toxic substances, emerge in the hospitals as specific kind of intrahospital infections. An occurrence of food poisoning in hospitals is facilitated by several facts as: centralized food preparation, kinds of food, staff carriers, an unfavourable hygienic regime in the kitchens and at the places where food is shared, crossing of clean and unclean paths in a kitchen, carelessness, non-education etc. Danger that contaminated food brought to hospitals is more serious since it is about consumers with disrupted health. Main goal of work was to show conditions in the central kitchen and restaurants in University clinical center Tuzla in regard to sanitary care of the staff hands, which are in direct and indirect contact with food, cutlery and working surfaces, that are in direct contact with food. PMID:16134753

  12. Food Taxes: A New Holy Grail?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devisch, Ignaas

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to reduce the growing prevalence of overweight and obesity, food taxes have been introduced in several European countries, the so-called ‘obesitax’. As yet little evidence is at hand, policy measures are being taken to counterweight the consumption of unhealthy food or the increasing diet-related diseases. Several questions need to be discussed, starting from a general perspective: can food taxes become an appropriate and just policy measure to reduce overweight and obesity and therefore increase consumer’s health? The implementation of an effective and fair food tax is an exercise riddled with uncertainty. Not only is there a need for evidence on the health and economic impact of food taxes, we also have to think about a conceptual and ethical discussion concerning the balance between health imperatives and public health on the one hand, and social and ethical standards on the other hand. PMID:24596843

  13. Food Taxes: A New Holy Grail?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignaas Devisch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to reduce the growing prevalence of overweight and obesity, food taxes have been introduced in several European countries, the so-called ‘obesitax’. As yet little evidence is at hand, policy measures are being taken to counterweight the consumption of unhealthy food or the increasing diet-related diseases. Several questions need to be discussed, starting from a general perspective: can food taxes become an appropriate and just policy measure to reduce overweight and obesity and therefore increase consumer’s health? The implementation of an effective and fair food tax is an exercise riddled with uncertainty. Not only is there a need for evidence on the health and economic impact of food taxes, we also have to think about a conceptual and ethical discussion concerning the balance between health imperatives and public health on the one hand, and social and ethical standards on the other hand.

  14. Food allergies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, Paula F G

    2012-02-03

    Adverse reactions to foods are commonly implicated in the causation of ill health. However, foreign antigens, including food proteins and commensal microbes encountered in the gastrointestinal tract, are usually well tolerated. True food allergies, implying immune-mediated adverse responses to food antigens, do exist, however, and are especially common in infants and young children. Allergic reactions to food manifest clinically in a variety of presentations involving the gastrointestinal, cutaneous, and respiratory systems and in generalized reactions such as anaphylaxis. Both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated immune mechanisms are recognized. Important advances in the clinical features underlying specific food hypersensitivity disorders are reviewed.

  15. Regional food culture and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L; Lee, Meei-Shyuan

    2007-01-01

    Food culture is most influenced by the locality of its origin, which will have been one of food acquisition and processing by various means. It is generally agreed, and is the basis of much United Nations, especially Food and Agriculture Organisation strategic development policy, that successful agriculture, horticulture and aquaculture along with fishing, underpin economically viable and healthy communities with their various food cultures. We also know that this must be in tandem with maternal literacy and operational health care systems. These elements are best represented on a regional basis. There is a growing consumer interest in knowing where one's food comes from as a measure of "food integrity". However, food production alone can be a precarious business and relate to a lesser or greater extent to local food culture and to trade, which may be complementary or at-odds with each other. Likewise, the local food culture may have its strengths and weaknesses as far as its ability to meet nutritional and health needs is concerned. Local food production may be restricted because of geographical or socio-economic conditions which preclude food diversity, although this may be compensated for by trade. Where food adequacy and diversity is compromised, and soils poor, various macronutrient, micronutrient (from animals and plants) and phytonutrient (nutritionally-advantageous food component from plants) deficiencies may be in evidence. These food system problems may be intertwined with food culture--for example, "rice-based and water-soluble vitamin poor"; "few animal-derived foods like meat, fish, eggs and milk with associated low calcium, vitamin D, Vitamin B12 and long chain n-3 fatty acid intakes"; "low fruit and vegetable intake with limited carotenoids and other phytonutrients". Geo-satellite surveillance and mapping as identifying such "hot spots": for regional food problems, as well as hot spots where most of the world's biodiversity is found (1.4 % of land on earth). On the other hand, regional food culture can confer considerable advantage for health and economic development, but does not necessarily do so. The challenge is to respect and retain traditional food knowledge and sustainable food systems, with good governance for food security. There has been a recent awakening of interest and concern about the lack of documentation of traditional and indigenous food cultures which are important not only for their own sake, but for the legacy of food knowledge which they can confer on future generations, provided they are not lost. Hence, the value of a special focus on African food cultures (www.healthyeatingclub.org/Africa), including Rift and Nile Valleys and North West African foods, which are the cradles of human food systems and habits. This is the case too with indigenous foods and food cultures (whether hunter-gatherer or subsistence agriculture); with relatively long-living food cultures in North East Asia, with food cultural distinction and fusion (FHILL and SENECA studies) and with migratory Food Habits. By and large, there is a remarkable resilience and ingenuity of people and their food systems, but monoculture and lack of diversity encourage food system failure. PMID:17392068

  16. The human hand as an inspiration for robot hand development

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    “The Human Hand as an Inspiration for Robot Hand Development” presents an edited collection of authoritative contributions in the area of robot hands. The results described in the volume are expected to lead to more robust, dependable, and inexpensive distributed systems such as those endowed with complex and advanced sensing, actuation, computation, and communication capabilities. The twenty-four chapters discuss the field of robotic grasping and manipulation viewed in light of the human hand’s capabilities and push the state-of-the-art in robot hand design and control. Topics discussed include human hand biomechanics, neural control, sensory feedback and perception, and robotic grasp and manipulation. This book will be useful for researchers from diverse areas such as robotics, biomechanics, neuroscience, and anthropologists.

  17. Hands-On Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoette, V.; Pack, H.; Spuck, T.; Rodriguez, B.; Lohman, R.; Toler, D.; Morin, T.; Pennypacker, C.; Gordon, S.; Marshall, A.; Refling, J.; Asbell-Clarke, J.; Barclay, T.

    1996-12-01

    For the past four years, with support from the National Science Foundation, the Department of Energy, and the Department of Defense, Hands-On Universe (HOU) has developed and piloted an educational program that enables high school students to request their own observations from professional observatories. HOU students download CCD images from automated telescopes to their classroom computers and use the HOU- IP image processing software to visualize and analyze their data. HOU also provides comprehensive curriculum that integrates many of the topics and skills outlined in the national goals for science and math education into open-ended astronomical investigations. Over the next several years HOU will be implemented in undergraduate programs, middle schools, and informal science education centers.

  18. Radiology of the hand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with radiologic examination of the hand. After a study of the common variants of the normal condition, pathologic conditions caused by trauma, rheumatic illness and endocrine and metabollic disorders are shown, as are congenital malformations, tumors and infections. These topics are not treated in separate chapters; rather the book proceeds progressively through the different groups of pathologic states. Very characteristic anomalies that are easy to recognize are included with conditions that are much more difficult to diagnose or in the early stages. Both common and rare conditions are illustrated and discussed. The book takes the form of a collection of radiodiagnostic exercises; each condition is presented separately with radiographic images and illustrated text including explanatory schematics. (orig./MG)

  19. Food safety and consumer behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, Lynn; Fischer, Arnout

    2005-01-01

    Food safety is a priority for many consumers, and there is an expectation throughout society that the food supplied for human consumption is safe and nutritious to eat. Understanding technical risk estimates alone, however, will not explain the risk-related behaviours of consumers. On the one hand, consumers may not pay enough attention to some types of food safety issue, such as the risk of food poisoning from microbial contamination, which may at best be debilitating, and at worst fatal (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 1994). This risk is certainly largely avoidable through taking appropriate risk mitigation measures through the food chain, not least in the domestic kitchen. However, factors related to consumer psychology may increase the risks to consumers as they produce barriers to self-protective behaviours (Frewer & Fischer, in press; Worsfold & Griffith, 1997). In contrast, public perceptions and attitudes about emerging bio-sciences and other new technologies applied to food production areamong the most important factors determining the likelihood of the successful development and implementation of agri-food technology technologies (Frewer et al., 2004). Scientific communities have frequently bemoaned negative consumer attitudes towards some food technologies, such as genetic engineering, while failing to consider the origins of these consumer attitudes. The behaviour of consumers in relation to food safety issues can only be properly understood if there is systematic understanding of the way in which consumers perceive risks, and how these relate to an effective food safety and technology commercialisation policy.

  20. Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diet Unproven Diagnostic Tests Treatment & Managing Reactions Epinephrine Auto-injectors Advancing a Cure Living with Food Allergies Tips ... Diet Unproven Diagnostic Tests Treatment & Managing Reactions Epinephrine Auto-injectors Advancing a Cure Living with Food Allergies Tips ...

  1. Cultural considerations of hand use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Roxie M

    2011-01-01

    Although each of us has the same capacity for hand use based on musculoskeletal structure and physiology, the choice and meaning of hand usage and activity are unique to the individual and influenced by sociocultural values, beliefs, and expectations. Effective therapists provide culturally competent care. For the hand therapist, this involves understanding how patients use their hands and the meaning clients ascribe to that use. This article will provide a review of cross-cultural variations in hand use in activities of daily living, communication, and decoration. PMID:21109395

  2. High Pressure Treatment in Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Fabian Torres Bello

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available High hydrostatic pressure (HHP, a non-thermal technology, which typically uses water as a pressure transfer medium, is characterized by a minimal impact on food characteristics (sensory, nutritional, and functional. Today, this technology, present in many food companies, can effectively inactivate bacterial cells and many enzymes. All this makes HHP very attractive, with very good acceptance by consumers, who value the organoleptic characteristics of products processed by this non-thermal food preservation technology because they associate these products with fresh-like. On the other hand, this technology reduces the need for non-natural synthetic additives of low consumer acceptance.

  3. Food Webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The representation depicts 4 different food webs: Antarctica, the African Grasslands, the Australia Grasslands and a Marine environment. A separate food web for scavengers and decomposers is present in the African Grasslands section. Viewers must first build the web by moving boxes with the organism's picture and name to the appropriate spot on a grid. Clues describing food requirements are given as the boxes are moved. When the boxes are correctly placed a complete food web (with arrows) is displayed.

  4. Hand Segmentation for Hand-based Biometrics in Complex Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Bu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hand-basedbiometric techniques, such as the ones based on palmprint, hand vein and handshape, is becoming more important because of their convenience and highperformance. Hand segmentation is one of the most important steps in thesetechniques. It is a challenge task to accurately segment hand in complex environment because of the complex background,varying illuminance and other unexpected interference factors. This paperproposes a novel approach to segment hand in complex environment using colorand boundary information. In the proposed approach, the hand skin color model(HSCM is firstly constructed by using artificial neural network (ANN. Thenthe HSCM is used to generate a probability map (PM and the hand is roughlysegmented from the complex background by thresholding PM. After that, the handboundary is extracted from the original image by edge detecting and votingtechniques. Finally, the hand boundary is employed to cut the roughly segmentedhand to get the final segmented hand. The experimental results show that theproposed approach can effectively segment hand in complex environment.

  5. Hand Spring Operated Movement Enhancer (HandSOME): a portable, passive hand exoskeleton for stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokaw, Elizabeth B; Black, Iian; Holley, Rahsaan J; Lum, Peter S

    2011-08-01

    Stroke patients often have flexor hypertonia and finger extensor weakness, which makes it difficult to open their affected hand for functional grasp. Because of this impairment, hand rehabilitation after stroke is essential for restoring functional independent lifestyles. The goal of this study is to develop a passive, lightweight, wearable device to assist with hand function during performance of activities of daily living. The device, Hand Spring Operated Movement Enhancer (HandSOME), assists with opening the patient's hand using a series of elastic cords that apply extension torques to the finger joints and compensates for the flexor hypertonia. Device design and calibration are described as well as functional and usability testing with stroke subjects with a wide range of hand impairments. In initial testing with eight stroke subjects with finger flexor hypertonia, use of the HandSOME significantly increased range of motion and functional ability (p=0.002) . There was some decrease in grip strength with the HandSOME device at the subject's ideal setting, however this was not statistically significant (p=0.167) and did not seem to have a significant effect on function. Overall HandSOME shows promise as a training tool to facilitate repetitive task practice for improving hand function in stroke patients. HandSOME can be used as part of a home-based therapy program, or as an orthotic for replacing lost function. PMID:21622079

  6. Food jags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refusal to eat; Fear of new foods ... caregiver, it is your role to provide healthy food and drink choices. You can also help your ... mealtimes positive. Children should be allowed to choose foods based on their likes and dislikes and their ...

  7. Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... add up quickly. Soda, snack foods and other foods that are high in added sugar are considered "empty calories" because they usually don't offer a lot of other nutrients. Sugars are listed separately under ... but add sugar to keep a food tasting good. With a little label study, you ...

  8. Fried foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai Midori (None; )

    2006-10-31

    Fried foods may taste good, but they can have terrible effects on your body if you eat too many of them. Someone who has bulimia would be likely to binge eat these fried foods. Bulimia is an eating disorder in which the person afflicted binge eats and then purges, or gets rid of, all of the food they just ate.

  9. An automatic modular procedure to generate high-resolution earthquake catalogues: application to the Alto Tiberina Near Fault Observatory (TABOO), Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, R.; Chiaraluce, L.; Valoroso, L.; Waldhauser, F.; Latorre, D.; Piccinini, D.; Tinti, E.

    2014-12-01

    The Alto Tiberina Near Fault Observatory (TABOO) in the upper Tiber Valley (northern Appennines) is a INGV research infrastructure devoted to the study of preparatory processes and deformation characteristics of the Alto Tiberina Fault (ATF), a 60 km long, low-angle normal fault active since the Quaternary. The TABOO seismic network, covering an area of 120 × 120 km, consists of 60 permanent surface and 250 m deep borehole stations equipped with 3-components, 0.5s to 120s velocimeters, and strong motion sensors. Continuous seismic recordings are transmitted in real-time to the INGV, where we set up an automatic procedure that produces high-resolution earthquakes catalogues (location, magnitudes, 1st motion polarities) in near-real-time. A sensitive event detection engine running on the continuous data stream is followed by advanced phase identification, arrival-time picking, and quality assessment algorithms (MPX). Pick weights are determined from a statistical analysis of a set of predictors designed to correctly apply an a-priori chosen weighting scheme. The MPX results are used to routinely update earthquakes catalogues based on a variety of (1D and 3D) velocity models and location techniques. We are also applying the DD-RT procedure which uses cross-correlation and double-difference methods in real-time to relocate events with high precision relative to a high-resolution background catalog. P- and S-onset and location information are used to automatically compute focal mechanisms, VP/VS variations in space and time, and periodically update 3D VP and VP/VS tomographic models. We present results from four years of operation, during which this monitoring system analyzed over 1.2 million detections and recovered ~60,000 earthquakes at a detection threshold of ML 0.5. The high-resolution information is being used to study changes in seismicity patterns and fault and rock properties along the ATF in space and time, and to elaborate ground shaking scenarios adopting diverse slip distributions and rupture directivity models.

  10. Food Chains and Food Webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    This lesson explains how energy travels through an ecosystem. This flow can be diagrammed in food chains and food webs as shown in the lesson's illustrations. Key terms are hyperlinked so students can easily view definitions of new concepts.

  11. HACCP, food quality, food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper summarizes the principles and purposes of the ''Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points'' (HACCP) system and its application and implementation within the European Union for the purposes of food quality and safety control, including food irradiation. (orig./CB)

  12. Cinematic Motion by Hand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graca, Marina Estela

    2006-01-01

    Within Cinema, animation always had an unclear relation with live-action recording since its very beginning. We learned – helped by ASIFA (International Animated Film Association) – that we should separate one from the other and we also realized that we (still) don’t have a general theory of cinema that embraces both. Yet, over the last years, animation and live-action footage became completely tangled in cinematic productions. Obviously, this means that each of them is just a technical strategy supported by its own specialists and as one became dominant, the other turned out to be marginal. But what if we could ascertain a specific ontology for animation within technology that would explain how its marginality is rooted to its essence at least in one of its forms? In this paper I will try to argue that, by overwhelming the cinematic technical standard workings with their hand, authors exposed its functional scheme to contingency, thus opening the production process to new unpredictable expressive and communicative possibilities. I will attempt to explain how this corresponds to a renewed way of comprehending technology by, simultaneously, revealing the human reality it contains and physiologically incorporating it. Special attention is given to authors such as Norman McLaren, Len Lye, and Pierre Hébert.

  13. Dynamic Hand Gesture Recognition Using the Skeleton of the Hand

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile Buzuloiu; Patrick Lambert; Didier Coquin; Bogdan Ionescu

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of the computer vision in the interpretation of human gestures. Hand gestures would be an intuitive and ideal way of exchanging information with other people in a virtual space, guiding some robots to perform certain tasks in a hostile environment, or interacting with computers. Hand gestures can be divided into two main categories: static gestures and dynamic gestures. In this paper, a novel dynamic hand gesture recognition technique is proposed. It is based on ...

  14. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This popular-level article emphasizes that the ultimate health effects of irradiated food products are unknown. They may include vitamin loss, contamination of food by botulism bacteria, mutations in bacteria, increased production of aflatoxins, changes in food, carcinogenesis from unknown causes, presence of miscellaneous harmful chemicals, and the lack of a way of for a consumer to detect irradiated food. It is claimed that the nuclear industry is applying pressure on the Canadian government to relax labeling requirements on packages of irradiated food in order to find a market for its otherwise unnecessary products

  15. "Osseous tumors of the hand "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Farzan M

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available The majority of osseous tumors of the hand are benign. The surgeon who evaluates and treats osseous tumors of the hand has to be familiar with limb anatomy, tumor biology, various presentations of the tumors and the range of treatment possibilities and their limitations. Lesions in the hand more often present earlier in their course than those at other sites, just because they are more likely to superficial and easily noticed. A review of all cases of osseous tumors of the hand, seen by a hand surgeon over the last 10 years, at Imam Khomeini hospital was performed. Among 55 cases with osseous tumors of hand, 48 primary benign bone tumors, 3 primary malignant bone tumors, and 4 metastatic bone tumors were found. Enchondroma was the most common benign bone tumor followed by osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, aneurismal bone cyst, giant cell tumor, epidermoid cyst, and osteochondroma. There were two chondrosarcoma and one Ewing’s sarcoma as primary malignant bone tumors. Metastasis to the hand from colon, esophagus, and breast were also found. There were also two cases with Brown tumor secondary to hyperparathyroidism, we conclude that a variety of osseous tumors could occur in the hand, and usually they are benign. Although malignant neoplasms in the hand that arise from tissues other than the skin are very rare, the hand may be the site of distant breast, lung, kidney, esophagus, or colon adenocarcinoma metastases, most of which have a predilection for the distal phalanges.

  16. Hand Reader – A hand Geometry Based Personal Verification System

    OpenAIRE

    Anani, Sani

    2012-01-01

    This report presents my bachelor thesis performed at the Department of Applied Physics and Electronics at UmeåUniversity. The Digital Media Lab was the assigner, supervising and assisting me during the project.   A simple and smart system to verify a person’s identity using hand geometry as a biometrical identity is developed. The system should tolerate some deviation in hand placement and will not use pins or pegs. A complete system, hardware and software, is delivered. A webcam based hand-s...

  17. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation is a promising technology in which food products are exposed to a controlled amount of radiant energy to eliminate disease-causing bacteria. The process can also control parasites and insects, reduce spoilage and inhibit ripening and sprouting. Food irradiation is endorsed by the most important health organisations (WHO, CDC, USDA, FDA, EFSA, etc.) and allowed in nearly 40 Countries. It is to remember that irradiation is not a substitute either for comprehensive food safety programs or for good food-handling practices. Irradiated foods must be labelled with either the statement treated with radiation or treated by irradiation and the international symbol for irradiation, the radura. Some consumer associations suppose negative aspects of irradiation, such as increase of the number of free radicals in food and decrease of antioxidant vitamins that neutralize them

  18. Public health aspects of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author debates public health aspects of food irradiation. The effect of food irradiation as a convenience to the consumer is discussed, i.e. the prevention of food deterioration and also the prevention of disease that could be passed on to the consumer by ingestion. On the other hand, the effects that could possibly be created by the application of radiation are also evaluated using toxicological and microbiological considerations. (Auth.)

  19. Nonlinear left-handed metamaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Zharov, Alexander A.; Zharova, Nina A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2004-01-01

    We analyze nonlinear properties of microstructured materials with negative refraction, the so-called left-handed metamaterials. We demonstrate that the hysteresis-type dependence of the magnetic permeability on the field intensity allows changing the material properties from left- to right-handed and back. Using the finite-difference time-domain simulations, we study wave transmission through the slab of nonlinear left-handed material, and predict existence of temporal solit...

  20. Hands-on Virtual Clay

    OpenAIRE

    Pihuit, Adeline; Kry, Paul; Cani, Marie-paule

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a new interaction system designed for hands-on 3D shape modeling and deformation through natural hand gestures. Our system is made of a Phantom haptic device coupled with a deformable foam ball that supports pressure sensors. These sensors detect forces exerted by the user's fingertips, and are used to control the configuration of a compliant virtual hand that is modeling soft virtual clay. During interaction, the user is provided both passive tactile feedback through the ...

  1. Hand Gestures Recognition and Tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Gurung, Deepak; Jiang, Cansen; Deray, Jeremie; Sidibé, Désiré

    2013-01-01

    In this project we develop a system that uses low cost web cameras to recognise gestures and track 2D orientations of the hand. This report is organized as such. First in section 2 we introduce various methods we undertook for hand detection. This is the most important step in hand gesture recognition. Results of various skin detection algorithms are discussed in length. This is followed by region extraction step (section 3). In this section approaches like contours and convex hull to extract...

  2. "Osseous tumors of the hand "

    OpenAIRE

    Farzan M.; Smj, Mortazavi

    2002-01-01

    The majority of osseous tumors of the hand are benign. The surgeon who evaluates and treats osseous tumors of the hand has to be familiar with limb anatomy, tumor biology, various presentations of the tumors and the range of treatment possibilities and their limitations. Lesions in the hand more often present earlier in their course than those at other sites, just because they are more likely to superficial and easily noticed. A review of all cases of osseous tumors of the hand, seen by a han...

  3. Hand in Hand: Media Literacy and Internet Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Internet safety cannot be effectively taught without also teaching media literacy. The two go hand in hand, and both are necessary, but neither is sufficient. To understand why, it is important to first appreciate what the real risks to children are. Many of the early Internet safety programs were based on a fear of predators. Predators turned out…

  4. Safer food means food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article the author presents the sanitary advantages that are brought by food irradiation. OMS experts state that this technique is safe and harmless for any average global dose between 10 KGy and 100 KGy. Whenever a seminar is held on the topic, it is always concluded that food irradiation should be promoted and favoured. In France food irradiation is authorized for some kinds of products and exceptionally above a 10 KGy dose. Historically food irradiation has been hampered in its development by its classification by American Authorities as food additives in 1958 (Delanay clause). The author draws a parallel between food irradiation and pasteurization or food deep-freezing in their beginnings. (A.C.)

  5. Dynamic Hand Gesture Recognition Using the Skeleton of the Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coquin Didier

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the use of the computer vision in the interpretation of human gestures. Hand gestures would be an intuitive and ideal way of exchanging information with other people in a virtual space, guiding some robots to perform certain tasks in a hostile environment, or interacting with computers. Hand gestures can be divided into two main categories: static gestures and dynamic gestures. In this paper, a novel dynamic hand gesture recognition technique is proposed. It is based on the 2D skeleton representation of the hand. For each gesture, the hand skeletons of each posture are superposed providing a single image which is the dynamic signature of the gesture. The recognition is performed by comparing this signature with the ones from a gesture alphabet, using Baddeley's distance as a measure of dissimilarities between model parameters.

  6. Food matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Rusu, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    Foods are complex multi-component systems which are composed of volatile and non-volatile substances. The flavour profile of a food is an important criterion for the selection of our foodstuffs. The main objective of this study was the clarification of the complex relationships of the flavour release as a function of the composition of the food matrix at molecular level. Therefore the influence of matrix effects onto the partition coefficients, odour activity values and sens...

  7. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advantages and disadvantages of food irradiation are discussed. Research into food irradiation has been going on for 40 years, yet studies have yet to demonstrate conclusively whether it is safe or harmful. The Australian House of Representatives has established an inquiry into food irradiation conducted by the Standing Committee on Environment and Conservation. It will inquire into the use of ionising radiation for commercial sterilisation, disinfestation, food preservation and other purposes with particular reference to human health and safety, environmental impacts and the adequacy of assessment and regulatory procedures

  8. Roentgenological atlas of hand pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atlas deals with roentgenological diagnostics of hand pathology. Developmental defects, rheumatoid arthritis, malignant and benign bone tumours, tumours of soft tissues, degenerative dystrophical injuries, traumatic injuries, foreign bodies penetrating into hand tissues, inflamatory diseases etc. are illustrated. Roentgenological semiotics and differential diagnostics are described

  9. Hand it to the Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this lesson, learners examine X-ray images of the "hands" of different animals and then determine the function of each hand from its form. The images are viewed and analyzed with a Web-based customized version of ImageJ.

  10. Canadian hand dermatitis management guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynde, Charles; Guenther, Lyn

    2010-01-01

    Hand dermatitis (HD) is one of the most common skin conditions; however, it is not a homogeneous disease entity. The severity of HD may range from very mild cases to severe chronic forms, which may result in prolonged disability and, occasionally, refractory HD. Chronic hand dermatitis (CHD) is associated with a high health- economic burden and significant loss of quality of life.

  11. Biased hand use in captive emperor tamarins (Saguinus imperator).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Katharina; Sommer, Volker

    2014-05-01

    Comparing forelimb use across primates can improve the understanding of the mechanisms and functions of brain asymmetry. We broadened the comparative framework by investigating hand use biases across spontaneous behaviors in 11 captive emperor tamarins of 2 family groups. We found a right preference across 58% of pooled unimanual bouts and 60% of all tasks. The maximum biases for a single task were 88% right-hand use and 78% left-hand use. On an individual basis, for most tasks, 6 tamarins preferred their right hand, 2 tamarins the left, and 2 animals were ambidextrous. Only a single tamarin did not switch between left and right hand bias according to task, but displayed a consistent right-hand bias. Our accompanying review of the 2 dozen previous callitrichid hand use studies confirms this picture. Across the board, these report hand preferences for single tasks. Task specialization is found in less than half of the studies, hand specialization in less than a third, whereas population level handedness is almost never reported. Importantly, right-hand use is preponderant, but very rarely consistent across tasks or subjects. This might be attributable to the fact that often-employed simple (food-reaching) tasks may not be coupled to a specialized hemisphere and therefore not constrain forelimb use. A better understanding of what causes directional forelimb use in callitrichids and other animals is currently hampered by a lack of standardized methods including measurement criteria, task difficulty, and social setting as well as a dearth of taxonomic diversity and field studies. PMID:24491176

  12. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  13. Motives for consumer choice of traditional food and European food in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ou; De Steur, Hans; Gellynck, Xavier; Verbeke, Wim

    2015-04-01

    The demand for European (-style) foods in mainland China has been increasing dramatically during the last decade. Nevertheless, European food producers often appear to be not capable to fully exploit this huge market potential, partially due to the competition with traditional (Chinese) foods. This study examines the determinants of mainland Chinese consumers' choice of traditional food and European food. A web-based survey was administered with 541 consumers from two cities: Shanghai and Xi'an. Thereby, the Food Choice Motives model, predominantly used thus far in a European or developed context, is applied to mainland China in order to address the lack of knowledge on food motives of its consumer market and to detect associations between these motives, attitudes, and purchase intentions. Factor analysis resulted in a new Food Choice Motive construct that is considered more appropriate within the context of mainland Chinese consumers, encompassing six dimensions: Health concern, Time or money saving, Sensory appeal, Availability and familiarity, Mood and Food safety concern. Path analysis demonstrated that Time or money saving was negatively associated with attitude toward traditional food on the one hand and purchase intentions toward European food on the other hand. Availability and familiarity had a positive association with attitude toward traditional food. Mood was a positive factor driving attitude toward European food. For both food types, Sensory appeal and Attitude were positively linked to purchase intentions. Furthermore, Mood was negatively linked to the purchase intention toward traditional food in Shanghai. Food safety concern was positively associated with attitudes toward traditional food in Xi'an. PMID:25542775

  14. Food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pamphlet contains short descriptions of many methods of preserving foods with emphasis on irradiation and its possible consequences. The views of the Federation of Danish Industries with regard to questions considered worthy of debate in relation to irradiation of food are presented. Information is directed at the general danish public. (AB)

  15. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of links for more information about food allergy ???? Javascript Error Your browser JavaScript is turned off causing certain features of the ... incorrectly. Please visit your browser settings and turn JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Food ...

  16. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Processing of food with low levels of radiation has the potential to contribute to reducing both spoilage of food during storage - a particular problem in developing countries - and the high incidence of food-borne disease currently seen in all countries. Approval has been granted for the treatment of more than 30 products with radiation in over 30 countries but, in general, governments have been slow to authorize the use of this new technique. One reason for this slowness is a lack of understanding of what food irradiation entails. This book aims to increase understanding by providing information on the process of food irradiation in simple, non-technical language. It describes the effects that irradiation has on food, and the plant and equipment that are necessary to carry it out safely. The legislation and control mechanisms required to ensure the safety of food irradiation facilities are also discussed. Education is seen as the key to gaining the confidence of the consumers in the safety of irradiated food, and to promoting understanding of the benefits that irradiation can provide. (orig.) With 4 figs., 1 tab

  17. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of links for more information about food allergy ????????????????????? Javascript Error Your browser JavaScript is turned off causing certain features of the ... incorrectly. Please visit your browser settings and turn JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Food ...

  18. Food Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, Nancy E.

    1991-01-01

    An overall perspective on trends in food consumption is presented. Nutrition awareness is at an all-time high; consumption is influenced by changes in disposable income, availability of convenience foods, smaller household size, and an increasing proportion of ethnic minorities in the population. (18 references) (LB)

  19. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Definition and significance of food irradiation were described. The details of its development and present state were also described. The effect of the irradiation on Irish potatoes, onions, wiener sausages, kamaboko (boiled fish-paste), and mandarin oranges was evaluated; and healthiness of food irradiation was discussed. Studies of the irradiation equipment for Irish potatoes in a large-sized container, and the silo-typed irradiation equipment for rice and wheat were mentioned. Shihoro RI center in Hokkaido which was put to practical use for the irradiation of Irish potatoes was introduced. The state of permission of food irradiation in foreign countries in 1975 was introduced. As a view of the food irradiation in the future, its utilization for the prevention of epidemics due to imported foods was mentioned. (Serizawa, K.)

  20. Food porn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Anne E

    2010-01-01

    Since the term first appeared, food porn has typically referred to watching others cook on television or gazing at unattainable dishes in glossy magazines without actually cooking oneself. This forum seeks to revisit this notion of food porn that is mostly taken for granted in both popular and scholarly literature. It offers a brief perspective of the appearance and use of the term food porn to examine how it came to be a term used mostly by commentators rather than by people actively engaged in the world of cooking. Practitioners (chefs and a food television producer) and academics address whether or not food porn exists, what shape it might take, what purpose it might serve, and/or what usefulness it might have, showing that these contentious issues are more complex than the ease with which the term is used might let on. PMID:21539050

  1. Hairdressers - hand eczema, hair dyes and hand protection

    OpenAIRE

    Lind, Marie-louise

    2006-01-01

    Hand eczema is a well-known problem in occupations that involve largely manual work, in combination with long periods of wet exposure and skin contact with chemicals. Hairdressing involves dermal exposure to a number of skin damaging substances. Hair cosmetic products such as hair dyes, permanent wave solutions and bleaches can cause contact allergy and extensive wet work can cause irritant contact dermatitis (ICD). In this thesis the occurrence of hand eczema was studied i...

  2. Development of Food Retailing and Factors Affecting the Competition in Food Retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Serkan Kilic; Gokhan Senol

    2010-01-01

    Retailing is a dynamic and complex sector that offers wide range of products and services to consumers. This sector which includes different types of enterprises, has an important position within the supply chain. Food retailing has also a big potential within retailing sector. On the other hand, an intensive competition exists in food retailing. Taking place in the competitive market, food retailers attempt to gain a competitive advantage against their rivals with their geographic location,...

  3. Corner Detection of Hand Gesture

    OpenAIRE

    Lili Zhang; Linghua Li

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the methods of corner detection of hand gesture, and mainly introduces the orthogonal three-direction chain code (3OT) and uses it in corner detection of hand gesture. The study is discussed from four aspects: the techniques used in corner detection, the techniques of Freeman chain code, the main idea of 3OT, the process of corner detection with 3OT and the experiments on corner detectors used for hand gesture images of 26 letters in American Sign Language are described in ...

  4. Clockwork: Hands On For Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vox Bandicoot.

    Clockwork is "a self directed, theatre-based education package about biological diversity." Produced by Vox Bandicoot in collaboration with the Biodiversity Group (Environment Australia), the Clockwork site offers four sections: Midnight, an introduction to and philosophy of biological diversity, Mainspring, a hands-on lesson in critical concepts about threatened species and habitats, Big Hand and Little Hand, curriculum support material for classroom teachers, and Cog and Spindle, general science and ecological background about Australia. Though depth of content varies, environmental educators will be interested in this fresh and creative approach.

  5. Hand impairment assessment: some suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, D; Marcus, S

    1991-08-01

    A critical review is made of hand impairment assessment from an occupational therapy and ergonomics perspective. This article concludes that a concerted move be made towards a standardisation of hand function assessment. Also, to make meaningful quantitative statements concerning performance of arthritic people, comparison with 'fit' elderly cohorts is necessary. There is a great need for normative data on strength and joint range from elderly people. Finally, an innovative application of motion-time-measurement is proposed as a potential avenue for future hand function assessment of elderly and disabled people. PMID:15676822

  6. Corner Detection of Hand Gesture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Zhang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the methods of corner detection of hand gesture, and mainly introduces the orthogonal three-direction chain code (3OT and uses it in corner detection of hand gesture. The study is discussed from four aspects: the techniques used in corner detection, the techniques of Freeman chain code, the main idea of 3OT, the process of corner detection with 3OT and the experiments on corner detectors used for hand gesture images of 26 letters in American Sign Language are described in detail. Experiment results show that the 3OT has well performance with exact corner detection rate and least false corner’s number.

  7. Hand Gesture Detection & Recognition System

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    The project introduces an application using computer vision for Hand gesture recognition. A camera records a live video stream, from which a snapshot is taken with the help of interface. The system is trained for each type of count hand gestures (one, two, three, four, and five) at least once. After that a test gesture is given to it and the system tries to recognize it.A research was carried out on a number of algorithms that could best differentiate a hand gesture. It was found that the dia...

  8. An automatic procedure for high-resolution earthquake locations: a case study from the TABOO near fault observatory (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valoroso, Luisa; Chiaraluce, Lauro; Di Stefano, Raffaele; Latorre, Diana; Piccinini, Davide

    2014-05-01

    The characterization of the geometry, kinematics and rheology of fault zones by seismological data depends on our capability of accurately locate the largest number of low-magnitude seismic events. To this aim, we have been working for the past three years to develop an advanced modular earthquake location procedure able to automatically retrieve high-resolution earthquakes catalogues directly from continuous waveforms data. We use seismograms recorded at about 60 seismic stations located both at surface and at depth. The network covers an area of about 80x60 km with a mean inter-station distance of 6 km. These stations are part of a Near fault Observatory (TABOO; http://taboo.rm.ingv.it/), consisting of multi-sensor stations (seismic, geodetic, geochemical and electromagnetic). This permanent scientific infrastructure managed by the INGV is devoted to studying the earthquakes preparatory phase and the fast/slow (i.e., seismic/aseismic) deformation process active along the Alto Tiberina fault (ATF) located in the northern Apennines (Italy). The ATF is potentially one of the rare worldwide examples of active low-angle (declare low-magnitude events; ii) an accurate picking procedure that provides consistently weighted P- and S-wave arrival times, P-wave first motion polarities and the maximum waveform amplitude for local magnitude calculation; iii) both linearized iterative and non-linear global-search earthquake location algorithms to compute accurate absolute locations of single-events in a 3D geological model (see Latorre et al. same session); iv) cross-correlation and double-difference location methods to compute high-resolution relative event locations. This procedure is now running off-line with a delay of 1 week to the real-time. We are now implementing this procedure to obtain high-resolution double-difference earthquake locations in real-time (DDRT). We show locations of ~30k low-magnitude earthquakes recorded during the past 4 years (2010-2013) of network operation, reaching a completeness magnitude of the catalogue of 0.2. The spatiotemporal seismicity distribution has an almost constant and high rate of r = 24.30e-04 eqks/day*km2, interrupted by low to moderate magnitude seismic sequences such as the 2010 Pietralunga sequence (M L 3.8) and the still ongoing 2013 Gubbio sequence (M L 4.0 on 22nd December 2013). Low-magnitude seismicity images the fine scale geometry of the ATF: an E-dipping plane at low angle (15°) from 4 km down to ~15 km of depth. While in the ATF hanging-wall we observe the activation of high-angle minor synthetic and antithetic normal faults (4-5 km long) confined at depth by the detachment. Both seismic sequences activated up to now only these high-angle fault segments.

  9. Mountains in the Sea: Food Web Mystery

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this activity, students will focus on some unique aspects of food webs in the vicinity of seamounts. They will be able to describe typical marine food webs, and explain why food is generally scarce in the deep-ocean environment. They will then discuss reasons why seamounts may be able to support a higher density of biological organisms than would appear to be possible considering food available from primary production at the ocean's surface. In addition to being tied to the National Science Education Standards, the hands-on, inquiry-based activities includes focus questions, background information for teachers, links to interesting websites, and extensions.

  10. Hand-schuller-christian disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malhotra S

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A boy of 4 years presented with exophthalmos and cutaneous lesions. Clinical examination, histology and other investigations confirmed the diagnosis of Hand-Schuller-Christian disease.

  11. Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... someone is sick. Is HFMD the Same as Foot-and-Mouth Disease? No. HFMD is often confused ...

  12. Medical malpractice in hand surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Nick D; Moat, Diane; Lee, Donald H

    2014-01-01

    The rise in medical malpractice claims over the past few decades has altered physicians' practice patterns and has had a considerable financial impact on the medical community as a whole. While numerous studies have analyzed the content and effect of these claims, only a handful of articles have addressed specifically the issue of medical malpractice in hand surgery. This article outlines the available literature on malpractice in hand surgery, offers guidance to hand surgeons on managing medical malpractice claims, and discusses preventative measures they might take to limit such claims from being filed in the future. We conclude that the key measures one can take to protecting oneself legally are knowing and abiding by the standard of care, keeping patients informed and developing good relationships with them, and meticulously documenting. Although some malpractice claims are unavoidable, we believe that one can limit his or her exposure to them by incorporating these measures into their respective practices. PMID:24369944

  13. Replantation (Finger, Hand, or Arm)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the surgical reattachment of a finger, hand or arm that has been completely cut from a person’s ... replanted part if it is further down the arm. Joint vs. non-joint injury . More movement will ...

  14. Hand kinematics of piano playing

    OpenAIRE

    Furuya, Shinichi; Flanders, Martha; Soechting, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Dexterous use of the hand represents a sophisticated sensorimotor function. In behaviors such as playing the piano, it can involve strong temporal and spatial constraints. The purpose of this study was to determine fundamental patterns of covariation of motion across joints and digits of the human hand. Joint motion was recorded while 5 expert pianists played 30 excerpts from musical pieces, which featured ?50 different tone sequences and fingering. Principal component analysis and cluster ...

  15. Try Your Hand at Nano

    Science.gov (United States)

    IEEE

    2013-02-25

    This lesson focuses on two simple activities that younger learners can do to gain an appreciation of nanotechnology. First, learners measure their hands in nanometers. Second, learners investigate liquid crystals, applications of liquid crystals and nanotechnology connections and test how the heat of their hands changes the color of the crystals. Learners observe what they see, present their findings to the group, and reflect on the experience.

  16. Measuring Outcomes in Hand Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Giladi, Aviram M.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2008-01-01

    Methods for measuring outcomes after hand and upper extremity surgery continue to evolve, yet remain inconsistent in quality. In this article we review the use of patient-reported outcomes measures in upper extremity surgery patients, and provides a practical guide to questionnaire selection, assessment, and utilization. We also present the future direction of health services research, and how it will drive changes in measuring outcomes in hand surgery.

  17. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-08

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a contagious illness that mainly affects children under five. In this podcast, Dr. Eileen Schneider talks about the symptoms of hand, foot, and mouth disease, how it spreads, and ways to help protect yourself and your children from getting infected with the virus.  Created: 8/8/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 8/8/2013.

  18. Hand gestures mouse cursor control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian-Avram Vincze

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the implementation of a human-computer interface for controlling the mouse cursor. The test reveal the fact: a low-cost web camera some processing algorithms are quite enough to control the mouse cursor on computers. Even if the system is influenced by the illuminance level on the plane of the hand, the current study may represent a start point for some studies on the hand tracking and gesture recognition field.

  19. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Akiko; Kamimura, Tomomi; Nagasawa, Taeko [Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Allied Health Sciences; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Establishment

    2003-06-01

    The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

  20. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

  1. Space Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    In planning for the long duration Apollo missions, NASA conducted extensive research into space food. One of the techniques developed was freeze drying. Action Products commercialized this technique, concentrating on snack food including the first freeze-dried ice cream. The foods are cooked, quickly frozen and then slowly heated in a vacuum chamber to remove the ice crystals formed by the freezing process. The final product retains 98 percent of its nutrition and weighs only 20 percent of its original weight. Action snacks are sold at museums, NASA facilities and are exported to a number of foreign countries. Sales run to several million dollars annually.

  2. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report 'Comments on proposed regulations on irradiation in the production, processing and handling of food' by K.M. Tucker and R. Alvarez is reviewed. The reviewer hopes that the inquiry into food irradiation being undertaken by the Australian government will reach conclusions similar to those in the report: that is, a comprehensive, independent environmental impact study or technology assessment, to evaluate fully the potential economic costs of this technology, be required before any further consideration be given to adopting food irradiation in Australia

  3. Radioactive food

    OpenAIRE

    Barybina, A.; ???????, ???? ???????????; ???????, ???? ??????????; Diadechko, Alla Mykolaivna

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays there is a lot of information about importance of eating healthy. And many of us try to look after number of calories, fat and carbohydrate they eat during the day. But there is also very dangerous problem, which is not so familiar to everybody. This problem lies in radioactive food. According to the scientific researches more than 70 % of radiation people cumulate contains in food and water. That`s why we should minimize negative influence on our bodies by choosing organic food. ...

  4. Is It Food Allergy or Food Intolerance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Food Allergy Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Is it Food Allergy or Food Intolerance? Food allergy is sometimes ...

  5. FAO: Food Safety and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations website provides the data, research, publications, and projects that they have compiled, undertaken, published, and funded with the aims of making food production safer for consumers, workers, and the community. The website can be viewed in English, Spanish, and French, and the "Publications" can also be viewed in those three languages. The multitude of papers, books, documents, studies, etc. available from the Food Quality and Standards Services (AGNS) can be accessed using the "Publications" tab near the top of the page. Visitors can browse the 220 documents by title, date, or series number, or they can do a specific search by clicking on "New Search", on the right side of the page. A specific search can be done by country, language, year, title, or author. The "Biotechnology (GM food)" section on the left hand of the homepage will be of particular interest to those visitors concerned about the "Detection of GM food", "Safety Assessment of GM food", and the "Labelling of GM food".

  6. Who's Hitchhiking in Your Food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bio-Inspired Technology and Systems (BITS) RET,

    How can you tell if harmful bacteria are growing in your food? Students learn to culture bacteria in order to examine ground meat and bagged salad samples, looking for common foodborne bacteria such as E. coli or salmonella. After 2-7 days of incubation, they observe and identify the resulting bacteria. Based on their first-hand experiences conducting this conventional biological culturing process, they consider its suitability in meeting society's need for ongoing detection of harmful bacteria in its food supply, leading them to see the need for bioengineering inventions for rapid response bio-detection systems.

  7. An analysis of national and cross-national consumer segments using the food-related lifestyle instrument in Denmark, France, Germany and Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.; Bredahl, Lone

    2005-01-01

    Executive summary 1. Food markets are claimed to be characterized by two opposing tendencies. On the one hand, food culture seems to be a domain of increasingly transnational character. On the other hand, there is substantial evidence that food culture has considerable inertia. This paper reports a series of studies aimed at investigating whether cross-national food consumer segments can be found. 2. Food consumer segments are derived using the food-related lifestyle instrument, which charact...

  8. Food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, Andrea; Teuber, Suzanne S; Keen, Carl L; Gershwin, M Eric

    2010-10-01

    Food can never be entirely safe. Food safety is threatened by numerous pathogens that cause a variety of foodborne diseases, algal toxins that cause mostly acute disease, and fungal toxins that may be acutely toxic but may also have chronic sequelae, such as teratogenic, immunotoxic, nephrotoxic, and estrogenic effects. Perhaps more worrisome, the industrial activities of the last century and more have resulted in massive increases in our exposure to toxic metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic, which now are present in the entire food chain and exhibit various toxicities. Industrial processes also released chemicals that, although banned a long time ago, persist in the environment and contaminate our food. These include organochlorine compounds, such as 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene) (DDT), other pesticides, dioxins, and dioxin-like compounds. DDT and its breakdown product dichlorophenyl dichloroethylene affect the developing male and female reproductive organs. In addition, there is increasing evidence that they exhibit neurodevelopmental toxicities in human infants and children. They share this characteristic with the dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Other food contaminants can arise from the treatment of animals with veterinary drugs or the spraying of food crops, which may leave residues. Among the pesticides applied to food crops, the organophosphates have been the focus of much regulatory attention because there is growing evidence that they, too, affect the developing brain. Numerous chemical contaminants are formed during the processing and cooking of foods. Many of them are known or suspected carcinogens. Other food contaminants leach from the packaging or storage containers. Examples that have garnered increasing attention in recent years are phthalates, which have been shown to induce malformations in the male reproductive system in laboratory animals, and bisphenol A, which negatively affects the development of the central nervous system and the male reproductive organs. Genetically modified foods present new challenges to regulatory agencies around the world because consumer fears that the possible health risks of these foods have not been allayed. An emerging threat to food safety possibly comes from the increasing use of nanomaterials, which are already used in packaging materials, even though their toxicity remains largely unexplored. Numerous scientific groups have underscored the importance of addressing this issue and developing the necessary tools for doing so. Governmental agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration and other agencies in the USA and their counterparts in other nations have the increasingly difficult task of monitoring the food supply for these chemicals and determining the human health risks associated with exposure to these substances. The approach taken until recently focused on one chemical at a time and one exposure route (oral, inhalational, dermal) at a time. It is increasingly recognized, however, that many of the numerous chemicals we are exposed to everyday are ubiquitous, resulting in exposure from food, water, air, dust, and soil. In addition, many of these chemicals act on the same target tissue by similar mechanisms. "Mixture toxicology" is a rapidly growing science that addresses the complex interactions between chemicals and investigates the effects of cumulative exposure to such "common mechanism groups" of chemicals. It is to be hoped that this results in a deeper understanding of the risks we face from multiple concurrent exposures and makes our food supply safer. PMID:19911313

  9. Food Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    In this adaptation of a video that high school students created in collaboration with the Environmental Justice League of Rhode Island, learn what's whack about our current food systems and the many actions individuals can take to address these issues.

  10. Food consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Ulijaszek, S. J.; Strickland, S.S.

    1993-01-01

    Patterns of food consumption are of considerable interest to both nutritionists and anthropologists. Nutritionists may perceive that either qualitative or quantitative dietary inadequacies may lead to nutritional problems in the individual, household or community. Ecologically orientated anthropologists seek to explain patterns of consumption using adaptive models which may employ both biological and cultural factors. Of common concern to both is the way in which food is distributed within a ...

  11. Urunana Audiences at Home and Away: Together 'Hand in Hand'?

    OpenAIRE

    Hintjens, H.M.; Bayisenge, F.

    2011-01-01

    Urunana (‘Hand in Hand’) is Rwanda’s first radio soap opera. The production emerged during the late 1990s from a three-way transnational production partnership between: The Great Lakes section of the BBC World Service; the Well Woman Media Project of the London-based NGO, Health Unlimited; and a group of dramatists and broadcasters working in Rwanda. Broadcast by the BBC World Service, the production was initially produced and edited by Health Unlimite. It is now produced by the Urunana...

  12. Food and Your Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Food and Your Bones Food and Your Bones The food that you eat can affect your ... by taking multivitamins or supplements . Good-for-Your-Bones Foods Food Nutrient Dairy products such as low- ...

  13. Hand-Based Biometric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebis, George (Inventor); Amayeh, Gholamreza (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Hand-based biometric analysis systems and techniques are described which provide robust hand-based identification and verification. An image of a hand is obtained, which is then segmented into a palm region and separate finger regions. Acquisition of the image is performed without requiring particular orientation or placement restrictions. Segmentation is performed without the use of reference points on the images. Each segment is analyzed by calculating a set of Zernike moment descriptors for the segment. The feature parameters thus obtained are then fused and compared to stored sets of descriptors in enrollment templates to arrive at an identity decision. By using Zernike moments, and through additional manipulation, the biometric analysis is invariant to rotation, scale, or translation or an in put image. Additionally, the analysis utilizes re-use of commonly-seen terms in Zernike calculations to achieve additional efficiencies over traditional Zernike moment calculation.

  14. Hand-Based Biometric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebis, George

    2013-01-01

    Hand-based biometric analysis systems and techniques provide robust hand-based identification and verification. An image of a hand is obtained, which is then segmented into a palm region and separate finger regions. Acquisition of the image is performed without requiring particular orientation or placement restrictions. Segmentation is performed without the use of reference points on the images. Each segment is analyzed by calculating a set of Zernike moment descriptors for the segment. The feature parameters thus obtained are then fused and compared to stored sets of descriptors in enrollment templates to arrive at an identity decision. By using Zernike moments, and through additional manipulation, the biometric analysis is invariant to rotation, scale, or translation or an input image. Additionally, the analysis uses re-use of commonly seen terms in Zernike calculations to achieve additional efficiencies over traditional Zernike moment calculation.

  15. Diagnostic imaging of the hand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With its complex anatomy and specialized biomechanics, the human hand has always presented physicians with a unique challenge when it comes to diagnosing and treating the diseases that afflict it. And while recent decades have seen a rapid increase in the number of therapeutic options, many diseases and injuries of the hand are still commonly misinterpreted. In diagnostic imaging of the hand, an interdisciplinary team, comprisingspecialists in radiology, surgery, and rheumatology, presents a comprehensive,reliable guide to this topographically intricate area. Highlights include: - More than 1000 high-quality illustrations - All state-of-the-art imaging modalities-including multidetector CT, with 2D displays and 3D reconstructions, and contrast-enhanced MRI with multi-channel, phased-array coils - An overview of all currently used methods of examination - A detailed presentation of the anatomic and functional foundations necessary for diagnosis - Full coverage of all disorders of the hand - Systematic treatment of each disease's definition, pathogenesis, and clinical symptoms, according to a graduated diagnostic plan - Easy-to-use format, featuring crisp images and line drawings seamlessly integrated with concise text, summary tables, and handy checklists - A heavily cross-referenced appendix of differential diagnosis tables - Emphasis on interdisciplinary consultation throughout designed to help both radiologists and clinicians develop the most efficient and effectives develop the most efficient and effective strategies for evaluating and treating patients, Diagnostic imaging of the hand will leave specialists of all levels with a fresh appreciation for - and a richer understanding of - the expanding array of cutting-edge alternatives for diagnosing and treating disorders of the hand. (orig.)

  16. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mouth (HFMD) Disease in Singapore Commonly Confused With Foot-and-Mouth Disease Hand, foot, and mouth disease ... not get the human disease. Outbreaks of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Large outbreaks of hand, foot, ...

  17. On robustness in food supply chain networks

    OpenAIRE

    Vlajic, J. V.; Vorst, J. G. A. J.; Hendrix, E. M. T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Today's business environment is characterized by challenges of strong global competition where companies tend to achieve leanness and maximum responsiveness to customer demand. Lean supply chain networks are vulnerable to all kind of disruptions. For food supply chain networks (FSCNs), due to their inherent characteristics on the one hand and increased level of complexity, dynamics and uncertainty on the other hand, this vulnerability is even stronger. Therefore, methods are needed ...

  18. Norms for hand grip strength.

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, D. G.; Pearn, J.; Barnes, A.; Young, C. M.; Kehoe, M.; Newman, J.

    1984-01-01

    Norms for hand grip strength of healthy children are presented. Sex and age specific centiles for age 5 to 18 years have been determined using a portable strain gauge dynamometer with an accuracy of 0.5 N. The test group comprised 1417 healthy, urban school children from a middle class suburb of Brisbane. Mean maximum grip strength (of four tests, two with each hand) and mean peak grip strength (best of four tests) were recorded. Mean values of peak grip strength were 10 to 15% higher than th...

  19. Quantifying the effect of hand wash duration, soap use, ground beef debris, and drying methods on the removal of Enterobacter aerogenes on hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Dane A; Danyluk, Michelle D; Harris, Linda J; Schaffner, Donald W

    2015-04-01

    Hand washing is recognized as a crucial step in preventing foodborne disease transmission by mitigating crosscontamination among hands, surfaces, and foods. This research was undertaken to establish the importance of several keys factors (soap, soil, time, and drying method) in reducing microorganisms during hand washing. A nonpathogenic nalidixic acid-resistant Enterobacter aerogenes surrogate for Salmonella was used to assess the efficacy of using soap or no soap for 5 or 20 s on hands with or without ground beef debris and drying with paper towel or air. Each experiment consisted of 20 replicates, each from a different individual with ? 6 log CFU/ml E. aerogenes on their hands. A reduction of 1.0 ± 0.4 and 1.7 ± 0.8 log CFU of E. aerogenes was observed for a 5-s wash with no soap and a 20-s wash with soap, respectively. When there was no debris on the hands, there was no significant difference between washing with and without soap for 20 s (P > 0.05). Likewise, there was no significant difference in the reductions achieved when washing without soap, whether or not debris was on the hands (P > 0.05). A significantly greater reduction (P soap when there was ground beef debris on the hands. The greatest difference (1.1 log CFU greater average reduction) in effectiveness occurred when ground beef debris was on the hands and a 20-s wash with water was compared with a 20-s wash with soap. Significantly greater (P 4.0 log CFU per towel) when hands are highly contaminated. Our results support future quantitative microbial risk assessments needed to effectively manage risks of foodborne illness in which food workers' hands are a primary cause. PMID:25836392

  20. Nutrition - Food Guide Pyramid - Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey Moss and Chelsea King

    2007-11-30

    Students will learn about the food guide pyramid, nutrition, physical activity and ways to implement it into their lives. Materials Needed: Computer, print outs as instructed below, paper and pencil. #1 What\\'s your food guide pyramid? Go to the following website. MyPyramid.gov Click on My Pyramid Plan on the right hand side. Enter your information and click submit. Your results will show. Print a PDF of your results and a Meal Tracking ...

  1. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food treatment by means of ionizing energy, or irradiation, is an innovative method for its preservation. In order to treat important volumes of food, it is necessary to have industrial irradiation installations. The effect of radiations on food is analyzed in the present special work and a calculus scheme for an Irradiation Plant is proposed, discussing different aspects related to its project and design: ionizing radiation sources, adequate civil work, security and auxiliary systems to the installations, dosimetric methods and financing evaluation methods of the project. Finally, the conceptual design and calculus of an irradiation industrial plant of tubercles is made, based on the actual needs of a specific agricultural zone of our country. (Author)

  2. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference was a combined event and at the same time was a meeting of the FAIR programme of the EU, under the responsibility of the General Directorate XII, participating countries including Iceland, Norway, Hungary, and Switzerland in addition to the 15 EU member states. Under this roof, research work is sponsored in the fields of food technology, fishing industry, agriculture, forestry, and water resources management. Also, financial support is available for the mid-range food and agricultural industry, or for projects promoting rural development. There currently are over 120 transnational FAIR projects, involving more than 2000 researchers in 233 EU-sponsored research projects devoted to food aspects, some having been presented at the conference. (orig./CB)

  3. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation processing of food is based on irradiation by gamma radiation from a 60Co source or X-ray with energy < 5 MeV or electron beam with energy < 10 MeV. This technique is now completely mastered. About 30 countries use this technique to extend the storage life of food but the total quantity processed is weak, only 30000 tons a year for France. Some countries like Morocco or Tunisia have launched technical programmes about the radiation processing of dates and vegetable oil. These programmes may lead to the creation of a quality label. A joint laboratory between CEA and the Aix-Marseille-3 university is working on the detection of food irradiation in order to fight the fraud. 3 techniques are being investigated: thermoluminescence, electronic paramagnetism resonance and a chemical method. (A.C.)

  4. Food hygiene on the wards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steuer, Walter

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A problem that is often overlooked or simply not given enough attention: the food served to patients from the kitchen is not sterile. If food is allowed to stand at room temperature for a long time, both in the case of food cooked for lunch and of food intended for supper which has been previously chilled, there is the possibility of massive spore germination or of dangerous toxin formation. Therefore regulations on how to handle food and beverages (e.g. tea must be set out in the infection control policy, and checks carried out to monitor compliance with the rules relating to temperature checks, duration and type of storage, need for reheating, etc. Making staff aware of the issues involved is of paramount importance. These include monitoring hygiene standards in the ward kitchen, formulation of a cleaning policy, periodic bacteriological checks (not only of workstations but also of the dishwasher results, whenever possible the use of disposable cloths for working surfaces and equipment, changing cleaning cloths at least once daily and hygienic hand disinfection before and after handing out food. Foodstuffs brought in by visitors represent a special hygienic and organizational problem because in many cases they already have a high baseline microbial count. Visitors must be made aware that, for example, slices of cake left in the patient’s room and often eaten only hours later can pose a risk of infection.In summary, the following principles of food hygiene must be observed on the wards: * Maintenance of the cold-hot chain * Not only reheat food, but ensure it is well heated throughout * Avoid situations giving rise to spore germination in foodstuffs brought in by visitors * Cleanliness and minimal contamination of kitchen worktops * Cleanliness of crockery and kitchen towels * Do not allow food to stand at room temperature for a long time, in particular desserts and confectionery * A standard policy must be enforced to define the hygienic status and organization for food distribution for ward kitchens too.

  5. Food preservation by ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of food preservation by ionising radiation is an alternative, or a complement, to the traditional methods of heating, refrigerating, freezing or using chemical additives. The study and development of this technique has started on the beginning of the fifties but it is based on the radiation killing effect on micro-organisms discovered by the end of last century. Foodstuffs are treated in appropriate plants: isotopic facilities (gamma radiation) and accelerated electron beams produced by machines called accelerators. The FAO and WHO in close cooperation with the IAEA have played an important role on the development of the process and on the increment of the industrial application of food irradiation. Over the world there are about 37 countries trading foods treated by ionising radiation. However, governments have been slow to clear the utilization of this process. The main reason of this attitude is in general due to the fact that the advantages of the technique are not clearly understood. Therefore, the dissemination of the information could on one hand clarify who has to take decisions and on the other hand support the choice of those foods by the consumers. This is the unique way to dynamize the application of this process

  6. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of this data is relative to the study of chemical modifications induced by gamma radiations (60Co, 137Cs) on macromolecules of food and their contaminates with the help of two examples: starch and nucleic acids. Then the second part shows what are the consequences of irradiation on food and their preservation; we make distinction between useful effects (for instance germination inhibition of tubercules, destruction of insects or micro-organisms) and the results which are contingently bad for nutritional, technological and above all toxicologic aspects. The last part is relative to a short restatement of the problems inherent in the industrialization of this treatment

  7. Hooked On Hands-On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betty Cordel

    2013-01-30

    This blog entry details the importance of hands on learning in creating a productive classroom environment. Included in this blog is the lesson plan and worksheets for the AIMS activity Jelly Belly(R). In the lesson plan students collect, display, and analyze data using a circle graph.

  8. Hands-On Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear science is an important topic in terms of its application to power generation, medical diagnostics and treatment, and national defense. Unfortunately, the subatomic domain is far removed from daily experience, and few learning aids are available to teachers. What follows describes a low-tech, hands-on method to teach important concepts in…

  9. Hand-held medical robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Christopher J; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2014-08-01

    Medical robots have evolved from autonomous systems to tele-operated platforms and mechanically-grounded, cooperatively-controlled robots. Whilst these approaches have seen both commercial and clinical success, uptake of these robots remains moderate because of their high cost, large physical footprint and long setup times. More recently, researchers have moved toward developing hand-held robots that are completely ungrounded and manipulated by surgeons in free space, in a similar manner to how conventional instruments are handled. These devices provide specific functions that assist the surgeon in accomplishing tasks that are otherwise challenging with manual manipulation. Hand-held robots have the advantages of being compact and easily integrated into the normal surgical workflow since there is typically little or no setup time. Hand-held devices can also have a significantly reduced cost to healthcare providers as they do not necessitate the complex, multi degree-of-freedom linkages that grounded robots require. However, the development of such devices is faced with many technical challenges, including miniaturization, cost and sterility, control stability, inertial and gravity compensation and robust instrument tracking. This review presents the emerging technical trends in hand-held medical robots and future development opportunities for promoting their wider clinical uptake. PMID:24927713

  10. Hand-arm vibration syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelmear, P L; Taylor, W

    1994-02-01

    The hand-arm vibration syndrome affects workers who perform tasks that generate vibration. Raynaud's phenomenon and sensory impairment of the fingers are the predominant effects. A history of hand-arm vibration (HAV) exposure in a patient with these symptoms should alert the physician to the diagnosis. Referral to a special clinic or hospital department for multiple clinical tests is required to confirm the diagnosis and, using the Stockholm classification, to grade the severity in each hand. The assessment permits the patient to be monitored either for progression of or recovery from the syndrome. Avoidance of further vibration exposure is recommended, together with the prescription of a slow-release calcium channel blocker to improve peripheral circulation. Hand-arm vibration syndrome should be distinguished from carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), which may have similar symptomatology but requires different treatments. Surgery is contraindicated in the former and should be the last resort for carpal tunnel syndrome in a worker requiring good grip-strength in future employment. PMID:8185734

  11. Observation of nanoaerosol release from a hand dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consumer exposure is one of exposures in the life cycle perspective to risk assessment. Many nanoproducts have been commercialized in the fields of health, electronics, home, food etc. Hand dryers are widely used at public rest rooms. In this study, we selected the hand dryer having a filter coated with silver nanoparticles as a popular electronic nanoproduct. A test chamber system was developed to detect nanoaerosols released from the test nanoproduct during the operation. The particle number concentration of the chamber background was confirmed to be 3 by using a condensation particle counter with a detection limit of 10 nm. When the hand dryer was turn on for 1 min, the particle number concentration in the chamber was almost linearly increased up to the peak concentration (3). It was slowly decreased after the hand dryer was turn off. When the operation was extended to 10 min, similar release pattern of nanoaerosols was observed. Therefore, it was concluded that the nanoaerosols was emitted from the hand dryer during the operation. However, the amount of released nanoaerosols was negligible, compared to indoor nanoaerosol concentration (?10,000 particles/cm3). Also, the released nanoaerosols could not be analyzed by filter sampling due to small quantity of mass.

  12. Greening food processing industries in Vietnam: constraints and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Thi My Dieu

    2003-01-01

    The food processing industry is a large, rapidly growing sector in Vietnam and plays a vital role in its country’s economic development. However, its development currently seems to go hand-in-hand with environmental deterioration. Up to now, most research and development activities, regulations and policy measures related to environmental management of (food processing) industry in Vietnam have mainly been focussing on what to do with wastes and emissions after they had been created. Howeve...

  13. Quantitative speeds of convergence for exposure to food contaminants

    OpenAIRE

    Bouguet, Florian

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we consider a class of piecewise-deterministic Markov processes (PDMPs) modeling the quantity of a given food contaminant in the body. On the one hand, the amount of contaminant increases with random food intakes and, on the other hand, decreases thanks to the release rate of the body. Our aim is to provide quantitative speeds of convergence to equilibrium for the total variation and Wasserstein distances via coupling methods.

  14. Differences in social and vocal behavior between left- and right-handed common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Dianne J; Rogers, Lesley J

    2010-11-01

    Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) show either a left- or right-hand preference for reaching to pick up food and they retain the same preference throughout adult life. We compared the behavior of 10 right-handed and 10 left-handed marmosets, matched for age and sex. They were presented with live crickets both when alone and when in their social group. The marmosets captured more crickets and the latency to capture the first cricket was shorter when they were in a group than when they were alone. This effect of social facilitation was significantly greater for right- than left-handed individuals. The number of vocalizations (tsik, crackle, very brief whistle, cough, and phee) produced by the left- and right-handed marmosets differed significantly: right-handed marmosets produced an increased number of all of these calls when the crickets were presented, whereas left-handed marmosets did not show a change from pretesting levels. The right-handed marmosets also produced more tsik (mobbing) calls than left-handed marmosets when they were presented with a fear-inducing stimulus and performed more head cocking and parallax movements than the left-handed marmosets. Hence, hand preference is associated with differences in exploratory and social behavior, the latter including vocal communication. PMID:20853949

  15. Hands Deep in Deep Learning for Hand Pose Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Oberweger, Markus; Wohlhart, Paul; Lepetit, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We introduce and evaluate several architectures for Convolutional Neural Networks to predict the 3D joint locations of a hand given a depth map. We first show that a prior on the 3D pose can be easily introduced and significantly improves the accuracy and reliability of the predictions. We also show how to use context efficiently to deal with ambiguities between fingers. These two contributions allow us to significantly outperform the state-of-the-art on several challenging ...

  16. Real time hand gesture recognition including hand segmentation and tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Coogan, Thomas; Awad, George M.; Han, Junwei; Sutherland, Alistair

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present a system that performs automatic gesture recognition. The system consists of two main components: (i) A unified technique for segmentation and tracking of face and hands using a skin detection algorithm along with handling occlusion between skin objects to keep track of the status of the occluded parts. This is realized by combining 3 useful features, namely, color, motion and position. (ii) A static and dynamic gesture recognition system. Static gesture recognition i...

  17. Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for everything else. When you're done preparing food, wipe down the countertops with hot soapy water or a commercial or homemade cleaning solution. Consider using paper towels to clean surfaces. Don't forget to wash the dishes, utensils, and cutting board in hot, soapy water. Wash ...

  18. Food Allergies

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the dangers of food allergies and the need to be aware if any friends or classmates have them.  Created: 4/23/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/23/2013.

  19. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two letters comment on a previous editorial (Lancet, Feb. 28 1987). The following points are discussed: 1) Stated doses can be exceeded without detection. 2) The hazards and problems of detection of 'food renovation'. 3) Enforcement of labelling regulations. 4) Fraud on consumers. (U.K.)

  20. Food irradiation and food packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advantages and disadvantages of the use of ionising radiations as a process for food preservation are considered. Tests are summarized which have been carried out on food packaging materials (plastics, glass, metals, wood and waxes) for irradiation processing suitability with doses both below 1Mrad and also with higher doses as required for long-term storage. Results of extraction tests are tabulated. The results of searches for the most effective packaging, where sterilisation by radiation is to be used, are given and methods of carrying out the relevant tests are discussed. (UK)

  1. Quantitative microbial risk assessment of antibacterial hand hygiene products on risk of shigellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Donald W; Bowman, James P; English, Donald J; Fischler, George E; Fuls, Janice L; Krowka, John F; Kruszewski, Francis H

    2014-04-01

    There are conflicting reports on whether antibacterial hand hygiene products are more effective than nonantibacterial products in reducing bacteria on hands and preventing disease. This research used new laboratory data, together with simulation techniques, to compare the ability of nonantibacterial and antibacterial products to reduce shigellosis risk. One hundred sixtythree subjects were used to compare five different hand treatments: two nonantibacterial products and three antibacterial products, i.e., 0.46% triclosan, 4% chlorhexidine gluconate, or 62% ethyl alcohol. Hands were inoculated with 5.5 to 6 log CFU Shigella; the simulated food handlers then washed their hands with one of the five products before handling melon balls. Each simulation scenario represented an event in which 100 people would be exposed to Shigella from melon balls that had been handled by food workers with Shigella on their hands. Analysis of experimental data showed that the two nonantibacterial treatments produced about a 2-log reduction on hands. The three antibacterial treatments showed log reductions greater than 3 but less than 4 on hands. All three antibacterial treatments resulted in statistically significantly lower concentration on the melon balls relative to the nonantibacterial treatments. A simulation that assumed 1 million Shigella bacteria on the hands and the use of a nonantibacterial treatment predicted that 50 to 60 cases of shigellosis would result (of 100 exposed). Each of the antibacterial treatments was predicted to result in an appreciable number of simulations for which the number of illness cases would be 0, with the most common number of illness cases being 5 (of 100 exposed). These effects maintained statistical significance from 10(6) Shigella per hand down to as low as 100 Shigella per hand, with some evidence to support lower levels. This quantitative microbial risk assessment shows that antibacterial hand treatments can significantly reduce Shigella risk. PMID:24680068

  2. Does body posture influence hand preference in an ancestral primate model?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leliveld Lisette

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The origin of human handedness and its evolution in primates is presently under debate. Current hypotheses suggest that body posture (postural origin hypothesis and bipedalism hypothesis have an important impact on the evolution of handedness in primates. To gain insight into the origin of manual lateralization in primates, we studied gray mouse lemurs, suggested to represent the most ancestral primate condition. First, we investigated hand preference in a simple food grasping task to explore the importance of hand usage in a natural foraging situation. Second, we explored the influence of body posture by applying a forced food grasping task with varying postural demands (sit, biped, cling, triped. Results The tested mouse lemur population did not prefer to use their hands alone to grasp for food items. Instead, they preferred to pick them up using a mouth-hand combination or the mouth alone. If mouth usage was inhibited, they showed an individual but no population level handedness for all four postural forced food grasping tasks. Additionally, we found no influence of body posture on hand preference in gray mouse lemurs. Conclusion Our results do not support the current theories of primate handedness. Rather, they propose that ecological adaptation indicated by postural habit and body size of a given species has an important impact on hand preference in primates. Our findings suggest that small-bodied, quadrupedal primates, adapted to the fine branch niche of dense forests, prefer mouth retrieval of food and are less manually lateralized than large-bodied species which consume food in a more upright, and less stable body posture.

  3. Washing Food: Does It Promote Food Safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... Actions ${title} Loading... Washing Food: Does it Promote Food Safety? Historically, we equate washing to cleanliness. We wash ...

  4. Robot Hand Grips Cylinders Securely

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parma, George F.

    1989-01-01

    Jaws and linkage accommodate various sizes. Robot hand includes two pairs of parallel jaws that grasp rods, pipes, tubes, struts, and other long, heavy cylindrical objects. Hand features compact rotary drive and butterfly configuration simplifying approach and gripping maneuvers of robot. Parallelogram linkages maintain alignment of each jaw with other jaws. One bar of each linkage connected to one of two concentric, counterrotating shafts; rotation of shafts moves jaws in each pair toward or away from each other to grasp or release workpiece. Each jaw includes rigid gripping pad lined with rubber to give firm grip and to prevent damage to workpiece. Inner cylindrical surface (corner) of each jaw tapers off to flat sides. Enables jaw to grasp workpieces with diameters larger than or equal to twice the corner radius.

  5. Ergonomic evaluation of biomechanical hand function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Sun; Jung, Myung-Chul

    2015-03-01

    The human hand is a complex structure that performs various functions for activities of daily living and occupations. This paper presents a literature review on the methodologies used to evaluate hand functions from a biomechanics standpoint, including anthropometry, kinematics, kinetics, and electromyography (EMG). Anthropometry describes the dimensions and measurements of the hand. Kinematics includes hand movements and the range of motion of finger joints. Kinetics includes hand models for tendon and joint force analysis. EMG is used on hand muscles associated with hand functions and with signal-processing technology. PMID:25830064

  6. STATE OF ART: HAND BIOMETRIC

    OpenAIRE

    Benyettou, Abdelkader; Sarâh BENZIANE

    2012-01-01

    This paper present a state of art about biometric hand, different techniques used.Biometric is essentially used to avoid risks of password easy to find or Stoll; with as slogan save Time and Attendance. We can note that biometrics is a true alternative to the passwords and other identifiers to make safe the access controls. It makes it possible to check that the user is well the person who it claims to be.

  7. [My hands hurt so much!].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüst, Christoph A; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat

    2014-11-26

    We present the case of a 48-year-old man complaining of pain in his hands. In a first step, a two-sided carpal tunnel syndrome was found, and in the further course of the disease an acromegaly. The combinations of carpal tunnel syndrome, impaired glucose tolerance and radiological findings in the area of the sella turcica were the clues for the diagnosis of acromegaly. PMID:25446685

  8. The hands of the dancer

    OpenAIRE

    Abtan, Freida

    2008-01-01

    'The hands of the dancer" is a 21 minute HD sound and video piece that focuses on the temporal experience of audiovisual composition and takes lucid dreaming as inspiration. It was created by Freida Abtan with footage of Andrea Fryett, Olivia Li, and David Drury. The video explores the multiple ways that movement and form can be abstracted through surface and temporal manipulation. The narrative evokes a dreamscape in which characters exchange identity and develop through physical transf...

  9. Hand kinematics of piano playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Shinichi; Flanders, Martha; Soechting, John F

    2011-12-01

    Dexterous use of the hand represents a sophisticated sensorimotor function. In behaviors such as playing the piano, it can involve strong temporal and spatial constraints. The purpose of this study was to determine fundamental patterns of covariation of motion across joints and digits of the human hand. Joint motion was recorded while 5 expert pianists played 30 excerpts from musical pieces, which featured ?50 different tone sequences and fingering. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis using an expectation-maximization algorithm revealed that joint velocities could be categorized into several patterns, which help to simplify the description of the movements of the multiple degrees of freedom of the hand. For the thumb keystroke, two distinct patterns of joint movement covariation emerged and they depended on the spatiotemporal patterns of the task. For example, the thumb-under maneuver was clearly separated into two clusters based on the direction of hand translation along the keyboard. While the pattern of the thumb joint velocities differed between these clusters, the motions at the metacarpo-phalangeal and proximal-phalangeal joints of the four fingers were more consistent. For a keystroke executed with one of the fingers, there were three distinct patterns of joint rotations, across which motion at the striking finger was fairly consistent, but motion of the other fingers was more variable. Furthermore, the amount of movement spillover of the striking finger to the adjacent fingers was small irrespective of the finger used for the keystroke. These findings describe an unparalleled amount of independent motion of the fingers. PMID:21880938

  10. The Marble-Hand Illusion

    OpenAIRE

    Senna, Irene; Maravita, Angelo; Bolognini, Nadia; Parise, Cesare V.

    2014-01-01

    Our body is made of flesh and bones. We know it, and in our daily lives all the senses constantly provide converging information about this simple, factual truth. But is this always the case? Here we report a surprising bodily illusion demonstrating that humans rapidly update their assumptions about the material qualities of their body, based on their recent multisensory perceptual experience. To induce a misperception of the material properties of the hand, we repeatedly gently hit participa...

  11. Naturally Degenerate Right Handed Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    West, Stephen M.

    2004-01-01

    In the context of supersymmetric theories, a weakly broken gauged SO(3) flavour symmetry is used to produce two highly degenerate right handed (RH) neutrinos. It is then shown that this SO(3) flavour symmetry is compatible with all fermion masses and mixings if it is supplemented with a further SU(3) flavour symmetry. A specific Susy breaking model is used to generate the light neutrino masses as well as a natural model of TeV scale resonant leptogenesis.

  12. Food irradiation: A contribution to food security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For food security at the national level every country needs to evolve its own strategies to maintain a continuous supply of food between seasons. Research and development over the past 30 years have clearly demonstrated that food irradiation is a safe, effective and environmentally clean process of food preservation. The technology is beginning to play an important role in reducing post-harvest losses of food and in facilitating wider distribution of food in the trade. 1 fig., 1 tab

  13. Health promotion in the home: 1. Food poisoning: the link with home hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, B

    1994-01-01

    The incidence of food poisoning in the UK is increasing substantially, with about 50% arising in the home. Many different organisms cause food-borne infections, including Salmonella, Campylobacter and Shigella. Storing food correctly is important. Many households shop only once a week and food is often kept for several days before being eaten. Standards of domestic kitchen hygiene must be improved if the incidence of food poisoning is to be reduced Hand washing, kitchen cleanliness and disinfection are essential. PMID:8680190

  14. Food deficits, food security and food aid: concepts and measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Gabbert, Silke; Weikard, Hans-Peter

    1998-01-01

    The concepts of food deficit, hunger, undernourishment and food security are discussed. Axioms and indices for the assessment of nutrition of individuals and groups are suggested. Furthermore a measure for food aid donor performance is developed and applied to a sample of bilateral and multilateral donors providing food aid for African countries.

  15. Food deficits, food security and food aid : concepts and measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Gabbert, Silke; Weikard, Hans-peter

    1998-01-01

    The concepts of food deficit, hunger, undernourishment and food security are discussed. Axioms and indices for the assessment of nutrition of individuals and groups are suggested. Furthermore a measure for food aid donor performance is developed and applied to a sample of bilateral and multilateral donors providing food aid for African countries.

  16. A hand and foot monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The laboratory design of hand and foot monitor is discussed. The main purpose of which is to detect the presence of radioactive contamination on hand and foot. It is designed as a stationary apparatus and functions as an alarm system in cases where the maximum permissible concentration of radioactivity on the surface of foot and hand is exceeded. The maximum permissible concentration of radioactivity on term ''exposure'' has been fixed 0.35 mR/Hr. Further details of the apparatus are as follow: A contamination level of 0.35 mR/hr and above is marked by a red pilot lamp flash, whereas below it, a green one prevails. To detect the presence of radiation a G.M. tube is used which operates in the range between 10-4-IR/hr. A yellow pilot lamp indicates the stand by condition. A circuit employing a LDR is used to regulate the stand by and the operating condition. Relevant to the design and the detector used, the type of radiation detected comes from Gamma emitting sources. (author)

  17. Hand dominance in orthopaedic surgeons.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lui, Darren F

    2012-08-01

    Handedness is perhaps the most studied human asymmetry. Laterality is the preference shown for one side and it has been studied in many aspects of medicine. Studies have shown that some orthopaedic procedures had poorer outcomes and identified laterality as a contributing factor. We developed a questionnaire to assess laterality in orthopaedic surgery and compared this to an established scoring system. Sixty-two orthopaedic surgeons surveyed with the validated Waterloo Handedness Questionnaire (WHQ) were compared with the self developed Orthopaedic Handedness Questionnaire (OHQ). Fifty-eight were found to be right hand dominant (RHD) and 4 left hand dominant (LHD). In RHD surgeons, the average WHQ score was 44.9% and OHQ 15%. For LHD surgeons the WHQ score was 30.2% and OHQ 9.4%. This represents a significant amount of time using the non dominant hand but does not necessarily determine satisfactory or successful dexterity transferable to the operating room. Training may be required for the non dominant side.

  18. The hands of the projectionist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Lisa

    2011-09-01

    This essay considers the work of projection and the hand of the projectionist as important components of the social space of the cinema as it comes into being in the nineteenth century and the early decades of the twentieth. I bring the concept ofMaurice Merleau-Ponty on the place of the body as an entity that applies itself to the world "like a hand to an instrument" into a discussion of the pre-cinematic projector as an instrument that we can interpret as evidence of the experience of the work of the projectionist in the spirit of film theory and media archaeology, moving work on instrumentation in a different direction from the analysis of the work of the black box in laboratory studies. Projection is described as a psychological as well as a mechanical process. It is suggested that we interpret the projector not simply in its activity as it projects films, but in its movement from site to site and in the workings of the hand of its operator behind the scenes. This account suggests a different perspective on the cinematic turn of the nineteenth century, a concept typically approached through the study of the image, the look, the camera, and the screen. PMID:21995224

  19. Food Nanotechnology: Food Packaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part the impetus for this predicted growth is the e...

  20. Food Nanotechnology - Food Packaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part, the impetus for this predicted growth is the ...

  1. Fuzzy rule-based hand gesture recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Bedregal, Benjamín C.; Costa, Antônio Carlos da Rocha; Dimuro, Graçaliz P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces a fuzzy rule-based method for the recognition of hand gestures acquired from a data glove, with an application to the recognition of some sample hand gestures of LIBRAS, the Brazilian Sign Language. The method uses the set of angles of finger joints for the classification of hand configurations, and classifications of segments of hand gestures for recognizing gestures. The segmentation of gestures is based on the concept of monotonic gesture segment, sequences of hand co...

  2. Holiday Food Safety

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health A to Z Index Follow FDA En Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food ... food promptly Holiday Food Safety Video (English) (en español) Ready-to-Cook Foods: Follow Directions to Keep ...

  3. Food Allergies in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC.gov . Adolescent and School Health Share Compartir Food Allergies in Schools Food allergies are a growing ... Allergy Guidelines FAQs [PDF - 163KB] What is a Food Allergy? A food allergy occurs when the body ...

  4. Food Allergy Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Food Allergy Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content ... diagnosis of food allergy. back to top Oral food challenge Caution Because oral food challenges can cause ...

  5. Holiday Food Safety

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... mail this page Home Food Resources for You Consumers Holiday Food Safety Many people don't realize ... and remember to BE FOOD SAFE! Additional Information Consumer Update: Food Safety Tips for Healthy Holidays [ARCHIVED] ...

  6. The Science of Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylor College of Medicine (Baylor College of Medicine Human Genome Sequencing Center)

    2010-01-01

    A series of resources and inquiry lessons on nutrition and food-related concepts such as photosynthesis, food webs, food contaminants, food borne parasites or bacterial infections and choosing a healthy diet.

  7. Grips and hand movements of chimpanzees during feeding in Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzke, Mary W; Marchant, Linda F; McGrew, William C; Reece, Sandra P

    2015-03-01

    It has long been assumed that stone tool making was a major factor in the evolution of derived hominin hand morphology. However, stresses on the hand associated with food retrieval and processing also have been recognized as relevant early hominin behaviors that should be investigated. To this end, chimpanzee food manipulation was videotaped in the Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania. Grips and hand movements by 39 chimpanzees were analyzed for arboreal and terrestrial feeding involving 10 food-types and associated vegetation. It was predicted that (1) new grips would be found that had not been observed in captivity, (2) forceful precision grips would be absent from the repertoire, as in captivity, and (3) precision handling would be observed. New grips involving the full thumb and buttressed index finger, and a new integrated pattern of grips and forceful hand movements were discovered, associated with feeding on large fruits and meat. Participation of the full thumb in these grips, rather than the distal thumb and fingers, throws light on feeding behaviors that may have become increasingly significant factors in the evolution of derived hominin thumb morphology. The proximal thumb stabilizes food with the flexed index finger against the pull of the teeth and provides leverage in breaking food into portions. Isolated qualitative observations of possibly forceful pinch by the thumb and side of the index finger highlight the need for comparative quantitative data to test whether humans are unique in forceful precision gripping capability. Precision handling was not seen. PMID:25363236

  8. Food irradiation in Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report explains the process and issues that concern consumers, workers in the food industry and people involved in food policy, public health and environmental protection. It argues that safety assurances by experts are not enough, and calls for a full public debate on all issues surrounding food irradiation, including a) wholesomeness of irradiated foods - food quality, nutrition losses, chemical and other changes in irradiated foods b) consumers rights to information about irradiated foods c) health and safety of food industry workers d) the economics of irradiation - food prices, changes in patters of employment, environmental impacts e) regulation and monitoring of food irradiation and imported irradiated foods. (U.K.)

  9. Food fears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radurisation can give a new lease of shelf life to food and cut down contamination, but it is bound to cause problems - even among comparatively tame South African consumers. In this article the facts about radurization are discussed: the labelling of irradiated products, the problem of making a bad product good by using irradiation, consumer pressure, attitudes, fears and resistance. The economics of radurised foodstuffs are also discussed

  10. Food Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Ehlers Bloksted, Josephine; Knudsen, Anna Althea; Boie Hvid, Amanda; Bang Christensen, Andrea; Ali Ismail, Mohamed Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    This paper illustrates the connection found between food choices, and the influences from society and the digital Media, more specifically television commercials. We have covered different aspects of social and psychological theories, aiming to explain how the individual is affected by social factors. We have drawn conclusions on how the individual is inflicted by society when concerning choice making, as well as covering the psychological aspects that are relevant in connection to this. Last...

  11. Food Pyramid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrs. Allan

    2008-09-29

    Learn about the different food groups and how to put them to use in planning meals. Objective: By following the steps in this program,the student will be able to gather information to help develop skills in the area of \\"Independent Living\\" according to the Transition Plan of an IEP and the students specific IEP goals. Learning will be assessed by observation and from work sheets and menus ...

  12. Analysis of Swedish consumers’ attitude to Chinese food

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jie

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research is to find out what’s attitude Swedish consumers have to Chinese food. The questionnaires based on the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) are handed out to 100 Swedish respondents in order to investigate their motivation on Chinese food choice. 78 questionnaires which were filled completely were selected for this study. Eleven factors involved in the questionnaire are labeled health, mood, convenience, sensory appeal, natural content, price, weight control, familiarity...

  13. Theorizing Food Sovereignty: An analysis of public and academic discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Winsauer, Emily A.

    2012-01-01

    Food is at the nexus of a truly striking range of the global political, environmental, economic and human rights issues we face today, from climate change and water scarcity to poverty and economic stability. The consolidation of each step of food production in the hands of just a few companies has siphoned value and wealth from rural areas, edging out small producers and forcing farmers to becoming a part of the corporate production system. The food sovereignty movement has become one of the...

  14. Package Those Foods!

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-18

    Student groups are challenged to create food packages for specific foods. They focus on three components in the design of their food packages; the packages must keep the food clean, protect or aid in the physical and chemical changes that can take place in the food, and present the food appealingly. They design their packaging to meet these requirements.

  15. Holiday Food Safety

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... page Home Food Resources for You Consumers Holiday Food Safety Many people don't realize that food safety ... Video Ready-to-Cook Foods Additional Information Holiday Food Safety Success Kit The Holiday Food Safety Success Kit , ...

  16. Food hygiene practices of food vendors in secondary schools in Ilorin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, O I; Akande, T M

    2003-09-01

    This descriptive study was carried out to determine food safety practices among food Vendors in secondary schools in Ilorin. Pre-tested questionnaire and observational checklist were administered to 185 respondents recruited using inclusion and exclusion criteria. One hundred and eighty-two (98.4%) of the subjects were females and only 6(3%) were teenagers. One hundred and two (56.8%) had no formal education while 72(39% had received training on food hygiene. Pre-employment medical examination practice was high 141(76%) but periodic medical examination was low 30(16%). Sixty-one (33%) and seventy-two(39%) respondents prepared food well in advance and reheat food before sale respectively. Vendors who prepared food well in advance (over 4 hours) were found to practise food re-heating more than those who prepared food within 4 hours before sale, and this is statistically significant. The major unhygienic practices observed among the food vendors were poor care of used utensils 100(54%), use of previously used water for washing and cleaning, lack of covering apron among the vendors 128(69%) and lack of wash hand basin for immediate cleaning 61(33%). Only 85(46%) of the respondents used soap and water to clean their utensils while the rest 100(54%) used unhygienic methods to clean their utensils. It was observed that respondents who used soap and water for cleaning, vended food at locations that were relatively closer to water source, compared to other vendors who used other methods to clean their utensils. This is also statistically significant. Unkempt fingernails, skin lesions and poor food protection from flies were some of the food contaminating risk factors observed in the study. The need exists for food vendors and other food handlers to be trained on basic principles of safe food handling. PMID:14692065

  17. Rising food costs & global food security: Key issues & relevance for India

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Rising food costs can have major impact on vulnerable households, pushing those least able to cope further into poverty and hunger. On the other hand, provided appropriate policies and infrastructure are in place, higher agricultural prices can also raise farmers’ incomes and rural wages, improve rural economies and stimulate investment for longer-term economic growth. High food prices since 2007 have had both short-term impacts and long-term consequences, both good and bad. This article re...

  18. Food justice and Christian ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Bedford-Strohm

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article dealt with the moral and political problem of international food justice in which the deep contradiction between the present situation of malnourishment and starvation in large parts of the global population on the one hand and the biblical notion of the preferential option for the poor on the other hand was described. This ecumenically widely accepted notion was clarified in several aspects. How deeply this is rooted in the history of Christian social thought was shown by Martin Luther’s writings on the economy which have remained relatively unknown in the churches and in the scholarly world. The article then presented three models of Christian economic ethic: the technical economic model, the utopian economic model and the public theological economic model. On the basis of the public theological model seven challenges for international food justice were presented. The basis for these challenges is an understanding of globalisation which guarantees just participation for everyone and deals with nature in an ecologically sustainable way. The interests of small farmers are the basis for judging the activities of big agro-corporations. Public theology is the background for an active involvement of the churches as agents of a global civil society to promote international food justice.

  19. Food justice and Christian ethics

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Heinrich, Bedford-Strohm.

    Full Text Available The article dealt with the moral and political problem of international food justice in which the deep contradiction between the present situation of malnourishment and starvation in large parts of the global population on the one hand and the biblical notion of the preferential option for the poor [...] on the other hand was described. This ecumenically widely accepted notion was clarified in several aspects. How deeply this is rooted in the history of Christian social thought was shown by Martin Luther's writings on the economy which have remained relatively unknown in the churches and in the scholarly world. The article then presented three models of Christian economic ethic: the technical economic model, the utopian economic model and the public theological economic model. On the basis of the public theological model seven challenges for international food justice were presented. The basis for these challenges is an understanding of globalisation which guarantees just participation for everyone and deals with nature in an ecologically sustainable way. The interests of small farmers are the basis for judging the activities of big agro-corporations. Public theology is the background for an active involvement of the churches as agents of a global civil society to promote international food justice.

  20. Helping Hands: Enabling the Disabled

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjan, Prof Nihar M.; Rahul Pardeshi; Piyush Bhattad; Pavan Shah; Nirav Shah

    2013-01-01

    A major community in the world population is of physically handicapped and blind people. These people cannot access the computers due to their disabilities. There is a need of some technology which allows these people to get access of the mouse and keyboard without using hands and eyes. This paper gives us the brief introduction of a technology which is intended to help handicapped in getting access of the basic technologies.This technology uses the head mouse technology by which the real tim...

  1. Hand protection from ultraviolet exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: A number of industrial applications and public services involve exposure to ultraviolet radiation (U.V.R.) from a variety of lamps and lasers, for example, in forensic examination, biological trans-illuminators, dentistry, laser material processing, microelectronics, etc. The proposed European Union Directive on Optical Radiation would place specific requirements on employers to provide adequate safety measures to reduce exposure to U.V.R., including gloves for hand protection. The selection of gloves should be based on a risk assessment and on the performance characteristics of the gloves for the task. However, current International and national standards do not describe evaluation procedures of disposable gloves for hand protection against non-ionising radiation. A methodology for assessment of the UV protection level for disposable gloves and a simple measurement protocol are proposed, based on a common approach with UV protection by clothing and sunscreens. Glove Ultraviolet Protection Factor is defined as a time-scale increase in exposure permitted for the hand protected by a glove with respect to an unprotected hand. However, the wide variety of U.V.R. sources and the real-life conditions of glove use (stretching and wetting the surface by liquids) bring substantial challenges to the assessment method. Our study of ? 50 samples of widely used disposable gloves made of different materials (nitrile, vinyl, latex and chloroprene) (nitrile, vinyl, latex and chloroprene) showed that for all tested gloves a change in U.V.R. attenuation with stretching is characteristic for the type of glove material and can be included as a scaling factor in the definition of U.V.R. protection. Glove material has a bigger effect on U.V.R. protection level than variations in the glove thickness or its colour. The following approaches are suggested to overcome the problem of variable U.V.R. sources: - Worst case scenario minimal protection level, most restrictive case - Application specific UV protection factor - Lamp-type specific protection factor, for group of U.V.R. sources with similar spectral characteristics. Examples of assessment of the 'worst case scenario' are compared with the protection level against a number of the sources, together with guidance on a simplified evaluation protocol. An application specific assessment, illustrated for 'Smart Water' forensic examinations and biological trans-illuminators, demonstrates that some gloves provide inadequate protection against occupational ultraviolet exposure. (authors)

  2. Hand protection from ultraviolet exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khazova, M.; O' Hagan, J.B. [Health Protection Agency, Radiation Protection Division, Chilton, Did cot (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: A number of industrial applications and public services involve exposure to ultraviolet radiation (U.V.R.) from a variety of lamps and lasers, for example, in forensic examination, biological trans-illuminators, dentistry, laser material processing, microelectronics, etc. The proposed European Union Directive on Optical Radiation would place specific requirements on employers to provide adequate safety measures to reduce exposure to U.V.R., including gloves for hand protection. The selection of gloves should be based on a risk assessment and on the performance characteristics of the gloves for the task. However, current International and national standards do not describe evaluation procedures of disposable gloves for hand protection against non-ionising radiation. A methodology for assessment of the UV protection level for disposable gloves and a simple measurement protocol are proposed, based on a common approach with UV protection by clothing and sunscreens. Glove Ultraviolet Protection Factor is defined as a time-scale increase in exposure permitted for the hand protected by a glove with respect to an unprotected hand. However, the wide variety of U.V.R. sources and the real-life conditions of glove use (stretching and wetting the surface by liquids) bring substantial challenges to the assessment method. Our study of {approx} 50 samples of widely used disposable gloves made of different materials (nitrile, vinyl, latex and chloroprene) showed that for all tested gloves a change in U.V.R. attenuation with stretching is characteristic for the type of glove material and can be included as a scaling factor in the definition of U.V.R. protection. Glove material has a bigger effect on U.V.R. protection level than variations in the glove thickness or its colour. The following approaches are suggested to overcome the problem of variable U.V.R. sources: - Worst case scenario minimal protection level, most restrictive case - Application specific UV protection factor - Lamp-type specific protection factor, for group of U.V.R. sources with similar spectral characteristics. Examples of assessment of the 'worst case scenario' are compared with the protection level against a number of the sources, together with guidance on a simplified evaluation protocol. An application specific assessment, illustrated for 'Smart Water' forensic examinations and biological trans-illuminators, demonstrates that some gloves provide inadequate protection against occupational ultraviolet exposure. (authors)

  3. Fast Foods, Organic Foods, Fad Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is no standard definition of fast food. Generally, fast food is eaten without cutlery, and fast-food restaurants have no wait staff. Failure to have a standardized definition makes it difficult to compare studies. Foods available outside the home tend to be high in energy and fat compared w...

  4. A Squeeze of the Hand

    OpenAIRE

    Jon Cotner; Andy Fitch

    2012-01-01

    My colleague Andy Fitch and I recorded forty-five-minute dialogues for thirty straight days around New York City. Half these talks took place at a Union Square health-food store that we call “W.F.” Other locations included MoMA, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Metropolitan Opera House, Central Park, Prospect Park, and a Tribeca parking garage. What follows is our twentieth conversation. Here sickness, emptiness, a train delay, and an argument seem to prefigure disaster and the project...

  5. Glomus Tumor of the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won; Kwon, Soon Beom; Eo, Su Rak; Kwon, Chan

    2015-01-01

    Background Glomus tumors were first described by Wood in 1812 as painful subcutaneous tubercles. It is an uncommon benign neoplasm involving the glomus body, an apparatus that involves in thermoregulation of cutaneous microvasculature. Glomus tumor constitutes 1%-5% of all hand tumors. It usually occurs at the subungual region and more commonly in aged women. Its classical clinical triad consists of pain, tenderness and temperature intolerance, especially cold sensitivity. This study reviews 15 cases of glomus tumor which were analyzed according to its anatomic location, surgical approach and histologic findings. Methods Fifteen patients with subungual glomus tumors of the hand operated on between January 2006 and March 2013, were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were evaluated preoperatively with standard physical examination including ice cube test and Love's test. Diagnostic imaging consisted of ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. All procedures were performed with tourniquet control under local anesthesia. Eleven patients underwent excision using the transungual approach, 3 patients using the volar approach and 1 patient using the lateral subperiosteal approach. Results Total of 15 cases were reviewed. 11 tumors were located in the nail bed, 3 in the volar pulp and 1 in the radial aspect of the finger tip. After complete excision, patients remained asymptomatic in the immediate postoperative period. In the long term follow up, patients exhibited excellent cosmetic results with no recurrence. Conclusions Accurate diagnosis should be made by physical, radiologic and pathologic examinations. Preoperative localization and complete extirpation is essential in preventing recurrence and subsequent nail deformity. PMID:26015884

  6. Hand images: normal and abnormal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supplemental hand scintigrams with abnormal features were obtained from 29% of patients (134 of 463) who were referred for routine, minified bone imaging with /sup 99m/Tc-Sn-polyphosphate. A wide spectrum of normal activity distribution ranging from well-defined to ''wash-out'' images is described in 329 cases (71%). In the abnormal images of the joints and individual bones, the changes, although not always characteristic of some particular disease, may often suggest a diagnosis and/or its pathophysiologic status. The joints with heavy uptake correlate well with the presence of active clinical findings, e.g., in the arthritides. The bone features associated with metabolic disease, especially when full-blown, may be fairly characteristic. A potential application is in the assessment of digital circulation, particularly in obliterative vascular diseases such as scleroderma, Buerger's disease, chronic neuropathies, and possibly other collagen or vascular diseases that involve the hands. Interesting images, probably of somewhat limited usefulness, are observed in some congenital anomalies, fractures, camptodactyly, contracture deformities, unilateral lymphedema after mastectomy, etc

  7. Factitious Lymphedema of the Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sina Ahmadi Abhari

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report the case of a 39- year old unmarried female with factitious edema of the right hand two weeks after being struck by her brother and following self injury of the right arm. Method: A 39-year old unmarried female with severe edema of the right hand and forearm diagnosed as factitious lymphedema was admitted to Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital. After hospitalization, with elevation of affected limb, the edema had lessened. Thereafter, she was observed at ward rounds with a cloth bandage wrapped around her arm. The edema had recurred. Physical Examination as well as right upper extremity X ray was normal. In mental state examination, patient's mood was dysphonic, rather anxious, and denied tourniquet application; otherwise no prominent psychiatric symptoms were detected. Patient underwent psychotherapy and 20 my fluoxetetine on daily basis was administered. Results: Patient's symptoms relieved within eight weeks and discharged while accepted to adjust herself with the situations. Conclusion: Factitious etiology may be presuming in any patient with unilateral limb lymphedema when venous or lymphatic Pathology were missing. The patient may be suffering from emotional conflicts.

  8. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limitations of existing preserving methods and possibilities of improved food preservation by application of nuclear energy are explained. The latest state-of-the-art in irradiation technology in individual countries is described and corresponding recommendations of FAO, WHO and IAEA specialists are presented. The Sulzer irradiation equipment for potato sprout blocking is described, the same equipment being suitable also for the treatment of onions, garlic, rice, maize and other cereals. Systems with a higher power degree are needed for fodder preserving irradiation. (author)

  9. Employing the Hand as an Interface Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Sepehri

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose algorithms and applications for using the hand as an interface device in virtual and physical spaces. In virtual drawing, by tracking the hand in 3-D and estimating a virtual plane in space, the intended drawing of user is recognized. In a virtual marble game, the instantaneous orientation of the hand is simulated to render a graphical scene of the game board. Real-time visual feedback allows the user to navigate a virtual ball in a maze. In 3-D model construction, the system tracks the hand motion in space while the user is traversing edges of a physical object. The object is then rendered virtually by the computer. These applications involve estimating the 3-D absolute position and/or orientation of the hand in space. We propose parametric modelling of the central region of the hand to extract this information. A stereo camera is used to first build a preliminary disparity map of the hand. Then, the best fitting plane to the disparity points is computed using robust estimation. The 3-D hand plane is calculated based on the disparity plane and the position and orientation parameters of the hand. Tracking the hand region over a sequence of frames and coping with noise using robust modelling of the hand motion enables estimating the trajectory of the hand in space. The algorithms are real-time and experiments are presented to demonstrate the proposed applications of using the hand as an interface device.

  10. Food hygiene practices in different food establishments

    OpenAIRE

    Djeki, I.; Smigic, N.; Kalogianni, E.P.; Rocha, Ada; Zamioudi, L.; Pacheco, A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate three dimensions of food hygiene in three European cities -Belgrade, Thessaloniki and Porto. The first dimension of the survey was to evaluate the level of hygiene indifferent food establishments supplying food direct to consumers. A total of 91 food businesses wereincluded in the survey with 30 food businesses from Belgrade and Porto, and 31 from Thessaloniki. Inparallel with scoring the premises, the second dimension of the study was to examine the o...

  11. Consumers' perceptions of functional foods: Trust and food-neophobia in a cross-cultural context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolgopolova, I.; Teuber, Ramona

    2015-01-01

    Consumers' perceptions of functional foods are complicated by perceived risks and complexity that appear from growing and sometimes confusing information flow. Social trust can serve as a mean for the reduction of risk and complexity. It is thus vital to understand the sources of distrust and food-neophobia as well as coping mechanisms used by consumers to ensure food provision and safety. We discuss the results of a qualitative inquiry in the form of focus groups into consumers' perceptions of functional foods in Russia and Germany. Altogether eight focus group interviews were carried out in different parts of Russia and Germany in December-January 2012-2013. A total of 59 people participated in the discussions. Different perspectives provided by the discussions in the two countries indicate different levels of trust. Deeper culturally embedded and wider-spread distrust in formal institutions in Russia pushes consumers towards developing informal networks to ensure food provision and safety. It leads to highlevels of food-neophobia as consumers perceive traditions as the most important guarantee for healthy food. On the other hand, German participants indicate a number of formal institutions that are trustworthy and through which information concerning novel and healthy attributes in foods can be communicated. We provide exploratory views on the importance of social trust in consumers' perceptions of functional foods and lay out mechanisms that consumers develop to deal with increasing risk and complexity in food choices. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Food health law : a legal perspective on EU competence to regulate the "healthiness" of food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edinger, Wieke Willemijn Huizing

    2014-01-01

    The EU has developed a detailed stringent set of food safety rules aimed at limiting or containing the risk that people experience negative health effects from the consumption of food. In doing so, the legislator has focused on food safety in a relatively narrow sense, not including the potential risks to human health of foods with, e.g., negative nutritional features. While EU food safety legislation seems successful in preventing food-borne illnesses, public focus has shifted to the growing prevalence of lifestyle-related illnesses. There is convincing scientific evidence of a correlation between obesity and non-communicable diseases, on the one hand, and unhealthy food on the other. The EU has taken initiatives to stop this development, but these are directed at guiding consumer choice rather than at regulating foods from the point of view of their composition and nutritional value. The question arises whether the EU would at all be competent to step in and regulate ‘food health’. This article analyses different elements in the EU Treaties with a particular view toward a possible legal basis for regulating food health.

  13. 29 CFR 1915.133 - Hand tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand tools. 1915.133 Section 1915.133 Labor...AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Tools and Related Equipment § 1915.133 Hand tools. The provisions of this section...

  14. Food Chains and Webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ms. Thompson

    2007-02-21

    Learn more about food chains, food webs, and how the organisms in them affect each other. In class, you have learned what food webs and food chains are. Today, you will explore how the organisms in these systems interact. Step One: Food Chains What happens when you take something out of a food chain? Go to the Chain Reaction website: Chain Reaction--Food Chains This internet site will help you ...

  15. Food, Globalization and Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Oosterveer, P. J. M.; Sonnenfeld, D. A.

    2011-01-01

    Food is increasingly traded internationally, thereby transforming the organisation of food production and consumption globally and influencing most food-related practices. This transition is generating unfamiliar challenges related to sustainability of food provision, the social impacts of international trade and global food governance. Distance in time and space between food producers and consumers is increasing and new concerns are arising. These include the environmental impact of food pro...

  16. Air Muscle Actuated Low Cost Humanoid Hand

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Scarfe; Euan Lindsay

    2008-01-01

    The control of humanoid robot hands has historically been expensive due to the cost of precision actuators. This paper presents the design and implementation of a low-cost air muscle actuated humanoid hand developed at Curtin University of Technology. This hand offers 10 individually controllable degrees of freedom ranging from the elbow to the fingers, with overall control handled through a computer GUI. The hand is actuated through 20 McKibben-style air muscles, each supplied by a pneumatic...

  17. Debate on food irradiation. [Food safety debate - food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    An amendment moved on the food safety bill provided that any regulations made which relate to irradiation shall only be made after a diagnostic test has been established to determine whether or not food has been subject to irradiation and also that a scientific review has been conducted into the effects of irradiation on pesticide residues and other toxins in food, vitamin content of food, food additives and food packaging materials, and the results thereof published. The debate which followed lasted an hour and a quarter and is reported verbatim. After a short definition of irradiation, the debate was concerned with the nutritional value of irradiated food, the radiation effects for the public, the dose levels which are safe to use, public opinion and the lack of research into the effects of irradiating food. The amendment was withdrawn after the debate. (UK).

  18. 29 CFR 1917.51 - Hand tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand tools. 1917.51 Section 1917.51 Labor Regulations...Cargo Handling Gear and Equipment § 1917.51 Hand tools. (a) Hand tools used by employees shall be maintained in safe...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.301 - Hand tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand tools. 1926.301 Section 1926.301 Labor...SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Tools-Hand and Power § 1926.301 Hand tools. (a) Employers shall not issue or...

  20. Hand-Controlled Brazing-Paste Dispenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.

    1994-01-01

    Hand control proven superior to foot control. Hand-operated switch added to hand-held brazing-alloy-paste dispenser yields improved, more consistent brazing-alloy beads. Dispenser used to apply paste between adjacent tubes in heat exchanger. Switch reliable and safe, and removed and reattached easily.

  1. Hemispheric asymmetries in eye-hand coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrysen, Ann; Heremans, Elke; Peeters, Ron; Wenderoth, Nici; Helsen, Werner F; Feys, Peter; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2008-02-15

    Manual asymmetries in limb kinematics and eye-hand coordination have usually been attributed to differences in online processing capabilities between the left and the right cerebral hemisphere. In the present fMRI experiment, we examined in right handers the brain areas involved in eye-hand coordination with either the left or the right hand. Although temporal and spatial accuracy was equal for left- and right-hand movements, manual asymmetries were found in behavioral and neurophysiologic data, suggesting an asymmetric mode of control for left vs. right eye-hand coordination. For left eye-hand coordination, peak velocity and saccade completion occurred earlier than for the contralateral movements, suggesting that there was more time needed for homing-in on the target. When using the right hand, there was more activation in occipital areas. This might indicate a more intense visual processing or visualization of the target locations. When using the left hand, there was more activation in sensorimotor areas, frontal areas and cerebellum. This might point toward more processing effort. Left-hand movements may be considered as more difficult than right-hand movements by right-handed participants. Alternatively and more likely, these findings might reflect a difference in attention or resources attributed to different aspects of the tasks because of the different functional specializations of both hand/hemisphere systems. PMID:18053745

  2. ARE LEFT HANDED SURGEONS LEFT OUT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SriKamkshi Kothandaraman

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Being a left-handed surgeon, more specifically a left-handed ENT surgeon, presents a unique pattern of difficulties.This article is an overview of left-handedness and a personal account of the specific difficulties a left-handed ENT surgeon faces.

  3. ARE LEFT HANDED SURGEONS LEFT OUT?

    OpenAIRE

    SriKamkshi Kothandaraman; Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

    2012-01-01

    Being a left-handed surgeon, more specifically a left-handed ENT surgeon, presents a unique pattern of difficulties.This article is an overview of left-handedness and a personal account of the specific difficulties a left-handed ENT surgeon faces.

  4. Subungual exostosis in the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, R E; Chance, J T; Inan, Y

    1992-10-01

    Although it is thought to be a relatively common tumour, only 34 positively identified cases of subungual exostosis in the hand have been found in the literature to date. 16 further cases are reported, making this the largest published series. Seven cases presented with an incorrect diagnosis. An X-ray easily differentiates the tumour from an osteochondroma of the distal phalanx, a spike of bone from a crush injury, or a response to a penetrating injury called a turret exostosis. Removal of the deformed nail and excision of the mass from the distal phalanx produces a useful finger without pain, tender scar, or resultant nail deformity. No case of malignancy has ever been reported. PMID:1479252

  5. Tendon injuries of the hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Schöffl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tendon injuries are the second most common injuries of the hand and therefore an important topic in trauma and orthopedic patients. Most injuries are open injuries to the flexor or extensor tendons, but less frequent injuries, e.g., damage to the functional system tendon sheath and pulley or dull avulsions, also need to be considered. After clinical examination, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging have proved to be important diagnostic tools. Tendon injuries mostly require surgical repair, dull avulsions of the distal phalanges extensor tendon can receive conservative therapy. Injuries of the flexor tendon sheath or single pulley injuries are treated conservatively and multiple pulley injuries receive surgical repair. In the postoperative course of flexor tendon injuries, the principle of early passive movement is important to trigger an “intrinsic” tendon healing to guarantee a good outcome. Many substances were evaluated to see if they improved tendon healing; however, little evidence was found. Nevertheless, hyaluronic acid may improve intrinsic tendon healing.

  6. Tumoral calcinosis of the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amati, Carlo; Pesce, Vito; Armenio, Andrea; Solarino, Giuseppe; Moretti, Biagio

    2015-01-01

    Tumoral calcinosis is a rare condition described in literature as a deposition of calcium salts in soft tissues. We here report a rare case of Tumoral calcinosis in the index finger of a hand in a 22-year-old woman. Because of the absence of any trauma, normal serum phosphate and calcium levels and no symptoms but a cosmetic defect, our case is classified as a primary tumoral calcinosis. As well as described in literature, also in this case the surgical excision was the mainstay treatment for this benign pathology. For the particular area involved we performed a radical excision followed by an interesting reverse homodigital artery flap from the ulnar side of the index. PMID:25858267

  7. Hygienic Practices among Food Vendors in Educational Institutions in Ghana: The Case of Konongo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Monney

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available With the booming street food industry in the developing world there is an urgent need to ensure food vendors adhere to hygienic practices to protect public health. This study assessed the adherence to food hygiene practices by food vendors in educational institutions in Konongo, Ghana. Structured questionnaires, extensive observation and interviews were used for the study involving 60 food vendors from 20 basic schools. Attributable to the influence of school authorities and the level of in-training of food vendors, the study points out that food vendors in educational institutions generally adhered to good food hygiene practices, namely, regular medical examination (93%, protection of food from flies and dust (55%; proper serving of food (100%; good hand hygiene (63%; and the use of personal protective clothing (52%. The training of food vendors on food hygiene, instead of the level of education had a significant association (p < 0.05 with crucial food hygiene practices such as medical examination, hand hygiene and protection of food from flies and dust. Further, regulatory bodies legally mandated to efficiently monitor the activities of food vendors lacked the adequate capacity to do so. The study proposes that efforts should be geared towards developing training programmes for food vendors as well as capacity building of the stakeholders.

  8. Development of Food Retailing and Factors Affecting the Competition in Food Retailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Kilic

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Retailing is a dynamic and complex sector that offers wide range of products and services to consumers. This sector which includes different types of enterprises, has an important position within the supply chain. Food retailing has also a big potential within retailing sector. On the other hand, an intensive competition exists in food retailing. Taking place in the competitive market, food retailers attempt to gain a competitive advantage against their rivals with their geographic location, product selection and type, offered service quality and pricing alternatives. Additionally, food retailers also incline to develop their own branded products. The purpose of this study is to examine the development of food retailing sector, competitive structure and the main factors affecting this structure.

  9. Functional food acceptance in the food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa

    2010-01-01

    This thesis analyses consumer acceptance of functional foods and food manufacturers' decision to develop functional foods. The thesis sets up four key research questions: (1) How consumers accept functional foods enriched with omega-3? (2) How the intention of purchasing carrier ingredient combinations is explained by general attitudes to functional foods, consumers' health concerns, and the perceived fit of a particular carrier ingredient combination? (3) How food manufacturers decide to develop functional foods? (4) What are the determinants and drivers of food manufacturers' decision to develop functional foods? Research question 1 The health benefit of a functional food product is in fact limited if it is not eaten regularly and thus is not part of the healthy diet. For that reason it is highly relevant to look at the dietary change research when studying functional food acceptance. The purpose of paper 1 was to understand the process by which people choose healthy foods enriched with omega-3 ingredientas a case. The Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) (Schwarzer, 1992) was applied as the theoretical framework. The qualitative study has demonstrated partial usefulness of the HAPA model as an appropriate theoretical framework for consumers' choice of foods enriched with omega-3, fish oil supplements and to a lesser extent fatty fish naturally rich in omega-3. Self-efficacy and the outcome expectancy played a major role in choosing among the above mentioned options. Consumers' risk perception, as far as the choice of fatty fish and functional foods is concerned, are limited, which is why risk perception is the least useful one among all the three HAPA constructs. Research question 2 In paper 2, consumers' acceptance of different ingredients in selected foods was researched. The main aim of the paper was to determine which functional ingredients consumers would accept in selected product categories. Yoghurt, muesli bars, fish balls, tuna salad, baby meals, rye bread and bacon liver pâté were examined. Determinants of the acceptance of carrier ingredient combinations were another central issue of the paper. Results revealed that the general attitudes towards functional foods are related to the purchase intention with regard to functional foods described by their carrier/ingredient combinations. Consumers' attitudes towards specific carrier ingredient combinations define consumers' acceptance of functional foods. Research question 3 An extensive literature review was conducted and the theoretical framework of food manufacturers' decision to develop innovative functional foods by food manufacturers was developed as a part of paper 3. The paper discusses factors that possibly influence food manufacturers' decision making with regards to production of functional foods. Internal factors such as organisational characteristics, innovation characteristics, and external factors such as functional food ingredient suppliers' marketing efforts, collaboration between suppliers and food manufacturers and participation invarious networks are discussed as they are all expected to influence food manufacturers' decision to develop new functional foods. The research presented in paper 3 relies on a detailed review of relevant innovation management and food marketing literature. Research question 4 Food manufacturers' view on what are the key drivers of product development in functional food companies was the main focus of paper 4. This is a firm survey that identifies some of the key drivers for product development in functional food companies in Europe and North America. The results show that food ingredient suppliers' marketing efforts are one of the key influential factors for developing functional foods. Food manufacturers prefer long-term relationships with suppliers and they see suppliers' competencies in R&D as a bridge to consumer acceptance. Last but not least, results revealed that firm' internal factors, such as managerial initiative towards innovations and employees' competences, were important factors in deciding to develo

  10. Primary-Grade Students' Knowledge and Thinking about Food Production and the Origins of Common Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Jere; Alleman, Janet; O'Mahony, Carolyn

    2003-01-01

    Individual interviews were conducted with 96 K-3 students, stratified according to grade level, achievement level, and gender. The students were asked to explain land-to-hand progressions involved in bringing several common foods to our tables, identify products derived from common farm animals, explain why a pound of cereal costs more than a…

  11. Climate change and food security

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory, P.J.; Ingram, J.S.I.; Brklacich, M.

    2005-01-01

    Dynamic interactions between and within the biogeophysical and human environments lead to the production, processing, distribution, preparation and consumption of food, resulting in food systems that underpin food security. Food systems encompass food availability (production, distribution and exchange), food access (affordability, allocation and preference) and food utilization (nutritional and societal values and safety), so that food security is, therefore, diminished when food systems are...

  12. Hand gesture recognition based on surface electromyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadani, Ali-Akbar; Kulic, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Human hands are the most dexterous of human limbs and hand gestures play an important role in non-verbal communication. Underlying electromyograms associated with hand gestures provide a wealth of information based on which varying hand gestures can be recognized. This paper develops an inter-individual hand gesture recognition model based on Hidden Markov models that receives surface electromyography (sEMG) signals as inputs and predicts a corresponding hand gesture. The developed recognition model is tested with a dataset of 10 various hand gestures performed by 25 subjects in a leave-one-subject-out cross validation and an inter-individual recognition rate of 79% was achieved. The promising recognition rate demonstrates the efficacy of the proposed approach for discriminating between gesture-specific sEMG signals and could inform the design of sEMG-controlled prostheses and assistive devices. PMID:25570917

  13. Analysis of training experience of military men to hand-to-hand combat in the foreign countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marakushyn A.I.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available It is shown the main systems of hand-to-hand combat on the bases of hand-to-hand military men training in the world leading countries armies. Summarized the experience of hand-to-hand combat training. It is analyzes the main existing systems hand-to-hand training of servicemen of foreign armies. The analysis of publications, guidance documents, manuals, statutes which display the contents of hand-to-hand combat training of servicemen of foreign armies. Defined views, concerns and tendencies of hand-to-hand training to develop guidelines an advanced hand-to-hand combat training of servicemen.

  14. Inspections of Hand Washing Supplies and Hand Sanitizer in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Mary M.; Blea, Mary; Trujillo, Rebecca; Greenberg, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Hand washing and hand antisepsis are proven infection control measures in the school setting, yet barriers such as lack of soap, paper towels, and hand sanitizer can hinder compliance. This pilot study measured the prevalence of hand cleaning supplies in public schools. Ten school districts (93 schools) participated in school nurse inspections. In…

  15. Comparison of traditional hand wash with alcoholic hand rub in ICU setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliekal Mona

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nosocomial infection rate are often higher for intensive care unit (ICU than other units of hospitals, and hands of health-care workers (HCWs play a major role in the transmission of the infections. Aim: To compare the efficacy of conventional hand wash with the hand rub in reducing the transient bacterial flora on the hands of nurses in ICU. Subject and Methods: The 34 nurses posted in our ICU during January-March 2003 were included. A total of 204 samples were collected for the residual bacterial flora on fingers using impression method on MacConkey agar plates. The subjects then used alcoholic hand rub or conventional hand wash and the residual bacterial flora rechecked by testing impression of fingers on MacConkey agar. Results: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., nonlactose fermenting Gram-negative bacilli, staphylococci, and streptococci formed the transient bacterial flora on the hands. Moderate to heavy bacterial density was seen in more than 92.2% of the hands before washing or hand rub application. Conventional hand wash resulted in drastic reduction in the transient bacterial flora on hands in 50% cases whereas alcoholic hand rub achieved the effect in 95% of the samples. Conclusion: Compared with conventional hand wash, alcoholic hand rub is far more efficient in reducing transient bacterial flora on the hands of HCWs and it is more convenient and time saving. It is recommended as a hand hygiene practice in critical areas such as ICU.

  16. Inexpensive and Time-Efficient Hand Hygiene Interventions Increase Elementary School Children's Hand Hygiene Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Michelle; White, George L.; Kim, Han S.

    2008-01-01

    Routine hand hygiene has been cited by the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a cost-effective and important hygiene measure in preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Several studies have explored children's hand hygiene habits, effects of scheduled hand hygiene, hand hygiene environmental…

  17. Healthy food trends -- flaxseeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy food trends -- flax meal; Healthy food trends -- flax seeds; Healthy food trends -- linseeds ... found in flaxseeds will improve blood pressure, blood sugar, heart ... with your doctor. It may affect how certain medicines work.

  18. Finger Foods for Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... shreds of thinly sliced deli meats, such as turkey. Present your baby with a variety of foods, ... to 12-Month-Old Nutrition Guide for Toddlers Strategies for Feeding a Preschooler Food Allergies Food Safety ...

  19. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this page Home Food Ingredients, Packaging & Labeling Labeling & Nutrition The Food Label and You — Video FDA presents ... tool to help consumers understand and use the Nutrition Facts Label to make informed food choices. You ...

  20. Irradiation and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Irradiation and Food Safety Answers to Frequently Asked Questions The Food Safety ...

  1. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Road Food (Finding Nutrition Information on the Road) Game Show Review (Are You Smarter Than A Food ... daily value. Two studio "sports announcers" describe the "game day" food action of two parties: the first, ...

  2. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Road Food (Finding Nutrition Information on the Road) Game Show Review (Are You Smarter Than A Food Label?) The Food Label & You (full video) Introduction back to menu CSI (Calorie Scene Investigators) ...

  3. Fast food tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Even with these changes, it is hard to eat healthy when you eat out often. Many foods are ... food choices can teach your children how to eat healthy, too. Choosing a variety of healthy foods and ...

  4. Mail Order Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of mail order foods. While the mail order industry enjoys a good safety record, ordering food through the mail may cause concerns about food safety, shelf life, and distribution. It's imperative to develop some mental checklists for ...

  5. The prospect of food irradiation and the contribution of radiation chemistry to enact the hygienic safety standard of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Now, it is said that we are at the dawn of food irradiation application both nationally and internationally. However, referring to the acceptability of customers the labeling of irradiated foods has been a nightmare to the food processors. On the other hand the recommended international standard has the shortcomings of thinking in absolute terms. In this paper a proposal which puts special emphasis on enacting hygienic safety standard of individual irradiated food is recommended. The hygienic safety standard of the irradiated food may be classified in three classes: 1) its hygienic safety standard is similar to that of common food; 2) the maximum permissible quantities of harmful compounds induced by radiation must be controlled; and 3) the quantity of unique radiolysis products may by dutermined. Radiation chemistry plays an important role in enacting the hygienic safety standard of irradiated foods. For international cooperation in this field some suggestions are made

  6. Rising food costs & global food security: key issues & relevance for India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Daniel J

    2013-09-01

    Rising food costs can have major impact on vulnerable households, pushing those least able to cope further into poverty and hunger. On the other hand, provided appropriate policies and infrastructure are in place, higher agricultural prices can also raise farmers' incomes and rural wages, improve rural economies and stimulate investment for longer-term economic growth. High food prices since 2007 have had both short-term impacts and long-term consequences, both good and bad. This article reviews the evidence of how rising costs have affected global food security since the food price crisis of 2007-2008, and their impact on different categories of households and countries. In light of recent studies, we know more about how households, and countries, cope or not with food price shocks but a number of contentious issues remain. These include the adequacy of current estimates and the interpretation of national and household food and nutrition security indicators. India is a particularly important country in this regard, given the high number of food insecure, the relative weight of India in global estimates of food and nutrition insecurity, and the puzzles that remain concerning the country's reported declining per capita calorie consumption. Competing explanations for what is behind it are not in agreement, but these all point to the importance of policy and programme innovation and greater investment necessary to reach the achievable goal of food and nutrition security for all. PMID:24135190

  7. Research on detection method for electron beam irradiation perishable foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop an applicable detection method and a new detection method the measuring method of the absorbed dose in the food system is examined for perishable foods to which the electron beam is irradiated. It was understood that ESR was a useful detection method, and it had ability enough for the detection of the irradiation food containing a lot of sugar. On the other hand, it is necessary to consider the coverage enough since the ESR signal is easily influenced in the preservation environment for the food. (H. Katsuta)

  8. Genotypes and enterotoxicity of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the hands and nasal cavities of flight-catering employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakka, M; Björkroth, K J; Asplund, K; Mäki-Petäys, N; Korkeala, H J

    2000-11-01

    Hand and nasal samples of flight-catering staff were collected from 1995 to 1997 to find employees carrying Staphylococcus aureus. Altogether 153 hand samples and 136 nose samples were taken. Nasal sampling showed a higher prevalence of S. aureus among food handlers (29%) than hand sampling (9%). A high proportion of the strains (46%) were enterotoxigenic, and a considerable amount of food handlers carried enterotoxigenic S. aureus, 6% and 12% according to hand and nasal sampling, respectively. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis macrorestriction profiles revealed a total of 32 different types associated with the 35 employees carrying S. aureus. In most cases, the same type colonized both the hand and nose of a person. Despite the wide variety of types found, one strain colonized five persons and the second most common strain was associated with four food handlers. The predominant toxin produced was B, which was produced by the most common strain. The results showed that nasal sampling is a good way to detect S. aureus carriers, whereas hand sampling may fail to reveal carriers. The high proportion of enterotoxigenic strains show that a food handler harboring S. aureus must be considered a potential source of enterotoxigenic strains for airline meals. PMID:11079688

  9. Giant grants a free hand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'I had a relatively free hand from my associates when choosing a partner. When we had compared business structures, considered the mutual chemistry and the attitude of French people concerning management, the decision process was made easier.' That's how Peter Strycek, general director of Hetech Services, describes the preparations for agreements. It worked. The Slovak supplier of heat and services for technical operations of buildings, has belonged to the GDF SUEZ company since Monday. At the beginning, at the conclusion of 2005, there was the idea to consolidate the businesses of three companies beneath one roof. That's how informally the shareholding company Hetech Services was founded. It started to manage the business of the Bratislava heat suppliers, Racianska Teplarenska and Prva Ruzinovska; including supplier of technical services AB Spravcovska. Along with activities of the head company Hetech Services installed low-current equipment in buildings, did construction supervision and for a longer period it did business with technological equipment for buildings. The company's business expanded. At the end of the year before last, Strycek announced an interest from multinational players in joining. It didn't take long and the three interested parties came to an agreement. At the beginning of last summer the owners of Hetech, Bratislava real estate businessmen, came to an agreement with the managers of the multinational energy giant GDF SUEZ, which had been foundedrgy giant GDF SUEZ, which had been founded shortly beforehand with the merger of two global players in the industry. (authors)

  10. Robot hands and extravehicular activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Beth

    1987-01-01

    Extravehicular activity (EVA) is crucial to the success of both current and future space operations. As space operations have evolved in complexity so has the demand placed on the EVA crewman. In addition, some NASA requirements for human capabilities at remote or hazardous sites were identified. One of the keys to performing useful EVA tasks is the ability to manipulate objects accurately, quickly and without early or excessive fatigue. The current suit employs a glove which enables the crewman to perform grasping tasks, use tools, turn switches, and perform other tasks for short periods of time. However, the glove's bulk and resistance to motion ultimately causes fatigue. Due to this limitation it may not be possible to meet the productivity requirements that will be placed on the EVA crewman of the future with the current or developmental Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) hardware. In addition, this hardware will not meet the requirements for remote or hazardous operations. In an effort to develop ways for improving crew productivity, a contract was awarded to develop a prototype anthromorphic robotic hand (ARH) for use with an extravehicular space suit. The first step in this program was to perform a a design study which investigated the basic technology required for the development of an ARH to enhance crew performance and productivity. The design study phase of the contract and some additional development work is summarized.

  11. Hand dermatitis: a problem commonly affecting nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szepietowski, J; Salomon, J

    2005-01-01

    Hand dermatitis is regarded as one of the most often observed dermatological disorders among nurses. The factors that increase the risk of developing hand dermatitis are as follows: frequent washing hands, using disinfectants, wet-work conditions, exposure to medical substances, detergents and wearing rubber gloves. Most cases of occupational hand dermatitis is due to chronic exposure to irritants that cause the inflammation on the nonallergic pathway. Recurring contact to irritants disturbes the natural skin barrier and causes inflammation. There are reports showing the presence of skin barrier alterations among nurses working in operating room units. The most common contact allergens in the hospital environment include rubber, latex, medicaments and antiseptic products. In our study the incidence of self-reported hand dermatitis in hospital staff was very high. About 70% of respondents declared the presence of symptoms of hand eczema within the last 12 months and about 46% of the studied group had skin lesions at the moment of self-examination. Almost 75% of employees with hand dermatitis had observed the worsening of skin problems in relation to work and 79% reported improvement of skin changes during the leisure time. We also noted that a personal or family history of atopy increases the risk of developing hand dermatitis in nurses. We would also like to emphasize the psychological consequencies that affect nurses with hand dermatitis. According to our data 48% of hospital employees with hand eczema declare psychological distress caused by their skin lesions. PMID:16119625

  12. Bacteriology and epidemiology of hand infections

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JF, Greyling; E, Visser; E, Elliot.

    Full Text Available Infection is one of the most serious and important causes of hand swelling. Neglect or incomplete treatment of hand infections will usually lead to involvement of other parts of the hand resulting in stiffness, loss of hand function, and possibly amputation (Figure 1). Hand infections are common con [...] ditions that have significant morbidity. Referral is often delayed and infections present late. Hand infections should be managed by an experienced surgeon. The aims of the investigation were: to identify the spectrum of organisms and appropriate antibiotics for hand infection; and to characterise the patterns and sites of hand infections. This information was collected against the background of a high prevalence of HiV-infected patients and increasing antibiotic resistance. A total of 66 patients treated for hand infections over a period of six months in Pelonomi Hospital, Bloemfontein, South Africa, was prospectively recruited for the study. Staphylococcus aureus was the commonest isolate. Results show that cloxacillin is still an effective first line antibiotic for community-acquired hand infections in the absence of immunosuppression. Alternative empiric therapy would be clindamycin - especially in the beta-lactam intolerant patient. Erythromycin also proved to have a favourable profile. HIV-positive patients were more prone to Gram-negative infections.

  13. Perspective on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review summarizes current scientific information on the safety and efficacy of irradiation processing of foods. Attention is focused on: specifics of the irradiation process and its effectiveness in food preservation; the historical development of food irradiation technology in the US; the response of the Institute of Food Technologists to proposed FDA guidelines for food irradiation; the potential uses of irradiation in the US food industry; and the findings of the absence of toxins and of unaltered nutrient density (except possibly for fats) in irradiated foods. The misconceptions of consumers concerning perceived hazards associated with food irradiation, as related to consumer acceptance, also are addressed

  14. Anaphylaxis in food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesek, Robbie D; Jones, Stacie M

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy is a known trigger of anaphylaxis. Although the awareness of food allergies has improved, food-related allergic reactions and anaphylaxis still commonly occur. The recognition of anaphylaxis, its prompt treatment, and patient education are important for the prevention of future food reactions. Patients and health care providers should also recognize the importance of epinephrine as the primary treatment of anaphylaxis. When food-related anaphylaxis occurs, patients should receive education regarding their food allergies, an epinephrine auto-injector, and follow-up with a food allergy specialist to reduce the risk of future food-related reactions. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:26022879

  15. Big Food, Food Systems, and Global Health

    OpenAIRE

    Stuckler, David; Nestle, Marion

    2012-01-01

    In an article that forms part of the PLoS Medicine series on Big Food, guest editors David Stuckler and Marion Nestle lay out why more examination of the food industry is necessary, and offer three competing views on how public health professionals might engage with Big Food.

  16. Food irradiation: Its role in food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides a brief overview of the process of food irradiation and describes the potential for food irradiation in the Asia-Pacific region. The advantages in controlling food-borne diseases and in promoting trade are discussed. 4 tabs

  17. Access to Waterless Hand Sanitizer Improves Student Hand Hygiene Behavior in Primary Schools in Nairobi, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Pickering, Amy J; Davis, Jennifer; Annalise G. Blum; Scalmanini, Jenna; Oyier, Beryl; Okoth, George; Robert F. Breiman; Ram, Pavani K.

    2013-01-01

    Handwashing is difficult in settings with limited resources and water access. In primary schools within urban Kibera, Kenya, we investigated the impact of providing waterless hand sanitizer on student hand hygiene behavior. Two schools received a waterless hand sanitizer intervention, two schools received a handwashing with soap intervention, and two schools received no intervention. Hand cleaning behavior after toilet use was monitored for 2 months using structured observation. Hand cleaning...

  18. Networked Haptic Interaction to Implement “Hand in Hand” Human Motor Skill Training for Tank Gunnery

    OpenAIRE

    Guanyang Liu; Keke Lu; Yuru Zhang; Lingzhi Liu

    2013-01-01

    The “hand in hand” approach has been validated as effective in human motor skill training, such as handwriting, drawing, driving and so on. This paper proposes a networked haptic interaction system to simulate the “hand in hand” training scheme for tank gunnery which requires tank gunners to complete tasks accurately and quickly. In the haptic?based training system, a network connecting two haptic devices plays the role of putting hands together, based on which the algorithms of hap...

  19. Preliminary Investigation of Food Guarding Behavior in Shelter Dogs in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Margaret Slater; Emily Weiss; Heather Mohan-Gibbons

    2012-01-01

    A survey given to animal shelters across the US reported food bowl guarding as one of the most common reasons for euthanasia and only 34% attempted to modify this guarding behavior. This study identified 96 dogs that guarded their food bowl during an assessment, and then placed them into a home on a modification program. Food guarding behavior was identified as stiffening, gulping, growling, freezing, and/or biting a fake hand during the SAFER® food bowl assessment. Do...

  20. New research gives further insights on O2-ingress in food packaging.

    OpenAIRE

    Ragaert, Peter; Vermeulen, An; Buntinx, Mieke; Peeters, Roos

    2014-01-01

    Diversity in food packaging has become increasingly important in the last decades due to different trends such as globalization and convenience. This has resulted amongst others in an increased need for certain barrier properties in order to guarantee the desired shelf-life of the packaged food product. In case of gas barrier properties, many food products need to be protected from O2 making on the one hand this parameter very important in evaluating new materials (e.g. bioplastics) for food ...

  1. International standards and agreements in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The economies of both developed and developing countries have been effected by their exported food and agricultural products. Trading policies of food and agricultural products are governed by international agreement as well as national regulations. Trade in food and agricultural commodities may be affected by both principal Agreements within the overall World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, though neither specifically refers to irradiation or irradiated foods. The principal Agreements are the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement and the Sanitary and Phyto sanitary (SPS) Agreement. The SPS of the WTO requires governments to harmonize their sanitary and phyto sanitary measures on as wide basis as possible. Related standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard setting bodies such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission (food safety); the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (plant health and quarantine); and International Office of Epizootic (animal health and zoo noses) should be used in such a harmonization. International Standards for Phyto sanitary Measures (ISPM) no.18 was published under the IPPC by FAO (April 2003, Rome-Italy). ISPM standard provides technical guidance on the specific procedure for the application of ionizing radiation as a phyto sanitary treatment for regulated pests or articles. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods (Stand 106-1983) and Recommended International Code of Practice were first published in 1983 and revised in March 2003. Scope of this standard applies to foods processed by ionizing radiation that is used in conjunction with applicable hygienic codes, food standards and transportation codes. It does not apply to foods exposed to doses imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes. Codex documents on Principles and Guidelines for the Import/Export Inspection and Certification of Foods have been prepared to guide international trade.On the other hand national regulations should take account of internationally agreed Codes and Guidelines regarding the irradiation facilities and radiation processing

  2. International standards and agreements in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economies of both developed and developing countries have been effected by their exported food and agricultural products. Trading policies of food and agricultural products are governed by international agreement as well as national regulations. Trade in food and agricultural commodities may be affected by both principal Agreements within the overall World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, though neither specifically refers to irradiation or irradiated foods. The principal Agreements are the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement and the Sanitary and Phyto sanitary (SPS) Agreement. The SPS of the WTO requires governments to harmonize their sanitary and phyto sanitary measures on as wide basis as possible. Related standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard setting bodies such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission (food safety); the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (plant health and quarantine); and International Office of Epizootic (animal health and zoo noses) should be used in such a harmonization. International Standards for Phyto sanitary Measures (ISPM) no.18 was published under the IPPC by FAO (April 2003, Rome-Italy). ISPM standard provides technical guidance on the specific procedure for the application of ionizing radiation as a phyto sanitary treatment for regulated pests or articles. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods (Stand 106-1983) and Recommended International Code of Practice were first published in 1983 and revised in March 2003. Scope of this standard applies to foods processed by ionizing radiation that is used in conjunction with applicable hygienic codes, food standards and transportation codes. It does not apply to foods exposed to doses imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes. Codex documents on Principles and Guidelines for the Import/Export Inspection and Certification of Foods have been prepared to guide international trade.On the other hand national regulations should take account of internationally agreed Codes and Guidelines regarding the irradiation facilities and radiation processing. (author)

  3. Ethical food standard schemes and global trade : paralleling the WTO?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Botterill, Linda Courtenay

    2012-01-01

    Global food trade embodies a range of different interpretations of the nature of food and its role in society. On the one hand, the WTO food regulation regime, in particular the SPS agreement, is based upon a somewhat instrumental value of food consumption in which food is seen as a commodity to be traded in accordance with international trade rules. At the same time, a number of private standards, such as GlobalG.A.P and various organic standards, are emerging which embody broadly postmaterialist values that suggest that food purchasing and consumption are also social, ethical and perhaps even political activities. This paper analyses the relationship between the WTO food trade regime on the one hand and the GlobalG.A.P and organic food trade regimes on the other. We suggest that competing values can co-exist in parallel institutions and in a commensalistic relationship which protects the values base of each institution while giving expression to both materialist and postmaterialist understandings of the nature of food.

  4. Effect of TV food advertising restriction on food environment for children in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngmi; Yoon, Jihyun; Chung, Sang-Jin; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Hyogyoo; Kim, Soyoung

    2013-11-12

    This study attempted to determine the effects of restrictions on television (TV) food advertising on children's food environments in South Korea. It examined changes that occurred in the marketing mix of food companies following enactment of those restrictions. An on-line survey was conducted with marketers or R&D managers of 108 food companies. A questionnaire was used to inquire about changes that occurred in Product, Place, Price and Promotion as a result of the restrictions placed on TV food advertising. Analysis was performed on the data collected from the responding 63 food companies (58.3%). The results of their answers showed that among the four marketing mix components the restrictions exerted relatively stronger effects on Product. Effects were stronger on companies that produced foods within the product categories of Energy-Dense and Nutrient-Poor foods (EDNP companies) in comparison with companies that did not (non-EDNP companies). The restrictions exerted positive effects on EDNP companies with respect to compliance with labeling requirements and reinforcement of nutritional contents examination, as well as changes to products such as reducing unhealthy ingredients and fortifying nutrients. Overall, the results revealed the possibility that restrictions on TV food advertising could improve children's food environments by encouraging EDNP companies to make favorable product changes. On the one hand, the results also found that some food companies attempted to bypass the regulations by changing marketing channels from TV to others and by reducing product serving sizes. Thus, future measures should be implemented to prevent food companies from bypassing regulations and to control children's exposure to marketing channels other than TV. PMID:24221528

  5. The alien hand and related signs.

    OpenAIRE

    Doody, R S; Jankovic, J.

    1992-01-01

    Alien limb sign includes failure to recognise ownership of one's limb when visual cues are removed, a feeling that one body part is foreign, personification of the affected body part, and autonomous activity which is perceived as outside voluntary control. Although the hand is most frequently affected, any limb or combination of limbs may fulfil the alien limb criteria. Alien hand sign should be reserved for cases in which the hand feels foreign together with observable involuntary motor acti...

  6. Two Hand Gesture Recognition Using Stereo Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustam Rakhimov lgorevich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes method for gesturerecognition by two hands. In this research stereo camera wasused to calculate depth map of the frame. Based on depthinformation precise tracking of the hands was applied. Depthmap calculates in hardware level. Oversensitivity of camera tolight generates horizontal noise. Especially appeared horizontalnoise affects on tracking two hands located in same altitude. Inthis paper we suggest masking method to avoid horizontal noisein software level.

  7. New workhorse flaps in hand reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Friedrich, Jeffrey B.; Pederson, William C.; Bishop, Allen T.; Galaviz, Paula; Chang, James

    2012-01-01

    With the passage of time, certain hand surgery procedures are anecdotally dubbed “workhorse” techniques. These are procedures that are extremely reliable and have repeatedly demonstrated good results. However, with time, paradigms undergo shifts, and this is as true for hand surgery as any other field. In this article, we will describe the use of three new “workhorse” flaps that we have found to have reliable results in complex hand reconstruction: the pedicled radial forearm fascia f...

  8. History and ethics of hand transplants

    OpenAIRE

    Errico, Michael; Metcalfe, Neil H; Platt, Alastair

    2012-01-01

    Hand transplantation is a form of composite tissue allotransplantation, whereby the hand of a cadaveric donor is transferred to the forearm of an amputee. The aim of such a procedure is to achieve better outcomes in terms of functionality and appearance when compared with prosthetics. The microsurgical techniques required have been well established for many years. In addition, advances in immunosuppressive therapy have meant that hand transplantation is a feasible therapeutic option. However ...

  9. Hand Specific Representations in Language Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia P Gennari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Theories of embodied cognition argue that language comprehension involves sensory-motor re-enactments of the actions described. However, the degree of specificity of these re-enactments as well as the relationship between action and language remains a matter of debate. Here we investigate these issues by examining how hand-specific information (left or right hand is recruited in language comprehension and action execution. An fMRI study tested right-handed participants in two separate tasks that were designed to be as similar as possible to increase sensitivity of the comparison across task: an action execution go/no-go task where participants performed right or left hand actions, and a language task where participants read sentences describing the same left or right handed actions as in the execution task. We found that language-induced activity did not match the hand-specific patterns of activity found for action execution in primary somatosensory and motor cortex, but it overlapped with pre-motor and parietal regions associated with action planning. Within these pre-motor regions, both right hand actions and sentences elicited stronger activity than left hand actions and sentences - a dominant hand effect -. Importantly, both dorsal and ventral sections of the left pre-central gyrus were recruited by both tasks, suggesting different action features being recruited. These results suggest that (a language comprehension elicits motor representations that are hand-specific and akin to multimodal action plans, rather than full action re-enactments; and (b language comprehension and action execution share schematic hand-specific representations that are richer for the dominant hand, and thus linked to previous motor experience.

  10. Hand hygiene among health care workers

    OpenAIRE

    Mani Ameet; Shubangi A; Saini Rajiv

    2010-01-01

    Healthcare-associated infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients worldwide. Transmission of health care associated pathogens generally occurs via the contaminated hands of health care workers. Hand hygiene has long been considered one of the most important infection control measures to prevent health care-associated infections. For generations, hand washing with soap and water has been considered a measure of personal hygiene. As early as 1822, a ...

  11. Two Hand Gesture Recognition Using Stereo Camera

    OpenAIRE

    Rustam Rakhimov lgorevich; Pusik Park; Jongchan Choi; Dugki Min

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes method for gesturerecognition by two hands. In this research stereo camera wasused to calculate depth map of the frame. Based on depthinformation precise tracking of the hands was applied. Depthmap calculates in hardware level. Oversensitivity of camera tolight generates horizontal noise. Especially appeared horizontalnoise affects on tracking two hands located in same altitude. Inthis paper we suggest masking method to avoid horizontal noisein software level.

  12. Personal Authentication System using Hand Vein Biometric

    OpenAIRE

    Sathish, G.; Saravanan, Dr S. V.; Narmadha, Dr S.; Uma Maheswari, Dr S.

    2012-01-01

    With an increasing emphasis on security, automated personal identification using hand vein biometric feature is becoming a very active topic in both research and practical applications. The objective of this work is to present a biometric authentication system for high security physical access control based on hand vein pattern. Hand vein biometric is selected, as it is foolproof, offers higher security and reliable for identification.The feature extraction stage consists of removal of the no...

  13. MEMS ACCELEROMETER BASED HAND GESTURE RECOGNITION

    OpenAIRE

    Meenaakumari.M, M.Muthulakshmi

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an MEMS accelerometer mostly based on gesture recognition algorithm and its applications. The hardware module consists of a triaxial mems accelerometer, microcontroller, and zigbee wireless transmission module for sensing and collecting accelerations of handwriting and hand gesture trajectories. Users will use this hardware module to write down digits, alphabets in digital kind by making four hand gestures. The accelerations of hand motions measured by the accelerometer ar...

  14. ASL Based Hand Gesture Recognition System

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Swapnil A. Bobade; Prof. Vijaya K. Shandilya

    2013-01-01

    American Sign Language (ASL) is a well developed and standard way of communication for hearing impaired people living in Englishspeaking communities. Since the advent of modern technology, different intelligent computer-aided application have been developed that can recognize hand gesture and hence translates gestures into understandable forms. In this proposed system, ASL based hand gesture system is presented that uses evolutionary programming technique called SIFT algorithm. Hand gestures ...

  15. Thermal Right-Handed Sneutrino Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Deppisch, Frank; Pilaftsis, Apostolos

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the relic abundance of the right-handed sneutrinos in the supersymmetric F_D-term model of hybrid inflation. As well as providing a natural solution to the mu- and gravitino overabundance problems, the model offers the lightest right-handed sneutrino as a candidate for thermal dark matter. The F_D-term model predicts a new quartic coupling of purely right-handed sneutrinos to the Higgs doublets that thermalizes the sneutrinos and makes them annihilate sufficiently...

  16. Slow food, fast food and the control of food intake

    OpenAIRE

    de Graaf, C; Kok, F.J.

    2010-01-01

    This Perspective focuses on two elements of our food supply and eating environment that facilitate high energy intake: a high eating rate and distraction of attention from eating. These two elements are believed to undermine our body's capacity to regulate its energy intake at healthy levels because they impair the congruent association between sensory signals and metabolic consequences. The findings of a number of studies show that foods that can be eaten quickly lead to high food intake and...

  17. Food; Energy; Developing Countries; Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of energy in food production is increasing, and the cost of that energy use is a very significant part of the cost of food. It is important, therefore, to minimize food losses. It is shown that the energy used to produce raw food, such as grain, pulses, and vegetables, to feed the increasing population is about 17-25 MJ per person per day. (The energy of one litre petrol is 35 MJ.) Owing to increasing cost of energy, any food losses are very expensive. Irradiation processing of food, which uses very little energy, can be used to reduce the losses significantly. Irradiation kills microorganisms, parasites and insects and stops sprouting of tubers. But, more is needed to preserve food. Irradiation is usually most effective, therefore, if used in combination with other processes. (author)

  18. Hand tracking and bimanual movement understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Shamaie, Atid

    2003-01-01

    Bimanual movements are a subset ot human movements in which the two hands move together in order to do a task or imply a meaning A bimanual movement appearing in a sequence of images must be understood in order to enable computers to interact with humans in a natural way This problem includes two main phases, hand tracking and movement recognition. We approach the problem of hand tracking from a neuroscience point ot view First the hands are extracted and labelled by colour detection and ...

  19. Emotions affect the recognition of hand gestures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicario, Carmelo M; Newman, Anica

    2013-01-01

    The body is closely tied to the processing of social and emotional information. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a relationship between emotions and social attitudes conveyed through gestures exists. Thus, we tested the effect of pro-social (i.e., happy face) and anti-social (i.e., angry face) emotional primes on the ability to detect socially relevant hand postures (i.e., pictures depicting an open/closed hand). In particular, participants were required to establish, as quickly as possible, if the test stimulus (i.e., a hand posture) was the same or different, compared to the reference stimulus (i.e., a hand posture) previously displayed in the computer screen. Results show that facial primes, displayed between the reference and the test stimuli, influence the recognition of hand postures, according to the social attitude implicitly related to the stimulus. We found that perception of pro-social (i.e., happy face) primes resulted in slower RTs in detecting the open hand posture as compared to the closed hand posture. Vice-versa, perception of the anti-social (i.e., angry face) prime resulted in slower RTs in detecting the closed hand posture compared to the open hand posture. These results suggest that the social attitude implicitly conveyed by the displayed stimuli might represent the conceptual link between emotions and gestures. PMID:24421763

  20. Comparative Analysis of Hand Gesture Recognition Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpana K. Patel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During past few years, human hand gesture for interaction with computing devices has continues to be active area of research. In this paper survey of hand gesture recognition is provided. Hand Gesture Recognition is contained three stages: Pre-processing, Feature Extraction or matching and Classification or recognition. Each stage contains different methods and techniques. In this paper define small description of different methods used for hand gesture recognition in existing system with comparative analysis of all method with its benefits and drawbacks are provided.

  1. Food-regime(s) at a crossroad : The future of present and future of Danish food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe, Egon; Korsgaard, Steffen

    Food production and consumption in Denmark stands at a crossroad. Multiple conflicting developments and logic point in radically different directions, and the pressures of globalization are making the tensions even more present and solutions more pressing. Danish agriculture has excelled in creating an industrialized foodregime, based on Northern European values of hygiene and homogeneity. Yet, pressures of global competition, consumer trends focusing on quality and uniqueness, and issues of animal welfare and disease control are questioning this logic. On the other hand, Nordic food and Nordic chefs are enjoying somewhat more than fifteen minutes of fame with a new interpretation of Nordic produce in combination with state of the art cooking techniques. Yet, the New Nordic food trend emphasizes the uniqueness of local Nordic terroirs and presses for less industrialized production, in a manner not entirely unlike the organics movement. Optimistic policy makers dream of food as a new export success for Denmark, yet this seems to entail a transformation of the traditional food production in Denmark. Finally, local and grassroots inspired food producers are beginning to take matters into their own hands. Creating localized food systems with direct contact with costumers, mostly bypassing, but occasionally integrating with supermarkets based distribution. In this presentation we will discuss the present fragmentation of the food-regime in Denmark, focusing on the conflicting tensions of localization-globalization, craftsmanship-industrialization, homogeneity-uniqueness, mass-niche, optimization-environmentalism etc. We also sketch what we believe to be the promising development and potential challenges for food production and consumption in Denmark.

  2. Food Business Entrepreneurship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Peter

    Though not a very traditional career path for food scientists, one option is to go into business for yourself by starting a food business. Food business entrepreneurship is a difficult career that entails long work hours, extensive decision making, and tasks that require knowledge beyond food science. However, there is high potential for rewards, including financial rewards, career progression, and personal flexibility.

  3. Holiday Food Safety

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by the non-profit Partnership for Food Safety Education, provides tips on how to make sure holiday meals are safe as well as delicious. Recipes, shopping checklist, food safety tips, and children's activities are included in the multi-media program. Holiday Food Safety Video This Holiday Food ...

  4. Holiday Food Safety

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration Protecting and Promoting Your ... Holiday Food Safety Many people don't realize that food safety is the most important ingredient in preparing food ...

  5. Perfection of technical and tactical preparation of sportsmen of hand-to-hand fight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serebryak V.V.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Essence of innovative hike is considered to upgrading preparation of sportsmen of hand-to-hand fight. 58 sportsmen of section of hand-to-hand fight took part in research. Age of sportsmen are from 17 to 22 years. Developed and approved the most effective technical and tactical charts of construction of duel with the opponents of different styles of single combats. It is well-proven that offered approach instrumental in development of operative thought and adaptation to sparring of hand-to-hand fight.

  6. Management of Food Allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Sh Maleknejad

    2014-01-01

    Although food allergy is a major public health problem, currently there is no effective and safe treatment except to avoid the foods .But the need for new options is critical now as the number of children diagnosed with food allergies rises. Avoiding the offending allergen in the diet is the primary treatment of food allergy. Once a food to which the patient is sensitive has been identified, the food must be removed from the diet. People with severe food allergies must be prepared to treat an...

  7. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation is a physical process for treating food and as such it is comparable to other processing techniques such as heating or freezing foods for preservation. The energy level used in food irradiation is always below that producing radioactivity in the treated food, hence this aspect can be totally excluded in wholesomeness evaluations. Water is readily ionized and may be the primary source of ionization in foods with secondary effects on other molecules, possibly more a result of water ionization than of direct hits. In the presence of oxygen, highly reactive compounds may be produced, such as H, H30+ and H2O2. Radiation at the energy flux levels used for food (<2 MeV) does not induce radioactivity. Food irradiation applications are already technically and economically feasible and that food so treated is suitable for consumption. Food irradiation techniques can play an important role for an improved preservation, storage and distribution of food products. (author)

  8. Food safety information and food demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Sinne; Jensen, JØrgen Dejgård

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze how news about food-related health risks affects consumers’ demands for safe food products. Design/methodology/approach – By identifying structural breaks in an econometrically estimated demand model, news with permanent impact on demand is distinguished from news with temporary impact. The Danish demand for pasteurized versus shell eggs is used as an illustrative case. Findings – Negative safety news about one product variety can provide significant stimulation to the demand for safe varieties. Severe negative news about the safety of shell eggs induces a permanent increase in the demand for pasteurized eggs, while more moderate negative news influences demand temporarily and to a lesser extent. There is, however, considerable variation in the response to food safety news across socio-demographic groups of consumers. Research limitations/implications – The study has focused on the demand for raw eggs. Responses to food safety news may differ across foods. Furthermore, the study abstracts from possible cross-effects of safety news concerning other foods. Practical implications – The findings may be utilized for optimization of the timing and targeting of food safety information campaigns. Originality/value – The paper combines information, food safety and econometric methods to analyze the cross-impacts between negative food safety news and the demand for safe foods.

  9. Food problems and food irradiation, recent trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation is to contribute to the stable security of foodstuffs which is the fundamental condition of human survival by improving the preservation of foodstuffs and food sanitation utilizing the biological effect due to irradiation. The research and development have been carried out internationally since 1950s, but after the safety declaration of irradiated foods in 1980 by the international organ concerned, the permission and practical use for foods in various foreign countries, the technology transfer to developing countries and so on have been advanced. At present, food irradiation is permitted in 38 countries, and the practical irradiation is carried out in 24 countries. In Japan, the irradiation of potatoes to prevent germination was permitted in 1972, and the practical irradiation on potatoes of yearly 15,000 t is carried out. In the near future, irradiated foods will appear in international foodstuff market, and Japan which imports foodstuffs must cope with them. Foodstuffs and the safety, food irradiation, the soundness of irradiated foods, food irradiation in various foreign countries and Japan, the trend of international organs and the criticism of food irradiation are reported. (K.I.)

  10. Genetic modified food

    OpenAIRE

    Khromov, I.

    2013-01-01

    The genetically modified foods controversy is a dispute over the relative advantages and disadvantages of food derived from genetically modified organisms, genetically modified crops used to produce food and other goods, and other uses of genetically modified organisms in food production. The dispute involves consumers, biotechnology companies, governmental regulators, non-governmental organizations and scientists. The key areas of controversy related to genetically modified (GM) food are: ri...

  11. Mood, food, and obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Minati

    2014-01-01

    Food is a potent natural reward and food intake is a complex process. Reward and gratification associated with food consumption leads to dopamine (DA) production, which in turn activates reward and pleasure centers in the brain. An individual will repeatedly eat a particular food to experience this positive feeling of gratification. This type of repetitive behavior of food intake leads to the activation of brain reward pathways that eventually overrides other signals of satiety and hunger. Th...

  12. Food irradiation - now

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation technology in South Africa is about to take its rightful place next to existing food preservation methods in protecting food supplies. This is as a result of several factors, the most important of which is the decision by the Department of Health and Population Development to introduce compulsory labelling of food irradiation. The factors influencing food irradiation technology in South Africa are discussed

  13. Attributing Illness to Food

    OpenAIRE

    Batz, Michael B.; Doyle, Michael P; Morris, J Glenn; Painter, John; Singh, Ruby; Tauxe, Robert V; Taylor, Michael R.; Wong, Danilo M. A. Lo Fo

    2005-01-01

    Identification and prioritization of effective food safety interventions require an understanding of the relationship between food and pathogen from farm to consumption. Critical to this cause is food attribution, the capacity to attribute cases of foodborne disease to the food vehicle or other source responsible for illness. A wide variety of food attribution approaches and data are used around the world, including the analysis of outbreak data, case-control studies, microbial subtyping and ...

  14. Color-Removal by Microorganisms Isolated from Human Hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsukasa Ito

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms are essential for human life. Microorganisms decompose the carbon compounds in dead animals and plants and convert them into carbon dioxide. Intestinal bacteria assist in food digestion. Some vitamins are produced by bacteria that live in the intestines. Sewage and industrial wastewater are treated by activated sludge composed of microbial communities. All of these are due to the ability of microbes to produce many enzymes that can degrade chemicals. How do teachers make students understand that microorganisms are always associated with humans, and that microorganisms have the ability to degrade chemicals? The presence of microorganisms on humans can be shown by incubating agar plates after they are touched by the hands of students. The ability of microorganisms to degrade chemicals can be shown by an analytical measurement of the degradation of chemicals. When the chemicals are dyes (colorants in water, microbial activity on degradation of dyes can be demonstrated by observing a decreasing degree of color as a result of the enzymatic activity (e.g., azoreductase. Dyes are widely used in the textile, food, and cosmetic industries. They are generally resistant to conventional biological wastewater treatment systems such as the activated sludge process (4. The discharge of wastewater containing dye pollutes surface water. The ability of microorganisms to decolorize and degrade dyes has been widely investigated to use for bioremediation purposes (5. The goal of this tip is to understand the presence of bacteria on human skin and the ability of bacteria to degrade colorant chemicals (decolorization. In this tip, students first cultivate and isolate bacteria on their hands, and then examine potential decolorization activity of each bacterium by observing the degree of color of the liquid in tubes in which bacteria isolated from students’ hands were inoculated. Decolorization activity of bacterial isolates from human skin has been reported recently (6. To date this author has frequently obtained colorant-degrading bacterial isolates from human hands as a result of work on a scientific education project. This tip does not require analytical measurements. Students can examine a number of bacterial isolates simultaneously. Therefore, it is appropriate for high school and introductory level college courses.

  15. Rope Them in with Hand Gestures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading Teacher, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Using hand gestures is a great way to get students engaged in learning and more focused on reading comprehension strategies. This article presents descriptions of simple hand motions that teachers can use to help their students predict, question, clarify, and summarize while reading.

  16. Comparative Anatomy of the Hand and Foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postiglione, Ralph A.

    1983-01-01

    Presents an activity to articulate comparison of the hand and foot. Students carefully cut out corresponding hand/foot parts (carpals, tarsals, metacarpals, metatarsals, and phalanges) from enlarged diagrams and paste them on paper for comparative analysis. Sample student inferences and diagrams used for the activity are provided. (JN)

  17. Why Am I Left-Handed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... song, drawing a picture) happens mostly on the right side of the brain. So if you're left-handed, the theory ... only think with only one side of your brain. Do You Fit in a Right-Handed World? Some products, like scissors, are made ...

  18. Clean Hands Help Prevent the Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-06

    Clean hands can help prevent the spread of infectious diseases, such as flu. This podcast explains the proper way to wash your hands.  Created: 5/6/2009 by Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Influenza Division (CCID/NCIRD/ID).   Date Released: 5/6/2009.

  19. Illness representations in patients with hand injury.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chan, Jeffrey C Y

    2009-07-01

    Differences in illness perception about hand injury may partly explain the variation in health behaviours such as adherence to post-operative therapy, coping strategy, emotional response and eventual clinical outcome. This study examined the illness perception of patients with hand injuries in the acute trauma setting.

  20. Management of Food Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Maleknejad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Although food allergy is a major public health problem, currently there is no effective and safe treatment except to avoid the foods .But the need for new options is critical now as the number of children diagnosed with food allergies rises. Avoiding the offending allergen in the diet is the primary treatment of food allergy. Once a food to which the patient is sensitive has been identified, the food must be removed from the diet. People with severe food allergies must be prepared to treat an anaphylactic reaction. These individuals also always should carry a syringe of adrenaline (epinephrine [EpiPen], and be prepared to self-administer it if they think they are developing an allergic reaction. Several medications are available for treating the other symptoms of food allergy. For example, antihistamines can relieve gastrointestinal symptoms, hives, sneezing, and a runny nose. Bronchodilators can relieve the symptoms of asthma. They are not effective, however, in preventing an allergic reaction when taken prior to eating the food. In fact, no medication in any form is available to reliably prevent an allergic reaction to a certain food before eating that food.Novel therapeutic approaches to food allergy can be classified as food allergen-specific therapy(immunotherapy with native or modified recombinant allergens, or oral desensitization or food allergen-nonspecifictherapy (anti-IgE, traditional Chinese medicine.   Key Words: Children, Food Allergy, Management.  

  1. Evolution of one-handed piano compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdov, Ignat; Kidd, Mark; Modlin, Irvin M

    2008-01-01

    Electronic searches were performed to investigate the evolution of one-handed piano compositions and one-handed music techniques, and to identify individuals responsible for the development of music meant for playing with one hand. Particularly, composers such as Liszt, Ravel, Scriabin, and Prokofiev established a new model in music by writing works to meet the demands of a variety of pianist-amputees that included Count Géza Zichy (1849-1924), Paul Wittgenstein (1887-1961), and Siegfried Rapp (b. 1915). Zichy was the first to amplify the scope of the repertoire to improve the variety of one-handed music; Wittgenstein developed and adapted specific and novel performance techniques to accommodate one-handedness; and Rapp sought to promote the stature of one-handed pianists among a musically sophisticated public able to appreciate the nuances of such maestros. PMID:18590863

  2. Identifying Key Risk Behaviors Regarding Personal Hygiene and Food Safety Practices of Food Handlers Working in Eating Establishments Located Within a Hospital Campus in Kolkata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prianka Mukhopadhyay*, Gautam Kr. Joardar, Kanad Bag, Amrita Samanta, Sonali Sain and Sesadri Koley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hospital canteens cater to a large population group and personal hygiene and food safety practices of food handlers assume immense importance to prevent food borne disease outbreaks. Objectives: To assess the self-reported behaviour of food handlers on personal hygiene and food safety practices and to find out their morbidity profile. Methods: An observational study was conducted by interviewing 67 consenting food handlers working in different eateries inside a hospital campus, using a pretested, predesigned schedule. Results: Majority (46.3% of food handlers were educated upto primary level. Only 14.9% foodhandlers received preplacement training and 10.5%, preplacement medical checkup. Though practices of hand washing after going to toilet (95.5% and before preparing food (79.1% was reported to be quite high but for most other practices, hygiene was found to be low. Cuts/injuries on hands was reported as the most common morbidity in 44.8% but 11.9% continued work without any treatment. Conclusion: Preplacement training and in-service education on personal / food hygiene should be provided to all food handlers. Periodic medical checkups and routine sanitary inspection can improve their adherence to personal hygiene and food safety practices and prevent outbreak of food borne illnesses

  3. Greening Food Processing Industries in Vietnam: Opportunities and Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Thi My Dieu

    2006-01-01

    The food processing sector in Vietnam plays a vital role in its economic development, but its rapid growth seems to go hand-in-hand with environmental deterioration. Several decades of applying the conventional end-of-pipe approach made clear that it only deals with treating the symptoms. It is necessary to combine technological (end-of-pipe) solutions to overcome urgent pollution problems with ways to prevent wastes from being generated or to reuse their valuable material. This article prese...

  4. Product and Process Innovation in the Italian Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Capitanio, F.; Coppola, A.; Pascucci, S.

    2010-01-01

    The driving factors of innovation in the Italian food sector could be identified either in internal and in external dynamics. On one hand, the responses to the competition with new actors coming from emerging countries and the reaction to high-tech products demand evolution. On the other hand, endogenous dynamics appear to become more important for the strategic behaviour of the firms: a higher qualification of the human capital, a more clear orientation for high quality products, organizatio...

  5. Hand Biometric Recognition Based on Fused Hand Geometry and Vascular Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, GiTae; Kim, Soowon

    2013-01-01

    A hand biometric authentication method based on measurements of the user's hand geometry and vascular pattern is proposed. To acquire the hand geometry, the thickness of the side view of the hand, the K-curvature with a hand-shaped chain code, the lengths and angles of the finger valleys, and the lengths and profiles of the fingers were used, and for the vascular pattern, the direction-based vascular-pattern extraction method was used, and thus, a new multimodal biometric approach is proposed. The proposed multimodal biometric system uses only one image to extract the feature points. This system can be configured for low-cost devices. Our multimodal biometric-approach hand-geometry (the side view of the hand and the back of hand) and vascular-pattern recognition method performs at the score level. The results of our study showed that the equal error rate of the proposed system was 0.06%. PMID:23449119

  6. Hand eczema guidelines based on the Danish guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-01-01

    Background. Classification of hand eczema has traditionally been based both on aetiology and clinical appearance. For 20% of cases, the aetiology is unknown. Objectives. To suggest a classification based on well-defined aetiology as well as on predefined clinical patterns and on the dynamics of hand eczema. Methods. Literature studies and discussions among members of the Danish Contact Dermatitis Group. Results. Criteria are given for the aetiological diagnoses of allergic contact dermatitis of the hands, irritant contact dermatitis of the hands, protein contact dermatitis of the hands, atopic hand eczema and aetiologically unclassifiable hand eczema. Six different clinical patterns are described and illustrated. Suggestions for general treatment principles are given. Conclusion. Operational guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of hand eczema are described.

  7. Fast Food Facts: Interactive Food Finder

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Before grabbing a quick bite at a fast food eatery, curious diners may want to check this site, provided by Olen Publishing, and based on the Fast Food Facts handbook, which is published by the Minnesota Attorney General's Office. Food Finder allows users to search any of nineteen fast food restaurants from Arby's to White Castle. Any or all restaurants can be searched on food names, maximum calories, percent calories from fat, and maximum sodium, fat, and cholesterol. Then simply "fire up the deep fryer." To browse all products of all restaurants, simply fire up the deep fryer without entering any search terms. This fun and informative (if slightly frightening) site tallies the cost of that next fast food meal to your health.

  8. Hand functioning in children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarlyneArnould

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Brain lesions may disturb hand functioning in children with cerebral palsy (CP, making it difficult or even impossible for them to perform several manual activities. Most conventional treatments for hand dysfunction in CP assume that reducing the hand dysfunctions will improve the capacity to manage activities (i.e., manual ability, MA. The aim of this study was to investigate the directional relationships (direct and indirect pathways through which hand skills influence MA in children with CP. A total of 136 children with CP (mean age: 10 years; range: 6–16 years; 35 quadriplegics, 24 diplegics, 77 hemiplegics were assessed. Six hand skills were measured on both hands: touch-pressure detection (Semmes-Weinstein aesthesiometer, stereognosis (Manual Form Perception Test, proprioception (passive mobilization of the metacarpophalangeal joints, grip strength (Jamar dynamometer, gross manual dexterity (Box and Block Test, and fine finger dexterity (Purdue Pegboard Test. MA was measured with the ABILHAND-Kids questionnaire. Correlation coefficients were used to determine the linear associations between observed variables. A path analysis of structural equation modeling was applied to test different models of causal relationships among the observed variables. Purely sensory impairments did seem not to play a significant role in the capacity to perform manual activities. According to path analysis, gross manual dexterity in both hands and stereognosis in the dominant hand were directly related to MA, whereas grip strength was indirectly related to MA through its relationship with gross manual dexterity. However, one-third of the variance in MA measures could not be explained by hand skills. It can be concluded that MA is not simply the integration of hand skills in daily activities and should be treated per se, supporting activity-based interventions.

  9. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice among food handlers on food borne diseases: A hospital based study in tertiary care hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavilla Anuradha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Title: Knowledge, Attitude and Practice among food handlers on food borne diseases: A hospital based study in tertiary care hospital.Running title: KAP study among food handlers in a Hospital at Perambalur.Background: Food handlers play an important role in ensuring food safety throughout the chain of production, processing, storage and preparation.Staphylococcus aureus infections used to respond to ß-lactam and related group of antibiotics but the emergence of Methicillin-resistant S. Aureus (MRSA has posed a serious therapeutic challenge.Objectives: To assess the food hygiene Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP among the food handlers.Method and material: In this hospital based cross sectional study, subjects were all 60 food handlers working in three canteens. This study was performed for the period of four months in June to September 2013. The data was obtained by the predesigned proforma. The swabs form nose, both axilla and both hands were taken. Also stool samples from all cases were obtained with the consent of the study subjects.Results:The study was conducted in 60 food handlers of which were 22 males and 38 females. Wearing the gloves and other protective cover usage was very rare among them. But majority of them know about the usage of the protective covers but not practicing this hygiene.Conclusion:The hygiene and the cleanliness practiced by the food handlers were satisfactory. However there is need to increase the hygiene level of food handlers and environmental premises.

  10. HandNavigator: Hands-on Interaction for Desktop Virtual Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Kry, Paul; Pihuit, Adeline; Bernhardt, Adrien; Cani, Marie-paule

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a novel interaction system, aimed at hands-on manipulation of digital models through natural hand gestures. Our system is composed of a new physical interaction device coupled with a simulated compliant virtual hand model. The physical interface consists of a SpaceNavigator, augmented with pressure sensors to detect directional forces applied by the user's fingertips. This information controls the position, orientation, and posture of the virtual hand in the same way that ...

  11. Stigmatization of Repetitive Hand Use in Newspaper Reports of Hand Illness

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony, Shawn; Lozano-Calderon, Santiago; Ring, David

    2007-01-01

    Failure to provide a balanced evidence-based consideration of the role of activity in illness can stigmatize individuals and their activities. We assessed the prevalence of language that stigmatized repetitive hand use and those that use their hand repetitively in newspaper coverage of common hand illnesses. The LexisNexis Academic database was used to search five major US newspapers for articles containing keywords about common hand illnesses during a 3-year period. Article language was asse...

  12. Communicative hand gestures and object-directed hand movements activated the mirror neuron system

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Kimberly J.; Isenberg, Nancy; Haxby, James V.

    2007-01-01

    Humans produce hand movements to manipulate objects, but also make hand movements to convey socially relevant information to one another. The mirror neuron system (MNS) is activated during the observation and execution of actions. Previous neuroimaging experiments have identified the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and frontal operculum as parts of the human MNS. Although experiments have suggested that object-directed hand movements drive the MNS, it is not clear whether communicative hand ge...

  13. The One Hand Wonder: A Framework for Enhancing One-handed Website Operation on Touchscreen Smartphones

    OpenAIRE

    Seipp, Karsten; Devlin, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Operating a website with one hand on a touchscreen mobile phone remains a challenging task: solutions to adapt websites for mobile users do not address the ergonomic peculiarities of one-handed operation. We present the design and evaluation of the One Hand Wonder (OHW) -- an easily-adaptable cross-platform JavaScript framework to support one-handed website navigation on touchscreen smartphones. It enhances usability without the need to redesign the existing website or to overwrite any CSS st...

  14. Hand Hygiene – Evaluation of Three Disinfectant Hand Sanitizers in a Community Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Babeluk, Rita; Jutz, Sabrina; Mertlitz, Sarah; Matiasek, Johannes; Klaus, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Hand hygiene is acknowledged as the single most important measure to prevent nosocomial infections in the healthcare setting. Similarly, in non-clinical settings, hand hygiene is recognised as a key element in helping prevent the spread of infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three different disinfectant hand sanitizers in reducing the burden of bacterial hand contamination in 60 healthy volunteers in a community setting, both before and after education a...

  15. Effectiveness of Hand Sanitizers with and without Organic Acids for Removal of Rhinovirus from Hands ?

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Ronald B.; Fuls, Janice L.; Rodgers, Nancy D.

    2010-01-01

    These studies evaluated the effectiveness of ethanol hand sanitizers with or without organic acids to remove detectable rhinovirus from the hands and prevent experimental rhinovirus infection. Ethanol hand sanitizers were significantly more effective than hand washing with soap and water. The addition of organic acids to the ethanol provided residual virucidal activity that persisted for at least 4 h. Whether these treatments will reduce rhinovirus infection in the natural setting remains to ...

  16. Improved Inactivation of Nonenveloped Enteric Viruses and Their Surrogates by a Novel Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizer ?

    OpenAIRE

    Macinga, David R.; Sattar, Syed A.; Jaykus, Lee-ann; Arbogast, James W.

    2008-01-01

    Norovirus is the leading cause of food-related illness in the United States, and contamination of ready-to-eat items by food handlers poses a high risk for disease. This study reports the in vitro (suspension test) and in vivo (fingerpad protocol) assessments of a new ethanol-based hand sanitizer containing a synergistic blend of polyquaternium polymer and organic acid, which is active against viruses of public health importance, including norovirus. When tested in suspension, the test produc...

  17. Consumer Acceptance, Choice and Attitudes towards Genetically Modified (GM) Food

    OpenAIRE

    Costa Font, Monserrat

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of new technologies in food production not only has revolutioned its productive efficiency but has exerted important demand side effects that cannot be dismissed and require careful analysis. This is especially the case of genetically modified (GM) food, typical daily consumed products (e.g. GM milk, tomato, maize, etc) given its considerable interest and worldwide public controversy. Several stakeholders are place, on the one hand, farmers and manufactures perceive potential...

  18. Penn State's Food Safety Home Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    This extensive food safety site is provided by Penn State's Food Safety program and provides almost any user whether they are consumers, professionals or educators with an array of useful materials. Central to the site is the underlying food safety database which provides a quick search interface for those who want to dig right in and enter a key word or two. If you're more of a browser, there are topical links as well as a set of links based on the type of user you are -- consumer, food service professional, processor or producer. These user-based links can be accessed from the main food safety database page, where the basic topical links are available on the home page as well as from a left hand navigation bar on most pages. Topics available for browsing include home food preservation, news and features, related web sites and courses and events along with a hot topics link. Of special interest to educators is the educators toolbox section which provides a host of mostly free materials - fact sheets, videos, Power-point presentations and handouts.

  19. Microbial safety of foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite advances in hygiene, consumer knowledge and food treatment and processing, food-borne diseases have become one of the most widespread public health problems in the world to-day. About two thirds of all outbreaks are traced to microbial contaminated food - one of the most hazardous being Clostridium botulinum, E. coli 0157: H7 and Salmonella. The pathogens can be introduced in the food products anywhere in the food chain and hence it is of prime important to have microbial vigilance in the entire food chain. WHO estimates that food-borne and water-borne diarrhoeal diseases taken together kill about 2.2 million people annually. The infants, children, elderly and immune-compromised people are particularly susceptible to food-borne diseases. Unsafe food causes many acute and life-long diseases, ranging from diarrhoeal diseases to various forms of cancer. A number of factors such as emergence of new food-borne pathogens, development of drug resistance in the pathogens, changing life style, global trade of food etc. are responsible for the continued persistence of food-borne diseases. Due to consumer demand, a number of Ready-To-Eat (RTE) minimally processed foods are increasingly marketed. However, there is increased risk of food-borne diseases with these products. The food-borne disease outbreaks due to E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella and Campylobacter are responsible for recall of many foods resulting in heavy losses to food industry. The development of multi drug resistant pathogens due to indiscriminate use of antibiotics is also a major problem. Food Technology Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre has been working on food-borne bacterial pathogens particularly Salmonella, Campylobacter, Vibrio and Aeromonas species, their prevalence in export quality seafood as well in foods sold in retail market such as poultry, fish, sprouts and salads. These pathogens from Indian foods have been characterized for the presence of virulence genes, antibiotic resistance patterns as well as for pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns. The existing culture based methods for detection of the pathogens in foods are laborious and time consuming and there is a need for rapid and sensitive methods for the detection of pathogens. We have developed nested PCR method for the detection of Salmonella from foods. The radiation doses for the elimination of these pathogens from various foods have also been optimized for ensuring their safety. Details of detection methods, characteristics of the pathogens isolated from Indian foods and the establishment of optimum radiation dose for the complete elimination of these pathogens will be discussed. (author)

  20. Attributing illness to food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batz, M. B.; Doyle, M. P.

    2005-01-01

    Identification and prioritization of effective food safety interventions require an understanding of the relationship between food and pathogen from farm to consumption. Critical to this cause is food attribution, the capacity to attribute cases of foodborne disease to the food vehicle or other source responsible for illness. A wide variety of food attribution approaches and data are used around the world including the analysis of outbreak data, case-control studies, microbial subtyping and source tracking methods, and expert judgment, among others. The Food Safety Research Consortium sponsored the Food Attribution Data Workshop in October 2003 to discuss the virtues and limitations of these approaches and to identify future options for collecting food attribution data in the United States. We summarize workshop discussions and identify challenges that affect progress in this critical component of a risk-based approach to improving food safety.

  1. Analytical detection methods for irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present publication is a review of scientific literature on the analytical identification of foods treated with ionizing radiation and the quantitative determination of absorbed dose of radiation. Because of the extremely low level of chemical changes resulting from irradiation or because of the lack of specificity to irradiation of any chemical changes, a few methods of quantitative determination of absorbed dose have shown promise until now. On the other hand, the present review has identified several possible methods, which could be used, following further research and testing, for the identification of irradiated foods. An IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on Analytical Detection Methods for Irradiation Treatment of Food ('ADMIT'), established in 1990, is currently investigating many of the methods cited in the present document. Refs and tab

  2. Hand hygiene among health care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani Ameet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare-associated infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients worldwide. Transmission of health care associated pathogens generally occurs via the contaminated hands of health care workers. Hand hygiene has long been considered one of the most important infection control measures to prevent health care-associated infections. For generations, hand washing with soap and water has been considered a measure of personal hygiene. As early as 1822, a French pharmacist demonstrated that solutions containing chlorides of lime or soda could eradicate the foul odor associated with human corpses and that such solutions could be used as disinfectants and antiseptics. This paper provides a comprehensive review of data regarding hand washing and hand antisepsis in healthcare settings. In addition, it provides specific recommendations to uphold improved hand-hygiene practices and reduce transmission of pathogenic microorganisms to patients and personnel in healthcare settings. This article also makes recommendations and suggests the significance of hand health hygiene in infection control.

  3. Direct coupling of haptic signals between hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupin, Lucile; Hayward, Vincent; Wexler, Mark

    2015-01-13

    Although motor actions can profoundly affect the perceptual interpretation of sensory inputs, it is not known whether the combination of sensory and movement signals occurs only for sensory surfaces undergoing movement or whether it is a more general phenomenon. In the haptic modality, the independent movement of multiple sensory surfaces poses a challenge to the nervous system when combining the tactile and kinesthetic signals into a coherent percept. When exploring a stationary object, the tactile and kinesthetic signals come from the same hand. Here we probe the internal structure of haptic combination by directing the two signal streams to separate hands: one hand moves but receives no tactile stimulation, while the other hand feels the consequences of the first hand's movement but remains still. We find that both discrete and continuous tactile and kinesthetic signals are combined as if they came from the same hand. This combination proceeds by direct coupling or transfer of the kinesthetic signal from the moving to the feeling hand, rather than assuming the displacement of a mediating object. The combination of signals is due to perception rather than inference, because a small temporal offset between the signals significantly degrades performance. These results suggest that the brain simplifies the complex coordinate transformation task of remapping sensory inputs to take into account the movements of multiple body parts in haptic perception, and they show that the effects of action are not limited to moving sensors. PMID:25548179

  4. Pathophysiology and Treatment of Alien Hand Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarva, Harini; Deik, Andres; Severt, William Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Background Alien hand syndrome (AHS) is a disorder of involuntary, yet purposeful, hand movements that may be accompanied by agnosia, aphasia, weakness, or sensory loss. We herein review the most reported cases, current understanding of the pathophysiology, and treatments. Methods We performed a PubMed search in July of 2014 using the phrases “alien hand syndrome,” “alien hand syndrome pathophysiology,” “alien hand syndrome treatment,” and “anarchic hand syndrome.” The search yielded 141 papers (reviews, case reports, case series, and clinical studies), of which we reviewed 109. Non-English reports without English abstracts were excluded. Results Accumulating evidence indicates that there are three AHS variants: frontal, callosal, and posterior. Patients may demonstrate symptoms of multiple types; there is a lack of correlation between phenomenology and neuroimaging findings. Most pathologic and functional imaging studies suggest network disruption causing loss of inhibition as the likely cause. Successful interventions include botulinum toxin injections, clonazepam, visuospatial coaching techniques, distracting the affected hand, and cognitive behavioral therapy. Discussion The available literature suggests that overlap between AHS subtypes is common. The evidence for effective treatments remains anecdotal, and, given the rarity of AHS, the possibility of performing randomized, placebo-controlled trials seems unlikely. As with many other interventions for movement disorders, identifying the specific functional impairments caused by AHS may provide the best guidance towards individualized supportive care. PMID:25506043

  5. A storage model with random release rate for modeling exposure to food contaminants

    OpenAIRE

    Bertail, Patrice; Clémençon, Stéphan; Tressou, Jessica

    2007-01-01

    This paper is devoted to present and study a specific continuous-time piecewise-deterministic Markov process for describing the temporal evolution of exposure to a given food contaminant. The quantity X of food contaminant present in the body evolves through its accumulation after repeated dietary intakes on the one hand and the pharmacokinetics behavior of the chemical on the other hand. In the dynamic modeling considered here, the accumulation phenomenon is modeled by a simple marked point ...

  6. Functional Foods for Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Alice K.

    2002-01-01

    Describes functional foods for women's health (foods or food ingredients that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition), explaining that both whole and modified foods can be included as functional foods. The paper discusses the history, regulation, and promotion of functional foods; consumer interest in functional foods; how to incorporate…

  7. Specificities of hand trauma in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoli? Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Hand injuries in agriculture are characterized by massive destruction of all tissues, frequent amputations of finger, hand and often the whole extremity. These injuries are mutilant and can cause death. The aim of this paper was to show the specificities of hand injuries in agriculture in regard to hand injuries of other etiology. Methods. We analyzed patients that were treated in the Department for Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Clinical Center Vojvodina, during a five-year period (2003-2007 because of hand injuries. Results. In a five-year period there were 366 patients hospitalized because of hand injuries, out of whom 36 injuries were related to agricultural machinery use. In both groups the number of patients trended to increased, with male gender being dominant. Most of the patients were young or middle-aged men. In agricultural injuries most of the patients were in the group of 41-50-year old (30%, while in the other group, the patients were younger (21-30-year old. Hand injuries in agriculture resulted in finger amputation in 92%, while in the other group that number was much smaller (13%. Skin defect reconstruction in agricultural injuries required complex methods of skin grafting or skin flaps in more than 71%, while this was necessary in only 10% of other hand injuries. Conclusion. Hand injuries in agriculture are very mutilant and often result in conquassation and finger amputation. A possibility to preserve tissue damaged in this way is very limited, and skin closer usually requires complex methods.

  8. Food Service System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The 3M Food Service System 2 employs a "cook/chill" concept for serving food in hospitals. The system allows staff to prepare food well in advance, maintain heat, visual appeal and nutritional value as well as reducing operating costs. The integral heating method, which keeps hot foods hot and cold foods cold, was developed by 3M for the Apollo Program. In the 1970s, the company commercialized the original system and in 1991, introduced Food Service System 2. Dishes are designed to resemble those used at home, and patient satisfaction has been high.

  9. [Digital necrosis in hand by uncommon mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Maria Bibiana; Lashak, Celina; Mazzurco, Martin

    2013-07-01

    A 43-year-old, non-smoking man presented with acute ischemic lesions of his left hand. He had been taking beta-blockers for his arterial hypertension. The day before the occurrence of these acute lesions, he self medicated with a drug containing ergotamine and caffeine because of a headache. About one hour after mild trauma to the hand, he noticed intense cyanosis accompanied by severe pain in the fingers that progressed to digital necrosis. Hematological tests, hand radiography, echo Doppler, and nailfold videocapillaroscopy were performed. Digital necrosis owing to an unusual combination of ischemic mechanisms is assumed. PMID:24010508

  10. Hand Geometry Recognition System Using Feature Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Rathi , Dr. Sipi Dubey

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics traits such as fingerprints, handgeometry, face and voice verification provide a reliablealternative for identity verification and are gainingcommercial and high user acceptability rate. Handgeometry based biometric system has proven to be themost suitable and acceptable biometric trait formedium and low security application. Geometricmeasurements of the human hand have been used foridentity authentication in a number of commercialsystems.This paper proposes a technique for hand biometricfeature extraction using hand contour matching. Handshape feature is obtained by using Euclidian distancefrom starting reference point and then calculate the tipand valley point of finger. Then apply somemathematical calculation for calculate the handgeometry features like finger length, width andperimeter.

  11. Management of post burn hand deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabapathy S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The hand is ranked among the three most frequent sites of burns scar contracture deformity. One of the major determinants of the quality of life in burns survivors is the functionality of the hands. Burns deformities, although largely preventable, nevertheless do occur when appropriate treatment is not provided in the acute situation or when they are part of a major burns. Reconstructive procedures can greatly improve the function of the hands. Appropriate choice of procedures and timing of surgery followed by supervised physiotherapy can be a boon for a burns survivor.

  12. Hand Gesture Recognition using Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh Mapari; Dr. Govind Kharat

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a simple method to recognize sign gesturesof American Sign Language using features like number of Peaksand Valleys in an image with its position in an image. Signlanguage is mainly employed by deaf-mutes to communicatewith each other through gestures and visions. We extract theskin part which represents the hand from an image usingL*a*b* Color space. Every hand gesture is cropped from animage such that hand is placed in the center of image for ease offinding features. The ...

  13. Hand Gesture Recognition: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiqul Zaman Khan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Hand gesture recognition system received great attention in the recent few years because of itsmanifoldness applications and the ability to interact with machine efficiently through human computerinteraction. In this paper a survey of recent hand gesture recognition systems is presented. Key issues ofhand gesture recognition system are presented with challenges of gesture system. Review methods of recentpostures and gestures recognition system presented as well. Summary of research results of hand gesturemethods, databases, and comparison between main gesture recognition phases are also given. Advantagesand drawbacks of the discussed systems are explained finally

  14. ASL Based Hand Gesture Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Swapnil A. Bobade

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available American Sign Language (ASL is a well developed and standard way of communication for hearing impaired people living in Englishspeaking communities. Since the advent of modern technology, different intelligent computer-aided application have been developed that can recognize hand gesture and hence translates gestures into understandable forms. In this proposed system, ASL based hand gesture system is presented that uses evolutionary programming technique called SIFT algorithm. Hand gestures images representing different English alphabets are used as an input to the system and then it is tested for a different set of images. The sign recognition accuracy obtained will be up to the mark.

  15. The First Hand Transplantation in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Kalantar-Hormozi, A.; Firoozi, F.; Yavari, M.; Arasteh, E.; Najafizadeh, K.; F Rashid-Farokhi

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, hand transplantation is a very challenging procedure for surgeons and researchers worldwide. Despite many problems that may occur after this surgery, some centers continue to practice this highly sophisticated procedure. Herein, we report on a 38-year-old man who received hand transplant from a 24-year-old brain-dead man. This patient had lost his right hand from the lower one-third of forearm six years before after a trauma from a mincing machine. Team members organized pre-operati...

  16. Economic benefits from food recovery at the retail stage: an application to Italian food chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuseppe, Aiello; Mario, Enea; Cinzia, Muriana

    2014-07-01

    The food supply chain is affected by losses of products near to their expiry date or damaged by improper transportation or production defects. Such products are usually poorly attractive for the consumer in the target market even if they maintain their nutritional properties. On the other hand undernourished people face every day the problem of fulfilling their nutritional needs usually relying on non-profit organizations. In this field the food recovery enabling economic benefits for donors is nowadays seen as a coherent way to manage food products unsalable in the target market for various causes and thus destined to be discarded and disposed to landfill thus representing only a cost. Despite its obvious affordability the food recovery is today not always practiced because the economic benefits that could be achieved are barely known. The paper aims at presenting a deterministic mathematical model for the optimization of the supply chain composed by retailers and potential recipients that practice the food recovery, taking into account the benefits recognized to donors and the management costs of the food recovery. The model determines the optimal time to withdraw the products from the shelves as well as the quantities to be donated to the non-profit organizations and those to be sent to the livestock market maximizing the retailer profit. The results show that the optimal conditions ensuring the affordability of the food recovery strategy including the tax reliefs and cost saving for the retailers outperforms the profit achievable in absence of such a system. PMID:24685399

  17. New frontiers in the rubber hand experiment: when a robotic hand becomes one's own.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspar, Emilie A; De Beir, Albert; Magalhaes De Saldanha Da Gama, Pedro A; Yernaux, Florence; Cleeremans, Axel; Vanderborght, Bram

    2014-06-19

    The rubber hand illusion is an experimental paradigm in which participants consider a fake hand to be part of their body. This paradigm has been used in many domains of psychology (i.e., research on pain, body ownership, agency) and is of clinical importance. The classic rubber hand paradigm nevertheless suffers from limitations, such as the absence of active motion or the reliance on approximate measurements, which makes strict experimental conditions difficult to obtain. Here, we report on the development of a novel technology-a robotic, user- and computer-controllable hand-that addresses many of the limitations associated with the classic rubber hand paradigm. Because participants can actively control the robotic hand, the device affords higher realism and authenticity. Our robotic hand has a comparatively low cost and opens up novel and innovative methods. In order to validate the robotic hand, we have carried out three experiments. The first two studies were based on previous research using the rubber hand, while the third was specific to the robotic hand. We measured both sense of agency and ownership. Overall, results show that participants experienced a "robotic hand illusion" in the baseline conditions. Furthermore, we also replicated previous results about agency and ownership. PMID:24942249

  18. Model-based visual hand posture tracking for guiding a dexterous robotic hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jinshi; Sun, Zengqi

    2004-05-01

    Visual hand gesture based interfaces have been widely used for navigation of virtual environments and control of a robot arm in robotic systems. In fact, hand movement has abundant powers of expression with complex finger joint motions. In this paper, the full degree-of-freedom hand motion is tracked in a vision-based mode towards natural and intuitive control of a dexterous robotic hand. The main obstacle to handle human hand posture tracking is the high dimensionality. A novel three-dimensional model-based approach is proposed. It utilizes a genetic algorithm-based global optimization procedure after each particle-filtering step, which deals with the tracking in high-dimensional and multi-modal state space reasonably well. Experimental results show that present approach improves performance of hand posture tracking significantly and provides a feasible solution for guiding a dexterous hand.

  19. Facts about food irradiation: Food irradiation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This fact sheet gives the cost of a typical food irradiation facility (US $1 million to US $3 million) and of the food irradiation process (US $10-15 per tonne for low-dose applications; US $100-250 per tonne for high-dose applications). These treatments also bring consumer benefits in terms of availability, storage life and improved hygiene. 2 refs

  20. Microbial Efficacy of Waterless Hand Hygiene in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, A.; Boehm, A.; Davis, J.

    2008-12-01

    Millions of people die from diarrheal and respiratory diseases every year due to lack of proper sanitation, hygiene, and access to clean water. The act of handwashing with soap has been found to effectively reduce both diarrheal and respiratory illness, however, handwashing at critical times (i.e. after using the toilet, before preparing food) remains infrequent around the world. This research investigates the potential for alcohol- based hand sanitizer (ABHS) to be an effective and appropriate hand hygiene option in developing countries. A study was conducted to assess the microbiological effectiveness of ABHS, as compared to handwashing with soap and water, in field conditions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 205 participants, including mothers, nurses, students, and teachers, were introduced to ABHS, given a standardized amount (2ml) of product, and instructed on how to use the product correctly. Hand samples were obtained using the hand rinse method before and after the use of ABHS from 152 participants. The other 53 participants were hand sampled before and after handwashing with a non-antimicrobial liquid soap and clean water (prior to using ABHS). Visual inspections of the hands were performed before hand sampling to record the level of dirt on the hands. All hand samples were processed and analyzed by membrane filtration for concentrations of two microbial indicators, enterococci and E. coli. User perceptions of the product and willingness to pay are also documented. The results of this study provide valuable insight on the prospective of promoting ABHS in developing countries and water scarce areas.

  1. Energy Expenditure During Walking with Hand Weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makalous, Susan L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A study of 11 obese adults who exercised with hand weights concludes that using the weights increases the energy demands of walking but only slightly. Research and results are presented and analyzed. (JL)

  2. Hand and foot syndrome secondary to capecitabine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Hina Shaikh

    2014-01-01

    A 55-year-old woman on treatment with capecitabine and paclitaxel for breast carcinoma presented with history of a tingling sensation in her hands and feet with a progressive burning sensation. She also noted discomfort, minimal pain and stiffness while holding objects. On examination, there was patchy hyperpigmentation of both the palms and soles, and the dorsa of hands and feet. This was accompanied by a thickening of the skin more over the knuckles and toes. In addition there was a moist desquamation around the toes and over the palmar creases and a bluish discoloration of the lunulae of both thumbnails. She was diagnosed with hand and foot syndrome and started on pyridoxine and emollients. The finding of keratoderma noted in our patient is not seen commonly in hand and foot syndrome. PMID:25201844

  3. A REVIEW ON HAND GETSURE RECOGNITION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Prashant Chaudhari,Prof. G. R. Phulay,Mr. Ravindra Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gesture recognition is a topic in computerscience and language technology with the goal ofinterpreting human gestures via mathematicalalgorithms. Gestures can originate from any bodilymotion or state but commonly originate from the faceor hand. Current focuses in the field include emotionrecognition from the face and hand gesture recognition.Many approaches have been made using cameras andcomputer vision algorithms to interpret sign language.However, the identification and recognition of posture,gait and human behaviors is also the subject of gesturerecognition techniques. This paper handles the casestudy on the different hand gesture recognition systemsand also the devices with data glove and vocalizersystem. These systems are beneficial for disable peopleand their hands will speak having worn the gesturevocalizer data glove.

  4. Hand Gesture Recognition using Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Mapari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple method to recognize sign gesturesof American Sign Language using features like number of Peaksand Valleys in an image with its position in an image. Signlanguage is mainly employed by deaf-mutes to communicatewith each other through gestures and visions. We extract theskin part which represents the hand from an image usingL*a*b* Color space. Every hand gesture is cropped from animage such that hand is placed in the center of image for ease offinding features. The system does require hand to be properlyaligned to the camera and does not need any special colormarkers, glove or wearable sensors. The experimental resultsshow that 100% recognition rate for testing and training dataset.

  5. Personal Authentication System using Hand Vein Biometric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sathish

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With an increasing emphasis on security, automated personal identification using hand vein biometric feature is becoming a very active topic in both research and practical applications. The objective of this work is to present a biometric authentication system for high security physical access control based on hand vein pattern. Hand vein biometric is selected, as it is foolproof, offers higher security and reliable for identification.The feature extraction stage consists of removal of the noise inherent using various filtering techniques and extraction of the most discriminating information present in the images using Discrete Wavelet Transform and Adaptive Thresholding techniques. The proposed recognition system makes use of hausdorff distance as matching parameter. The biometric system developed was tested on WASET hand vein image database of Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of Automation is used and the system is implemented in MATLAB. The proposed approach found to report higher verification accuracy of 99.5%.

  6. Three Amputees Regain Function with 'Bionic' Hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In what scientists say is a first, a robotic hand controlled by a patient's own muscle and ... Laboratory for Restoration of Extremity Function at the Medical University of Vienna, noted in a journal news ...

  7. Hand shape identification using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egiazarian, Karen O.; Pestana, Santiago G.

    2002-05-01

    A biometric identification system based on the user's hand-palm is presented. Two main approaches for feature extraction are explored: (a) geometrical (a set of geometrical measurements i.e. fingers' length, hand's area and perimeter are obtained from the user's hand), (b) by using the hand-palm contour with no further information. The large amount of data obtained by using the second approach leads us to a dimensionality reduction problem. We address this problems using three different solutions, contour down-sampling, PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and Wavelet decomposition. Two well known classification techniques, KNN (K-Nearest Neighbor) and NN (Neural Networks) are used to identify the users. Experimental results comparing each of these techniques are given.

  8. Inertia and the Right-Hand Turn

    Science.gov (United States)

    The representation depicts two riders in a car that is involved in making a right-hand turn. The car and riders are shown through an animated GIF, and the motion of the riders is explained in the accompanying text.

  9. Multifocal osseous tuberculosis involving hand and feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Muhammad Umar; Shafique, Mobeen; Mahmood, Rabia; Ali, Liaquat; Nadeem, Ahmed; Anees

    2008-04-01

    A rare case of multifocal cystic tuberculosis of hands and feet is presented in an adolescent female. The presence of multiple lytic areas mimicked secondary metastases and biopsy remained the mainstay for final diagnosis. PMID:18474162

  10. Ganglion Cyst of the Wrist and Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Ganglion Cyst of the Wrist and Hand Ganglion cysts are the most common mass or lump in ... of the wrist. These ? uid-? lled cysts can quickly appear, disappear, and change size. Many ...

  11. Hands-On Homework for Introductory Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandralekha Singh

    2002-10-01

    The author and colleagues have designed an Exploration Center to supplement lecture-oriented teaching in large introductory physics courses. At the center, students perform hands-on homework problems derived from lecture demonstrations. The style of explo

  12. Static hand gesture recognition from a video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokade, Rajeshree S.; Doye, Dharmpal

    2011-10-01

    A sign language (also signed language) is a language which, instead of acoustically conveyed sound patterns, uses visually transmitted sign patterns to convey meaning- "simultaneously combining hand shapes, orientation and movement of the hands". Sign languages commonly develop in deaf communities, which can include interpreters, friends and families of deaf people as well as people who are deaf or hard of hearing themselves. In this paper, we proposed a novel system for recognition of static hand gestures from a video, based on Kohonen neural network. We proposed algorithm to separate out key frames, which include correct gestures from a video sequence. We segment, hand images from complex and non uniform background. Features are extracted by applying Kohonen on key frames and recognition is done.

  13. Early management of ballistic hand trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eardley, W G P; Stewart, M P M

    2010-02-01

    Complex hand wounds are an unfortunate consequence of conflict. Increased battlefield survival rates have resulted in an evolving range of ballistic hand trauma encountered by deployed surgical teams, requiring increased knowledge and understanding of these injuries. In the civilian setting, the combined threats of gun crime and acts of terrorism warrant appreciation for such injury among all surgeons. Surgeons often have to relearn the management of ballistic hand trauma and other aspects of war surgery under difficult circumstances because the experiences of their predecessors may be forgotten. Current evidence regarding these injuries is scarce. Ballistic hand trauma is rarely isolated. The demand on surgical resources from combat injury is significant, and it is imperative that a phased strategy be followed in this setting. Minimal, accurate débridement and decompression with early stability are crucial. Delayed primary closure and an awareness of future reconstructive options are fundamental. PMID:20118328

  14. Hand preference, sexual preference, and transsexualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R; Young, R

    2001-12-01

    Atypical handedness patterns, i.e., persons being less exclusively right-handed, have been found previously in large samples of male and female homosexuals and in small samples of male and female transsexuals compared to controls. The posited role of prenatal androgen influencing both cerebral hemispheric dominance and psychosexual development warrants further study with large samples of transsexuals. 443 male-to-female transsexuals and 93 female-to-male transsexuals were studied for their use of the right or left hand in six common one-handed tasks. Both male and female transsexuals were more often nonright-handed than male and female controls were. Results suggest an altered pattern of cerebral hemispheric organisation in male and female transsexuals. PMID:11725455

  15. Force reflecting hand controller for manipulator teleoperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryfogle, Mark D.

    1991-12-01

    A force reflecting hand controller based upon a six degree of freedom fully parallel mechanism, often termed a Stewart Platform, has been designed, constructed, and tested as an integrated system with a slave robot manipulator test bed. A force reflecting hand controller comprises a kinesthetic device capable of transmitting position and orientation commands to a slave robot manipulator while simultaneously representing the environmental interaction forces of the slave manipulator back to the operator through actuators driving the hand controller mechanism. The Stewart Platform was chosen as a novel approach to improve force reflecting teleoperation because of its inherently high ratio of load generation capability to system mass content and the correspondingly high dynamic bandwidth. An additional novelty of the program was to implement closed loop force and torque control about the hand controller mechanism by equipping the handgrip with a six degree of freedom force and torque measuring cell. The mechanical, electrical, computer, and control systems are discussed and system tests are presented.

  16. Holiday Food Safety

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by the non-profit Partnership for Food Safety Education, provides tips on how to make sure holiday ... With Eggs More in Resources for You Consumers Education Resource Library Food Facts for Consumers Selected Health ...

  17. Food Label and You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Department of Health and Human Services FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration Protecting and Promoting Your Health ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Print this page Share this page E-mail ...

  18. Holiday Food Safety

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Department of Health and Human Services FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration Protecting and Promoting Your Health ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Print this page Share this page E-mail ...

  19. Food Product Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices ... Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Food Product Dating "Sell by Feb 14" is a ...

  20. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Department of Health and Human Services FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration Protecting and Promoting Your Health ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Print this page Share this page E-mail ...

  1. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Label?) The Food Label & You (full video) Introduction back to menu CSI (Calorie Scene Investigators) A spoof ... particular food. Produced by CDRH-TV for CFSAN. back to menu Servings Gia Mora hosts an exploration ...

  2. Holiday Food Safety

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to help keep yourself and your loved ones healthy. Happy Holidays and remember to BE FOOD SAFE! Additional Information Consumer Update: Food Safety Tips for Healthy Holidays [ARCHIVED] Produce Safety: Safe Handling of Raw ...

  3. Holiday Food Safety

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resource Library Food Facts for Consumers Selected Health Topics For Women Kids & Teens Resources for You Foodsafety.gov Fightbac.org Food Safety and Inspection Service Page Last Updated: 05/29/2015 Note: If you ...

  4. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and You — Video FDA presents an entertaining and educational tool to help consumers understand and use the ... Road Food (Finding Nutrition Information on the Road) Game Show Review (Are You Smarter Than A Food ...

  5. Holiday Food Safety

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education Resource Library Food Facts for Consumers Selected Health Topics For Women Kids & Teens Resources for You Foodsafety.gov Fightbac.org Food Safety and Inspection Service Page Last Updated: 05/29/ ...

  6. Food and Drug Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Human Services FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration Protecting and Promoting Your Health A to Z ... Map Transparency Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 ...

  7. Fast food tips (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... challenge to eat healthy when going to a fast food place. In general, avoiding items that are deep ... challenge to eat healthy when going to a fast food place. In general, avoiding items that are deep ...

  8. Fast food (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast foods are quick, reasonably priced, and readily available alternatives to home cooking. While convenient and economical for a busy lifestyle, fast foods are typically high in calories, fat, saturated fat, ...

  9. Holiday Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Department of Health and Human Services FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration Protecting and Promoting Your Health ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Print this page Share this page E-mail ...

  10. Safe Food Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy P. Moreno

    2011-01-01

    In this activity about food safety and nutrition, learners investigate safe food preparation by making fruit ice cream. This lesson guide includes background information, variations and bilingual (English/Spanish) recipe cards.

  11. Refrigeration and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Refrigeration and Food Safety History of Refrigeration Importance of Refrigeration Types of ...

  12. Fires and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Fires and Food Safety Fire! Few words can strike such terror. Residential ...

  13. Leftovers and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Leftovers and Food Safety Often when we cook at home or eat ...

  14. Dangerous Food Safety Mistakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Mistakes Text Size: A A A Dangerous Food Safety Mistakes Sometimes a simple mistake can have grave consequences. What may seem like a small food safety mistake can cause serious illness with long-term ...

  15. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... photos of butter crackers, bacon, coffee cake ] Some older adults answer the question this way: Richard: In the ... cheese is okay. Narrator: Richard and Gloria are older adults who choose to eat nutrient-dense foods, foods ...

  16. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health and Human Services FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration Protecting and Promoting Your Health A to ... Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics ...

  17. Holiday Food Safety

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health and Human Services FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration Protecting and Promoting Your Health A to ... Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics ...

  18. Holiday Food Safety

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Holidays and remember to BE FOOD SAFE! Additional Information Consumer Update: Food Safety Tips for Healthy Holidays [ ... 29/2015 Note: If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading ...

  19. Holiday Food Safety

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by the non-profit Partnership for Food Safety Education, provides tips on how to make sure holiday ... Playing It Safe With Eggs More in Consumers Education Resource Library Food Facts for Consumers Selected Health ...

  20. Food irradiation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the author discussed the recent situation of food irradiation in China, its history, facilities, clearance, commercialization, and with emphasis on market testing and public acceptance of irradiated food. (author)

  1. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Print this page ...

  2. Holiday Food Safety

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Print this page ...

  3. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Finding Nutrition Information on the Road) Game Show Review (Are You Smarter Than A Food Label?) The ... TV for CFSAN. back to menu Game Show Review (Are You Smarter Than A Food Label?) Spoof ...

  4. Food Label and You

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... page E-mail this page Home Food Ingredients, Packaging & Labeling Labeling & Nutrition The Food Label and You — ... Vending Machines Labeling Requirements Nutrition Facts Label Programs & Materials Nutrition Labeling Information for Restaurants & Retail Establishments Page ...

  5. Virtual Hand Illusion Induced by Visuomotor Correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez-vives, M. V.; Spanlang, B.; Frisoli, A.; Bergamasco, M.; Slater, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Our body schema gives the subjective impression of being highly stable. However, a number of easily-evoked illusions illustrate its remarkable malleability. In the rubber-hand illusion, illusory ownership of a rubber-hand is evoked by synchronous visual and tactile stimulation on a visible rubber arm and on the hidden real arm. Ownership is concurrent with a proprioceptive illusion of displacement of the arm position towards the fake arm. We have previously shown that this illusio...

  6. Treatment of hand and wrist injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielak, Kenneth M; Kafka, Julie; Terrell, Tom

    2013-06-01

    Evaluation of the hand and wrist requires a thorough understanding of the anatomic alignment of various bones, tendons, and ligaments along with the physiologic function in order to make an accurate diagnosis that portends appropriate healing and function while minimizing future disability. This article provides the latest research-based evidence of important trends in the treatment and rehabilitation of hand and wrist injuries. PMID:23668652

  7. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives: Patient Admission Video

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-05-01

    This podcast is for hospital patients and visitors. It emphasizes two key points to help prevent infections: the importance of practicing hand hygiene while in the hospital, and that it's appropriate to ask or remind healthcare providers to practice hand hygiene.  Created: 5/1/2008 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID).   Date Released: 6/19/2008.

  8. Dental education of left-handed students

    OpenAIRE

    Grga ?urica; Mileti? Vesna

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Asymmetrical activity of brain hemispheres is projected through laterality e.g. the dominance of one of the paired organs. A very important way of laterality manifestation is left-handedness. The lef-handed must solve various conflicts with their environment, so mild left-handedness usually shifts into dominant right-handedness in the early childhood, fortunately with no difficulties. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the number and distribution of left-handed dent...

  9. A REVIEW ON HAND GETSURE RECOGNITION SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Prashant Chaudhari,Prof. G. R. Phulay,Mr. Ravindra Patil

    2013-01-01

    Gesture recognition is a topic in computerscience and language technology with the goal ofinterpreting human gestures via mathematicalalgorithms. Gestures can originate from any bodilymotion or state but commonly originate from the faceor hand. Current focuses in the field include emotionrecognition from the face and hand gesture recognition.Many approaches have been made using cameras andcomputer vision algorithms to interpret sign language.However, the identification and recognition of post...

  10. Hand Gesture Recognition: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Rafiqul Zaman Khan; Noor Adnan Ibraheem

    2012-01-01

    Hand gesture recognition system received great attention in the recent few years because of itsmanifoldness applications and the ability to interact with machine efficiently through human computerinteraction. In this paper a survey of recent hand gesture recognition systems is presented. Key issues ofhand gesture recognition system are presented with challenges of gesture system. Review methods of recentpostures and gestures recognition system presented as well. Summary of research results of...

  11. Design and Development of Robot Hand System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panchumarthy Seetharamaiah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on robot hand design is being carried out to accommodate a variety of tasks such as grasping and manipulation of objects in the field of industrial applications, service robots and rehabilitation robots. Problem statement: To design and develop a microcontroller-based four fingered robotic hand with a simple and minimal control strategy to pick and place application with object detection by simple IR sensor logic. Approach: The methodology is based on anthropomorphic design with three fingers and an opposing thumb. Each finger has three links and three double revolute joints. Each finger is actuated by a single opposing pair of tendons. The robot hand system is interfaced to microcontroller with software control by means of 14 independent commands for the motion of joints: close and open for fore finger, middle finger, ring finger and thumb finger and wrist up and down, base clockwise and counter clockwise, pick and place and home position. The tendoning system and wireless feedback logic provide the hand with the ability to confirm to object topology and therefore providing the advantage of using a simple control structure. Results: Reliable grasping and releasing is achieved with simple control mechanisms and IR sensors/push-button switches. The hand can pick a variety of objects with different surface characteristics and shapes without having to reconstruct its surface description. Picking of the object is successfully completed as long as the object is within the workspace of the hand and placed the object at the desired position within the workspace by relevant software control using keyboard commands. Conclusion: Hardware and software development of microcontroller-based four-fingered robotic hand is addressed. Details of hand control software for mainly pick and place applications are presented. Results of the experimental work for pick and place application of different objects is enumerated.

  12. Unconstrained and Contactless Hand Geometry Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Sánchez-Ávila; Gonzalo Bailador del Pozo; Javier Guerra-Casanova; Alberto de-Santos-Sierra

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a hand biometric system for contact-less, platform-free scenarios, proposing innovative methods in feature extraction, template creation and template matching. The evaluation of the proposed method considers both the use of three contact-less publicly available hand databases, and the comparison of the performance to two competitive pattern recognition techniques existing in literature: namely Support Vector Machines (SVM) and k-Nearest Neighbour (k-NN). Results highlight ...

  13. Hand detection for contactless biometrics identification

    OpenAIRE

    Doublet, Julien; Lepetit, Olivier; Revenu, Marinette

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new hand detection system based on a combination of skin color modelling and active shape model. Skin color distribution specified by a multiresolution neural network constrains active shape model evolutions on skin objects. We present the skin color detection performances of this near real time system on many color spaces and show that a combination of skin color and active shape model increase robustness and accuracy of hand detection in complex images.

  14. 78 FR 49990 - Dean Foods Company and WhiteWave Foods Company; Filing of Food Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ...WhiteWave Foods Company; Filing of Food Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug...Foods Company proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide...supplements in food. DATES: The food additive petition was filed on June...

  15. A new concept for surgical hand disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramer, Axel

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of and justification for a different procedure in surgical hand disinfection based on results of our own studies and data from the literature. An overview of the importance of hand disinfection, outstanding persons who substantially contributed to its development, and fundamentals of its implementation are also presented.Focussing on the resident flora as the target of surgical hand disinfection, the microflora of the hand is addressed. Consequences for disinfection are discussed as a result of this analysis. Results of our own studies on reducing spore load through social handwashing, on alcohol concentration and bacterial count in worn-glove juice, and on the comparison of the effectivity of standard handwashing methods vs. alcoholic hand disinfections vs. disinfection alone without handwashing vs. disinfection alone plus additional brushing-in of the tested (European Standard DIN prEN12791 disinfectant ethanol 79% v/v, 60% v/v propan-1-ol or 60% v/v propan-2-ol around the fingernails are also discussed. To summarize, disinfection alone and disinfection in conjunction with brushing-in of alcohol tend to be superior to the standard method with a previous washing with soap. From a dermatological and microbiological hygienic point of view, it is recommended that handwashing with soap should be performed to remove bacterial spores at least 10 minutes prior to hand disinfection, in order to optimize skin tolerance and to prevent reducing the efficacy of the disinfection.

  16. Food nanotechnology – an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Sekhon, Bhupinder S.

    2010-01-01

    Food nanotechnology is an area of emerging interest and opens up a whole universe of new possibilities for the food industry. The basic categories of nanotechnology applications and functionalities currently in the development of food packaging include: the improvement of plastic materials barriers, the incorporation of active components that can deliver functional attributes beyond those of conventional active packaging, and the sensing and signaling of relevant information. Nano food packag...

  17. Food packaging design

    OpenAIRE

    Dekker, M.

    2007-01-01

    'Food product design - An integrated approach' deals with food product design from a technological perspective. It presents creative techniques for the innovation process and structured methodologies to translate consumer wishes into product properties based on Quality Function Deployment. Up-to-date solutions for chemical and physical changes during food processing and storage are discussed. This book explains how to apply barrier technology in food production to improve product stability an...

  18. Global Food Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Oosterveer, P. J. M.

    2005-01-01

    In the context of global modernity, the organisation of food production and consumption is changing. These changes have two important consequences, new food-related risks and concerns are emerging while conventional nation-state-based regulatory practices can no longer deal satisfactorily with food risks and concerns, either old or new. Consequently, innovative arrangements are needed to respond to the challenges facing food governance in global modernity. Such innovative arrangements have to...

  19. Leptin Signaling in the Medial Nucleus Tractus Solitarius Reduces Food Seeking and Willingness to Work for Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoski, Scott E; Alhadeff, Amber L; Fortin, Samantha M; Gilbert, Jennifer R; Grill, Harvey J

    2014-01-01

    The adipose-derived hormone leptin signals in the medial nucleus tractus solitarius (mNTS) to suppress food intake, in part, by amplifying within-meal gastrointestinal (GI) satiation signals. Here we show that mNTS leptin receptor (LepRb) signaling also reduces appetitive and motivational aspects of feeding, and that these effects can depend on energy status. Using the lowest dose that significantly suppressed 3-h cumulative food intake, unilateral leptin (0.3??g) administration to the mNTS (3?h before testing) reduced operant lever pressing for sucrose under increasing work demands (progressive ratio reinforcement schedule) regardless of whether animals were energy deplete (food restricted) or replete (ad libitum fed). However, in a separate test of food-motivated responding in which there was no opportunity to consume food (conditioned place preference (CPP) for an environment previously associated with a palatable food reward), mNTS leptin administration suppressed food-seeking behavior only in chronically food-restricted rats. On the other hand, mNTS LepRb signaling did not reduce CPP expression for morphine reinforcement regardless of energy status, suggesting that mNTS leptin signaling differentially influences motivated responding for food vs opioid reward. Overall results show that mNTS LepRb signaling reduces food intake and appetitive food-motivated responding independent of energy status in situations involving orosensory and postingestive contact with food, whereas food-seeking behavior independent of food consumption is only reduced by mNTS LepRb activation in a state of energy deficit. These findings reveal a novel appetitive role for LepRb signaling in the mNTS, a brain region traditionally linked with processing of meal-related GI satiation signals. PMID:24002186

  20. Development of Functional Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Mitsuoka, Tomotari

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in intestinal microbiota research are the background for the appearance of functional foods. Lactic fermentation products are included in the functional foods and classified into 3 groups based on their mechanisms of action: probiotics, prebiotics and biogenics. Probiotics are viable microorganisms, such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, that beneficially affect the host by improving the intestinal bacterial balance. Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredien...