WorldWideScience

Sample records for hand food taboos

  1. Food taboos: their origins and purposes

    Meyer-Rochow Victor

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Food taboos are known from virtually all human societies. Most religions declare certain food items fit and others unfit for human consumption. Dietary rules and regulations may govern particular phases of the human life cycle and may be associated with special events such as menstrual period, pregnancy, childbirth, lactation, and – in traditional societies – preparation for the hunt, battle, wedding, funeral, etc. On a comparative basis many food taboos seem to make no sense at all, as to what may be declared unfit by one group may be perfectly acceptable to another. On the other hand, food taboos have a long history and one ought to expect a sound explanation for the existence (and persistence of certain dietary customs in a given culture. Yet, this is a highly debated view and no single theory may explain why people employ special food taboos. This paper wants to revive interest in food taboo research and attempts a functionalist's explanation. However, to illustrate some of the complexity of possible reasons for food taboo five examples have been chosen, namely traditional food taboos in orthodox Jewish and Hindu societies as well as reports on aspects of dietary restrictions in communities with traditional lifestyles of Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, and Nigeria. An ecological or medical background is apparent for many, including some that are seen as religious or spiritual in origin. On the one hand food taboos can help utilizing a resource more efficiently; on the other food taboos can lead to the protection of a resource. Food taboos, whether scientifically correct or not, are often meant to protect the human individual and the observation, for example, that certain allergies and depression are associated with each other could have led to declaring food items taboo that were identified as causal agents for the allergies. Moreover, any food taboo, acknowledged by a particular group of people as part of its ways, aids in the cohesion of this group, helps that particular group maintain its identity in the face of others, and therefore creates a feeling of "belonging".

  2. Food taboos: their origins and purposes.

    Meyer-Rochow, Victor Benno

    2009-01-01

    Food taboos are known from virtually all human societies. Most religions declare certain food items fit and others unfit for human consumption. Dietary rules and regulations may govern particular phases of the human life cycle and may be associated with special events such as menstrual period, pregnancy, childbirth, lactation, and -- in traditional societies -- preparation for the hunt, battle, wedding, funeral, etc. On a comparative basis many food taboos seem to make no sense at all, as to what may be declared unfit by one group may be perfectly acceptable to another. On the other hand, food taboos have a long history and one ought to expect a sound explanation for the existence (and persistence) of certain dietary customs in a given culture. Yet, this is a highly debated view and no single theory may explain why people employ special food taboos. This paper wants to revive interest in food taboo research and attempts a functionalist's explanation. However, to illustrate some of the complexity of possible reasons for food taboo five examples have been chosen, namely traditional food taboos in orthodox Jewish and Hindu societies as well as reports on aspects of dietary restrictions in communities with traditional lifestyles of Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, and Nigeria. An ecological or medical background is apparent for many, including some that are seen as religious or spiritual in origin. On the one hand food taboos can help utilizing a resource more efficiently; on the other food taboos can lead to the protection of a resource. Food taboos, whether scientifically correct or not, are often meant to protect the human individual and the observation, for example, that certain allergies and depression are associated with each other could have led to declaring food items taboo that were identified as causal agents for the allergies. Moreover, any food taboo, acknowledged by a particular group of people as part of its ways, aids in the cohesion of this group, helps that particular group maintain its identity in the face of others, and therefore creates a feeling of "belonging". PMID:19563636

  3. Food taboos: their origins and purposes

    Meyer-Rochow Victor

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Food taboos are known from virtually all human societies. Most religions declare certain food items fit and others unfit for human consumption. Dietary rules and regulations may govern particular phases of the human life cycle and may be associated with special events such as menstrual period, pregnancy, childbirth, lactation, and – in traditional societies – preparation for the hunt, battle, wedding, funeral, etc. On a comparative basis many food taboos seem to make no sense at all,...

  4. Food Habits and Food Taboos of the Marams of Manipur, India

    G. Meithuanlungpou

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Marams are one of the sub-tribe of Naga tribes inhabiting at Senapati district of Manipur of northeast India. Marams have distinct food habit and food choices. The dietary habits of Maram are quite simple and mostly depend on the local sources of variety of vegetables and meats and other non vegetarian food items. Rice is the staple food and rice beer prepared from the locally available rice species is the favourite drink of the Marams, Their daily food intake normally includes rice, meat, fish, green leafy vegetables, potato, oil or fats etc. Food taboos may affect the nutritional status of a community or a subsection within it. Again, there may be appropriate reason for prohibiting certain food stuff. The present paper aims at exploring the food habits and food taboos of the Maram tribe living in Senapati district of Manipur, India. Information on food habits and taboos of the Maram are given in this paper.

  5. Food taboos in maternal and child health: the views of traditional healers in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Odebiyi, A I

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports the interviews with 82 randomly selected healers in Ile-Ife about food taboos in relation to maternal and child health. The healers were asked to list the childhood ailments they treat most often and the food proscriptions and prescriptions associated with these ailments. Of particular interest in the study was the fact that these food proscriptions and prescriptions form an integral part of traditional medical procedures in that relapses or slow rate of recovery are sometimes attributed to a break of these food norms. Moreover, these proscriptions and prescriptions reflect: (i) the healers' concept of the various childhood diseases and (ii) the healers' belief in the respect for the traditional Yoruba gods in health matters. It was further noted that although these taboos reinforce the beliefs in traditional medicine, their relevance from the point of view of the health of the clientele needs further investigation. PMID:2711231

  6. The human health and conservation relevance of food taboos in northeastern Madagascar

    Christopher D. Golden

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthropologists and ecologists investigating the dialectical relationship between human environments and the cultural practices that shape and are shaped by them have been talking past each other for too long: the one looking purely at metaphor and the other purely at function. Our mixed-method data analysis set out to explore whether it was possible to determine empirically the human health and conservation value of the local Malagasy taboo system. This involved qualitative examination of the content of taboo origin stories collected through ethnographic approaches, when the story was remembered. The ethnographic substance of these stories included historicizing events, accounts of symptoms associated with breaching taboos, and incentives for abiding by taboos. We then used quantitative comparisons in an effort to understand the motivation for adhering to taboos. We provide evidence that the conservation value of taboos may be limited but that the social value of taboos may be rooted in concerted attempts to preserve a physical, spiritual, moral, and cultural immunity. Furthermore, we found that there was a sophisticated traditional etiological knowledge, based in nuanced understandings of ecology and epidemiology, which likely protects local people from zoonotic disease, allergies, and toxins. We suggest that the prohibitions mandated by the traditional taboo system against consuming particular wildlife species is a moral framework, which is driven to a significant degree by personal security and health-related incentives.

  7. Food Habits and Food Taboos of the Marams of Manipur, India

    G. Meithuanlungpou; Kh. N. Singh

    2015-01-01

    The Marams are one of the sub-tribe of Naga tribes inhabiting at Senapati district of Manipur of northeast India. Marams have distinct food habit and food choices. The dietary habits of Maram are quite simple and mostly depend on the local sources of variety of vegetables and meats and other non vegetarian food items. Rice is the staple food and rice beer prepared from the locally available rice species is the favourite drink of the Marams, Their daily food intake normally includes rice, meat...

  8. The human health and conservation relevance of food taboos in northeastern Madagascar

    Golden, Christopher D.; Jean Comaroff

    2015-01-01

    Anthropologists and ecologists investigating the dialectical relationship between human environments and the cultural practices that shape and are shaped by them have been talking past each other for too long: the one looking purely at metaphor and the other purely at function. Our mixed-method data analysis set out to explore whether it was possible to determine empirically the human health and conservation value of the local Malagasy taboo system. This involved qualitative examination of th...

  9. Factors related to food worker hand hygiene practices.

    Green, Laura R; Radke, Vincent; Mason, Ryan; Bushnell, Lisa; Reimann, David W; Mack, James C; Motsinger, Michelle D; Stigger, Tammi; Selman, Carol A

    2007-03-01

    To identify factors related to food worker hand hygiene practices, we collected (i) observational data on food worker (n = 321) hand hygiene practices (hand washing and glove use) and (ii) observational and interview data on factors related to hygiene behavior, such as worker activity, restaurant characteristics, worker food safety training, and the physical and social environment. Results indicated that hand washing and glove use were more likely to occur in conjunction with food preparation than with other activities (e.g., handling dirty equipment) and when workers were not busy. Hand washing was more likely to occur in restaurants whose food workers received food safety training, with more than one hand sink, and with a hand sink in the observed worker's sight. Glove use was more likely to occur in chain restaurants and in restaurants with glove supplies in food preparation areas. Hand washing and glove use were also related to each other--hand washing was less likely to occur with activities in which gloves were worn. These findings indicate that a number of factors are related to hand hygiene practices and support suggestions that food worker hand hygiene improvement requires more than food safety education. Instead, improvement programs must be multidimensional and address factors such as those examined in this study. PMID:17388056

  10. Transgression and Taboo

    Kirk, Jens

    2011-01-01

    This essay draws upon Georges Bataille’s notions of transgression and taboo as co-dependently involved in a play of differences as a framework for discussing agents in the field of fan fiction. More particularly, I outline the way in which fans and authors, or producers of texts, have been...

  11. Food taboos and myths in South Eastern Nigeria: The belief and practice of mothers in the region

    Ekwochi, Uchenna; Chidiebere D. I. Osuorah; Ndu, Ikenna K.; Ifediora, Christian; Asinobi, Isaac Nwabueze; Eke, Christopher Bismark

    2016-01-01

    Background Poor nutritional practices especially in pregnancy and early childhood can result in dire consequences in the growth and development of a child. Methods This study using purposive sampling enrolled 149 women who had carried at least one pregnancy to term in Enugu south east Nigeria. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess association between avoidance of certain food in pregnancy and selected socio-demographic factors. Results Approximately 37 % of respondents avoided some ...

  12. Effects of social change on wildlife consumption taboos in northeastern Madagascar

    Christopher D. Golden

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Madagascar, the constellation of taboos serves as a form of informal regulatory institution and is foundational to Malagasy culture, regardless of class, ethnic group affiliation, and educational background. Many researchers have credited rapid social change as a crucial mechanism for disturbing taboos. Others suggest that taboos are innately historical. However, very little empirical research has assessed the effects of social change on taboos or quantified the stability of taboo systems over time. Here, we use a case study of the ensemble of taboos in northeastern Madagascar, still a critical aspect of social life there, as a lens through which we investigate its degree of stability over time. Our aim was: (1 to describe the food taboos of local Malagasy living in northeastern Madagascar, and (2 to quantitatively assess the stability of these taboos to address certain claims regarding cultural erosion using an empirical, hypothesis-driven approach with rich ethnographic material to aid in interpretation. We investigated the temporal stability of taboos and local adherence to the moral framework, finding that approximately 3.0% of 4857 taboos were not adhered to at least once during the course of a 7-yr follow-up study. Additionally, we quantitatively explored the mediating effects of migration, modernization, and the spread of Western religion on number of taboos and level of adherence. We found that the presence of extra-local groups and migration did not decrease the number of taboos abided by locally, but did increase rates of nonadherence. Modernization accompanied by generational shifts tended to increase rather than erode the number of taboos, and younger individuals adhered to taboos to the same degree as older individuals. The effect of Western religion depended on the denomination, but generally reduced the number of taboos, although it did not affect adherence. The ways in which social change affects the stability of taboos are complex. Migrants tended to adhere to taboos less than long-standing inhabitants, suggesting that attachment to place is significant in maintaining adherence to taboos.

  13. Bacterial contamination of the hands of food handlers as indicator of hand washing efficacy in some convenient food industries in South Africa

    AA, Lambrechts; IS, Human; JH, Doughari; JFR, Lues

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Hands of ready-to-eat food service employees have been shown to be vectors in the spread of foodborne disease, mainly because of poor personal hygiene and accounting for approximately 97% of food borne illnesses in food service establishments and homes. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of hand washing practices and sanitation before commencing work among food handlers in the convenient food industry in Gauteng, South Africa. Methods: A total of 230 samples...

  14. Can increased food processing and organic products go hand in hand?

    Bredahl, Lone; Stacey, Julia

    2006-01-01

    Ecology is popular these days but in spite of this the sale of organic foods is limited to basic foods as milk, grains, fruit and vegetables.......Ecology is popular these days but in spite of this the sale of organic foods is limited to basic foods as milk, grains, fruit and vegetables....

  15. Development with dearer food: Can the invisible hand guide us?

    John Toye

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that, notwithstanding the current global recession, the tripling of food prices in the period 2005-2008 presages a permanent increase in the average real price of food over the next 30 years. The underlying causes are likely to be rising energy prices, adverse effects of climate change on agriculture and rising food consumption in Asia. The consequences will be increased social and political turbulence of the urban poor and misguided government policies to try to mitigate th...

  16. Sens et enjeux d’un interdit alimentaire dans le judaïsme Food taboos in Judaism: the example of Ashkenazi Jews in London

    Laurence Faure

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article porte sur la manière dont la prohibition de mêler nourritures lactées et carnées dans le judaïsme se matérialise par les objets de la cuisine et leurs usages quotidiens, à partir d’une recherche réalisée à Londres auprès de couples juifs ashkénazes qui se définissent presque tous comme orthodoxes (modern orthodox et dont la scolarisation dans des écoles juives a parfois pu contribuer à revivifier les pratiques religieuses. Par delà la diversité des habitudes culinaires et de leurs formes (ex : végétarisme, par delà les éventuelles variations individuelles de l’observance religieuse au cours du cycle de vie, l’interdit alimentaire de mêler lait et viande est respecté par l’ensemble des personnes rencontrées. Il s’agit alors d’en comprendre le sens et la portée. Les conséquences matérielles de cet interdit alimentaire permettent de saisir l’importance de la religion dans le logement et les activités de tous les jours. Elles conduisent à articuler le plan matériel et le plan symbolique en suggérant une interprétation anthropologique de cette prohibition, en lien avec les écrits bibliques et les analyses déjà menées sur le sujet.This article is based upon research on Ashkenazi Jewish families living in London. It deals with the way, in Judaïsm, the prohibition of eating meat and dairy foods together is materialised through the use of kitchen utensils on a day to day basis. Material consequences of this dietary law allow us to understand the importance of religion in the Jewish home and in everyday life. Consequences which lead to the linking of material uses and their symbolic significance by suggesting an anthropological interpretation of this dietary law in accordance with Biblical writings.

  17. Finiteness of hitting times under taboo

    Bulinskaya, Ekaterina Vl.

    2013-01-01

    We consider a continuous-time Markov chain with a finite or countable state space. For a site y and subset H of the state space, the hitting time of y under taboo H is defined to be infinite if the process trajectory hits H before y, and the first hitting time of y otherwise. We investigate the probability that such times are finite. In particular, if the taboo set is finite, an efficient iterative scheme reduces the study to the known case of a singleton taboo. A similar procedure applies in...

  18. Consequences of occupational food-related hand dermatoses with a focus on protein contact dermatitis

    Vester, Lotte; Thyssen, Jacob P; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2012-01-01

    Background. Protein contact dermatitis is a frequent disorder among hand eczema patients who have occupational food contact. Knowledge about the consequences of having protein contact dermatitis is lacking. Objectives. To investigate the consequences of having occupational skin disease on the hands...... resulting from food handling, with a focus on protein contact dermatitis. Material and methods. One hundred and seventy-eight patients who were identified as having skin disease related to occupational food exposure and who answered a questionnaire concerning the consequences of their skin disease were......%, respectively, of the patients with other occupational food-related hand dermatoses (p = 0.02). Sixty-two per cent and 43%, respectively, had to change job because of skin problems (p = 0.02). Atopic dermatitis was equally common in the two groups. Conclusion. We found that the patients with protein contact...

  19. The Taboo of the Perverse Dying Body

    Kosonen, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    A human being is continuously living towards death within a mortal body that is dying little by little, second after second. In the gloss of popular media, the taboo reality of this stain of mortality is hidden by a diversion, which is created by the multiple pornographies of visual culture: the pornography of perfect bodies and the pornography of violent death. No longer invisible or unspeakable, the taboo body has been appropriated to serve a function in the mainstream dida...

  20. A Sociolinguistic Study of English Taboo Language

    Chunming Gao

    2013-01-01

    In every society there are things which are believed to be not appropriate if spoken on public occasions. A large number of words are therefore taken as silly, vulgar or obscene when used in communication. These words are taboos. This paper investigates all the major varieties of English taboo, i.e., bodily excretions, death and disease, sex, four-letter words, privacy and discriminatory language, which are respectively defined and provided with concrete examples. Euphemistic an...

  1. Behavioral Bias for Food Reflected in Hand Movements: A Preliminary Study with Healthy Subjects.

    Schroeder, Philipp A; Lohmann, Johannes; Butz, Martin V; Plewnia, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Palatable food induces general approach tendencies when compared to nonfood stimuli. For eating disorders, the modification of an attention bias toward food was proposed as a treatment option. Similar approaches have been efficient for other psychiatric conditions and, recently, successfully incorporated approach motivation. The direct impact of attentional biases on spontaneous natural behavior has hardly been investigated so far, although actions may serve as an intervention target, especially seeing the recent advances in the field of embodied cognition. In this study, we addressed the interplay of motor action execution and cognition when interacting with food objects. In a Virtual Reality (VR) setting, healthy participants repeatedly grasped or warded high-calorie food or hand-affordant ball objects using their own dominant hand. This novel experimental paradigm revealed an attention-like bias in hand-based actions: 3D objects of food were collected faster than ball objects, and this difference correlated positively with both individual body mass index and diet-related attitudes. The behavioral bias for food in hand movements complements several recent experimental and neurophysiological findings. Implications for the use of VR in the treatment of eating-related health problems are discussed. PMID:26562002

  2. New technical design of food packaging makes the opening process easier for patients with hand disorders.

    Hensler, Stefanie; Herren, Daniel B; Marks, Miriam

    2015-09-01

    Opening packaged food is a complex daily activity carried out worldwide. Peelable packaging, as used for cheese or meat, causes real problems for many consumers, especially elderly people and those with hand disorders. Our aim was to investigate the possibility of producing meat packaging that is easier for patients with hand disorders to open. One hundred patients with hand osteoarthritis were asked to open a meat package currently available in supermarkets (Type A) and a modified, newly designed version (Type B), and rate their experiences with a consumer satisfaction index (CSI). The mean CSI of the Type B packs was 68.9%, compared with 41.9% for Type A (p < 0.0001). These results show that manufacturers today can produce easy-to-open food packages that afford greater consumer satisfaction. Such future packaging would benefit not only people with hand disorders but also the population as a whole. PMID:25959312

  3. Hand hygiene regimens for the reduction of risk in food service environments.

    Edmonds, Sarah L; McCormack, Robert R; Zhou, Sifang Steve; Macinga, David R; Fricker, Christopher M

    2012-07-01

    Pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli and human norovirus are the main etiologic agents of foodborne illness resulting from inadequate hand hygiene practices by food service workers. This study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial and antiviral efficacy of various hand hygiene product regimens under different soil conditions representative of those in food service settings and assess the impact of product formulation on this efficacy. On hands contaminated with chicken broth containing E. coli, representing a moderate soil load, a regimen combining an antimicrobial hand washing product with a 70% ethanol advanced formula (EtOH AF) gel achieved a 5.22-log reduction, whereas a nonantimicrobial hand washing product alone achieved a 3.10log reduction. When hands were heavily soiled from handling ground beef containing E. coli, a wash-sanitize regimen with a 0.5% chloroxylenol antimicrobial hand washing product and the 70% EtOH AF gel achieved a 4.60-log reduction, whereas a wash-sanitize regimen with a 62% EtOH foam achieved a 4.11-log reduction. Sanitizing with the 70% EtOH AF gel alone was more effective than hand washing with a nonantimicrobial product for reducing murine norovirus (MNV), a surrogate for human norovirus, with 2.60- and 1.79-log reductions, respectively. When combined with hand washing, the 70% EtOH AF gel produced a 3.19-log reduction against MNV. A regimen using the SaniTwice protocol with the 70% EtOH AF gel produced a 4.04-log reduction against MNV. These data suggest that although the process of hand washing helped to remove pathogens from the hands, use of a wash-sanitize regimen was even more effective for reducing organisms. Use of a high-efficacy sanitizer as part of a wash-sanitize regimen further increased the efficacy of the regimen. The use of a well-formulated alcohol-based hand rub as part of a wash-sanitize regimen should be considered as a means to reduce risk of infection transmission in food service facilities. PMID:22980014

  4. The Utility and Ubiquity of Taboo Words.

    Jay, Timothy

    2009-03-01

    Taboo words are defined and sanctioned by institutions of power (e.g., religion, media), and prohibitions are reiterated in child-rearing practices. Native speakers acquire folk knowledge of taboo words, but it lacks the complexity that psychological science requires for an understanding of swearing. Misperceptions persist in psychological science and in society at large about how frequently people swear or what it means when they do. Public recordings of taboo words establish the commonplace occurrence of swearing (ubiquity), although frequency data are not always appreciated in laboratory research. A set of 10 words that has remained stable over the past 20 years accounts for 80% of public swearing. Swearing is positively correlated with extraversion and Type A hostility but negatively correlated with agreeableness, conscientiousness, religiosity, and sexual anxiety. The uniquely human facility for swearing evolved and persists because taboo words can communicate emotion information (anger, frustration) more readily than nontaboo words, allowing speakers to achieve a variety of personal and social goals with them (utility). A neuro-psycho-social framework is offered to unify taboo word research. Suggestions for future research are offered. PMID:26158942

  5. Occupational food-related hand dermatoses seen over a 10-year period

    Vester, Lotte; Thyssen, Jacob P; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2012-01-01

    Background. Protein contact dermatitis was originally defined in 1976 by Hjorth and Roed-Petersen as a distinct kind of dermatitis seen in patients with occupational food contact. Even though occupational skin diseases are frequent in Denmark, little attention has been paid to protein contact...... dermatitis, and the frequency is unknown. Objectives. To evaluate the frequency of occupational food-related hand dermatoses and test results in patients occupationally exposed to foods. Materials and Methods. This was a retrospective study based on examinations, including skin prick testing and patch...... suggestion for diagnostic criteria is presented. Frequent risk occupations were cooking in restaurants, baking, and kitchen work. Substantially more patients reacted in skin prick testing with fresh foods than with food extracts. Conclusion. Protein contact dermatitis is a frequent disorder among patients...

  6. Taboo advertising - Response to taboo in advertising - A study of the influence of age and gender

    Schnaider, Jonathan; Härnsäter, David

    2015-01-01

    Problem: Consumer characteristics have proved to be important influencers in how advertisements are perceived among consumers. Researchers have started to investigate if this assumption is valuable also in special and uncommon marketing strategies. A new field of research regarding advertising is the study of taboo themes. Researchers have so far mainly investigated how consumer respond to advertisements containing themes of taboo, but less research examines the influence of consumer characte...

  7. Into the Breach: The Legislative Function of Taboo

    Ali M. Abrar

    2010-01-01

    Taboos are often viewed with suspicion by modern eyes. The very word taboo evokes a sense of unfreedom, of limitation. Indeed, when one thinks of now-extinct taboos, the repressive and reactionary nature of taboos is clearly displayed. This, however, is not an argument for the dismantling of all taboos. There are many aspects of social life that a community may w...

  8. Totem and Taboo: Fluids in sepsis

    Hilton, Andrew K; Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2011-01-01

    The need for early, rapid, and substantial fluid resuscitation in septic patients has long been an article of faith in the intensive care community, a tribal totem that is taboo to question. The results of a recent multicenter trial in septic children in Africa, published in The New England Journal of Medicine, powerfully challenge the fluid paradigm. The salient aspects of the trial need to be understood and reflected upon. In this commentary, we discuss the background to and findings of the...

  9. Sexuality in old age: taboos and reality

    Adriano da Silva Rozendo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Stereotypes of an asexual old age remain in the social imaginary. This work is based on quantitative and qualitative data of a research focused to analyze the way sexuality have been portrayed and experienced in old age. 32 seniors aged between 60 and 75 years were interviewed. Topics as homoaffectivity and casual sex still untouchable in old age. Even being a taboo, sexuality still being experienced by most of the elderlies.  

  10. Incest Taboos and Kinship: A Biological or a Cultural Story?

    Read, Dwight W

    2014-01-01

    In most, if not all, societies, incest taboos -- perhaps the most universal of cultural taboos -- include prohibitions on marriage between parent and child or between siblings.  This universality suggests a biological origin, yet the considerable variation across societies in the full range of prohibited marriage relations implies a cultural origin.  Correspondingly, theories regarding the origin of incest taboos vary from those that focus on the biological consequences were marriage-based pr...

  11. Do short food supply chains go hand in hand with environment-friendly practices? An analysis of French farms

    Aubert, Magali; Enjolras, Geoffroy

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the presumed relationship between environment-friendly practices, such as organic farming, and the adoption of short food supply chains at farm level. These two patterns of production and distribution appear to be linked because they meet the consumers’ expectations in terms of quality and proximity. Calling on the literature, we formulate testable hypotheses regarding the combined adoption of organic farming and short food supply chains by farmers. An econometric mode...

  12. Communicate science: an example of food related hands-on laboratory approach

    D'Addezio, Giuliana; Marsili, Antonella; Vallocchia, Massimiliano

    2014-05-01

    The Laboratorio Didattica e Divulgazione Scientifica of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV's Educational and Outreach Laboratory) organized activity with kids to convey scientific knowledge and to promote research on Earth Science, focusing on volcanic and seismic hazard. The combination of games and learning in educational activity can be a valuable tool for study of complex phenomena. Hands-on activity may help in engage kids in a learning process through direct participation that significantly improves the learning performance of children. Making learning fun motivate audience to pay attention on and stay focused on the subject. We present the experience of the hand-on laboratory "Laboratorio goloso per bambini curiosi di scienza (a delicious hands-on laboratory for kids curious about science)", performed in Frascati during the 2013 European Researchers' Night, promoted by the European Commission, as part of the program organized by the Laboratorio Didattica e Divulgazione Scientifica in the framework of Associazione Frascati Scienza (http://www.frascatiscienza.it/). The hand-on activity were designed for primary schools to create enjoyable and unusual tools for learning Earth Science. During this activity kids are involved with something related to everyday life, such as food, through manipulation, construction and implementation of simple experiments related to Earth dynamics. Children become familiar with scientific concepts such as composition of the Earth, plates tectonic, earthquakes and seismic waves propagation and experience the effect of earthquakes on buildings, exploring their important implications for seismic hazard. During the activity, composed of several steps, participants were able to learn about Earth inner structure, fragile lithosphere, waves propagations, impact of waves on building ecc.., dealing with eggs, cookies, honey, sugar, polenta, flour, chocolate, candies, liquorice sticks, bread, pudding and sweets. The activity was successful as more than 500 kids of different ages participated with great enthusiasm, as well as they parents, and gave the chance to explore and manipulate even complex scientific arguments without getting the feeling of having doing this.

  13. KNOWLEDGE OF HAND WASHING AND FOOD HANDLING PRACTICES OF THE STREET FOOD VENDORS OF AGARTALA, A NORTH EASTERN CITY OF INDIA .

    Taranga; Himadri

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To assess the knowledge o f hand washing and food handling practices of the street food vendors. STUDY DESIGN: Community based cross - sectional study conducted in Agartala municipal area. METHODS: Structured interview schedule was administered to 234 street food vendors selected by probability proportionate to size sampling technique during 1 st July to 31 st August 2011. Microsoft Excel and Epi - info version - ...

  14. Taboos in China: To Be or Not to Be

    Chen, Fuyu

    2012-01-01

    With powerful influence on the people, taboos should be noticed with keen awareness and handled with cautious respect for international visitors in China, a traditional country in its process of modernization, if successful cross-cultural communication is to be achieved. In the ever changing and integrating world, Chinese taboos are never free…

  15. Tattoo and taboo: on the meaning of tattoos in the analytic process.

    Karacaoglan, Uta

    2012-02-01

    Tattooing projects a visual image in transference to form a backdrop for the most salient unconscious inner conflicts arising during an ongoing analytic process. Like a snapshot, the tattoo is a dialectic record of the mother-father relationship, of desires for closeness and distance, commonality and difference, identification and individuation. As Walter Benjamin famously stated about the nature of visual images in his Arcades Project, the tattoo represents "dialectics at a standstill." What seems paramount to the patient who participates in the act of tattooing is the need for stasis and immutability, as if bringing unconscious conflicts to "standstill" were to deliver a sense of stability. Unconsciously, the need is triggered by a threat to the inner stability resulting from fear of violating a taboo escalating to the point that fears of abandonment and fusion become unbearable. On the one hand, the tattoo is a visual symbolization of a taboo transgression; on the other hand, it activates the same through an act of self-injury that resembles the magical ritual acts of indigenous peoples' use of tattoos. The taboo thus serves as an ersatz for the actual violation of the taboo in real life, so that the tattoo may be ascribed a magical significance or totemic function. And yet the tattoo's success as a vehicle for constructing a transitional object is always contingent on the tangible manipulation of the skin conjoined with the creation of a symbolizing visual image. The image then acts like a "patch" to repair holes blown into Winnicott's "potential space" and to reconstruct it. PMID:22320133

  16. Taboos and conflicts in decision making

    Martin Hanselmann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies suggest that choices are perceived as difficult as well as negatively emotion-laden when they tap into moral considerations. However, we propose that the involvement of moral issues and values can also facilitate decisions because people often insistently preclude them from trade-offs with other values. Because such values are treated as inviolable and absolute, they are called sacred values (e.g., Tetlock et al., 2000. Two experiments examined the influence of sacred values (measured by a recent self-report scale and variation of trade-off type (taboo, tragic, routine trade-offs on perceived decision difficulty and negative emotions. As hypothesized, decision difficulty and negative emotions show diverging patterns as a function of sacred values and trade-off types. When the decision situation involved two conflicting sacred values (i.e., tragic trade-off, people perceived the decision task as emotionally stressful and difficult. However, when the decision situation was associated with only one sacred value (i.e., taboo trade-off, people perceived the task as more negatively emotion-laden, but as easier to solve, compared to a situation not involving sacred values (i.e., routine trade-off. These findings suggest that reliance on sacred values may work as a heuristic.

  17. The Relations Among Threatened Species, Their Protection, and Taboos

    Carl Folke

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the role of taboos for the protection of species listed as "threatened" by the World Conservation Union (IUCN, and also for species known to be endemic and keystone. The study was limited to taboos that totally avoid or prohibit any use of particular species and their populations. We call them specific-species taboos . Through a literature review, 70 currently existing examples of specific-species taboos were identified and analyzed. The species avoided were grouped into biological classes. Threat categories were determined for each species, based on the IUCN Red Data Book. We found that ~ 30% of the identified taboos prohibit any use of species listed as threatened by IUCN. Of the specific-species taboos, 60% are set on reptiles and mammals. In these two classes, ~ 50% of the species are threatened, representing all of the threatened species in our analysis, with the exception of one bird species. Both endemic and keystone species that are important for ecosystem functions are avoided by specific-species taboos. Specific-species taboos have important ecological ramifications for the protection of threatened and ecologically important populations of species. We do not suggest that specific-species taboos are placed on species because they are, or have been, endangered; instead, we emphasize that species are avoided for a variety of other reasons. It is urgent to identify and analyze resource practices and social mechanisms of traditional societies, such as taboos, and to investigate their possible ecological significance. Although it may provide insights of value for conservation, not only of species, but also of ecosystem processes and functions, such information is being lost rapidly.

  18. The effects of food safety education on adolescents' hand hygiene behavior: an analysis of stages of change

    Kim, Eun Joo; Pai, Andrew J.; Kang, Nam-E; Kim, Woo Kyoung; Kim, Young Soon; Moon, Hyun-Kyung; Ha, Ae Wha

    2012-01-01

    The hand hygiene behavior of 400 middle school students (grades 1-3) in Seoul and Gyeonggi-Do was studied to determine how stages of change were affected by food safety education, focusing on hand hygiene and general food safety. Subjects were 51.3% male and 44.3% of study subjects were first graders of middle school. Approximately 40% of subjects were at the stage of action, 42.7% were at the stage of contemplation, and 16.4% were at pre-contemplation. The most important factor that influenc...

  19. KNOWLEDGE OF HAND WASHING AND FOOD HANDLING PRACTICES OF THE STREET FOOD VENDORS OF AGARTALA, A NORTH EASTERN CITY OF INDIA .

    Taranga

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To assess the knowledge o f hand washing and food handling practices of the street food vendors. STUDY DESIGN: Community based cross - sectional study conducted in Agartala municipal area. METHODS: Structured interview schedule was administered to 234 street food vendors selected by probability proportionate to size sampling technique during 1 st July to 31 st August 2011. Microsoft Excel and Epi - info version - 6 were used for data entry and analysis and p ? 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: One hundred and seventeen vendors (50% were aged between 30 40 years and 98.29% were males. Forty eight (20.5% vendors were illiterate and 40.2% vendors were from rural areas. One hundred and five vendors (44.9% with primary and 78 (32.1% with secondary level education knew that unclean hands and dishes can transmit diseases while serving roadside foods. 58.3%, 6 1.9%, and 69.23% of the vendors were illiterate, primary and secondary educated respectively. Majority of them were not using soap for washing hands. 87.5%, 58.09%, 74.3% and 50% of the illiterate, primary educated, secondary educated, and senior secondary educated vendors did not use detergent for washing dishes before and after each serving. One hundred and sixty five (70.5% vendors stored unsold food for the next day, while 29.1% of the vendors discarded the left - over food. CONCLUSIONS: Basic food safet y knowledge and practice of hygiene and sanitation by the street food vendors was found to be inadequate. Issuing of food license to them should be subjected to fulfillment the above conditions or they should be trained regarding safe food handling.

  20. Effects of social change on wildlife consumption taboos in northeastern Madagascar

    Golden, Christopher D.; Jean Comaroff

    2015-01-01

    In Madagascar, the constellation of taboos serves as a form of informal regulatory institution and is foundational to Malagasy culture, regardless of class, ethnic group affiliation, and educational background. Many researchers have credited rapid social change as a crucial mechanism for disturbing taboos. Others suggest that taboos are innately historical. However, very little empirical research has assessed the effects of social change on taboos or quantified the stability of taboo systems ...

  1. Routing Optimization Based on Taboo Search Algorithm for Logistic Distribution

    Hongxue Yang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Along with the widespread application of the electronic commerce in the modern business, the logistic distribution has become increasingly important. More and more enterprises recognize that the logistic distribution plays an important role in the process of production and sales. A good routing for logistic distribution can cut down transport cost and improve efficiency. In order to cut down transport cost and improve efficiency, a routing optimization based on taboo search for logistic distribution is proposed in this paper. Taboo search is a metaheuristic search method to perform local search used for logistic optimization. The taboo search is employed to accelerate convergence and the aspiration criterion is combined with the heuristics algorithm to solve routing optimization. Simulation experimental results demonstrate that the optimal routing in the logistic distribution can be quickly obtained by the taboo search algorithm

  2. Conceptual metaphors in taboo-induced lexical variation

    Crespo Fernndez, Eliecer

    2011-01-01

    Taboo is deeply woven into every culture and society, which is obviously reflected in vocabulary. Indeed, taboo keeps language users from avoiding the forbidden concept and compels them to preserve or violate it, which leads to endless series of cross varietal synonyms for forbidden concepts. In this process, though metaphor stands out as a potent source for euphemistic and dysphemistic reference, the analysis of conceptual metaphor in the Lakoffian tradition as a X-phemistic device has not b...

  3. De-tabooing dying control - a grounded theory study

    2013-01-01

    Background Dying is inescapable yet remains a neglected issue in modern health care. The research question in this study was what is going on in the field of dying today? What emerged was to eventually present a grounded theory of control of dying focusing specifically on how people react in relation to issues about euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS). Methods Classic grounded theory was used to analyze interviews with 55 laypersons and health care professionals in North America and Europe, surveys on attitudes to PAS among physicians and the Swedish general public, and scientific literature, North American discussion forum websites, and news sites. Results Open awareness of the nature and timing of a patients death became common in health care during the 1960s in the Western world. Open dying awareness contexts can be seen as the start of a weakening of a taboo towards controlled dying called de-tabooing. The growth of the hospice movement and palliative care, but also the legalization of euthanasia and PAS in the Benelux countries, and PAS in Montana, Oregon and Washington further represents de-tabooing dying control. An attitude positioning between the taboo of dying control and a growing taboo against questioning patient autonomy and self-determination called de-paternalizing is another aspect of de-tabooing. When confronted with a taboo, people first react emotionally based on gut feelings - emotional positioning. This is followed by reasoning and label wrestling using euphemisms and dysphemisms - reflective positioning. Rarely is de-tabooing unconditional but enabled by stipulated positioning as in soft laws (palliative care guidelines) and hard laws (euthanasia/PAS legislation). From a global perspective three shapes of dying control emerge. First, suboptimal palliative care in closed awareness contexts seen in Asian, Islamic and Latin cultures, called closed dying. Second, palliative care and sedation therapy, but not euthanasia or PAS, is seen in Europe and North America, called open dying with reversible medical control. Third, palliative care, sedation therapy, and PAS or euthanasia occurs together in the Benelux countries, Oregon, Washington and Montana, called open dying with irreversible medical control. Conclusions De-tabooing dying control is an assumed secular process starting with open awareness contexts of dying half a century ago, and continuing with the growth of the palliative care movement and later euthanasia and PAS legislation. PMID:23496849

  4. Waiting for the Invisible Hand: Market Power and Endogenous Information in the Modern Market for Food

    Trenton Smith; Hayley Chouinard; Philip Wandschneider

    2009-01-01

    In many ways, the modern market for food exemplifies the economist’s conception of perfect competition, with many buyers, many sellers, and a robust and dynamic marketplace. But over the course of the last century, the U.S. has witnessed a dramatic shift away from traditional diets and toward a diet comprised primarily of processed brand-name foods with deleterious long-term health effects. This, in turn, has generated increasingly urgent calls for policy interventions aimed at improving the ...

  5. ASSESSING THE OFFENSIVENESS LEVEL OF TABOO WORDS IN PERSIAN

    Mohsen BAKHTIAR

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Taboo words have always been embarrassing and even frightening to utter among almost all human beings. This issue takes on a very particular shape in a religion-stricken society like Iran with its own particular way of conceptualization of morality. This study examines the effect of gender and formality of situations on the use of euphemisms in Persian. Adopting Allan & Burridge(2006s pragmatic approach towards euphemisms, we aimed to find out 1. How social and contextual variables affect the use of euphemisms 2.then, determine the x-phemistic value of taboo-denoting words and expressins. This was carried out through distributing an opinion survey among 30 Iranian men and women ranging 20 to 30 years old, in which they were asked to determine the x-phemistic value(euphemistic-orthophemistic-dysphemistic of 15 words and expressions denoting the concept prostitute ranging from highly euphemistic to complete taboo, based on the provided circumstances in the questionnare.

  6. Aging, Emotion, Attention, and Binding in the Taboo Stroop Task: Data and Theories

    Donald G. MacKay; Johnson, Laura W.; Graham, Elizabeth R.; Burke, Deborah M.

    2015-01-01

    How does aging impact relations between emotion, memory, and attention? To address this question, young and older adults named the font colors of taboo and neutral words, some of which recurred in the same font color or screen location throughout two color-naming experiments. The results indicated longer color-naming response times (RTs) for taboo than neutral base-words (taboo Stroop interference); better incidental recognition of colors and locations consistently associated with taboo versu...

  7. Taboo search by successive confinement: Surveying a potential energy surface

    Chekmarev, Sergei F.

    2001-09-01

    A taboo search for minima on a potential energy surface (PES) is performed by means of confinement molecular dynamics: the molecular dynamics trajectory of the system is successively confined to various basins on the PES that have not been sampled yet. The approach is illustrated for a 13-atom Lennard-Jones cluster. It is shown that the taboo search radically accelerates the process of surveying the PES, with the probability of finding a new minimum defined by a propagating Fermi-like distribution.

  8. How effective is the invisible hand? Agricultural and food markets in Central and Eastern Europe

    Brosig, Stephan; Heinrich HOCKMANN

    2005-01-01

    This volume of proceedings, available both as hard copy and pdf , is a compilation of selected contributions to the IAMO Forum 2005, which will be held in Halle (Saale), Germany, at the Institute of Agricultural Development in Central and Eastern Europe from June 16-18, 2005. CONTENTS: Agricultural and food markets in Central and Eastern Europe: An introduction; Stephan Brosig, Heinrich Hockmann. Agricultural markets in CEE - An overview; József Popp. Regoverning agrifood markets in CEEC - Po...

  9. Is hippophagy a taboo in constant evolution?

    Leteux, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    Food choice is strongly determined by religious and cultural elements specific to each civilization. Numerous food prescriptions concern meat, beginning with the total or partial ban on meat. Among the numerous animal species concerned by religious or cultural prohibitions, horse meat occupies an original place because the ban on its consumption varies a lot according to places and times. Widely consumed in Eurasia in the Prehistory, horse meat is still eaten by many in the big steppes of Cen...

  10. The allure of the forbidden: breaking taboos, frustration, and attraction to violent video games.

    Whitaker, Jodi L; Melzer, André; Steffgen, Georges; Bushman, Brad J

    2013-04-01

    Although people typically avoid engaging in antisocial or taboo behaviors, such as cheating and stealing, they may succumb in order to maximize their personal benefit. Moreover, they may be frustrated when the chance to commit a taboo behavior is withdrawn. The present study tested whether the desire to commit a taboo behavior, and the frustration from being denied such an opportunity, increases attraction to violent video games. Playing violent games allegedly offers an outlet for aggression prompted by frustration. In two experiments, some participants had no chance to commit a taboo behavior (cheating in Experiment 1, stealing in Experiment 2), others had a chance to commit a taboo behavior, and others had a withdrawn chance to commit a taboo behavior. Those in the latter group were most attracted to violent video games. Withdrawing the chance for participants to commit a taboo behavior increased their frustration, which in turn increased their attraction to violent video games. PMID:23449844

  11. Trend Surface Analysis of Hand, Food and Mouth Disease in Sarawak

    M.S. Noraishah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we aim to fit a trend surface model for Hand, Foot And Mouth Disease (HFMD in Sarawak and also check the adequacy of the model obtained. For this, the epidemiological data of year 2012(outbreak year and 2011 are used. Models were built up to second order polynomial based on the idea that number of HFMD cases can be described by regression residual analysis. With Moran I statistic, residuals from all the trend surface models were examined for spatial autocorrelation. All six trend surface models for 2011 data had residuals that were not spatially autocorrelated. However, one model for 2012 data showed spatial autocorrelation. The best model for each year of the two years that represent disease outbreak and non-outbreak situations was selected based on Mallows’ Cp statistic. These models could be used to predict the number of cases for locations of interest.

  12. Aging, Emotion, Attention, and Binding in the Taboo Stroop Task: Data and Theories.

    MacKay, Donald G; Johnson, Laura W; Graham, Elizabeth R; Burke, Deborah M

    2015-10-01

    How does aging impact relations between emotion, memory, and attention? To address this question, young and older adults named the font colors of taboo and neutral words, some of which recurred in the same font color or screen location throughout two color-naming experiments. The results indicated longer color-naming response times (RTs) for taboo than neutral base-words (taboo Stroop interference); better incidental recognition of colors and locations consistently associated with taboo versus neutral words (taboo context-memory enhancement); and greater speed-up in color-naming RTs with repetition of color-consistent than color-inconsistent taboo words, but no analogous speed-up with repetition of location-consistent or location-inconsistent taboo words (the consistency type by repetition interaction for taboo words). All three phenomena remained constant with aging, consistent with the transmission deficit hypothesis and binding theory, where familiar emotional words trigger age-invariant reactions for prioritizing the binding of contextual features to the source of emotion. Binding theory also accurately predicted the interaction between consistency type and repetition for taboo words. However, one or more aspects of these phenomena failed to support the inhibition deficit hypothesis, resource capacity theory, or socio-emotional selectivity theory. We conclude that binding theory warrants further test in a range of paradigms, and that relations between aging and emotion, memory, and attention may depend on whether the task and stimuli trigger fast-reaction, involuntary binding processes, as in the taboo Stroop paradigm. PMID:26473909

  13. Aging, Emotion, Attention, and Binding in the Taboo Stroop Task: Data and Theories

    Donald G. MacKay

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available How does aging impact relations between emotion, memory, and attention? To address this question, young and older adults named the font colors of taboo and neutral words, some of which recurred in the same font color or screen location throughout two color-naming experiments. The results indicated longer color-naming response times (RTs for taboo than neutral base-words (taboo Stroop interference; better incidental recognition of colors and locations consistently associated with taboo versus neutral words (taboo context-memory enhancement; and greater speed-up in color-naming RTs with repetition of color-consistent than color-inconsistent taboo words, but no analogous speed-up with repetition of location-consistent or location-inconsistent taboo words (the consistency type by repetition interaction for taboo words. All three phenomena remained constant with aging, consistent with the transmission deficit hypothesis and binding theory, where familiar emotional words trigger age-invariant reactions for prioritizing the binding of contextual features to the source of emotion. Binding theory also accurately predicted the interaction between consistency type and repetition for taboo words. However, one or more aspects of these phenomena failed to support the inhibition deficit hypothesis, resource capacity theory, or socio-emotional selectivity theory. We conclude that binding theory warrants further test in a range of paradigms, and that relations between aging and emotion, memory, and attention may depend on whether the task and stimuli trigger fast-reaction, involuntary binding processes, as in the taboo Stroop paradigm.

  14. The Breton Language : from Taboo to Recognition.

    Le Coadic, Ronan

    2000-01-01

    In 1993, while doing a study among students from the public high-school of Landerneau (Finistre) on individual and family practice of the Breton language, the author observed the following reactions. When he presented the theme of his study, many students could not help laughing, others blushed and only a few of the "best" students sitting in the front row remained calm, raising their hand to ask for further technical details. This was exactly the behavior that his junior high-school classma...

  15. Routing Optimization Based on Taboo Search Algorithm for Logistic Distribution

    Hongxue Yang; Lingling Xuan

    2014-01-01

    Along with the widespread application of the electronic commerce in the modern business, the logistic distribution has become increasingly important. More and more enterprises recognize that the logistic distribution plays an important role in the process of production and sales. A good routing for logistic distribution can cut down transport cost and improve efficiency. In order to cut down transport cost and improve efficiency, a routing optimization based on taboo search for logistic distr...

  16. Love Has (NO) Boundaries: Researching a Sexual Taboo

    Dafna Shir-Vertesh

    2013-01-01

    Sexual and emotional attraction humans feel towards animals, also known as zoophilia, is perhaps the most controversial facet of human-animal relationships. In this article I explore this seemingly ultimate transgression of interspecies boundaries and probe the Israeli cultural encounters with it. I discern how the stated concerns for normative sexuality and animal rights masquerade the underlying factors in the zoophilia taboo, and reveal the cultural implications of human-animal sexual love...

  17. Taboo Search: An Approach to the Multiple Minima Problem

    Cvijovic, Djurdje; Klinowski, Jacek

    1995-02-01

    Described here is a method, based on Glover's taboo search for discrete functions, of solving the multiple minima problem for continuous functions. As demonstrated by model calculations, the algorithm avoids entrapment in local minima and continues the search to give a near-optimal final solution. Unlike other methods of global optimization, this procedure is generally applicable, easy to implement, derivative-free, and conceptually simple.

  18. Functional mechanisms involved in the internal inhibition of taboo words

    Severens, Els; Khn, Simone; Hartsuiker, Robert; Brass, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain processes associated with the inhibition of socially undesirable speech. It is tested whether the inhibition of undesirable speech is solely related to brain areas associated with classical stop signal tasks or rather also involves brain areas involved in endogenous self-control. During the experiment, subjects had to do a SLIP task, which was designed to elicit taboo or neutral spoonerisms. Here we show that th...

  19. Taboo: Working memory and mental control in an interactive task

    Hansen, Whitney A.; Goldinger, Stephen D.

    2009-01-01

    Individual differences in working memory (WM) predict principled variation in tasks of reasoning, response time, memory, and other abilities. Theoretically, a central function of WM is keeping task-relevant information easily accessible while suppressing irrelevant information. The present experiment was a novel study of mental control, using performance in the game Taboo as a measure. We tested effects of WM capacity on several indices, including perseveration errors (repeating previous gues...

  20. Anger, disgust, and presumption of harm as reactions to taboo-breaking behaviors.

    Gutierrez, Roberto; Giner-Sorolla, Roger

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the relationship between the presumption of harm in harm-free violations of creatural norms (taboos) and the moral emotions of anger and disgust. Experiment 1 showed that participants made a presumption of harm to others from taboo violations even in conditions described as harmless and not involving other people; this presumption was predicted by anger and not disgust. Experiment 2 manipulated taboo violation and included a cognitive load task to clarify the p...

  1. Evaluating taboo trade-offs in ecosystems services and human well-being.

    Daw, Tim M; Coulthard, Sarah; Cheung, William W L; Brown, Katrina; Abunge, Caroline; Galafassi, Diego; Peterson, Garry D; McClanahan, Tim R; Omukoto, Johnstone O; Munyi, Lydiah

    2015-06-01

    Managing ecosystems for multiple ecosystem services and balancing the well-being of diverse stakeholders involves different kinds of trade-offs. Often trade-offs involve noneconomic and difficult-to-evaluate values, such as cultural identity, employment, the well-being of poor people, or particular species or ecosystem structures. Although trade-offs need to be considered for successful environmental management, they are often overlooked in favor of win-wins. Management and policy decisions demand approaches that can explicitly acknowledge and evaluate diverse trade-offs. We identified a diversity of apparent trade-offs in a small-scale tropical fishery when ecological simulations were integrated with participatory assessments of social-ecological system structure and stakeholders' well-being. Despite an apparent win-win between conservation and profitability at the aggregate scale, food production, employment, and well-being of marginalized stakeholders were differentially influenced by management decisions leading to trade-offs. Some of these trade-offs were suggested to be "taboo" trade-offs between morally incommensurable values, such as between profits and the well-being of marginalized women. These were not previously recognized as management issues. Stakeholders explored and deliberated over trade-offs supported by an interactive "toy model" representing key system trade-offs, alongside qualitative narrative scenarios of the future. The concept of taboo trade-offs suggests that psychological bias and social sensitivity may exclude key issues from decision making, which can result in policies that are difficult to implement. Our participatory modeling and scenarios approach has the potential to increase awareness of such trade-offs, promote discussion of what is acceptable, and potentially identify and reduce obstacles to management compliance. PMID:26038547

  2. Accommodating Taboo Language in English Language Teaching: Issues of Appropriacy and Authenticity

    Liyanage, Indika; Walker, Tony; Bartlett, Brendan; Guo, Xuhong

    2015-01-01

    Culturally specific language practices related to vernacular uses of taboo language such as swearing represent a socially communicative minefield for learners of English. The role of classroom learning experiences to prepare learners for negotiation of taboo language use in social interactions is correspondingly complicated and ignored in much of…

  3. Accommodating Taboo Language in English Language Teaching: Issues of Appropriacy and Authenticity

    Liyanage, Indika; Walker, Tony; Bartlett, Brendan; Guo, Xuhong

    2015-01-01

    Culturally specific language practices related to vernacular uses of taboo language such as swearing represent a socially communicative minefield for learners of English. The role of classroom learning experiences to prepare learners for negotiation of taboo language use in social interactions is correspondingly complicated and ignored in much of

  4. Current knowledge, attitude and behaviour of hand and food hygiene in a developed residential community of Singapore: a cross-sectional survey

    Pang, Junxiong; Chua, Shao Wei Jonathan Lumen; Hsu, Liyang

    2015-01-01

    Background Diarrhoea incidence has been increasing progressively over the past years in developed countries, including Singapore, despite the accessibility and availability to clean water, well-established sanitation infrastructures and regular hygiene promotion. The aim of this study is to determine the current knowledge, attitude and behaviour of hand and food hygiene, and the potential risk factors of diarrhoea in a residential community of Singapore. Methods A cross-sectional study was co...

  5. The Linguistic Taboo between Malays and Ibans of Sarawak, Malaysia

    Affidah Morni

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    This study attempts to determine the Malays’ and Ibans’ perceptions on the use of linguistic taboo in their culture based on the specified domains and to investigate the occurrence of linguistic taboo in different domains. The outcome of this study would provide a useful understanding over the Malays’ and Ibans’ sensitivity over the usage of certain words which are considered taboo in their community. Hence, avoid occurrences of embarrassment or offensiveness by the speakers. Questionnaires were given to 40 Sarawak Malays and 40 Ibans of varying educational background and age in Kuching area. They were selected randomly based on convenience random sampling and the data were analyzed using SPSS 10.0. The findings show that many respondents believed that taboo words should not be spoken publicly or openly where certain topics should not be discussed in candid especially in relation to sex, body parts, bodily functions, death and dying. Nonetheless, the cultural norms, rules and the notion of politeness (and among the Malays the tenets of religion play significant roles in restricting the open use of these taboo words either behaviourally or linguistically. Comparatively, the Iban respondents seemed to be more expressive and candid in using taboo words in expressing their emotions, as compared to the Malays. It is also apparent that the use of taboo words can be acceptable depending on the domains and contexts.

    Key words: Linguistic Taboo; Euphemisms; Domains

    Résumé: Cette étude tente de déterminer les perceptions des Malais et des Ibans sur l'utilisation de tabou linguistique dans leur culture basée sur les domaines spécifiés et d'enquêter sur l'occurrence de tabou linguistique dans des domaines différents. Le résultat de cette étude nous aiderait à comprendre la sensibilité des Malais et des Ibans sur l'utilisation de certains mots qui sont considérés comme tabous dans leur communauté. Par conséquent, on peut éviter les cas d'embarras ou d’être offensé par les orateurs.

    Des questionnaires ont été donnés à 40 Sarawak Malais et 40 Ibans de différents niveaux d’études et de différents âges dans la région de Kuching. Ils ont été sélectionnés de façon aléatoire dans un échantillonnage aléatoire, et les données ont été analysées en utilisant la méthode de SPSS 10.0. Les résultats montrent que de nombreuse personnes questionnées ont estimé que les mots tabous ne devraient pas être prononcés publiquement ou ouvertement, où certains sujets ne doivent pas être discutés de façon franche, notamment en ce qui concerne le sexe, les parties du corps, les fonctions corporelles, la mort et les mourants. Néanmoins, les normes culturelles, des règles et la notion de politesse (et chez les Malais, les préceptes de la religion jouent un rôle important dans la restriction de la libre utilisation de ces mots tabous. Comparativement, les Iban questionnés semblent être plus expressifs et francs dans l'utilisation de mots tabous à exprimer leurs émotions, par rapport aux Malais. Il est également évident que l'utilisation de mots tabous peut être acceptable en fonction de domaines et de contextes.

    Mots-Clés: Tabou linguistique; Euphémisme; Domaines

     

  6. Restricted random search method based on taboo search in the multiple minima problem

    Hong, Seung Do; Jhon, Mu Shik

    1997-03-01

    The restricted random search method is proposed as a simple Monte Carlo sampling method to search minima fast in the multiple minima problem. This method is based on taboo search applied recently to continuous test functions. The concept of the taboo region instead of the taboo list is used and therefore the sampling of a region near an old configuration is restricted in this method. This method is applied to 2-dimensional test functions and the argon clusters. This method is found to be a practical and efficient method to search near-global configurations of test functions and the argon clusters.

  7. What's the Matter with Food?: A Hands-On Action Research Study on the Effect of Using Food Preparation To Teach Students with Autism about the Three States of Matter

    Diller, Nicole

    This investigation studied the effectiveness of using food preparation to teach students with Autism about the three states of matter. A hands-on learning approach was used within the home and careers classroom. One class of five students, three boys and two girls, all diagnosed with Autism, participated in a five day academic unit about the three phases of matter: solid, liquid, and gas. The class received hands-on learning science instruction using food through various differentiated activities. Results indicate that students express focus when using food to learn. In addition, this study acknowledges that hands-on learning in science enhances the learning process of students with Autism. One of the main reasons is that students enjoy learning when this teaching style is used in the classroom, and students that enjoy what they are learning are more likely to be engaged and motivated to learn. After using this approach, all the students in the study increased their scores from the pre-assessments to the post-assessments. Students expressed through actions and words that they enjoyed using hands-on experiences to learn in the classroom. Implications for practice indicate that a variety of manipulatives are needed to teach students with Autism. Future research would help uncover additional information about student motivation and learning in the home and careers classroom.

  8. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 11. Use of antiseptics and sanitizers in community settings and issues of hand hygiene compliance in health care and food industries.

    Todd, Ewen C D; Greig, Judy D; Michaels, Barry S; Bartleson, Charles A; Smith, Debra; Holah, John

    2010-12-01

    Hand washing with soap is a practice that has long been recognized as a major barrier to the spread of disease in food production, preparation, and service and in health care settings, including hospitals, child care centers, and elder care facilities. Many of these settings present multiple opportunities for spread of pathogens within at-risk populations, and extra vigilance must be applied. Unfortunately, hand hygiene is not always carried out effectively, and both enteric and respiratory diseases are easily spread in these environments. Where water is limited or frequent hand hygiene is required on a daily basis, such as for many patients in hospitals and astronauts in space travel, instant sanitizers or sanitary wipes are thought to be an effective way of preventing contamination and spread of organisms among coworkers and others. Most concerns regarding compliance are associated with the health care field, but the food industry also must be considered. Specific reasons for not washing hands at appropriate times are laziness, time pressure, inadequate facilities and supplies, lack of accountability, and lack of involvement by companies, managers, and workers in supporting proper hand washing. To facilitate improvements in hand hygiene, measurement of compliant and noncompliant actions is necessary before implementing any procedural changes. Training alone is not sufficient for long-lasting improvement. Multiactivity strategies also must include modification of the organization culture to encourage safe hygienic practices, motivation of employees willing to use peer pressure on noncompliant coworkers, a reward and/or penalty system, and an operational design that facilitates regular hand hygiene. PMID:21219754

  9. Socio-Cultural and Attitudinal Study of Selected Yoruba Taboos in South West Nigeria

    Adebola Adebileje

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a socio-cultural description of some Yoruba taboos which are an integral part of culture and youths’ attitude towards these taboos. The theoretical frame work for the study is based on Vygotskian’s sociocultural approach which holds that higher order functions develop out of social interaction. In other words, cultural development of an individual, especially the young ones, depends largely on social interactions with elders. Some socio-cultural factors like age, ...

  10. Optimal lunar soft landing trajectories using taboo evolutionary programming

    Mutyalarao, M.; Raj, M. Xavier James

    A safe lunar landing is a key factor to undertake an effective lunar exploration. Lunar lander consists of four phases such as launch phase, the earth-moon transfer phase, circumlunar phase and landing phase. The landing phase can be either hard landing or soft landing. Hard landing means the vehicle lands under the influence of gravity without any deceleration measures. However, soft landing reduces the vertical velocity of the vehicle before landing. Therefore, for the safety of the astronauts as well as the vehicle lunar soft landing with an acceptable velocity is very much essential. So it is important to design the optimal lunar soft landing trajectory with minimum fuel consumption. Optimization of Lunar Soft landing is a complex optimal control problem. In this paper, an analysis related to lunar soft landing from a parking orbit around Moon has been carried out. A two-dimensional trajectory optimization problem is attempted. The problem is complex due to the presence of system constraints. To solve the time-history of control parameters, the problem is converted into two point boundary value problem by using the maximum principle of Pontrygen. Taboo Evolutionary Programming (TEP) technique is a stochastic method developed in recent years and successfully implemented in several fields of research. It combines the features of taboo search and single-point mutation evolutionary programming. Identifying the best unknown parameters of the problem under consideration is the central idea for many space trajectory optimization problems. The TEP technique is used in the present methodology for the best estimation of initial unknown parameters by minimizing objective function interms of fuel requirements. The optimal estimation subsequently results into an optimal trajectory design of a module for soft landing on the Moon from a lunar parking orbit. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the proposed approach is highly efficient and it reduces the minimum fuel consumption. The results are compared with the available results in literature shows that the solution of present algorithm is better than some of the existing algorithms. Keywords: soft landing, trajectory optimization, evolutionary programming, control parameters, Pontrygen principle.

  11. The self in moral judgement: How self-affirmation affects the moral condemnation of harmless sexual taboo violations.

    Mooijman, Marlon; Van Dijk, Wilco W

    2015-01-01

    People frequently condemn harmless sexual taboo behaviours. Based on self-affirmation theory, we predicted that providing an opportunity to self-affirm decreases the tendency to morally condemn harmless sexual taboos. In Experiment 1, we found evidence that self-affirmation decreases the moral condemnation of harmless sexual taboos and ruled out that this was due to a decrease in how disgusting participants considered taboo acts. In Experiment 2, we replicated this effect and demonstrated the mediating role of self-directed threat emotions. These results demonstrate that the tendency to morally condemn harmless sexual taboos arises in part from the need to protect self-integrity. We discuss the implications for the role of the self and emotions in moral judgements and interventions aimed at increasing the acceptability of harmless sexual taboos. PMID:25472625

  12. Hand collection - hand harvest

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of activities related to the collection and harvest of seeds on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1992 and 2009. Information about hand...

  13. In Search of the Nuclear Taboo. Past, Present, and Future

    Potter, W.C.

    2010-07-01

    One of the most puzzling - if positive - phenomena of the past half century is the non-use of nuclear weapons. The puzzle relates to the absence of use despite the demonstrated technical effectiveness of the weapon, the enormous size of nuclear weapons stockpiles globally, the spread of nuclear weapons to states in most regions of the world, the centrality of nuclear weapons in the strategic doctrines and operational war plans of a growing number of states with very different cultures, political systems, and military traditions, and the observation of the tradition of non-use despite the lack of international legal prohibitions - unlike those in place with respect to chemical and biological weapons. This essay seeks to probe the underpinnings of nuclear weapons restraint, the strength and durability of the so-called nuclear 'taboo' - especially in light of the rise of non-states actors who covet nuclear weapons for purposes other than deterrence - and the most likely paths by which existing restraints might be breached, broken, or dissolved. Particular emphasis is placed on alternative futures as a number of other studies, including several important new volumes, have explored in depth the sources of non-use. (author)

  14. In Search of the Nuclear Taboo. Past, Present, and Future

    One of the most puzzling - if positive - phenomena of the past half century is the non-use of nuclear weapons. The puzzle relates to the absence of use despite the demonstrated technical effectiveness of the weapon, the enormous size of nuclear weapons stockpiles globally, the spread of nuclear weapons to states in most regions of the world, the centrality of nuclear weapons in the strategic doctrines and operational war plans of a growing number of states with very different cultures, political systems, and military traditions, and the observation of the tradition of non-use despite the lack of international legal prohibitions - unlike those in place with respect to chemical and biological weapons. This essay seeks to probe the underpinnings of nuclear weapons restraint, the strength and durability of the so-called nuclear 'taboo' - especially in light of the rise of non-states actors who covet nuclear weapons for purposes other than deterrence - and the most likely paths by which existing restraints might be breached, broken, or dissolved. Particular emphasis is placed on alternative futures as a number of other studies, including several important new volumes, have explored in depth the sources of non-use. (author)

  15. Solving touristic trip planning problem by using taboo search approach

    Kadri Sylejmani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce an algorithm that automatically plans a touristic trip by considering some hard and soft constrains. Opening and closing hours of POIs, trip duration and trip allocated budget represent the hard constraints, while the satisfaction factors of the POIs and travelling distance in the trip are considered as soft constraints. We use the soft constraints to evaluate the generated solution of the algorithm. The algorithm is developed by utilizing the taboo search method as a meta heuristic. The operators of Swap, Insert and Delete are used to explore the search space. The Swap and Insert operator are used in each iteration of the algorithm loop, while the Delete operator is used whenever the algorithm tends to enter in an endless cycle. The algorithm is developed by using Java programming language, while the data repositories are created in the XML format. The algorithm is tested with 40 instances of POIs of the city of Vienna. Various entry parameters of the algorithm are used to test its performance. The results gained are discussed and compared in respect to the optimal solution.

  16. An in-home video study and questionnaire survey of food preparation, kitchen sanitation, and hand washing practices.

    Scott, Elizabeth; Herbold, Nancie

    2010-06-01

    Foodborne illnesses pose a problem to all individuals but are especially significant for infants, the elderly, and individuals with compromised immune systems. Personal hygiene is recognized as the number-one way people can lower their risk. The majority of meals in the U.S. are eaten at home. Little is known, however, about the actual application of personal hygiene and sanitation behaviors in the home. The study discussed in this article assessed knowledge of hygiene practices compared to observed behaviors and determined whether knowledge equated to practice. It was a descriptive study involving a convenience sample of 30 households. Subjects were recruited from the Boston area and a researcher and/or a research assistant traveled to the homes of study participants to videotape a standard food preparation procedure preceded by floor mopping. The results highlight the differences between individuals' reported beliefs and actual practice. This information can aid food safety and other health professionals in targeting food safety education so that consumers understand their own critical role in decreasing their risk for foodborne illness. PMID:20556938

  17. Hand Anatomy

    ... del pulgar Dedo en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety ... del pulgar Dedo en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety ...

  18. Jeux tabous : littératures Taboo plays: Literature

    Brigitte Galtier

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available La thèse de Georges Bataille sur l’art comme transgression, et d’abord du tabou concernant la mort, est ici mise à l’épreuve de trois œuvres littéraires du XXe siècle. C’est le tabou des morts en sa violence primitive qui s’y inscrit, mais sans effacer ce qu’il frappe, d’où l’effet libérateur du texte.Georges Bataille’s thesis – art as transgression of taboo, especially taboo regarding death – is tested by three literary works of XXth century. The taboo concerning dead persons is here written, with its primitive violence but what it prohibits is not obliterated. Hence the liberating effect of the text.

  19. Socio-Cultural and Attitudinal Study of Selected Yoruba Taboos in South West Nigeria

    Adebola Adebileje

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available

    This study presents a socio-cultural description of some Yoruba taboos which are an integral part of culture and youths’ attitude towards these taboos. The theoretical frame work for the study is based on Vygotskian’s sociocultural approach which holds that higher order functions develop out of social interaction. In other words, cultural development of an individual, especially the young ones, depends largely on social interactions with elders. Some socio-cultural factors like age, sex and education are the variables employed in the analysis. Data is gathered from interviewing students and staff of Redeemer’s University, Mowe, Ogun state and Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun state in the South Western part of Nigeria. Books and documents are also consulted. In the process of describing some selected Yoruba taboos, it is discovered that: (a the language of a particular society is an integral part of its culture, (b many of the taboos have been taken over by Christianity and technology (c youths have a laissez-faire attitude as their belief in taboos is fast disappearing because parents and guardians do not educate children in these acts any more. It is concluded that for the Yoruba culture to be saved from imminent extinction, parents must expose the young ones to cultural beliefs and ensure that they speak the language. This is necessary because internalized culture allows people to respond in appropriate ways to the norms of the society or community in which they live.

    Key words: Socio-cultural; Yoruba taboos; Society’s attitude

  20. Taboos and Denials: Major Obstacles to Sustainable Use of the Planet

    Cairns, John

    2004-01-01

    A taboo is a (1) prohibition excluding something from use, approach, or mention because of its sacred and inviolable nature and (2) an object, work, or act protected by such a prohibition. Denial is a refusal to believe in the existence or reality of a fact or entity. Human society professes to believe sustainable use of the planet is a means of leaving it in a habitable condition for future generations. However, a taboo, especially among mainstream politicians, has been placed on the free an...

  1. Taboo Icons: The Bodily Photography of Andres Serrano

    Tyler Shine

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available   Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Verdana;} Andres Serrano’s photography is often dismissed as being shocking for the sake of being shocking. His infamous photograph Piss Christ (1987 is the oft-cited example at the center of the National Endowment for the Arts controversies during the Culture Wars of the 1980s and 1990s. I return to Piss Christ as a way to expand the interpretative scope of Serrano’s early photographs, which I call “taboo icons” because of their ambiguity and ability to crisscross symbolic boundaries in the unstable space between sacred and profane, thus making his images both powerful and potentially dangerous. Building upon previous scholarship that draws connections between modern and early modern aesthetic practices, I look to the material practices of Christianity in medieval Europe characterized by a sophisticated visual culture that mixed both the physical and the spiritual. The intensifying rejection and reverence of matter resulted in divergent responses, yet the contradictory nature of matter remained central to the ideological beliefs of Christianity where the doctrines of Creation, Incarnation, and Resurrection are at its core. Serrano’s visceral photographs are emphatically material and can productively be read vis-à-vis medieval visual culture. In doing so, this reading changes the narrow perception of Serrano’s early photographs and provides an alternative understanding of his artistic project that reinserts religion into contemporary American art discourse.

  2. Holding Thermal Receipt Paper and Eating Food after Using Hand Sanitizer Results in High Serum Bioactive and Urine Total Levels of Bisphenol A (BPA)

    Hormann, Annette M.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Nagel, Susan C.; Stahlhut, Richard W.; Moyer, Carol L.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Welshons, Wade V.; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Taylor, Julia A.

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting environmental contaminant used in a wide variety of products, and BPA metabolites are found in almost everyone’s urine, suggesting widespread exposure from multiple sources. Regulatory agencies estimate that virtually all BPA exposure is from food and beverage packaging. However, free BPA is applied to the outer layer of thermal receipt paper present in very high (∼20 mg BPA/g paper) quantities as a print developer. Not taken into account when considering thermal paper as a source of BPA exposure is that some commonly used hand sanitizers, as well as other skin care products, contain mixtures of dermal penetration enhancing chemicals that can increase by up to 100 fold the dermal absorption of lipophilic compounds such as BPA. We found that when men and women held thermal receipt paper immediately after using a hand sanitizer with penetration enhancing chemicals, significant free BPA was transferred to their hands and then to French fries that were eaten, and the combination of dermal and oral BPA absorption led to a rapid and dramatic average maximum increase (Cmax) in unconjugated (bioactive) BPA of ∼7 ng/mL in serum and ∼20 µg total BPA/g creatinine in urine within 90 min. The default method used by regulatory agencies to test for hazards posed by chemicals is intra-gastric gavage. For BPA this approach results in less than 1% of the administered dose being bioavailable in blood. It also ignores dermal absorption as well as sublingual absorption in the mouth that both bypass first-pass liver metabolism. The elevated levels of BPA that we observed due to holding thermal paper after using a product containing dermal penetration enhancing chemicals have been related to an increased risk for a wide range of developmental abnormalities as well as diseases in adults. PMID:25337790

  3. A Researcher "Called" to "Taboo" Places?: A Burgeoning Research Method in African-Centered Education

    Shockley, Kmt G.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a self-reflexive analysis of the complexities of conducting Afrocentric education research while living with a "double consciousness." Having been "called" to places that are considered to be "taboo" the author takes readers on a journey that begins in his busy mind and ends in on the African continent in a "rabbit hole."…

  4. Teaching More than the Facts of Menstruation: Exercises to Stimulate Dialogue about a Taboo Subject.

    Taylor, Christina J.

    1981-01-01

    Presents nine exercises designed to help students and teachers become more aware of their attitudes about menstruation and to move beyond the realms of mystery, ignorance, and taboos. Participants list and analyze expressions used to refer to menstruation, discuss pleasant and unpleasant experiences, and recall feelings on first learning of…

  5. Android Hands

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    such occasions, android and humanoid hand models should have similar structure, functions, and performance as the human hand. In this paper we present the anatomy, and the key functionalities of the human hand followed by a literature review on android/humanoid hands for grasping and manipulating...

  6. The x-word and its usage : Taboo words and swearwords in general, and x-words in newspapers

    Lindahl, Katarina

    2008-01-01

    All languages have words that are considered taboo – words that are not supposed to be said or used. Taboo words, or swearwords, can be used in many different ways and they can have different meanings depending on what context they appear in. Another aspect of taboo words is the euphemisms that are used in order to avoid obscene speech. This paper will focus on x-words, words like the f-word or the c-word, which replace the words fuck or cunt, but as the study will show they also have other m...

  7. The World After Proliferation, Deterrence and Disarmament if the Nuclear Taboo is Broken

    he nuclear taboo is customarily seen as a black and white norm, separating the world of the familiar from that of an unknowable afterlife.1 Nina Tannenwald argues that 'once the threshold between use and non-use is crossed, one is immediately in a new world with all the unimaginable consequences that could follow'. It is not correct, however, to say that the consequences are 'unimaginable'. They are certainly unpredictable, but one can imagine at least some of the consequences. This article attempts to do so with regard to consequences for proliferation, deterrence and disarmament. If the nuclear taboo were broken, whether by design, accident, miscalculation, or a breakdown of command and control, one of the more easily imagined consequences would be the collapse of the Nuclear Non- Proliferation Treaty (NPT). It is safe to assume that the use of nuclear weapons in war for the first time since 1945 would be a transformational event. But would nuclear use spell the failure of deterrence and doom the prospects of a nuclear-weapons free world, making obsolete much of the current thinking about nuclear disarmament and nuclear deterrence? Not every nuclear use scenario would necessarily break the lock on the nuclear Pandora's Box. A 'demonstration shot', for example, would not have the same impact as nuclear obliteration of a city. Both would be breaches of the taboo, but the use of a single nuclear bomb probably would not disrupt the status quo as thoroughly as would a massive attack or a two-way exchange. Breaching the taboo would not necessarily reverse the powerful norm and tradition that has developed in the last 60+ years against use of nuclear weapons. There is no compelling logic to assume that nuclear weapons would thereby become re-legitimized as instruments of war. The breaking of the nuclear taboo could actually spur either or both of two opposite reactions: an increased salience of nuclear weapons and a stimulus to disarmament. Which impulse prevails will depend on the circumstances, including how the taboo gets broken. This paper first lays out the case for each of these two disparate reactions, noting that history provides limited predictive power for what would be an unprecedented event. The paper then assesses the various circumstances in which nuclear weapons might be used, and how the context of their use would affect the development of new norms. (author)

  8. The World After Proliferation, Deterrence and Disarmament if the Nuclear Taboo is Broken

    Fitzpatrick, M.

    2009-07-01

    he nuclear taboo is customarily seen as a black and white norm, separating the world of the familiar from that of an unknowable afterlife.1 Nina Tannenwald argues that 'once the threshold between use and non-use is crossed, one is immediately in a new world with all the unimaginable consequences that could follow'. It is not correct, however, to say that the consequences are 'unimaginable'. They are certainly unpredictable, but one can imagine at least some of the consequences. This article attempts to do so with regard to consequences for proliferation, deterrence and disarmament. If the nuclear taboo were broken, whether by design, accident, miscalculation, or a breakdown of command and control, one of the more easily imagined consequences would be the collapse of the Nuclear Non- Proliferation Treaty (NPT). It is safe to assume that the use of nuclear weapons in war for the first time since 1945 would be a transformational event. But would nuclear use spell the failure of deterrence and doom the prospects of a nuclear-weapons free world, making obsolete much of the current thinking about nuclear disarmament and nuclear deterrence? Not every nuclear use scenario would necessarily break the lock on the nuclear Pandora's Box. A 'demonstration shot', for example, would not have the same impact as nuclear obliteration of a city. Both would be breaches of the taboo, but the use of a single nuclear bomb probably would not disrupt the status quo as thoroughly as would a massive attack or a two-way exchange. Breaching the taboo would not necessarily reverse the powerful norm and tradition that has developed in the last 60+ years against use of nuclear weapons. There is no compelling logic to assume that nuclear weapons would thereby become re-legitimized as instruments of war. The breaking of the nuclear taboo could actually spur either or both of two opposite reactions: an increased salience of nuclear weapons and a stimulus to disarmament. Which impulse prevails will depend on the circumstances, including how the taboo gets broken. This paper first lays out the case for each of these two disparate reactions, noting that history provides limited predictive power for what would be an unprecedented event. The paper then assesses the various circumstances in which nuclear weapons might be used, and how the context of their use would affect the development of new norms. (author)

  9. Hand osteoarthritis

    Bijsterbosch, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the clinical and radiographic disease course of hand osteoarthritis as well as determinants of poor clinical outcome and radiographic progression over a period of six years in 289 patients with hand osteoarthritis. Because these patients had osteoarthritis at multiple joints this enabled us to not only assess the association between progression of osteoarhtiritis in different hand joints groups but also between progression of hand osteoarthritis and osteoarthritis change at th...

  10. Chapped hands

    ... wind Avoid washing hands with hot water Limit hand washing as much as possible while maintaining good hygiene Try to keep the air in your home humid Use mild soaps or non-soap cleansers Use ... on your hands regularly, especially if you live in a dry ...

  11. Offensive Language in Sex and the City : A study of male and female characters use of taboo words

    Skillstrm Bygg, Madelene

    2006-01-01

    There are words and topics of conversation that are considered taboo and offensive in the English language. Offensive words can be divided into different categories, based on the way they are used and in what situation. Topics of conversation that are considered taboo are for example sexual activity and death. Men and women are said to use language differently, in a number of areas. One of these areas concerns offensive language. It is considered masculine to swear and women are prone to use ...

  12. Communicating Difficult and Taboo Information: A How-To Guide for Commanders.

    Moosey, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Military commanders frequently mention that communicating difficult or taboo information is especially challenging. In the context of gender-integrated ground combat service there may be additional communication challenges for military commanders who may be unaccustomed to leading both men and women. Often, military commanders must communicate and deliver difficult information, or information that causes a negative emotional response from the communicator or the intended audience. This article is intended to identify some of these challenges and present practical examples and tips for military commanders to effectively communicate difficult or taboo topics and information. In addition, this article is a call for communication experts to reach out to military leaders and offer appropriate assistance in facilitating and delivering difficult communication. PMID:26741900

  13. The Hitting Times with Taboo for a Random Walk on an Integer Lattice

    Bulinskaya, Ekaterina

    2011-01-01

    For a symmetric, homogeneous and irreducible random walk on d-dimensional integer lattice Z^d, having zero mean and a finite variance of jumps, we study the passage times (with possible infinite values) determined by the starting point x, the hitting state y and the taboo state z. We find the probability that these passages times are finite and analyze the tails of their cumulative distribution functions. In particular, it turns out that for the random walk on Z^d, except for a simple (nearest neighbor) random walk on Z, the order of the tail decrease is specified by dimension d only. In contrast, for a simple random walk on Z, the asymptotic properties of hitting times with taboo essentially depend on the mutual location of the points x, y and z. These problems originated in our recent study of branching random walk on Z^d with a single source of branching.

  14. How do speakers resist distraction? Evidence from a taboo picture-word interference task

    D'Hooge, Elisah; Hartsuiker, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Even in the presence of irrelevant stimuli, word production is a highly accurate and fluent process. But how do speakers prevent themselves from naming the wrong things? One possibility is that an attentional system inhibits task-irrelevant representations. Alternatively, a verbal self-monitoring system might check speech for accuracy and remove errors stemming from irrelevant information. Because self-monitoring is sensitive to social appropriateness, taboo errors should be intercepted more ...

  15. Reflections on a Shared Name: Taboo and Destiny in Mayong (Assam)

    Dowdy, Sean

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the cosmological entailments of a minor verbal taboo in Mayong (Central Assam). In brief, individuals who share personal names are forbidden from addressing or referring to each other by name, and instead must interpellate each other as mita (friend). Through an analysis of names in acts of sorcery and magic, a baptism ceremonial, and nominal modes of address in Mayong, this article demonstrates how confronting a person with a shared name is tantamount to confronting one...

  16. Arguing with the incest taboo? the case of "distorted cognitions" about child sexuality

    Janssen, Diederik F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper seeks to open up critical reflection on the notion of "cognitive distortion" (CD), as applied to child sex offenders, to a broader anthropological account of children's sexual agency, namely the arguable revitalisation and extension of incest taboos through the post-1970s rubric of child sexual abuse. Sixteen scales that purport to measure CD (1984-2009) are listed, and their gist briefly appreciated against this interpretative background. Pitting social structure against the decon...

  17. Traces of Cannibalistic Instinct in Food Denomination

    Mayer Modena, Maria Luisa

    2004-01-01

    Drawing attention to the associations evoked in the process of food denomination, the paper attempts to reveal the traces of cannibalistic instinct in this realm. By singling out some of the principal ways used in the semantic reticulum to name food, special attention is devoted to those names that allude to particular categories of enemies (devoured as wholes or as parts of the body). What is referred to as »anti-taboo« shows how the linguistic and more generally the anthropol...

  18. Genetic evolutionary taboo search for optimal marker placement in infrared patient setup

    Riboldi, M.; Baroni, G.; Spadea, M. F.; Tagaste, B.; Garibaldi, C.; Cambria, R.; Orecchia, R.; Pedotti, A.

    2007-09-01

    In infrared patient setup adequate selection of the external fiducial configuration is required for compensating inner target displacements (target registration error, TRE). Genetic algorithms (GA) and taboo search (TS) were applied in a newly designed approach to optimal marker placement: the genetic evolutionary taboo search (GETS) algorithm. In the GETS paradigm, multiple solutions are simultaneously tested in a stochastic evolutionary scheme, where taboo-based decision making and adaptive memory guide the optimization process. The GETS algorithm was tested on a group of ten prostate patients, to be compared to standard optimization and to randomly selected configurations. The changes in the optimal marker configuration, when TRE is minimized for OARs, were specifically examined. Optimal GETS configurations ensured a 26.5% mean decrease in the TRE value, versus 19.4% for conventional quasi-Newton optimization. Common features in GETS marker configurations were highlighted in the dataset of ten patients, even when multiple runs of the stochastic algorithm were performed. Including OARs in TRE minimization did not considerably affect the spatial distribution of GETS marker configurations. In conclusion, the GETS algorithm proved to be highly effective in solving the optimal marker placement problem. Further work is needed to embed site-specific deformation models in the optimization process.

  19. Genetic evolutionary taboo search for optimal marker placement in infrared patient setup

    In infrared patient setup adequate selection of the external fiducial configuration is required for compensating inner target displacements (target registration error, TRE). Genetic algorithms (GA) and taboo search (TS) were applied in a newly designed approach to optimal marker placement: the genetic evolutionary taboo search (GETS) algorithm. In the GETS paradigm, multiple solutions are simultaneously tested in a stochastic evolutionary scheme, where taboo-based decision making and adaptive memory guide the optimization process. The GETS algorithm was tested on a group of ten prostate patients, to be compared to standard optimization and to randomly selected configurations. The changes in the optimal marker configuration, when TRE is minimized for OARs, were specifically examined. Optimal GETS configurations ensured a 26.5% mean decrease in the TRE value, versus 19.4% for conventional quasi-Newton optimization. Common features in GETS marker configurations were highlighted in the dataset of ten patients, even when multiple runs of the stochastic algorithm were performed. Including OARs in TRE minimization did not considerably affect the spatial distribution of GETS marker configurations. In conclusion, the GETS algorithm proved to be highly effective in solving the optimal marker placement problem. Further work is needed to embed site-specific deformation models in the optimization process

  20. Taboo and the different death? Perceptions of those bereaved by suicide or other traumatic death.

    Chapple, Alison; Ziebland, Sue; Hawton, Keith

    2015-05-01

    Views differ on how far the subject of death has ever been taboo in Western Society. Walter (1991) criticised the way the 'taboo thesis' has been presented, arguing that it has often been 'grossly overdrawn and lacking in subtlety'. Research suggests that suicide and other traumatic death may be particularly difficult for people to talk about or even acknowledge. We interviewed 80 people bereaved due to suicide, or other traumatic death and used interpretative thematic analysis to consider whether the 'death taboo' is evident in these bereavement narratives. People referred to suicide as a different, even stigmatised, death but we also found that those bereaved through other traumatic death felt that their reactions had to be contained and relatively silent. The exception was those bereaved through terrorism or train crash, who were encouraged to grieve openly and angrily: reactions to deaths which are seen as 'private troubles' differ from reactions to deaths which are seen as 'public issues'. Using a symbolic interactionist approach we conclude that the shock and suddenness of the death is tied up both with the circumstances of the death (suicide, murder, accident, terrorism) and the attendant consequences for the social acceptance of public displays of mourning. PMID:25683372

  1. Genetic evolutionary taboo search for optimal marker placement in infrared patient setup

    Riboldi, M [TBMLab, Department of Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano University, Plaza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Baroni, G [TBMLab, Department of Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano University, Plaza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Spadea, M F [TBMLab, Department of Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano University, Plaza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Tagaste, B [Medical Physics Department, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan (Italy); Garibaldi, C [Medical Physics Department, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan (Italy); Cambria, R [Medical Physics Department, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan (Italy); Orecchia, R [Radiotherapy Division, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan (Italy); Pedotti, A [TBMLab, Department of Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano University, Plaza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2007-09-21

    In infrared patient setup adequate selection of the external fiducial configuration is required for compensating inner target displacements (target registration error, TRE). Genetic algorithms (GA) and taboo search (TS) were applied in a newly designed approach to optimal marker placement: the genetic evolutionary taboo search (GETS) algorithm. In the GETS paradigm, multiple solutions are simultaneously tested in a stochastic evolutionary scheme, where taboo-based decision making and adaptive memory guide the optimization process. The GETS algorithm was tested on a group of ten prostate patients, to be compared to standard optimization and to randomly selected configurations. The changes in the optimal marker configuration, when TRE is minimized for OARs, were specifically examined. Optimal GETS configurations ensured a 26.5% mean decrease in the TRE value, versus 19.4% for conventional quasi-Newton optimization. Common features in GETS marker configurations were highlighted in the dataset of ten patients, even when multiple runs of the stochastic algorithm were performed. Including OARs in TRE minimization did not considerably affect the spatial distribution of GETS marker configurations. In conclusion, the GETS algorithm proved to be highly effective in solving the optimal marker placement problem. Further work is needed to embed site-specific deformation models in the optimization process.

  2. Arguing with the incest taboo? the case of "distorted cognitions" about child sexuality

    Diederik F Janssen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to open up critical reflection on the notion of "cognitive distortion" (CD, as applied to child sex offenders, to a broader anthropological account of children's sexual agency, namely the arguable revitalisation and extension of incest taboos through the post-1970s rubric of child sexual abuse. Sixteen scales that purport to measure CD (1984-2009 are listed, and their gist briefly appreciated against this interpretative background. Pitting social structure against the deconstructive and disloyal crime of perversion, the pronouncement of CD shows a deep complicity to the moral status quo, namely the faithful recitation and procedural accreditation of essentially regulatory rubrics, fixtures, and truisms ("sexuality", "sexual trauma", "harm", "consent". It thus paraphrases the anthropologically expected collapse of nuance between immoral and illogical ideas at the site of social taboos, especially taboos' contemporary predicament of ever more argumentative perverts and ever more decontextualised, and thus erratic, scientific probing. In the end, the perverts are those who, in all nuances of the expression, "don't get it." Circumscribing the "rationalisations, distortions, and blame shifting" of the paraphile remains the - increasingly awkward and panicked - occasion for entrenching society's.

  3. Robot Hand

    1986-01-01

    Robots are limited only by the dexterity of the hand. Dr. Salisbury, in conjunction with Stanford, Caltech and Jet Propulsion Laboratory, developed the Salisbury Hand which has three, three-jointed human-like fingers. The tips are covered with a resilient, high friction material for gripping. The robot hand can manipulate objects by finger motion, and adapts to different aims. Advanced software allows the hand to interpret information from fingertip sensors. Further development is expected. A company has been formed to reproduce the device; copies have been delivered to several laboratories.

  4. The evolution of cultural adaptations: Fijian food taboos protect against dangerous marine toxins

    Henrich, Joseph; Henrich, Natalie

    2010-01-01

    The application of evolutionary theory to understanding the origins of our species' capacities for social learning has generated key insights into cultural evolution. By focusing on how our psychology has evolved to adaptively extract beliefs and practices by observing others, theorists have hypothesized how social learning can, over generations, give rise to culturally evolved adaptations. While much field research documents the subtle ways in which culturally transmitted beliefs and practic...

  5. Robotic Hand

    1993-01-01

    The Omni-Hand was developed by Ross-Hime Designs, Inc. for Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. The multiple digit hand has an opposable thumb and a flexible wrist. Electric muscles called Minnacs power wrist joints and the interchangeable digits. Two hands have been delivered to NASA for evaluation for potential use on space missions and the unit is commercially available for applications like hazardous materials handling and manufacturing automation. Previous SBIR contracts resulted in the Omni-Wrist and Omni-Wrist II robotic systems, which are commercially available for spray painting, sealing, ultrasonic testing, as well as other uses.

  6. Hand eczema

    Ibler, K.S.; Jemec, G.B.E.; Flyvholm, M.-A.; Diepgen, T.L.; Jensen, Aksel Karl Georg; Agner, T.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Healthcare workers are at increased risk of developing hand eczema. Objectives. To investigate the prevalence and severity of self-reported hand eczema, and to relate the findings to demographic data, occupation, medical speciality, wards, shifts, and working hours. Patients/materials......Background. Healthcare workers are at increased risk of developing hand eczema. Objectives. To investigate the prevalence and severity of self-reported hand eczema, and to relate the findings to demographic data, occupation, medical speciality, wards, shifts, and working hours. Patients...... or severity, but cultural differences between professions with respect to coping with the eczema were significant. Atopic dermatitis was related to increased prevalence and severity, and preventive efforts should be made for healthcare workers with atopic dermatitis. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S....

  7. The Hitting Times with Taboo for a Random Walk on an Integer Lattice

    Bulinskaya, Ekaterina

    2011-01-01

    For a symmetric, homogeneous and irreducible random walk on d-dimensional integer lattice Z^d, having zero mean and a finite variance of jumps, we study the passage times (with possible infinite values) determined by the starting point x, the hitting state y and the taboo state z. We find the probability that these passages times are finite and analyze the tails of their cumulative distribution functions. In particular, it turns out that for the random walk on Z^d, except for a simple (neares...

  8. Touching on taboos : imagining and reconceptualizing motherhood in some post-'68 Italian women's autobiographical writings

    Fanning, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    This article holds that the theme of the maternal, and of motherhood itself, constitutes a taboo in women’s autobiographical writing of the most feminist period in Italy’s history, immediately after 1968. In the first part, the article underlines the fact that the voices heard in many of these texts are daughterly discourses, not motherly ones (and this is part of a tendency that extends beyond literature to the fields of sociology, history and psychoanalysis). It suggests, too, that the refu...

  9. Application of Taboo Search and Genetic Algorithm in planning and optimization of UMTS radio networks

    Jalili, B; Dianati, M

    2010-01-01

    Planning and optimization of 3G networks is more than just frequency allocation and coverage planning, due to the nature of WCDMA coding. It usually involves solution of an NP-Hard problem. In this paper we propose an effective method for optimizing the Common Pilot Channel (CPICH) transmit power, along with maximizing the number of served users and minimizing the number of cell sites and compare use of two meta-heuristic methods: Taboo Search (TS) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) in planning and o...

  10. An energy-based perturbation and a taboo strategy for improving the searching ability of stochastic structural optimization methods

    Cheng, Longjiu; Cai, Wensheng; Shao, Xueguang

    2005-03-01

    An energy-based perturbation and a new idea of taboo strategy are proposed for structural optimization and applied in a benchmark problem, i.e., the optimization of Lennard-Jones (LJ) clusters. It is proved that the energy-based perturbation is much better than the traditional random perturbation both in convergence speed and searching ability when it is combined with a simple greedy method. By tabooing the most wide-spread funnel instead of the visited solutions, the hit rate of other funnels can be significantly improved. Global minima of (LJ) clusters up to 200 atoms are found with high efficiency.

  11. Hand Osteoblastoma

    M. Farzan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Osteoblastoma is one of the rarest primary bone tumors. Although, small bones of the hands and feet are the third most common location for this tumor, the hand involvement is very rare and few case observations were published in the English-language literature. Materials and Methods: In this study, we report five cases of benign osteoblastoma of the hand, 3 in metacarpals and two in phalanxes. The clinical feature is not specific. The severe nocturnal, salicylate-responsive pain is not present in patients with osteoblastoma. The pain is dull, persistent and less localized. The clinical course is usually long and there is often symptoms for months before medical attention are sought. Swelling is a more persistent finding in osteoblastoma of the hand that we found in all of our patients. The radiologic findings are indistinctive, so preoperative diagnosis based on X-ray appearance is difficult. In all of our 5 cases, we fail to consider osteoblastoma as primary diagnosis. Pathologically, osteoblastoma consisting of a well-vascularized connective tissue stroma in which there is active production of osteoid and primitive woven bone. Treatment depends on the stage and localization of the tumor. Curettage and bone grafting is sufficient in stage 1 or stage 2, but in stage 3 wide resection is necessary for prevention of recurrence. Osteosarcoma is the most important differential diagnosis that may lead to inappropriate operation.

  12. Handy Hand

    M.V.S.Praveen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, structural disposition, manufacture and application of robots and computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing. The word ‘ R obotics’ means the study of robots was coined by Isaac Asimov. Robotics involves elements of mechanical and electrical engineering, as well as control theory, computing and now artificial intelligenc e. Robotics technology has matures to a point where these have many research and industrial application. Robots have been used to replace people in production line and are ideally suited for repetitive work. The Robot Institute of America defines a robot a s “ A Programmable multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts and tools of specialized device through variable programmed of variety of tasks”. So we made a robotic hand called “ HANDY HAND ” which is attached to handicap people. The essenti al part of the robotic arm is relay based brick capable of driving a DC Motor and IR sensors. This paper explains the method of interfacing the robotic hand with DC motors, relays and IR sensor which can grab and release less weight objects without any pro gramming.

  13. Taboo Words and Reprimands Elicit Greater Autonomic Reactivity in a First Language Than in a Second Language.

    Harris, Catherine L.; Aycicegi, Ayse; Gleason, Jean Berko

    2003-01-01

    Second language speakers commonly acknowledge that taboo terms can be uttered with greater ease in a second language than a first language. Investigates this phenomenon psychophysiologically by having 32 Turkish-English bilinguals rate a variety of stimuli for pleasantness in Turkish first language and English second language while skin

  14. Evaluation of the Association of Hand-Foot Syndrome with Anticancer Drugs Using the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) and Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report (JADER) Databases.

    Sasaoka, Sayaka; Matsui, Toshinobu; Abe, Junko; Umetsu, Ryogo; Kato, Yamato; Ueda, Natsumi; Hane, Yuuki; Motooka, Yumi; Hatahira, Haruna; Kinosada, Yasutomi; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

      The Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare lists hand-foot syndrome as a serious adverse drug event. Therefore, we evaluated its association with anticancer drug therapy using case reports in the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report (JADER) and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). In addition, we calculated the reporting odds ratio (ROR) of anticancer drugs potentially associated with hand-foot syndrome, and applied the Weibull shape parameter to time-to-event data from JADER. We found that JADER contained 338224 reports from April 2004 to November 2014, while FAERS contained 5821354 reports from January 2004 to June 2014. In JADER, the RORs [95% confidence interval (CI)] of hand-foot syndrome for capecitabine, tegafur-gimeracil-oteracil, fluorouracil, sorafenib, and regorafenib were 63.60 (95%CI, 56.19-71.99), 1.30 (95%CI, 0.89-1.89), 0.48 (95%CI, 0.30-0.77), 26.10 (95%CI, 22.86-29.80), and 133.27 (95%CI, 112.85-157.39), respectively. Adverse event symptoms of hand-foot syndrome were observed with most anticancer drugs, which carry warnings of the propensity to cause these effects in their drug information literature. The time-to-event analysis using the Weibull shape parameter revealed differences in the time-dependency of the adverse events of each drug. Therefore, anticancer drugs should be used carefully in clinical practice, and patients may require careful monitoring for symptoms of hand-foot syndrome. PMID:26935094

  15. Holding thermal receipt paper and eating food after using hand sanitizer results in high serum bioactive and urine total levels of bisphenol A (BPA).

    Hormann, Annette M.; VOM SAAL Frederick S.; Nagel, Susan C; Stahlhut, Richard W; Moyer, Carol L; Mark R. Ellersieck; Welshons, Wade V; Toutain, Pierre-Louis

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting environmental contaminant used in a wide variety of products, and BPA metabolites are found in almost everyone’s urine, suggesting widespread exposure from multiple sources. Regulatory agencies estimate that virtually all BPA exposure is from food and beverage packaging. However, free BPA is applied to the outer layer of thermal receipt paper present in very high (∼20 mg BPA/g paper) quantities as a print developer. Not taken into account when cons...

  16. Study on Post Transportation Vehicle Routing Problem Based on Taboo-Genetic Hybrid algorithm

    Wang Yong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the operational efficiency of post transportation network, a hybrid post transportation model with center location and vehicle routing problem is proposed. Some important factors, such as pick-up and delivery of packages and multi-type vehicles, are also considered in the presented model. The solution of the model is divided into two stages. In the first stage, the third-level post centers and their regions are determined. Moreover, the deliver tasks between the second-level and the third-level post centers are distributed. In the second stage, the vehicle scheduling problem of each post center is solved. The center distribution method and taboo-genetic hybrid algorithm are employed in second stages, respectively. Finally, the empirical analysis is performed with actual data of Guizhou Post. The results show that the proposed model and algorithm are valid and practical.

  17. A Study about the Taboo of Rotation Timing for the Flapping Wing Flight

    Wang, An-Bang; Hsueh, Chia-Hsien; Chen, Shih-Shen

    2004-11-01

    Influence of rotation timing for flapping wing flight on the flying lift has been experimentally investigated in this study. Since the insects cannot extend and shrink their wings like birds, the rotation timing of wings becomes the major influential factor to affect the flying lift of the flapping wing flight. The results reveal that rotation timing has significant influence on the flying lift. The averaged flying lift increases for high rotation wing velocity. Based on the comparisons of flying lift, too late A-rotation (connecting from wing downward motion to upward one) is the most serious taboo for the motion design of the micro air vehicles with flapping wings. Too late B-rotation (connection from upward motion to downward one) should also be avoided.

  18. Westermarck, Freud, and the incest taboo: does familial resemblance activate sexual attraction?

    Fraley, R Chris; Marks, Michael J

    2010-09-01

    Evolutionary psychological theories assume that sexual aversions toward kin are triggered by a nonconscious mechanism that estimates the genetic relatedness between self and other. This article presents an alternative perspective that assumes that incest avoidance arises from consciously acknowledged taboos and that when awareness of the relationship between self and other is bypassed, people find individuals who resemble their kin more sexually appealing. Three experiments demonstrate that people find others more sexually attractive if they have just been subliminally exposed to an image of their opposite-sex parent (Experiment 1) or if the face being rated is a composite image based on the self (Experiment 2). This finding is reversed when people are aware of the implied genetic relationship (Experiment 3). These findings have implications for a century-old debate between E. Westermarck and S. Freud, as well as contemporary research on evolution, mate choice, and sexual imprinting. PMID:20647594

  19. Survey reveals sexual myths and taboos prevail among Sri Lankan youth.

    1989-01-01

    A survey conducted by the Family Planning Association of Sri Lanka in 1986-87 revealed that sexual myths and taboos--not solid information about human physiology and development--dominate young people's knowledge of reproductive health. The survey, which covered 1233 unmarried men and 1233 unmarried women 16-24 years of age, found that the majority of Sri Lankan youth had misconceptions and fears about normal processes such as menstruation, nocturnal emissions, and masturbation. Sex education is not a part of the curriculum in Sri Lankan schools, although 90% of the youth surveyed believed such courses should be offered. Over 75% of the men surveyed said it was important that their future wives be virgins, but only 17% knew that not all women bleed at 1st intercourse. Females reported that their mothers focused on the social rituals associated with menarche (isolation, a special diet, taboos against bathing) and did not explain the physiology of this event. 55% of females indicated they had been frightened by their 1st menstrual period. 69% of the males surveyed had experienced nocturnal emissions; 60% thought these emissions weakened the body and 64% thought they caused weight loss. 66% of males and 5% of females indicated they masturbated; nearly 70% of males and 85% of females thought this practice resulted in physical, mental, and sexual problems. 23% believed masturbation caused mental deterioration. Overall, the results of this survey demonstrate an urgent need for Sri Lankan youth to receive accurate information about sexuality and reproductive health, optimally through the schools. PMID:12281988

  20. Hand rejuvenation.

    Riyaz, Farhaad R; Ozog, David

    2015-09-01

    Aging of the hands results from both natural processes and chronic ultraviolet light exposure. Together, these cause textural and pigmentary changes, excess skin laxity, rhytides, and soft tissue atrophy that presents as prominent bones and tendons with easily visible veins. Many options are available for the reversal of these changes. Photoaging can be improved with chemical peels and light-based treatments (such as Q-switched lasers), resurfacing lasers, intense pulsed light, and photodynamic therapy. Soft tissue atrophy can be corrected with autologous fat, nonanimal stabilized hyaluronic acid, calcium hydroxylapatite, and poly-L lactic acid injections. The literature shows that these treatments have favorable outcomes for most patients; but in order to reduce known complications, it is important to understand the proper use and limitations of each modality. PMID:26566571

  1. Tabud ja reeglid. Sissevaateid eesti laagriromaani / Taboos and Rules. Insights into Prison Camp Novels by Estonian Writers

    Anneli Kõvamees

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article concentrates on Estonian novels depicting Soviet prison camps in the 1940s and 1950s. The goal is to map themes, motifs and characteristics in such novels, concentrating on various taboos and rules in the prison camp environment. For a long time the Soviet prison camp theme was not publicly discussed in Estonia due to political reasons. Texts dealing with prison camps could appear in print only outside the Soviet Union; the way Estonians saw these historical events and hellish experiences were depicted mostly in exile novels. Most notable are the novels by Arved Viirlaid (b. 1922, e.g., Kes tappis Eerik Hormi? (Who Killed Eerik Horm? (1974, Surnud ei loe (The Dead do not Read (1975, Vaim ja ahelad (Mind and Chains (1961.Estonian prison camp novels can be seen as “the literature of testimony”, to use the term by Leona Toker. Dramatic historical events are written down to record the events and to show the inhumane nature of Soviet society. These records of the dramatic past follow certain patterns and create certain self- and hetero-images.A prison camp is a closed territory within a closed territory; prison camps can be seen as small models of Soviet society. Prison camp novels give a detailed view of the environment of the prison camp, its inhabitants and activities. Two central aspects are labour and food; the life of the prisoner whirls around these. The most important thing is to survive, which often leads to moral decline, e.g., stealing, cheating. However, there are lines Estonians do not cross, e.g., cannibalism or homosexual relationships with superiors. Estonians are always depicted as political prisoners (not common criminals and heterosexuals, while Russians are portrayed mainly as criminals and often also as homosexuals. Another important component of the image of the Estonians is their enterprising spirit and ability to manage even under very difficult conditions. Therefore, several oppositions can be identified, e.g., Estonians vs. Russians; political prisoners vs. criminals; heterosexuals vs. homosexuals; civilized vs. barbaric, etc.

  2. TRADITIONAL FOOD HABITS OF THE BODOS OF NORTH EAST INDIA: A FIELD STUDY

    GUDDU PRASAD BASUMATARY

    2012-01-01

    This is a brief overview of the traditional food habits of the Bodos North East India. Food is the culture and the culture is the identity of any communities. The traditional system of fooding, preparing, rituals, taboos or health care varies community wise. But the significance of the word TRADITION is decreasing day by day, in short the word tradition itself changing traditionally due to the global impact of globalization and as well as due to socio-economic development ...

  3. Well Fuck! A Comparative Case Study in DVD Subtitling: The Linguistic Transfer of Taboo Language in Reservoir Dogs from English into Dutch

    Nguyen, T.M.K.

    2015-01-01

    Quentin Tarantino’s film Reservoir Dogs (1992) contains many instances of overt taboo language. This includes words, subjects or concepts that are obscene, offensive or inappropriate in a given cultural context and are not to be spoken or expressed in front of the public eye, to prevent loss of face or cause offence. The aim of this contrastive study is to shed light on the linguistic transfer of taboo language of Reservoir Dogs. The crucial contrasts between the original English dialogue and...

  4. A Sociolinguistic View of Taboo Language and Euphemisms in the Algerian Society: Attitudes and Beliefs in Tlemcen Speech Community

    GHOUNANE, nadia

    2014-01-01

    The current study is geared to investigate Tlemcen speakers? attitudes towards taboo topics namely sex and death and their euphemistic substitutions. It also aims at improving a useful understanding of these sensitive topics. Thus, it tends to prove that some linguistic expressions are the result of societal, psychological and cultural pressures. Another purpose of this work is to analyse Tlemcen speakers? views, beliefs and, therefore, exploring the motives which give a fertile soil for the ...

  5. Taboo thoughts and doubt/checking: a refinement of the factor structure for obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms

    Pinto, Anthony; Eisen, Jane L.; Maria C. Mancebo; Greenberg, Benjamin D; STOUT, ROBERT L.; Rasmussen, Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to improve upon earlier factor analyses of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptom categories by minimizing the heterogeneity in the aggressive obsessions category. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted on data from 293 adults with primary OCD. The resulting five factors (Symmetry/Ordering, Hoarding, Doubt/Checking, Contamination/Cleaning, and Taboo Thoughts) are phenomenologically more homogeneous than prior category-based factors and are consistent ...

  6. Harmony: A Hand Wash Monitoring and Reminder System using Smart Watches

    Md Abu Sayeed Mondol; Stankovic, John A

    2015-01-01

    Hand hygiene compliance is extremely important in hospitals, clinics and food businesses. Caregivers' compliance with hand hygiene is one of the most effective tools in preventing healthcare associated infections (HAIs) in hospitals and clinics. In food businesses, hand hygiene compliance is essential to prevent food contamination, and thus food borne illness. Washing hands properly is the cornerstone of hand hygiene. However, the hand wash compliance rate by the workers (care givers, waiters...

  7. A child's garden of curses: a gender, historical, and age-related evaluation of the taboo lexicon.

    Jay, Kristin L; Jay, Timothy B

    2013-01-01

    Child swearing is a largely unexplored topic among language researchers, although assumptions about what children know about taboo language form the basis for language standards in many settings. The purpose of the studies presented here is to provide descriptive data about the emergence of adultlike swearing in children; specifically, we aim to document what words children of different ages know and use. Study 1 presents observational data from adults and children (ages 1-12). Study 2 compares perceptions of the inappropriateness of taboo words between adults and older (ages 9-12) and younger (ages 6-8) children. Collectively these data indicate that by the time children enter school they have the rudiments of adult swearing, although children and adults differ in their assessments of the inappropriateness of mild taboo words. Comparisons of these data with estimates obtained in the 1980s allow us to comment on whether swearing habits are changing over the years. Child swearing data can be applied to contemporary social problems and academic issues. PMID:24455812

  8. Subtitling Tarantino’s offensive and taboo dialogue exchanges into european spanish: the case of Pulp Fiction

    José Javier Ávila-Cabrera

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The manner offensive and taboo language is subtitled becomes a delicate and controversial practice given that this type of language functions as a lexical vehicle that provides information on the characters’ personality, social class, and setting and can provoke a strong reaction on viewers (Díaz Cintas, 2001. The omission of offensive/taboo words can therefore be said to entail a loss in their communicative function. From a Descriptive Translation Studies approach, the goals of this paper attempt to shed some light on the way the film Pulp Fiction (Quentin Tarantino, 1994 was subtitled into European Spanish by delving into diverse matters such as: (1 the translation strategies utilised by the subtitler; (2 the way offensive/taboo dialogue exchanges were transferred on the screen; and (3 proving whether the cases of neutralisation and omission of the load of these terms might have been justified by the technical constraints of subtitling.

  9. The shallow boreholes at The AltotiBerina near fault Observatory (TABOO; northern Apennines of Italy)

    Chiaraluce, L.; Collettini, C.; Cattaneo, M.; Monachesi, G.

    2014-04-01

    As part of an interdisciplinary research project, funded by the European Research Council and addressing the mechanics of weak faults, we drilled three 200-250 m-deep boreholes and installed an array of seismometers. The array augments TABOO (The AltotiBerina near fault ObservatOry), a scientific infrastructure managed by the Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology. The observatory, which consists of a geophysical network equipped with multi-sensor stations, is located in the northern Apennines (Italy) and monitors a large and active low-angle normal fault. The drilling operations started at the end of 2011 and were completed by July 2012. We instrumented the boreholes with three-component short-period (2 Hz) passive instruments at different depths. The seismometers are now fully operational and collecting waveforms characterised by a very high signal to noise ratio that is ideal for studying microearthquakes. The resulting increase in the detection capability of the seismic network will allow for a broader range of transients to be identified.

  10. Tabus sexuais entre professores e alunos Sexual taboos among teachers and students

    Antônio Zuin

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O poder da sexualidade nas relações entre professores e alunos é tão intenso quanto o esforço feito pelos agentes educacionais em negá-lo. O termo tabu representa a exata designação do que tal terminologia suscita: algo misterioso e, principalmente, proibido. De fato, a questão sexual entre professores e alunos concerne a uma esfera tão proibitiva que sequer é mencionada, haja vista a escassez de pesquisas que versam a esse respeito. Daí o objetivo deste artigo, ou seja, analisar a ambivalência dos sentimentos de amor e de ódio que se objetivam na sexualidade existente entre professores e alunos.The power of sexuality in teacher-student relationships is as intense as the effort made by educational institutions to deny it. The term "taboo"represents the exact designation of what such terminology means: something mysterious and mainly forbidden. In fact, the sexual issue among teachers and students concerns such a forbidding sphere that it is hardly mentioned, which explains the little research that has been carried out in this field. Thus, this paper is aimed at analyzing the ambivalence of feelings of love and hate found in the teacher-student sexuality.

  11. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Full Text Available ... should wash their hands, either with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. You ... nurses – either wash their hands with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer every ...

  12. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Full Text Available ... their hands, either with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. You and your ... wash their hands with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer every time, both ...

  13. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Full Text Available ... that people should wash their hands, either with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand ... doctors and nurses – either wash their hands with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand ...

  14. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Full Text Available ... should wash their hands, either with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. You ... nurses either wash their hands with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer every ...

  15. New food policy

    Christensen, Tove; Andersen, Lill

    need for restablishing public confidence in its food supply, its food science, its laws and its food control. In addition, the White Paper on Food Safety points towards a farm to fork policy in that 'as the food production chain is becoming increasingly complex, the health of consumers can ony be......The urbanisation, technical changes, and the industrialisation of the food systems on one hand and increased income and changes in lifestyles on the other hand transform the way food is produced, marketed and consumed - those changes call for changes in the nature of food policy. Concerns over food...... safety have become an important driver of reform of food policy. In particular, the BSE crisis in 1996 had a significant impact on the formulation of a change in food safety policy in the EU. The White Paper on Food Safety was prepared by the EU commision as a response to the BSE scandal as the EU felt a...

  16. Taboo search algorithm for item assignment in synchronized zone automated order picking system

    Wu, Yingying; Wu, Yaohua

    2014-07-01

    The idle time which is part of the order fulfillment time is decided by the number of items in the zone; therefore the item assignment method affects the picking efficiency. Whereas previous studies only focus on the balance of number of kinds of items between different zones but not the number of items and the idle time in each zone. In this paper, an idle factor is proposed to measure the idle time exactly. The idle factor is proven to obey the same vary trend with the idle time, so the object of this problem can be simplified from minimizing idle time to minimizing idle factor. Based on this, the model of item assignment problem in synchronized zone automated order picking system is built. The model is a form of relaxation of parallel machine scheduling problem which had been proven to be NP-complete. To solve the model, a taboo search algorithm is proposed. The main idea of the algorithm is minimizing the greatest idle factor of zones with the 2-exchange algorithm. Finally, the simulation which applies the data collected from a tobacco distribution center is conducted to evaluate the performance of the algorithm. The result verifies the model and shows the algorithm can do a steady work to reduce idle time and the idle time can be reduced by 45.63% on average. This research proposed an approach to measure the idle time in synchronized zone automated order picking system. The approach can improve the picking efficiency significantly and can be seen as theoretical basis when optimizing the synchronized automated order picking systems.

  17. From the iron hand to hand transplantation:

    Marinček, Črt

    2009-01-01

    The iron hand from Slovenia, its form and function are discribed to demonstrate prosthetics achievements in the Middle Ages. Another big step forward in the field of hand replacement is high resolution digital CAD-CAM system combined with silicon technology, developed in Ljubljana. In the third part, an up-to-date review of hand allotransplantations is presented.

  18. Clean Hands Save Lives: Emergency Situations

    ... dry your hands. Pat your skin rather than rubbing to avoid chapping and cracking. If you use a disposable towel, throw it in the trash. Remember:Â If soap and water are not available, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Related Information Food & Water Safety ...

  19. Taboo Topics in Cat on a Hot Tin Roof and A Streetcar Named Desire by Tennessee Williams

    Humlov, Monika

    2011-01-01

    The work is focused on the plays Cat on a Hot Tin Roof and A Streetcar Named Desire by the American playwright Tennessee Williams, and the articulation of topics that were not entirely common for a dramatic production of the period. After setting of both plays into the socio-cultural context with the special emphasis on the atmosphere of the post-war years in the United States of America and a stand of the society on the so-called taboo topics, this issue is addressed in the above mentio...

  20. Hands in Systemic Disease

    ... a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Systemic Diseases Email to a friend * required fields From * To * ... the whole body. These are known as a systemic diseases. The hands may show changes noticed by the ...

  1. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Full Text Available ... either with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. You and your loved ones ... hands with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer every time, both before and ...

  2. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Full Text Available ... your hands and make sure that everyone who touches you including your doctor cleanses their hands too. ... sanitizer every time, both before and after they touch you. Healthcare providers know to practice hand hygiene, ...

  3. Culture and sexual scripts out of Africa. A North American trainer's view of taboos, tradition, trouble and truth.

    Ecker, N

    1994-01-01

    The author's experiences in sub-Saharan Africa draw attention to the importance of cultural respect to the creation of effective sex education programs. The obstacles related to health and sexuality in Africa--taboos against discussing sexuality, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), uncontrolled fertility rates, poor access to contraception, child sexual abuse, sepsis from illegal abortion, female genital mutilation, sex discrimination, and rape--are overwhelming. Massive migration to urban areas has weakened connections to the extended family and village elders, leaving young Africans to attempt to sort out traditional African values from emerging Western concepts. Male dominance makes it impossible for most African women to insist that their partners practice safe sex, and the persistence of female circumcision further empowers men to control female sexuality. To ensure that sexuality curricula reflect a culture's belief system, there must be input from youth, parent educators, religious leaders, and local government and community leaders. All programming must be available to both literate and illiterate individuals, and educators should be trained in the local dialect. It is advisable to work with a counterpart indigenous to the target area. Knowledge of a culture's sexual script is mandatory. Also essential are interventions that foster desensitization about the open discussion of sexuality. Finally, outside educators should be aware that taboos and rituals that commemorate rites of passage generally serve a specific, useful purpose and should be respected. PMID:12287357

  4. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Full Text Available ... should wash their hands, either with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. You and your loved ones ... nurses – either wash their hands with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer every time, both before and ...

  5. [Hand and endocrine diseases].

    Wmeau, Jean-Louis; Ryndak, Amlie; Karrouz, Wassila; Balavoine, Anne-Sophie; Baudoux, Florence

    2013-12-01

    The whole of hormones likely influence state of hands, modifying colouring and trophicity of the skin and having influence on its muscular, tendineous, osseous, articular components. Thus state of the hands contributes to the recognition of the endocrine diseases: hot and moist hands of the Graves' disease, dry, cold and infiltrated hands in myxoedema, pale and fine hands of hypopituitarism, broad and thick hand of acromegaly, brachymetacarpia in the pseudohypoparathyroidism Diabetes exposes particularly to tendineous and articular retractions, to whitlows and ungual mycosis. PMID:24148694

  6. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Full Text Available ... eating, and after using the restroom. Our patient's son could have also used an alcohol-based hand ... eating, and after using the restroom. Our patient's son could have also used an alcohol-based hand ...

  7. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Full Text Available ... for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC safer, healthier people. Hello. I'm Dr. John Jernigan from the ... must practice proper hand hygiene. This means that people should wash their hands, either with soap and ...

  8. Hands-Only CPR

    ... Hands-Only CPR Program Recursos para hispanohablantes en EE UU CPR & AED Awareness Week Resuscitation Science CPR & ECC ... Hands-Only CPR Program Recursos para hispanohablantes en EE UU CPR & AED Awareness Week Resuscitation Science CPR & ECC ...

  9. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Full Text Available ... help prevent these infections – wash your hands and make sure that everyone who touches you – including your ... is to be involved in your care and make sure everyone around you washes their hands. Hi, ...

  10. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Full Text Available ... hands a little while ago, but would you mind washing them again? Sure, Mom. It's important to ... to even ask you this, but would you mind cleansing your hands before you begin? Oh, I ...

  11. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Full Text Available ... I know that you washed your hands a little while ago, but would you mind washing them ... I know that you washed your hands a little while ago, but would you mind washing them ...

  12. Hand x-ray

    ... used to detect fractures , tumors, foreign objects, or degenerative conditions of the hand. Hand x-rays may ... Abnormal results may include fractures, bone tumors , degenerative bone conditions, and osteomyelitis (inflammation of the bone caused by an infection).

  13. Proper hand washing (image)

    ... to 30 seconds. Clean under your nails. Rinse well. Dry with a clean towel. Proper hand washing is ... to 30 seconds. Clean under your nails. Rinse well. Dry with a clean towel. Proper hand washing is ...

  14. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Full Text Available ... to wash their hands. Thank you for your attention and I wish you a speedy and uneventful ... to wash their hands. Thank you for your attention and I wish you a speedy and uneventful ...

  15. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Full Text Available ... for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC – safer, healthier people. Hello. I'm Dr. John Jernigan from the ... must practice proper hand hygiene. This means that people should wash their hands, either with soap and ...

  16. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Full Text Available ... Listen/Watch Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hand Hygiene Saves Lives: Patient Admission Video This podcast is ... to help prevent infections: the importance of practicing hand hygiene while in the hospital, and that it's appropriate ...

  17. Auditing hand hygiene practice.

    Gould, Dinah

    Hand hygiene is regarded as the most effective way of preventing healthcare-associated infections. Thus hand hygiene audits are frequently undertaken by infection prevention and control teams. Although apparently straightforward, hand hygiene audit requires careful planning and conduct. Healthcare professionals need to understand the principles that underpin effective hand hygiene audit to improve their own practice and help patients, carers and the public to interpret the findings. PMID:20949824

  18. Hand hygiene strategies

    Yazaji, Eskandar Alex

    2011-01-01

    Hand hygiene is one of the major players in preventing healthcare associated infections. However, healthcare workers compliance with hand hygiene continues to be a challenge. This article will address strategies to help improving hand hygiene compliance. Keywords: hand hygiene; healthcare associated infections; multidisciplinary program; system change; accountability; education; feedback(Published: 18 July 2011)Citation: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives 2011, 1: 72...

  19. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 10. Alcohol-based antiseptics for hand disinfection and a comparison of their effectiveness with soaps.

    Todd, Ewen C D; Michaels, Barry S; Holah, John; Smith, Debra; Greig, Judy D; Bartleson, Charles A

    2010-11-01

    Alcohol compounds are increasingly used as a substitute for hand washing in health care environments and some public places because these compounds are easy to use and do not require water or hand drying materials. However, the effectiveness of these compounds depends on how much soil (bioburden) is present on the hands. Workers in health care environments and other public places must wash their hands before using antiseptics and/or wearing gloves. However, alcohol-based antiseptics, also called rubs and sanitizers, can be very effective for rapidly destroying some pathogens by the action of the aqueous alcohol solution without the need for water or drying with towels. Alcohol-based compounds seem to be the most effective treatment against gram-negative bacteria on lightly soiled hands, but antimicrobial soaps are as good or better when hands are more heavily contaminated. Instant sanitizers have no residual effect, unlike some antimicrobial soaps that retain antimicrobial activity after the hygienic action has been completed, e.g., after hand washing. Many alcohol-based hand rubs have antimicrobial agents added to them, but each formulation must be evaluated against the target pathogens in the environment of concern before being considered for use. Wipes also are widely used for quick cleanups of hands, other body parts, and surfaces. These wipes often contain alcohol and/or antimicrobial compounds and are used for personal hygiene where water is limited. However, antiseptics and wipes are not panaceas for every situation and are less effective in the presence of more than a light soil load and against most enteric viruses. PMID:21219730

  20. Profits go hand in hand with hygiene

    Estrada, Deanne

    2009-01-01

    In Zambia, where hygiene and safety are critical issues in food processing, researchers are using a new tool to get their message across: a coloring book for kids. 'Protect Yourself With Handwashing' features three smiling youngsters in a cartoon car of citrus, melons, and vegetables in vibrant hues. Though its target audience is children of employees at food processing and distribution centers in Lundazi and Mfuwe, the book also reminds parents that good hygiene begins at home.

  1. The Invisible Hand and the Grabbing Hand.

    Timothy Frye; Andrei Shleifer

    1997-01-01

    Evidence from a survey of 105 shop-owners in Moscow and Warsaw shows that the reliance on private protection, as well as the burden of regulation and corruption, are much greater in Moscow. The evidence suggests that the `invisible hand' model of government better fits the Warsaw local government, and the`grabbing hand' model is more appropriate for Moscow. The evidence implies that the singular focus on the speed of economic reforms to understand the success of transition is misplaced, and t...

  2. Food for tourists

    Hjalager, Anne-Mette; Corigliano, Magda Antolioli

    Eating is a physical necessity, but catering services and food image are also very important ingredients of cultural tourism. Food and tourism are increasingly being combined, e.g. in agri-tourism, wine tours and the sale of food products as souvenirs. However, as this paper illustrates, the...... development and standards of food for tourists are determined not by tourism policies, but by national economic, agricultural and food policies. A comparison between Denmark and Italy illustrates core elements in food cultures. Particularly in Denmark, food production is a major economic activity, and the...... power of the agricultural and food processing industries has in many cases severely compromised the quality image. In Italy, on the other hand, food policies and traditions, which give a high priority to freshness, allow consumers to stay in control of food quality to a much larger extent than in...

  3. Implants in the hand; Implantate der Hand

    Wanivenhaus, A. [Medizinische Universitaet, Universitaetsklinik fuer Orthopaedie, Wien (Austria)

    2006-09-15

    Increasingly, implants in the region of hand joints and the wrist represent an alternative for the treatment of post-traumatic, inflamed, or degenerative joint damage. The diversity of hand functions also results in varied solutions, which are effective in their stability, mobility, and distraction. Different materials are necessary for this, and they require subtile radiological control. The native X-ray represents the substantial method to observe migration of the implants. Each interface between titanium, ceramic, zirconium, pyrocarbon, and silicon to the bone has to be assessed differently in order to obtain a relevant statement. The finger joints and to a limited extent the wrist represent the artificial joints with limited alternative therapy. Other implants in the hand should only be applied after strict indication and patient compliance, as arthrodesis and resection arthroplasty have shown very good long-term results. (orig.) [German] Implantate im Bereich der Gelenke der Hand und des Handgelenks stellen zunehmend Alternativen bei der Versorgung posttraumatischer, entzuendlicher oder degenerativer Gelenkschaeden dar. Die Vielfalt der Handfunktionen fuehrt auch zu unterschiedlichen Loesungen, die durch Stabilitaet, Mobilitaet und Distraktion wirksam werden. Dafuer sind unterschiedliche Materialien erforderlich, die eine subtile radiologische Kontrolle erfordern. Das Nativroentgen stellt das wesentlichste Verfahren zur Verlaufsbeobachtung von Implantaten dar. Das Interface zwischen Titan, Keramik, Zirkonium, Pyrokarbon und Silikon zum Knochen muss unterschiedlich bewertet werden, um relevante Aussagen treffen zu koennen. Die Fingergelenke und in begrenztem Ausmass auch das Handgelenk stellen Kunstgelenke mit geringen Alternativtherapiemoeglichkeiten dar. Die uebrigen Implantate der Hand sollten nur bei strenger Indikationsstellung und hoher Patientencompliance Anwendung finden, da Arthrodese oder Resektionsarthroplastik gute Langzeitresultate aufweisen. (orig.)

  4. Adequate Hand Washing and Glove Use Are Necessary To Reduce Cross-Contamination from Hands with High Bacterial Loads.

    Robinson, Andrew L; Lee, Hyun Jung; Kwon, Junehee; Todd, Ewen; Rodriguez, Fernando Perez; Ryu, Dojin

    2016-02-01

    Hand washing and glove use are the main methods for reducing bacterial cross-contamination from hands to ready-to-eat food in a food service setting. However, bacterial transfer from hands to gloves is poorly understood, as is the effect of different durations of soap rubbing on bacterial reduction. To assess bacterial transfer from hands to gloves and to compare bacterial transfer rates to food after different soap washing times and glove use, participants' hands were artificially contaminated with Enterobacter aerogenes B199A at ?9 log CFU. Different soap rubbing times (0, 3, and 20 s), glove use, and tomato dicing activities followed. The bacterial counts in diced tomatoes and on participants' hands and gloves were then analyzed. Different soap rubbing times did not significantly change the amount of bacteria recovered from participants' hands. Dicing tomatoes with bare hands after 20 s of soap rubbing transferred significantly less bacteria (P hands after 0 s of soap rubbing. Wearing gloves while dicing greatly reduced the incidence of contaminated tomato samples compared with dicing with bare hands. Increasing soap washing time decreased the incidence of bacteria recovered from outside glove surfaces (P hand washing are necessary to reduce bacterial cross-contamination in food service environments. PMID:26818993

  5. Hand deburring guide

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1979-07-01

    Appropriate hand deburring techniques have always been difficult to define because of the infinite variety of part shapes, sizes, materials, and burr conditions. This guide, however, has been prepared to assist those responsible for hand deburring. The purpose of the guide is to define Bendix Kansas City burr specifications and inspection practices; to define the results of practical tests on hand deburring; to define some typical in-house practices; and to define the in-house tools available for this work.

  6. Dextrous robot hands

    Venkataraman, Subramanian T. (editor); Iberall, Thea (editor)

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies of human hand function and their implications for the design of robot hands are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics addressed include human grasp choice and robotic grasp analysis, opposition space and human prehension, coordination in normal and prosthetic reaching, and intelligent exploration by the human hand. Consideration is given to a task-oriented dextrous manipulation architecture, the control architecture for the Belgrade/USC hand, the analysis of multifingered grasping and manipulation, and tactile sensing for shape interpretation. Diagrams, graphs, and photographs are provided.

  7. Hand-Eye Calibration

    Horaud, Radu; Dornaika, Fadi

    1994-01-01

    Whenever a sensor is mounted on a robot hand, it is important to know the relationship between the sensor and the hand. The problem of determining this relationship is referred to as the hand-eye calibration problem. Hand-eye calibration is impor tant in at least two types of tasks: (1) map sensor centered measurements into the robot workspace frame and (2) tasks allowing the robot to precisely move the sensor. In the past some solutions were proposed, particularly in the case of the sensor b...

  8. Learning can be all Fun and Games: Constructing and Utilizing a Biology Taboo Wiktionary to Enhance Student Learning in an Introductory Biology Course

    Jeffrey T. Olimpo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Most introductory courses in the biological sciences are inherently content-dense and rich with jargon—jargon that is often confusing and nonsensical to novice students. These characteristics present an additional paradox to instructors, who strive to achieve a balance between simply promoting passive, rote memorization of facts and engaging students in developing true, concrete understanding of the terminology. To address these concerns, we developed and implemented a Biology Taboo Wiktionary that provided students with an interactive opportunity to review and describe concepts they had encountered during their first semester of introductory biology. However, much like the traditional Taboo game, the rules were such that students could not use obvious terms to detail the main term. It was our belief that if the student could synthesize a thoughtful, scientific explanation of the term under these conditions, he or she demonstrated a true understanding of the conceptual context and meaning of the term.

  9. Learning can be all Fun and Games: Constructing and Utilizing a Biology Taboo Wiktionary to Enhance Student Learning in an Introductory Biology Course

    Jeffrey T. Olimpo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Most introductory courses in the biological sciences are inherently content-dense and rich with jargonjargon that is often confusing and nonsensical to novice students. These characteristics present an additional paradox to instructors, who strive to achieve a balance between simply promoting passive, rote memorization of facts and engaging students in developing true, concrete understanding of the terminology. To address these concerns, we developed and implemented a Biology Taboo Wiktionary that provided students with an interactive opportunity to review and describe concepts they had encountered during their first semester of introductory biology. However, much like the traditional Taboo game, the rules were such that students could not use obvious terms to detail the main term. It was our belief that if the student could synthesize a thoughtful, scientific explanation of the term under these conditions, he or she demonstrated a true understanding of the conceptual context and meaning of the term.

  10. Learning can be all Fun and Games: Constructing and Utilizing a Biology Taboo Wiktionary to Enhance Student Learning in an Introductory Biology Course

    Jeffrey T. Olimpo; Shannon Davis; Sarah Lagman; Raj Parekh; Patricia Shields

    2010-01-01

    Most introductory courses in the biological sciences are inherently content-dense and rich with jargon—jargon that is often confusing and nonsensical to novice students. These characteristics present an additional paradox to instructors, who strive to achieve a balance between simply promoting passive, rote memorization of facts and engaging students in developing true, concrete understanding of the terminology. To address these concerns, we developed and implemented a Biology Taboo Wi...

  11. Is D_E_A_T_H a dirty word in Residential Care? - 22nd Annual John K. Friesen Conference - Taboo Topics in Residential Care (2013)

    Gespard, Gina; Roberts, Della; Gallagher, Romayne; Edmunds, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This video comprises presentations for the topic: Is D_E_A_T_H a dirty word in Residential Care? held at the 22nd Annual John K. Friesen Conference, "Taboo Topics in Residential Care," MAY 27-28, 2013, Vancouver, BC. Chair: Cherry Harriman (Director, Clinical Programs, Abbotsford & Chilliwack, Residential Care, Assisted Living & Specialized Populations). Presentations: Gina Gespard (Clinical Nurse Specialist, Fraser Health Residential Care, Assisted Livi...

  12. Wash Your Hands

    ... Dry your hands using a clean towel or air dry them. Why? Read the science behind the recommendations What should you do if you don't have soap and clean, running water? Washing hands with soap and water is the best way to reduce the number of microbes on them ...

  13. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Full Text Available ... they forget. You and your loved ones can play a role in asking and reminding healthcare providers to wash their hands, especially while they're caring for you. You shouldn't feel embarrassed to ask everyone, including doctors and nurses, to wash their hands. ...

  14. Surgical hand hygiene: scrub or rub?

    Widmer, A F

    2013-02-01

    Surgical hand hygiene is standard care prior to any surgical procedure. Per-operative glove punctures are observed in almost 30% of all interventions, and a risk factor for postoperative infections. In the past, washing hands with antimicrobial soap and water (surgical scrub) was the norm, mainly with chlorhexidine or iodine. More recently, alcohol-based hand rub has been successfully introduced, showing greater effectiveness, less irritation to the hands, and requiring less time than washing hands. All products should have a remnant effect that delays microbial growth under the gloved hand. Some of the alcohol-based compounds are effective (as determined by the European Norm EN 12791) within 90 s whereas others require 3-5 min, similar to the scrub. The short procedure relies heavily on proper technique and timing, since lowering the exposure time to effectiveness of bacterial killing. Today, surgical hand hygiene should meet EN 12791 in Europe, or other standards, such as the US Food and Drug Administration tentative final monograph norm in the USA. It is best performed by using an alcohol-based hand rub, but a scrub with chlorhexidine-containing soap also meets these standards. PMID:23453175

  15. Food for Disasters

    2012-07-23

    When disaster strikes, you might not have access to food or water. This podcast discusses types of emergency food supplies you should keep on hand in your emergency kit.  Created: 7/23/2012 by Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (PHPR).   Date Released: 7/23/2012.

  16. Revisitando os Tabus: as cautelas rituais do povo de santo Revisiting taboos: ritualistic cautions among the "povo de santo"

    Francesca Bassi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo prope uma reflexo sobre o papel das interdies rituais pessoais, chamadas de quizilas, no contexto do candombl da Bahia (Jeje-Nag. A pesquisa de campo levou hiptese de que, para alm das proibies profilticas e dos tabus de cunho coletivo, existem interdies pessoais baseadas em sensibilidades negativas, notadamente em ojerizas ou alergias alimentares, que guiam o iniciado numa relao particular com os orixs. A constatao de que a sensibilidade corporal desempenha um papel importante nesse tipo de gesto ritual indica, portanto, a importncia de uma prtica etnogrfica debruada sobre a noo de "corpo que sente".This article proposes a reflection about the role played by personal ritual prohibitions, known as quizilas, in the context of the candombl of Bahia (Jeje-Nag. My fieldwork led to the following hypothesis: besides a system of prophylactic prohibitions and besides collective taboos, there is a system of personal prohibitions based on negative sensitivities -on disgust feelings or on alimentary allergic reactions- and which built an especial relationship of the initiate with the orixs. As such, the ethnography of this kind of ritual behavior should arguably be based on somatic issues and on the concept of the "feeling body".

  17. Sobre a atualidade dos tabus com relação aos professores Taboos against teachers today

    Antonio A. S. Zuin

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Este texto tem como objetivo argumentar que as atuais representações aversivas dos alunos com relação aos seus mestres, os chamados tabus, são decorrentes da violência simbólica que o professor exerce sobre o aluno, com ênfase na universidade. E se a atitude violenta causa inicialmente uma sensação de mal-estar, logo é identificada como algo "inerente" ao processo de ensino-aprendizagem. Tal violência torna-se valorizada tanto pelos professores quanto pelos alunos que se identificam com o professor na figura do agressor, sendo que tais alunos procuram encontrar oportunidades para poder se desforrar do ressentimento que foi engendrado nas relações cotidianas com seus mestres.This paper intends to argue that the current averse representations students have of their teachers, the so called taboos, follow from the symbolic violence teachers exert on them, mainly in the university. If this violent attitude initially causes a sensation of discomfort, it is soon identified as something "inherent" to the teaching and learning process. Therefore, it is often highly prized by teachers and by the students who identify themselves with the professor as an aggressor, while these students look for opportunities to let go of the resentment generated by their daily relationships to their masters.

  18. TaBoo SeArch Algorithm with a Modified Inverse Histogram for Reproducing Biologically Relevant Rare Events of Proteins.

    Harada, Ryuhei; Takano, Yu; Shigeta, Yasuteru

    2016-05-10

    The TaBoo SeArch (TBSA) algorithm [ Harada et al. J. Comput. Chem. 2015 , 36 , 763 - 772 and Harada et al. Chem. Phys. Lett. 2015 , 630 , 68 - 75 ] was recently proposed as an enhanced conformational sampling method for reproducing biologically relevant rare events of a given protein. In TBSA, an inverse histogram of the original distribution, mapped onto a set of reaction coordinates, is constructed from trajectories obtained by multiple short-time molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Rarely occurring states of a given protein are statistically selected as new initial states based on the inverse histogram, and resampling is performed by restarting the MD simulations from the new initial states to promote the conformational transition. In this process, the definition of the inverse histogram, which characterizes the rarely occurring states, is crucial for the efficiency of TBSA. In this study, we propose a simple modification of the inverse histogram to further accelerate the convergence of TBSA. As demonstrations of the modified TBSA, we applied it to (a) hydrogen bonding rearrangements of Met-enkephalin, (b) large-amplitude domain motions of Glutamine-Binding Protein, and (c) folding processes of the B domain of Staphylococcus aureus Protein A. All demonstrations numerically proved that the modified TBSA reproduced these biologically relevant rare events with nanosecond-order simulation times, although a set of microsecond-order, canonical MD simulations failed to reproduce the rare events, indicating the high efficiency of the modified TBSA. PMID:27070761

  19. (In)Visible Hand(s)

    Predrag Zima

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the author discusses the regulatory role of the state and legal norms, in market economy, especially in so-called transition countries. Legal policy, and other questions of the state and free market economy are here closely connected, because the state must ensure with legal norms that economic processes are not interrupted: only the state can establish the legal basis for a market economy. The free market’s invisible hand is acting in questions such as: what is to be produced,...

  20. Temporary ectopic hand implantation

    Xu Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Severe crushing injuries to the distal forearm can preclude immediate hand replantation, with temporary ectopic implantation as a practicable option under special circumstances. This report describes a case of temporary ectopic hand implantation for a crush injury extending from the wrist to the middle third of the forearm, using the left foot as the recipient site. The hand was replanted onto the left forearm 3 months after the ectopic implantation, with functional gains seen by 18 months. Satisfactory ambulation was retained, with no reported foot pain. Temporary ectopic implantation is a pragmatic alternative under select circumstances.

  1. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Full Text Available ... remind healthcare providers to practice hand hygiene. Created: 5/1/2008 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, ... to listen to this CDC Podcast Running time = 5:29 Your browser does not support the audio ...

  2. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Full Text Available ... think about CDC podcasts >> Listen/Watch Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hand Hygiene Saves Lives: Patient ... Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID). Date Released: 6/19/2008. Series Name: ...

  3. Mind the hand

    Davidsen, Jacob; Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2014-01-01

    Apart from touching the screen, what is the role of the hands for children collaborating around touchscreens? Based on embodied and multimodal interaction analysis of 8- and 9-year old pairs collaborating around touchscreens, we conclude that children use their hands to constrain and control access......, to construct and problem solve, and to show and imitate. The analyses show how a space emerges from the interaction between the children and the touchscreen, and how their hand movements reveal intelligence-as-action. Three situations with three different pairs were analysed to explore how children...... use their hands in activities around touchscreens, focusing in particular on how they collaborate. The analysis presented here is part of a research study on the use of touchscreens in children’s embodied and multimodal collaborative learning activities in their everyday classrooms. The general aim of...

  4. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Full Text Available ... the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Your doctor has chosen to admit you to this facility ... sure that everyone who touches you – including your doctor – cleanses their hands too. Patients and their loved ...

  5. Arthritis of the Hand

    ... There may be a sensation of grating or grinding in the affected joint (crepitation). This is caused ... to perform the surgery. As with any evolving technology, the long- term results of the hand or ...

  6. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Full Text Available ... Lives: Patient Admission Video This podcast is for hospital patients and visitors. It emphasizes two key points ... importance of practicing hand hygiene while in the hospital, and that it's appropriate to ask or remind ...

  7. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Full Text Available ... think about CDC podcasts >> Listen/Watch Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hand Hygiene Saves Lives: Patient ... room. If you wouldn't mind, I'd like you to do it again in front of ...

  8. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Full Text Available ... This podcast is for hospital patients and visitors. It emphasizes two key points to help prevent infections: ... hand hygiene while in the hospital, and that it's appropriate to ask or remind healthcare providers to ...

  9. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Full Text Available ... wound, or urinary tract, as well as pneumonia. These infections can be serious and hard to treat, ... and your family can do to help prevent these infections – wash your hands and make sure that ...

  10. A Myoelectric Hand Splint

    Silverstein, Frances; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Development of a myoelectrically controlled hand splint permitting ambulating mobility of the user is discussed. The role of occupational therapy in the research and design of the device and the training of the patient are emphasized. (Authors)

  11. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Full Text Available ... prevent infection as much as you do. I hope that you feel comfortable asking your healthcare providers to wash their hands. I hope that you'll become involved in your medical ...

  12. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Full Text Available ... Play to listen to this CDC Podcast Running time = 5:29 Your browser does not support the ... or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer every time, both before and after they touch you. Healthcare ...

  13. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Full Text Available ... think about CDC podcasts >> Listen/Watch Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hand Hygiene Saves Lives: Patient ... objects or surfaces in the hospital room, before eating, and after using the restroom. It is important ...

  14. Invisible-hand Explanations

    Dayer-Tieffenbach, Emma

    2011-01-01

    The invisible hand is a theory that shows that legislators, collective agreements and moral concerns are not indispensable to the emergence of social outcomes. It instead describes social outcomes as the unintended consequences of many self-interested actions on the part of individuals. Invisible-hand explanations however often raise criticisms. They are seen as falling short in two ways. First, they unpersuasively present the outcome they explain as an unintended consequence of agents’ behav...

  15. Preparation and evaluation of hand rub disinfectant

    Padsalgi Amol

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work is to formulate effective hand rub disinfectant by selecting broad-spectrum antimicrobial and antifungal agents. Increased need of easy-to-use hand rub disinfectant in pharmaceutical, food processing industry, hospitals, and in clinical labs necessitated development of the best possible product. Formulations were prepared using Benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine gluconate as potent disinfectants along with alcohol 70%. In low concentration they were highly effective without leaving any toxic effect on the user′s skin. A synergistic effect was observed when ethyl alcohol 70% was used in combination. Suitable emollient and skin conditioning agents were used to avoid possible dehydrating effect on the user′s skin. Excellent volatility of the preparation was observed after use, leaving a thin antimicrobial film on the user′s hand. The use of suitable excipient brought effective removal of after the use leaving a soothening effect on the skin. The aim of present work is to develop hand rub formulation which evaporates quickly after applications leaving no trace on hands as in case of hand rub gels. The present formulation was found to be effective when compared with marketed liquid hand rub.

  16. Security of the food supply chain.

    Setola, Roberto; De Maggio, Maria Carla

    2009-01-01

    The food supply chain could became a dangerous weapon in the hands of enemies, for this reason the strategies developed to fight food adulteration (food safety) should be complemented with specific actions devoted to improve food "security" in the sense of food defence. This paper illustrate the methodological approach used in the EU project SecuFood to analyze threats, vulnerabilities and countermeasures existing in major European countries about what concerns deliberate attacks and manipulations of food. PMID:19964201

  17. Food security: status and concerns of India

    Kumar, Rajesh; Bagaria, Nidhi; Santra, Swarup

    2014-01-01

    At one hand, various factors like food production, rising food prices, poverty, unemployment, climate changes, efficient public distribution of food, affecting the food security are the major concerns at domestic front, passing of ambitious Food Security Bill in Sep, 2013 by UPA government in India to provide the basic food staples at highly subsidized prices aimed at ensuring the economic access to food for around two-third of its population coupled with India’s obligations of agriculture tr...

  18. Fifty years on: against the stigmatising myths, taboos and traditions embedded within the Suicide Act 1961 (UK).

    Shaw, Julia J A

    2011-06-01

    Although assisted suicide carries a maximum of 14 years imprisonment in England, courts and juries have historically demonstrated a reluctance to convict, most specifically in relation to those travelling abroad to accompany a terminally ill person seeking assisted dying. The possibility of prosecution is still present, however, and there have recently been a number of challenges to the law on assisted dying. During the consultation period of the Coroners and Justice Act 2009 (UK) an amendment was proposed that would have legalised, among other things, assisting suicide overseas. However, it was voted down by peers who believed it to be dangerously radical. In 2008 a multiple sclerosis sufferer requested a clear policy statement, should her partner help her to seek assisted dying abroad in the future. After her application was initially rejected, Mrs Purdy was granted leave to appeal and following a favourable ruling by the House of Lords in 2009, the Director of Public Prosecutions clarified the law on assisted suicide, introducing a Full Code Test which includes the consideration of "public interest factors". Although the new guidelines are not a direct threat to the 50-year-old Suicide Act 1961 (UK), it is clearly an historic development: the latest in a series of high-profile cases and debates which have taken place over the last decade. It is suggested that English law on assisted dying continues to rely on a range of inappropriate concepts, taboos and superstitions, and it is from this perspective that the implications for future legislative reform are addressed. PMID:21774275

  19. 21 CFR 872.4565 - Dental hand instrument.

    2010-04-01

    ..., operative dental amalgam carver, surgical bone chisel, operative amalgam and foil condenser, endodontic... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental hand instrument. 872.4565 Section 872.4565...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4565 Dental hand instrument. (a) Identification....

  20. The diabetic hand

    C. Circhetta

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic condition characterized by persistent hyperglycaemia with resultant morbidity and mortality related to its microvascular and macrovascular complications. In addition diabetes is also associated with several musculoskeletal disorders of the hand, that can be debilitating. There is increased incidence of these abnormalities in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes compared with the general population, related to disease duration but not to the age or sex. Typical diabetes associated hand condition include the palmar flexor tenosynovitis, Dupuytren’s contracture, syndrome of limited joint mobility, carpal tunnel syndrome, Charcot arthropathy and reflex sympathetic dystrophy. Maintaining good glycaemic control by exercise, diet and drugs improves or prevents the development of these hand rheumatic condition. In this brief report we review the rational therapeutic approach to these disorders.

  1. Implants in the hand

    Increasingly, implants in the region of hand joints and the wrist represent an alternative for the treatment of post-traumatic, inflamed, or degenerative joint damage. The diversity of hand functions also results in varied solutions, which are effective in their stability, mobility, and distraction. Different materials are necessary for this, and they require subtile radiological control. The native X-ray represents the substantial method to observe migration of the implants. Each interface between titanium, ceramic, zirconium, pyrocarbon, and silicon to the bone has to be assessed differently in order to obtain a relevant statement. The finger joints and to a limited extent the wrist represent the artificial joints with limited alternative therapy. Other implants in the hand should only be applied after strict indication and patient compliance, as arthrodesis and resection arthroplasty have shown very good long-term results. (orig.)

  2. Hand Hygiene: When and How

    Hand Hygiene When and How August 2009 How to handrub? How to handwash? RUB HANDS FOR HAND HYGIENE! WASH HANDS WHEN VISIBLY SOILED Duration of the ... from its use. When? YOUR 5 MOMENTS FOR HAND HYGIENE 1 BEFORETOUCHINGA PATIENT 2 B P ECFLOER R ...

  3. 'Please, sir, can I have some more?' Food, lifestyle, diets: respect and moral responsibility.

    de Beaufort, Inez

    2014-04-01

    This article is about respect for food, responsibility for lifestyle and diet and responsibility for those who suffer from lack of food. After some general reflections on food, feasts, flatulence, taboos and waste, I argue that we have a responsibility to live a healthy lifestyle, but that there are also morally good reasons for taking risks with our health as we cherish other goals and values. Then I discuss situations, using the example of obesity, in which people are not free to choose their lifestyle. Governments and doctors have responsibilities in enabling people to chose healthy eating habits, e.g. by facilitating access to healthy foods and by criticizing scientifically unfounded weight loss diets. I continue to defend that we need to respect food and those who prepare it, and that we have a moral responsibility to contribute to the solution of the food gap in the world. PMID:24810184

  4. Adam Smith's Invisible Hands

    Persky, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    William Grampp’s JPE article on Adam Smith is creative and provocative. It errs, however, by disparaging the invisible hand’s importance as a symbol of various economic processes that help societies prosper in ways that individuals neither intend nor comprehend. Four specific problems stand out. First, Grampp unsoundly tries to limit the relevance of the invisible hand within the Wealth of Nations to situations in which a merchant increases domestic capital and strengthens national defens...

  5. [Hands cutaneous exam].

    Lorette, Grard; Samimi, Mahtab

    2013-12-01

    There are four different areas to consider: palms, back of the hands, fingers, periungual folds (and nails). Palmoplantar keratodermas are a group of inherited or acquired disorders. Dysidrosis is a peculiar form of eczema on the palms and lateral aspects of the fingers. SAPHO syndrome (Synovitis - Acne - Pustulosis - Hyperostosis - Osteomyelitis) presents pustules on palms. Photo-ageing is frequently noticed on the back of the hands. Paraneoplastic acrokeratosis (Bazex syndrome) affects the nose, ears, and periungual folds of fingers and toes. Spontaneous blue finger syndrome can be a benign process that resolves rapidly. PMID:24157184

  6. Performance Comparison Between FEDERICA Hand and LARM Hand

    Carbone, Giuseppe; Rossi, Cesare; Savino, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes two robotic hands that have been developed at University Federico II of Naples and at the University of Cassino. FEDERICA Hand and LARM Hand are described in terms of design and operational features. In particular, careful attention is paid to the differences between the above-mentioned hands in terms of transmission systems. FEDERICA Hand uses tendons and pulleys to drive phalanxes, while LARM Hand uses cross four-bar linkages. Results of experimental tests are reported ...

  7. Put Your Hands Together

    2011-03-24

    In this podcast, learn how to help stop the spread of infection and stay healthy. It's easy when you 'Put Your Hands Together.'.  Created: 3/24/2011 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID) and National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 3/24/2011.

  8. [Hand and occupational diseases].

    Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Choudat, Dominique

    2013-12-01

    Hand is frequently the site of work accidents or occupational diseases. The musculoskeletal upper limb is the first recognized occupational disease and carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common of them. The most common location of occupational dermatoses is the hand. Their causes are often multifactorial, involving chemical irritants, physical, allergens and endogenous factors (mainly atopic dermatitis). Occupational exposure to microtrauma and iterative use of vibrating tools may also be the cause of hypothenar hammer syndrome and acrosyndromes. The frequent chronicity and functional impairment induced by these attacks can cause lasting disabilities, an inability to source workstation. Occupational physician is a focal point for helping to maintain the position and the prevention of socioprofessional disinsertion. Many pathologies of the hand related to professional activity may benefit from a statement in occupational disease and thus allow the patient to obtain compensation and employment protection. Prevention of occupational hand diseases should be made by all health actors, especially in occupations and industries at risk. PMID:24134812

  9. Treatment of hand eczema

    Veien, N K; Menne, T

    2003-01-01

    and is a fundamental aspect of the treatment of hand eczema. Although topical corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment, few studies of their rational use, efficacy and side-effects have been conducted. A combination of tacrolimus and topical corticosteroids may reduce the risk of steroid...

  10. Mechanical cornpicker hand injuries

    Momčilović Dragan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical cornpicker hand injuries are not frequent in comparison to general hand trauma, but they have a specific mechanism of occurrence and are very severe. This investigation included 221 hand injuries. The sex distribution shows a general male dominance (85.25% in their active age (84.44%. These are, seasonal injuries mostly occurring in October (75.11%. By type of injuries, mutilating crush injuries are most frequent (64.25%. After completing the treatment, in most cases the functional result were estimated as bad (50.68%. Data concerning education and training for operating agricultural machines (96.38% - patients without training and carrying out safety measures (63.35% of injured patients did not apply any protection measures are devastating. The number of these injuries, as well as consequent permanent disabilities, may be considerably reduced by preventive measures, including public health services and media. Use of contemporary agricultural machinery, as well as obligatory training for operating these machines and application of protective measures, may also reduce the incidence of hand injuries during corn picking.

  11. Hands-On Hydrology

    Mathews, Catherine E.; Monroe, Louise Nelson

    2004-01-01

    A professional school and university collaboration enables elementary students and their teachers to explore hydrology concepts and realize the beneficial functions of wetlands. Hands-on experiences involve young students in determining water quality at field sites after laying the groundwork with activities related to the hydrologic cycle,

  12. Wash Your Hands

    2010-03-08

    This video shows kids how to properly wash their hands, one of the most important steps we can take to avoid getting sick and spreading germs to others.  Created: 3/8/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 3/8/2010.

  13. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Full Text Available ... Resources Podcasting Best Practices Audio Script Writing Guide Children's Privacy Policy for Podcasts How are we doing? Tell us what you think about CDC podcasts >> Listen/Watch Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hand Hygiene Saves Lives: Patient Admission Video This podcast is for ...

  14. Plantas relacionadas con tabes del ciclo reproductivo de los Guaranes de Misiones, Argentina Plants related to taboos of the reproductive cycle of guaranies from Misiones, Argentina

    Hctor A Keller

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Los guaranes de las parcialidades Mbya y Ava Chiripa observan normas de conducta especficas durante la etapa reproductiva de los miembros de sus comunidades. Algunas de estas reglas implican tabes que se relacionan con plantas, las cuales son tratadas en la presente contribucin. El manuscrito es ilustrado mediante fotografas de algunas de las especies mencionadas.Guaranis of Mbya and Ava Chiripa groups, observes norms of specific conduct during the reproductive stage of the members of his communities. Someone of these rules imply taboos related with plants, these plants are treated in the present contribution. The manuscript is illustrated by means photographies of someone of the mentioned species.

  15. 77 FR 71695 - Secondary Direct Food Additives Permitted in Food for Human Consumption; Sodium...

    2012-12-04

    ..., cafeterias, restaurants, retail food establishments, nonprofit food establishments, and other food service... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 173 Secondary Direct Food Additives Permitted in...-827-6870. Mail/Hand delivery/Courier (for paper or CD-ROM submissions): Division of Dockets...

  16. Harmony: A Hand Wash Monitoring and Reminder System using Smart Watches

    Md Abu Sayeed Mondol

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hand hygiene compliance is extremely important in hospitals, clinics and food businesses. Caregivers' compliance with hand hygiene is one of the most effective tools in preventing healthcare associated infections (HAIs in hospitals and clinics. In food businesses, hand hygiene compliance is essential to prevent food contamination, and thus food borne illness. Washing hands properly is the cornerstone of hand hygiene. However, the hand wash compliance rate by the workers (care givers, waiters, chefs, food processors and so on is not up to the mark. Monitoring hand wash compliance along with a reminder system increases the compliance rate significantly. Quality of a hand wash is also important which can be achieved by washing hands in accordance with standard guidelines. In this paper, we present Harmony, a hand wash monitoring and reminder system that monitors hand wash events and their quality, provides real time feedback, reminds the person of interest when he/she is required to wash hands, and stores related data in a server for further use. Worker worn smart watches are the key components of Harmony that can differentiate hand wash gestures from other gestures with an average accuracy of about 88%. Harmony is robust, scalable, and easy to install, and it overcomes most of the problems of existing related systems.

  17. The Rubber Hand Illusion: Feeling of Ownership and Proprioceptive Drift Do Not Go Hand in Hand

    Rohde, Marieke; Di Luca, Massimiliano; Ernst, Marc O.

    2011-01-01

    In the Rubber Hand Illusion, the feeling of ownership of a rubber hand displaced from a participant's real occluded hand is evoked by synchronously stroking both hands with paintbrushes. A change of perceived finger location towards the rubber hand (proprioceptive drift) has been reported to correlate with this illusion. To measure the time course of proprioceptive drift during the Rubber Hand Illusion, we regularly interrupted stroking (performed by robot arms) to measure perceived finger lo...

  18. Radiology of the hand

    Thijn, C.J.P.

    1985-01-01

    The coverage of the author is extensive but inevitably not comprehensive. Congenital dysplasias, dysostoses, and chromosomal aberrations are covered and referenced. However, rheumatoid diseases are scantily covered. The text is sparse and in almost telegraphic style lists with useful data the site affected, the radiographic features, and the differential diagnoses. Illustrations provide an exercise in reviewing disorders affecting the hands and also provides a viewbox reference manual.

  19. Solo hand surgery

    Bell, Michael SG; Reitsma, Bert J

    2005-01-01

    Unassisted hand surgery is being undertaken by necessity for both elective and emergency cases, due to hospital resource restrictions. The authors outline the principles of local anesthesia, surgeon-controlled tourniquet techniques, and a number of new instruments which allow a surgeon to work in comfort and safety, unassisted. The traditional surgical instruments designed for the days when trained surgical assistants were available to hold them are no longer suitable. We are entering a new e...

  20. Compact Dexterous Robotic Hand

    Lovchik, Christopher Scott (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A compact robotic hand includes a palm housing, a wrist section, and a forearm section. The palm housing supports a plurality of fingers and one or more movable palm members that cooperate with the fingers to grasp and/or release an object. Each flexible finger comprises a plurality of hingedly connected segments, including a proximal segment pivotally connected to the palm housing. The proximal finger segment includes at least one groove defining first and second cam surfaces for engagement with a cable. A plurality of lead screw assemblies each carried by the palm housing are supplied with power from a flexible shaft rotated by an actuator and output linear motion to a cable move a finger. The cable is secured within a respective groove and enables each finger to move between an opened and closed position. A decoupling assembly pivotally connected to a proximal finger segment enables a cable connected thereto to control movement of an intermediate and distal finger segment independent of movement of the proximal finger segment. The dexterous robotic hand closely resembles the function of a human hand yet is light weight and capable of grasping both heavy and light objects with a high degree of precision.

  1. Taboos and social contracts: Tools for ecosystem management – lessons from the Manambolomaty Lakes RAMSAR site, western Madagascar

    Jules Mampiandra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional taboos and social contracts played an importantrole in managing the Manambolomaty RAMSAR site. Taboosare defined as a prohibition imposed by social custom as aprotective measure’ and social contracts are – in conservationsense – a common agreement for achieving conservation,sustainable development and development of resourcesobjectives. The Manambolomaty Lakes RAMSAR site, District ofAntsalova in western Madagascar, is composed of four lakes(Soamalipo, Befotaka, Ankerika and Antsamaka surroundedby the Tsimembo deciduous forest. The first three lakes withforest surrounding encompass 14,701 ha and are being managedby two local Associations: FIZAMI (FIkambanana ZanatanyAndranobe MIray and FIFAMA (FIkambanana FAmpandrosoanaMamokatra Ankerika. The associations have used traditionaltaboos and social conventions to manage their local naturalresources by incorporating a GELOSE (GEstion Locale SEcuriséemanagement system to conserve biological diversity, maintainresource sustainability and socio - economic viability. This sitehas the highest concentration of the endemic and criticallyendangered Madagascar fish eagle (Haliaeetus vociferoides,representing 10 % of the global population, and many otherspecies of different faunal groups are also in good conservationstatus such as Decken’s sifaka (Propithecus deckeni andWestern lesser bamboo lemurs (Hapalemur occidentalis andMadagascar flying fox (Pteropus rufus. Culturally, the site isknown as a unique source of the endemic tree Hazomalaniavoyroni (Hernandiaceae, which is used by the Sakalava peoplefor constructing coffins, and being buried in a coffin madeof this wood is a great honour for the Sakalava people. FromManambolomaty’s Lakes fish yields, estimated at 60 - 100 tonsper fishing season, FIZAMI and FIFAMA are one of the fewMalagasy Associations with active bank accounts supportedby management of their natural resources and associatedactivities. Their fisheries management system has increasedthe annual local revenue estimated at more than $ 1,562US / fisherman per season. The tax of fish sales to wholesalefish buyers forms 56 % of the two local Commune’s budgets. Thishas made the Community - Based Wetlands Conservation at theManambolomaty Lakes site well known in the conservation circles within Madagascar and has been modelled by other organizationsand associations. Consequently, the ManambolomatyLakes site is in the process of being added into the System ofProtected Areas of Madagascar (SAPM.

  2. Food Allergy

    ... to particular foods. Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome (FPIES) , sometimes referred to as a delayed food allergy, ... poor blood circulation. Much like other food allergies, FPIES allergic reactions are triggered by ingesting a food ...

  3. Food Poisoning

    ... Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Food Poisoning KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Poisoning Print A ... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ...

  4. Food Safety for Transplant Recipients

    ... severe and lead to serious complications including death. Toxoplasma gondii Associ at ed Foods /Sources • Accidental contact ... be sure to: • Wash hands in warm soapy water for at least 20 seconds before and after ...

  5. Second-hand signals

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Studies of signaling theory have traditionally focused on the dyadic link between the sender and receiver of the signal. Within a science‐based perspective this framing has led scholars to investigate how patents and publications of firms function as signals. I explore another important type of...... used by various agents in their search for and assessment of products and firms. I conclude by arguing how this second‐hand nature of signals goes beyond a simple dyadic focus on senders and receivers of signals, and thus elucidates the more complex interrelations of the various types of agents...

  6. HENRY'S "HAND OF GOD"

    Željko Kaluđerović

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the author discusses the views and statements of the French football player Thierry Henry he gave after his illegal play during the playoff match between France and the Republic of Ireland to claim one of the final spots in the World Cup 2010 in South Africa. First, by controlling the ball with his hand before passing it on for the goal Henry has shown disregard for the constitutive rules of football. Then, by stating that he is "not a referee" he demonstrated that for some play...

  7. Hand Controller Assembly

    Bandera, Pablo (Inventor); Buchele, Paul (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A user input device for a vehicular electrical system is provided. The user input device includes a handle sized and shaped to be gripped by a human hand and a gimbal assembly within the handle. The gimbal assembly includes a first gimbal component, a second gimbal component coupled to the first gimbal component such that the second gimbal component is rotatable relative to the first gimbal component about a first axis, and a third gimbal component coupled to the second gimbal component such that the third gimbal component is rotatable relative to the second gimbal component about a second axis.

  8. Hand dermatitis: an allergist's nightmare.

    Wold, Lindsey; Chen, Jennifer K; Lampel, Heather P

    2014-11-01

    Hand dermatitis is a common skin complaint. We use our hands to explore our environment; subsequently, our hands are in frequent contact with potential allergens and irritants. Patients with hand dermatitis may present to their allergist with this complaint. Approaching the diagnosis and treatment of hand dermatitis can be challenging, as both internal and external factors may contribute to the overall condition. Furthermore, the differential diagnosis of hand dermatitis is broad and the cause often multifactorial. Obtaining a thorough history and performing a focused examination may help the clinician differentiate between multiple causes of hand dermatitis. Numerous treatment options exist for hand dermatitis, and new potential treatments are in development as well. We aim to provide the allergist with a streamlined toolkit for help in the diagnosis and management of hand dermatitis. PMID:25228264

  9. Food Allergy

    ... Research Topics Labs & Scientific Resources Funding About NIAID News & Events Volunteer NIAID > Health & Research Topics > Food Allergy > Understanding Food Allergy Understanding What Is Food Allergy? What ...

  10. Hand Transplantation Versus Hand Prosthetics: Pros and Cons

    Salminger, S; Roche, A. D.; Sturma, A.; Mayer, J A; Aszmann, O. C.

    2016-01-01

    Composite tissue transplantation and new developments in the field of prosthetics have opened new frontiers in the restoration of function among upper limb amputees. It is now possible to restore hand function in affected patients; however, the indications, advantages, and limitations for either hand transplantation or prosthetic fitting must be carefully considered depending on the level and extent of the limb loss. Hand transplantation allows comprehensive hand function to be restored, yet ...

  11. Ability of Hand Hygiene Interventions Using Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers and Soap To Reduce Microbial Load on Farmworker Hands Soiled during Harvest.

    de Aceituno, Anna Fabiszewski; Bartz, Faith E; Hodge, Domonique Watson; Shumaker, David J; Grubb, James E; Arbogast, James W; Dvila-Avia, Jorg; Venegas, Fabiola; Heredia, Norma; Garca, Santos; Leon, Juan S

    2015-11-01

    Effective hand hygiene is essential to prevent the spread of pathogens on produce farms and reduce foodborne illness. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act Proposed Rule for Produce Safety recommends the use of soap and running water for hand hygiene of produce handlers. The use of alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS) may be an effective alternative hygiene intervention where access to water is limited. There are no published data on the efficacy of either soap or ABHS-based interventions to reduce microbial contamination in agricultural settings. The goal of this study was to assess the ability of two soap-based (traditional or pumice) and two ABHS-based (label-use or two-step) hygiene interventions to reduce microbes (coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus spp.) and soil (absorbance of hand rinsate at 600 nm [A600]) on farmworker hands after harvesting produce, compared with the results for a no-hand-hygiene control. With no hand hygiene, farmworker hands were soiled (median A600, 0.48) and had high concentrations of coliforms (geometric mean, 3.4 log CFU per hand) and Enterococcus spp. (geometric mean, 5.3 log CFU per hand) after 1 to 2 h of harvesting tomatoes. Differences in microbial loads in comparison to the loads in the control group varied by indicator organism and hygiene intervention (0 to 2.3 log CFU per hand). All interventions yielded lower concentrations of Enterococcus spp. and E. coli (P coliforms, than were found in the control group. The two-step ABHS intervention led to significantly lower concentrations of coliforms and Enterococcus spp. than the pumice soap and label-use ABHS interventions (P < 0.05) and was the only intervention to yield significantly fewer samples with E. coli than were found in the control group (P < 0.05). All interventions removed soil from hands (P < 0.05), soap-based interventions more so than ABHS-based interventions (P < 0.05). ABHS-based interventions were equally as effective as hand washing with soap at reducing indicator organisms on farmworker hands. Based on these results, ABHS is an efficacious hand hygiene solution for produce handlers, even on soiled hands. PMID:26555526

  12. Effectiveness of a nonrinse, alcohol-free antiseptic hand wash.

    Moadab, A; Rupley, K F; Wadhams, P

    2001-06-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a novel surfactant, allantoin, and benzalkonium chloride hand sanitizer using the US Food and Drug Administration's method for testing antiseptic hand washes that podiatric physicians and other health-care personnel use. The alcohol-free product, HandClens, was compared with an alcohol-based product, Purell. Independent researchers from the California College of Podiatric Medicine conducted the study using 40 volunteer students from the class of 2001. The results show that HandClens outperformed Purell and met the regulatory requirements for a hand sanitizer. Purell failed as an antimicrobial hand wash and was less effective than a control soap used in the study. PMID:11420346

  13. Food safety regulations in Australia and New Zealand Food Standards.

    Ghosh, Dilip

    2014-08-01

    Citizens of Australia and New Zealand recognise that food security is a major global issue. Food security also affects Australia and New Zealand's status as premier food exporting nations and the health and wellbeing of the Australasian population. Australia is uniquely positioned to help build a resilient food value chain and support programs aimed at addressing existing and emerging food security challenges. The Australian food governance system is fragmented and less transparent, being largely in the hands of government and semi-governmental regulatory authorities. The high level of consumer trust in Australian food governance suggests that this may be habitual and taken for granted, arising from a lack of negative experiences of food safety. In New Zealand the Ministry of Primary Industries regulates food safety issues. To improve trade and food safety, New Zealand and Australia work together through Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and other co-operative agreements. Although the potential risks to the food supply are dynamic and constantly changing, the demand, requirement and supply for providing safe food remains firm. The Australasian food industry will need to continually develop its system that supports the food safety program with the help of scientific investigations that underpin the assurance of what is and is not safe. The incorporation of a comprehensive and validated food safety program is one of the total quality management systems that will ensure that all areas of potential problems are being addressed by industry. PMID:24638225

  14. Tying the Manager's Hands

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Vázquez-Vicente, Xosé H.

    2003-01-01

    AbstractWe discuss and empirically examine a firm-level equivalent of the ancient problem of `tying the King's hands,' namely how to maximize managerial intervention for `good cause,' while avoiding intervention for `bad cause.' Managers may opportunistically intervene when such intervention...... produces private benefits. Overall firm performance is harmed as a result, because opportunistic managerial intervention harms employee motivation. The central point of the paper is that various mechanisms and factors, such as managers staking their personal reputation, employees controlling important...... assets, strong trade unions, corporate culture, etc. may function as constraints on managerial proclivities to opportunistically intervene. Thus, firms can make credible commitments that check managerial proclivities to opportunistically intervene. We derive 5 hypotheses from these ideas, and test them...

  15. [New food allergies].

    Dutau, G; Rittié, J L; Rancé, F; Juchet, A; Brémont, F

    1999-09-25

    RISING INCIDENCE OF FOOD ALLERGIES: Food allergies are becoming more and more common, concerning 3 to 4% of the general population. One out of four persons allergic to nuts, the most frequent food allergen, have severe signs and symptoms. A CLASSICAL DIAGNOSIS: Certain diagnosis of food allergy is established on the basis of labial and oral tests. The dose required to induce a reaction is established by the oral test, giving information about the severity of the allergy and its progression. OTHER ALLERGENS: "Emerging" food allergens include spices and condiments, exotic fruits (kiwi, avocado, cashew and pecan nuts, Brazil nuts), sesame seeds, psyllium, sunflower seeds. Endurance exercise following ingestion of a food allergen can lead to severe anaphylactic reactions. Allergen associations "food-pollen", "latex-food", "mitessnails" have been described. INDISPENSABLE PREVENTION: Avoiding contact is essential. Many allergens are "masked" within prepared foods. Precise labeling, with particular attention to nut content, must be reinforced. Individualized counseling on food allergies should be available for school children. Persons with severe allergies should keep at hand an emergency kit with antihistamines, injectable rapid action corticoids and adrenalin (1 mg/ml). PMID:10526567

  16. A 3-D velocity model for earthquake location from combined geological and geophysical data: a case study from the TABOO near fault observatory (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    Latorre, Diana; Lupattelli, Andrea; Mirabella, Francesco; Trippetta, Fabio; Valoroso, Luisa; Lomax, Anthony; Di Stefano, Raffaele; Collettini, Cristiano; Chiaraluce, Lauro

    2014-05-01

    Accurate hypocenter location at the crustal scale strongly depends on our knowledge of the 3D velocity structure. The integration of geological and geophysical data, when available, should contribute to a reliable seismic velocity model in order to guarantee high quality earthquake locations as well as their consistency with the geological structure. Here we present a 3D, P- and S-wave velocity model of the Upper Tiber valley region (Northern Apennines) retrieved by combining an extremely robust dataset of surface and sub-surface geological data (seismic reflection profiles and boreholes), in situ and laboratory velocity measurements, and earthquake data. The study area is a portion of the Apennine belt undergoing active extension where a set of high-angle normal faults is detached on the Altotiberina low-angle normal fault (ATF). From 2010, this area hosts a scientific infrastructure (the Alto Tiberina Near Fault Observatory, TABOO; http://taboo.rm.ingv.it/), consisting of a dense array of multi-sensor stations, devoted to studying the earthquakes preparatory phase and the deformation processes along the ATF fault system. The proposed 3D velocity model is a layered model in which irregular shaped surfaces limit the boundaries between main lithological units. The model has been constructed by interpolating depth converted seismic horizons interpreted along 40 seismic reflection profiles (down to 4s two way travel times) that have been calibrated with 6 deep boreholes (down to 5 km depth) and constrained by detailed geological maps and structural surveys data. The layers of the model are characterized by similar rock types and seismic velocity properties. The P- and S-waves velocities for each layer have been derived from velocity measurements coming from both boreholes (sonic logs) and laboratory, where measurements have been performed on analogue natural samples increasing confining pressure in order to simulate crustal conditions. In order to test the 3D velocity model, we located a selected dataset of the 2010-2013 TABOO catalogue, which is composed of about 30,000 micro-earthquakes (see Valoroso et al., same session). Earthquake location was performed by applying the global-search earthquake location method NonLinLoc, which is able to manage strong velocity contrasts as that observed in the study area. The model volume is 65km x 55km x 20km and is parameterized by constant velocity, cubic cells of side 100 m. For comparison, we applied the same inversion code by using the best 1D model of the area obtained with earthquake data. The results show a significant quality improvement with the 3D model both in terms of location parameters and correlation between seismicity distribution and known geological structures.

  17. American Association for Hand Surgery

    ... Grant AAHS/PSF Combined Pilot Research Grant HAND Journal Award Humanitarian Award Vargas Award Lean & Green Award Public Public Education Articles Find a Hand Care Provider Education View 2016 ...

  18. Hand-foot-mouth disease

    Hand-foot-mouth disease is a common viral infection that most often begins in the throat. ... Hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) is most commonly caused by a virus called coxsackievirus A16. Children under age 10 ...

  19. Animal Bites of the Hand

    ... a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Animal Bites Email to a friend * required fields From * ... with cat bites a distant second. Other biting animals include rodents, rabbits, ferrets, farm animals, monkeys, snakes, ...

  20. Arthritis of the hand - Rheumatoid

    ... a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Rheumatoid Arthritis Email to a friend * required fields From * To * ... tendons causes pressure on the nearby nerve. How Rheumatoid Arthritis is Diagnosed The diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis is ...

  1. Novel approaches in hand rehabilitation

    GRUBII?, Ivan; Skala Kavanagh, Hana; GRAZIO, Simeon

    2015-01-01

    Hand rehabilitation is a constructive activity to gradually restore health and functionality of hand and fingers. Motion disabilities of hand and fingers are a common problem and can be a result of a wide variety of diseases and traumas. This problem is especially emphasized in the elderly population. Common methods in hand rehabilitation include physical therapy that should be performed frequently. However, patients tend not to follow the program strictly and perform exercises the wr...

  2. Food Allergies

    ... Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Food Allergies KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Allergies Print A ... cow's milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies happen when the immune system ...

  3. Food additives

    ... to food-producing animals, such as chickens and cows Antioxidants in oily or fatty foods Artificial sweeteners, ... the FDA Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) about any reactions you have to food ...

  4. Hand washing promotion for preventing diarrhoea

    Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Regina I; Ehiri, John E; Arikpo, Dachi; Meremikwu, Martin M; Critchley, Julia A

    2015-01-01

    Background Diarrhoea accounts for 1.8 million deaths in children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). One of the identified strategies to prevent diarrhoea is hand washing. Objectives To assess the effects of hand washing promotion interventions on diarrhoeal episodes in children and adults. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (27 May 2015); CENTRAL (published in the Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 5); MEDLINE (1966 to 27 May 2015); EMBASE (1974 to 27 May 2015); LILACS (1982 to 27 May 2015); PsycINFO (1967 to 27 May 2015); Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index (1981 to 27 May 2015); ERIC (1966 to 27 May 2015); SPECTR (2000 to 27 May 2015); Bibliomap (1990 to 27 May 2015); RoRe, The Grey Literature (2002 to 27 May 2015); World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trial Registry Platform (ICTRP), metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT), and reference lists of articles up to 27 May 2015. We also contacted researchers and organizations in the field. Selection criteria Individually randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs that compared the effects of hand washing interventions on diarrhoea episodes in children and adults with no intervention. Data collection and analysis Three review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We stratified the analyses for child day-care centres or schools, community, and hospital-based settings. Where appropriate, incidence rate ratios (IRR) were pooled using the generic inverse variance method and random-effects model with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence. Main results We included 22 RCTs: 12 trials from child day-care centres or schools in mainly high-income countries (54,006 participants), nine community-based trials in LMICs (15,303 participants), and one hospital-based trial among people with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) (148 participants). Hand washing promotion (education activities, sometimes with provision of soap) at child day-care facilities or schools prevents around one-third of diarrhoea episodes in high income countries (rate ratio 0.70; 95% CI 0.58 to 0.85; nine trials, 4664 participants, high quality evidence), and may prevent a similar proportion in LMICs but only two trials from urban Egypt and Kenya have evaluated this (rate ratio 0.66, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.99; two trials, 45,380 participants, low quality evidence). Only three trials reported measures of behaviour change and the methods of data collection were susceptible to bias. In one trial from the USA hand washing behaviour was reported to improve; and in the trial from Kenya that provided free soap, hand washing did not increase, but soap use did (data not pooled; three trials, 1845 participants, low quality evidence). Hand washing promotion among communities in LMICs probably prevents around one-quarter of diarrhoea episodes (rate ratio 0.72, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.83; eight trials, 14,726 participants, moderate quality evidence). However, six of these eight trials were from Asian settings, with only single trials from South America and sub-Saharan Africa. In six trials, soap was provided free alongside hand washing education, and the overall average effect size was larger than in the two trials which did not provide soap (soap provided: rate ratio 0.66, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.78; six trials, 11,422 participants; education only: rate ratio: 0.84, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.05; two trials, 3304 participants). There was increased hand washing at major prompts (before eating/cooking, after visiting the toilet or cleaning the baby's bottom), and increased compliance to hand hygiene procedure (behavioural outcome) in the intervention groups than the control in community trials (data not pooled: three trials, 3490 participants, high quality evidence). Hand washing promotion for the one trial conducted in a hospital among high-risk population showed significant reduction in mean episodes of diarrhoea (1.68 fewer) in the intervention group (Mean difference 1.68, 95% CI 1.93 to 1.43; one trial, 148 participants, moderate quality evidence). There was increase in hand washing frequency, seven times per day in the intervention group versus three times in the control in this hospital trial (one trial, 148 participants, moderate quality evidence). We found no trials evaluating or reporting the effects of hand washing promotions on diarrhoea-related deaths, all-cause-under five mortality, or costs. Authors' conclusions Hand washing promotion probably reduces diarrhoea episodes in both child day-care centres in high-income countries and among communities living in LMICs by about 30%. However, less is known about how to help people maintain hand washing habits in the longer term. PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY Hand washing promotion for preventing diarrhoea Review question This Cochrane Review summarises trials evaluating the effects of promoting hand washing on the incidence of diarrhoea among children and adults in day-care centres, schools, communities, or hospitals. After searching for relevant trials up to 27 May 2015, we included 22 randomized controlled trials conducted in both high-income countries (HICs) and low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). These trials enrolled 69,309 children and 148 adults. How does hand washing prevent diarrhoea and how might hand washing be promoted Diarrhoea causes many deaths in children below five years of age, mostly in LMICs. The organisms causing diarrhoea are transmitted from person to person through food and water contaminated with faeces, or through person-to-person contact. Hand washing after defecation, or after cleaning a baby's bottom, and before preparing and eating food, can therefore reduce the risk of diarrhoea. Hand washing can be promoted through group or individual training on hygiene education, germ-health awareness, use of posters, leaflets, comic books, songs, and drama. What this review says Hand washing promotion at child day-care facilities or schools in HICs probably prevents around 30% of diarrhoea episodes (high quality evidence), and may prevent a similar proportion in schools in LMICs (low quality evidence). Among communities in LMICs hand washing promotion prevents around 28% of diarrhoea episodes (moderate quality evidence). In the only hospital-based trial included in this review, hand washing promotion also had important reduction in the mean episodes of diarrhoea (moderate quality evidence). This is based on only a single trial with few participants and thus there is need for more trials to confirm this. Effects of hand washing promotion on related hand hygiene behaviour changes improved more in the intervention groups than in the control in all the settings (low to high quality evidence). None of the included trials assessed the effect of handwashing promotion on diarrhoeal-related deaths, all-cause under-five mortality, or the cost-effectiveness of hand washing promotions. Conclusion Hand washing promotion in HICs and LMICs settings may reduce incidence of diarrhoea by about 30%. However, less is known about how to help people maintain hand washing habits in the longer term. PMID:26346329

  5. Sens et enjeux d’un interdit alimentaire dans le judaïsme Food taboos in Judaism: the example of Ashkenazi Jews in London

    Laurence Faure

    2010-01-01

    Cet article porte sur la manière dont la prohibition de mêler nourritures lactées et carnées dans le judaïsme se matérialise par les objets de la cuisine et leurs usages quotidiens, à partir d’une recherche réalisée à Londres auprès de couples juifs ashkénazes qui se définissent presque tous comme orthodoxes (modern orthodox) et dont la scolarisation dans des écoles juives a parfois pu contribuer à revivifier les pratiques religieuses. Par delà la diversité des habitudes culinaires et de leur...

  6. Unimanual SNARC Effect: Hand Matters

    MariannaRiello

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A structural representation of the hand embedding information about the identity and relative position of fingers is necessary to counting routines. It may also support associations between numbers and allocentric spatial codes that predictably interact with other known numerical spatial representations, such as the mental number line. In this study, 48 Western participants whose typical counting routine proceeded from thumb-to-little on both hands performed magnitude and parity binary judgments. Response keys were pressed either with the right index and middle fingers or with the left index and middle fingers in separate blocks. 24 participants responded with either hands in prone posture (i.e. palm down and 24 participants responded with either hands in supine (i.e. palm up posture. When hands were in prone posture, the counting direction of the left hand conflicted with the direction of the left-right mental number line, whereas the counting direction of the right hand was consistent with it. When hands were in supine posture, the opposite was true. If systematic associations existed between relative number magnitude and an allocentric spatial representation of the finger series within each hand, as predicted on the basis of counting habits, interactions would be expected between hand posture and a unimanual version of the Spatial-Numerical Association of Response Codes (SNARC effect. Data revealed that with hands in prone posture a unimanual SNARC effect was present for the right hand, and with hands in supine posture a unimanual SNARC effect was present for the left hand. We propose that a posture-invariant body structural representation of the finger series provides a relevant frame of reference, a within-hand directional vector, that is associated to simple number processing. Such frame of reference can significantly interact with stimulus-response correspondence effects that have been attributed to the mapping of numbers on a mental number line.

  7. SEXUALIDADE NA ADOLESCÊNCIA: MITOS E TABUS SEXUALIDAD EN LA ADOLESCENCIA: MITOS Y TABÚES SEXUALITY IN ADOLESCENCE: MYTHS AND TABOOS

    Christine Baccarat de Godoy Martins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A adolescência é uma fase da vida humana em que a sexualidade se insere como uma redescoberta, trazendo certa vulnerabilidade, principalmente decorrente de mitos e tabus. Este trabalho teve como objetivo identificar alguns tabus e mitos relativos à sexualidade, vivenciados pelos adolescentes de Cuiabá-MT. Pesquisa quantitativa, cuja população de estudo foi composta por estudantes do primeiro ano do ensino médio do ensino público de Cuiabá. Os dados foram coletados por instrumento fechado e processados eletronicamente, com análises simples e bivariadas (pLa adolescencia es una fase de la vida humana en que la sexualidad se manifiesta como un redescubrimiento, provocando cierta vulnerabilidad, resultante principalmente de mitos y tabúes. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo identificar algunos tabúes y mitos en relación con la sexualidad, vivenciados por los adolescentes de Cuiabá-MT. Investigación cuantitativa, cuya población de estudio estuvo integrada por estudiantes de primer año de enseñanza secundaria pública de Cuiabá. Los datos fueron recogidos por instrumentos de respuesta cerrada y procesados electrónicamente, por análisis simples y bivariadas (pAdolescence is a phase of human life in which sexuality appears as a rediscovery, causing certain vulnerability mainly due to myths and taboos. This study aimed to identify some taboos and myths regarding sexuality, experienced by adolescents in Cuiabá-MT. Quantitative research, whose study population was composed by students from the frst year of Cuiabá public high school education. Data were collected by a closed answer instrument and electronically processed, with simple and bivariate analysis (p<0.05. Adolescents believe that alcohol and drugs increase sexual desire, do not relate the possibility of pregnancy to the practice of intercrural sex without protection, they believe there is no risk of pregnancy during the menstrual period; those without sexual experience could not tell what infuences the pleasure of sexual intercourse; among those sexually active there have been responses like “the bigger the boy’s penis the greater the pleasure of the girls” and “a boy will always feel more pleasure than girls”; for a sexual relation to happen one must love the partner (for girls and just feel attraction (for boys; boys prefer to marry a virgin. The gender differences in behavior indicate taboos rooted in the cultural cradle of society, in which sexual education, repressive in nature, contributes to maintain men and women roles and sexual values frmly set even today, although the new generations have started to introduce new behaviors. It becomes urgent to guarantee the adolescent orientation on the development of their sexuality, in order to prevent risk behaviors resulting from the taboos and myths.

  8. "I wash my hands of it!?" – Trends in hand hygiene over the past decades

    Rotter, Manfred L.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Hand hygiene is the most important measure to protect against the spread of nosocomial infections. With the development of in vitro und in vivo test methods for evaluation of the effect of hand hygiene, there has been a sharp increase over the past 50 years in the body of knowledge relating to effective methods for removal from the hands or killing and inactivation of pathogens. In 1958 the German Society of Hygiene and Microbiology (DGHM published a first “Guidelines for Testing Chemical Disinfectants” and included only those hand disinfection products on its “List of Tested Chemical Disinfectants Found To Be Effective” that had been tested as per the methods cited in the guidelines. The American Society of Testing and Materials (today: ASTM International was next, with the first test protocols for hand disinfection products, which in 1974 were adopted by the US Food and Drug Agency as “Guidelines” in a “Tentative Final Monograph” (TFM and in 1994, having revised it to incorporate new insights, it was published once again.Where the user is concerned, guidelines for hand disinfection containing information on indication and implementation are of course more important than methods dealing with efficacy testing of products. Such guidelines are compiled within the hospitals by the infection control teams set up during the 1970s. Written guidelines were also published by several healthcare institutions, scientific societies and associations. The guidelines formulated by the World Health Organisation (WHO, in an expert committee under the direction of Didier Pittet, proved to be the most successful of the attempts undertaken at global level to enhance hand hygiene. The most remarkable changes appear to be the efforts aimed at improving compliance among medical personnel and the increasing international acceptance of hand disinfection by using alcohols in the form of rubs; whether this will be with lotions or gels remains to be seen.

  9. Computer control by hand gestures

    Jemel, Intidhar; Ejbali, Ridha; Zaied, Mourad

    2015-12-01

    This work fits into the context of the interpretation of automatic gestures based on computer vision. The aim of our work is to transform a conventional screen in a surface that allows the user to use his hands as pointing devices. These can be summarized in three main steps. Hand detection in a video, monitoring detected hands and conversion paths made by the hands to computer commands. To realize this application, it is necessary to detect the hand to follow. A classification phase is essential, at the control part. For this reason, we resorted to the use of a neuro-fuzzy classifier for classification and a pattern matching method for detection.

  10. Your Left-Handed Brain

    Roel M. Willems; Francks, Clyde

    2014-01-01

    While most people prefer to use their right hand to brush their teeth, throw a ball, or hold a tennis racket, left-handers prefer to use their left hand. This is the case for around 10% of all people. There was a time (not so long ago) when left-handers were stigmatized (see Glossary) in Western (and other) communities: it was considered a bad sign if you were left-handed, and left-handed children were often forced to write with their right hand. This is nonsensical: there is nothing wrong wi...

  11. When the hands speak.

    Gentilucci, Maurizio; Dalla Volta, Riccardo; Gianelli, Claudia

    2008-01-01

    In the present review we will summarize evidence that the control of spoken language shares the same system involved in the control of arm gestures. Studies of primate premotor cortex discovered the existence of the so-called mirror system as well as of a system of double commands to hand and mouth. These systems may have evolved initially in the context of ingestion, and later formed a platform for combined manual and vocal communication. In humans, manual gestures are integrated with speech production, when they accompany speech. Lip kinematics and parameters of voice spectra during speech production are influenced by executing or observing transitive actions (i.e. guided by an object). Manual actions also play an important role in language acquisition in children, from the babbling stage onwards. Behavioural data reported here even show a reciprocal influence between words and symbolic gestures and studies employing neuroimaging and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) techniques suggest that the system governing both speech and gesture is located in Broca's area. PMID:18440209

  12. Hand Segmentation for Hand-based Biometrics in Complex Environments

    Wei Bu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hand-basedbiometric techniques, such as the ones based on palmprint, hand vein and handshape, is becoming more important because of their convenience and highperformance. Hand segmentation is one of the most important steps in thesetechniques. It is a challenge task to accurately segment hand in complex environment because of the complex background,varying illuminance and other unexpected interference factors. This paperproposes a novel approach to segment hand in complex environment using colorand boundary information. In the proposed approach, the hand skin color model(HSCM is firstly constructed by using artificial neural network (ANN. Thenthe HSCM is used to generate a probability map (PM and the hand is roughlysegmented from the complex background by thresholding PM. After that, the handboundary is extracted from the original image by edge detecting and votingtechniques. Finally, the hand boundary is employed to cut the roughly segmentedhand to get the final segmented hand. The experimental results show that theproposed approach can effectively segment hand in complex environment.

  13. HENRY'S "HAND OF GOD"

    Željko Kaluđerović

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author discusses the views and statements of the French football player Thierry Henry he gave after his illegal play during the playoff match between France and the Republic of Ireland to claim one of the final spots in the World Cup 2010 in South Africa. First, by controlling the ball with his hand before passing it on for the goal Henry has shown disregard for the constitutive rules of football. Then, by stating that he is "not a referee" he demonstrated that for some players rules are not inherent to football and that they can be relativized, given that for them winning is the goal of the highest ontological status. Furthermore, he has rejected the rules of sportsmanship, thus expressing his opinion that the opponents are just obstacles which have to be removed in order to achieve your goals. Henry's action has disrupted major moral values, such as justice, honesty, responsibility and beneficence. The rules of fair play have totally been ignored both in Henry's action and in the Football Association of France's unwillingness to comment on whether a replay should take place. They have ignored one of the basic principles stated in the "Declaration of the International Fair Play Committee", according to which, fair play is much more than playing to the rules of the game; it's about the attitude of the sportsperson. It's about respecting your opponent and preserving his or her physical and psychological integrity. Finally, the author believes that the rules, moral values and fair play in football are required for this game to become actually possible to play.

  14. "Osseous tumors of the hand "

    "Farzan M

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available The majority of osseous tumors of the hand are benign. The surgeon who evaluates and treats osseous tumors of the hand has to be familiar with limb anatomy, tumor biology, various presentations of the tumors and the range of treatment possibilities and their limitations. Lesions in the hand more often present earlier in their course than those at other sites, just because they are more likely to superficial and easily noticed. A review of all cases of osseous tumors of the hand, seen by a hand surgeon over the last 10 years, at Imam Khomeini hospital was performed. Among 55 cases with osseous tumors of hand, 48 primary benign bone tumors, 3 primary malignant bone tumors, and 4 metastatic bone tumors were found. Enchondroma was the most common benign bone tumor followed by osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, aneurismal bone cyst, giant cell tumor, epidermoid cyst, and osteochondroma. There were two chondrosarcoma and one Ewing’s sarcoma as primary malignant bone tumors. Metastasis to the hand from colon, esophagus, and breast were also found. There were also two cases with Brown tumor secondary to hyperparathyroidism, we conclude that a variety of osseous tumors could occur in the hand, and usually they are benign. Although malignant neoplasms in the hand that arise from tissues other than the skin are very rare, the hand may be the site of distant breast, lung, kidney, esophagus, or colon adenocarcinoma metastases, most of which have a predilection for the distal phalanges.

  15. Hand Anthropometry and SMS Satisfaction

    Balakrishnan, Vimala; Yeow, Paul H. P.

    The effect of hand anthropometry on Short Message Service (SMS) satisfaction was investigated using structured questionnaire interviews with 110 subjects, aged between 17-25 years old. Hand size was measured to assess its effect on mobile phone design factors satisfaction whereas thumb circumference and length were measured for keypad design factors. Small hand-sized subjects were found to be more satisfied with mobile phone dimensions than large hand-sized subjects. Thumb circumference significantly affects users` satisfaction towards key size and space between keys whereas thumb length significantly affects keypad layout satisfaction. Both thumb circumference and length significantly correlate negatively with the corresponding keypad design factors. Results confirm that hand anthropometry do affect users messaging satisfaction. These findings should prove useful to mobile phone designers who could look into the possibility of designing customized mobile phones that cater to large hand and thumb sized users, so as to increase their subjective satisfaction.

  16. Food allergy

    Youngshin Han

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant allergens (class 2 food allergy. Allergenicity of food is largely determined by structural aspects, including cross-reactivity and reduced or enhanced allergenicity with cooking that convey allergenic characteristics to food. Management of food allergy currently focuses on dietary avoidance of the offending foods, prompt recognition and treatment of allergic reactions, and nutritional support. This review includes definitions and examines the prevalence and management of food allergies and the characteristics of food allergens.

  17. Neutrophilic dermatosis of dorsal hands

    Kaur, S; Gupta, D.; Garg, B; Sood, N.

    2015-01-01

    Sweet?s syndrome is characterized by erythematous tender nodules and plaques over face and extremities. Fever, leukocytosis with neutrophilia, and a neutrophilic infiltrate in the dermis are characteristic features. Neutrophilic dermatosis of dorsal hands is a rare localized variant of Sweet?s syndrome occurring predominantly over dorsa of hands. Various degrees of vascular damage may be observed on histopathology of these lesions. Both Sweet?s syndrome and its dorsal hand variant have been r...

  18. Food irradiation

    A brief article examines the controversy over food irradiation regarding the wholesomeness of irradiated food, its microbiological safety, loss of vitamins and changes in flavour. The benefits of food irradiation are also outlined including the destruction of certain food-borne pathogens and the prolongation of the shelf-life of food by killing pests and delaying the deterioration process. (UK)

  19. Rejuvenation of the aging hand.

    Butterwick, Kimberly J

    2005-07-01

    This article reviews aging of the hand and the treatment options for cosmetic rejuvenation. Options available for cutaneous rejuvenation include microdermabrasion, chemical peeling, intense light sources, and laser therapy, including pigment lasers, ablative resurfacing, and noninvasive rejuvenation. Protuberant veins of the aging hand can be treated effectively with sclerotherapy. The soft tissue atrophy of the aging hand is best treated with fat augmentation. The article concludes with a mention of new fillers that are just beginning to be used for soft tissue atrophy of the hand. PMID:16039431

  20. Multi-fingered robotic hand

    Ruoff, Carl F. (Inventor); Salisbury, Kenneth, Jr. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A robotic hand is presented having a plurality of fingers, each having a plurality of joints pivotally connected one to the other. Actuators are connected at one end to an actuating and control mechanism mounted remotely from the hand and at the other end to the joints of the fingers for manipulating the fingers and passing externally of the robot manipulating arm in between the hand and the actuating and control mechanism. The fingers include pulleys to route the actuators within the fingers. Cable tension sensing structure mounted on a portion of the hand are disclosed, as is covering of the tip of each finger with a resilient and pliable friction enhancing surface.

  1. Neutrophilic dermatosis of dorsal hands.

    Kaur, S; Gupta, D; Garg, B; Sood, N

    2015-01-01

    Sweet's syndrome is characterized by erythematous tender nodules and plaques over face and extremities. Fever, leukocytosis with neutrophilia, and a neutrophilic infiltrate in the dermis are characteristic features. Neutrophilic dermatosis of dorsal hands is a rare localized variant of Sweet's syndrome occurring predominantly over dorsa of hands. Various degrees of vascular damage may be observed on histopathology of these lesions. Both Sweet's syndrome and its dorsal hand variant have been reported in association with malignancies, inflammatory bowel diseases, and drugs. We report a patient with neutrophilic dermatoses of dorsal hands associated with erythema nodosum. He showed an excellent response to corticosteroids and dapsone. PMID:25657918

  2. Degloving injuries of the hand

    R. Krishnamoorthy; Karthikeyan, G

    2011-01-01

    Avulsion of skin from the hand or fingers is an injury that has a dramatic presentation. The entire musculo-skeletal unit of the finger is intact, and the patient can often move the parts of his naked hand quite normally. The challenge for the reconstructive surgeon lies in resurfacing the hand or finger with a good quality pliable sensate skin cover while preserving the movements and function of the hand. Traditionally, skin grafting has been the standard method of reconstruction in such inj...

  3. Terminologie alimentaire (Food Terminology).

    Pelletier, Jean-Francois

    1980-01-01

    Translations and descriptions are given in French for a number of English food terms: convenience foods, fast foods, fast foods industry, fast foods restaurant, frozen foods, deep frozen foods, fast frozen foods, quick frozen foods, dry frozen foods. (MSE)

  4. The human hand as an inspiration for robot hand development

    Santos, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    “The Human Hand as an Inspiration for Robot Hand Development” presents an edited collection of authoritative contributions in the area of robot hands. The results described in the volume are expected to lead to more robust, dependable, and inexpensive distributed systems such as those endowed with complex and advanced sensing, actuation, computation, and communication capabilities. The twenty-four chapters discuss the field of robotic grasping and manipulation viewed in light of the human hand’s capabilities and push the state-of-the-art in robot hand design and control. Topics discussed include human hand biomechanics, neural control, sensory feedback and perception, and robotic grasp and manipulation. This book will be useful for researchers from diverse areas such as robotics, biomechanics, neuroscience, and anthropologists.

  5. Dynamic Hand Gesture Recognition Using the Skeleton of the Hand

    Vasile Buzuloiu

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the use of the computer vision in the interpretation of human gestures. Hand gestures would be an intuitive and ideal way of exchanging information with other people in a virtual space, guiding some robots to perform certain tasks in a hostile environment, or interacting with computers. Hand gestures can be divided into two main categories: static gestures and dynamic gestures. In this paper, a novel dynamic hand gesture recognition technique is proposed. It is based on the 2D skeleton representation of the hand. For each gesture, the hand skeletons of each posture are superposed providing a single image which is the dynamic signature of the gesture. The recognition is performed by comparing this signature with the ones from a gesture alphabet, using Baddeley's distance as a measure of dissimilarities between model parameters.

  6. Food Labels

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Food Labels KidsHealth > For Teens > Food Labels Print A ... have at least 95% organic ingredients. continue Making Food Labels Work for You The first step in ...

  7. Food allergy

    Wang, Julie; Hugh. A. Sampson

    2011-01-01

    Food allergies affect up to 6% of young children and 3%–4% of adults. They encompass a range of disorders that may be IgE and/or non-IgE mediated, including anaphylaxis, pollen food syndrome, food-protein–induced enterocolitis syndrome, food-induced proctocolitis, eosinophilic gastroenteropathies, and atopic dermatitis. Many complex host factors and properties of foods are involved in the development of food allergy. With recent advances in the understanding of how these factors interact, the...

  8. Food allergy

    Youngshin Han; Jihyun Kim; Kangmo Ahn

    2012-01-01

    Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy) or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant all...

  9. Food allergy

    Han, Youngshin; Kim, Jihyun; Ahn, Kangmo

    2012-01-01

    Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy) or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant allerge...

  10. Giant lipomas of the hand

    Gokce Yildiran

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Giant lipomas of the hand are very rare and may cause compressions and other complications. Thus, they require a careful preoperative evaluation in order to make a proper differential diagnosis. [Hand Microsurg 2015; 4(1.000: 8-11

  11. Roentgenological atlas of hand pathology

    The atlas deals with roentgenological diagnostics of hand pathology. Developmental defects, rheumatoid arthritis, malignant and benign bone tumours, tumours of soft tissues, degenerative dystrophical injuries, traumatic injuries, foreign bodies penetrating into hand tissues, inflamatory diseases etc. are illustrated. Roentgenological semiotics and differential diagnostics are described

  12. Gage for evaluating rheumatoid hands

    Houge, J. C.; Plautz, K. A.

    1981-01-01

    Two-axis goniometer accurately measures movements of fingers about knuckle joints, diagnosing hands structurally changed by rheumatoid arthritis. Instrument measures lateral movement which is small in normal knuckles but increased in diseased joints. Goniometer is two connected protractors that simultaneously measure angles in perpindicular planes. Dials are offset to clear bony protuberances; extension and offset adjustments span any hand size.

  13. Food irradiation

    The ranges of doses used for food irradiation and their effect on the processed foods are outlined. The wholesomeness of irradiated foods is discussed. The present food irradiation technology development in the world is described. A review of the irradiated foods permitted for public consumption, the purposes of food irradiaton, the doses used and a review of the commercial-scale food irradiators are tabulated. The history and the present state of food processing in Czechoslovakia are described. (author). 1 fig., 3 tabs., 13 refs

  14. Intravascular lesions of the hand

    Duke Wayne H

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Intravascular lesions of the hand comprise reactive and neoplastic entities. The clinical diagnosis of such lesions is often difficult, and usually requires pathologic examination. We present the largest series to date of intravascular lesions affecting the hand. Methods A retrospective review of intravascular (arterial and venous lesions involving the hand was conducted. Data regarding clinicopathologic findings were analyzed. Results We identified 10 patients with intravascular lesions of their hands including thromboemboli (n = 3, reactive intravascular conditions such as papillary endothelial hyperplasia or Masson's tumor (n = 2 and fasciitis (n = 1, as well as vascular neoplasms including pyogenic granuloma (n = 2 and angioleiomyoma (n = 2. Conclusion Blood vessel injury and/or venous thrombosis may predispose to several intravascular lesions of the hand. Recognition of reactive entities from neoplastic conditions is important.

  15. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  16. [Hand clasping--an overview].

    Reiss, M

    1999-06-01

    The literature concerning the asymmetry clasping hands is reviewed based on 192 studies. This paper describes the incidence, sex differences, age differences and genetical problems including twinning. The incidence of left hand clasping ranges from 30% to 75% (mean 43%). The review confirms the so-called east-west-gradient and there is a predominance of the left type in Europe. Age and sex differences are only small. There is only a small relationship between hand clasping and handedness. 18 authors examined hand clasping in families and 4 in twins. The family data suggest that hand clasping may be under genetic control, yet it is clear that no simple genetic model for the inheritance can be applied. Both monozygotic and dizygotic twins show a low concordance and the R-R, R-L and L-L pairs in monozygotic and dizygotic twins are in binomial distribution. PMID:10483485

  17. The hand of Homo naledi

    Kivell, Tracy L.; Deane, Andrew S.; Tocheri, Matthew W.; Orr, Caley M.; Schmid, Peter; Hawks, John; Berger, Lee R.; Churchill, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    A nearly complete right hand of an adult hominin was recovered from the Rising Star cave system, South Africa. Based on associated hominin material, the bones of this hand are attributed to Homo naledi. This hand reveals a long, robust thumb and derived wrist morphology that is shared with Neandertals and modern humans, and considered adaptive for intensified manual manipulation. However, the finger bones are longer and more curved than in most australopiths, indicating frequent use of the hand during life for strong grasping during locomotor climbing and suspension. These markedly curved digits in combination with an otherwise human-like wrist and palm indicate a significant degree of climbing, despite the derived nature of many aspects of the hand and other regions of the postcranial skeleton in H. naledi. PMID:26441219

  18. Degloving injuries of the hand

    R Krishnamoorthy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Avulsion of skin from the hand or fingers is an injury that has a dramatic presentation. The entire musculo-skeletal unit of the finger is intact, and the patient can often move the parts of his naked hand quite normally. The challenge for the reconstructive surgeon lies in resurfacing the hand or finger with a good quality pliable sensate skin cover while preserving the movements and function of the hand. Traditionally, skin grafting has been the standard method of reconstruction in such injuries. However, skin grafting does have many disadvantages, too. This article deals with the features of such injuries, management protocols and other reconstructive options available in the armamentarium of the hand surgeon.

  19. An automatic modular procedure to generate high-resolution earthquake catalogues: application to the Alto Tiberina Near Fault Observatory (TABOO), Italy.

    Di Stefano, R.; Chiaraluce, L.; Valoroso, L.; Waldhauser, F.; Latorre, D.; Piccinini, D.; Tinti, E.

    2014-12-01

    The Alto Tiberina Near Fault Observatory (TABOO) in the upper Tiber Valley (northern Appennines) is a INGV research infrastructure devoted to the study of preparatory processes and deformation characteristics of the Alto Tiberina Fault (ATF), a 60 km long, low-angle normal fault active since the Quaternary. The TABOO seismic network, covering an area of 120 120 km, consists of 60 permanent surface and 250 m deep borehole stations equipped with 3-components, 0.5s to 120s velocimeters, and strong motion sensors. Continuous seismic recordings are transmitted in real-time to the INGV, where we set up an automatic procedure that produces high-resolution earthquakes catalogues (location, magnitudes, 1st motion polarities) in near-real-time. A sensitive event detection engine running on the continuous data stream is followed by advanced phase identification, arrival-time picking, and quality assessment algorithms (MPX). Pick weights are determined from a statistical analysis of a set of predictors designed to correctly apply an a-priori chosen weighting scheme. The MPX results are used to routinely update earthquakes catalogues based on a variety of (1D and 3D) velocity models and location techniques. We are also applying the DD-RT procedure which uses cross-correlation and double-difference methods in real-time to relocate events with high precision relative to a high-resolution background catalog. P- and S-onset and location information are used to automatically compute focal mechanisms, VP/VS variations in space and time, and periodically update 3D VP and VP/VS tomographic models. We present results from four years of operation, during which this monitoring system analyzed over 1.2 million detections and recovered ~60,000 earthquakes at a detection threshold of ML 0.5. The high-resolution information is being used to study changes in seismicity patterns and fault and rock properties along the ATF in space and time, and to elaborate ground shaking scenarios adopting diverse slip distributions and rupture directivity models.

  20. Ethical food standard schemes and global trade

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Botterill, Linda Courtenay

    2012-01-01

    Global food trade embodies a range of different interpretations of the nature of food and its role in society. On the one hand, the WTO food regulation regime, in particular the SPS agreement, is based upon a somewhat instrumental value of food consumption in which food is seen as a commodity to be...... traded in accordance with international trade rules. At the same time, a number of private standards, such as GlobalG.A.P and various organic standards, are emerging which embody broadly postmaterialist values that suggest that food purchasing and consumption are also social, ethical and perhaps even...... political activities. This paper analyses the relationship between the WTO food trade regime on the one hand and the GlobalG.A.P and organic food trade regimes on the other. We suggest that competing values can co-exist in parallel institutions and in a commensalistic relationship which protects the values...

  1. Hand Recognition for Augmented Reality

    Tanaka, Ryuji; Yoshioka, Michifumi

    In recent years, Augmented Reality (AR) becomes the focus of attention as a technology for obtaining some information. Most AR systems have used some markers to display any information. However, since markerless AR systems can be used intuitively, they are researched actively. In this paper, we study about the AR system based on the hand recognition as a markerless system. The reason why we used a hand is that we don't need to prepare or carry on any tool, and can easy to watch any information on a hand. Taehee Lee et al. introduced HandyAR which employ the hand recognition. In this method, there are some problems. At first, when the method learns skin model, it needs many learning data. This is because it uses RGB color model. Secondly, it is difficult to get hand because hand images which are extracted by the skin model have noise. Thirdly, the method uses finger positions to estimate the hand coordinate. Therefore it is sensitive to finger state. We improved HandyAR to solve these problems. Experimental result showed that our method had higher performance than conventional methods.

  2. Food irradiation

    The paper discusses the need for effective and efficient technologies in improving the food handling system. It defines the basic premises for the development of food handling. The application of food irradiation technology is briefly discussed. The paper points out key considerations for the adoption of food irradiation technology in the ASEAN region (author)

  3. Food Safety

    ... Videos Recipes & Menus Seasonal Winter Spring Summer Fall Food Waste Food Safety Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Food Safety ... Snack Patterns Growth Charts Picky Eating Physical Activity Food Safety Resources Kids ... Moments Evelyn, New Mexico Your website has been a blessing to those ...

  4. On the other (invisible) hand ...

    Anthony Brewer

    2006-01-01

    The invisible hand as it appears in the Theory of Moral Sentiments is commonly treated as an afterthought in discussions of the version in the Wealth of Nations, but it deserves attention in its own right. I will argue that there is an entirely coherent (if not entirely plausible) economic argument underpinning the invisible hand of the Theory of Moral Sentiments. It is quite different from the invisible hand argument of the Wealth of Nations, not because of any conflict but because they addr...

  5. Corner Detection of Hand Gesture

    Lili Zhang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the methods of corner detection of hand gesture, and mainly introduces the orthogonal three-direction chain code (3OT and uses it in corner detection of hand gesture. The study is discussed from four aspects: the techniques used in corner detection, the techniques of Freeman chain code, the main idea of 3OT, the process of corner detection with 3OT and the experiments on corner detectors used for hand gesture images of 26 letters in American Sign Language are described in detail. Experiment results show that the 3OT has well performance with exact corner detection rate and least false corner’s number.

  6. Food economics

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    Food and food markets still enjoy a pivotal role in the world economy and the international food industry is moving towards greater consolidation and globalization, with increased vertical integration and changes to market structure. Companies grow bigger in order to obtain economies of scale and...... issues and such as food security, quality, obesity and health are ever important factors. This book describes the link between food markets and food companies from a theoretical and a business economics perspective. The relationships, trends and impacts on the international food market are presented, and...

  7. Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease

    ... this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Hand, Foot & Mouth Disease Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... someone is sick. Is HFMD the Same as Foot-and-Mouth Disease? No. HFMD is often confused ...

  8. Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives Note: Javascript is disabled or ... and what you can do if soap and clean, running water are not available. Whether you are ...

  9. Food justice and Christian ethics

    Heinrich Bedford-Strohm

    2012-01-01

    The article dealt with the moral and political problem of international food justice in which the deep contradiction between the present situation of malnourishment and starvation in large parts of the global population on the one hand and the biblical notion of the preferential option for the poor on the other hand was described. This ecumenically widely accepted notion was clarified in several aspects. How deeply this is rooted in the history of Christian social thought was shown by Martin ...

  10. Evaluation of presenting conserved foods

    Asl Soleimani H

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Food, it's production and preserving has been one of the most important problems in human life. Limitation of production due to climatic, geographic and papulational situations and conservation due to providance and prosecting for solution of one of the most fundamental human needs, has been discussed much. Difference between the lands, temperature, humidity and rainfall on one hand and texture and accumulation of papulation on the other hand, not only has limited the amount and kind of food production but also has improved the preserving methods as much as possible. Extra production in fertile lands and confirmed need for receiving food in deserts and dry areas, makes the need of exchanging and transfer of food inevitable because of economic and ethical matters and sanitation of food. Avoidance of being contaminated and resistance against decay seems very important and vital. So process of preserving and conserving of eaw or cooked food became a fundamental problem. In previous 200 years, many advanced methods have been designed for preserving food in which the role of conserving and packing in vital often. Because of industrial production, conserved food have a great influence on sanitation of people nutrition, and herefor the rate of diseases from consumption of contaminated food has been reduced in industrial countries and the tensancy of people to use conventional food has been decreased gradually. Because of high cost of industrial conserved food production some people produce conserved foods in the way which is not hygienic. That may have a high risk when ingested. In this article we discuss about unwarranted conserved foods productions.

  11. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

    2013-08-08

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a contagious illness that mainly affects children under five. In this podcast, Dr. Eileen Schneider talks about the symptoms of hand, foot, and mouth disease, how it spreads, and ways to help protect yourself and your children from getting infected with the virus.  Created: 8/8/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 8/8/2013.

  12. Hand kinematics of piano playing

    Furuya, Shinichi; Flanders, Martha; Soechting, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Dexterous use of the hand represents a sophisticated sensorimotor function. In behaviors such as playing the piano, it can involve strong temporal and spatial constraints. The purpose of this study was to determine fundamental patterns of covariation of motion across joints and digits of the human hand. Joint motion was recorded while 5 expert pianists played 30 excerpts from musical pieces, which featured ?50 different tone sequences and fingering. Principal component analysis and cluster an...

  13. Hand gestures mouse cursor control

    Marian-Avram Vincze

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the implementation of a human-computer interface for controlling the mouse cursor. The test reveal the fact: a low-cost web camera some processing algorithms are quite enough to control the mouse cursor on computers. Even if the system is influenced by the illuminance level on the plane of the hand, the current study may represent a start point for some studies on the hand tracking and gesture recognition field.

  14. Enhanced conformational sampling method for proteins based on the TaBoo SeArch algorithm: application to the folding of a mini-protein, chignolin.

    Harada, Ryuhei; Takano, Yu; Shigeta, Yasuteru

    2015-04-15

    The conformational samplings are indispensible for obtaining reliable canonical ensembles, which provide statistical averages of physical quantities such as free energies. However, the samplings of vast conformational space of biomacromolecules by conventional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations might be insufficient, due to their inadequate accessible time-scales for investigating biological functions. Therefore, the development of methodologies for enhancing the conformational sampling of biomacromolecules still remains as a challenging issue in computational biology. To tackle this problem, we newly propose an efficient conformational search method, which is referred as TaBoo SeArch (TBSA) algorithm. In TBSA, an inverse energy histogram is used to select seeds for the conformational resampling so that states with high frequencies are inhibited, while states with low frequencies are efficiently sampled to explore the unvisited conformational space. As a demonstration, TBSA was applied to the folding of a mini-protein, chignolin, and automatically sampled the native structure (C? root mean square deviation?

  15. Food insecurity and food deserts.

    Camp, Nadine L

    2015-08-15

    Food insecurity has been steadily increasing in the United States with prevalence at nearly 15% of all households. Nurse practitioners can assess for food insecurity and provide local resources for families living in neighborhoods without easy access to healthy foods, otherwise known as food deserts. PMID:26180911

  16. The Rubber Hand Illusion: feeling of ownership and proprioceptive drift do not go hand in hand.

    Rohde, Marieke; Di Luca, Massimiliano; Ernst, Marc O

    2011-01-01

    In the Rubber Hand Illusion, the feeling of ownership of a rubber hand displaced from a participant's real occluded hand is evoked by synchronously stroking both hands with paintbrushes. A change of perceived finger location towards the rubber hand (proprioceptive drift) has been reported to correlate with this illusion. To measure the time course of proprioceptive drift during the Rubber Hand Illusion, we regularly interrupted stroking (performed by robot arms) to measure perceived finger location. Measurements were made by projecting a probe dot into the field of view (using a semi-transparent mirror) and asking participants if the dot is to the left or to the right of their invisible hand (Experiment 1) or to adjust the position of the dot to that of their invisible hand (Experiment 2). We varied both the measurement frequency (every 10 s, 40 s, 120 s) and the mode of stroking (synchronous, asynchronous, just vision). Surprisingly, with frequent measurements, proprioceptive drift occurs not only in the synchronous stroking condition but also in the two control conditions (asynchronous stroking, just vision). Proprioceptive drift in the synchronous stroking condition is never higher than in the just vision condition. Only continuous exposure to asynchronous stroking prevents proprioceptive drift and thus replicates the differences in drift reported in the literature. By contrast, complementary subjective ratings (questionnaire) show that the feeling of ownership requires synchronous stroking and is not present in the asynchronous stroking condition. Thus, subjective ratings and drift are dissociated. We conclude that different mechanisms of multisensory integration are responsible for proprioceptive drift and the feeling of ownership. Proprioceptive drift relies on visuoproprioceptive integration alone, a process that is inhibited by asynchronous stroking, the most common control condition in Rubber Hand Illusion experiments. This dissociation implies that conclusions about feelings of ownership cannot be drawn from measuring proprioceptive drift alone. PMID:21738756

  17. Local food:

    Sundbo, Donna Isabella Caroline

    as expressed by a group of Danish providers and consumers is empirically investigated through interviews, observation and surveys. From this, qualitative and quantitative data are generated, the analysis of which shows how varied perceptions of local food are. The elements of which the perceptions......Recently there has been more focus on food in general and local food in particular. But what is local food? And what are the perceptions of this concept according to theory and to providers and consumers of local food? This article first summarises and compares three different theoretical...... perspectives on local food, namely experience economy, local food systems and what is termed pro-industrialism. These have differing and sometimes opposite conceptualisations and aims for the concept of local food. Using the perspective of experience economy as theoretical background, the concept of local food...

  18. Local food:

    Sundbo, Donna Isabella Caroline

    Recently there has been more focus on food in general and local food in particular. But what is local food? And what are the perceptions of this concept according to theory and to providers and consumers of local food? This article first summarises and compares three different theoretical...... perspectives on local food, namely experience economy, local food systems and what is termed pro-industrialism. These have differing and sometimes opposite conceptualisations and aims for the concept of local food. Using the perspective of experience economy as theoretical background, the concept of local food...... as expressed by a group of Danish providers and consumers is empirically investigated through interviews, observation and surveys. From this, qualitative and quantitative data are generated, the analysis of which shows how varied perceptions of local food are. The elements of which the perceptions...

  19. Food allergies.

    O'Leary, Paula F G

    2012-02-03

    Adverse reactions to foods are commonly implicated in the causation of ill health. However, foreign antigens, including food proteins and commensal microbes encountered in the gastrointestinal tract, are usually well tolerated. True food allergies, implying immune-mediated adverse responses to food antigens, do exist, however, and are especially common in infants and young children. Allergic reactions to food manifest clinically in a variety of presentations involving the gastrointestinal, cutaneous, and respiratory systems and in generalized reactions such as anaphylaxis. Both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated immune mechanisms are recognized. Important advances in the clinical features underlying specific food hypersensitivity disorders are reviewed.

  20. Fighting hand to hand over physician workforce policy.

    Grumbach, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    A vexing problem in health policy is getting the right number of physicians in the right specialties in the right locations at the right time. I examine market and public planning approaches to getting the number "right." After discussing the basic premises of the invisible hand of the market and the heavy hand of government regulation, I apply these concepts to a review of the past century of U.S. physician supply and workforce policy. I conclude by examining recent health system trends that make clear the need for a firm regulatory grasp on physician workforce policy. PMID:12224874

  1. FOOD SECURITY

    Dorina Ardelean

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The assurance of food security at the individual level doesnt implicitly provide for the one at family level as the concepts of hunger, malnutrition and food insecurity are the steps of the same process of access restricted to a sufficient supply of food. In order to achieve food security at the individual level the following is necessary: ensuring food availability (production, reserve stocks; redistribution of food availability within the country or out through international exchanges; effective access of the population to purchase food consumer goods, by ensuring its effective demand as required. Food security of families (FFS is required for assuring individual food security (IFS, but it is not sufficient because the food available may be unevenly distributed between family members. National food security (NFS corresponds to the possibilities that different countries have to ensure both FFS and IFS without sacrificing other important objectives. Under the name of GAS is defined the global food security which represents permanent access for the entire population of the globe to the necessary food for a healthy and active life.

  2. Hands as markers of fragmentation

    A. Barnard

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Margaret Atwood is an internationally read, translated, and critiqued writer whose novels have established her as one of the most esteemed authors in English (McCombs & Palmer, 1991:1. Critical studies of her work deal mainly with notions of identity from psychoanalytical perspectives. This study has identified a gap in current critical studies on Atwoods works, namely the challenging of textual unity which is paralleled in the challenging of the traditional (single narrative voice. The challenging of textual unity and the single narrative voice brings about the fragmentation of both. This article will focus on the role that hands play as markers of fragmentation in The Blind Assassin (2000. In the novel, the writing hand destabilises the narrative voice, since it is not connected to the voice of a single author. If the author of the text the final signified is eliminated, the text becomes fragmentary and open, inviting the reader to contribute to the creation of meaning. Hands play a signficant role in foregrounding the narrators fragmented identity, and consequently, the fragmentation of the text. We will investigate this concept in the light of Roland Barthes notion of the scriptor, whose hand is metaphorically severed from his or her voice. Instead of the text being a unified entity, it becomes unstable and it displays the absence of hierarchical textual levels. Based mainly on Barthes writings, this article concludes that hands foreground the narrators fragmented identity, which is paralleled in the fragmented text.

  3. Hand infections: a retrospective analysis

    Tolga Trker

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Hand infections are common, usually resulting from an untreated injury. In this retrospective study, we report on hand infection cases needing surgical drainage in order to assess patient demographics, causation of infection, clinical course, and clinical management. Methods. Medical records of patients presenting with hand infections, excluding post-surgical infections, treated with incision and debridement over a one-year period were reviewed. Patient demographics; past medical history; infection site(s and causation; intervals between onset of infection, hospital admission, surgical intervention and days of hospitalization; gram stains and cultures; choice of antibiotics; complications; and outcomes were reviewed. Results. Most infections were caused by laceration and the most common site of infection was the palm or dorsum of the hand. Mean length of hospitalization was 6 days. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, beta-hemolytic Streptococcus and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus were the most commonly cultured microorganisms. Cephalosporins, clindamycin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, penicillin, vancomycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole were major antibiotic choices. Amputations and contracture were the primary complications. Conclusions. Surgery along with medical management were key to treatment and most soft tissue infections resolved without further complications. With prompt and appropriate care, most hand infection patients can achieve full resolution of their infection.

  4. Myelopathy hand in cervical radiculopathy

    The so-called 'myelopathy hand', or characteristic finger paralysis, often recognized in cervical compression myelopathy, has been considered a unique manifestation of cervical myelopathy. We used our original grip and release test, a 15-second test in which finger motion is captured with a digital camera, to investigate whether cervical radiculopathy has the same characteristics as myelopathy hand. Thirty patients with pure radiculopathy, id est (i.e.), who had radiating arm pain and evidence of corresponding nerve root impingement on X-ray images or MRI scans, but did not have spinal cord compression, served as the subjects. In contrast to other radiculopathies, C7 radiculopathy was manifested by a significant reduction in the number of finger motion cycles on the affected side in comparison with the unaffected side, the same as in myelopathy hand. Uncoordinated finger motion was significantly more frequent on the affected side in C6 radiculopathy than on the unaffected side. These findings contradict the conventional notion that myelopathy hand is a unique manifestation of cervical myelopathy, but some radiculopathies manifested the same kinds of finger paralysis observed in myelopathy hand. (author)

  5. Food Allergy

    ... response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods that most often trigger ... medical alert bracelet or necklace, and carry an auto-injector device containing ... diet. NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

  6. Food Pantries

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Food banks and food pantries in the city of Boston and surrounding areas that are partially supplied with local produce. Accurate as of August 2012. Inaccurate...

  7. Food security

    De Ridder, M.

    2011-01-01

    Food security is back on the agenda as a top priority for policy makers. In January 2011, record high food prices resulted in protests in Tunisia, which subsequently led to the spread of the revolutions in other North African and Middle Eastern countries. Although experts have asserted that no states have yet gone to war over the availability of food; food scarcity is no longer viewed as solely an issue of sustainable development but increasingly as a geopolitical challenge as well. In March ...

  8. Food Sensitivities

    Maclennan, J G

    1984-01-01

    Food sensitivities are a common but frequently unrecognized cause of chronic symptomatology in patients with known allergies. Food sensitivities often are not detected by skin testing. This article discusses the controversy surrounding the treatment of food sensitivities; the provocative sublingual and intradermal tests for sensitivities, and the importance of eliciting complete past and family histories from the allergic patient. Because patients with symptoms of food sensitivity are likely ...

  9. Stimulating Participation and Learning in Microbiology: Presence and Identification of Bacteria from Student's Hands

    Antunes, Patrícia

    2016-01-01

    We proposed in the Basic Microbiology Subject for food science and nutrition students, a "hands-on" activity consisting on sampling student's hands for bacterial presence and identification. This is a project to be implemented in multiple laboratory classes throughout the semester, allowing students to learn, and apply general…

  10. Food Taxes: A New Holy Grail?

    Devisch, Ignaas

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to reduce the growing prevalence of overweight and obesity, food taxes have been introduced in several European countries, the so-called ‘obesitax’. As yet little evidence is at hand, policy measures are being taken to counterweight the consumption of unhealthy food or the increasing diet-related diseases. Several questions need to be discussed, starting from a general perspective: can food taxes become an appropriate and just policy measure to reduce overweight and obesity and therefore increase consumer’s health? The implementation of an effective and fair food tax is an exercise riddled with uncertainty. Not only is there a need for evidence on the health and economic impact of food taxes, we also have to think about a conceptual and ethical discussion concerning the balance between health imperatives and public health on the one hand, and social and ethical standards on the other hand. PMID:24596843

  11. Food Taxes: A New Holy Grail?

    Ignaas Devisch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to reduce the growing prevalence of overweight and obesity, food taxes have been introduced in several European countries, the so-called ‘obesitax’. As yet little evidence is at hand, policy measures are being taken to counterweight the consumption of unhealthy food or the increasing diet-related diseases. Several questions need to be discussed, starting from a general perspective: can food taxes become an appropriate and just policy measure to reduce overweight and obesity and therefore increase consumer’s health? The implementation of an effective and fair food tax is an exercise riddled with uncertainty. Not only is there a need for evidence on the health and economic impact of food taxes, we also have to think about a conceptual and ethical discussion concerning the balance between health imperatives and public health on the one hand, and social and ethical standards on the other hand.

  12. [Hand hygiene: revolution and globalization].

    Pittet, Didier

    2009-04-01

    Hand hygiene is the primary measure to prevent healthcare-associated infections and the spread of antimicrobial resistance. Low staff compliance remains a major problem. Successful promotion requires a multimodal strategy. The World Health Organization (WHO) proposes an approach including at least five components: system change, in particular the recourse to alcohol-based hand rubbing as the new standard of care, staff education using newly developed tools, monitoring and feedback of staff performance, reminders in the workplace, and promotion of an institutional safety climate. Patient participation in hand hygiene promotion is under testing. Early results of the strategy tested in a large number of healthcare settings in both limited- and high-resource countries are extremely encouraging. PMID:19492514

  13. Hand-Based Biometric Analysis

    Bebis, George (Inventor); Amayeh, Gholamreza (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Hand-based biometric analysis systems and techniques are described which provide robust hand-based identification and verification. An image of a hand is obtained, which is then segmented into a palm region and separate finger regions. Acquisition of the image is performed without requiring particular orientation or placement restrictions. Segmentation is performed without the use of reference points on the images. Each segment is analyzed by calculating a set of Zernike moment descriptors for the segment. The feature parameters thus obtained are then fused and compared to stored sets of descriptors in enrollment templates to arrive at an identity decision. By using Zernike moments, and through additional manipulation, the biometric analysis is invariant to rotation, scale, or translation or an in put image. Additionally, the analysis utilizes re-use of commonly-seen terms in Zernike calculations to achieve additional efficiencies over traditional Zernike moment calculation.

  14. Early laparoscopic management of appendicular mass in children: Still a taboo, or time for a change in surgical philosophy?

    Agrawal, Vikesh; Acharya, Himanshu; Chanchlani, Roshan; Sharma, Dhananjaya

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Early appendicectomy has been found to be a safe and better alternative for management of appendicular mass in various studies in adults, while very few studies report such advantages in the paediatric population. We conducted this study to assess the safety, efficacy and need of early laparoscopic appendicectomy (ELA) in child patients with appendicular mass. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients with appendicular mass who underwent ELA at our institute between September 2011 and August 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Appendicular mass was defined as a right iliac fossa mass in a case of acute appendicitis, diagnosed by clinical, laboratory and radiological evaluation, and palpation under anaesthesia, the patient being subjected to laparoscopic treatment. RESULTS: Forty-eight (48) patients were confirmed to have appendicular mass intraoperatively and were included in the analysis. There were 30 males and 18 females, with ages ranging 7-13 years (mean 9 years). In the present study, appendicular complications included appendicular abscess (62.5%), gangrenous appendicitis (25%), sloughed-out appendix (8.33%) and appendicular perforation (4.16%). The average operative time was 72 min (range 45-93 min). One case (1.92%) required conversion to open procedure due to failure of identification of the appendicular base of a sloughed-out appendix. Post-operative complications were found in 4 (7.69%) patients, of whom 3 (5.76%) had minor wound infection at the umbilical port site and 1 (1.92%) had post-operative pelvic abscess, which was managed with percutaneous aspiration. DISCUSSION: ELA avoids misdiagnosis, treats complicated appendicitis at its outset, and avoids complications and/or failure of non-operative treatment of a potentially lethal, diseased appendix. This approach is associated with minimal complications in experienced hands and is a safe and feasible option in children with appendicular mass.

  15. Food jags

    Refusal to eat; Fear of new foods ... caregiver, it is your role to provide healthy food and drink choices. You can also help your ... are full. Children should be allowed to choose foods based on their likes and dislikes and their ...

  16. Lionfish envenomation of the hand.

    Patel, M R; Wells, S

    1993-05-01

    Lionfish (Pterois volitans) envenomation of the hand causes excruciating pain and occurs in three grades: (1) erythematous reaction, (2) blister formation, and (3) dermal necrosis. The initial treatment in all cases is to soak the hand in nonscalding water (45 degrees C) until the pain subsides by denaturing the thermolabile venom proteins. The blisters should be immediately excised to prevent dermal necrosis, inasmuch as the blister fluid contains residual active venom. To prevent a hypersensitivity reaction, any further contact with the fish should be avoided. PMID:8515029

  17. Multifocal osteoblastoma of the hand

    Osteoblastoma is a benign bone tumor with uncertain radiologic and typical histologic pattern that, in most cases, can be diagnosed without any problems. Usually, it is a solitary bone tumor. The case presented is a 9-year-old child with multiple osteoblastomas occurring in multiple bones of the right hand. The child had pain in his right hand for several weeks. On physical examination, no swelling or other symptoms were elicited. All lesions noted radiologically were treated by curettage, and in all the pattern of osteoblastoma was diagnosed. (orig.)

  18. The effect of rising food prices on food consumption: systematic review with meta-regression

    Green, Rosemary; Cornelsen, Laura; Dangour, Alan D.; Turner, Rachel; Shankar, Bhavani; Mazzocchi, Mario; Smith, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To quantify the relation between food prices and the demand for food with specific reference to national and household income levels. Design Systematic review with meta-regression. Data sources Online databases of peer reviewed and grey literature (ISI Web of Science, EconLit, PubMed, Medline, AgEcon, Agricola, Google, Google Scholar, IdeasREPEC, Eldis, USAID, United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, World Bank, International Food Policy Research Institute), hand searched r...

  19. HACCP, food quality, food irradiation

    The paper summarizes the principles and purposes of the ''Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points'' (HACCP) system and its application and implementation within the European Union for the purposes of food quality and safety control, including food irradiation. (orig./CB)

  20. High Pressure Treatment in Foods

    Edwin Fabian Torres Bello

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available High hydrostatic pressure (HHP, a non-thermal technology, which typically uses water as a pressure transfer medium, is characterized by a minimal impact on food characteristics (sensory, nutritional, and functional. Today, this technology, present in many food companies, can effectively inactivate bacterial cells and many enzymes. All this makes HHP very attractive, with very good acceptance by consumers, who value the organoleptic characteristics of products processed by this non-thermal food preservation technology because they associate these products with fresh-like. On the other hand, this technology reduces the need for non-natural synthetic additives of low consumer acceptance.

  1. An automatic procedure for high-resolution earthquake locations: a case study from the TABOO near fault observatory (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    Valoroso, Luisa; Chiaraluce, Lauro; Di Stefano, Raffaele; Latorre, Diana; Piccinini, Davide

    2014-05-01

    The characterization of the geometry, kinematics and rheology of fault zones by seismological data depends on our capability of accurately locate the largest number of low-magnitude seismic events. To this aim, we have been working for the past three years to develop an advanced modular earthquake location procedure able to automatically retrieve high-resolution earthquakes catalogues directly from continuous waveforms data. We use seismograms recorded at about 60 seismic stations located both at surface and at depth. The network covers an area of about 80x60 km with a mean inter-station distance of 6 km. These stations are part of a Near fault Observatory (TABOO; http://taboo.rm.ingv.it/), consisting of multi-sensor stations (seismic, geodetic, geochemical and electromagnetic). This permanent scientific infrastructure managed by the INGV is devoted to studying the earthquakes preparatory phase and the fast/slow (i.e., seismic/aseismic) deformation process active along the Alto Tiberina fault (ATF) located in the northern Apennines (Italy). The ATF is potentially one of the rare worldwide examples of active low-angle (< 15) normal fault accommodating crustal extension and characterized by a regular occurrence of micro-earthquakes. The modular procedure combines: i) a sensitive detection algorithm optimized to declare low-magnitude events; ii) an accurate picking procedure that provides consistently weighted P- and S-wave arrival times, P-wave first motion polarities and the maximum waveform amplitude for local magnitude calculation; iii) both linearized iterative and non-linear global-search earthquake location algorithms to compute accurate absolute locations of single-events in a 3D geological model (see Latorre et al. same session); iv) cross-correlation and double-difference location methods to compute high-resolution relative event locations. This procedure is now running off-line with a delay of 1 week to the real-time. We are now implementing this procedure to obtain high-resolution double-difference earthquake locations in real-time (DDRT). We show locations of ~30k low-magnitude earthquakes recorded during the past 4 years (2010-2013) of network operation, reaching a completeness magnitude of the catalogue of 0.2. The spatiotemporal seismicity distribution has an almost constant and high rate of r = 24.30e-04 eqks/day*km2, interrupted by low to moderate magnitude seismic sequences such as the 2010 Pietralunga sequence (M L 3.8) and the still ongoing 2013 Gubbio sequence (M L 4.0 on 22nd December 2013). Low-magnitude seismicity images the fine scale geometry of the ATF: an E-dipping plane at low angle (15) from 4 km down to ~15 km of depth. While in the ATF hanging-wall we observe the activation of high-angle minor synthetic and antithetic normal faults (4-5 km long) confined at depth by the detachment. Both seismic sequences activated up to now only these high-angle fault segments.

  2. Regional food culture and development.

    Wahlqvist, Mark L; Lee, Meei-Shyuan

    2007-01-01

    Food culture is most influenced by the locality of its origin, which will have been one of food acquisition and processing by various means. It is generally agreed, and is the basis of much United Nations, especially Food and Agriculture Organisation strategic development policy, that successful agriculture, horticulture and aquaculture along with fishing, underpin economically viable and healthy communities with their various food cultures. We also know that this must be in tandem with maternal literacy and operational health care systems. These elements are best represented on a regional basis. There is a growing consumer interest in knowing where one's food comes from as a measure of "food integrity". However, food production alone can be a precarious business and relate to a lesser or greater extent to local food culture and to trade, which may be complementary or at-odds with each other. Likewise, the local food culture may have its strengths and weaknesses as far as its ability to meet nutritional and health needs is concerned. Local food production may be restricted because of geographical or socio-economic conditions which preclude food diversity, although this may be compensated for by trade. Where food adequacy and diversity is compromised, and soils poor, various macronutrient, micronutrient (from animals and plants) and phytonutrient (nutritionally-advantageous food component from plants) deficiencies may be in evidence. These food system problems may be intertwined with food culture--for example, "rice-based and water-soluble vitamin poor"; "few animal-derived foods like meat, fish, eggs and milk with associated low calcium, vitamin D, Vitamin B12 and long chain n-3 fatty acid intakes"; "low fruit and vegetable intake with limited carotenoids and other phytonutrients". Geo-satellite surveillance and mapping as identifying such "hot spots": for regional food problems, as well as hot spots where most of the world's biodiversity is found (1.4 % of land on earth). On the other hand, regional food culture can confer considerable advantage for health and economic development, but does not necessarily do so. The challenge is to respect and retain traditional food knowledge and sustainable food systems, with good governance for food security. There has been a recent awakening of interest and concern about the lack of documentation of traditional and indigenous food cultures which are important not only for their own sake, but for the legacy of food knowledge which they can confer on future generations, provided they are not lost. Hence, the value of a special focus on African food cultures (www.healthyeatingclub.org/Africa), including Rift and Nile Valleys and North West African foods, which are the cradles of human food systems and habits. This is the case too with indigenous foods and food cultures (whether hunter-gatherer or subsistence agriculture); with relatively long-living food cultures in North East Asia, with food cultural distinction and fusion (FHILL and SENECA studies) and with migratory Food Habits. By and large, there is a remarkable resilience and ingenuity of people and their food systems, but monoculture and lack of diversity encourage food system failure. PMID:17392068

  3. Food irradiation

    Food irradiation has been the subject of concern and controversy for many years. The advantages of food irradiation include the reduction or elimination of dangerous bacterial organisms, the control of pests and insects which destroy certain foods, the extension of the shelf-life of many products, for example fruit, and its ability to treat products such as seafood which may be eaten raw. It can also replace existing methods of treatment which are believed to have hazardous side-effects. However, after examining the evidence produced by the proponents of food irradiation, the author questions whether it has any major contribution to make to the problems of foodborne diseases or world food shortages. More acceptable solutions, he suggests, may be found in educating food handlers to ensure that hygienic conditions prevail in the production, storage and serving of food. (author)

  4. Food irradiation

    Food can be provided with extra beneficial properties by physical processing. These benefits include a reduced possibility of food poisoning, or an increased life of the food. We are familiar with pasteurisation of milk, drying of vegetables, and canning of fruit. These physical processes work because the food absorbs energy during treatment which brings about the changes needed. The energy absorbed in these examples is heat energy. Food irradiation is a less familiar process. It produces similar benefits to other processes and it can sometimes be applied with additional advantages over conventional processing. For example, because irradiation causes little heating, foods may look and taste more natural. Also, treatment can take place with the food in its final plastic wrappers, reducing the risk of re-contamination. (author). 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab

  5. Food irradiation

    Food irradiation is a promising technology in which food products are exposed to a controlled amount of radiant energy to eliminate disease-causing bacteria. The process can also control parasites and insects, reduce spoilage and inhibit ripening and sprouting. Food irradiation is endorsed by the most important health organisations (WHO, CDC, USDA, FDA, EFSA, etc.) and allowed in nearly 40 Countries. It is to remember that irradiation is not a substitute either for comprehensive food safety programs or for good food-handling practices. Irradiated foods must be labelled with either the statement treated with radiation or treated by irradiation and the international symbol for irradiation, the radura. Some consumer associations suppose negative aspects of irradiation, such as increase of the number of free radicals in food and decrease of antioxidant vitamins that neutralize them

  6. Hands-On Nuclear Physics

    Whittaker, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear science is an important topic in terms of its application to power generation, medical diagnostics and treatment, and national defense. Unfortunately, the subatomic domain is far removed from daily experience, and few learning aids are available to teachers. What follows describes a low-tech, hands-on method to teach important concepts in

  7. Firecracker injuries to the hand.

    MacKenzie, D N; Green, J A; Viglione, W

    2001-03-01

    Between September 1999 and April 2000, the Hand Unit at St George Hospital, Sydney, treated three young men with severe injuries caused by holding a lighted firecracker. These cases illustrate the typical injuries seen with this mechanism of injury. They highlight the dangers of these explosive devices and the potential to improve the laws relating to fireworks. PMID:11280694

  8. Venous lakes of the hands

    Following pharmacologic vasodilation, multiple vascular lakes were observed on angiograms of the hand in 55 patients. Most had no history of vascular anomalies or disease. The authors believe that these lakes are venous structures and that their filling is a physiologic phenomenon

  9. Unusual case of cleft hand

    Sahasrabudhe Parag

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a six-year-old male child with cleft hand deformity involving the dominant right hand. It was a rare case of atypical cleft hand with no missing tissue but cleft extending to metacarpal level and associated hypoplasia of thumb and index finger. As per Manske′s classification of cleft hand our patient belongs to the Class III variety. There was associated malposition of the index finger with absence of first web space and syndactly of thumb and index finger at the metacarpal level. A modified Snow-Littler procedure was planned. The surgical plan involved closure of cleft, release of thumb and index finger syndactly and reconstruction of the first web space. The functional outcome was good considering hypoplasia of the index finger and thumb. Depending upon the function of the thumb tendon transfers can be planned to augment thumb function at a later date along with correction of rotational deformities of the index and middle finger.

  10. Hands-On Nuclear Physics

    Whittaker, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear science is an important topic in terms of its application to power generation, medical diagnostics and treatment, and national defense. Unfortunately, the subatomic domain is far removed from daily experience, and few learning aids are available to teachers. What follows describes a low-tech, hands-on method to teach important concepts in…

  11. Exposures related to hand eczema

    Ibler, K.S.; Jemec, G.B.E.; Agner, T.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Hand eczema is common in healthcare workers, owing to intensive exposure to wet work and skin irritants. Targeted interventions and vocational guidance based on documented exposures and risk factors are needed. Objectives. The aims of the study were to investigate the relationship bet...

  12. Hand-arm vibration syndrome.

    Pelmear, P L; Taylor, W

    1994-02-01

    The hand-arm vibration syndrome affects workers who perform tasks that generate vibration. Raynaud's phenomenon and sensory impairment of the fingers are the predominant effects. A history of hand-arm vibration (HAV) exposure in a patient with these symptoms should alert the physician to the diagnosis. Referral to a special clinic or hospital department for multiple clinical tests is required to confirm the diagnosis and, using the Stockholm classification, to grade the severity in each hand. The assessment permits the patient to be monitored either for progression of or recovery from the syndrome. Avoidance of further vibration exposure is recommended, together with the prescription of a slow-release calcium channel blocker to improve peripheral circulation. Hand-arm vibration syndrome should be distinguished from carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), which may have similar symptomatology but requires different treatments. Surgery is contraindicated in the former and should be the last resort for carpal tunnel syndrome in a worker requiring good grip-strength in future employment. PMID:8185734

  13. Hand-held medical robots.

    Payne, Christopher J; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2014-08-01

    Medical robots have evolved from autonomous systems to tele-operated platforms and mechanically-grounded, cooperatively-controlled robots. Whilst these approaches have seen both commercial and clinical success, uptake of these robots remains moderate because of their high cost, large physical footprint and long setup times. More recently, researchers have moved toward developing hand-held robots that are completely ungrounded and manipulated by surgeons in free space, in a similar manner to how conventional instruments are handled. These devices provide specific functions that assist the surgeon in accomplishing tasks that are otherwise challenging with manual manipulation. Hand-held robots have the advantages of being compact and easily integrated into the normal surgical workflow since there is typically little or no setup time. Hand-held devices can also have a significantly reduced cost to healthcare providers as they do not necessitate the complex, multi degree-of-freedom linkages that grounded robots require. However, the development of such devices is faced with many technical challenges, including miniaturization, cost and sterility, control stability, inertial and gravity compensation and robust instrument tracking. This review presents the emerging technical trends in hand-held medical robots and future development opportunities for promoting their wider clinical uptake. PMID:24927713

  14. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD)

    ... or cups with infected people Commonly Confused With Foot-and-Mouth Disease Hand, foot, and mouth disease ... Library, Foot-and-Mouth Disease . Outbreaks of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Large outbreaks of hand, foot, ...

  15. Why Am I Left-Handed?

    ... does since most hitters are right-handed. In basketball and other sports, a left-handed player can ... change in strategy. For instance, a left-handed basketball player will dribble with his or her left ...

  16. A study on prevalence of bacteria in the hands of children and their perception on hand washing in two schools of Bangalore and Kolkata

    Sandip Kumar Ray

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contaminated hands play a major role in fecal-oral transmission of diseases. In 1847, Dr Semmelweis Ignac pointed to the link between infection and unclean hands, and demonstrated that washing hands could reduce transmission of puerperal fever (child birth fever, a dreaded disease with high mortality in those days. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to find out the extent of germs present in hand, and also the students′ perception on hand washing. This was assessed by questionnaire as well as by collection of swab from hand and performing bacteriological culture in the laboratory. Results: In regard to students′ perception about the dirty areas of the hands, it was observed that majority (78% felt palm was likely to be more dirty while less than 70% felt that web spaces could harbor dirt. Almost 86% reported that they washed hands before eating lunch, but only 21.3% said they always used soap while 47.3% never used it. Availability of soap all the time in the school was reported by only 18.4% students. The swabs of 61% children showed potential pathogens. The commonest of these was Staphylococcus aureus which was seen in 44% samples. Conclusion: The students′ hands were contaminated before taking food. Although they washed hands before meals, they hardly used soap due to non-availability of soap. The school authority should be asked to keep soaps in the toilets for hand washing.

  17. Food-regime(s) at a crossroad

    Noe, Egon; Korsgaard, Steffen

    their own hands. Creating localized food systems with direct contact with costumers, mostly bypassing, but occasionally integrating with supermarkets based distribution. In this presentation we will discuss the present fragmentation of the food-regime in Denmark, focusing on the conflicting tensions of...

  18. Food safety and consumer behaviour

    Frewer, Lynn; Fischer, Arnout; Scholderer, Joachim; Verbeke, Wim

    Food safety is a priority for many consumers, and there is an expectation throughout society that the food supplied for human consumption is safe and nutritious to eat. Understanding technical risk estimates alone, however, will not explain the risk-related behaviours of consumers. On the one hand...... appropriate risk mitigation measures through the food chain, not least in the domestic kitchen. However, factors related to consumer psychology may increase the risks to consumers as they produce barriers to self-protective behaviours (Frewer & Fischer, in press; Worsfold & Griffith, 1997). In contrast......, public perceptions and attitudes about emerging bio-sciences and other new technologies applied to food production are among the most important factors determining the likelihood of the successful development and implementation of agri-food technology technologies (Frewer et al., 2004). Scientific...

  19. Food irradiation: contaminating our food

    The nuclear industry has promoted food irradiation as an effective and safe means of preserving food at minimum risk to the public. However, wide-scale food irradiation programmes such as that approved in the United States of America would have an adverse impact on public health in the following ways: through the consumption of carcinogenic substances generated in irradiated foods, through the use of irradiation to mask bacteriological contamination of spoiled food, through the replacement of fresh foods with nutritionally depleted foods, through accidents with leaks or mishandling of the radiation sources used and through the environmental damage resulting from reactor operation or spent fuel reprocessing necessary to produce the required isotopes for food irradiation. The food irradiation market is potentially enormous, requiring a large number of facilities and isotopes, some, such as caesium-137, would come from the production of nuclear weapons. Evidence of the presence of carcinogenic or mutagenic activity in irradiated foods is discussed. Although the US Federal Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a food irradiation programme it would actually be against the FDA's legal obligation which is to protect the health and safety of the American people. (UK)

  20. Safer food means food irradiation

    In this article the author presents the sanitary advantages that are brought by food irradiation. OMS experts state that this technique is safe and harmless for any average global dose between 10 KGy and 100 KGy. Whenever a seminar is held on the topic, it is always concluded that food irradiation should be promoted and favoured. In France food irradiation is authorized for some kinds of products and exceptionally above a 10 KGy dose. Historically food irradiation has been hampered in its development by its classification by American Authorities as food additives in 1958 (Delanay clause). The author draws a parallel between food irradiation and pasteurization or food deep-freezing in their beginnings. (A.C.)

  1. [Food allergy in childhood].

    Beyer, Kirsten; Niggemann, Bodo

    2016-06-01

    IgE-mediated immediate type reactions are the most common form of food allergy in childhood. Primary (often in early childhood) and secondary (often pollen-associated) allergies can be distinguished by their level of severity. Hen's egg, cow's milk and peanut are the most common elicitors of primary food allergy. Tolerance development in hen's egg and cow's milk allergy happens frequently whereas peanut allergy tends toward a lifelong disease. For the diagnostic patient history, detection of sensitization and (in many cases) oral food challenges are necessary. Especially in peanut and hazelnut allergy component-resolves diagnostic (measurement of specific IgE to individual allergens, e. g. Ara h 2) seem to be helpful. In regard to therapy elimination diet is still the only approved approach. Patient education through dieticians is extremely helpful in this regard. Patients at risk for anaphylactic reactions need to carry emergency medications including an adrenaline auto-injector. Instruction on the usage of the adrenaline auto-injector should take place and a written management plan handed to the patient. Moreover, patients or caregivers should be encouraged to attending a structured educational intervention on knowledge and emergency management. In parallel, causal therapeutic options such as oral, sublingual or epicutaneous immunotherapies are currently under development. In regard to prevention of food allergy current guidelines no longer advise to avoid highly allergenic foods. Current intervention studies are investigating wether early introduction of highly allergic foods is effective and safe to prevent food allergy. It was recently shown that peanut introduction between 4 and 11  months of age in infants with severe atopic dermatitis and/or hen's egg allergy (if they are not already peanut allergic) prevents peanut allergy in a country with high prevalence. PMID:27207693

  2. Die Sprache der Hande zu den Handen sprechen (Talking the Language of the Hands to the Hands). DB-LINK.

    Miles, Barbara

    This paper examines the importance of hands for the person who is deafblind, reviews hand development, and identifies specific teaching skills that facilitate hand development and expressiveness in persons who are deafblind. It notes that the hands of a deafblind individual serve not only as tools but also as sense organs (to compensate for their…

  3. Food labels

    Selsøe Sørensen, Henrik; Clement, Jesper; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    The food industry develops tasty and healthy food but fails to deliver the message to all consumers. The consumers’ background knowledge is essential for how they find and decode relevant elements in the cocktail of signs which fight for attention on food labels. In this exploratory study, we find...... evidence for dividing consumers into two profiles: one relying on general food knowledge and another using knowledge related to signpost labels. In a combined eyetracking and questionnaire survey we analyse the influence of background knowledge and identify different patterns of visual attention for the...... two consumer profiles. This underlines the complexity in choosing and designing the ‘right’ elements for a food package that consumers actually look at and are able to make rational use of. In spite of any regulation of food information provided by authorities, consumers will still be confronted with...

  4. Food labels

    Selse Srensen, Henrik; Clement, Jesper; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    The food industry develops tasty and healthy food but fails to deliver the message to all consumers. The consumers background knowledge is essential for how they find and decode relevant elements in the cocktail of signs which fight for attention on food labels. In this exploratory study, we find...... evidence for dividing consumers into two profiles: one relying on general food knowledge and another using knowledge related to signpost labels. In a combined eyetracking and questionnaire survey we analyse the influence of background knowledge and identify different patterns of visual attention for the...... two consumer profiles. This underlines the complexity in choosing and designing the right elements for a food package that consumers actually look at and are able to make rational use of. In spite of any regulation of food information provided by authorities, consumers will still be confronted with...

  5. Food allergy

    Waserman, Susan; Watson, Wade

    2011-01-01

    Food allergy is defined as an adverse immunologic response to a dietary protein. Food-related reactions are associated with a broad array of signs and symptoms that may involve many bodily systems including the skin, gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, and cardiovascular system. Food allergy is a leading cause of anaphylaxis and, therefore, referral to an allergist for appropriate and timely diagnosis and treatment is imperative. Diagnosis involves a careful history and diagnostic tests,...

  6. Food allergy

    Waserman Susan; Watson Wade

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Food allergy is defined as an adverse immunologic response to a dietary protein. Food-related reactions are associated with a broad array of signs and symptoms that may involve many bodily systems including the skin, gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, and cardiovascular system. Food allergy is a leading cause of anaphylaxis and, therefore, referral to an allergist for appropriate and timely diagnosis and treatment is imperative. Diagnosis involves a careful history and diagnost...

  7. Food taxes, a new holy grail?

    Ignaas Devisch

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to reduce the growing prevalence of overweight and obesity, food taxes have been introduced in several European countries, the so-called ‘obesitax’. As yet little evidence is at hand, policy measures are being taken to counterweight the consumption of unhealthy food or the increasing diet-related diseases. Several questions need to be discussed, starting from a general perspective: can food taxes become an appropriate and just policy measure to reduce overweight and obesity and t...

  8. The hands of the dancer

    Abtan, Freida

    2008-01-01

    'The hands of the dancer" is a 21 minute HD sound and video piece that focuses on the temporal experience of audiovisual composition and takes lucid dreaming as inspiration. It was created by Freida Abtan with footage of Andrea Fryett, Olivia Li, and David Drury. The video explores the multiple ways that movement and form can be abstracted through surface and temporal manipulation. The narrative evokes a dreamscape in which characters exchange identity and develop through physical transf...

  9. Hand eczema - prognosis and consequences

    Petersen, A. H.; Johansen, J D; Hald, M

    2014-01-01

    eczema in other body locations during the follow-up period were risk factors of a poor prognosis. The same factors, as well as being a woman, were associated with occupational consequences and low health-related quality of life. Of those with persistent hand eczema only 40% had visited a dermatologist...... eczema. It should be questioned if more aggressive therapy and closer medical follow-up would be beneficial....

  10. Hand kinematics of piano playing.

    Furuya, Shinichi; Flanders, Martha; Soechting, John F

    2011-12-01

    Dexterous use of the hand represents a sophisticated sensorimotor function. In behaviors such as playing the piano, it can involve strong temporal and spatial constraints. The purpose of this study was to determine fundamental patterns of covariation of motion across joints and digits of the human hand. Joint motion was recorded while 5 expert pianists played 30 excerpts from musical pieces, which featured ∼50 different tone sequences and fingering. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis using an expectation-maximization algorithm revealed that joint velocities could be categorized into several patterns, which help to simplify the description of the movements of the multiple degrees of freedom of the hand. For the thumb keystroke, two distinct patterns of joint movement covariation emerged and they depended on the spatiotemporal patterns of the task. For example, the thumb-under maneuver was clearly separated into two clusters based on the direction of hand translation along the keyboard. While the pattern of the thumb joint velocities differed between these clusters, the motions at the metacarpo-phalangeal and proximal-phalangeal joints of the four fingers were more consistent. For a keystroke executed with one of the fingers, there were three distinct patterns of joint rotations, across which motion at the striking finger was fairly consistent, but motion of the other fingers was more variable. Furthermore, the amount of movement spillover of the striking finger to the adjacent fingers was small irrespective of the finger used for the keystroke. These findings describe an unparalleled amount of independent motion of the fingers. PMID:21880938

  11. Tools used for hand deburring

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1981-03-01

    This guide is designed to help in quick identification of those tools most commonly used to deburr hand size or smaller parts. Photographs and textual descriptions are used to provide rapid yet detailed information. The data presented include the Bendix Kansas City Division coded tool number, tool description, tool crib in which the tool can be found, the maximum and minimum inventory requirements, the cost of each tool, and the number of the illustration that shows the tool.

  12. The Marble-Hand Illusion

    Senna, Irene; Maravita, Angelo; Bolognini, Nadia; Cesare V. Parise

    2014-01-01

    Our body is made of flesh and bones. We know it, and in our daily lives all the senses constantly provide converging information about this simple, factual truth. But is this always the case? Here we report a surprising bodily illusion demonstrating that humans rapidly update their assumptions about the material qualities of their body, based on their recent multisensory perceptual experience. To induce a misperception of the material properties of the hand, we repeatedly gently hit participa...

  13. Hand dominance in orthopaedic surgeons.

    Lui, Darren F

    2012-08-01

    Handedness is perhaps the most studied human asymmetry. Laterality is the preference shown for one side and it has been studied in many aspects of medicine. Studies have shown that some orthopaedic procedures had poorer outcomes and identified laterality as a contributing factor. We developed a questionnaire to assess laterality in orthopaedic surgery and compared this to an established scoring system. Sixty-two orthopaedic surgeons surveyed with the validated Waterloo Handedness Questionnaire (WHQ) were compared with the self developed Orthopaedic Handedness Questionnaire (OHQ). Fifty-eight were found to be right hand dominant (RHD) and 4 left hand dominant (LHD). In RHD surgeons, the average WHQ score was 44.9% and OHQ 15%. For LHD surgeons the WHQ score was 30.2% and OHQ 9.4%. This represents a significant amount of time using the non dominant hand but does not necessarily determine satisfactory or successful dexterity transferable to the operating room. Training may be required for the non dominant side.

  14. Food retailing and food service.

    Capps, Oral; Park, John L

    2003-07-01

    The food retailing and food service sector is not only an important component of the food marketing channel but is also vital to the United States economy, accounting for more than 7% of the United States gross domestic product in 2001. The business of food retailing and food service is undergoing salient change. The authors argue that the singular force driving this change is the consumer. To understand the linkages in the food marketing channel, this article provides information on the farm-to-retail price spread and the economic forces that influence their magnitude. Examples are given of farm-to-retail price spreads for red meat and dairy industries. In addition, the economics behind the provision of retail services and the growth of the food service industry are discussed. Further, the authors demonstrate that the structure of the food market channel is consumer driven, and present three characteristics of convenience (preparation, delivery, and service) and identify four food distribution channels in terms of convenience (complete convenience, traditional food service, consumer direct, and traditional retail). PMID:12951742

  15. Using Olfaction and Unpleasant Reminders to Reduce the Intention-behavior Gap in Hand Washing.

    Pellegrino, Robert; Crandall, Philip G; Seo, Han-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Lack of hand washing is a leading cause of food borne illnesses. To successfully increase hand hygiene compliance, interventions must have continual engagement with employees. This study used a real-time prospective memory (PM) scenario to measure the effectiveness of a control and sensory reminders of disgust to influence hand washing behavior and performance. First, a model of hand washing performance was built by having six participants' hands contaminated with GermGlo (a florescent micro-particle) and then washed their hands using predetermined protocols while monitored by an electronic hand hygiene verification (HHV) system. Next, eighty Hispanic/Latino participants, in a between-group experimental design, performed a PM experiment while one of four reminders were present (hand washing poster, disgusting image, disgusting sound, and disgusting odor) as the HHV recorded their hand washing performance. Visual cues, typical of hand washing campaigns, were not as effective at increasing hand hygiene compliance as disgust-induced sensory cues. Furthermore, olfactory disgust showed a significantly higher probability that individuals would engage in hand washing behaviors than all other conditions. This study provides new insight into the effectiveness of different senses and emotion to reduce the intention-behavior gap associated with modifying behaviors, and broadens current PM research to a real-time application. PMID:26732033

  16. Urunana Audiences at Home and Away: Together 'Hand in Hand'?

    Hintjens, Helen; Bayisenge, F.

    2011-01-01

    textabstractUrunana (‘Hand in Hand’) is Rwanda’s first radio soap opera. The production emerged during the late 1990s from a three-way transnational production partnership between: The Great Lakes section of the BBC World Service; the Well Woman Media Project of the London-based NGO, Health Unlimited; and a group of dramatists and broadcasters working in Rwanda. Broadcast by the BBC World Service, the production was initially produced and edited by Health Unlimite. It is now produced by the U...

  17. Future Perspectives for Hand Transplant in Iran

    Fatemi, M. J.; Masoumi, M.; Esfandiari, E.

    2011-01-01

    Hand transplant program is a communion of physicians and researchers during the current decade. 72 hands and digits were transplanted in 53 patients over the past 13 years. Unlike a solid organ transplant, hand transplantation involves various tissues, so it is called composite tissue allotransplantation. This article discusses the plans for performing the first hand transplant in Iran. PMID:25013615

  18. Future Perspectives for Hand Transplant in Iran

    M. J. Fatemi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Hand transplant program is a communion of physicians and researchers during the current decade. 72 hands and digits were transplanted in 53 patients over the past 13 years. Unlike a solid organ transplant, hand transplantation involves various tissues, so it is called composite tissue allotransplantation. This article discusses the plans for performing the first hand transplant in Iran.

  19. 29 CFR 1926.301 - Hand tools.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand tools. 1926.301 Section 1926.301 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Tools-Hand and Power § 1926.301 Hand tools. (a) Employers shall not issue or permit the use of unsafe hand tools. (b) Wrenches, including adjustable, pipe,...

  20. 29 CFR 1917.51 - Hand tools.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand tools. 1917.51 Section 1917.51 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Cargo Handling Gear and Equipment § 1917.51 Hand tools. (a) Hand tools used by employees shall be maintained in safe operating condition. (b)(1) Hand-held portable electric tools shall...

  1. Population, food and knowledge

    Strulik, Holger; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a unified growth theory, i.e. a model that explains the very long-run economic and demographic development path of industrialized economies, stretching from the pre-industrial era to the present-day and beyond. Making strict use of Malthus' (An essay on the principle of......-sector framework with agriculture and industry, we demonstrate how fertility responds differently to productivity and income growth, depending on whether it emerges in agriculture or industry. Agricultural productivity and income growth makes food goods, and therefore children, relatively less expensive....... Industrial productivity and income growth, on the other hand, makes food goods, and therefore children, relatively more expensive. The present framework lends support to existing unified growth theories and is well in tune with historical evidence about structural transformation....

  2. Food preservation

    The pamphlet contains short descriptions of many methods of preserving foods with emphasis on irradiation and its possible consequences. The views of the Federation of Danish Industries with regard to questions considered worthy of debate in relation to irradiation of food are presented. Information is directed at the general danish public. (AB)

  3. Food irradiation

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and The World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19 MeV, 1 kW) and industrial unit Electronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for irradiation for; spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables. (author)

  4. Food irradiation

    Processing of food with low levels of radiation has the potential to contribute to reducing both spoilage of food during storage - a particular problem in developing countries - and the high incidence of food-borne disease currently seen in all countries. Approval has been granted for the treatment of more than 30 products with radiation in over 30 countries but, in general, governments have been slow to authorize the use of this new technique. One reason for this slowness is a lack of understanding of what food irradiation entails. This book aims to increase understanding by providing information on the process of food irradiation in simple, non-technical language. It describes the effects that irradiation has on food, and the plant and equipment that are necessary to carry it out safely. The legislation and control mechanisms required to ensure the safety of food irradiation facilities are also discussed. Education is seen as the key to gaining the confidence of the consumers in the safety of irradiated food, and to promoting understanding of the benefits that irradiation can provide. (orig.) With 4 figs., 1 tab

  5. Food Safety

    ... Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs ... should be grade A or AA. Don't slow down your cart for these bad-news foods: fruit with broken skin (bacteria can enter through ...

  6. Food Allergy

    ... with EoE have a family history of allergic disorders such as asthma, rhinitis, dermatitis or food allergy. Keep pace with the latest information and connect with others. Join us on Facebook and Twitter . Play our Food Allergy Bubble Game ...

  7. Acute Dorsal Hand Burns in Children

    Argirova, M.; Hadzhiyski, O.

    2006-01-01

    Hand burns in children, whether isolated or part of massive burns, require special attention. A crucial element in this respect is the preservation and full restoration of hand function. Most cases of severe sequelae after burns are associated with hand burns. From January 2002 to November 2004, 125 children with hand burns and other body burns were treated at the Centre of Burns and Plastic Surgery in Sofia, Bulgaria. This review presents our experience with 71 children with 89 burned hands ...

  8. Ergonomic Evaluation of Biomechanical Hand Function

    Lee, Kyung-Sun; Jung, Myung-Chul

    2014-01-01

    The human hand is a complex structure that performs various functions for activities of daily living and occupations. This paper presents a literature review on the methodologies used to evaluate hand functions from a biomechanics standpoint, including anthropometry, kinematics, kinetics, and electromyography (EMG). Anthropometry describes the dimensions and measurements of the hand. Kinematics includes hand movements and the range of motion of finger joints. Kinetics includes hand models for...

  9. Observation of nanoaerosol release from a hand dryer

    Consumer exposure is one of exposures in the life cycle perspective to risk assessment. Many nanoproducts have been commercialized in the fields of health, electronics, home, food etc. Hand dryers are widely used at public rest rooms. In this study, we selected the hand dryer having a filter coated with silver nanoparticles as a popular electronic nanoproduct. A test chamber system was developed to detect nanoaerosols released from the test nanoproduct during the operation. The particle number concentration of the chamber background was confirmed to be 3 by using a condensation particle counter with a detection limit of 10 nm. When the hand dryer was turn on for 1 min, the particle number concentration in the chamber was almost linearly increased up to the peak concentration (3). It was slowly decreased after the hand dryer was turn off. When the operation was extended to 10 min, similar release pattern of nanoaerosols was observed. Therefore, it was concluded that the nanoaerosols was emitted from the hand dryer during the operation. However, the amount of released nanoaerosols was negligible, compared to indoor nanoaerosol concentration (?10,000 particles/cm3). Also, the released nanoaerosols could not be analyzed by filter sampling due to small quantity of mass.

  10. Food porn.

    McBride, Anne E

    2010-01-01

    Since the term first appeared, food porn has typically referred to watching others cook on television or gazing at unattainable dishes in glossy magazines without actually cooking oneself. This forum seeks to revisit this notion of food porn that is mostly taken for granted in both popular and scholarly literature. It offers a brief perspective of the appearance and use of the term food porn to examine how it came to be a term used mostly by commentators rather than by people actively engaged in the world of cooking. Practitioners (chefs and a food television producer) and academics address whether or not food porn exists, what shape it might take, what purpose it might serve, and/or what usefulness it might have, showing that these contentious issues are more complex than the ease with which the term is used might let on. PMID:21539050

  11. Quantifying the effect of hand wash duration, soap use, ground beef debris, and drying methods on the removal of Enterobacter aerogenes on hands.

    Jensen, Dane A; Danyluk, Michelle D; Harris, Linda J; Schaffner, Donald W

    2015-04-01

    Hand washing is recognized as a crucial step in preventing foodborne disease transmission by mitigating crosscontamination among hands, surfaces, and foods. This research was undertaken to establish the importance of several keys factors (soap, soil, time, and drying method) in reducing microorganisms during hand washing. A nonpathogenic nalidixic acid-resistant Enterobacter aerogenes surrogate for Salmonella was used to assess the efficacy of using soap or no soap for 5 or 20 s on hands with or without ground beef debris and drying with paper towel or air. Each experiment consisted of 20 replicates, each from a different individual with ? 6 log CFU/ml E. aerogenes on their hands. A reduction of 1.0 0.4 and 1.7 0.8 log CFU of E. aerogenes was observed for a 5-s wash with no soap and a 20-s wash with soap, respectively. When there was no debris on the hands, there was no significant difference between washing with and without soap for 20 s (P > 0.05). Likewise, there was no significant difference in the reductions achieved when washing without soap, whether or not debris was on the hands (P > 0.05). A significantly greater reduction (P soap when there was ground beef debris on the hands. The greatest difference (1.1 log CFU greater average reduction) in effectiveness occurred when ground beef debris was on the hands and a 20-s wash with water was compared with a 20-s wash with soap. Significantly greater (P 4.0 log CFU per towel) when hands are highly contaminated. Our results support future quantitative microbial risk assessments needed to effectively manage risks of foodborne illness in which food workers' hands are a primary cause. PMID:25836392

  12. Smart Sensors for Smart Hands

    Bejczy, A. K.

    1978-01-01

    Proximity, force-torque, touch and slippage sensors developed or applied by the JPL Teleoperator Project for remote manipulator control are described, including sensor data handling by computers for display and control. Examples are quoted showing the significance of these sensors for manual or computer control of manipulators. An interesting example is a proximity sensor system implemented for a four-claw JSC end effector and tested at the Shuttle Manipulator Training Facility of JSC. New sensing concepts aimed at simplifying the implementation of 'Smart Sensors for Smart Hands' in the space environment are discussed.

  13. Hand protection from ultraviolet exposure

    Full text of publication follows: A number of industrial applications and public services involve exposure to ultraviolet radiation (U.V.R.) from a variety of lamps and lasers, for example, in forensic examination, biological trans-illuminators, dentistry, laser material processing, microelectronics, etc. The proposed European Union Directive on Optical Radiation would place specific requirements on employers to provide adequate safety measures to reduce exposure to U.V.R., including gloves for hand protection. The selection of gloves should be based on a risk assessment and on the performance characteristics of the gloves for the task. However, current International and national standards do not describe evaluation procedures of disposable gloves for hand protection against non-ionising radiation. A methodology for assessment of the UV protection level for disposable gloves and a simple measurement protocol are proposed, based on a common approach with UV protection by clothing and sunscreens. Glove Ultraviolet Protection Factor is defined as a time-scale increase in exposure permitted for the hand protected by a glove with respect to an unprotected hand. However, the wide variety of U.V.R. sources and the real-life conditions of glove use (stretching and wetting the surface by liquids) bring substantial challenges to the assessment method. Our study of ∼ 50 samples of widely used disposable gloves made of different materials (nitrile, vinyl, latex and chloroprene) showed that for all tested gloves a change in U.V.R. attenuation with stretching is characteristic for the type of glove material and can be included as a scaling factor in the definition of U.V.R. protection. Glove material has a bigger effect on U.V.R. protection level than variations in the glove thickness or its colour. The following approaches are suggested to overcome the problem of variable U.V.R. sources: - Worst case scenario minimal protection level, most restrictive case - Application specific UV protection factor - Lamp-type specific protection factor, for group of U.V.R. sources with similar spectral characteristics. Examples of assessment of the 'worst case scenario' are compared with the protection level against a number of the sources, together with guidance on a simplified evaluation protocol. An application specific assessment, illustrated for 'Smart Water' forensic examinations and biological trans-illuminators, demonstrates that some gloves provide inadequate protection against occupational ultraviolet exposure. (authors)

  14. Hand protection from ultraviolet exposure

    Khazova, M.; O' Hagan, J.B. [Health Protection Agency, Radiation Protection Division, Chilton, Did cot (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: A number of industrial applications and public services involve exposure to ultraviolet radiation (U.V.R.) from a variety of lamps and lasers, for example, in forensic examination, biological trans-illuminators, dentistry, laser material processing, microelectronics, etc. The proposed European Union Directive on Optical Radiation would place specific requirements on employers to provide adequate safety measures to reduce exposure to U.V.R., including gloves for hand protection. The selection of gloves should be based on a risk assessment and on the performance characteristics of the gloves for the task. However, current International and national standards do not describe evaluation procedures of disposable gloves for hand protection against non-ionising radiation. A methodology for assessment of the UV protection level for disposable gloves and a simple measurement protocol are proposed, based on a common approach with UV protection by clothing and sunscreens. Glove Ultraviolet Protection Factor is defined as a time-scale increase in exposure permitted for the hand protected by a glove with respect to an unprotected hand. However, the wide variety of U.V.R. sources and the real-life conditions of glove use (stretching and wetting the surface by liquids) bring substantial challenges to the assessment method. Our study of {approx} 50 samples of widely used disposable gloves made of different materials (nitrile, vinyl, latex and chloroprene) showed that for all tested gloves a change in U.V.R. attenuation with stretching is characteristic for the type of glove material and can be included as a scaling factor in the definition of U.V.R. protection. Glove material has a bigger effect on U.V.R. protection level than variations in the glove thickness or its colour. The following approaches are suggested to overcome the problem of variable U.V.R. sources: - Worst case scenario minimal protection level, most restrictive case - Application specific UV protection factor - Lamp-type specific protection factor, for group of U.V.R. sources with similar spectral characteristics. Examples of assessment of the 'worst case scenario' are compared with the protection level against a number of the sources, together with guidance on a simplified evaluation protocol. An application specific assessment, illustrated for 'Smart Water' forensic examinations and biological trans-illuminators, demonstrates that some gloves provide inadequate protection against occupational ultraviolet exposure. (authors)

  15. Helping Hands: Enabling the Disabled

    Prof: Nihar M. Ranjan; Rahul Pardeshi; Piyush Bhattad; Pavan Shah; Nirav Shah

    2013-01-01

    A major community in the world population is of physically handicapped and blind people. These people cannot access the computers due to their disabilities. There is a need of some technology which allows these people to get access of the mouse and keyboard without using hands and eyes. This paper gives us the brief introduction of a technology which is intended to help handicapped in getting access of the basic technologies.This technology uses the head mouse technology by which the real tim...

  16. Middle East food safety perspectives.

    Idriss, Atef W; El-Habbab, Mohammad S

    2014-08-01

    Food safety and quality assurance are increasingly a major issue with the globalisation of agricultural trade, on the one hand, and intensification of agriculture, on the other. Consumer protection has become a priority in policy-making amongst the large economies of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries following a number of food safety incidents. To enhance food safety, it is necessary to establish markets underpinned by knowledge and resources, including analysis of international rejections of food products from MENA countries, international laboratory accreditation, improved reporting systems and traceability, continued development and validation of analytical methods, and more work on correlating sensory evaluation with analytical results. MENA countries should develop a national strategy for food safety based on a holistic approach that extends from farm-to-fork and involves all the relevant stakeholders. Accordingly, food safety should be a regional programme, raising awareness among policy- and decision-makers of the importance of food safety and quality for consumer protection, food trade and economic development. PMID:24415527

  17. Food allergy

    Waserman Susan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Food allergy is defined as an adverse immunologic response to a dietary protein. Food-related reactions are associated with a broad array of signs and symptoms that may involve many bodily systems including the skin, gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, and cardiovascular system. Food allergy is a leading cause of anaphylaxis and, therefore, referral to an allergist for appropriate and timely diagnosis and treatment is imperative. Diagnosis involves a careful history and diagnostic tests, such as skin prick testing, serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE testing and, if indicated, oral food challenges. Once the diagnosis of food allergy is confirmed, strict elimination of the offending food allergen from the diet is generally necessary. For patients with significant systemic symptoms, the treatment of choice is epinephrine administered by intramuscular injection into the lateral thigh. Although most children outgrow allergies to milk, egg, soy and wheat, allergies to peanut, tree nuts, fish and shellfish are often lifelong. This article provides an overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management and prognosis of patients with food allergy.

  18. Hand images: normal and abnormal

    Supplemental hand scintigrams with abnormal features were obtained from 29% of patients (134 of 463) who were referred for routine, minified bone imaging with /sup 99m/Tc-Sn-polyphosphate. A wide spectrum of normal activity distribution ranging from well-defined to ''wash-out'' images is described in 329 cases (71%). In the abnormal images of the joints and individual bones, the changes, although not always characteristic of some particular disease, may often suggest a diagnosis and/or its pathophysiologic status. The joints with heavy uptake correlate well with the presence of active clinical findings, e.g., in the arthritides. The bone features associated with metabolic disease, especially when full-blown, may be fairly characteristic. A potential application is in the assessment of digital circulation, particularly in obliterative vascular diseases such as scleroderma, Buerger's disease, chronic neuropathies, and possibly other collagen or vascular diseases that involve the hands. Interesting images, probably of somewhat limited usefulness, are observed in some congenital anomalies, fractures, camptodactyly, contracture deformities, unilateral lymphedema after mastectomy, etc

  19. Factitious Lymphedema of the Hand

    S. Sina Ahmadi Abhari

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report the case of a 39- year old unmarried female with factitious edema of the right hand two weeks after being struck by her brother and following self injury of the right arm. Method: A 39-year old unmarried female with severe edema of the right hand and forearm diagnosed as factitious lymphedema was admitted to Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital. After hospitalization, with elevation of affected limb, the edema had lessened. Thereafter, she was observed at ward rounds with a cloth bandage wrapped around her arm. The edema had recurred. Physical Examination as well as right upper extremity X ray was normal. In mental state examination, patient's mood was dysphonic, rather anxious, and denied tourniquet application; otherwise no prominent psychiatric symptoms were detected. Patient underwent psychotherapy and 20 my fluoxetetine on daily basis was administered. Results: Patient's symptoms relieved within eight weeks and discharged while accepted to adjust herself with the situations. Conclusion: Factitious etiology may be presuming in any patient with unilateral limb lymphedema when venous or lymphatic Pathology were missing. The patient may be suffering from emotional conflicts.

  20. SaniTwice: a novel approach to hand hygiene for reducing bacterial contamination on hands when soap and water are unavailable.

    Edmonds, Sarah L; Mann, James; McCormack, Robert R; Macinga, David R; Fricker, Christopher M; Arbogast, James W; Dolan, Michael J

    2010-12-01

    The risk of inadequate hand hygiene in food handling settings is exacerbated when water is limited or unavailable, thereby making washing with soap and water difficult. The SaniTwice method involves application of excess alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS), hand "washing" for 15 s, and thorough cleaning with paper towels while hands are still wet, followed by a standard application of ABHS. This study investigated the effectiveness of the SaniTwice methodology as an alternative to hand washing for cleaning and removal of microorganisms. On hands moderately soiled with beef broth containing Escherichia coli (ATCC 11229), washing with a nonantimicrobial hand washing product achieved a 2.86 (±0.64)-log reduction in microbial contamination compared with the baseline, whereas the SaniTwice method with 62 % ethanol (EtOH) gel, 62 % EtOH foam, and 70 % EtOH advanced formula gel achieved reductions of 2.64 ± 0.89, 3.64 ± 0.57, and 4.61 ± 0.33 log units, respectively. When hands were heavily soiled from handling raw hamburger containing E. coli, washing with nonantimicrobial hand washing product and antimicrobial hand washing product achieved reductions of 2.65 ± 0.33 and 2.69 ± 0.32 log units, respectively, whereas SaniTwice with 62 % EtOH foam, 70 % EtOH gel, and 70 % EtOH advanced formula gel achieved reductions of 2.87 ± 0.42, 2.99 ± 0.51, and 3.92 ± 0.65 log units, respectively. These results clearly demonstrate that the in vivo antibacterial efficacy of the SaniTwice regimen with various ABHS is equivalent to or exceeds that of the standard hand washing approach as specified in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Code. Implementation of the SaniTwice regimen in food handling settings with limited water availability should significantly reduce the risk of foodborne infections resulting from inadequate hand hygiene. PMID:21219752

  1. Food irradiation

    Serious outbreaks of food poisoning last year in the USA from contaminated ground meat and the listing of methyl bromide, the most widely used pest control fumigant, as an ozone depleting substance, has led to a resurgence of interest, especially in the USA, in the use of ionizing radiation for the preservation of food. For a number of reasons, principally public uneasiness with radiation and the availability of other less expensive, methods for fumigating or preserving food, the use of radiation has remained limited until recently

  2. An in-use microbiological comparison of two surgical hand disinfection techniques in cardiothoracic surgery: hand rubbing versus hand scrubbing.

    Carro, C; Camilleri, L; Traore, O; Badrikian, L; Legault, B; Azarnoush, K; Dualé, C; De Riberolles, C

    2007-09-01

    Surgical site infection after heart surgery increases morbidity and mortality. The method of presurgical hand disinfection could influence the infection risk. From February to April 2003, we compared the microbiological efficacy of hand-rubbing (R) and hand-scrubbing (S) procedures. The surgical team alternately used hand-scrubbing or hand-rubbing techniques every two weeks. Fingertip impressions were taken before and immediately after hand disinfection, every 2h and at the end of the operation. Acceptability of hand rubbing was assessed by a questionnaire. Mean durations of surgical procedures were 259+/-68 and 244+/-69min for groups S and R respectively (P=0.43). Bacterial counts immediately after hand disinfection were comparable with the two techniques, but significantly lower in group R at the end of surgery. No differences were observed between the percentages of negative samples taken after 2h, 4h and at the end of surgery between the two groups. Bacterial skin flora reduction immediately after hand disinfection, after 2h and 4h of operating time and at the end of surgery was better in group R, but the difference was not statistically significant. Before surgery, the hand-rubbing method with alcohol solution preceded by hand washing with mild neutral soap is as effective as hand scrubbing to reduce bacterial counts on hands. It decreased the bacterial counts both immediately after hand disinfection and at the end of long cardiothoracic surgical procedures. The acceptability of hand rubbing was excellent and it can be considered to be a valid alternative to the conventional hand-scrubbing protocol. PMID:17719131

  3. Food irradiation

    Various aspects of food treatment by cobalt 60 or caesium 137 gamma radiation are reviewed. One of the main applications of irradiation on foodstuffs lies in its ability to kill micro-organisms, lethal doses being all the lower as the organism concerned is more complex. The effect on parasites is also spectacular. Doses of 200 to 300 krad are recommended to destroy all parasites with no survival period and no resistance phenomenon has ever been observed. The action of gamma radiation on macromolecules was also investigated, the bactericide treatment giving rise to side effects by transformation of food components. Three examples were studied: starch, nucleic acids and a whole food, the egg. The organoleptic aspect of irradiation was examined for different treated foods, then the physical transformations of unpasteurized, heat-pasteurized and radio-pasteurized eggs were compared. The report ends with a brief analysis of the toxicity and conditions of application of the treatment

  4. Food processing

    The paper discusses the processes involved in food preparation for consumption and technological processing that could be used to reduce contamination of foodstuffs. The food processing transfer parameters - food processing retention factor, processing efficiency and the food processing factor - are defined and their relationships discussed. Data are presented for vegetables, fruit, cereals, dairy products, meat (mammals, birds and fish-edible fraction), fungi, seafoods and drinks. Processing procedures considered includes: simple washing and boiling for fruit, vegetables and mushrooms, boiling and milling for cereals, cooking and curing for meats, butter and cheese productions for dairy products and washing and cooking for seafoods. Storage times for foodstuffs have also been considered. A wide range of chemical elements are considered, with the majority of data presented caesium, strontium and iodine, stable element databases have been reviewed and relevant data used to extend the data set. A discussion of application of the data is presented with consideration of areas where cautions is needed. (author)

  5. Food irradiation

    There is a growing tendency worldwide to apply ionizing radiation for food preservation, or for delaying growth or ripening processes. However, research into the effects of such irradiation with ionizing radiation is lagging behind, leaving the knowledge about effects and possible hazards incomplete. The authors very carefully have analysed the available research results and present a detailed account of the current scientific knowledge and assessments. Their conclusion is: irradiated food is to be considered noxious unless its wholesomeness has been unambiguously proven. Consumers so far had not much chance to raise their voice in the debate about the wholesomeness of food irradiation, or have not been heard, the authors say. They call for establishing a European and a worldwide information network to bring together opponents to and information speaking against food irradiation, in order to create a counterweight to the market strategies of the pro-irradiation industry, and to launch initiatives on the political level. (orig./HP)

  6. Food poisoning

    ... or food containing mayonnaise (such as coleslaw or potato salad) that have been out of the refrigerator ... and signs your body has too little fluid (dehydration). Tests may be done on your stools or ...

  7. Playing Taboo with a Stranger

    Pollmann, Monique; Krahmer, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Do friends communicate more accurately and more efficiently than strangers? Most people think that they do and often refer to anecdotal evidence, like a pair of good friends only needing a few words to describe names in the celebrity game. Friends can use shared knowledge or common knowledge to explain things to each other, while strangers are restricted to common knowledge. Previous studies showed that messages designed for a friend are less well understood by strangers (Fussel and Krauss, 1...

  8. Food irradiation

    The preservation of food using irradiation may replace or be used in combination with traditional or conventional food preservation techniques. Studies have shown that the irradiation technique which uses less energy than other preservation methods is a potential way for reducing post harvest losses. However, economic feasibility among other constraints is the core factor to determine the success of the technique at commercial scale. The need and importance for considering this new technique in Malaysia are discussed here. (author)

  9. Hand lay-up techniques

    Wittman, C.; Shook, G. D.

    The materials, processes, and techniques, as well as comparisons of various hand and spray-up FRP finished product manufacturing procedures are presented. The steps followed in producing a finished product are noted to nominally comprise coating a form with a gel, build-up of the structure with reinforcing fibers and catalyzed polyester resin, curing, and impaction to remove trapped air. The part emerges with a finished surface prepainted by the gel. Design choices for the percentages and orientation of the reinforcement, the types of fillers, and the types of resins are dictated by the types and intensity of stresses to be encountered by the part in actual use. Examples are provided of the manufacture of a machine cover, a pressure tank formerly made of metal. Techniques for assuring integrity of the laminate in changes of thickness, joints, openings, and severe contours are described.

  10. Tendon injuries of the hand

    Volker Schffl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tendon injuries are the second most common injuries of the hand and therefore an important topic in trauma and orthopedic patients. Most injuries are open injuries to the flexor or extensor tendons, but less frequent injuries, e.g., damage to the functional system tendon sheath and pulley or dull avulsions, also need to be considered. After clinical examination, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging have proved to be important diagnostic tools. Tendon injuries mostly require surgical repair, dull avulsions of the distal phalanges extensor tendon can receive conservative therapy. Injuries of the flexor tendon sheath or single pulley injuries are treated conservatively and multiple pulley injuries receive surgical repair. In the postoperative course of flexor tendon injuries, the principle of early passive movement is important to trigger an intrinsic tendon healing to guarantee a good outcome. Many substances were evaluated to see if they improved tendon healing; however, little evidence was found. Nevertheless, hyaluronic acid may improve intrinsic tendon healing.

  11. Defining Morphology: Hands and Feet

    Biesecker, Leslie G.; Aase, Jon M.; Clericuzio, Carol; Gurrieri, Fiorella; Temple, I. Karen; Toriello, Helga

    2009-01-01

    An international group of clinicians working in the field of Dysmorphology has initiated the (re-) definition of all terms used to describe the external human phenotype. The goal is that through standardization of all terms and consensus regarding their definitions the reliability of description of features in humans will increase, comparisons of findings between patients will become more reliable, and discussions with other workers in the field such as developmental biologists and molecular geneticists will become more accurate. Here we report on the (re-) definition of terms needed to describe the major characteristics of the hands and feet. We provide a limited description of the anatomy of this region, limited background anthropometry, and an illustrated list of definitions. PMID:19125433

  12. Food extrusion.

    Harper, J M

    1978-01-01

    Extrusion processing has become an important food process in the manufacture of pasta, ready-to-eat cereals, snacks, pet foods, and textured vegetable protein (TVP). An extruder consists of tightly fitting screw rotating within a stationary barrel. Preground and conditioned ingredients enter the screw where they are conveyed, mixed, and heated by a variety of processes. The product exits the extruder through a die where it usually puffs and changes texture from the release of steam and normal forces. Mathematical models for extruder flow and torque have been found useful in describing exclusion operations. Scale-up can be facilitated by the application of these models. A variety of food extruder designs have developed. The differences and similarity of design are discussed. Pertinent literature on the extrusion of cereal/snack products, full-fat soy, TVP, pet foods (dry and semi-moist), pasta, and beverage or other food bases are discussed. In many of these applications, the extruder is a high temperature, short time process which minimizes losses in vitamins and amino acids. Color, flavor, and product shape and texture are also affected by the extrusion process. Extrusion has been widely applied in the production of nutritious foods. Emphasis is placed on the use of extrusion to denature antinutritional factors and the improvement of protein quality and digestibility. PMID:378548

  13. Development of Food Retailing and Factors Affecting the Competition in Food Retailing

    Serkan Kilic; Gokhan Senol

    2010-01-01

    Retailing is a dynamic and complex sector that offers wide range of products and services to consumers. This sector which includes different types of enterprises, has an important position within the supply chain. Food retailing has also a big potential within retailing sector. On the other hand, an intensive competition exists in food retailing. Taking place in the competitive market, food retailers attempt to gain a competitive advantage against their rivals with their geographic location,...

  14. Motives for consumer choice of traditional food and European food in mainland China.

    Wang, Ou; De Steur, Hans; Gellynck, Xavier; Verbeke, Wim

    2015-04-01

    The demand for European (-style) foods in mainland China has been increasing dramatically during the last decade. Nevertheless, European food producers often appear to be not capable to fully exploit this huge market potential, partially due to the competition with traditional (Chinese) foods. This study examines the determinants of mainland Chinese consumers' choice of traditional food and European food. A web-based survey was administered with 541 consumers from two cities: Shanghai and Xi'an. Thereby, the Food Choice Motives model, predominantly used thus far in a European or developed context, is applied to mainland China in order to address the lack of knowledge on food motives of its consumer market and to detect associations between these motives, attitudes, and purchase intentions. Factor analysis resulted in a new Food Choice Motive construct that is considered more appropriate within the context of mainland Chinese consumers, encompassing six dimensions: Health concern, Time or money saving, Sensory appeal, Availability and familiarity, Mood and Food safety concern. Path analysis demonstrated that Time or money saving was negatively associated with attitude toward traditional food on the one hand and purchase intentions toward European food on the other hand. Availability and familiarity had a positive association with attitude toward traditional food. Mood was a positive factor driving attitude toward European food. For both food types, Sensory appeal and Attitude were positively linked to purchase intentions. Furthermore, Mood was negatively linked to the purchase intention toward traditional food in Shanghai. Food safety concern was positively associated with attitudes toward traditional food in Xi'an. PMID:25542775

  15. Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease A parent's guide for infants ... typical of a herpes virus infection. Overview Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is a common illness of ...

  16. Monitor for alpha beta contamination of hands

    The following specifications of hands alpha beta contamination monitor are presented: the position of the hands, the detection and separation of alpha and beta, the information processing, the programming, the results presentation and general characteristics. (A.L.B.)

  17. A Framework for Virtual Hand Haptic Interaction

    Han, Xiaoxia; Wan, Huagen

    Virtual hand interactions play key roles in virtual environments. The recent addition of force feedback to virtual reality simulations has enhanced their realism, especially when dexterous manipulation of virtual objects is concerned. However, though there exist many works on virtual hand modeling regarding computer animation and interaction applications, much less attention is paid on haptic modeling of virtual hand. In this paper, we propose a framework for virtual hand haptic interaction. The modeling of a sophisticated virtual hand for haptic interactions is investigated with special attention paid on issues of visual realism, motion realism as well as force sensation. Specifically, our virtual hand model simulates natural anatomy in its appearance, motion and deformation, and reflects the feature of force feedback datagloves. Besides, virtual hand interactions based on the constructed virtual hand model are discussed. The proposed framework has been tested on a PC with a force feedback dataglove.

  18. Clean Hands Save Lives: Emergency Situations

    ... Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Winter Weather Clean Hands Save Lives: Emergency Situations DISASTER RECOVERY FACT ... water can be difficult. However, keeping your hands clean helps you avoid getting sick. It is best ...

  19. Hand Hygiene Practices among Medical Students

    Azzam al Kadi; Sajad Ahmad Salati

    2012-01-01

    Background. Hand hygiene is a cost-effective method in preventing infection transmission. Hand hygiene practices have been found to be faulty in most healthcare settings. We conducted a study to evaluate the awareness, and compliance of hand hygiene among undergraduate medical students during their clinical phase in Qassim College of Medicine, Saudi Arabia. Methods. A questionnaire based on World Health Organization's concept of “Five Moments for Hand Hygiene” was used to evaluate the awarene...

  20. Future Perspectives for Hand Transplant in Iran

    M. J. Fatemi; M. Masoumi; Esfandiari, E

    2011-01-01

    Hand transplant program is a communion of physicians and researchers during the current de¬cade. 72 hands and digits were transplanted in 53 patients over the past 13 years. Unlike a solid organ transplant, hand transplantation involves various tissues, so it is called “composite tissue allotransplantation.” This article discusses the plans for performing the first hand transplant in Iran.

  1. The Importance of Nurses Hand Hygiene

    Maria Malliarou; Pavlos Sarafis; Sofia Zyga; Theodoros C. Constantinidis

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Nurses are aware of the rationale for hand hygiene procedures. Nurses represent a large working group that performs the greatest amount of direct patient care in Health Services. Handhygiene is one of the most effective measures to prevent hospital acquired infections.Aim: to point out the importance of nurses’ hand hygieneMethod: a review of articles with key words “hand, hygiene, hand, contamination, nurse, and guideline”.Results: Infectious diseases are a particular risk to t...

  2. A hand-hygiene behaviour monitoring system

    Schie, M. van; Wiesman, R.F.F.

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to a hand-hygiene behaviour monitoring system, comprising: means for detecting the occurrence of an event specified in a hand-hygiene rule, wherein the event involves a person; means for updating behaviour data that is related to acts according to the hand-hygiene rule, wherein said means for determining whether the person performs an act that is relevant for the hand-hygiene rule is at least one first hidden sensor.

  3. Food Engineering within Sciences of Food

    Athanasios Kostaropoulos

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to clarify the identity of food engineering in sciences of food. A short historical description of the evolution of the branch in the Anglo Saxon and the Continental educational systems is given. Furthermore, the distinction of basic definitions such as food science, food science and technology, food technology, and food engineering is made. Finally, the objectives of food engineering within the branch of sciences of food are described.

  4. Taboo or not taboo: a study of taboo content in Finnish EFL learning materials

    Lehmonen, Tiina; Keturi, Suvi

    2011-01-01

    Tabu on monimuotoinen ksite, jota on vaikea mritell yksiselitteisesti johtuen sek tabujen valtavasta mrst ett niiden osittaisesta kulttuurisidonnaisuudesta. Tabuja ja tabukielen esiintymist oppimateriaaleissa on tutkittu erittin vhn ja tutkimus onkin keskittynyt lhinn mrittelemn, mitk aiheet ovat tabuja maailmanlaajuisissa englannin kielen oppimateriaaleissa. Tutkimuksen kohteena ovat olleet mys mahdolliset riskit, jotka liittyvt tabujen ja tabukielen oppimateriaaleihin...

  5. Does body posture influence hand preference in an ancestral primate model?

    Leliveld Lisette

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The origin of human handedness and its evolution in primates is presently under debate. Current hypotheses suggest that body posture (postural origin hypothesis and bipedalism hypothesis have an important impact on the evolution of handedness in primates. To gain insight into the origin of manual lateralization in primates, we studied gray mouse lemurs, suggested to represent the most ancestral primate condition. First, we investigated hand preference in a simple food grasping task to explore the importance of hand usage in a natural foraging situation. Second, we explored the influence of body posture by applying a forced food grasping task with varying postural demands (sit, biped, cling, triped. Results The tested mouse lemur population did not prefer to use their hands alone to grasp for food items. Instead, they preferred to pick them up using a mouth-hand combination or the mouth alone. If mouth usage was inhibited, they showed an individual but no population level handedness for all four postural forced food grasping tasks. Additionally, we found no influence of body posture on hand preference in gray mouse lemurs. Conclusion Our results do not support the current theories of primate handedness. Rather, they propose that ecological adaptation indicated by postural habit and body size of a given species has an important impact on hand preference in primates. Our findings suggest that small-bodied, quadrupedal primates, adapted to the fine branch niche of dense forests, prefer mouth retrieval of food and are less manually lateralized than large-bodied species which consume food in a more upright, and less stable body posture.

  6. Food Grade Silicone Braided Hose

    Sonal B. Prajapati; Prof. Rupande N. Desai

    2013-01-01

    Silicone elastomers are becoming more and more prevalent for Food Industry. This is because with the fact that the curing systems of organic elastomers often include amines and other additives leading to potential toxic contaminants, such as nitrosamines. On the other hand there are silicone rubbers/elastomers which are amine free and, in most cases, are platinum cured. Such curing systems allow for biocompatibility. Correctly processed parts do not show detectable nitrosamine levels without ...

  7. Food Grade Silicone Braided Hose

    Sonal B. Prajapati, Prof. Rupande N. Desai

    2013-01-01

    Silicone elastomers are becoming more and more prevalent for Food Industry. This is because with the fact that the curing systems of organic elastomers often include amines and other additives leading to potential toxic contaminants, such as nitrosamines. On the other hand there are silicone rubbers/elastomers which are amine free and, in most cases, are platinum cured. Such curing systems allow for biocompatibility. Correctly processed parts do not show detect...

  8. Bacteriological quality and food safety in a Brazilian school food program

    Samara Nagla Chaves Trindade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Food safety is a critical issue in school food program. Objective: This study was conducted to assess the bacteriological quality and food safety practices of a municipal school food program (MSFP in Jequitinhonha Valley, Brazil. Materials and methods: A checklist based on good manufacturing practices (GMP for food service was used to evaluate food safety practices. Samples from foods, food contact surfaces, the hands of food handlers, the water supply and the air were collected to assess bacteriological quality in establishments that comprise the MSFP. Results: Nine (81.8% establishments were classified as poor quality and two (18.2% as medium quality. Neither Salmonella nor Listeria monocytogenes were detected in food samples. Coliforms, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in 36 (52.9%, 1 (1.5% and 22 (32.4% of the food samples and in 24 (40.7%, 2 (3.3% and 13 (22.0% of the food contact surfaces, respectively. The counts of coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus ranged from 1 to 5.0 and 1 to 5.1 log CFU/g of food, respectively. The mean aerobic mesophilic bacteria count was 3.1 log CFU/100 cm² of surface area. Coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus were detected on the hands of 33 (73.3%, 1 (2.2% and 36 (80% food handlers, respectively. With regard to air quality, all the establishments had an average aerobic mesophilic count above 1.6 log CFU/cm²/week. Conclusions: The results indicate the need to modify the GMP used in food service in MSFP in relation to food safety, particularly because children served in these establishments are often the most socially vulnerable.

  9. Hand eczema severity and quality of life

    Agner, Tove; Andersen, Klaus E; Brandao, Francisco M; Bruynzeel, Derk P; Bruze, Magnus; Frosch, Peter; Goncalo, Margarida; Goossens, An; Le Coz, Cristophe J; Rustemeyer, Thomas; White, Ian R; Diepgen, Thomas; EECDRG, EECDRG

    2008-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Hand eczema is a chronic disease with negative impact on quality of life (QoL). In this study, QoL in hand eczema patients is assessed and related to age, sex, severity, and diagnostic subgroups. Methods: A total of 416 patients with hand eczema from 10 European patch...... test clinics participated in the study. Data on QoL were obtained from a self-administered questionnaire using the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). Severity was assessed by a scoring system (Hand Eczema Severity Index, HECSI) as well as frequency of eruptions and sick leave due to hand eczema...

  10. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods

    The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

  11. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods

    Miyahara, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Akiko; Kamimura, Tomomi; Nagasawa, Taeko [Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Allied Health Sciences; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Establishment

    2003-06-01

    The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

  12. Giant grants a free hand

    'I had a relatively free hand from my associates when choosing a partner. When we had compared business structures, considered the mutual chemistry and the attitude of French people concerning management, the decision process was made easier.' That's how Peter Strycek, general director of Hetech Services, describes the preparations for agreements. It worked. The Slovak supplier of heat and services for technical operations of buildings, has belonged to the GDF SUEZ company since Monday. At the beginning, at the conclusion of 2005, there was the idea to consolidate the businesses of three companies beneath one roof. That's how informally the shareholding company Hetech Services was founded. It started to manage the business of the Bratislava heat suppliers, Racianska Teplarenska and Prva Ruzinovska; including supplier of technical services AB Spravcovska. Along with activities of the head company Hetech Services installed low-current equipment in buildings, did construction supervision and for a longer period it did business with technological equipment for buildings. The company's business expanded. At the end of the year before last, Strycek announced an interest from multinational players in joining. It didn't take long and the three interested parties came to an agreement. At the beginning of last summer the owners of Hetech, Bratislava real estate businessmen, came to an agreement with the managers of the multinational energy giant GDF SUEZ, which had been founded shortly beforehand with the merger of two global players in the industry. (authors)

  13. Robot hands and extravehicular activity

    Marcus, Beth

    1987-01-01

    Extravehicular activity (EVA) is crucial to the success of both current and future space operations. As space operations have evolved in complexity so has the demand placed on the EVA crewman. In addition, some NASA requirements for human capabilities at remote or hazardous sites were identified. One of the keys to performing useful EVA tasks is the ability to manipulate objects accurately, quickly and without early or excessive fatigue. The current suit employs a glove which enables the crewman to perform grasping tasks, use tools, turn switches, and perform other tasks for short periods of time. However, the glove's bulk and resistance to motion ultimately causes fatigue. Due to this limitation it may not be possible to meet the productivity requirements that will be placed on the EVA crewman of the future with the current or developmental Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) hardware. In addition, this hardware will not meet the requirements for remote or hazardous operations. In an effort to develop ways for improving crew productivity, a contract was awarded to develop a prototype anthromorphic robotic hand (ARH) for use with an extravehicular space suit. The first step in this program was to perform a a design study which investigated the basic technology required for the development of an ARH to enhance crew performance and productivity. The design study phase of the contract and some additional development work is summarized.

  14. Food irradiation

    Food treatment by means of ionizing energy, or irradiation, is an innovative method for its preservation. In order to treat important volumes of food, it is necessary to have industrial irradiation installations. The effect of radiations on food is analyzed in the present special work and a calculus scheme for an Irradiation Plant is proposed, discussing different aspects related to its project and design: ionizing radiation sources, adequate civil work, security and auxiliary systems to the installations, dosimetric methods and financing evaluation methods of the project. Finally, the conceptual design and calculus of an irradiation industrial plant of tubercles is made, based on the actual needs of a specific agricultural zone of our country. (Author)

  15. Food irradiation

    The conference was a combined event and at the same time was a meeting of the FAIR programme of the EU, under the responsibility of the General Directorate XII, participating countries including Iceland, Norway, Hungary, and Switzerland in addition to the 15 EU member states. Under this roof, research work is sponsored in the fields of food technology, fishing industry, agriculture, forestry, and water resources management. Also, financial support is available for the mid-range food and agricultural industry, or for projects promoting rural development. There currently are over 120 transnational FAIR projects, involving more than 2000 researchers in 233 EU-sponsored research projects devoted to food aspects, some having been presented at the conference. (orig./CB)

  16. Food irradiation

    Radiation processing of food is based on irradiation by gamma radiation from a 60Co source or X-ray with energy < 5 MeV or electron beam with energy < 10 MeV. This technique is now completely mastered. About 30 countries use this technique to extend the storage life of food but the total quantity processed is weak, only 30000 tons a year for France. Some countries like Morocco or Tunisia have launched technical programmes about the radiation processing of dates and vegetable oil. These programmes may lead to the creation of a quality label. A joint laboratory between CEA and the Aix-Marseille-3 university is working on the detection of food irradiation in order to fight the fraud. 3 techniques are being investigated: thermoluminescence, electronic paramagnetism resonance and a chemical method. (A.C.)

  17. Hand decontamination: nurses' opinions and practices.

    Gould, D

    Infection is spread in hospital mainly by hands, making hand decontamination the most important means of preventing dissemination. There is some evidence to suggest that when access to hand-decontaminating agents is poor or the agents available are disliked, hands are washed too seldom, increasing risks of cross-infection. However, little attention has been paid to the use of towels and factors which promote their use, although it is known that damp hands transfer bacteria more readily than dry ones and that hands which become sore through poor drying have higher bacterial counts, contributing to the risk of cross-infection. This paper reports the results of the Nursing Times Hand Drying survey designed to assess nurses' access to hand decontamination agents and towels. The results suggest that the 112 nurses who participated were aware of the need for attention to hand hygiene but that access to both hand-decontaminating agents and paper towels was variable. Forty-one per cent complained of a shortage of soap and although nearly all used paper towels, these were in many cases of poor quality. Such towels were perceived as damaging to hands, leaving them feeling damp and sore. Good-quality, soft, paper towels were much appreciated by respondents in this sample. It is concluded that the quality of paper towels contributes to good infection control practice. PMID:7753663

  18. Food irradiation

    The first part of this data is relative to the study of chemical modifications induced by gamma radiations (60Co, 137Cs) on macromolecules of food and their contaminates with the help of two examples: starch and nucleic acids. Then the second part shows what are the consequences of irradiation on food and their preservation; we make distinction between useful effects (for instance germination inhibition of tubercules, destruction of insects or micro-organisms) and the results which are contingently bad for nutritional, technological and above all toxicologic aspects. The last part is relative to a short restatement of the problems inherent in the industrialization of this treatment

  19. Food irradiation

    This volume reflects the current state of food irradiation. Three chapters are concerned with applications of irradiation to food processing; one general and two about important specific applications. The larger part of the book discusses the major problems of irradiation; acceptance and detection. Consumer acceptance varies from country to country, dependent upon attitude to new processes in general and 'atomic' processes in particular. Chapters have, therefore, been included to discuss acceptance and status in the United States, in Europe and in developing countries. Each chapter is processed separately. (author)

  20. On robustness in food supply chain networks

    Vlajic, J.V.; van der Vorst, J. G. A. J.; Hendrix, E.M.T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Today's business environment is characterized by challenges of strong global competition where companies tend to achieve leanness and maximum responsiveness to customer demand. Lean supply chain networks are vulnerable to all kind of disruptions. For food supply chain networks (FSCNs), due to their inherent characteristics on the one hand and increased level of complexity, dynamics and uncertainty on the other hand, this vulnerability is even stronger. Therefore, methods are needed ...

  1. The nutritional and hedonic value of food modulate sexual receptivity in Drosophila melanogaster females

    Jenke A. Gorter; Jagadeesh, Samyukta; Gahr, Christoph; Jelle J. Boonekamp; Joel D. Levine; Billeter, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Food and sex often go hand in hand because of the nutritional cost of reproduction. For Drosophila melanogaster females, this relationship is especially intimate because their offspring develop on food. Since yeast and sugars are important nutritional pillars for Drosophila, availability of these foods should inform female reproductive behaviours. Yet mechanisms coupling food and sex are poorly understood. Here we show that yeast increases female sexual receptivity through interaction between...

  2. Review of human hand microbiome research.

    Edmonds-Wilson, Sarah L; Nurinova, Nilufar I; Zapka, Carrie A; Fierer, Noah; Wilson, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Recent advances have increased our understanding of the human microbiome, including the skin microbiome. Despite the importance of the hands as a vector for infection transmission, there have been no comprehensive reviews of recent advances in hand microbiome research or overviews of the factors that influence the composition of the hand microbiome. A comprehensive and systematic database search was conducted for skin microbiome-related articles published from January 1, 2008 to April 1, 2015. Only primary research articles that used culture-independent, whole community analysis methods to study the healthy hand skin microbiome were included. Eighteen articles were identified containing hand microbiome data. Most focused on bacteria, with relatively little reported on fungi, viruses, and protozoa. Bacteria from four phyla were found across all studies of the hand microbiome (most to least relative abundance): Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes. Key factors that impacted the hand microbiome composition included temporal and biogeographical dynamics, as well as intrinsic (age, gender) and extrinsic (product use, cohabitants, pet-ownership) variables. There was more temporal variability in the composition of the hand microbiome than in other body sites, making identification of the "normal" microbiome of the hands challenging. The microbiome of the hands is in constant flux as the hands are a critical vector for transmitting microorganisms between people, pets, inanimate objects and our environments. Future studies need to resolve methodological influences on results, and further investigate factors which alter the hand microbiome including the impact of products applied to hands. Increased understanding of the hand microbiome and the skin microbiome in general, will open the door to product development for disease prevention and treatment, and may lead to other applications, including novel diagnostic and forensic approaches. PMID:26278471

  3. Grips and hand movements of chimpanzees during feeding in Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania.

    Marzke, Mary W; Marchant, Linda F; McGrew, William C; Reece, Sandra P

    2015-03-01

    It has long been assumed that stone tool making was a major factor in the evolution of derived hominin hand morphology. However, stresses on the hand associated with food retrieval and processing also have been recognized as relevant early hominin behaviors that should be investigated. To this end, chimpanzee food manipulation was videotaped in the Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania. Grips and hand movements by 39 chimpanzees were analyzed for arboreal and terrestrial feeding involving 10 food-types and associated vegetation. It was predicted that (1) new grips would be found that had not been observed in captivity, (2) forceful precision grips would be absent from the repertoire, as in captivity, and (3) precision handling would be observed. New grips involving the full thumb and buttressed index finger, and a new integrated pattern of grips and forceful hand movements were discovered, associated with feeding on large fruits and meat. Participation of the full thumb in these grips, rather than the distal thumb and fingers, throws light on feeding behaviors that may have become increasingly significant factors in the evolution of derived hominin thumb morphology. The proximal thumb stabilizes food with the flexed index finger against the pull of the teeth and provides leverage in breaking food into portions. Isolated qualitative observations of possibly forceful pinch by the thumb and side of the index finger highlight the need for comparative quantitative data to test whether humans are unique in forceful precision gripping capability. Precision handling was not seen. PMID:25363236

  4. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 7. Barriers to reduce contamination of food by workers.

    Todd, Ewen C D; Michaels, Barry S; Greig, Judy D; Smith, Debra; Holah, John; Bartleson, Charles A

    2010-08-01

    Contamination of food and individuals by food workers has been identified as an important contributing factor during foodborne illness investigations. Physical and chemical barriers to prevent microbial contamination of food are hurdles that block or reduce the transfer of pathogens to the food surface from the hands of a food worker, from other foods, or from the environment. In food service operations, direct contact of food by hands should be prevented by the use of barriers, especially when gloves are not worn. Although these barriers have been used for decades in food processing and food service operations, their effectiveness is sometimes questioned or their use may be ignored. Physical barriers include properly engineered building walls and doors to minimize the flow of outside particles and pests to food storage and food preparation areas; food shields to prevent aerosol contamination of displayed food by customers and workers; work clothing designated strictly for work (clothing worn outdoors can carry undesirable microorganisms, including pathogens from infected family members, into the work environment); and utensils such as spoons, tongs, and deli papers to prevent direct contact between hands and the food being prepared or served. Money and ready-to-eat foods should be handled as two separate operations, preferably by two workers. Chemical barriers include sanitizing solutions used to remove microorganisms (including pathogens) from objects or materials used during food production and preparation and to launder uniforms, work clothes, and soiled linens. However, laundering as normally practiced may not effectively eliminate viral pathogens. PMID:20819372

  5. Kids with Food Allergies

    ... of Food Allergies Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome (FPIES) NEW Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE) Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome (FPIES) Food Intolerances Food Allergies and Cross-Reactivity What ...

  6. Understanding Food Labels

    ... Healthy eating for girls Understanding food labels Understanding food labels There is lots of info on food ... need to avoid because of food allergies. Other food label terms top In addition to the Nutrition ...

  7. Food and Your Bones

    ... You are here Home » Food and Your Bones Food and Your Bones The food that you eat ... taking multivitamins or supplements . Good-for-Your-Bones Foods Food Nutrient Dairy products such as low-fat ...

  8. Food-Based Science Curriculum Increases 4th Graders Multidisciplinary Science Knowledge

    Hovland, Jana A.; Carraway-Stage, Virginia G.; Cela, Artenida; Collins, Caitlin; Daz, Sebastin R.; Collins, Angelo; Duffrin, Melani W.

    2013-01-01

    Health professionals and policymakers are asking educators to place more emphasis on food and nutrition education. Integrating these topics into science curricula using hand-on, food-based activities may strengthen students' understanding of science concepts. The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is

  9. Food-Based Science Curriculum Increases 4th Graders Multidisciplinary Science Knowledge

    Hovland, Jana A.; Carraway-Stage, Virginia G.; Cela, Artenida; Collins, Caitlin; Díaz, Sebastián R.; Collins, Angelo; Duffrin, Melani W.

    2013-01-01

    Health professionals and policymakers are asking educators to place more emphasis on food and nutrition education. Integrating these topics into science curricula using hand-on, food-based activities may strengthen students' understanding of science concepts. The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is…

  10. Inspections of Hand Washing Supplies and Hand Sanitizer in Public Schools

    Ramos, Mary M.; Blea, Mary; Trujillo, Rebecca; Greenberg, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Hand washing and hand antisepsis are proven infection control measures in the school setting, yet barriers such as lack of soap, paper towels, and hand sanitizer can hinder compliance. This pilot study measured the prevalence of hand cleaning supplies in public schools. Ten school districts (93 schools) participated in school nurse inspections. In

  11. Inexpensive and Time-Efficient Hand Hygiene Interventions Increase Elementary School Children's Hand Hygiene Rates

    Snow, Michelle; White, George L.; Kim, Han S.

    2008-01-01

    Routine hand hygiene has been cited by the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a cost-effective and important hygiene measure in preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Several studies have explored children's hand hygiene habits, effects of scheduled hand hygiene, hand hygiene environmental…

  12. Food labeling

    ... a similar food. Light, Lite: One-third fewer total calories or 50% less fat per serving. If more than half the calories are from fat, the fat content must be reduced by 50% or more. Sugar terms: Sugar-free: Less than 1/2 gram of sugar per ...

  13. Food irradiation

    Two letters comment on a previous editorial (Lancet, Feb. 28 1987). The following points are discussed: 1) Stated doses can be exceeded without detection. 2) The hazards and problems of detection of 'food renovation'. 3) Enforcement of labelling regulations. 4) Fraud on consumers. (U.K.)

  14. Weaning Foods.

    Chauliac, Michel; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Described in this issue of "Children in the Tropics" are handicraft, semi-industrial, and industrial projects which produce weaning foods in developing countries. The introductory section briefly discusses the global epidemiology of malnutrition and offers guidelines for combatting malnutrition. Chapter I provides a framework for reflection on the…

  15. Food Allergies

    2013-04-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the dangers of food allergies and the need to be aware if any friends or classmates have them.  Created: 4/23/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/23/2013.

  16. Food Poisoning

    ... you've ever had a sip of sour milk, you know you never want to taste that again! Mold (which can be green, pink, white, or brown) is also often a sign that food has spoiled. If you're going to eat leftovers, ask a grown-up for help heating them up. By heating them, you can kill ...

  17. Food Allergy

    ... of links for more information about food allergy Javascript Error Your browser JavaScript is turned off causing certain features of the ... incorrectly. Please visit your browser settings and turn JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Top ...

  18. Scary food

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Mykletun, Reidar Johan

    2009-01-01

    region had developed a new commodifi cation approach to a culinary heritage. Smalahove is marketed not only as a nostalgic and authentic rural dish, but also as a challenging culinary trophy appealing to thrillseeking consumers. The implications of the Sheep's head case are twofold. First, it represents...... destinations and regional food products....

  19. Food preservation by ionising radiation

    The process of food preservation by ionising radiation is an alternative, or a complement, to the traditional methods of heating, refrigerating, freezing or using chemical additives. The study and development of this technique has started on the beginning of the fifties but it is based on the radiation killing effect on micro-organisms discovered by the end of last century. Foodstuffs are treated in appropriate plants: isotopic facilities (gamma radiation) and accelerated electron beams produced by machines called accelerators. The FAO and WHO in close cooperation with the IAEA have played an important role on the development of the process and on the increment of the industrial application of food irradiation. Over the world there are about 37 countries trading foods treated by ionising radiation. However, governments have been slow to clear the utilization of this process. The main reason of this attitude is in general due to the fact that the advantages of the technique are not clearly understood. Therefore, the dissemination of the information could on one hand clarify who has to take decisions and on the other hand support the choice of those foods by the consumers. This is the unique way to dynamize the application of this process

  20. [Adverse reactions to food in daycare children].

    Madrigal, B I; Alfaro, A N; Jiménez, C C; González, G J

    1996-01-01

    A prospective descriptive survey was applied to 291 children of three different nurseries in Guadalajara, México. Medical history was done to the suspicious ones, from those, only 11 were positive (3.78%). The presumptive diagnosis of food allergy was based on the patient's history, food challenges and food elimination. The most frequent age of presentation was at 2 (34.7%) and at 4 (34.7%) years old. The food reactions were: lactose intolerance (1.7%), allergy to eggs (0.6%), carrots (0.3%), food additives (0.6%), sausages and ham (0.3%), gettina a prevalence of adverse reaction of 3.7% to food in this population. The ablactation began before three months of age in all the children with allergenic meals like: citrics (43.3%) and eggs (13%). The clinical manifestations found were diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, abdominal distense, flatulence palpebral edema of nose, cheeks and hands. PMID:8814889

  1. Food Insecurity, Neighborhood Food Access, and Food Assistance in Philadelphia

    Mayer, Victoria L.; Hillier, Amy; Bachhuber, Marcus A.; Long, Judith A.

    2014-01-01

    An estimated 17.6 million American households were food insecure in 2012, meaning they were unable to obtain enough food for an active and healthy life. Programs to augment local access to healthy foods are increasingly widespread, with unclear effects on food security. At the same time, the US government has recently enacted major cuts to federal food assistance programs. In this study, we examined the association between food insecurity (skipping or reducing meal size because of budget), ne...

  2. A preliminary evaluation of the effect of glove use by food handlers in fast food restaurants.

    Lynch, Robert A; Phillips, Margaret L; Elledge, Brenda L; Hanumanthaiah, Sridhar; Boatright, Daniel T

    2005-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether the levels of selected microorganisms differed on foods handled by gloved and bare hands at fast food restaurants. Three hundred seventy-one plain flour tortillas were purchased from fast food restaurants and analyzed for Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., coliform bacteria, and heterotrophic plate count bacteria. Approximately 46% of the samples were handled by workers wearing gloves compared with 52% of samples with bare hand contact. Coliform bacteria were found in 9.6% of samples handled by gloved workers and 4.4% of samples handled by bare hands, although this difference was not statistically significant. The distribution of heterotrophic plate count bacteria, a general measure of hygiene, was also higher in samples handled by gloved workers in one restaurant chain. The presence of E. coli, Klebsiella sp., and S. aureus was detected in one, two, and eight samples, respectively, and there were no significant differences between samples handled by gloved or bare hands. Neither direct contact of the tortilla with the food preparation surface nor gender of the worker affected the level of any organism tested. The observed tendency of food workers to wear the same pair of gloves for extended periods and complacency might account for the apparent failure of gloves to reduce or prevent bacterial contamination. The results further suggest that glove use might be counterproductive because workers might wash their hands less frequently when gloved. PMID:15690825

  3. Networked Haptic Interaction to Implement Hand in Hand Human Motor Skill Training for Tank Gunnery

    Guanyang Liu; Keke Lu; Yuru Zhang; Lingzhi Liu

    2013-01-01

    The hand in hand approach has been validated as effective in human motor skill training, such as handwriting, drawing, driving and so on. This paper proposes a networked haptic interaction system to simulate the hand in hand training scheme for tank gunnery which requires tank gunners to complete tasks accurately and quickly. In the haptic?based training system, a network connecting two haptic devices plays the role of putting hands together, based on which the algorithms of haptic guidan...

  4. Food hygiene on the wards

    Steuer, Walter

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A problem that is often overlooked or simply not given enough attention: the food served to patients from the kitchen is not sterile. If food is allowed to stand at room temperature for a long time, both in the case of food cooked for lunch and of food intended for supper which has been previously chilled, there is the possibility of massive spore germination or of dangerous toxin formation. Therefore regulations on how to handle food and beverages (e.g. tea must be set out in the infection control policy, and checks carried out to monitor compliance with the rules relating to temperature checks, duration and type of storage, need for reheating, etc. Making staff aware of the issues involved is of paramount importance. These include monitoring hygiene standards in the ward kitchen, formulation of a cleaning policy, periodic bacteriological checks (not only of workstations but also of the dishwasher results, whenever possible the use of disposable cloths for working surfaces and equipment, changing cleaning cloths at least once daily and hygienic hand disinfection before and after handing out food. Foodstuffs brought in by visitors represent a special hygienic and organizational problem because in many cases they already have a high baseline microbial count. Visitors must be made aware that, for example, slices of cake left in the patients room and often eaten only hours later can pose a risk of infection.In summary, the following principles of food hygiene must be observed on the wards: * Maintenance of the cold-hot chain * Not only reheat food, but ensure it is well heated throughout * Avoid situations giving rise to spore germination in foodstuffs brought in by visitors * Cleanliness and minimal contamination of kitchen worktops * Cleanliness of crockery and kitchen towels * Do not allow food to stand at room temperature for a long time, in particular desserts and confectionery * A standard policy must be enforced to define the hygienic status and organization for food distribution for ward kitchens too.

  5. Impact of dietary fiber energy on the calculation of food total energy value in the Brazilian Food Composition Database.

    Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel de; Grande, Fernanda; Giuntini, Eliana Bistriche; Lopes, Tássia do Vale Cardoso; Dan, Milana Cara Tanasov; Prado, Samira Bernardino Ramos do; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Charrondière, U Ruth; Lajolo, Franco Maria

    2016-02-15

    Dietary fiber (DF) contributes to the energy value of foods and including it in the calculation of total food energy has been recommended for food composition databases. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of including energy provided by the DF fermentation in the calculation of food energy. Total energy values of 1753 foods from the Brazilian Food Composition Database were calculated with or without the inclusion of DF energy. The energy values were compared, through the use of percentage difference (D%), in individual foods and in daily menus. Appreciable energy D% (⩾10) was observed in 321 foods, mainly in the group of vegetables, legumes and fruits. However, in the Brazilian typical menus containing foods from all groups, only D%<3 was observed. In mixed diets, the DF energy may cause slight variations in total energy; on the other hand, there is appreciable energy D% for certain foods, when individually considered. PMID:26433298

  6. Smart hands for the EVA retriever

    Hess, Clifford W.; Li, Larry C.

    1990-01-01

    Dexterous, robotic hands are required for the extravehicular activity retriever (EVAR) system being developed by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). These hands, as part of the EVAR system, must be able to grasp objects autonomously and securely which inadvertently separate from the Space Station. Development of the required hands was initiated in 1987. Outlined here are the hand development activities, including design considerations, progress to date, and future plans. Several types of dexterous hands that were evaluated, along with a proximity-sensing capability that was developed to initiate a reflexive, adaptive grasp, are described. The evaluations resulted in the design and fabrication of a 6-degree-of-freedom (DOF) hand that has two fingers and a thumb arranged in an anthropomorphic configuration. Finger joint force and position sensors are included in the design, as well as infrared proximity sensors which allow initiation of the grasp sequence when an object is detected within the grasp envelope.

  7. Food Nanotechnology - Food Packaging Applications

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part, the impetus for this predicted growth is the ...

  8. Food Nanotechnology: Food Packaging Applications

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part the impetus for this predicted growth is the e...

  9. Back to basics: hand hygiene and isolation

    Lin Huang, G. Khai; Stewardson, Andrew J; Lindsay Grayson, M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Hand hygiene and isolation are basic, but very effective, means of preventing the spread of pathogens in healthcare. Although the principle may be straightforward, this review highlights some of the controversies regarding the implementation and efficacy of these interventions. Recent findings Hand hygiene compliance is an accepted measure of quality and safety in many countries. The evidence for the efficacy of hand hygiene in directly reducing rates of hospital-acquired in...

  10. Guidelines for hand hygiene in hospital

    Christina Sotnikova; Georgia Fasoi

    2013-01-01

    The appropriate compliance of rules regarding hand hygiene, have been and continue to be, one of the basic points of all prevention programs of nosocomial infections. Aim: The aim of the present study was the presentation of guidelines for hand hygiene by nurses. Method and material: Study of international and Greek literature from electronic databases Medline, PubMed and scientific journals, KEELPNO mainly from the last three years. The keywords used were: nosocomial infections, hand hygiene...

  11. Retrospectives: Ethics and the Invisible Hand

    Jerry Evensky

    1993-01-01

    As modern economists, we use Adam Smith's "invisible hand" metaphor confident that we all know what it means in our discourse: it reflects our admiration for the elegant and smooth functioning of the market system as a coordinator of autonomous individual choices in an interdependent world. But in Adam Smith's moral philosophy, the invisible hand has a much broader responsibility: if individuals are to enjoy the fruits of a classical liberal society, the invisible hand must not only coordinat...

  12. The alien hand and related signs.

    Doody, R S; Jankovic, J.

    1992-01-01

    Alien limb sign includes failure to recognise ownership of one's limb when visual cues are removed, a feeling that one body part is foreign, personification of the affected body part, and autonomous activity which is perceived as outside voluntary control. Although the hand is most frequently affected, any limb or combination of limbs may fulfil the alien limb criteria. Alien hand sign should be reserved for cases in which the hand feels foreign together with observable involuntary motor acti...

  13. Photonic crystal with left-handed components

    Markos, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We show that the periodic array of left-handed cylinders possesses a rich spectrum of guided modes when the negative permeability of cylinders equals exactly to minus value of permeability of embedding media. These resonances strongly influences propagation of electromagnetic waves through photonic structures made from left-handed materials. A series of Fano resonances excited by incident wave destroys the band frequency spectrum of square array of left-handed cylinders and increases considerably the absorption of transmitted waves.

  14. Photonic crystal with left-handed components

    Markoš, Peter

    2016-02-01

    We show that the periodic array of left-handed cylinders possesses a rich spectrum of guided modes when the negative permeability of cylinders equals exactly to minus value of permeability of embedding media. These resonances strongly influence propagation of electromagnetic waves through photonic structures made from left-handed materials. A series of Fano resonances excited by incident wave destroys the band frequency spectrum of square array of left-handed cylinders and increases considerably the absorption of transmitted waves.

  15. Comparative Analysis of Hand Gesture Recognition Techniques

    Arpana K. Patel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During past few years, human hand gesture for interaction with computing devices has continues to be active area of research. In this paper survey of hand gesture recognition is provided. Hand Gesture Recognition is contained three stages: Pre-processing, Feature Extraction or matching and Classification or recognition. Each stage contains different methods and techniques. In this paper define small description of different methods used for hand gesture recognition in existing system with comparative analysis of all method with its benefits and drawbacks are provided.

  16. Anthropomorphic Robot Hand And Teaching Glove

    Engler, Charles D., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Robotic forearm-and-hand assembly manipulates objects by performing wrist and hand motions with nearly human grasping ability and dexterity. Imitates hand motions of human operator who controls robot in real time by programming via exoskeletal "teaching glove". Telemanipulator systems based on this robotic-hand concept useful where humanlike dexterity required. Underwater, high-radiation, vacuum, hot, cold, toxic, or inhospitable environments potential application sites. Particularly suited to assisting astronauts on space station in safely executing unexpected tasks requiring greater dexterity than standard gripper.

  17. Hands-Off Control as Green Control

    Nagahara, Masaaki; Quevedo, Daniel E.; Nesic, Dragan

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we introduce a new paradigm of control, called hands-off control, which can save energy and reduce CO2 emissions in control systems. A hands-off control is defined as a control that has a much shorter support than the horizon length. The maximum hands-off control is the minimum support (or sparsest) control among all admissible controls. With maximum hands-off control, actuators in the feedback control system can be stopped during time intervals over which the control values ...

  18. An ellipsoidal representation of human hand anthropometry

    Buchholz, Bryan; Armstrong, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    Anthropometric data concerning the heometry of the hand's surface are presently modeled as a function of gross external hand measurements; an effort is made to evaluate the accuracy with which ellipsoids describe the geometry of the hand segments. Graphical comparisons indicate that differences between the ellipsoidal approximations and the breadth and depth measurements were greatest near the joints. On the bases of the present data, a set of overlapping ellipsoids could furnish a more accurate representation of hand geometry for adaptation to ellipsoid segment-geometry employing biomechanical models.

  19. Food fears

    Radurisation can give a new lease of shelf life to food and cut down contamination, but it is bound to cause problems - even among comparatively tame South African consumers. In this article the facts about radurization are discussed: the labelling of irradiated products, the problem of making a bad product good by using irradiation, consumer pressure, attitudes, fears and resistance. The economics of radurised foodstuffs are also discussed

  20. Food Choice

    Ehlers Bloksted, Josephine; Knudsen, Anna Althea; Boie Hvid, Amanda; Bang Christensen, Andrea; Ali Ismail, Mohamed Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    This paper illustrates the connection found between food choices, and the influences from society and the digital Media, more specifically television commercials. We have covered different aspects of social and psychological theories, aiming to explain how the individual is affected by social factors. We have drawn conclusions on how the individual is inflicted by society when concerning choice making, as well as covering the psychological aspects that are relevant in connection to this. Last...

  1. Is It Food Allergy or Food Intolerance?

    ... Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Is It Food Allergy or Food Intolerance? Food allergy is ... down the sugar, bacteria in the gut break it down, which forms gas, which in turn causes ...

  2. Direct Marketing Local Foods: Food Safety Considerations

    Curtis, Kynda R.

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of the food safety issues relevant to direct marketers of fresh and processed foods, as well as suggestions for establishing food safety controls and increasing consumer confidence in local products.

  3. Perfection of technical and tactical preparation of sportsmen of hand-to-hand fight

    Serebryak V.V.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Essence of innovative hike is considered to upgrading preparation of sportsmen of hand-to-hand fight. 58 sportsmen of section of hand-to-hand fight took part in research. Age of sportsmen are from 17 to 22 years. Developed and approved the most effective technical and tactical charts of construction of duel with the opponents of different styles of single combats. It is well-proven that offered approach instrumental in development of operative thought and adaptation to sparring of hand-to-hand fight.

  4. Food service workers' self-reported food preparation practices: an EHS-Net study.

    Green, Laura; Selman, Carol; Banerjee, Anyana; Marcus, Ruthanne; Medus, Carlota; Angulo, Frederick J; Radke, Vince; Buchanan, Sharunda

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted by the Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net), a network of environmental health specialists and epidemiologists at federal and state health agencies, whose mission is to improve environmental health practice. One of EHS-Net's primary goals is to improve the understanding of the underlying causes of foodborne illness using a system-based approach. As part of this ongoing effort, EHS-Net analyzed data from a telephone survey of food service workers designed to increase our understanding of food preparation practices (a cause of foodborne illness) in restaurants. Results indicated that risky food preparation practices were commonly reported. Respondents said that at work they did not always wear gloves while touching ready-to-eat (RTE) food (60%), did not always wash their hands or change their gloves between handling raw meat and RTE food (23% and 33%), did not use a thermometer to check food temperatures (53%), and had worked while sick with vomiting or diarrhea (5%). Several factors were associated with safer food preparation practices. Workers responsible for food preparation reported washing their hands and wearing gloves when handling RTE food more often than workers not responsible for food preparation. Workers who cooked reported changing their gloves more often than workers who did not cook. Older workers and managers reported washing their hands more often than younger workers and non-managers. Workers in chain restaurants more frequently reported using thermometers than workers in independently owned restaurants. This study provides valuable information concerning the prevalence of food preparation practices and factors that may impact those practices. Additional research is needed to better understand those factors. PMID:15881976

  5. Functional food acceptance in the food chain

    Krutulyte, Rasa

    2010-01-01

    This thesis analyses consumer acceptance of functional foods and food manufacturers' decision to develop functional foods. The thesis sets up four key research questions: (1) How consumers accept functional foods enriched with omega-3? (2) How the intention of purchasing carrier ingredient combinations is explained by general attitudes to functional foods, consumers' health concerns, and the perceived fit of a particular carrier ingredient combination? (3) How food manufacturers decide to dev...

  6. Food irradiation: A contribution to food security

    For food security at the national level every country needs to evolve its own strategies to maintain a continuous supply of food between seasons. Research and development over the past 30 years have clearly demonstrated that food irradiation is a safe, effective and environmentally clean process of food preservation. The technology is beginning to play an important role in reducing post-harvest losses of food and in facilitating wider distribution of food in the trade. 1 fig., 1 tab

  7. Virtual human hand: model and kinematics.

    Peña-Pitarch, Esteban; Falguera, Neus Ticó; Yang, Jingzhou James

    2014-04-01

    The human hand plays an important role in daily life. It is the interface between the human and the exterior world by positioning, orienting, touching and grasping objects. The human hand has multiple degrees of freedom (DOFs) to enable mobility and dexterity. A virtual human hand model can be inserted into CAD (Computer Aided Design) models to assess the manipulation capabilities in the early design stage to reduce design time and cost. Joystick assessment is one of the important design cases. This study is a first step towards a comprehensive hand simulation tool to simulate the manipulation and grasping of objects. This paper presents a novel 25 DOFs' hand skeletal model based on hand anatomy and hand kinematics: (1) joint range of motion, (2) Denavit-Hartenberg method to define the joint relationship and (3) finger workspace determination. Novelty for this hand model includes arching the palm with the four DOFs added in the carpometacarpal and wrist joints for the ring and small fingers. PMID:22920244

  8. [SURGICAL HAND WASHING: HANDSCRUBBING OR HANDRUBBING].

    Santacatalina Mas, Roser; Peix Sagues, Ma Teresa; Miranda Salmerón, Josep; Claramunt Jofre, Marta; López López, Alba; Salas Marco, Elena

    2016-02-01

    The importance of protocols for preoperative antisepsis of the hands is given by the risk of transferring bacteria from the hands of the surgical team to the patient during surgery and it is relationship with infection of surgical wound site (SSI). Careful surgical scrub reduces the number of bacteria on the skin, but does not eliminate them completely, remaining transient microorganisms on hands after the surgical scrub. There fore if micropuncture in surgical gloves occurs, the correct preoperative preparation of hands and double gloving will be essential to reduce the risk of bacterial transmission to patients. The protocols for surgical hand antisepsis are two: Surgical scrub with antiseptic soap (hand scrubbing). Surgical scrub by rubbing alcohol (handrubbing). The hand antisepsis by rubbing with an alcohol solution has proved to be significantly more effective compared to soap solutions. We must also see that in surgical hand antisepsis with soap, you must rinse them with water. And often hospitals' taps and keys are contaminated by Pseudomonas spp., including P. aeuinosa. PMID:27101645

  9. Clean Hands Help Prevent the Flu

    2009-05-06

    Clean hands can help prevent the spread of infectious diseases, such as flu. This podcast explains the proper way to wash your hands.  Created: 5/6/2009 by Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Influenza Division (CCID/NCIRD/ID).   Date Released: 5/6/2009.

  10. Guidelines for hand hygiene in hospital

    Christina Sotnikova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate compliance of rules regarding hand hygiene, have been and continue to be, one of the basic points of all prevention programs of nosocomial infections. Aim: The aim of the present study was the presentation of guidelines for hand hygiene by nurses. Method and material: Study of international and Greek literature from electronic databases Medline, PubMed and scientific journals, KEELPNO mainly from the last three years. The keywords used were: nosocomial infections, hand hygiene, antiseptics and guidelines. Results: There are numerous studies that demonstrate the central role of hand hygiene of employees in transmission of microorganisms in the hospital environment. Hand hygiene is a process, which should not be omitted or replaced by the use of antiseptics. The professionals position in the hospital, the workplace and staff shortages, in conjunction with the large number of hospitalized patients seem to be the main factors that negatively affect the compliance with hand hygiene. The staff working in the hospital, especially with high-risk patients (ICU, surgery should not wear artificial nails, nail polish and jewelry - rings and should not have inflammation or infection on their hands. Conclusions: Hand hygiene should be applied before and after contact with each patient. Nurses have to comply with these guidelines, in order for the effective prevention and control of nosocomial infections.

  11. Rheumatoid arthritis in the hand. Chapter 9

    Rheumatoid arthritis is primarily a disease of the synovial membrane. To demonstrate synovial changes it is necessary to show adequate detail of the soft tissue. This is best obtained by using industrial film and by hand-processing. The anatomy of the hand and the radiological appearance of rheumatoid arthritis are described. (author)

  12. Hand eczema in the TOACS cohort

    Mortz, C G; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have evaluated the incidence and prevalence of hand eczema in unselected adults. However, no studies have followed unselected adolescents from primary school into adult life to evaluate the course and risk factors for hand eczema. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the incidence ....... All rights reserved....

  13. 30 CFR 57.7028 - Hand clearance.

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Underground Only § 57.7028 Hand clearance. Persons shall not rest their hands on the chuck...

  14. 29 CFR 1915.133 - Hand tools.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand tools. 1915.133 Section 1915.133 Labor Regulations...) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Tools and Related Equipment § 1915.133 Hand tools. The provisions of this section shall apply to ship repairing, shipbuilding and shipbreaking....

  15. Illness representations in patients with hand injury.

    Chan, Jeffrey C Y

    2009-07-01

    Differences in illness perception about hand injury may partly explain the variation in health behaviours such as adherence to post-operative therapy, coping strategy, emotional response and eventual clinical outcome. This study examined the illness perception of patients with hand injuries in the acute trauma setting.

  16. Mechanism and computer simulation of a new robot hand for potential use as an artificial hand.

    Lin, L R; Huang, H P

    1997-01-01

    A prosthetic hand is essential to provide rehabilitation for individuals who lose a hand. A prosthetic hand serves two purposes: cosmetic and functional. In this paper, a prototype of the artificial hand with an emphasis on the functionality purpose is presented. A new mechanism, the NTU-Hand (NTU-Hand, patent number 107115, Taiwan, R.O.C.), which has 5 fingers with 17 degrees of freedom, has been designed and fabricated in our laboratory. Due to the special design of the mechanism, the hand has an uncoupled configuration in which each finger and joint are all individually driven. The size of the hand is almost the same as a human hand. All actuators, mechanical parts, and sensors are on the hand. The compact design makes it feasible to adapt the hand to the injured wrist. A computer simulation with three-dimensional graphics was also built to evaluate the manipulative range of the artificial hand. From the results of this simulation, the relationship between the hand and the grasped object in a specific viewpoint can be obtained. PMID:9012908

  17. Transfer of fibres on the hands of living subjects and their persistence during hand washing.

    Hong, Sungwook; Han, Aleum; Kim, Sojung; Son, Dasom; Min, Heewon

    2014-12-01

    Textile fibres were transferred to the hands of ten living subjects and their persistence was determined after hand washing. Average number of fibres transferred was 300 ± 133 (female 288 ± 92, male 311 ± 163) per 100 cm(2) hand area in the 100 experiments. However the number of fibres transferred was not gender dependent but individual dependent. The hand texture of subjects was compared with the number of fibres transferred but the relationship was not observed. The number of fibres transferred varied significantly for the 10 repeated experiments performed under the same conditions for the same subject. The subjects were then asked to wash their hands with water. One test group washed their hands with standing water, and the other with running tap water. Afterwards, the number of fibres remaining on the test subjects' hands were investigated. Migration of the fibres on the surface of the observed hands did occur but total loss of transferred fibre after hand washing did not occur. The average number of fibres remaining per 100 cm(2) hand area was 14 ± 10 (range=3-72) for hand washing with standing water, and 10 ± 12 (range=0-79) for washing with running tap water. The results of this study show the possibility of finding fibres on the hands of a person involved in a criminal case even after hand washing before fibre collection. PMID:25498933

  18. Staphylococcus aureus and hand eczema severity

    Haslund, P; Bangsgaard, N; Jarløv, J O; Skov, L; Skov, R; Agner, T

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of bacterial infections in hand eczema (HE) remains to be assessed. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in patients with HE compared with controls, and to relate presence of S. aureus, subtypes and toxin production to severity of HE. METHODS......: Bacterial swabs were taken at three different visits from the hand and nose in 50 patients with HE and 50 controls. Staphylococcus aureus was subtyped by spa typing and assigned to clonal complexes (CCs), and isolates were tested for exotoxin-producing S. aureus strains. The Hand Eczema Severity Index was...... used for severity assessment. RESULTS: Staphylococcus aureus was found on the hands in 24 patients with HE and four controls (P < 0.001), and presence of S. aureus was found to be related to increased severity of the eczema (P < 0.001). Patients carried identical S. aureus types on the hands and in the...

  19. Hand functioning in children with cerebral palsy

    CarlyneArnould

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Brain lesions may disturb hand functioning in children with cerebral palsy (CP, making it difficult or even impossible for them to perform several manual activities. Most conventional treatments for hand dysfunction in CP assume that reducing the hand dysfunctions will improve the capacity to manage activities (i.e., manual ability, MA. The aim of this study was to investigate the directional relationships (direct and indirect pathways through which hand skills influence MA in children with CP. A total of 136 children with CP (mean age: 10 years; range: 616 years; 35 quadriplegics, 24 diplegics, 77 hemiplegics were assessed. Six hand skills were measured on both hands: touch-pressure detection (Semmes-Weinstein aesthesiometer, stereognosis (Manual Form Perception Test, proprioception (passive mobilization of the metacarpophalangeal joints, grip strength (Jamar dynamometer, gross manual dexterity (Box and Block Test, and fine finger dexterity (Purdue Pegboard Test. MA was measured with the ABILHAND-Kids questionnaire. Correlation coefficients were used to determine the linear associations between observed variables. A path analysis of structural equation modeling was applied to test different models of causal relationships among the observed variables. Purely sensory impairments did seem not to play a significant role in the capacity to perform manual activities. According to path analysis, gross manual dexterity in both hands and stereognosis in the dominant hand were directly related to MA, whereas grip strength was indirectly related to MA through its relationship with gross manual dexterity. However, one-third of the variance in MA measures could not be explained by hand skills. It can be concluded that MA is not simply the integration of hand skills in daily activities and should be treated per se, supporting activity-based interventions.

  20. [Food toxicology].

    Würzner, H P

    1984-02-01

    The complex problems of food toxicology and especially of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis require continuing efforts for a better understanding of the mechanisms, risk evaluation and prevention. Essential progress was the recognition of mutation. In vitro tests now provide reproducible results within a short time. Risk evaluation remains a difficult problem, since is has not been possible yet to establish thresholds values for genotoxic substances. However, threshold levels for carcinogen promoters gain increasing importance as demonstrated for 3 representative classes of substances: mycotoxines , nitrosamines and pesticides. PMID:6727884

  1. Food Allergy Diagnosis

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Food Allergy Diagnosis © iStockphoto On this page Detailed History ... diagnosis of food allergy. back to top Oral food challenge Caution Because oral food challenges can cause ...

  2. Functional food acceptance in the food chain

    Krutulyte, Rasa

    This thesis analyses consumer acceptance of functional foods and food manufacturers' decision to develop functional foods. The thesis sets up four key research questions: (1) How consumers accept functional foods enriched with omega-3? (2) How the intention of purchasing carrier ingredient...... combinations is explained by general attitudes to functional foods, consumers' health concerns, and the perceived fit of a particular carrier ingredient combination? (3) How food manufacturers decide to develop functional foods? (4) What are the determinants and drivers of food manufacturers' decision to...... develop functional foods? Research question 1 The health benefit of a functional food product is in fact limited if it is not eaten regularly and thus is not part of the healthy diet. For that reason it is highly relevant to look at the dietary change research when studying functional food acceptance. The...

  3. Food irradiation in Britain

    This report explains the process and issues that concern consumers, workers in the food industry and people involved in food policy, public health and environmental protection. It argues that safety assurances by experts are not enough, and calls for a full public debate on all issues surrounding food irradiation, including a) wholesomeness of irradiated foods - food quality, nutrition losses, chemical and other changes in irradiated foods b) consumers rights to information about irradiated foods c) health and safety of food industry workers d) the economics of irradiation - food prices, changes in patters of employment, environmental impacts e) regulation and monitoring of food irradiation and imported irradiated foods. (U.K.)

  4. Effectiveness of hand sanitizers with and without organic acids for removal of rhinovirus from hands.

    Turner, Ronald B; Fuls, Janice L; Rodgers, Nancy D

    2010-03-01

    These studies evaluated the effectiveness of ethanol hand sanitizers with or without organic acids to remove detectable rhinovirus from the hands and prevent experimental rhinovirus infection. Ethanol hand sanitizers were significantly more effective than hand washing with soap and water. The addition of organic acids to the ethanol provided residual virucidal activity that persisted for at least 4 h. Whether these treatments will reduce rhinovirus infection in the natural setting remains to be determined. PMID:20047916

  5. The mirror illusion: does proprioceptive drift go hand in hand with sense of agency?

    Tajima, Daisuke; Mizuno, Tota; Kume, Yuichiro; Yoshida, Takako

    2015-01-01

    Vection can be regarded as the illusion of whole-body position perception. In contrast, the mirror illusion is that of body-part position perception. When participants viewed their left hands in a mirror positioned along the midsaggital axis while moving both hands synchronously, they hardly noticed the spatial offset between the hand in the mirror and the obscured real right hand. This illusion encompasses two phenomena: proprioceptive drift and sense of agency. Proprioceptive drift repr...

  6. The One Hand Wonder: A Framework for Enhancing One-handed Website Operation on Touchscreen Smartphones

    Seipp, Karsten; Devlin, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Operating a website with one hand on a touchscreen mobile phone remains a challenging task: solutions to adapt websites for mobile users do not address the ergonomic peculiarities of one-handed operation. We present the design and evaluation of the One Hand Wonder (OHW) -- an easily-adaptable cross-platform JavaScript framework to support one-handed website navigation on touchscreen smartphones. It enhances usability without the need to redesign the existing website or to overwrite any CSS st...

  7. Hemispheric asymmetries in goal-directed hand movements are independent of hand preference

    Lavrysen, Ann; Heremans, Elke; Peeters, Ron; Wenderoth, Nici; Feys, Peter; Swinnen, Stephan P.; Helsen, Werner F.

    2012-01-01

    Asymmetries in the kinematics and neural substrates of voluntary right and left eye-hand coordinated movements have been accredited to differential hemispheric specialization. An alternative explanation for between-hand movement differences could result from hand preference related effects. To test both assumptions, an experiment was conducted with left- and right-handers performing goal-directed movements with either hand paced by a metronome. Spatiotemporal accuracy was comparable between h...

  8. Stigmatization of Repetitive Hand Use in Newspaper Reports of Hand Illness

    Anthony, Shawn; Lozano-Calderon, Santiago; Ring, David

    2007-01-01

    Failure to provide a balanced evidence-based consideration of the role of activity in illness can stigmatize individuals and their activities. We assessed the prevalence of language that stigmatized repetitive hand use and those that use their hand repetitively in newspaper coverage of common hand illnesses. The LexisNexis Academic database was used to search five major US newspapers for articles containing keywords about common hand illnesses during a 3-year period. Article language was asse...

  9. Hand Gesture Based Control of Robotic Hand using Raspberry Pi Processor

    R. Deepan; Santhana Vikrama Rajavarman; K. Narasimhan

    2015-01-01

    A Novel approach has been proposed in this paper for the control of an intelligent hand which can mimic the natural movement of the human hand. Implementing such intellectual hand finds its application in humanoid as well as personal robots. In this paper vision-based interaction techniques are used to track the motion of the fingers and to extract the motion of the hand gesture accurately and promptly. Accuracy and effectiveness plays the key role for real time motion based applications. Ras...

  10. Food justice and Christian ethics

    Heinrich Bedford-Strohm

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article dealt with the moral and political problem of international food justice in which the deep contradiction between the present situation of malnourishment and starvation in large parts of the global population on the one hand and the biblical notion of the preferential option for the poor on the other hand was described. This ecumenically widely accepted notion was clarified in several aspects. How deeply this is rooted in the history of Christian social thought was shown by Martin Luther�s writings on the economy which have remained relatively unknown in the churches and in the scholarly world. The article then presented three models of Christian economic ethic: the technical economic model, the utopian economic model and the public theological economic model. On the basis of the public theological model seven challenges for international food justice were presented. The basis for these challenges is an understanding of globalisation which guarantees just participation for everyone and deals with nature in an ecologically sustainable way. The interests of small farmers are the basis for judging the activities of big agro-corporations. Public theology is the background for an active involvement of the churches as agents of a global civil society to promote international food justice.

  11. Food Irradiation In Vietnam And Japan

    In 2008, Japan Atomic Energy Commission of Cabinet Office performed the study of current status of food irradiation in the world. The results showed that the total quantity of irradiated foods in 2005 was 405,000 tons. Seven main countries for food irradiation were China, USA, Ukraine, Brazil, South Africa, Vietnam and Japan. In Japan, only the potato irradiation for sprout inhibition is continued more than 35 years since 1974 but the quantity is decreasing. On the other hand, the food irradiation of Vietnam has been developed rapidly in a short time to export the frozen seafood and fruit. This paper shows the status of food irradiation in Vietnam and Japan, and the progress in both countries after 2005. (author)

  12. N-acylethanolamines, anandamide and food intake

    Hansen, Harald S; Diep, Thi Ai

    2009-01-01

    their biosynthesis in specific tissues are not clarified. It has been suggested that endogenous anandamide could stimulate food intake by activation of cannabinoid receptors in the brain and/or in the intestinal tissue. On the other hand, endogenous OEA and PEA have been suggested to inhibit food intake...... by acting on receptors in the intestine. At present, there is no clear role for endogenous anandamide in controlling food intake via cannabinoid receptors, neither centrally nor in the gastrointestinal tract. However, OEA, PEA and perhaps also LEA may be involved in regulation of food intake by......-reducing effect of exogenous OEA is less clear. Prolonged intake of dietary fat (45 energy%) may promote over-consumption of food by decreasing the endogenous levels of OEA, PEA and LEA in the intestine....

  13. The validity and reliability study of Hand Hygiene Belief Scale and Hand Hygiene Practices Inventory

    Mevlude Karadag

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: The adaptation of translated and ldquo;Hand Hygiene Belief Scale and Hand Hygiene Practices Inventory and rdquo; in Turkey is found to be reliable and valid to evaluate hand hygiene belief and practices. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(2.000: 271-284

  14. The Effect of Antibacterial Formula Hand Cleaners on the Elimination of Microbes on Hands

    Coleman, J. R.

    2002-05-01

    : The purpose of this project is to find out which one of the antibacterial hand cleanser (antibacterial bar soap, antibacterial liquid hand soap, and liquid hand sanitizer) is more effective in eliminating microbes. If antibacterial- formula liquid hand soap is used on soiled hands, then it will be more effective in eliminating microbes. Germs are microorganisms that cause disease and can spread from person-to-person. Bacteria are a kind of microbe, an example of which is Transient Flora that is often found on hands. Hand washing prevents germs from spreading to others. During the procedure, swabs were used to take samples before and after the soiled hands had been washed with one of the antibacterial hand cleansers. Nutrient Easygel was poured into petri dishes to harden for 1 day, and then samples were swabbed on the gel. The Petri dishes were placed in an incubator for 24 hours, and then data was recorded accordingly. The antibacterial liquid hand soap was sufficient in eliminating the majority of bacteria. The hands had 65% of the bacteria on them, and after the liquid hand soap was used only 37% of the bacteria remained.

  15. The Geriatric Hand: Correlation of Hand-Muscle Function and Activity Restriction in Elderly

    Incel, Nurgul Arinci; Sezgin, Melek; As, Ismet; Cimen, Ozlem Bolgen; Sahin, Gunsah

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of the importance of hand manipulation in activities of daily living (ADL), deterioration of hand function because of various factors reduces quality and independence of life of the geriatric population. The aim of this study was to identify age-induced changes in manual function and to quantify the correlations between hand-muscle…

  16. Mechanisms in the shaping of organic food as strategy in the Danish food sector

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    views in an analysis of the development of organic agriculture and organic food in Denmark. On the one hand a new product niche and maybe even a new development path has developed and on the other hand the conventional agriculture is still dominating with more than 90% of the agricultural area. The......Whether one is pessimist or optimist one can either phrase the development of organic agriculture and organic food in Denmark either as ‘only 7% of the agricultural area has been converted’ or ‘even 7% of the agricultural area has been converted’. The point of this paper is that one has to use both...... paper analyses some of the changes that have taken place in the Danish food sector during the last 10-15 years with respect to organic food. The paper looks for how changes in the systems of production, consumption, knowledge and regulation have interacted and what kind of coherence and dissonance among...

  17. The hand-reversal illusion revisited

    Sang Wook Hong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The hand-reversal illusion is a visuomotor illusion that is commonly seen in childrens play. When participants attempt to lift a designated finger while their hands are cross-folded, they are likely to erroneously lift the matched finger of the other hand; however, such errors are rare when subjects close their eyes. Based on the fact that the illusion disappears without visual input, researchers previously concluded that the illusion depends upon visual and proprioceptive conflict (Van Riper, 1935. Here, we reevaluated this visual-proprioceptive conflict hypothesis by obtaining reaction time measurements because, in the original study, subjects might have relied on a strategy of responding more slowly to minimize making errors. We found that the impairment due to cross-folding ones hand persisted in the absence of the visual input, as evidenced by delayed response times. Further, we found that such impairment occurred when the fingers of only one hand were tested, indicating that the impairment was not due to left-right confusions of the hands during tactile identification or response selection. Based on these results, we suggest that the illusion is not solely due to the conflict between visual and proprioceptive information. Instead, we propose that the unusual configuration itself that involves a reversal of the left and right hands in external space also contributes to the impaired motor response.

  18. Hand hygiene among health care workers

    Mani Ameet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare-associated infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients worldwide. Transmission of health care associated pathogens generally occurs via the contaminated hands of health care workers. Hand hygiene has long been considered one of the most important infection control measures to prevent health care-associated infections. For generations, hand washing with soap and water has been considered a measure of personal hygiene. As early as 1822, a French pharmacist demonstrated that solutions containing chlorides of lime or soda could eradicate the foul odor associated with human corpses and that such solutions could be used as disinfectants and antiseptics. This paper provides a comprehensive review of data regarding hand washing and hand antisepsis in healthcare settings. In addition, it provides specific recommendations to uphold improved hand-hygiene practices and reduce transmission of pathogenic microorganisms to patients and personnel in healthcare settings. This article also makes recommendations and suggests the significance of hand health hygiene in infection control.

  19. Specificities of hand trauma in agriculture

    Nikoli? Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Hand injuries in agriculture are characterized by massive destruction of all tissues, frequent amputations of finger, hand and often the whole extremity. These injuries are mutilant and can cause death. The aim of this paper was to show the specificities of hand injuries in agriculture in regard to hand injuries of other etiology. Methods. We analyzed patients that were treated in the Department for Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Clinical Center Vojvodina, during a five-year period (2003-2007 because of hand injuries. Results. In a five-year period there were 366 patients hospitalized because of hand injuries, out of whom 36 injuries were related to agricultural machinery use. In both groups the number of patients trended to increased, with male gender being dominant. Most of the patients were young or middle-aged men. In agricultural injuries most of the patients were in the group of 41-50-year old (30%, while in the other group, the patients were younger (21-30-year old. Hand injuries in agriculture resulted in finger amputation in 92%, while in the other group that number was much smaller (13%. Skin defect reconstruction in agricultural injuries required complex methods of skin grafting or skin flaps in more than 71%, while this was necessary in only 10% of other hand injuries. Conclusion. Hand injuries in agriculture are very mutilant and often result in conquassation and finger amputation. A possibility to preserve tissue damaged in this way is very limited, and skin closer usually requires complex methods.

  20. A critical review on the survival and elimination of norovirus in food and on food contact surfaces

    This critical review covers the survival of human norovirus (NoV) in foods and on food contact surfaces as well as the state-of-the-art on the effectiveness of methods to eliminate these viruses. Virus survival studies are reviewed for water, soils and organic wastes, on fomites, hands, fruits and v...