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Food hand held fast mould  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model relates to a food hand carrying quick mode, comprising a mode drum, a mode drum cover, a top mode disc, a hand carrying portion and an operation bar, wherein the hand carrying portion comprises a main cylinder which is fixed on the mode drum cover, the operation bar and a main piston are fixedly connected and can reset through a tension element, which is hollowed to form a cylinder, the bottom sides are equipped with a dent, a side cylinder is equipped with a hollowed sub pipe which is fixedly connected with a side piston, the sub pipe top sides are equipped with an air guide hole, and the bottom end is connected with the top mode disc with a plurality of ejecting hole. The utility model makes the hand carrying mode have the repeated operation function of press and blowing mode de-mode and auto reset with the pneumatic aid shaping, the force has good stability, which makes the shaping size of the bread or cakes easily controlled, the manufacturing speed is fast, the pneumatic aid de-mode makes the food surface and the top mode disc bottom not stuck and the surface not defected, thereby producing products with good quality and beauty.

YOU YOUYI

2

The use of fish in Ilhabela (São Paulo/Brazil): preferences, food taboos and medicinal indications/ O uso de peixes em Ilhabela (São Paulo, Brasil): preferências, tabus alimentares e indicações medicinais  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho foi realizado em três comunidades de pescadores artesanais de Ilhabela, localizadas no litoral norte do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. O objetivo foi analisar as preferências, os tabus e as indicações medicinais dos peixes e, desta forma, representar as interações dos pescadores com os recursos pesqueiros, visando entender os aspectos biológicos e culturais envolvidos. A coleta dos dados foi realizada através de entrevistas com o auxílio de question? (more) ?rios semi-estruturados. Foram entrevistadas 25 famílias, das 29 residentes nas três comunidades estudadas durante a coleta de dados, sendo que 5 delas foram realizadas na Praia do Jabaquara, 6 na Praia da Fome e 14 na Praia da Serraria. Foram citadas 18 consideradas preferidas para o consumo, 11 espécies consideradas como tabus, 5 espécies evitadas e 4 indicadas no caso de doenças. As famílias de pescadores preferem consumir peixes de escama e não consomem o baiacu, este último provavelmente devido a sua característica tóxica. Peixes como bonito, espada, cação, sororoca e cavala são evitados em casos como feridas, inflamações, gravidez e pós parto e outros como pirajica, marimba, anchova e garoupa são indicados como peixes medicinais nestas situações. Aspectos relativos ao consumo de pescado fazem parte do corpo de conhecimento dos pescadores e suas famílias e constituem um acervo rico de informações que somadas as informações biológicas são úteis para a conservação dos recursos pesqueiros. Dados como os apresentados nesse estudo, com relação ao uso de animais aquáticos para tratamento de doenças, podem servir de base para estudos futuros sobre substâncias que contenham elementos ativos na cura de doenças. Abstract in english This study was conducted in three communities of artisanal fishermen from Ilhabela, located on the northern coast of São Paulo, Brazil. The objective was to analyze the preferences, taboos and medicinal indications of fish and thus representing one of the interactions of fishermen with fish stocks. Data collection was conducted through interviews with the aid of semi-structured questionnaires. We interviewed 25 families, 29 residents in three communities studied during o (more) ur fieldwork for data collection. Five interviews were done in Jabaquara Beach, 6 in Fome Beach and 14 Serraria Beach. During the interviews, 18 species were cited as preferred for consumption, 11 species considered to be taboo (food prohibited), 5 species were cited as avoided as food, and 4 species indicated in case of illness. The families of fishermen prefer to consume finfish and do not consume puffer fish, the latter probably due to its toxic characteristic. Fish such as little tunny, largehead hairtail, shark, serra mackerel and king mackerel are avoided by unhealthy people and in cases of wounds, inflammation, pregnancy and postpartum. Other fish, such as sea chubs, silver porgy, bluefish and grouper are reported as medicinal in these situations. Aspects related to fish consumption are part of the knowledge of fishermen and their families and provide a wealth of information that combined to biological information is useful for the conservation of fishery resources. Data such as those presented in this study, regarding the use of aquatic animals for treatment of diseases, could serve as a basis for future studies on substances that contain active elements in curing diseases.

Ramires, Milena; Rotundo, Matheus Marcos; Begossi, Alpina

2012-03-01

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Sens et enjeux d’un interdit alimentaire dans le judaïsme Food taboos in Judaism: the example of Ashkenazi Jews in London  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cet article porte sur la manière dont la prohibition de mêler nourritures lactées et carnées dans le judaïsme se matérialise par les objets de la cuisine et leurs usages quotidiens, à partir d’une recherche réalisée à Londres auprès de couples juifs ashkénazes qui se définissent presque tous comme orthodoxes (modern orthodox) et dont la scolarisation dans des écoles juives a parfois pu contribuer à revivifier les pratiques religieuses. Par delà la diversité des habitudes culinaires et de leurs formes (ex : végétarisme), par delà les éventuelles variations individuelles de l’observance religieuse au cours du cycle de vie, l’interdit alimentaire de mêler lait et viande est respecté par l’ensemble des personnes rencontrées. Il s’agit alors d’en comprendre le sens et la portée. Les conséquences matérielles de cet interdit alimentaire permettent de saisir l’importance de la religion dans le logement et les activités de tous les jours. Elles conduisent à articuler le plan matériel et le plan symbolique en suggérant une interprétation anthropologique de cette prohibition, en lien avec les écrits bibliques et les analyses déjà menées sur le sujet.This article is based upon research on Ashkenazi Jewish families living in London. It deals with the way, in Judaïsm, the prohibition of eating meat and dairy foods together is materialised through the use of kitchen utensils on a day to day basis. Material consequences of this dietary law allow us to understand the importance of religion in the Jewish home and in everyday life. Consequences which lead to the linking of material uses and their symbolic significance by suggesting an anthropological interpretation of this dietary law in accordance with Biblical writings.

Laurence Faure

2010-01-01

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Jeux tabous : littératures Taboo plays: Literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La thèse de Georges Bataille sur l’art comme transgression, et d’abord du tabou concernant la mort, est ici mise à l’épreuve de trois œuvres littéraires du XXe siècle. C’est le tabou des morts en sa violence primitive qui s’y inscrit, mais sans effacer ce qu’il frappe, d’où l’effet libérateur du texte.Georges Bataille’s thesis – art as transgression of taboo, especially taboo regarding death – is tested by three literary works of XXth century. The taboo concerning dead persons is here written, with its primitive violence but what it prohibits is not obliterated. Hence the liberating effect of the text.

Brigitte Galtier

2009-01-01

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Emotive Language Slang, Verbal Taboo and Euhpemism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of my thesis is to investigate the use of slang, taboo language and euphemism in English. An important thought we have to consider is that language is a significant means in social communication among people. It is argued that speech communicates phonological, grammatical and semantic inform...

Varró, Petra

6

Can increased food processing and organic products go hand in hand?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Økologi er oppe i tiden. Trods det er afsætningen af økologiske fødevarer på de fleste europæiske markeder begrænset til basisfødevarer som mælk, gryn og frugt og grønt. , Ecology is popular these days but in spite of this the sale of organic foods is limited to basic foods as milk, grains, fruit and v...

Bredahl, Lone; Stacey, Julia

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Oral hapsis guides accurate hand preshaping for grasping food targets in the mouth.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Preshaping the digits and orienting the hand when reaching to grasp a distal target is proposed to be optimal when guided by vision. A reach-to-grasp movement to an object in one's own mouth is a natural and commonly used movement, but there has been no previous description of how it is performed. The movement requires accuracy but likely depends upon haptic rather than visual guidance, leading to the question of whether the kinematics of this movement are similar to those with vision or whether the movement depends upon an alternate strategy. The present study used frame-by-frame video analysis and linear kinematics to analyze hand movements as participants reached for ethologically relevant food targets placed either at a distal location or in the mouth. When reaching for small and medium-sized food items (blueberries and donut balls) that had maximal lip-to-target contact, hand preshaping was equivalent to that used for visually guided reaching. When reaching for a large food item (orange slice) that extended beyond the edges of the mouth, hand preshaping was suboptimal compared to vision. Nevertheless, hapsis from the reaching hand was used to reshape and reorient the hand after first contact with the large target. The equally precise guidance of hand preshaping under oral hapsis is discussed in relation to the idea that hand preshaping, and its requisite neural circuitry, may have originated under somatosensory control, with secondary access by vision.

Karl JM; Sacrey LA; Doan JB; Whishaw IQ

2012-08-01

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The importance of taboos and social norms to conservation in Madagascar.  

Science.gov (United States)

Informal institutions governing the use of wild species are present in many societies. A system of prohibitions known as fady is central to Malagasy culture. We examined whether fady that relate to the use of natural resources in the eastern rainforests of Madagascar play an important conservation role. Prohibitions ranged from strict taboos in which a species or area was forbidden by the ancestors to social norms that concerned acceptable behavior when harvesting wild species. Strict taboos offered real protection to threatened species, such as the lemur Propithecus edwardsi and the carnivore Cryptoprocta ferox. Taboos also reduced pressure on some economically important endemic species by preventing their sale or limiting the harvest season. Despite their value for conservation, the taboos did not appear to originate from attempts to sustainably manage resources. Nevertheless, social norms, in which the sanction was social disapproval rather than supernatural retribution, encouraged sustainable harvesting practices for tenrecs (Tenrec ecudatus) and pandans (Pandanus spp.). Unfortunately, the social norms concerning methods of harvesting pandans appeared to be breaking down in villages surrounding Ranomafana National Park, and we suggest that the imposition of external conservation rules is weakening traditional management. Informal institutions are important to conservation because they suggest ways of improving cultural understanding and conservation communication. Food taboos influence societal preferences, which affect the wider demand for a species. Most important, where capacity to enforce external conservation rules is limited, informal institutions may provide the only effective regulations. Informal institutions should receive greater attention from conservation biologists so that local people's conservation roles can be acknowledged fairly and so that potential synergies with conservation objectives can be realized. PMID:18616743

Jones, Julia P G; Andriamarovololona, Mijasoa M; Hockley, Neal

2008-07-09

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The importance of taboos and social norms to conservation in Madagascar.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Informal institutions governing the use of wild species are present in many societies. A system of prohibitions known as fady is central to Malagasy culture. We examined whether fady that relate to the use of natural resources in the eastern rainforests of Madagascar play an important conservation role. Prohibitions ranged from strict taboos in which a species or area was forbidden by the ancestors to social norms that concerned acceptable behavior when harvesting wild species. Strict taboos offered real protection to threatened species, such as the lemur Propithecus edwardsi and the carnivore Cryptoprocta ferox. Taboos also reduced pressure on some economically important endemic species by preventing their sale or limiting the harvest season. Despite their value for conservation, the taboos did not appear to originate from attempts to sustainably manage resources. Nevertheless, social norms, in which the sanction was social disapproval rather than supernatural retribution, encouraged sustainable harvesting practices for tenrecs (Tenrec ecudatus) and pandans (Pandanus spp.). Unfortunately, the social norms concerning methods of harvesting pandans appeared to be breaking down in villages surrounding Ranomafana National Park, and we suggest that the imposition of external conservation rules is weakening traditional management. Informal institutions are important to conservation because they suggest ways of improving cultural understanding and conservation communication. Food taboos influence societal preferences, which affect the wider demand for a species. Most important, where capacity to enforce external conservation rules is limited, informal institutions may provide the only effective regulations. Informal institutions should receive greater attention from conservation biologists so that local people's conservation roles can be acknowledged fairly and so that potential synergies with conservation objectives can be realized.

Jones JP; Andriamarovololona MM; Hockley N

2008-08-01

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Conceptual metaphors in taboo-induced lexical variation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Taboo is deeply woven into every culture and society, which is obviously reflected in vocabulary. Indeed, taboo keeps language users from avoiding the forbidden concept and compels them to preserve or violate it, which leads to endless series of cross varietal synonyms for forbidden concepts. In thi...

Crespo Fernández, Eliecer

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Taboos and conflicts in decision making  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Previous studies suggest that choices are perceived as difficult as well as negatively emotion-laden when they tap into moral considerations. However, we propose that the involvement of moral issues and values can also facilitate decisions because people often insistently preclude them from trade-offs with other values. Because such values are treated as inviolable and absolute, they are called sacred values (e.g., Tetlock et al., 2000). Two experiments examined the influence of sacred values (measured by a recent self-report scale) and variation of trade-off type (taboo, tragic, routine trade-offs) on perceived decision difficulty and negative emotions. As hypothesized, decision difficulty and negative emotions show diverging patterns as a function of sacred values and trade-off types. When the decision situation involved two conflicting sacred values (i.e., tragic trade-off), people perceived the decision task as emotionally stressful and difficult. However, when the decision situation was associated with only one sacred value (i.e., taboo trade-off), people perceived the task as more negatively emotion-laden, but as easier to solve, compared to a situation not involving sacred values (i.e., routine trade-off). These findings suggest that reliance on sacred values may work as a heuristic.

Martin Hanselmann; Carmen Tanner

2008-01-01

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The Relations Among Threatened Species, Their Protection, and Taboos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We analyzed the role of taboos for the protection of species listed as "threatened" by the World Conservation Union (IUCN), and also for species known to be endemic and keystone. The study was limited to taboos that totally avoid or prohibit any use of particular species and their populations. We call them specific-species taboos . Through a literature review, 70 currently existing examples of specific-species taboos were identified and analyzed. The species avoided were grouped into biological classes. Threat categories were determined for each species, based on the IUCN Red Data Book. We found that ~ 30% of the identified taboos prohibit any use of species listed as threatened by IUCN. Of the specific-species taboos, 60% are set on reptiles and mammals. In these two classes, ~ 50% of the species are threatened, representing all of the threatened species in our analysis, with the exception of one bird species. Both endemic and keystone species that are important for ecosystem functions are avoided by specific-species taboos. Specific-species taboos have important ecological ramifications for the protection of threatened and ecologically important populations of species. We do not suggest that specific-species taboos are placed on species because they are, or have been, endangered; instead, we emphasize that species are avoided for a variety of other reasons. It is urgent to identify and analyze resource practices and social mechanisms of traditional societies, such as taboos, and to investigate their possible ecological significance. Although it may provide insights of value for conservation, not only of species, but also of ecosystem processes and functions, such information is being lost rapidly.

Johan Colding; Carl Folke

1997-01-01

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Tattoo and taboo: on the meaning of tattoos in the analytic process.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tattooing projects a visual image in transference to form a backdrop for the most salient unconscious inner conflicts arising during an ongoing analytic process. Like a snapshot, the tattoo is a dialectic record of the mother-father relationship, of desires for closeness and distance, commonality and difference, identification and individuation. As Walter Benjamin famously stated about the nature of visual images in his Arcades Project, the tattoo represents "dialectics at a standstill." What seems paramount to the patient who participates in the act of tattooing is the need for stasis and immutability, as if bringing unconscious conflicts to "standstill" were to deliver a sense of stability. Unconsciously, the need is triggered by a threat to the inner stability resulting from fear of violating a taboo escalating to the point that fears of abandonment and fusion become unbearable. On the one hand, the tattoo is a visual symbolization of a taboo transgression; on the other hand, it activates the same through an act of self-injury that resembles the magical ritual acts of indigenous peoples' use of tattoos. The taboo thus serves as an ersatz for the actual violation of the taboo in real life, so that the tattoo may be ascribed a magical significance or totemic function. And yet the tattoo's success as a vehicle for constructing a transitional object is always contingent on the tangible manipulation of the skin conjoined with the creation of a symbolizing visual image. The image then acts like a "patch" to repair holes blown into Winnicott's "potential space" and to reconstruct it.

Karacaoglan U

2012-02-01

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Hand-held dynamic visual noise reduces naturally occurring food cravings and craving-related consumption.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study demonstrated the applicability of the well-established laboratory task, dynamic visual noise, as a technique for reducing naturally occurring food cravings and subsequent food intake. Dynamic visual noise was delivered on a hand-held computer device. Its effects were assessed within the context of a diary study. Over a 4-week period, 48 undergraduate women recorded their food cravings and consumption. Following a 2-week baseline, half the participants watched the dynamic visual noise display whenever they experienced a food craving. Compared to a control group, these participants reported less intense cravings. They were also less likely to eat following a craving and consequently consumed fewer total calories following craving. These findings hold promise for curbing unwanted food cravings and craving-driven consumption in real-world settings.

Kemps E; Tiggemann M

2013-09-01

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Detection of enterotoxin genes of Staphylococcus sp isolated from nasal cavities and hands of food handlers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Food handlers, an important factor in food quality, may contain bacteria that are able to cause foodborne disease. The present study aimed to research coagulase-negative (CNS) and -positive staphylococci (CPS) in 82 food handlers, analyzing nasal and hand swabs, with identification of 62 CNS (75.6%) and 20 CPS strains (24.4%). Staphylococcal enterotoxins genes were investigated by PCR. In 20 CPS strains, 19 were positive for one or more genes. The percentage of CNS presenting genes for enterotoxins was high (46.8%). Despite of the staphylococcal species, the most common gene was sea (35.4%), followed by seh and sej (29.2%). The detection of new staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) genes showed a higher pathogenic potential in this genus. The presence of these gene points out the importance of CNS not only as contaminant bacteria but also as a pathogen.

V.L.M. Rall; J.M. Sforcin; V.C.M. Augustini; M.T. Watanabe; A. Fernandes Jr.; R. Rall; M.G. Silva; J.P Araújo Jr.

2010-01-01

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De-tabooing dying control - a grounded theory study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Dying is inescapable yet remains a neglected issue in modern health care. The research question in this study was "what is going on in the field of dying today?" What emerged was to eventually present a grounded theory of control of dying focusing specifically on how people react in relation to issues about euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS). METHODS: Classic grounded theory was used to analyze interviews with 55 laypersons and health care professionals in North America and Europe, surveys on attitudes to PAS among physicians and the Swedish general public, and scientific literature, North American discussion forum websites, and news sites. RESULTS: Open awareness of the nature and timing of a patient's death became common in health care during the 1960s in the Western world. Open dying awareness contexts can be seen as the start of a weakening of a taboo towards controlled dying called de-tabooing. The growth of the hospice movement and palliative care, but also the legalization of euthanasia and PAS in the Benelux countries, and PAS in Montana, Oregon and Washington further represents de-tabooing dying control. An attitude positioning between the taboo of dying control and a growing taboo against questioning patient autonomy and self-determination called de-paternalizing is another aspect of de-tabooing. When confronted with a taboo, people first react emotionally based on "gut feelings" - emotional positioning. This is followed by reasoning and label wrestling using euphemisms and dysphemisms - reflective positioning. Rarely is de-tabooing unconditional but enabled by stipulated positioning as in soft laws (palliative care guidelines) and hard laws (euthanasia/PAS legislation). From a global perspective three shapes of dying control emerge. First, suboptimal palliative care in closed awareness contexts seen in Asian, Islamic and Latin cultures, called closed dying. Second, palliative care and sedation therapy, but not euthanasia or PAS, is seen in Europe and North America, called open dying with reversible medical control. Third, palliative care, sedation therapy, and PAS or euthanasia occurs together in the Benelux countries, Oregon, Washington and Montana, called open dying with irreversible medical control. CONCLUSIONS: De-tabooing dying control is an assumed secular process starting with open awareness contexts of dying half a century ago, and continuing with the growth of the palliative care movement and later euthanasia and PAS legislation.

Thulesius HO; Scott H; Helgesson G; Lynöe N

2013-01-01

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Chinese Cultural Taboos That Affect Their Language & Behavior Choices  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Every culture has its own taboos. Communication works better when the participants share more assumptions and knowledge about each other (Scollon & Scollon, 2000). However, in many cases, participants realize the existence of the rules associated with taboos only after they have violated them. Those who do not observe these social “rules” might face serious results, such as total embarrassment or, as Saville-Troike (1989) puts it, they may be accused of immorality and face social ostracism. This paper reports that certain verbal and non-verbal taboos among Chinese people centuries ago still affect their language and behavior choices. Two types of Chinese possible taboos in language and behavior are introduced and compared with cultures of the Koreans and Americans: (1) gift-giving taboos which are phonologically linked to the “separation” and “death” in Chinese society, and (2) verbal expressions which are linked to the twelve zodiac-animals in Chinese traditional metaphors. This research paper also tries to answer two questions related to Asian culture and history: (1) whether Koreans share more of these phonologically-linked taboos than Americans do because Korean language has very similar sounds to Chinese; and (2) whether Koreans share with Chinese people more of the zodiac-animal-linked metaphors (i.e., the rat, the bull/cow, the tiger, the rabbit, the dragon, the snake, the horse, the sheep/lamb, the monkey, the chicken, the dog, and the pig) than Americans do because Korean people also use the same animals as a cycle of every twelve years. Data were collected in two ways: questionnaires and interviews.

Man-ping Chu

2009-01-01

18

Can increased food processing and organic products go hand in hand? Kan øget forarbejdning og økologi gå hånd i hånd?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ecology is popular these days but in spite of this the sale of organic foods is limited to basic foods as milk, grains, fruit and vegetables. , Økologi er oppe i tiden. Trods det er afsætningen af økologiske fødevarer på de fleste europæiske markeder begrænset til basisfødevarer som mælk, gryn og frugt...

Bredahl, Lone; Stacey, Julia

19

Study of hand hygiene and enteroparasite infestation among food handlers working in a medical college of North India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study was conducted to assess: 1) Prevalence of enteroparasite infestation among food handlers working in food service establishments located in the campus of a medical college, 2) Presence of enteric organisms on their hands and nails and their hand washing practices. A total of 151 food handlers were interviewed regarding their socio-demographic and professional characteristics. Their hand washing practices were also observed. Stool examination for enteroparasites and stool culture for Salmonella & Shigella and culture of nail clippings / nail bed swabs for detecting presence of enteric organisms were also carried out. Prevalence of enteroparasite infestation was observed to be 41.1%. None of the stool samples was observed to be positive for Salmonella or Shigella. Enteric organisms were isolated from nail clippings/nail bed swab samples of 76 (73.1%) study subjects. Hand washing practices were observed to be poor with low use of soap. Findings highlight importance of periodic stool examination and deworming of food handlers and need to educate them about importance of maintaining hand hygiene with a focus on improving their hand washing practices.

Malhotra R; Lal P; Prakash SK; Daga MK; Kishore J

2006-04-01

20

The allure of the forbidden: breaking taboos, frustration, and attraction to violent video games.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although people typically avoid engaging in antisocial or taboo behaviors, such as cheating and stealing, they may succumb in order to maximize their personal benefit. Moreover, they may be frustrated when the chance to commit a taboo behavior is withdrawn. The present study tested whether the desire to commit a taboo behavior, and the frustration from being denied such an opportunity, increases attraction to violent video games. Playing violent games allegedly offers an outlet for aggression prompted by frustration. In two experiments, some participants had no chance to commit a taboo behavior (cheating in Experiment 1, stealing in Experiment 2), others had a chance to commit a taboo behavior, and others had a withdrawn chance to commit a taboo behavior. Those in the latter group were most attracted to violent video games. Withdrawing the chance for participants to commit a taboo behavior increased their frustration, which in turn increased their attraction to violent video games. PMID:23449844

Whitaker, Jodi L; Melzer, André; Steffgen, Georges; Bushman, Brad J

2013-02-28

 
 
 
 
21

The allure of the forbidden: breaking taboos, frustration, and attraction to violent video games.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although people typically avoid engaging in antisocial or taboo behaviors, such as cheating and stealing, they may succumb in order to maximize their personal benefit. Moreover, they may be frustrated when the chance to commit a taboo behavior is withdrawn. The present study tested whether the desire to commit a taboo behavior, and the frustration from being denied such an opportunity, increases attraction to violent video games. Playing violent games allegedly offers an outlet for aggression prompted by frustration. In two experiments, some participants had no chance to commit a taboo behavior (cheating in Experiment 1, stealing in Experiment 2), others had a chance to commit a taboo behavior, and others had a withdrawn chance to commit a taboo behavior. Those in the latter group were most attracted to violent video games. Withdrawing the chance for participants to commit a taboo behavior increased their frustration, which in turn increased their attraction to violent video games.

Whitaker JL; Melzer A; Steffgen G; Bushman BJ

2013-04-01

22

Love Has (NO) Boundaries: Researching a Sexual Taboo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sexual and emotional attraction humans feel towards animals, also known as zoophilia, is perhaps the most controversial facet of human-animal relationships. In this article I explore this seemingly ultimate transgression of interspecies boundaries and probe the Israeli cultural encounters with it. I discern how the stated concerns for normative sexuality and animal rights masquerade the underlying factors in the zoophilia taboo, and reveal the cultural implications of human-animal sexual love in Israel. My fieldwork reveals not only the limits of acceptable human-animal love, but also the limits of legitimate research, and the consequences entailed for those who resolve to challenge them.

Dafna Shir-Vertesh

2013-01-01

23

Socio-Cultural and Attitudinal Study of Selected Yoruba Taboos in South West Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study presents a socio-cultural description of some Yoruba taboos which are an integral part of culture and youths’ attitude towards these taboos. The theoretical frame work for the study is based on Vygotskian’s sociocultural approach which holds that higher order functions develop ou...

Adebola Adebileje

24

Relative efficacy of human social interaction and food as reinforcers for domestic dogs and hand-reared wolves.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite the intimate relationship dogs share with humans in Western society, we know relatively little about the variables that produce and maintain dog social behavior towards humans. One possibility is that human social interaction is itself a reinforcer for dog behavior. As an initial assessment of the variables that might maintain dog social behavior, we compared the relative efficacy of brief human social interaction to a small piece of food as a reinforcer for an arbitrary response (nose touch). We investigated this in three populations of canids: shelter dogs, owned dogs, and hand-reared wolves. Across all three canid populations, brief social interaction was a relatively ineffective reinforcer compared to food for most canids, producing lower responding and longer latencies than food.

Feuerbacher EN; Wynne CD

2012-07-01

25

[Procedures for dealing with the taboo of death].  

Science.gov (United States)

The more death is studied, the more it remains a mystery. Dealing with death is no easy matter and for that reason it is so frightening. All the fears of human beings are fundamentally related to the fear of death. This is because it is a mystery about which we know little or nothing, although it is natural to die. In view of this, religions give this topic a primary focus. Therefore, in this article an attempt is made to deal with the taboo surrounding death and reflect on issues associated with it. These themes are present in people's lives, especially when they have the experience of losing someone in their family or circle of friends. Among these subjects, the aspects of the Anointing of the Sick, the Funeral Mass, the Seventh Day Mass and the tradition of praying for the dead are all touched upon. These are all themes that help to deal with the taboo of death or losing a loved one. PMID:23989577

Pereira, José Carlos

2013-09-01

26

[Procedures for dealing with the taboo of death].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The more death is studied, the more it remains a mystery. Dealing with death is no easy matter and for that reason it is so frightening. All the fears of human beings are fundamentally related to the fear of death. This is because it is a mystery about which we know little or nothing, although it is natural to die. In view of this, religions give this topic a primary focus. Therefore, in this article an attempt is made to deal with the taboo surrounding death and reflect on issues associated with it. These themes are present in people's lives, especially when they have the experience of losing someone in their family or circle of friends. Among these subjects, the aspects of the Anointing of the Sick, the Funeral Mass, the Seventh Day Mass and the tradition of praying for the dead are all touched upon. These are all themes that help to deal with the taboo of death or losing a loved one.

Pereira JC

2013-09-01

27

Oregano essential oil as an antimicrobial additive to detergent for hand washing and food contact surface cleaning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: To investigate the potential use of oregano essential oil as an antimicrobial agent in liquid soap for hand washing and for food contact surface cleaning. METHODS AND RESULTS: Oregano essential oil (O.E.O.) was emulsified in liquid detergent solution. This was challenge tested against a commercial antimicrobial soap in hand washing trials using natural flora. Soap with O.E.O. was as effective as the commercial antimicrobial soap at reducing aerobic plate count on the hands, and more effective than plain soap with no additives. Cloths wetted with soap with O.E.O. were used to clean three different surfaces contaminated with four bacterial pathogens. For three of the four pathogens, the addition of 0.5% v/v O.E.O. to the soap solution enhanced cleaning performance and also reduced bacterial survival on the cloth after cleaning. CONCLUSIONS: Oregano essential oil (0.5%) is effective as an antimicrobial additive to detergent solutions for hand washing and surface cleaning. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT: This preliminary study has shown that oregano essential oil is a potential alternative to antimicrobials used in various detergents, such as chloroxylenol and triclosan, which can have adverse environmental and health effects. Further development could lead to a commercial product. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Rhoades J; Gialagkolidou K; Gogou M; Mavridou O; Blatsiotis N; Ritzoulis C; Likotrafiti E

2013-07-01

28

In Search of the Nuclear Taboo. Past, Present, and Future  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the most puzzling - if positive - phenomena of the past half century is the non-use of nuclear weapons. The puzzle relates to the absence of use despite the demonstrated technical effectiveness of the weapon, the enormous size of nuclear weapons stockpiles globally, the spread of nuclear weapons to states in most regions of the world, the centrality of nuclear weapons in the strategic doctrines and operational war plans of a growing number of states with very different cultures, political systems, and military traditions, and the observation of the tradition of non-use despite the lack of international legal prohibitions - unlike those in place with respect to chemical and biological weapons. This essay seeks to probe the underpinnings of nuclear weapons restraint, the strength and durability of the so-called nuclear 'taboo' - especially in light of the rise of non-states actors who covet nuclear weapons for purposes other than deterrence - and the most likely paths by which existing restraints might be breached, broken, or dissolved. Particular emphasis is placed on alternative futures as a number of other studies, including several important new volumes, have explored in depth the sources of non-use. (author)

2010-01-01

29

Solving touristic trip planning problem by using taboo search approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce an algorithm that automatically plans a touristic trip by considering some hard and soft constrains. Opening and closing hours of POIs, trip duration and trip allocated budget represent the hard constraints, while the satisfaction factors of the POIs and travelling distance in the trip are considered as soft constraints. We use the soft constraints to evaluate the generated solution of the algorithm. The algorithm is developed by utilizing the taboo search method as a meta heuristic. The operators of Swap, Insert and Delete are used to explore the search space. The Swap and Insert operator are used in each iteration of the algorithm loop, while the Delete operator is used whenever the algorithm tends to enter in an endless cycle. The algorithm is developed by using Java programming language, while the data repositories are created in the XML format. The algorithm is tested with 40 instances of POIs of the city of Vienna. Various entry parameters of the algorithm are used to test its performance. The results gained are discussed and compared in respect to the optimal solution.

Kadri Sylejmani; Agni Dika

2011-01-01

30

Offensive Language in Sex and the City : A study of male and female characters’ use of taboo words  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There are words and topics of conversation that are considered taboo and offensive in the English language. Offensive words can be divided into different categories, based on the way they are used and in what situation. Topics of conversation that are considered taboo are for example sexual activity...

Skillström Bygg, Madelene

31

Socio-Cultural and Attitudinal Study of Selected Yoruba Taboos in South West Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study presents a socio-cultural description of some Yoruba taboos which are an integral part of culture and youths’ attitude towards these taboos. The theoretical frame work for the study is based on Vygotskian’s sociocultural approach which holds that higher order functions develop out of social interaction. In other words, cultural development of an individual, especially the young ones, depends largely on social interactions with elders. Some socio-cultural factors like age, sex and education are the variables employed in the analysis. Data is gathered from interviewing students and staff of Redeemer’s University, Mowe, Ogun state and Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun state in the South Western part of Nigeria. Books and documents are also consulted. In the process of describing some selected Yoruba taboos, it is discovered that: (a) the language of a particular society is an integral part of its culture, (b) many of the taboos have been taken over by Christianity and technology (c) youths have a laissez-faire attitude as their belief in taboos is fast disappearing because parents and guardians do not educate children in these acts any more. It is concluded that for the Yoruba culture to be saved from imminent extinction, parents must expose the young ones to cultural beliefs and ensure that they speak the language. This is necessary because internalized culture allows people to respond in appropriate ways to the norms of the society or community in which they live.Key words: Socio-cultural; Yoruba taboos; Society’s attitude

Adebola Adebileje

2012-01-01

32

The Gifts We Keep on Giving: Documenting and Destigmatizing the Regifting Taboo  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Five studies investigate whether the practice of "regifting"-a social taboo-is as offensive to givers as regifters assume. Participants who imagined regifting thought that the original givers would be more offended than givers reported feeling, to such an extent that receivers viewed regifting as si...

Adams, Gabrielle S.; Flynn, Francis J.; Norton, Michael Irwin

33

How to Break a Taboo? Comment briser un tabou ? ¿Cómo romper un tabú?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Prior to 2001, the word toilet and sanitation was a taboo. Polite society avoided the embarrassment of mentioning it. Academia publications about the issues were viewed as too boring to engage mass media. But avoidance of this agenda manifested into neglect of 2.6 billion people without access to pr...

Jack Sim

34

Chieftaincy Institution and Traditional Taboo in South-Western Nigeria: Review Article  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The chieftaincy ins titution has come under s evere criticism in Nig eria in recent times owing to theinstitution’s ambiguous role in modern times (be it under the military or civilian disp ens ations ). During themilitary regime, the ins titution was alleged to have co-habited with the military in running the governmentbehind the curtain. In the civilian disp ens ation (both in the pas t and now), some of them were accused ofpartisan politics to the ridiculous extent of election rigging. Therefore, this s tudy focus es o n the chieftaincyinstitution and traditional taboo in South-western Nigeria, that is, how the chieftaincy ins titution employedtraditional taboo to maintain peace, law and order in Yoruba speaking So uth-W es tern Nig eria in the past. Thisstu dy relied on materials d erived from oral testimon ies received from trad ition al rulers , ch iefs , elders , and someother custodian of culture of the peop le. Relevant information from available literatures on taboo provided thebackground to the study. This s tudy is ap proached from a so cio-histo rical perspective and th e method employedis analytical of source materials. It is th e opinion o f this s tudy th at taboo which was one of the mechanisms us edby the ch ieftaincy ins titution to maintain peace, law and order in the pas t; can still be relevant tod ay.

A.F.E. Adedayo Emmanuel

2009-01-01

35

Experimental release of hand-reared wolf pups in Tver region (Russia): food habits, movement patterns and fear of humans.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Studying the reintroduction of hand-raised wolves may embrace several interests such as deepening knowledge on wolf biology and allowing a controlled release in isolated populations in need of genetic influx. Studies on hand-raised wild animals, showing successful reintroduction, suggested that youn...

Fraissard, camille

36

The World After Proliferation, Deterrence and Disarmament if the Nuclear Taboo is Broken  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

he nuclear taboo is customarily seen as a black and white norm, separating the world of the familiar from that of an unknowable afterlife.1 Nina Tannenwald argues that 'once the threshold between use and non-use is crossed, one is immediately in a new world with all the unimaginable consequences that could follow'. It is not correct, however, to say that the consequences are 'unimaginable'. They are certainly unpredictable, but one can imagine at least some of the consequences. This article attempts to do so with regard to consequences for proliferation, deterrence and disarmament. If the nuclear taboo were broken, whether by design, accident, miscalculation, or a breakdown of command and control, one of the more easily imagined consequences would be the collapse of the Nuclear Non- Proliferation Treaty (NPT). It is safe to assume that the use of nuclear weapons in war for the first time since 1945 would be a transformational event. But would nuclear use spell the failure of deterrence and doom the prospects of a nuclear-weapons free world, making obsolete much of the current thinking about nuclear disarmament and nuclear deterrence? Not every nuclear use scenario would necessarily break the lock on the nuclear Pandora's Box. A 'demonstration shot', for example, would not have the same impact as nuclear obliteration of a city. Both would be breaches of the taboo, but the use of a single nuclear bomb probably would not disrupt the status quo as thoroughly as would a massive attack or a two-way exchange. Breaching the taboo would not necessarily reverse the powerful norm and tradition that has developed in the last 60+ years against use of nuclear weapons. There is no compelling logic to assume that nuclear weapons would thereby become re-legitimized as instruments of war. The breaking of the nuclear taboo could actually spur either or both of two opposite reactions: an increased salience of nuclear weapons and a stimulus to disarmament. Which impulse prevails will depend on the circumstances, including how the taboo gets broken. This paper first lays out the case for each of these two disparate reactions, noting that history provides limited predictive power for what would be an unprecedented event. The paper then assesses the various circumstances in which nuclear weapons might be used, and how the context of their use would affect the development of new norms. (author)

2009-01-01

37

The Hitting Times with Taboo for a Random Walk on an Integer Lattice  

CERN Multimedia

For a symmetric, homogeneous and irreducible random walk on d-dimensional integer lattice Z^d, having zero mean and a finite variance of jumps, we study the passage times (with possible infinite values) determined by the starting point x, the hitting state y and the taboo state z. We find the probability that these passages times are finite and analyze the tails of their cumulative distribution functions. In particular, it turns out that for the random walk on Z^d, except for a simple (nearest neighbor) random walk on Z, the order of the tail decrease is specified by dimension d only. In contrast, for a simple random walk on Z, the asymptotic properties of hitting times with taboo essentially depend on the mutual location of the points x, y and z. These problems originated in our recent study of branching random walk on Z^d with a single source of branching.

Bulinskaya, Ekaterina

2011-01-01

38

Arguing with the incest taboo? the case of "distorted cognitions" about child sexuality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper seeks to open up critical reflection on the notion of "cognitive distortion" (CD), as applied to child sex offenders, to a broader anthropological account of children's sexual agency, namely the arguable revitalisation and extension of incest taboos through the post-1970s rubric of child sexual abuse. Sixteen scales that purport to measure CD (1984-2009) are listed, and their gist briefly appreciated against this interpretative background. Pitting social structure against the deconstructive and disloyal crime of perversion, the pronouncement of CD shows a deep complicity to the moral status quo, namely the faithful recitation and procedural accreditation of essentially regulatory rubrics, fixtures, and truisms ("sexuality", "sexual trauma", "harm", "consent"). It thus paraphrases the anthropologically expected collapse of nuance between immoral and illogical ideas at the site of social taboos, especially taboos' contemporary predicament of ever more argumentative perverts and ever more decontextualised, and thus erratic, scientific probing. In the end, the perverts are those who, in all nuances of the expression, "don't get it." Circumscribing the "rationalisations, distortions, and blame shifting" of the paraphile remains the - increasingly awkward and panicked - occasion for entrenching society's.

Diederik F Janssen

2012-01-01

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Totem e Tabu: uma "semiologia psicanalítica" em Freud?/ Totem and Taboo: a Freud's "psychoanalytical semiology"?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O tema deste artigo é a pesquisa de revisão sobre a seguinte questão: quais seriam os fundamentos freudianos para uma "semiologia psicanalítica" e para o método de pesquisa de revisão de literatura em psicanálise? Foi discutida a hipótese de que "Totem e Tabu" constituiu a primeira semiologia psicanalítica de Freud, pois, ainda que Freud não tenha nessa obra se utilizado dessa expressão, pareceu ter ali feito a prática da semiologia psicanalítica dos dois sig (more) nos: "Totem" e "Tabu". Concluiu-se que, para manter uma ótica psicanalítica freudiana num estudo semiológico, seria necessário enfatizar a análise radical dos universais da linguagem - reveladores da natureza humana profunda -, do psiquismo inconsciente do homem, extraindo tais universais, num primeiro tempo, dos totens e mitos, mas, também, num segundo tempo, dos tabus e das religiões. A demanda pelo exame de "escritos" pareceu, assim, justificar o método de revisão de literatura em psicanálise. Abstract in english This paper focus is a review about the Freudian issues about a psychoanalytical semiology and a research method of lecture review. The hypothesis that "Totem and Taboo" is the first Freud's psychoanalytical semiology has been discussed. Though Freud did not use such a term, it was argued that Freud did in this book the psychoanalytical semiology of the two signs: "Totem" and "Taboo". This paper concluded that in order to do a semiological study, it would be necessary to e (more) mphasize the analysis of the universal language patterns which reveal the deepest human nature and the unconscious psychism. Such analysis should be done in two different phases: the first one, seeking those patterns within the totems and myths; the second one, seeking the same patterns within the taboos and religions. This kind of study requires writings survey, and justifies the use of literature review as psychoanalytical method in.

Bento, Victor Eduardo Silva

2007-09-01

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Tabus alimentares em região do Norte do Brasil/ Alimentary taboos in the North Region of Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Foi realizado um inquérito sobre tabus alimentares em duas localidades do Município de Marabá, PA, Brasil: São Félix e Murumuru, tendo sido estudadas, respectivamente, 90 e 35 famílias. Dos tabus alimentares encontrados, foi grande a restrição feita à ingestão simultânea de leite com várias frutas, especialmente com manga, laranja, cajú e abacaxi; também a ingestão simultânea de ovos com frutas foram referidas como hábitos que devem ser evitados, assim co (more) mo a mistura de carne de mamíferos com peixes. Quanto à ingestão simultânea de frutas, destaca-se a proibição de uma fruta regional, o açaí, com outras 10 frutas. Foi mais elevado o número de restrições alimentares durante a lactação do que durante a gravidez, principalmente de carne de caça e de peixes, abundantes na região estudada. Os motivos mais citados para justificar os tabus alimentares foram: "faz mal", "mata", "congestão" e "vômito". Abstract in english A study was carried out into alimentary taboos in two localities (São Félix and Mummuru) in the county of Marabá, State of Pará, Brazil. Ninety families were studied in São Félix and thirty-five in Murumuru. As regards the feeding taboos found, the most frequent was that prohibiting the simultaneous ingestion of milk and various types of fruit, including especially mango, orange, cashew and pineapple. The ingestion of eggs with fruit was also considered harmful as w (more) ell as the eating of mammalian flesh at the same time as fish. Restrictions based on taboos were more frequent during breast feeding than during pregnancy, especially those regarding game flesh and fish that abound in the region under study. The most frequently mentioned reasons for the restrictions were: "the combination causes harm", "the combination kills", "the combination causes congestion" and "it causes vomiting".

Trigo, Marlene; Roncada, Maria José; Stewien, Glacilda Telles de Menezes; Pereira, Isabel Maria Teixeira Bicudo

1989-12-01

 
 
 
 
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Procedimentos para lidar com o tabu da morte/ Procedures for dealing with the taboo of death  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A morte, por mais estudada que seja, continua sendo um mistério. Lidar com ela não é algo nada fácil e por essa razão ela assusta tanto. Todos os medos do ser humano estão, no fundo, relacionados com o da morte. Tudo isso por ela ser um mistério do qual pouco ou nada sabemos, embora seja natural. À vista disso, as religiões dão a este tema o seu principal enfoque. Assim sendo, procuro neste artigo tratar o tabu da morte, refletindo temas relacionados a ele. Tema (more) s que estão presentes na vida das pessoas, sobretudo quando passam pela experiência da perda de alguém do seu círculo familiar ou de amizade. Dentre eles, abordo a Unção dos Enfermos, as Exéquias, a Missa do Sétimo Dia e a tradição de rezar pelos mortos. Temas que ajudam a lidar com o tabu da morte ou a perda de um ente querido. Abstract in english The more death is studied, the more it remains a mystery. Dealing with death is no easy matter and for that reason it is so frightening. All the fears of human beings are fundamentally related to the fear of death. This is because it is a mystery about which we know little or nothing, although it is natural to die. In view of this, religions give this topic a primary focus. Therefore, in this article an attempt is made to deal with the taboo surrounding death and reflect (more) on issues associated with it. These themes are present in people's lives, especially when they have the experience of losing someone in their family or circle of friends. Among these subjects, the aspects of the Anointing of the Sick, the Funeral Mass, the Seventh Day Mass and the tradition of praying for the dead are all touched upon. These are all themes that help to deal with the taboo of death or losing a loved one.

Pereira, José Carlos

2013-09-01

42

Doença mão-pé-boca no adulto: a propósito de um caso clínico/ Hand, food and mouth disease in the adult: case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Introdução: A doença mão-pé-boca (DMPB) é a segunda infeção viral mais frequente (logo a seguir às infeções respiratórias comuns) e é causada pelo grupo dos enterovírus, incluindo o vírus Coxsackie A e o Enterovirus 71. É mais comum nas crianças entre os três e os dez anos de idade, sendo rara nos adultos. A maioria dos casos é autolimitada mas podem surgir complicações cardíacas e neurológicas potencialmente fatais. Descrição do caso: Relata-se o (more) caso de um homem de 35 anos de idade que recorreu à consulta do seu médico de família por queixas de febre, dor, parestesias nas extremidades das mãos e pés, odinofagia e lesões ulceradas na cavidade oral que não melhoraram após vários ciclos de antibioterapia. Por forte suspeita de um quadro viral, foram solicitados exames complementares de diagnóstico que confirmaram a DMPB e permitiram uma abordagem terapêutica adequada e a vigilância das possíveis complicações. Comentário: Sendo a DMPB uma doença rara na idade adulta, mesmo as manifestações clínicas típicas, por serem inespecíficas numa primeira fase, podem induzir ao diagnóstico errado. Uma forte suspeita clínica pode garantir uma abordagem e vigilância corretas. Abstract in english Introduction: Hand, food and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common infection caused by the Enteroviruses group, including Coxsackievirus A and Enterovirus 71. It usually affects children between the ages of three and ten years old and is rare in adults. In most cases it is self-limited but cardiac and neurological complications or even death may ensue. Case Report: We report the case of a 35 year old man who went to his general practitioner with complaints of fever, pain, pare (more) sthesias of the hands and feet, odynophagia, and ulcerated lesions in the oral cavity that did not improve with antibiotic treatment. Suspecting a viral disease, the physician ordered tests that confirmed the diagnosis of HFMD, allowing for appropriate management and follow-up. Comment: HMFD is rare in adults and even typical manifestations can be misdiagnosed. Maintaining a strong clinical suspicion can ensure correct management and follow-up.

Dantas, Ana; Oliveira, Maria João; Lourenço, Olena; Coelho, Paulo Baptista

2013-01-01

43

Food  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A food product which incorporates polyunsaturated fatty acids and an encapsulated pro-oxidant, said food product having a water activity of 0.75 or less. The pro-oxidants may be metal salts such as copper, manganese, iron and/or zinc salts. Sources of omega-3 fatty acids include fish oil. The present invention is directed especially to nutrition products, such as nutrition bars and soups, sweet powders and other food products, with a water activity (aw) of 0.75 or less, as well as to processes for preparing such products, wherein the products incorporate omega-3 and/or omega-6 and/or other polyunsaturated fatty acids in combination with encapsulated pro-oxidants, such as salts of copper, iron, manganese and zinc. The formulations according to the invention can be expected to have a very good shelf life, yet include polyunsaturated fatty acids which generally have a tendency to oxidize, together with normally pro-oxidant compounds in encapsulated form. Previously, it would have been expected that where pro-oxidants and omega-3 or other unsaturated fatty acids are combined in the same formulation, the fatty acids would oxidize and the shelf life of the food product would be unacceptable.

MATTHEW PALMER ALAN E RUDAN BR

44

Hand Anatomy  

Science.gov (United States)

... ASSH > Information for Public & Patients > Hand Anatomy Hand Anatomy Page Content Use the diagrams below to better ... your condition to your health care professional. Surface Anatomy Bones and Joints Fingertip Anatomy Motion Terminology Surface ...

45

Hand Transplant  

Science.gov (United States)

Hand transplant Basics In-Depth Multimedia Expert Answers Resources Reprints A single copy of this article may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Hand transplant By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http://www. ...

46

Taboo and Non-conventional Content as Attitude and Emotion Sensitive Tool  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Affect in language learning, understood as an emotional reaction to the subject, learning environment, methods and contents, shows among learners at all levels of advancement and of all age groups. Positive affect, such as a feeling of interest, pleasantness (or usefulness) of tasks and satisfaction with one?s performance, results in increased motivation to learn the language, while negative emotions, such as boredom, tension or fear, typically lead to negative attitudes and, as a consequence, low results of learning. As some learners, especially adult ones, tend to conceal their emotional reactions to the learning situation, not always may language teachers recognize the sources of the difficulties they experience. It has been an interest of the authors to study young adults? affective response to an alternative to typical ELT content, which is “safe”, “universal”, “politically correct” material, in the form of “sensitive“, “nonconventional” or even “taboo” topics. Classroom research conducted in an institution of higher education showed increased interest, higher task motivation and active involvement on the part of the students with many years of English learning experience (sometimes fed up with same or similar content) whose teachers decided to use some “off record” themes to practice language skills in their classrooms.

Yuliya Asotska; Agnieszka Strza?ka

2011-01-01

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(Robotic hands)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The traveler attended the International Workshop on Robot Hands at the Palace Hotel in Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia. The traveler presented a lecture on An integrated sensor system for the ORNL mobile robot.'' The traveler obtained important information on current R D efforts in multi-fingered robot hands and object recognition using touch sensing.

Mann, R.C.

1988-09-23

48

HAND INFECTIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hand infections are the prime cause of loss of working hours for manualworkers and housewives. The objective was to study different types of hand infections, infecting organisms and to findout different residual complications. This prospective study was carried out at C.M.H., Peshawar from March 1, 2000to March 1, 2003. All patients above 12 years were included in the study. Diabetics, immunosuppressed patients, drugaddicts, and patients on steroid or cytotoxic therapy, were excluded from the study. Other exclusion criteria were crushinjuries, burns, compound fractures and skin lacerations. The diagnosis of hand infection was based on history,physical and roentgenographic examinations of the hand. All the patients were put on Cloxacillin & Gentacin and theiraffected hands were elevated. In cases of suppuration, surgical drainage was done & pus was sent for C/S. Earlyphysiotherapy was instituted & residual complications were recorded..Relative frequencies of different types of handinfections in 176 cases included Paronychia (22.16%), Cellulitis (21.02%), Felon (19.32%), Proximal & Middle VolarSpace infection (16.48%), web space infection (14.77%), Thenar Space Abscess (3.41%) and midpalmar abscess1.70%). Frequencies of hand infections in adolescents, young, middle and elderly patients were 14.77%, 52.84%, 25%and 7.39% respectively. There was no significant difference in frequencies of hand infection amongst males andfemales. The percentages of right hand and left hand involvement were 57.38% and 42.61% respectively. The ratiobetween manual workers and other patients of hand infections was 2.5:1. Staphylococcus aureus was detected as asingle offending organism in most of the cultures(62.59%) and stiffness was the leading complication(14.20%). Thefrequency of complications was significantly more in elderly patients (53.28%) but there was no significant differenceof complications amongst males and females.

ABDUL NASIR

2006-01-01

49

How to Break a Taboo? Comment briser un tabou ? ¿Cómo romper un tabú?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Prior to 2001, the word toilet and sanitation was a taboo. Polite society avoided the embarrassment of mentioning it. Academia publications about the issues were viewed as too boring to engage mass media. But avoidance of this agenda manifested into neglect of 2.6 billion people without access to proper sanitation and the death of 1.5 million children through diarrhea annually. Jack Sim broke this taboo through the creation of the World Toilet Organization (WTO). With its unique blend of humor and facts, WTO called a spade a spade and took the global media by storm advocating for better toilets, sanitation and hygiene conditions for people all over the world. This article explains how he did it with a shoe-string budget and went on to mobilize everyone to change the world of sanitation and toilets.Avant 2001, les mots « toilettes » et « assainissement » étaient tabous. Il n’était pas de bon ton de les prononcer. Les publications universitaires sur le sujet étaient considérées comme trop ennuyeuses pour pouvoir susciter l'intérêt des médias grand public. Cependant, le fait de se désintéresser du sujet revenait à laisser à l’écart 2,6 milliards de personnes qui n’avaient pas accès à des systèmes d’assainissement corrects et à ignorer le décès de 1,5 million d’enfants dû à une diarrhée chaque année. Jack Sim a brisé ce tabou en créant la World Toilet Organization (WTO). Avec son mélange unique d’humour et de données factuelles, la WTO a appelé un chat un chat et a investi les médias internationaux afin de sensibiliser le maximum de personnes à la nécessité de mettre en place des systèmes de toilettes et d’assainissement plus efficaces et de meilleures conditions d’hygiène dans le monde entier. Cet article explique comment Jack Sim a réussi, avec un budget très limité, à inciter chacun à faire évoluer l’univers des systèmes d’assainissement et de toilettes.Antes de 2001, los términos “retrete” e “instalación sanitaria” eran un tabú. La sociedad educada evitaba mencionarlos por vergüenza, y las publicaciones académicas sobre el tema se consideraban demasiado aburridas para ser tratadas en los medios de comunicación de masas. Sin embargo, esta omisión hace que cada año haya 2.600 millones de personas sin acceso a una instalación sanitaria adecuada y 1,5 millones de niños mueran a causa de la diarrea. Jack Sim rompió con este tabú a través de la creación de la Organización Mundial del Retrete (World Toilet Organization, o WTO). Con una combinación exclusiva de datos fehacientes y humor, la WTO empezó a llamar a las cosas por su nombre e hizo temblar a los medio de comunicación globales abogando por una mejora en los retretes, las instalaciones sanitarias y las condiciones higiénicas para la gente en todo el mundo. En este artículo explica cómo lo hizo con un presupuesto más que ajustado y cómo consiguió movilizar a todos para cambiar el mundo de los inodoros y las instalaciones sanitarias.

Jack Sim

2011-01-01

50

DIABETIC HAND  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Setting: A case series study held at surgical unit 1. BV Hospital Bahawalpur. Period: Study was conducted from June 2006 toMay 2009, to evaluate various aspects of diabetic hand and to establish a protocol to manage it. Material & Methods: All diabetic patients presented with hand infection to the unit during this time were included in the study but patients having classical diabetic hand syndrome were excluded. Total 48 patients were admitted during the period under review. Male to female ratio was 2:1 and age was ranged from 31 to 48 years. Data was collected on Performa and shifted to computer program SPSS version 12. All patients were manual workers or house wives and 40 patients gave history of minor trauma to the digits during work. All patients were either undiagnosed (16 patients) or had uncontrolled diabetes. Most of them delayed seeking advice for their trauma & infection of hand properly. During treatment, 30 patients (62.5%) required amputation of one or more digits of the dominant hand including amputation of thumb in 19. Only 4 patients (8.33%) ended up in amputation of hand, whereas, no patient required amputation of forearm. No mortality was seen during study period. It was concluded that diabetic hand involves persons in active life period relatively in younger age group. Undiagnosed or uncontrolled diabetes is major contributory factor. Health Education, early diagnosis & prompt treatment in specialized units may be helpful.

TARIQ HASSAN CHAUDHRY; MUHAMMAD ISHAQUE KHAN; GULZAR AHMED

2010-01-01

51

Hand Battery  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity about chemistry and electricity, learners form a battery by placing their hands onto plates of different metals. Learners detect the current by reading a DC microammeter attached to the metal plates. Learners experiment with different metals to find out what combination produces the most current as well as testing what happens when they press harder on the plates or wet their hands. Learners also investigate what happens when they wire the plates to a voltmeter.

Exploratorium, The

2011-12-05

52

Hand Osteoblastoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Aim: Osteoblastoma is one of the rarest primary bone tumors. Although, small bones of the hands and feet are the third most common location for this tumor, the hand involvement is very rare and few case observations were published in the English-language literature. Materials and Methods: In this study, we report five cases of benign osteoblastoma of the hand, 3 in metacarpals and two in phalanxes. The clinical feature is not specific. The severe nocturnal, salicylate-responsive pain is not present in patients with osteoblastoma. The pain is dull, persistent and less localized. The clinical course is usually long and there is often symptoms for months before medical attention are sought. Swelling is a more persistent finding in osteoblastoma of the hand that we found in all of our patients. The radiologic findings are indistinctive, so preoperative diagnosis based on X-ray appearance is difficult. In all of our 5 cases, we fail to consider osteoblastoma as primary diagnosis. Pathologically, osteoblastoma consisting of a well-vascularized connective tissue stroma in which there is active production of osteoid and primitive woven bone. Treatment depends on the stage and localization of the tumor. Curettage and bone grafting is sufficient in stage 1 or stage 2, but in stage 3 wide resection is necessary for prevention of recurrence. Osteosarcoma is the most important differential diagnosis that may lead to inappropriate operation.

M. Farzan; S.M.J. Mortazavi R. Spar

2006-01-01

53

[Hand wounds  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hand wounds represent a major problem in regard of the number of patients as well as the economic burden associated with it. The close relationship of the different anatomical structures increase the probability of involvement of multiple structures, which require a multidisciplinary approach. Paucity of clinical signs of certain lesions render surgical exploration necessary. Regarding replantation, multiple factors need to be taken into consideration, principally the condition of the amputated part, which is influenced by the trauma but also by the initial care applied to the severed part. Transfer delay to a specialized center should be minimize.

Vostrel P; Beaulieu JY

2009-12-01

54

Taboo: a novel paradigm to elicit aphasia-like trouble-indicating behaviour in normally speaking individuals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two important research lines in neuro- and psycholinguistics are studying natural or experimentally induced slips of the tongue and investigating the symptom patterns of aphasic individuals. Only few studies have focused on explaining aphasic symptoms by provoking aphasic symptoms in healthy speakers. While all experimental techniques have so far dealt with the single word or the sentence level, the current study intended to provoke aphasia-like trouble-indicating behaviour (i.e. prepairs and repairs) in the spontaneous language production of unimpaired speakers. In their descriptions of complex pictures, the participants were requested to avoid particular words terming central elements of the pictures. The results show that the error pattern provoked by the novel "taboo" paradigm resembled substantially the pattern of aphasic individuals. Consequently, the paradigm is applicable for further studies, e.g. for bringing forward the understanding of spontaneous language production or for comparing the neurofunctional basis of errors in healthy and aphasic speakers.

Meffert E; Tillmanns E; Heim S; Jung S; Huber W; Grande M

2011-12-01

55

HAND SHEARS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: agricultural engineering and horticulture. ^ SUBSTANCE: hand shears have cylindrical body incorporating piston, stepped stem, guiding bushing and return spring, knife with lever and counter knife, as well as cover positioned on top part of body and equipped with opening. Cylindrical protrusion formed on top part of body is arranged eccentrically with respect to body and stem and provided with thread. Counter knife is immovably fixed on cover having cylindrical portion equipped with internal thread by means of which thread cover is joined to eccentric protrusion of body. Guiding bushing is positioned within body between cover and spring. Diameter of stem mid portion exceeds diameter of bushing opening. ^ EFFECT: increased efficiency due to eccentricity of cylindrical protrusion allowing cutting force and size of knife pair aperture to be adjusted. ^ 2 cl, 4 dwg

GAPPOEV TATARKAN TUGANOVICH; TAVASIEV RAMAZAN MUSAEVICH; KOZAEV TAJMURAZ SADULOVICH; TSEBOEV EHDUARD ALIKHANOVICH

56

Hand Hygiene Saves Lives  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... should wash their hands, either with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. You ... nurses – either wash their hands with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer every ...

57

Wash Your Hands  

Science.gov (United States)

... to... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Wash Your Hands Keeping hands clean is one of ... community. Learn more about when and how to wash your hands. When should you wash your hands? ...

58

Revisitando os Tabus: as cautelas rituais do povo de santo/ Revisiting taboos: ritualistic cautions among the "povo de santo"  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O presente artigo propõe uma reflexão sobre o papel das interdições rituais pessoais, chamadas de quizilas, no contexto do candomblé da Bahia (Jeje-Nagô). A pesquisa de campo levou à hipótese de que, para além das proibições profiláticas e dos tabus de cunho coletivo, existem interdições pessoais baseadas em sensibilidades negativas, notadamente em ojerizas ou alergias alimentares, que guiam o iniciado numa relação particular com os orixás. A constataçã (more) o de que a sensibilidade corporal desempenha um papel importante nesse tipo de gesto ritual indica, portanto, a importância de uma prática etnográfica debruçada sobre a noção de "corpo que sente". Abstract in english This article proposes a reflection about the role played by personal ritual prohibitions, known as quizilas, in the context of the candomblé of Bahia (Jeje-Nagô). My fieldwork led to the following hypothesis: besides a system of prophylactic prohibitions and besides collective taboos, there is a system of personal prohibitions based on negative sensitivities -on disgust feelings or on alimentary allergic reactions- and which built an especial relationship of the initiat (more) e with the orixás. As such, the ethnography of this kind of ritual behavior should arguably be based on somatic issues and on the concept of the "feeling body".

Bassi, Francesca

2012-01-01

59

TRADITIONAL FOOD HABITS OF THE BODOS OF NORTH EAST INDIA: A FIELD STUDY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is a brief overview of the traditional food habits of the Bodos North East India. Food is the culture and the culture is the identity of any communities. The traditional system of fooding, preparing, rituals, taboos or health care varies community wise. But the significance of the word TRADITION is decreasing day by day, in short the word tradition itself changing traditionally due to the global impact of globalization and as well as due to socio-economic development of the society

GUDDU PRASAD BASUMATARY

2012-01-01

60

Update on hand hygiene.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent developments related to hand hygiene include new test methods for evaluating hand hygiene products, improvements in alcohol-based hand rubs, novel methods of hand antisepsis, and new strategies and technologies for monitoring hand hygiene practices among health care personnel.

Boyce JM

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
61

Osteoarthritis of the Hand  

Science.gov (United States)

... common forms of arthritis in the hand are osteoarthritis, post-traumatic arthritis (after an injury), and rheumatoid ... of the hand are infection, gout, and psoriasis. Osteoarthritis of the hand Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint ...

62

Hand hygiene strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hand hygiene is one of the major players in preventing healthcare associated infections. However, healthcare workers compliance with hand hygiene continues to be a challenge. This article will address strategies to help improving hand hygiene compliance.

Eskandar Alex Yazaji

2011-01-01

63

Hand and Arm Conditions  

Science.gov (United States)

... Public & Patients > Hand and Arm Conditions Hand and Arm Conditions Page Content If you know the name ... below. Otherwise click on an area of the arm below to learn more about common hand conditions. ...

64

Hand Hygiene Saves Lives  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... either with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. You and your loved ones ... hands with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer every time, both before and ...

65

Hand preference depends on posture in common marmosets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Postural conditions are known to affect hand use in many primate species. It remains to be examined how posture and task differences modulate, or interact with, hand use in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Three experimental conditions were introduced to assess the occurrence of preferential hand use as a function of posture and size of aperture for the subjects to grasp and retrieve the food item bi- or unimanually: ground level condition for requiring quadrupedal posture with enough space for food reaching with both hands, large hole (4 cm in diameter) condition for requiring upright posture with available space for both hands, and small hole (2 cm in diameter) condition for requiring upright posture with available space for only one hand. While the distribution of hand preference did not significantly differ among the three conditions at the group level, eight out of twelve marmosets did not change hands when identical upright postures were required in large and small hole conditions. Some marmosets simultaneously used both hands when both hands were free to reach the food items; however, the number of left hand users increased when the marmosets were forced to use either hand to pass through the reduced hole size. Significant correlations in hand use between the upright posture conditions were observed, whereas no correlation was observed between the different posture conditions. These results suggest that, although preferential hand use was not found at group level, posture, but not size of aperture, has effects on hand use in individual common marmosets.

Hashimoto T; Yamazaki Y; Iriki A

2013-07-01

66

Taboos and social contracts: Tools for ecosystem management – lessons from the Manambolomaty Lakes RAMSAR site, western Madagascar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditional taboos and social contracts played an importantrole in managing the Manambolomaty RAMSAR site. Taboosare defined as a prohibition imposed by social custom as aprotective measure’ and social contracts are – in conservationsense – a common agreement for achieving conservation,sustainable development and development of resourcesobjectives. The Manambolomaty Lakes RAMSAR site, District ofAntsalova in western Madagascar, is composed of four lakes(Soamalipo, Befotaka, Ankerika and Antsamaka) surroundedby the Tsimembo deciduous forest. The first three lakes withforest surrounding encompass 14,701 ha and are being managedby two local Associations: FIZAMI (FIkambanana ZanatanyAndranobe MIray) and FIFAMA (FIkambanana FAmpandrosoanaMamokatra Ankerika). The associations have used traditionaltaboos and social conventions to manage their local naturalresources by incorporating a GELOSE (GEstion Locale SEcurisée)management system to conserve biological diversity, maintainresource sustainability and socio - economic viability. This sitehas the highest concentration of the endemic and criticallyendangered Madagascar fish eagle (Haliaeetus vociferoides),representing 10 % of the global population, and many otherspecies of different faunal groups are also in good conservationstatus such as Decken’s sifaka (Propithecus deckeni) andWestern lesser bamboo lemurs (Hapalemur occidentalis) andMadagascar flying fox (Pteropus rufus). Culturally, the site isknown as a unique source of the endemic tree Hazomalaniavoyroni (Hernandiaceae), which is used by the Sakalava peoplefor constructing coffins, and being buried in a coffin madeof this wood is a great honour for the Sakalava people. FromManambolomaty’s Lakes fish yields, estimated at 60 - 100 tonsper fishing season, FIZAMI and FIFAMA are one of the fewMalagasy Associations with active bank accounts supportedby management of their natural resources and associatedactivities. Their fisheries management system has increasedthe annual local revenue estimated at more than $ 1,562US / fisherman per season. The tax of fish sales to wholesalefish buyers forms 56 % of the two local Commune’s budgets. Thishas made the Community - Based Wetlands Conservation at theManambolomaty Lakes site well known in the conservation circles within Madagascar and has been modelled by other organizationsand associations. Consequently, the ManambolomatyLakes site is in the process of being added into the System ofProtected Areas of Madagascar (SAPM).

Jeanneney Rabearivony; Eloi Fanameha; Jules Mampiandra; Russell Thorstrom

2008-01-01

67

Food Choice Consequences  

Science.gov (United States)

... lower right-hand corner of the player. Food Choice Consequences HealthDay March 7, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages ... red processed meat was linked to other unhealthy choices. Men and women who ate the most processed ...

68

Tune-up taboos  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although environmental awareness has become in vogue all across Europe, the average Italian car owner has done little in terms of putting even the most obvious pollution abatement recommendations - simple, periodic, engine tune-ups for efficient combustion and thus cleaner exhaust emissions - into practice. In addition to tabling statistical data to back up this statement, the Author reviews the anti-pollution efforts being made by the Italian Automobile Club (ACI) and FIAT. These include teaching car owners the benefits of good maintenance habits and creating a system of mobile, car-inspection vans to test engine efficiencies and determine exhaust gas, chemical compositions.

Tabasso, L.

1991-03-01

69

Hand washing for preventing diarrhoea.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Diarrhoea is a common cause of morbidity and a leading cause of death among children aged less than five years, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. It is transmitted by ingesting contaminated food or drink, by direct person-to-person contact, or from contaminated hands. Hand washing is one of a range of hygiene promotion interventions that can interrupt the transmission of diarrhoea-causing pathogens. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of interventions to promote hand washing on diarrhoeal episodes in children and adults. SEARCH STRATEGY: In May 2007, we searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 2), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, PsycINFO, Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index, ERIC (1966 to May 2007), SPECTR, Bibliomap, RoRe, The Grey Literature, and reference lists of articles. We also contacted researchers and organizations in the field. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials, where the unit of randomization is an institution (eg day-care centre), household, or community, that compared interventions to promote hand washing or a hygiene promotion that included hand washing with no intervention to promote hand washing. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently assessed trial eligibility and methodological quality. Where appropriate, incidence rate ratios (IRR) were pooled using the generic inverse variance method and random-effects model with 95% confidence intervals (CI). MAIN RESULTS: Fourteen randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria. Eight trials were institution-based, five were community-based, and one was in a high-risk group (AIDS patients). Interventions promoting hand washing resulted in a 29% reduction in diarrhoea episodes in institutions in high-income countries (IRR 0.71, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.84; 7 trials) and a 31% reduction in such episodes in communities in low- or middle-income countries (IRR 0.69, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.87; 5 trials). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Hand washing can reduce diarrhoea episodes by about 30%. This significant reduction is comparable to the effect of providing clean water in low-income areas. However, trials with longer follow up and that test different methods of promoting hand washing are needed.

Ejemot RI; Ehiri JE; Meremikwu MM; Critchley JA

2008-01-01

70

Put Your Hands Together  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... H1N1. (6:40) Release Date: 09/20/2010 Hand Hygiene Saves Lives This video shows the importance of practicing proper hand hygiene in places such as hospitals and other health ...

71

Hand Hygiene Saves Lives  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... RSS Help Features Browse Search Subscribe Listen/Watch Hand Hygiene Saves Lives: Patient Admission Video This podcast is ... to help prevent infections: the importance of practicing hand hygiene while in the hospital, and that it's appropriate ...

72

Hand Hygiene Saves Lives  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... is important that healthcare providers – including doctors and nurses – either wash their hands with soap and water ... feel embarrassed to ask everyone, including doctors and nurses, to wash their hands. They really want to ...

73

Hand Hygiene Saves Lives  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... an infection. Let's check in on some patients… Steven, I know that you washed your hands a ... an infection. Let's check in on some patients… Steven, I know that you washed your hands a ...

74

Hand Hygiene Saves Lives  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... family can do to help prevent these infections – wash your hands and make sure that everyone who ... your care and make sure everyone around you washes their hands. Hi, I'm Gayle. Now that ...

75

Hand strength: normative values.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We studied normal hand strength and the difference between dominant and nondominant hands. Two hundred fourteen volunteers were tested with a calibrated Jamar dynamometer at all five levels. A pinch gauge was used to assess key and pulp pinch. Height, weight, sex, hand dominance, and hobby demands were predictive of maximum grip. Mean maximum grip for women was 81 lb. and for men was 137 lb. Key pinch averaged 22%, while pulp pinch averaged 16% of maximum grip. Only 129 (60%) patients had maximum strengths at level 2. The majority of right-handed subjects were 10% stronger in grip strength on the dominant side. In left-handed subjects, mean grip was the same for both hands; the nondominant hand was stronger in 50% of left-handed subjects.

Crosby CA; Wehbé MA; Mawr B

1994-07-01

76

[Dermatoglyphics of deformed hands  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Palmar and finger prints are recovered in children with congenital malformed hands. The skin ridges of various hand abnormalities are compared with normal dermatoglyphics. We have found a relationship between the embryogenesis of the hand and the epidermal ridge arrangement. Dermatoglyphics are a clinically useful information for the diagnosis of amniotic disease or agenesis and for the chronology of the congenital malformation of limbs.

Wolff-Quenot MJ; Clavert JM

1983-01-01

77

Hand preferences and whole (Galago senegalensis).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The hand preferences in prey capture and whole-body turning biases after prey capture were assessed in 10 lesser bushbabies (Galago senegalensis) in 8 conditions designed to manipulate posture, visibility of prey and angle of reaching. Each subject received 60 trials in each test condition for a total of 480 trials. Seven subjects had a left-hand preference in food reaching, three right and none were ambipreferent. Eight subjects had a left whole-body turning bias, one right and one had no bias. No correlation was found between reach preference and turning bias. Bipedal posture facilitated the use of the dominant hand, whereas other manipulated conditions did not have a significant effect on hand use. A neuraxial arousal system is postulated as mediator of the bipedal effect on hand use.

Larson CF; Dodson DL; Ward JP

1989-01-01

78

Hand preferences and whole (Galago senegalensis).  

Science.gov (United States)

The hand preferences in prey capture and whole-body turning biases after prey capture were assessed in 10 lesser bushbabies (Galago senegalensis) in 8 conditions designed to manipulate posture, visibility of prey and angle of reaching. Each subject received 60 trials in each test condition for a total of 480 trials. Seven subjects had a left-hand preference in food reaching, three right and none were ambipreferent. Eight subjects had a left whole-body turning bias, one right and one had no bias. No correlation was found between reach preference and turning bias. Bipedal posture facilitated the use of the dominant hand, whereas other manipulated conditions did not have a significant effect on hand use. A neuraxial arousal system is postulated as mediator of the bipedal effect on hand use. PMID:2758314

Larson, C F; Dodson, D L; Ward, J P

1989-01-01

79

Food for Thought  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... the lower right-hand corner of the player. Food for Thought HealthDay April 22, 2013 Related MedlinePlus ... know if what mom and dad say about food has an affect on an adolescent's weight. They ...

80

Food for Disasters  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

When disaster strikes, you might not have access to food or water. This podcast discusses types of emergency food supplies you should keep on hand in your emergency kit.  Created: 7/23/2012 by Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (PHPR).   Date Released: 7/23/2012.

2012-07-23

 
 
 
 
81

Hand-protection accessory  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A hand-protection sporting accessory includes a flexible hand attachment for connection about a wearer's hand, and a slide pad extending from the hand. The flexible hand attachment includes a thumb loop through which the wearer's thumb can extend so as to maintain the slide pad adjacent to the palm of the hand unless deliberately released from the thumb. The accessory is particularly useful in competitive skateboarding where the slide pad can be positioned out of the way for quick race starts where the participant needs good grip with the starting gate. A quick "flick" of the hand can be made after the race start, whereby the loop lassoes the thumb to thereby place the slide pad across the palm.

SIDLO ALAN DION

82

Security of the food supply chain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The food supply chain could became a dangerous weapon in the hands of enemies, for this reason the strategies developed to fight food adulteration (food safety) should be complemented with specific actions devoted to improve food "security" in the sense of food defence. This paper illustrate the methodological approach used in the EU project SecuFood to analyze threats, vulnerabilities and countermeasures existing in major European countries about what concerns deliberate attacks and manipulations of food.

Setola R; De Maggio MC

2009-01-01

83

Security of the food supply chain.  

Science.gov (United States)

The food supply chain could became a dangerous weapon in the hands of enemies, for this reason the strategies developed to fight food adulteration (food safety) should be complemented with specific actions devoted to improve food "security" in the sense of food defence. This paper illustrate the methodological approach used in the EU project SecuFood to analyze threats, vulnerabilities and countermeasures existing in major European countries about what concerns deliberate attacks and manipulations of food. PMID:19964201

Setola, Roberto; De Maggio, Maria Carla

2009-01-01

84

David Lorimer The Need for a Noetic Revolution Review of Alan Wallace's The Taboo of Subjectivity Subtitled `Towards a New Science of Consciousness', this is a landmark book  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

hat most research isconducted within the metaphysical framework of this ideology. The result ofscientific materialism in particular is the marginalisation of the mind, which ledto behaviourism in the early years of the twetieth century and is now present inthe eliminative materialism school of the Churchlands. The irony and indeedJournal of Consciousness Studies, 9, No. 12, 2002, pp. 89--91Correspondence: David Lorimer, Gibliston Mill, Colinsburgh, Leven, Fife KY9 1JS, Scotland[1] B. Alan Wallace, The Taboo of Subjectivity, Oxford New York, 2000, 218 pp., 22 ISBN 0 19513207 6 (hbk).reductio ad absurdum of this position is that consciousness or mind is essentialfor its formulation. More generally, the sceptical approach of science is notapplied to its philosophical assumptions as these remain for the most partunconscious.An interesting historical chapter on theological impulses in the scientific revolutionleads into the second part where Wallace explores the elements of

David Lorimer

85

Food for tourists  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Eating is a physical necessity, but catering services and food image are also very important ingredients of cultural tourism. Food and tourism are increasingly being combined, e.g. in agri-tourism, wine tours and the sale of food products as souvenirs. However, as this paper illustrates, the development and standards of food for tourists are determined not by tourism policies, but by national economic, agricultural and food policies. A comparison between Denmark and Italy illustrates core elements in food cultures. Particularly in Denmark, food production is a major economic activity, and the power of the agricultural and food processing industries has in many cases severely compromised the quality image. In Italy, on the other hand, food policies and traditions, which give a high priority to freshness, allow consumers to stay in control of food quality to a much larger extent than in Denmark. In both countries, a concentration of tourists in space and time tends to result in a decline of food quality. The paper concludes that only residents are in a position to put a more permanent pressure on food suppliers, and only if they are given the appropriate instruments. Further improvement of the food heritage in both countries (but especially in Denmark) will have to include a reconsideration, and probably changes, in food policies in more global terms.

Hjalager, Anne-Mette; Corigliano, Magda Antolioli

86

Implants in the hand; Implantate der Hand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Increasingly, implants in the region of hand joints and the wrist represent an alternative for the treatment of post-traumatic, inflamed, or degenerative joint damage. The diversity of hand functions also results in varied solutions, which are effective in their stability, mobility, and distraction. Different materials are necessary for this, and they require subtile radiological control. The native X-ray represents the substantial method to observe migration of the implants. Each interface between titanium, ceramic, zirconium, pyrocarbon, and silicon to the bone has to be assessed differently in order to obtain a relevant statement. The finger joints and to a limited extent the wrist represent the artificial joints with limited alternative therapy. Other implants in the hand should only be applied after strict indication and patient compliance, as arthrodesis and resection arthroplasty have shown very good long-term results. (orig.) [German] Implantate im Bereich der Gelenke der Hand und des Handgelenks stellen zunehmend Alternativen bei der Versorgung posttraumatischer, entzuendlicher oder degenerativer Gelenkschaeden dar. Die Vielfalt der Handfunktionen fuehrt auch zu unterschiedlichen Loesungen, die durch Stabilitaet, Mobilitaet und Distraktion wirksam werden. Dafuer sind unterschiedliche Materialien erforderlich, die eine subtile radiologische Kontrolle erfordern. Das Nativroentgen stellt das wesentlichste Verfahren zur Verlaufsbeobachtung von Implantaten dar. Das Interface zwischen Titan, Keramik, Zirkonium, Pyrokarbon und Silikon zum Knochen muss unterschiedlich bewertet werden, um relevante Aussagen treffen zu koennen. Die Fingergelenke und in begrenztem Ausmass auch das Handgelenk stellen Kunstgelenke mit geringen Alternativtherapiemoeglichkeiten dar. Die uebrigen Implantate der Hand sollten nur bei strenger Indikationsstellung und hoher Patientencompliance Anwendung finden, da Arthrodese oder Resektionsarthroplastik gute Langzeitresultate aufweisen. (orig.)

Wanivenhaus, A. [Medizinische Universitaet, Universitaetsklinik fuer Orthopaedie, Wien (Austria)

2006-09-15

87

Surgical hand hygiene: scrub or rub?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Surgical hand hygiene is standard care prior to any surgical procedure. Per-operative glove punctures are observed in almost 30% of all interventions, and a risk factor for postoperative infections. In the past, washing hands with antimicrobial soap and water (surgical scrub) was the norm, mainly with chlorhexidine or iodine. More recently, alcohol-based hand rub has been successfully introduced, showing greater effectiveness, less irritation to the hands, and requiring less time than washing hands. All products should have a remnant effect that delays microbial growth under the gloved hand. Some of the alcohol-based compounds are effective (as determined by the European Norm EN 12791) within 90 s whereas others require 3-5 min, similar to the scrub. The short procedure relies heavily on proper technique and timing, since lowering the exposure time to <90 s leads to significantly lower effectiveness of bacterial killing. Today, surgical hand hygiene should meet EN 12791 in Europe, or other standards, such as the US Food and Drug Administration tentative final monograph norm in the USA. It is best performed by using an alcohol-based hand rub, but a scrub with chlorhexidine-containing soap also meets these standards.

Widmer AF

2013-02-01

88

Hand Hygiene Saves Lives  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... you want it. New to podcasting? See Podcast Help and RSS Help Features Browse Search Subscribe Listen/Watch Hand Hygiene ... and visitors. It emphasizes two key points to help prevent infections: the importance of practicing hand hygiene ...

89

Hand Hygiene Saves Lives  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... make sure everyone around you washes their hands. Hi, I'm Gayle. Now that you've been ... make sure everyone around you washes their hands. Hi, I'm Gayle. Now that you've been ...

90

Preparation and evaluation of hand rub disinfectant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present work is to formulate effective hand rub disinfectant by selecting broad-spectrum antimicrobial and antifungal agents. Increased need of easy-to-use hand rub disinfectant in pharmaceutical, food processing industry, hospitals, and in clinical labs necessitated development of the best possible product. Formulations were prepared using Benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine gluconate as potent disinfectants along with alcohol 70%. In low concentration they were highly effective without leaving any toxic effect on the user?s skin. A synergistic effect was observed when ethyl alcohol 70% was used in combination. Suitable emollient and skin conditioning agents were used to avoid possible dehydrating effect on the user?s skin. Excellent volatility of the preparation was observed after use, leaving a thin antimicrobial film on the user?s hand. The use of suitable excipient brought effective removal of after the use leaving a soothening effect on the skin. The aim of present work is to develop hand rub formulation which evaporates quickly after applications leaving no trace on hands as in case of hand rub gels. The present formulation was found to be effective when compared with marketed liquid hand rub.

Padsalgi Amol; Jain Devendra; Bidkar Sanjay; Harinarayana Dommati; Jadhav Vijay

2008-01-01

91

Convenient hand warming bag  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model relates to a convenient hand warming bag which comprises quick lime, water, heat preserving liquid, a switch and outer skin. Because the quick lime reacts with the water and releases plenty of heat, so as to warm hands the hand warming bag is divided into three layers: the inner layer is filled with an appropriate amount of water, the middle layer is filled with the quick lime, and the outer layer is filled with the heat preserving liquid, and a switch is arranged between the inner layer and the middle layer. The quick lime reacts with the water and releases plenty of heat, and transmits the heat to warm the hands through the heat preserving liquid. Currently, portable hand warming bags are classified into two types: one is electrical type and the other is water cooking type. Both the electrical type and the water cooking type hand warming bags have deficiencies, and can be reused only after carrying out electrical heating or water cooking again, which is too troublesome. The convenient hand warming bag has creative design, low cost, is convenient to be operated, safe and reliable.

LINHUA QIU

92

Hand Hygiene Saves Lives  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Lives: Patient Admission Video This podcast is for hospital patients and visitors. It emphasizes two key points ... importance of practicing hand hygiene while in the hospital, and that it's appropriate to ask or remind ...

93

Hand Hygiene Saves Lives  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Listen/Watch Hand Hygiene Saves Lives: Patient Admission Video This podcast is for hospital patients and visitors. ... than those who don't. In the following video, you'll see how easy it is to ...

94

Hand Hygiene Saves Lives  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Both of these practices can help prevent the spread of germs. Let's take a look in another ... how important hand hygiene is in preventing the spread of infections. Your loved ones can play an ...

95

Hand Hygiene Saves Lives  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... and Prevention. CDC – safer, healthier people. Hello. I'm Dr. John Jernigan from the Centers for Disease ... everyone around you washes their hands. Hi, I'm Gayle. Now that you've been admitted to ...

96

Sodium Acetate Hand Warmers  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, sodium acetate hand warmers are used to introduce learners to supersaturated solutions, crystallization, and exothermic reactions. This activity guide includes background information, extension ideas, and resources.

Johnson, Jill

2006-01-01

97

Mycetoma of the hand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To describe the incidence and radiographic signs of hand infection in mycetoma. A retrospective review was carried out from the radiographic records of 516 confirmed cases of mycetoma seen between January 1994 and October 2002 at the referred outpatient clinic of the Mycetoma Research Center, Soba Teaching Hospital, Khartoum University, Sudan, The hands were involved in 24 (4.6%)of the 516 patient. the wrist was involved in 9 (1.7%). Total involvement of hand and wrist was 33 (6.4%) of the 516 patients.Radiographic signs included fanning of the metacarpals, bone erosions, sclerosis, periostitis and soft tissue swelling. The most common sign was soft tissue swelling in 29(88%) while bones were involved in 15 (45%) of the 33 patients. Hand infection in this series is less than previous reports. A wide range of radiographic sign is repoted in hand mycetoma. This is the first detailed report of the radiographic findings in mycetoma of the hand. Early detection of mycetoma infection is important to avoid the need for amputation if the diagnosis is delayed. (author)

2004-01-01

98

Mechanical hands illustrated  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the field of robotics, considerable effort is devoted to the development of effective multiple prehension manipulator systems. Most of these efforts have been directed toward attempts to duplicate certain functions of the human hand for industrial and medical applications. The human hand is an intricate and complex system capable of a multitude of sensory and actuation functions. It has approximately 20 degrees of freedom controlled by a large number of muscles compared to only 7 degrees of freedom for the arm and wrist. Since the primary function of a mechanical hand is to grasp or pinch different objects, not all the degrees of freedom are necessary for every robot or prosthetic device. Most practical tasks for manipulators have their special requirements and constraints which influence the design of their end effector. Consequently various hand configurations have to be designed to effectively provide the required functions for a particular application without additional complexity. The control of these functions is accomplished by suitable actuators. Miniature touch and pressure sensors which can be as small as 3 mm in size are used to control the grip. This book discusses the knowledge base in the field of robotics. It provides an excellent compilation of photographs, scaled drawings, and source material for a wide variety of mechanical hands for the user to choose from.

Kato, I.; Sadamoto, K.

1987-01-01

99

[Hand injury in polytrauma].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate forearm and hand injuries in multitrauma patients and to compare this group of patients to the overall multitrauma population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Out of a prospectively gathered polytrauma data base a retrospective analysis, including demographics, injury severity, injury pattern and treatment of forearm and hand injuries was performed. RESULTS: Out of 386 patients (G) that had been entered in our polytrauma data base, 26 had forearm and hand injuries (H). The mean age of group (H) was 36.4 years (G: 40.3 years, p = 0.220), the mean ISS of this population was 28,3 (G: 34.5, p = 0.003). Mostly fractures of the radius (50.0%), the metacarpus (53.8%) and the carpus (50.0%) were diagnosed. Surgical interventions of hand- and forearm injuries were done in 15 cases within 24 hours, 4 patients were treated after 24 hours. CONCLUSION: Multiple trauma patients with hand- and forearm injuries showed a statistically significant decreased injury severity and were younger compared to the overall multitrauma population.

Aldrian S; Nau T; Weninger P; Vécsei V

2005-05-01

100

Hand Hygiene: When and How  

Science.gov (United States)

RUB HANDS FOR HAND HYGIENE! WASH HANDS WHEN VISIBLY SOILED How to handrub? Duration of the entire procedure: 20-30 seconds Apply a palmful ... Dry hands thoroughly with a single use towel; Hand Hygiene August 2009 When and How WHO acknowledges the ...

 
 
 
 
101

AUTOMATIC HAND COUNTER  

Science.gov (United States)

An automatic, personnel-operated, alpha-particle hand monitor is described which functions as a qualitative instrument to indicate to the person using it whether his hands are cold'' or hot.'' The monitor is activated by a push button and includes several capacitor-triggered thyratron tubes. Upon release of the push button, the monitor starts the counting of the radiation present on the hands of the person. If the count of the radiation exceeds a predetermined level within a predetermined time, then a capacitor will trigger a first thyratron tube to light a hot'' lamp. If, however, the count is below such level during this time period, another capacitor will fire a second thyratron to light a safe'' lamp. (AEC)

Mann J.R.; Wainwright, A.E.

1963-06-11

102

Hand film structure  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model relates to a hand film structure. A thin film-shaped sheet body is mainly arranged, one end of the sheet body is elliptical in shape and the other end forms a narrow cusp shape after shrinking gradually. The end of the cusp shape is provided with a crescent-shaped opening, and the sheet body contains negative ions, comprehensive fruit acid and herb ferment to form a skin caring film. The film is used for coating positions needing care, such as hands or feet of human bodies, to achieve the effects of whitening skin, removing aged keratins, softening skin, promoting metabolism and keeping the elastic property of skin.

JIALING KANG

103

Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives  

Science.gov (United States)

... around the world Keeping hands clean through improved hand hygiene is one of the most important steps we ... clean towel or air dry them. Featured Activities Hand Hygiene in Healthcare Settings: This site provides healthcare workers ...

104

Radioactivity and foods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this article is to describe and contrast two relationships between radiation and food--on the one hand, beneficial preservation of food by controlled exposure to ionizing radiation; and, on the other, contamination of food by accidental incorporation of radioactive nuclides within the food itself. In food irradiation, electrons or electromagnetic radiation is used to destroy microorganisms and insects or prevent seed germination. The economic advantages and health benefits of sterilizing food in this manner are clear, and numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undersirable changes or induced radioactivity is produced in the irradiated food. An altogether different situation is presented by exposure of food animals and farming areas to radioactive materials, as occurred after the major Soviet nuclear reactor accident at Chenobyl. This article furnishes the basic information needed to understand the nature of food contamination associated with that event and describes the work of international organizations seeking to establish appropriate safe limits for levels of radioactivity in foods.

Olszyna-Marzys, A.E. (Unified Lab. of Food and Drug Control, Guatemala City (Guatemala))

1991-01-01

105

Wash Your Hands  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This video shows kids how to properly wash their hands, one of the most important steps we can take to avoid getting sick and spreading germs to others.  Created: 3/8/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 3/8/2010.

2010-03-08

106

Mechanical cornpicker hand injuries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mechanical cornpicker hand injuries are not frequent in comparison to general hand trauma, but they have a specific mechanism of occurrence and are very severe. This investigation included 221 hand injuries. The sex distribution shows a general male dominance (85.25%) in their active age (84.44%). These are, seasonal injuries mostly occurring in October (75.11%). By type of injuries, mutilating crush injuries are most frequent (64.25%). After completing the treatment, in most cases the functional result were estimated as bad (50.68%). Data concerning education and training for operating agricultural machines (96.38% - patients without training) and carrying out safety measures (63.35% of injured patients did not apply any protection measures) are devastating. The number of these injuries, as well as consequent permanent disabilities, may be considerably reduced by preventive measures, including public health services and media. Use of contemporary agricultural machinery, as well as obligatory training for operating these machines and application of protective measures, may also reduce the incidence of hand injuries during corn picking.

Mom?ilovi? Dragan; Prokeš Bela; Janji? Zlata

2005-01-01

107

Put Your Hands Together  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... and stay healthy. Read the script Share this Video Link: www.cdc.gov/CDCTV/HandsTogether Embed: HandsTogether/CDCtv_Video_Player. ... FlashVars" value="bg=ffffff"/>

112

Put Your Hands Together  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

In this podcast, learn how to help stop the spread of infection and stay healthy. It's easy when you 'Put Your Hands Together.'.  Created: 3/24/2011 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID) and National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 3/24/2011.

2011-03-24

113

Food Choice Consequences  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... lower right-hand corner of the player. Food Choice Consequences HealthDay March 7, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages ... red processed meat was linked to other unhealthy choices. Men and women who ate the most processed ...

114

Waking up the alien hand: rubber hand illusion interacts with alien hand syndrome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It has been shown that combinations of visual, tactile, and proprioceptive manipulations in healthy subjects may elicit illusory feelings of embodiment (the rubber hand illusion and the somatic rubber hand illusion). We report a case of alien hand syndrome in which the alien hand interacted with the somatic rubber hand illusion to provoke a very strong movement of the alien hand. This effect could be reliably replicated at every application of the experimental procedure. Thus, the illusion seemed to wake up the alien hand. The results demonstrate that the alien hand syndrome can be affected by experimentally induced bodily illusions, which are based on the manipulation of touch and proprioceptive information.

Schaefer M; Heinze HJ; Galazky I

2013-08-01

115

Waking up the alien hand: rubber hand illusion interacts with alien hand syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been shown that combinations of visual, tactile, and proprioceptive manipulations in healthy subjects may elicit illusory feelings of embodiment (the rubber hand illusion and the somatic rubber hand illusion). We report a case of alien hand syndrome in which the alien hand interacted with the somatic rubber hand illusion to provoke a very strong movement of the alien hand. This effect could be reliably replicated at every application of the experimental procedure. Thus, the illusion seemed to wake up the alien hand. The results demonstrate that the alien hand syndrome can be affected by experimentally induced bodily illusions, which are based on the manipulation of touch and proprioceptive information. PMID:22554115

Schaefer, Michael; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Galazky, Imke

2012-05-04

116

Pet Food  

Science.gov (United States)

... You Title 21, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) - Pet Food The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates ... Part 113 (21 CFR 113). FDA Regulation of Pet Food There is no requirement that pet food ...

117

[Evaluation and control of the microbiological quality of hands in foodhandlers  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Microbiological analyses of workers' hands were made for the common indicators, including aerobic mesophilic plate counts (APC), as well as the common food pathogens. Opportunities were observed for cross-contamination of roast beef by workers' hands during slicing operations. Workers' hands showed APC counts of up to 10(7) CFU/hand and the presence of S. aureus and C. perfringens. Salmonella spp were not isolated from hands. These results show that handling of these foods by such workers would be a risk in transmitting pathogenic microorganisms to the foods and is apparent that it is necessary for these workers to take care of personal hygiene. Decimal reductions obtained in the microbiological counts after washing and antisepsis of workers' hands were at 2,6 logs cycles and still demonstrated the importance of this practice in food services by the fact that pathogens such as S. aureus and C. perfringens were inhibited or killed.

Almeida RC; Kuaye AY; Serrano AM; de Almeida PF

1995-08-01

118

AGU lends a hand  

Science.gov (United States)

Lend-A-Hand (LAH), AGU's newest program supporting the growth of geophysics in developing countries, got off the ground early this year and already sponsors ten members.LAH encourages current AGU members to sponsor a specific individual's dues and possibly journals through a contribution made directly to AGU. The program is geared toward individuals who are not currently AGU members because of currency restrictions and/or the low salaries in their native countries.

119

Hands-on-CERN  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the Hands-On CERN project is to increase understanding of the most fundamental processes inside matter, and to explain modern research about particle collisions. The site includes many lab activities, interactive resources, and background information for teachers and learners. CERN is the European Organization for Nuclear Research. It's primary function is to provide the particle accelerators and other infrastructure needed for high-energy physics research. Its laboratory houses the LHC (Large Hadron Collider).

2011-09-13

120

Keep Food and Water Safe After a Disaster or Power Outage  

Science.gov (United States)

... illness and disease) Food and Water Safety and Hand Hygiene Resources (Easy-to-use posters, stickers, flyers, and ... illness and disease) Food and Water Safety and Hand Hygiene Resources (Easy-to-use posters, flyers, stickers, and ...

 
 
 
 
121

Hand held harvester  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model discloses a hand held harvester, which is characterized in that the utility model is provided with a U-shaped supporting frame (1). A direct current motor (2) is fixed in the middle of the U-shaped supporting frame (1), and a shaft (3) of the motor is connected with a knife blade (4) after the shaft (3) of the motor penetrates through a hole which is arranged on the U-shaped supporting frame (1). External threads are arranged on the end of the shaft (3) of the motor, the knife blade (4) is fastened on the shaft (3) of the motor by a screw nut, and a handle (6) is arranged on the U-shaped supporting frame (1). The hand held harvester of the utility model can be suitable for operation in different farmlands, with the advantages of simple structure, light weight, portable hand held operation and low cost, and because of the adoption of a direct current power supply, the utility model is safe for people to use.

CHEN ZHONGCHUN

122

Food, ethics and aesthetics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The authors test the popular thesis of some of the most influential theorists of contemporary societies about the erosion of the social structuring of consumption choices and their consequent individualisation in westernised societies, using the example of food practices. The analysis is based on data obtained from a random sample of the Slovenian population within a research project entitled 'Lifestyles in a Mediated Society.' The aims of the analysis were: (a) to explore the role of socio-demographic variables in food practices, and (b) to discover the inherent logic that motivates each particular set of food practices and which makes them meaningful for the individual, by studying an association of respondents' food practices with their worldview and cultural consumption. A cluster analysis revealed six food cultures (Male traditionalists, Yes-sayers, Male modernists, Weight-watchers, Carefree hedonists, and Health-conscious hedonists) lying along a continuum where traditionalism occupies one end and post-traditionalism the other. The authors conclude that although two out of six food cultures crosscut socio-demographic affiliations and transform food consumption into a constituent part of a lifestyle as an identity project, there is still a significant influence of socio-demographic characteristics (particularly gender and formal education) on food practices in contemporary Slovenia. Furthermore, significant associations exist between food practices, on the one hand, and the respondent's worldview and cultural consumption, on the other.

Tivadar B; Luthar B

2005-04-01

123

[Erosive hand osteoarthritis].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Erosive hand osteoarthritis is common and debilitating. Diagnosis is based on the presence of bone erosions which can appear late. Ultrasonography allows earlier diagnosis. The presence of apatite deposits could be of poor prognosis. Non pharmacological treatment includes the explanation of the inflammatory phenomena involved and the use of splints and physical therapy. Drug therapy includes analgesics, NSAIDs and infiltration of a steroid. Chondroitin sulfates have an analgesic and functional effect proven. DMARDs such as hydroxychloroquine and methotrexate have been used successfully. Some patients also benefited from isotope synoviortheses. New therapeutic ways, based on the pathophysiology of the disease, are new under evaluation.

Van Linthoudt D; Gabay C; So AK

2013-03-01

124

Hand skinner device  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A hand skinner device for removing strips of skin from animal carcasses comprises an elongate handle including an air motor and having a housing mounted at one end thereof. The housing has a skinning blade supported thereon and a revolvable tooth roll assembly for engaging and pulling the skin against the skinning blade. A pair of uniquely constructed clips clamp the blade downwardly against the housing and clamp the tooth roll shaft upwardly against the housing. The multifunctional clips permit ready assembly and disassembly of the skinning device for cleaning and replacement of parts.

LEINING LYNDON R

125

Medical hand fixation tray  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model discloses a medical hand fixing tray which comprises a tray body, wherein, the front side of the tray body is a plane the back side of the tray body is a tray with tray walls at the periphery tooth-shaped edges are arranged on the edges of three tray walls, and a concave arc edge is arranged on the edge of another tray wall and rubber bands are hanged on the tooth-shaped edges of the three tray walls. The front side of a tray body is flat, and can be conveniently used as an operational platform for operation. Three edges of the periphery of the back side of the tray body are designed into the saw tooth shape, so the rubber bands can be pulled in every direction without slippage. Wounded limbs can be immobilized in different directions at different angles, and can maintain the stability for a long time, both hands of an assistant are released, the operation time is shorted, and the long and stable environment is provided for the operation under microscope. The tray has a certain depth, can be used as a water collecting container for washing the wounded limbs after being reversed, and is convenient for operation. The edge of one tray wall of the back side of the tray is provided with the concave arc edge, and is convenient to place arms.

GUANGJUN PENG; XUEMEI CHENG; DEFENG HENG; RONGHUA WANG; YAN MA; WEI LI

126

[Hand-assisted laparoscopy  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Laparoscopic surgery has not been extended enough among the urologists due to the inaccessibility of the retroperitoneal organs and consequently to the steep learning curve that is required. In this article we describe our experience in laparoscopic surgery assisted by the surgeon's hand introduced in the operating field. This is a technique that we have been using since 1994 and that has not been generally accepted until very recently. METHODS: Difficult nephrectomies and nephroureterectomies are considered to be the main indications for this technique. The approach to each kidney is described. RESULTS: The operating time is dramatically reduced. The surgeon's hand introduced intra-abdominally allows for a better control in difficult situations. The economic cost is lower. The use of analgesics and the recovery time in the postoperative period is similar to that of conventional laparoscopy. CONCLUSIONS: The optimal indication for this procedure are cases that require a very large and mutilating incision. The learning curve is significantly easier and it is an invaluable technique in cases considered until now to be unsuitable for an endoscopic procedure.

Sánchez de Badajoz E; Jiménez Garrido A

2001-05-01

127

Food irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A brief article examines the controversy over food irradiation regarding the wholesomeness of irradiated food, its microbiological safety, loss of vitamins and changes in flavour. The benefits of food irradiation are also outlined including the destruction of certain food-borne pathogens and the prolongation of the shelf-life of food by killing pests and delaying the deterioration process.

1987-02-28

128

"I wash my hands of it!?" – Trends in hand hygiene over the past decades  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hand hygiene is the most important measure to protect against the spread of nosocomial infections. With the development of in vitro und in vivo test methods for evaluation of the effect of hand hygiene, there has been a sharp increase over the past 50 years in the body of knowledge relating to effective methods for removal from the hands or killing and inactivation of pathogens. In 1958 the German Society of Hygiene and Microbiology (DGHM) published a first “Guidelines for Testing Chemical Disinfectants” and included only those hand disinfection products on its “List of Tested Chemical Disinfectants Found To Be Effective” that had been tested as per the methods cited in the guidelines. The American Society of Testing and Materials (today: ASTM International) was next, with the first test protocols for hand disinfection products, which in 1974 were adopted by the US Food and Drug Agency as “Guidelines” in a “Tentative Final Monograph” (TFM) and in 1994, having revised it to incorporate new insights, it was published once again.Where the user is concerned, guidelines for hand disinfection containing information on indication and implementation are of course more important than methods dealing with efficacy testing of products. Such guidelines are compiled within the hospitals by the infection control teams set up during the 1970s. Written guidelines were also published by several healthcare institutions, scientific societies and associations. The guidelines formulated by the World Health Organisation (WHO), in an expert committee under the direction of Didier Pittet, proved to be the most successful of the attempts undertaken at global level to enhance hand hygiene. The most remarkable changes appear to be the efforts aimed at improving compliance among medical personnel and the increasing international acceptance of hand disinfection by using alcohols in the form of rubs; whether this will be with lotions or gels remains to be seen.

Rotter, Manfred L.

2007-01-01

129

SKIN AND HAND CLEANSERS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to skin and hand cleansers comprising the components a.) at least one alkyl ester and/or diester, b.) 0 to 40 wt.-% of at least one surfactant selected from the group of fatty alcohol ethoxylates, fatty alcohol ether sulfates and salts of sulfated and/pr sulfonated fatty acids, c.) at least one thixotropic agent and at least one hydrophilic, pyrogenic silicic acid, d.) 0 to 30 wt.-% of one or more abrasives, e.) 0 to 5 wt.-% of at least one physiologically compatible carbonic acid ester f.) 0 to < 10 wt.-% water, g.) optionally one or more viscosity modifying agent, h.) optionally other cosmetic aids, additives and/or active ingredients, wherein the total of the components a.) through h.) adds up to 100 wt.-%, based on the composition of the cleanser.

ALLEF PETRA; VEEGER MARCEL; HEMMING MARKUS

130

SKIN AND HAND CLEANSERS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to skin and hand cleansers comprising the components a.) at least one alkyl ester and/or diester, b.) 0 to 40 wt.-% of at least one surfactant selected from the group of fatty alcohol ethoxylates, fatty alcohol ether sulfates and salts of sulfated and/pr sulfonated fatty acids, c.) at least one thixotropic agent and at least one hydrophilic, pyrogenic silicic acid, d.) 0 to 30 wt.-% of one or more abrasives, e.) 0 to 5 wt.-% of at least one physiologically compatible carbonic acid ester f.) 0 to <10 wt.-% water, g.) optionally one or more viscosity modifying agent, h.) optionally other cosmetic aids, additives and/or active ingredients, wherein the total of the components a.) through h.) adds up to 100 wt.-%, based on the composition of the cleanser.

ALLEF PETRA; VEEGER MARCEL; HEMMING MARKUS

131

Alien hand sign.  

Science.gov (United States)

Usage of the term "alien hand sign" is reviewed in 20 published cases. It refers to apparently purposeful, upper-extremity movements that the patient reports are beyond his/her control. Lesions were found in medial frontal cortex and/or the corpus callosum with presentation being unilateral and transient, unless bilateral cortical and subcortical structures were involved. There was a high co-occurrence of speech hesitation, limb dyspraxia, tactile dysnomia, muscle weakness, and grasp reflex on the alien side. Five behavioral manifestations of alien movement have been described, with grasping movements and intermanual conflict being the most common. Two manifestations, exaggerated ataxic automatisms and drifting movements, likely represent other types of movement disorders. Dysfunction of the supplementary motor area and related structures has been implicated, but the exact causal mechanism remains uncertain. PMID:8276927

Gasquoine, P G

1993-09-01

132

Alien hand sign.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Usage of the term "alien hand sign" is reviewed in 20 published cases. It refers to apparently purposeful, upper-extremity movements that the patient reports are beyond his/her control. Lesions were found in medial frontal cortex and/or the corpus callosum with presentation being unilateral and transient, unless bilateral cortical and subcortical structures were involved. There was a high co-occurrence of speech hesitation, limb dyspraxia, tactile dysnomia, muscle weakness, and grasp reflex on the alien side. Five behavioral manifestations of alien movement have been described, with grasping movements and intermanual conflict being the most common. Two manifestations, exaggerated ataxic automatisms and drifting movements, likely represent other types of movement disorders. Dysfunction of the supplementary motor area and related structures has been implicated, but the exact causal mechanism remains uncertain.

Gasquoine PG

1993-09-01

133

Rheumatoid Hand and Rehabilitation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic disease characterized by synovial inflammation. It affects wrists, metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints symmetrically and bilaterally. Caput ulnae syndrome, radial deviation of wrists, zigzag deformity, ulnar deviation of metacarpophalangeal joints, Boutonniére and swan-neck deformities, tendon ruptures are common disorders. When joints and soft tissue structures are compromised, the disease affects the architecture and balance of hand, leads to loss of function, causes pain and weakness. The goals of therapy are to reduce inflammation and pain, facilitate proper joint alignment and decrease trauma. In addition to medical treatment reduction in pain, increase in functions and daily living activities are achieved via conservative treatment consisting of physical therapy, excercise, splint usage andoccupational therapy Turk J Phys Med Rehab 2008; 54 Suppl 1: 20-4

Banu KURAN; Beril DO?U; Raikan SOYDEM?R

2008-01-01

134

Hand-held computers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in healthcare delivery, such as patient-focused, point-of-service care, demand that data be entered and accessed at the site where the patient is located (bedside, ER, home, ambulance). But this is not possible without some type of portable information system. The first step to bring information to the patient's side was through the use of bedside computers, but this delivery method has received limited acceptance. At present, some hospitals have begun to use hand-held computers that follow the healthcare clinician, not the patient. Why? Fewer terminals are needed. Handhelds have become easier to use with intuitive graphical user interfaces. As the size of computers has decreased, so has the cost. Personal-sized assistants come in many formats, using proprietary or off the shelf software, or bar code attachments, and with various ports for card or cable access. Most people are becoming computer literate, adapting to downloading, recharging, inserting, and pen/keystroking. PMID:10142831

Cribb, J M

1995-05-01

135

Hand-held computers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Changes in healthcare delivery, such as patient-focused, point-of-service care, demand that data be entered and accessed at the site where the patient is located (bedside, ER, home, ambulance). But this is not possible without some type of portable information system. The first step to bring information to the patient's side was through the use of bedside computers, but this delivery method has received limited acceptance. At present, some hospitals have begun to use hand-held computers that follow the healthcare clinician, not the patient. Why? Fewer terminals are needed. Handhelds have become easier to use with intuitive graphical user interfaces. As the size of computers has decreased, so has the cost. Personal-sized assistants come in many formats, using proprietary or off the shelf software, or bar code attachments, and with various ports for card or cable access. Most people are becoming computer literate, adapting to downloading, recharging, inserting, and pen/keystroking.

Cribb JM

1995-05-01

136

[Reconstructive surgery for hand injuries].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Injuries to the hand requiring emergency treatment concern 1.4 million people a year in France. The creation of the European Federation of Emergency Services for the Hand (FESUM) has brought about an improvement in the quality of care. The aim of reconstructive surgery is to preserve the hand's ability to grasp, its mobility and agility, depending on the seriousness of the injuries.

Bouvet E

2012-05-01

137

Comparative Anthropometry of the Hand.  

Science.gov (United States)

Comparative anthropometric data on the human hand are presented and discussed in detail in this technical report. Since reliable and definitive data on the hands of the U.S. civilian population are lacking, anthropometric data on the hands of the U.S. mil...

R. M. White

1980-01-01

138

Food Labels  

Science.gov (United States)

Food Allergy Fact EPINEPHRINE IS THE FIRST LINE TREATMENT FOR ANAPHYLAXIS Home About Us About FARE Leadership ... Giving Matching Gifts Donate Stock Donate Your Vehicle Food Labels The Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection ...

139

Food Tampering  

Science.gov (United States)

Text Version... FROM THE Food Tampering ... The deliberate tampering of food to cause major disease outbreaks is rare, particularly in the United States. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/fooddefense

140

Food authenticity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Food adulteration is as old as the marketing of food. Discusses the work of the Ministry of Food working party on food authenticity who are working to develop tests to enable some modern food frauds being perpetrated to be detected. Comments too on recent reports on detecting fraud in fish products, emanating from the Steering Group on Chemical Aspects of Food Surveillance. Highlights examples of modern and old style frauds.

Roberts DCE

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Unimanual SNARC Effect: Hand Matters.  

Science.gov (United States)

A structural representation of the hand embedding information about the identity and relative position of fingers is necessary to counting routines. It may also support associations between numbers and allocentric spatial codes that predictably interact with other known numerical spatial representations, such as the mental number line (MNL). In this study, 48 Western participants whose typical counting routine proceeded from thumb-to-little on both hands performed magnitude and parity binary judgments. Response keys were pressed either with the right index and middle fingers or with the left index and middle fingers in separate blocks. 24 participants responded with either hands in prone posture (i.e., palm down) and 24 participants responded with either hands in supine (i.e., palm up) posture. When hands were in prone posture, the counting direction of the left hand conflicted with the direction of the left-right MNL, whereas the counting direction of the right hand was consistent with it. When hands were in supine posture, the opposite was true. If systematic associations existed between relative number magnitude and an allocentric spatial representation of the finger series within each hand, as predicted on the basis of counting habits, interactions would be expected between hand posture and a unimanual version of the spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC) effect. Data revealed that with hands in prone posture a unimanual SNARC effect was present for the right hand, and with hands in supine posture a unimanual SNARC effect was present for the left hand. We propose that a posture-invariant body structural representation of the finger series provides a relevant frame of reference, a within-hand directional vector, that is associated to simple number processing. Such frame of reference can significantly interact with stimulus-response correspondence effects, like the SNARC, that have been typically attributed to the mapping of numbers on a left-to-right mental line. PMID:22207856

Riello, Marianna; Rusconi, Elena

2011-12-23

142

Unimanual SNARC Effect: Hand Matters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A structural representation of the hand embedding information about the identity and relative position of fingers is necessary to counting routines. It may also support associations between numbers and allocentric spatial codes that predictably interact with other known numerical spatial representations, such as the mental number line (MNL). In this study, 48 Western participants whose typical counting routine proceeded from thumb-to-little on both hands performed magnitude and parity binary judgments. Response keys were pressed either with the right index and middle fingers or with the left index and middle fingers in separate blocks. 24 participants responded with either hands in prone posture (i.e., palm down) and 24 participants responded with either hands in supine (i.e., palm up) posture. When hands were in prone posture, the counting direction of the left hand conflicted with the direction of the left-right MNL, whereas the counting direction of the right hand was consistent with it. When hands were in supine posture, the opposite was true. If systematic associations existed between relative number magnitude and an allocentric spatial representation of the finger series within each hand, as predicted on the basis of counting habits, interactions would be expected between hand posture and a unimanual version of the spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC) effect. Data revealed that with hands in prone posture a unimanual SNARC effect was present for the right hand, and with hands in supine posture a unimanual SNARC effect was present for the left hand. We propose that a posture-invariant body structural representation of the finger series provides a relevant frame of reference, a within-hand directional vector, that is associated to simple number processing. Such frame of reference can significantly interact with stimulus-response correspondence effects, like the SNARC, that have been typically attributed to the mapping of numbers on a left-to-right mental line.

Riello M; Rusconi E

2011-01-01

143

Cultural considerations of hand use.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although each of us has the same capacity for hand use based on musculoskeletal structure and physiology, the choice and meaning of hand usage and activity are unique to the individual and influenced by sociocultural values, beliefs, and expectations. Effective therapists provide culturally competent care. For the hand therapist, this involves understanding how patients use their hands and the meaning clients ascribe to that use. This article will provide a review of cross-cultural variations in hand use in activities of daily living, communication, and decoration.

Black RM

2011-04-01

144

Cinematic Motion by Hand  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Within Cinema, animation always had an unclear relation with live-action recording since its very beginning. We learned – helped by ASIFA (International Animated Film Association) – that we should separate one from the other and we also realized that we (still) don’t have a general theory of cinema that embraces both. Yet, over the last years, animation and live-action footage became completely tangled in cinematic productions. Obviously, this means that each of them is just a technical strategy supported by its own specialists and as one became dominant, the other turned out to be marginal. But what if we could ascertain a specific ontology for animation within technology that would explain how its marginality is rooted to its essence at least in one of its forms? In this paper I will try to argue that, by overwhelming the cinematic technical standard workings with their hand, authors exposed its functional scheme to contingency, thus opening the production process to new unpredictable expressive and communicative possibilities. I will attempt to explain how this corresponds to a renewed way of comprehending technology by, simultaneously, revealing the human reality it contains and physiologically incorporating it. Special attention is given to authors such as Norman McLaren, Len Lye, and Pierre Hébert.

Graca, Marina Estela

2006-01-01

145

Hand held steam cleaner  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A hand held steam cleaner of relatively small pistol shape has a rearward projecting water container from which water is pumped by a pump within the main housing of the cleaner to a tank having a heater embedded in one wall thereof for the conversion of the water to steam. A one-way valve permits the entry of air into the container as water is pumped from it. A steam relief valve connected into a water line running from the pump to the tank opens when steam pressure becomes excessive, as when the steam cleaner nozzle is blocked. The tank in which water is converted into steam has two serpentine paths generally paralleling two sides of a U-shaped electrical heater in heat conducting relation to the paths. The path's topography is such that the surface area of the wall of the tank shared with the heater is greatly increased by a multiplicity of projections.A nose member of the cleaner receives the stem of various cleaning tools, locking them in place in fluid communication with the nozzle.

LAM RAYMOND H

146

[Prevention of food poisoning in children].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Proper food storage and preparation can reduce the risk of food poisoning. For example, avoid touching between cooked and uncooked foods, refrigerate foods promptly after purchase or preparation. Washing hands and cleaning surfaces after handling raw meats, poultry, fish, and eggs before touching with other foods, and heating them thoroughly inside is also useful for reducing the risk. To avoid eating raw or undercooked meat, poultry, bivalvia (for example, oyster) is also important for prevention of food poisoning in children. In addition, it is important for medical staff to prevent secondary infection to those who may contact the patients.

Maruyama T; Takano T; Tajiri H

2012-08-01

147

Blackfingers: an Artificial Hand that Copies Human Hand in Structure,  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The construction of an artificial hand able to reproduce the functions of the human hand has neverbeen of interest in industrial robotics. Now it is a must in humanoid robotics. In the paper we will illustrate thestructure of the human hand and propose a choice of materials and actuators that can reproduce it. The design, thecomplete model and the prototype are also presented. The basic controller for the fingers is illustrated.

Michele Folgheraiter

148

"Osseous tumors of the hand "  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The majority of osseous tumors of the hand are benign. The surgeon who evaluates and treats osseous tumors of the hand has to be familiar with limb anatomy, tumor biology, various presentations of the tumors and the range of treatment possibilities and their limitations. Lesions in the hand more often present earlier in their course than those at other sites, just because they are more likely to superficial and easily noticed. A review of all cases of osseous tumors of the hand, seen by a hand surgeon over the last 10 years, at Imam Khomeini hospital was performed. Among 55 cases with osseous tumors of hand, 48 primary benign bone tumors, 3 primary malignant bone tumors, and 4 metastatic bone tumors were found. Enchondroma was the most common benign bone tumor followed by osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, aneurismal bone cyst, giant cell tumor, epidermoid cyst, and osteochondroma. There were two chondrosarcoma and one Ewing’s sarcoma as primary malignant bone tumors. Metastasis to the hand from colon, esophagus, and breast were also found. There were also two cases with Brown tumor secondary to hyperparathyroidism, we conclude that a variety of osseous tumors could occur in the hand, and usually they are benign. Although malignant neoplasms in the hand that arise from tissues other than the skin are very rare, the hand may be the site of distant breast, lung, kidney, esophagus, or colon adenocarcinoma metastases, most of which have a predilection for the distal phalanges.

"Farzan M; Mortazavi SMJ "

2002-01-01

149

Hand-to-hand transmission of rhinovirus colds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rhinovirus was transmitted from experimentally infected volunteers (donors) to susceptible recipients and the efficiencies of spread by hand-to-hand contact and large- and small-particle aerosols compared. Transmission of infection was very efficient by the hand route: 11 of 15 hand-contact exposures initiated infection, compared with one of 12 large-particle (P less than 0.005) and none of 10 small-particle (P less than 0.005) exposures. Rhinovirus was present in nine of 18 (50%) nasal swab specimens, 28 of 43 (65%) hand rinses, and seven of 18 (39%) saliva specimens of donors; geometric mean titers of positive specimens were 10(1.5), 10(1.4), and 10(1.2) tissue culture infectious dose 50/ml (TCID 50/ml), respectively. Rhinovirus was present in 20 of 43 (46%) recipient hand rinses, with a geometric mean titer of 10(1.4)TCID50/ml. Virus on donors' hands was transferred to recipients' fingers during 20 of 28 (71%) 10-second hand-contact exposures. These findings support the concept that hand contact/self-inoculation may be an important natural route of rhinovirus transmission.

Gwaltney JM Jr; Moskalski PB; Hendley JO

1978-04-01

150

Effect of Hand care Education on Hand Deformities and Motion Disorders in Hand Burn Patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Hand burn is a common and considerable cause of chronic disabilities, since it mostly causes functional disorders like a range of motion defects in hands. Therefore, this study aims to examine the effect of education regarding hand-burn caring on deformity as well as the range of motion disorders in hand- burn patients admitted to Shahid Motahari hospital in Tehran. Methods: This study is a clinical trial conducted on sixty burn patients. The subjects were randomly assigned into experimental and control groups. A systematic education program was implemented on the experimental group regarding how to care hand burn. The research data was gleaned by an observational checklist of hand deformity as well as a demographic questionnaire. The research data was analyzed via SPSS software version 10. Results: Majority of patients were male aged 15-25 years with primary education who were village residents in a low economic status. The most common cause of burning was benzene with total burn surface %45- 36% . The study results revealed that the implementation of hand care educational program for hand burn patients was statistically effective on the hand deformity. Conclution: Implementing programs of hand burn is recommended to reduce the functional problems of the hand after burning. Therefore, the nurses need to attend to education in caring of these patients.

F Mohades; Z Manzari; H Haghni

2013-01-01

151

Hand push multifunction wheelchair  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model relates to a hand push multifunction wheelchair, the front and the rear chair racks of which are processed from pipes. A T-shaped sleeve barrel provided with a rotation shaft is fastened at the middle part of the front chair rack, while a movable T-shaped sleeve barrel provided with a rotation shaft is sheathed at the upper part of the front chair rack and can slide up and down. The front and the rear chair racks are mutually hinged through the rotation shafts and the connecting bars. The lower parts at both sides of the front chair rack are provided with double universal wheels, while the lower parts at both sides of the rear chair rack are provided with big wheels. Two-six small wheels which can rotate are evenly distributed on the circumference of a star wheel carrier, and the star wheel carrier and the big wheels are arranged on the same rotation shaft in parallel. A seat cushion and a backrest are arranged at the upper part of the front chair rack, while braking devices which are controlled by a handle through a flexible shaft are positioned at the lower parts at both sides of the rear chair rack. The utility model has the advantages of novel structure, flexible pushing, stability, reliability, convenient folding, easy assembly and disassembly, etc. The utility model not only can be pulled and pushed on the flat road, but also can be pulled and pushed on the rugged road and the staircases. The utility model is suitable for people who are inconvenient in walking.

SHU JISHENG

152

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The paper discusses the need for effective and efficient technologies in improving the food handling system. It defines the basic premises for the development of food handling. The application of food irradiation technology is briefly discussed. The paper points out key considerations for the adoption of food irradiation technology in the ASEAN region (author)

1985-01-01

153

Food Packaging  

Science.gov (United States)

This lesson focuses on how food packages are designed and made. Students will learn three of the main functions of a food package. They will learn what is necessary of the design and materials of a package to keep food clean, protect or aid in the physical and chemical changes that can take place in a food, and identify a food appealingly. Then, in the associated activity, the students will have the opportunity to become packaging engineers by designing and building their own food package for a particular type of food.

Engineering K-Ph.d. Program

154

Validation of Duruoz Hand Index for diabetic hand dysfunction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Duruöz Hand Index (DHI) is a functional disability scale that can be used successfully to assess the functional disability with different hand arthropathies. The hands are frequently involved in diabetic patients. We aimed to examine the use of DHI for its accuracy and ease in assessing these patients. METHODS: Forty patients with diabetes mellitus were recruited in this study. Hand pain was assessed with the visual analog scale. Duruöz Hand Index and Hand Functional Index were applied to assess the disability of hand. We evaluated the grip strength and 3 types of pinch strength (tip pinch, lateral or key pinch, and chuck or 3-finger pinch) for the dominant (D) and nondominant (ND) hands of each patient by 2 different kinds of Jamar dynamometers (JA Preston Corp, Jackson, MI). RESULTS: The Jamar dynamometer scores were as follows (mean [SD]): grip strength-D (21.56 [5.86]), grip strength-ND (16.42 [4.26]), tip strength-D (5.14 [1.50]), tip strength-ND (5.13 [1.42]), lateral strength-D (5.15 [1.52]), lateral strength-ND (5.07 [1.19]), chuck strength-D (5.40 [1.40]), chuck strength-ND (5.33 [1.28]). There was a high correlation between DHI and Hand Functional Index (P < 0.001, rho = 0.586) showing that DHI has good convergent validity. The DHI had significant correlation with nonfunctional parameters such as visual analog scale-pain (P < 0.001), restricted hand motion (P = 0.020), chuck strength-D (P = 0.006), pins test-D (P < 0.001), pins test-ND (P = 0.013), and assembly test (P = 0.025). CONCLUSIONS: The DHI is a practical scale that is efficient in accurate assessment of hand dysfunction in diabetic patients.

Turan Y; Duruöz MT; Aksakalli E; Gürgan A

2009-12-01

155

Hand Anthropometry and SMS Satisfaction  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of hand anthropometry on Short Message Service (SMS) satisfaction was investigated using structured questionnaire interviews with 110 subjects, aged between 17-25 years old. Hand size was measured to assess its effect on mobile phone design factors satisfaction whereas thumb circumference and length were measured for keypad design factors. Small hand-sized subjects were found to be more satisfied with mobile phone dimensions than large hand-sized subjects. Thumb circumference significantly affects users` satisfaction towards key size and space between keys whereas thumb length significantly affects keypad layout satisfaction. Both thumb circumference and length significantly correlate negatively with the corresponding keypad design factors. Results confirm that hand anthropometry do affect users messaging satisfaction. These findings should prove useful to mobile phone designers who could look into the possibility of designing customized mobile phones that cater to large hand and thumb sized users, so as to increase their subjective satisfaction.

Balakrishnan, Vimala; Yeow, Paul H. P.

156

Dynamic Hand Gesture Recognition Using the Skeleton of the Hand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper discusses the use of the computer vision in the interpretation of human gestures. Hand gestures would be an intuitive and ideal way of exchanging information with other people in a virtual space, guiding some robots to perform certain tasks in a hostile environment, or interacting with computers. Hand gestures can be divided into two main categories: static gestures and dynamic gestures. In this paper, a novel dynamic hand gesture recognition technique is proposed. It is based on the 2D skeleton representation of the hand. For each gesture, the hand skeletons of each posture are superposed providing a single image which is the dynamic signature of the gesture. The recognition is performed by comparing this signature with the ones from a gesture alphabet, using Baddeley's distance as a measure of dissimilarities between model parameters.

Bogdan Ionescu; Didier Coquin; Patrick Lambert; Vasile Buzuloiu

2005-01-01

157

Factitious Lymphedema of the Hand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: To report the case of a 39- year old unmarried female with factitious edema of the right hand two weeks after being struck by her brother and following self injury of the right arm. Method: A 39-year old unmarried female with severe edema of the right hand and forearm diagnosed as factiti...

S. Ali Ahmadi Abhari; Nooshin Alimalayeri; S. Sina Ahmadi Abhari; Khadijeh Omidi Nobijari

158

Hand it to the Animals  

Science.gov (United States)

In this lesson, learners examine X-ray images of the "hands" of different animals and then determine the function of each hand from its form. The images are viewed and analyzed with a Web-based customized version of ImageJ.

159

Roentgenological atlas of hand pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The atlas deals with roentgenological diagnostics of hand pathology. Developmental defects, rheumatoid arthritis, malignant and benign bone tumours, tumours of soft tissues, degenerative dystrophical injuries, traumatic injuries, foreign bodies penetrating into hand tissues, inflamatory diseases etc. are illustrated. Roentgenological semiotics and differential diagnostics are described.

1987-01-01

160

Hand action preparation influences the responses to hand pictures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The relations between stimuli triggering a hand grasping movement and the subsequent action were studied in normal human participants. Participants were instructed to prepare to grasp a bar, oriented either clockwise or counterclockwise, and to grasp it as fast as possible on presentation of a visual stimulus with their right hand. The visual stimuli were pictures of the right hand as seen in a mirror. In Experiment 1, they represented the mirror image of the hand final posture as achieved in grasping the bar oriented either clockwise or counterclockwise. In Experiment 2, in addition to the pictures of Experiment 1, another two pictures, obtained rotating the hands represented in the previous ones of 90 degrees, were also used. Both experiments showed that the reaction times were faster when there was a similarity between hand position as depicted in the triggering visual stimulus and the grasping hand final position, the fastest responses being those where this similarity was the closest. In addition, Experiment 2 showed that reaction times to not rotated stimuli were faster than reaction times to the rotated stimuli, thus excluding a simple stimulus-response compatibility explanation of the findings. The data are interpreted as behavioral evidence that there is a close link between specific visual stimuli and specific motor actions. A neurophysiological model for this visuo-motor link is presented.

Craighero L; Bello A; Fadiga L; Rizzolatti G

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Hand action preparation influences the responses to hand pictures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relations between stimuli triggering a hand grasping movement and the subsequent action were studied in normal human participants. Participants were instructed to prepare to grasp a bar, oriented either clockwise or counterclockwise, and to grasp it as fast as possible on presentation of a visual stimulus with their right hand. The visual stimuli were pictures of the right hand as seen in a mirror. In Experiment 1, they represented the mirror image of the hand final posture as achieved in grasping the bar oriented either clockwise or counterclockwise. In Experiment 2, in addition to the pictures of Experiment 1, another two pictures, obtained rotating the hands represented in the previous ones of 90 degrees, were also used. Both experiments showed that the reaction times were faster when there was a similarity between hand position as depicted in the triggering visual stimulus and the grasping hand final position, the fastest responses being those where this similarity was the closest. In addition, Experiment 2 showed that reaction times to not rotated stimuli were faster than reaction times to the rotated stimuli, thus excluding a simple stimulus-response compatibility explanation of the findings. The data are interpreted as behavioral evidence that there is a close link between specific visual stimuli and specific motor actions. A neurophysiological model for this visuo-motor link is presented. PMID:11749979

Craighero, Laila; Bello, Arianna; Fadiga, Luciano; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

2002-01-01

162

Hand and upper extremity function in workers with hand dermatitis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Traditional methods of assessing impairment associated with skin conditions focus on clinical severity, medication usage, activities of daily living, and quality of life. Assessment of function and ability to work may provide important additional information when determining readiness to work. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to gain an understanding of the functional impairment of the hand and upper extremity associated with hand dermatitis and the impact of hand dermatitis on quality of life, work instability, and productivity. METHODS: Sixty-two patients with suspected contact dermatitis of the hands participated in physical and functional assessments of the upper extremity and patient-reported questionnaires including Dermatology Life Quality Index, Short Form 36 Health Survey, Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (QuickDASH), Work Instability Scale, and Work Limitations Questionnaire. RESULTS: Numbness and finger joint restrictions were moderate to severe in 29% and 30% of the workers, respectively. Positive Tinel and/or Phalen signs occurred in 25%. Forty-eight percent reported moderate-to-high work instability, and 31% reported a greater than 10% decrease in work productivity. Thirty-five percent missed work in the past year, 19% were doing a different job, and 9% were not working. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with hand dermatitis demonstrate significant functional compromise of the hand and a decrease in ability to work.

Holness DL; Beaton D; Harniman E; DeKoven J; Skotnicki S; Nixon R; Switzer-McIntyre S

2013-05-01

163

Water-free hand wiper  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to reduce the waste of water resources, the invention provides a water-free hand wiper having no pollution, multiple effects, and simple and convenient use. In order to meet the technical requirements, the water-free hand wiper related adopts the following technical scheme that main raw materials comprise film forming substances, emulsifying agent, liquid paraffin, lanolin alcohol, laurylalcohol, ethanol, glycerin, preservative, essence, water and the like. The water-free hand wiper is mainly characterized in that: 1) water-free, namely the hand can be wiped without water 2) multiple effects, namely the water-free hand wiper can remove dirt and also can sterilize and 3) simple manufacturing process and convenient use.

YUNSHU GAO

164

Intravascular lesions of the hand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Intravascular lesions of the hand comprise reactive and neoplastic entities. The clinical diagnosis of such lesions is often difficult, and usually requires pathologic examination. We present the largest series to date of intravascular lesions affecting the hand. Methods A retrospective review of intravascular (arterial and venous) lesions involving the hand was conducted. Data regarding clinicopathologic findings were analyzed. Results We identified 10 patients with intravascular lesions of their hands including thromboemboli (n = 3), reactive intravascular conditions such as papillary endothelial hyperplasia or Masson's tumor (n = 2) and fasciitis (n = 1), as well as vascular neoplasms including pyogenic granuloma (n = 2) and angioleiomyoma (n = 2). Conclusion Blood vessel injury and/or venous thrombosis may predispose to several intravascular lesions of the hand. Recognition of reactive entities from neoplastic conditions is important.

Pantanowitz Liron; Duke Wayne H

2008-01-01

165

Segmenting Hands of Arbitrary Color  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Color has been widely used for hand segmentation. However,many approaches rely on predefined skin color models.It is very difficult to predefine a color model in a mobileapplication where the light condition may change dramaticallyover time. In this paper, we propose a novel statisticalapproach to hand segmentation based on Bayes decisiontheory. The proposed method requires no predefined skincolor model. Instead it generates a hand color model and abackground color model for a given image, and uses thesemodels to classify each pixel in the image as either a handpixel or a background pixel. Models are generated using aGaussian mixture model with the restricted EM algorithm.Our method is capable of segmenting hands of arbitrarycolor in a complex scene. It performs well even when thereis a significant overlap between hand and background colors,or when the user wears gloves. We show that the Bayesdecision method is superior to a commonly used method bycomparing their upper...

Xiaojin Zhu; Jie Yang; Alex Waibel

166

Segmenting Hands of Arbitrary Color  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Colorhasbeen widelyused for hand segmentation. However,many approaches rely on predefined skin color models.It is very difficult to predefine a color model in a mobileapplication where the light condition may change dramaticallyover time. In this paper, we propose a novel statisticalapproach to hand segmentation based on Bayes decisiontheory. The proposed method requires no predefined skincolor model. Instead it generates a hand color model and abackground color model for a given image, and uses thesemodels to classify each pixel in the image as either a handpixel or a background pixel. Models are generated using aGaussian mixture model with the restricted EM algorithm.Our method is capable of segmenting hands of arbitrarycolor in a complex scene. It performs well even when thereis a significant overlap between hand and background colors,or when the user wears gloves. We show that the Bayesdecision method is superior to a commonly used method bycomparing their upper bo...

Xiaojin Zhu; Jie Yang; Alex Waibel

167

Hand transmitted vibrations caused by orbital hand sanding machines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper reports and analyses results of vibration measurement carried out on orbital hand sanding machines. Vibrations were measured on the front and rear handles of the FESTO LRB-W1 and LRB-T1 orbital hand sanding machines and at two points on the holding handle of the FESTO RTL-F1 hand sanding machine. The measured levels of the weighted vibration accelerations were compared to the daily exposure limits according to ISO 5349, ISO/TC 108/SC4/14 and NF E90-402. Daily exposures for each type of sanding machine were determined according to the same standards. PMID:7575142

Goglia, V; Risovi?, S; Beljo, R

1995-03-01

168

Hand transmitted vibrations caused by orbital hand sanding machines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The paper reports and analyses results of vibration measurement carried out on orbital hand sanding machines. Vibrations were measured on the front and rear handles of the FESTO LRB-W1 and LRB-T1 orbital hand sanding machines and at two points on the holding handle of the FESTO RTL-F1 hand sanding machine. The measured levels of the weighted vibration accelerations were compared to the daily exposure limits according to ISO 5349, ISO/TC 108/SC4/14 and NF E90-402. Daily exposures for each type of sanding machine were determined according to the same standards.

Goglia V; Risovi? S; Beljo R

1995-03-01

169

Food safety and consumer behaviour  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Food safety is a priority for many consumers, and there is an expectation throughout society that the food supplied for human consumption is safe and nutritious to eat. Understanding technical risk estimates alone, however, will not explain the risk-related behaviours of consumers. On the one hand, consumers may not pay enough attention to some types of food safety issue, such as the risk of food poisoning from microbial contamination, which may at best be debilitating, and at worst fatal (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 1994). This risk is certainly largely avoidable through taking appropriate risk mitigation measures through the food chain, not least in the domestic kitchen. However, factors related to consumer psychology may increase the risks to consumers as they produce barriers to self-protective behaviours (Frewer & Fischer, in press; Worsfold & Griffith, 1997). In contrast, public perceptions and attitudes about emerging bio-sciences and other new technologies applied to food production areamong the most important factors determining the likelihood of the successful development and implementation of agri-food technology technologies (Frewer et al., 2004). Scientific communities have frequently bemoaned negative consumer attitudes towards some food technologies, such as genetic engineering, while failing to consider the origins of these consumer attitudes. The behaviour of consumers in relation to food safety issues can only be properly understood if there is systematic understanding of the way in which consumers perceive risks, and how these relate to an effective food safety and technology commercialisation policy.

Frewer, Lynn; Fischer, Arnout

2005-01-01

170

Food irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The survey deals with some significant aspects of food irradiation, discussing practical food irradiation on an industrial level and results of applications, also pointing to foodstuffs envisaged for radiation treatment in the near future. (orig./PW).

Gruenewald, T.

1985-01-01

171

Food irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The proposed use of gamma radiation from cobalt 60 and cesium 137 for food irradiation in the United Kingdom is discussed, with particular reference to the possible dangers and disadvantages to the safety and wholesomeness of the food.

Webb, T.

1986-01-01

172

Food wastage.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract: Food waste causes nutritional loss and economic loss. Roughly, 25% of the food produced in the United Kingdom is wasted. Most waste occurs on the farm (nearly 20% by weight); between the farm and kitchen, 9% is lost; in households and catering, 11.5% is lost. Waste occurs in storage, processing, distribution, and consumption. School meals had low figures for percentage total waste compared to high figures in restaurants and hospitals. General conclusions are: the greater the amount of food available, the higher the total waste; as convenience foods increased, waste decreased; and the larger the number of menu items, the more waste. Food services can decrease waste by: deciding exactly how much to buy; buying carefully; using foods before end of the shelf life; recycling uneaten foods; and identifying consumers' preferences for foods. (rkm)

Osner Robin

1982-07-01

173

Food preservation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An outline review is presented of the current state of the art of food preservation by irradiation, general effects, applications (radappertization, sprout inhibition, disinfestation etc), legislation, commercial application of food irradiation, economics, packaging and consumer acceptance. (U.K.).

1984-01-01

174

Food Webs  

Science.gov (United States)

The representation depicts 4 different food webs: Antarctica, the African Grasslands, the Australia Grasslands and a Marine environment. A separate food web for scavengers and decomposers is present in the African Grasslands section. Viewers must first build the web by moving boxes with the organism's picture and name to the appropriate spot on a grid. Clues describing food requirements are given as the boxes are moved. When the boxes are correctly placed a complete food web (with arrows) is displayed.

175

Hand Recognition for Augmented Reality  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, Augmented Reality (AR) becomes the focus of attention as a technology for obtaining some information. Most AR systems have used some markers to display any information. However, since markerless AR systems can be used intuitively, they are researched actively. In this paper, we study about the AR system based on the hand recognition as a markerless system. The reason why we used a hand is that we don't need to prepare or carry on any tool, and can easy to watch any information on a hand. Taehee Lee et al. introduced HandyAR which employ the hand recognition. In this method, there are some problems. At first, when the method learns skin model, it needs many learning data. This is because it uses RGB color model. Secondly, it is difficult to get hand because hand images which are extracted by the skin model have noise. Thirdly, the method uses finger positions to estimate the hand coordinate. Therefore it is sensitive to finger state. We improved HandyAR to solve these problems. Experimental result showed that our method had higher performance than conventional methods.

Tanaka, Ryuji; Yoshioka, Michifumi

176

Food Guidance Documents  

Science.gov (United States)

... Food. ... Food Guidance Documents. Search the Foods Guidance Documents Section. Recently Added. Medical Foods: Draft ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/guidancedocumentsregulatoryinformation

177

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The use of food preservation by irradiation over 30 years is reviewed in outline. Sprout inhibition, soft fruit preservation, suppression of salmonella in poultry, radiolytic products in foods, the detection of irradiated foods and safety studies so far are considered. (U.K.)

1987-01-01

178

Food irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of food preservation by irradiation over 30 years is reviewed in outline. Sprout inhibition, soft fruit preservation, suppression of salmonella in poultry, radiolytic products in foods, the detection of irradiated foods and safety studies so far are considered. (U.K.).

Goodburn, K.E.

1987-06-01

179

The psycho-flexed hand.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Five mentally disturbed patients had flexion contractures of the middle, ring, and little fingers of one or both hands. All gave a history of psychiatric illness manifested by depression. Since no organic etiology for the contractures was found, the authors name this condition the "psycho-flexed hand." Four of the five patients were middle-aged women who suffered long-term depression, hypochondriasis, and/or schizophrenia. The patients' severely contracted fingers often macerated the palm. Manipulation under anesthesia and splinting only temporarily relieved the contractures. Multiple complications occurred following splinting and hand therapy, as well as surgery. Therefore, caution is urged when attempting surgical correction before resolving the mental illness.

Frykman GK; Wood VE; Miller EB

1983-04-01

180

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This popular-level article emphasizes that the ultimate health effects of irradiated food products are unknown. They may include vitamin loss, contamination of food by botulism bacteria, mutations in bacteria, increased production of aflatoxins, changes in food, carcinogenesis from unknown causes, presence of miscellaneous harmful chemicals, and the lack of a way of for a consumer to detect irradiated food. It is claimed that the nuclear industry is applying pressure on the Canadian government to relax labeling requirements on packages of irradiated food in order to find a market for its otherwise unnecessary products

1989-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Replantation (Finger, Hand, or Arm)  

Science.gov (United States)

... the surgical reattachment of a finger, hand, or arm that has been completely cut from a person’s ... the replanted part. Generally, the further down the arm the injury occurs, the better the return of ...

182

Hand-schuller-christian disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A boy of 4 years presented with exophthalmos and cutaneous lesions. Clinical examination, histology and other investigations confirmed the diagnosis of Hand-Schuller-Christian disease.

Malhotra S; Bharti Rakesh; Sarin R

1992-01-01

183

Hand and foot contamination monitor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to make quick measurements of beta and gamma contaminations on hands and feet of personnel working in radioactive environments, hand and foot contamination monitors are widely used. This paper describes such a monitor system designed with Intel 8085 based microcomputer. The monitoring and warning system is designed to perform measurement of activity spread over surface of hands and soles of shoes or feet. Even though the system has many features to aid testing and maintainance operation, it is easy to use for unskilled persons. In order to check the contamination, the person stands on platform and inserts both his hands into detector assemblies thereby actuating the sensing switches. After a preset interval, annunciation of clean or contaminated status is declared by the system. (author).

1989-01-01

184

Dermatoglyphics in typical cleft hand.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dermatoglyphic prints of the typical cleft hand with a rudiment of the middle metacarpal showed that a whorl pattern was present on the ulnar margin of the V-shaped defect, suggesting the fingertip pattern of the middle finger.

Suzuki T; Tsuchiya K; Takazawa H; Matsui I

1981-02-01

185

Public health aspects of food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The author debates public health aspects of food irradiation. The effect of food irradiation as a convenience to the consumer is discussed, i.e. the prevention of food deterioration and also the prevention of disease that could be passed on to the consumer by ingestion. On the other hand, the effects that could possibly be created by the application of radiation are also evaluated using toxicological and microbiological considerations. (Auth.)

1981-10-21

186

MOTORIZED SIX WHEEL HAND TRUCK  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A motorized hand truck has six wheels around an axle. An electric motor, through a worm drive, drives a gear box connected to the axle. The hand truck can be used horizontally to carry long objects. It could be used to carry stretchers for example. In fac t, for heavy object, using it horizontally is safer for the user who is below the load and contro ls it from a low center of gravity.

MARTEL YVON

187

Bimanual-vertical hand movements.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Patients often demonstrate attentional and action-intentional biases in both the transverse and coronal planes. In addition, when making forelimb movements in the transverse plane, normal participants also have spatial and magnitude asymmetries, but forelimb spatial asymmetries have not been studied in coronal space. Thus, to learn if when normal people make vertical movements they have right-left spatial and magnitude biases, seventeen healthy, blindfolded volunteers had their hands (holding pens) placed vertically in their midsagittal plane, 10 inches apart, on pieces of paper positioned above, below, and at eye-level. Participants were asked to move their hands together vertically and meet in the middle. Participants demonstrated less angular deviation in the below-eye condition than in the other spatial conditions, when moving down than up, and with their right than left hand. Movements toward eye level from upper or lower space were also more accurate than movements in the other directions. Independent of hand, lines were longer with downward than upward movements and the right hand moved more distance than the left. These attentional-intentional asymmetries may be related to gravitational force, hand-hemispheric dominance, and spatial "where" asymmetries; however, the mechanisms accounting for these asymmetries must be ascertained by future research.

Kwon JC; Cohen ML; Williamson J; Burtis B; Heilman KM

2011-07-01

188

Food irradiation: contaminating our food  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The nuclear industry has promoted food irradiation as an effective and safe means of preserving food at minimum risk to the public. However, wide-scale food irradiation programmes such as that approved in the United States of America would have an adverse impact on public health in the following ways: through the consumption of carcinogenic substances generated in irradiated foods, through the use of irradiation to mask bacteriological contamination of spoiled food, through the replacement of fresh foods with nutritionally depleted foods, through accidents with leaks or mishandling of the radiation sources used and through the environmental damage resulting from reactor operation or spent fuel reprocessing necessary to produce the required isotopes for food irradiation. The food irradiation market is potentially enormous, requiring a large number of facilities and isotopes, some, such as caesium-137, would come from the production of nuclear weapons. Evidence of the presence of carcinogenic or mutagenic activity in irradiated foods is discussed. Although the US Federal Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a food irradiation programme it would actually be against the FDA's legal obligation which is to protect the health and safety of the American people.

Piccioni, R.

1988-01-01

189

Hand washing practices in urban and rural communities in and around Kolkata, West Bengal.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Public health importance of hand washing was known since 19th century. Many researchers also highlighted how hand washing could bring down the incidence of diarrhea, ARI & other diseases. OBJECTIVE: To find out the extent of hand washing as practiced by the community, to what extent suggested steps of hand washing was followed and to assess the changes in bacteriological count of hand before and after hand washing. METHOD: A community based cross sectional study was carried out during January-February 2007 among 161 respondents in and around Kolkata through interview, observation of hand washing in some situations as well as carrying out microbiological test. RESULT: 100% respondents interviewed practiced hand washing after defecation either with soap (59%) or with plain water, ash & mud (41%). But 64%, 51.6% and only 21.7% practiced hand washing before preparation of food; after using urinals; after changing the babies' nappies and disposing their feces respectively. Only 16.1% respondents washed their hands as per the recommended time of 15-30 seconds. Majority (75%) dried hands with apparently unclean materials. 90.7% followed step1 but none followed all the steps. Swab collection before and after hand washing revealed a decrease in colony count in 60% of the samples. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that extent of desirable practices regarding hand washing is still lacking and needs to be emphasized.

Ray SK; Dobe M; Lahiri A; Basu SS

2009-07-01

190

HAND-WASHING DEVICE AND METHOD FOR MONITORING HAND WASHING  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The device is used by healthcare staff to wash their hands using hydro-alcoholic solution and it has an identity card reader (1) that detects the activation of a dispenser (2), which provides the necessary quantity of hydro-alcoholic solution, a camera (3) for recording hand washing, a microprocessor (4) for storing information on the act of washing and a tank (5) of said washing solution. The microprocessor (4) is preferably designed to store the number of times that a healthcare worker washes his hands, the date and time of washing, as well as the location where said washing took place. This information can be extracted using a data output means (6), preferably a USB port.

VILCHES FERRON MIGUEL ANGEL

191

A study on prevalence of bacteria in the hands of children and their perception on hand washing in two schools of Bangalore and Kolkata.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Contaminated hands play a major role in fecal-oral transmission of diseases. In 1847, Dr Semmelweis Ignac pointed to the link between infection and unclean hands, and demonstrated that washing hands could reduce transmission of puerperal fever (child birth fever), a dreaded disease with high mortality in those days. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted to find out the extent of germs present in hand, and also the students' perception on hand washing. This was assessed by questionnaire as well as by collection of swab from hand and performing bacteriological culture in the laboratory. RESULTS: In regard to students' perception about the dirty areas of the hands, it was observed that majority (78%) felt palm was likely to be more dirty while less than 70% felt that web spaces could harbor dirt. Almost 86% reported that they washed hands before eating lunch, but only 21.3% said they always used soap while 47.3% never used it. Availability of soap all the time in the school was reported by only 18.4% students. The swabs of 61% children showed potential pathogens. The commonest of these was Staphylococcus aureus which was seen in 44% samples. CONCLUSION: The students' hands were contaminated before taking food. Although they washed hands before meals, they hardly used soap due to non-availability of soap. The school authority should be asked to keep soaps in the toilets for hand washing.

Ray SK; Amarchand R; Srikanth J; Majumdar KK

2011-10-01

192

Food irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Food irradiation has become a matter of topical interest also in the Federal Republic of Germany following applications for exemptions concerning irradiation tests of spices. After risks to human health by irradiation doses up to a level sufficient for product pasteurization were excluded, irradiation now offers a method suitable primarily for the disinfestation of fruit and decontamination of frozen and dried food. Codex Alimentarius standards which refer also to supervision and dosimetry have been established; they should be adopted as national law. However, in the majority of cases where individual countries including EC member-countries so far permitted food irradiation, these standards were not yet used. Approved irradiation technique for industrial use is available. Several industrial food irradiation plants, partly working also on a contractual basis, are already in operation in various countries. Consumer response still is largely unknown; since irradiated food is labelled, consumption of irradiated food will be decided upon by consumers.

Gruenewald, T.

1985-01-01

193

Hand infection in diabetic patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The diabetic hand infection is less reported in the literature. Therefore, it is easily ignored and underestimated resulting in increased morbidity among the diabetic population. Diabetic hand is a rapid in progression, extensive and severe tissue destruction. We analyze the clinical course and outcome of hand infection in diabetic patients. We reviewed all the admissions with hand infection from January 2006-April 2010. Thirty-seven patients were found with associated diabetes mellitus. The demographic data, culture report, number of operations and management, hospital stay and outcome-like amputation were recorded. The average age was 62 years. Pain and swelling were the chief complaints. The cause of infection was varied. The infection was superficial in 13 and deep in 24 patients. Forty-one percent of culture report revealed polymicrobial organism. The increased length of hospital stay, reoperations and amputation were associated with deep infection and polymicrobial organism. Prompt medical and surgical attentions are the most important factors. A proper glycemic control, elevation of the affected extremity, thorough and adequate surgical debridement and appropriate antibiotics are the important considerations when dealing with diabetic hand infection.

Jalil A; Barlaan PI; Fung BK; Ip JW

2011-01-01

194

Hands as markers of fragmentation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Margaret Atwood is an internationally read, translated, and critiqued writer whose novels have established her as one of the most esteemed authors in English (McCombs & Palmer, 1991:1). Critical studies of her work deal mainly with notions of identity from psychoanalytical perspectives. This study has identified a gap in current critical studies on Atwood’s works, namely the challenging of textual unity which is paralleled in the challenging of the traditional (single) narrative voice. The challenging of textual unity and the single narrative voice brings about the fragmentation of both. This article will focus on the role that hands play as markers of fragmentation in “The Blind Assassin” (2000). In the novel, the writing hand destabilises the narrative voice, since it is not connected to the voice of a single author. If the author of the text – the final signified – is eliminated, the text becomes fragmentary and open, inviting the reader to contribute to the creation of meaning. Hands play a signficant role in foregrounding the narrator’s fragmented identity, and consequently, the fragmentation of the text. We will investigate this concept in the light of Roland Barthes’ notion of the scriptor, whose hand is metaphorically severed from his or her “voice”. Instead of the text being a unified entity, it becomes unstable and it displays the absence of hierarchical textual levels. Based mainly on Barthes’ writings, this article concludes that hands foreground the narrator’s fragmented identity, which is paralleled in the fragmented text.

A. Barnard; J-L Kruger

2005-01-01

195

Segmenting Hands of Arbitrary Color  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Colorhasbeen widelyused for hand segmentation. However,many approaches rely on predefined skin color models.It is very difficult to predefine a color model in a mobileapplication where the light condition may change dramaticallyover time. In this paper, we propose a novel statisticalapproach to hand segmentation based on Bayes decisiontheory. The proposed method requires no predefined skincolor model. Instead it generates a hand color model and abackground color model for a given image, and uses thesemodels to classify each pixel in the image as either a handpixel or a background pixel. Models are generated using aGaussian mixture model with the restricted EM algorithm.Our method is capable of segmenting hands of arbitrarycolor in a complex scene. It performs well even when thereis a significant overlap between hand and background colors,or when the user wears gloves. We show that the Bayesdecision method is superior to a commonly used method bycomparing their upper bound performance. Experimentalresults demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method.

Xiaojin Zhu; Jie Yang; Alex Waibel

196

Workplace hand hygiene and wellness: a survey of knowledge, beliefs, and practices.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Community hand hygiene interventions have reduced the spread of infectious disease in elementary schools, daycare centers, and private homes. Despite this success, and the potential for reducing workplace absenteeism and presenteeism, few peer-reviewed hand hygiene intervention studies among workers have been published. This research used the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to guide the development of a model to understand and predict motivations for performing hand hygiene, and to examine related illness, absenteeism, and presenteeism among employees from 39 bank branches in Ohio. Although the TPB has been used extensively to elucidate hand hygiene practices among employees in the health care and food industries, little is known about the ability of the TPB to predict hand hygiene practices among workers in public settings. These survey findings indicate a need for hand hygiene improvement, and support the use of attitudinal beliefs and social norms to guide multimodal approaches for workplace hand hygiene interventions.

Stedman-Smith M; DuBois CL; Grey S

2012-11-01

197

Food concentrate  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Food concentrate comprises at least one binder containing first flavor component and at least one second flavor component, which are present separately from one another, where the first flavor component and the second flavor component are processable without providing an additional binder in a liquid medium into a finished food product. An independent claim is also included for producing a food product, comprising processing at least one binder containing first flavor component and at least one second flavor component optionally containing binders, which are present separately from one another, without adding an additional binder in the liquid medium to obtain finished food product.

DUHR ANTONIUS; KLEINBERG MICHAEL; BOEHM MATTHIAS DR; KLOEBER MELANIE

198

Food retailing and food service.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The food retailing and food service sector is not only an important component of the food marketing channel but is also vital to the United States economy, accounting for more than 7% of the United States gross domestic product in 2001. The business of food retailing and food service is undergoing salient change. The authors argue that the singular force driving this change is the consumer. To understand the linkages in the food marketing channel, this article provides information on the farm-to-retail price spread and the economic forces that influence their magnitude. Examples are given of farm-to-retail price spreads for red meat and dairy industries. In addition, the economics behind the provision of retail services and the growth of the food service industry are discussed. Further, the authors demonstrate that the structure of the food market channel is consumer driven, and present three characteristics of convenience (preparation, delivery, and service) and identify four food distribution channels in terms of convenience (complete convenience, traditional food service, consumer direct, and traditional retail).

Capps O Jr; Park JL

2003-07-01

199

Food retailing and food service.  

Science.gov (United States)

The food retailing and food service sector is not only an important component of the food marketing channel but is also vital to the United States economy, accounting for more than 7% of the United States gross domestic product in 2001. The business of food retailing and food service is undergoing salient change. The authors argue that the singular force driving this change is the consumer. To understand the linkages in the food marketing channel, this article provides information on the farm-to-retail price spread and the economic forces that influence their magnitude. Examples are given of farm-to-retail price spreads for red meat and dairy industries. In addition, the economics behind the provision of retail services and the growth of the food service industry are discussed. Further, the authors demonstrate that the structure of the food market channel is consumer driven, and present three characteristics of convenience (preparation, delivery, and service) and identify four food distribution channels in terms of convenience (complete convenience, traditional food service, consumer direct, and traditional retail). PMID:12951742

Capps, Oral; Park, John L

2003-07-01

200

Hand-held power tool  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A power tool comprising a working member power coupled to a power drive arrangement held by a housing, said housing comprising a front housing portion from which said working member protrudes and a rear housing portion, a first handle comprising a first hand-grip portion adapted for a user to hold said power tool at an operative level above the ground level, a second handle adapted for a user to generate a turning moment about said first handle so as to vary inclination of said working member relative to the ground level, said second handle comprising a movable hand-grip portion which is attached to said rear housing portion, characterized in that said rear housing portion is pivotally connected to said front housing portion, and said movable hand-grip portion of said second handle is arranged to pivotally move said rear housing portion relative to said front housing portion.

ALFRED LAU TAK CHIU

 
 
 
 
201

HAND-HELD POWER TOOL  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A cutting tool comprising a working member power coupled to a power drive arrangement held by a housing, said housing comprising a front housing portion from which said working member protrudes and a rear housing portion, a first handle comprising a first hand-grip portion adapted for a user to hold said power tool at an operative level above the ground level, a second handle adapted for a user to generate a turning moment about said first handle so as to vary inclination of said working member relative to the ground level, said second handle comprising a movable hand-grip portion which is attached to said rear housing portion, characterized in that said rear housing portion is pivotally connected to said front housing portion, and said movable hand-grip portion of said second handle is arranged to pivotally move said rear housing portion relative to said front housing portion.

LAU TAK CHIU ALFRED

202

[Hand hygiene: revolution and globalization].  

Science.gov (United States)

Hand hygiene is the primary measure to prevent healthcare-associated infections and the spread of antimicrobial resistance. Low staff compliance remains a major problem. Successful promotion requires a multimodal strategy. The World Health Organization (WHO) proposes an approach including at least five components: system change, in particular the recourse to alcohol-based hand rubbing as the new standard of care, staff education using newly developed tools, monitoring and feedback of staff performance, reminders in the workplace, and promotion of an institutional safety climate. Patient participation in hand hygiene promotion is under testing. Early results of the strategy tested in a large number of healthcare settings in both limited- and high-resource countries are extremely encouraging. PMID:19492514

Pittet, Didier

2009-04-01

203

[Hand hygiene: revolution and globalization].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hand hygiene is the primary measure to prevent healthcare-associated infections and the spread of antimicrobial resistance. Low staff compliance remains a major problem. Successful promotion requires a multimodal strategy. The World Health Organization (WHO) proposes an approach including at least five components: system change, in particular the recourse to alcohol-based hand rubbing as the new standard of care, staff education using newly developed tools, monitoring and feedback of staff performance, reminders in the workplace, and promotion of an institutional safety climate. Patient participation in hand hygiene promotion is under testing. Early results of the strategy tested in a large number of healthcare settings in both limited- and high-resource countries are extremely encouraging.

Pittet D

2009-04-01

204

Dynamic Hand Gesture Recognition Using the Skeleton of the Hand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper discusses the use of the computer vision in the interpretation of human gestures. Hand gestures would be an intuitive and ideal way of exchanging information with other people in a virtual space, guiding some robots to perform certain tasks in a hostile environment, or interacting with co...

Bogdan Ionescu; Didier Coquin; Patrick Lambert; Vasile Buzuloiu

205

Pediatric hand and wrist injuries.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last 40 years, childhood hand and wrist injuries have become progressively more common as children have become heavier and more active in high impact sports. The majority of children with such injuries do well, but treatment is not always straightforward. Distal radius fractures, scaphoid fractures, metacarpal and phalangeal fractures, nailbed injuries, and amputations are among the pediatric hand and wrist injuries most often seen by orthopedists. These are all discussed, with a focus on the most recent literature and areas of evolving controversy. PMID:23264097

Williams, Ariel A; Lochner, Heather V

2013-03-01

206

Pediatric hand and wrist injuries.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the last 40 years, childhood hand and wrist injuries have become progressively more common as children have become heavier and more active in high impact sports. The majority of children with such injuries do well, but treatment is not always straightforward. Distal radius fractures, scaphoid fractures, metacarpal and phalangeal fractures, nailbed injuries, and amputations are among the pediatric hand and wrist injuries most often seen by orthopedists. These are all discussed, with a focus on the most recent literature and areas of evolving controversy.

Williams AA; Lochner HV

2013-03-01

207

A hand-held keratometer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using model eyes the sensitivity to orientation of an Alcon hand-held autokeratometer was assessed after calibration with steel balls. It was concluded that the keratometer should be used in a vertical position (6:00/12:00) in order for axis references to be accurate. Corneal curvature of optometry students was measured using the autokeratometer and a Bausch and Lomb keratometer. The results showed that the autokeratometer was similar to the Bausch and Lomb keratometer in measuring the vertical and horizontal principal meridians, and the axis of the vertical principal meridian. This hand-held keratometer is useful for screening purposes and measuring corneas of infants. PMID:7659423

Lam, A K

1995-05-01

208

A hand-held keratometer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Using model eyes the sensitivity to orientation of an Alcon hand-held autokeratometer was assessed after calibration with steel balls. It was concluded that the keratometer should be used in a vertical position (6:00/12:00) in order for axis references to be accurate. Corneal curvature of optometry students was measured using the autokeratometer and a Bausch and Lomb keratometer. The results showed that the autokeratometer was similar to the Bausch and Lomb keratometer in measuring the vertical and horizontal principal meridians, and the axis of the vertical principal meridian. This hand-held keratometer is useful for screening purposes and measuring corneas of infants.

Lam AK

1995-05-01

209

Hand surgery using local anesthesia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Most hand traumas and elective surgical disorders of the hand can be treated quickly, easily, inexpensively, and effectively in an outpatient clinic. Although many surgeons prefer general anesthesia, the senior author routinely uses local anesthesia without sedation almost exclusively for carpal and cubital tunnel release, fasciectomy, arthrodesis, arthroplasty, synovectomy, and trauma, including the repair of tendons, nerves, ligaments, fractures, and soft tissue defects. After completing more than 10,000 procedures, the authors have found great benefits through the use of local anesthesia, which are detailed in the article.

Wong KH; Huq NS; Nakhooda A

2013-10-01

210

Food contaminants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the increasing use of a large variety of chemicals, opportunities for contamination of food are becoming greater. Food may be involved following some accidental occurrence or from more general environmental contamination. Three examples are given: an outbreak of paralysis in Morocco involved 10...

Kazantzis, G.

211

Liquid food  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A liquid food effective against constipation comprises polydextrose in combination with oligo-saccharides which are hard to digest, but easy for intestinal flora to ferment, e.g. raffinose family oligosaccharides derived from soybean and galactose series oligosaccharides derived from lactose. The food is conveniently presented as a beverage.

Kan Tatsuhiko c/o Kabushiki Kaisha Yakult Honsha; Kobayashi Yoichi Kabushiki Kaisha Yakult Honsha; Sonoike Yoshiko Kabushiki Kaisha Yakult Honsha; Terashima Tsuneo Kabushiki Kaisha Yakult Honsha; Mutai Masahiko Kabushiki Kaisha Yakult Honsha

212

Food irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the Federal Republic of Germany it is prohibited by law to treat food with ionizing radiation (Food and Commodities Act of August 15, 1974) with the proviso to grant permits (section 13), which never happened so far. The prohibition also applies to imports according to section 45 of the Federal Act.

1983-05-17

213

Food preservation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pamphlet contains short descriptions of many methods of preserving foods with emphasis on irradiation and its possible consequences. The views of the Federation of Danish Industries with regard to questions considered worthy of debate in relation to irradiation of food are presented. Information is directed at the general danish public. (AB).

1990-01-01

214

Hand held explosives detection system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention is directed to a sensitive hand-held explosives detection device capable of detecting the presence of extremely low quantities of high explosives molecules, and which is applicable to sampling vapors from personnel, baggage, cargo, etc., as part of an explosives detection system. 2 figs.

Conrad, F.J.

1992-08-18

215

Hand held explosives detection system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention is directed to a sensitive hand-held explosives detection device capable of detecting the presence of extremely low quantities of high explosives molecules, and which is applicable to sampling vapors from personnel, baggage, cargo, etc., as part of an explosives detection system.

Conrad, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1992-01-01

216

Unusual case of cleft hand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present a case of a six-year-old male child with cleft hand deformity involving the dominant right hand. It was a rare case of atypical cleft hand with no missing tissue but cleft extending to metacarpal level and associated hypoplasia of thumb and index finger. As per Manske?s classification of cleft hand our patient belongs to the Class III variety. There was associated malposition of the index finger with absence of first web space and syndactly of thumb and index finger at the metacarpal level. A modified Snow-Littler procedure was planned. The surgical plan involved closure of cleft, release of thumb and index finger syndactly and reconstruction of the first web space. The functional outcome was good considering hypoplasia of the index finger and thumb. Depending upon the function of the thumb tendon transfers can be planned to augment thumb function at a later date along with correction of rotational deformities of the index and middle finger.

Sahasrabudhe Parag; Kulkarni Madhuri

2007-01-01

217

TINED PRY BAR HAND TOOL  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A tined pry bar hand tool includes a head that is formed by a unitary, one-piece block of metal. The head includes a plurality of tines integrally formed thereon. The construction of the head makes it less prone to breakage, and suitable for a variety of construction/demolition projects.

POST STEVEN E

218

Food porn.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Since the term first appeared, food porn has typically referred to watching others cook on television or gazing at unattainable dishes in glossy magazines without actually cooking oneself. This forum seeks to revisit this notion of food porn that is mostly taken for granted in both popular and scholarly literature. It offers a brief perspective of the appearance and use of the term food porn to examine how it came to be a term used mostly by commentators rather than by people actively engaged in the world of cooking. Practitioners (chefs and a food television producer) and academics address whether or not food porn exists, what shape it might take, what purpose it might serve, and/or what usefulness it might have, showing that these contentious issues are more complex than the ease with which the term is used might let on.

McBride AE

2010-01-01

219

Food porn.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the term first appeared, food porn has typically referred to watching others cook on television or gazing at unattainable dishes in glossy magazines without actually cooking oneself. This forum seeks to revisit this notion of food porn that is mostly taken for granted in both popular and scholarly literature. It offers a brief perspective of the appearance and use of the term food porn to examine how it came to be a term used mostly by commentators rather than by people actively engaged in the world of cooking. Practitioners (chefs and a food television producer) and academics address whether or not food porn exists, what shape it might take, what purpose it might serve, and/or what usefulness it might have, showing that these contentious issues are more complex than the ease with which the term is used might let on. PMID:21539050

McBride, Anne E

2010-01-01

220

Food Labeling & Nutrition Reports  

Science.gov (United States)

... Food. Print; Share; E-mail. Home; Food; Science & Research (Food); Consumer Behavior Research. Section Contents Menu. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/consumerbehaviorresearch

 
 
 
 
221

The synchronism of hand’s movement in tennis serve  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this research is the recording of the hands’ synchronism during serve, from the moment the ball leaves the athlete’s hand until the moment it contacts theracket .From this survey, it is observed that the time of synchronization of the first serve is on average lower than the second, and with significant statistical difference(p < .05). Moreover, the first serve’s success rate seems to be irrelevant to its time synchronization and the athletes’ ranking. Nevertheless, the correlation of time synchronization between the first and second serve is noticeably high, concluding that the athletes who are first in ranking have a personal stable and correlated time, in both first and second serves.

TSIFOTOUDI IOANNA; MAVVIDIS ALEXANDROS; NTINOPOULOS PAVLOS; TSAMOURTZIS EVAGELOS,; DALLAS GEORGIOS

2013-01-01

222

Die Sprache der Hande zu den Handen sprechen (Talking the Language of the Hands to the Hands). DB-LINK.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the importance of hands for the person who is deafblind, reviews hand development, and identifies specific teaching skills that facilitate hand development and expressiveness in persons who are deafblind. It notes that the hands of a deafblind individual serve not only as tools but also as sense organs (to compensate for their…

Miles, Barbara

223

Food allergy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Food allergy is defined as an adverse immunologic response to a dietary protein. Food-related reactions are associated with a broad array of signs and symptoms that may involve many bodily systems including the skin, gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, and cardiovascular system. Food allergy is a leading cause of anaphylaxis and, therefore, referral to an allergist for appropriate and timely diagnosis and treatment is imperative. Diagnosis involves a careful history and diagnostic tests, such as skin prick testing, serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) testing and, if indicated, oral food challenges. Once the diagnosis of food allergy is confirmed, strict elimination of the offending food allergen from the diet is generally necessary. For patients with significant systemic symptoms, the treatment of choice is epinephrine administered by intramuscular injection into the lateral thigh. Although most children “outgrow” allergies to milk, egg, soy and wheat, allergies to peanut, tree nuts, fish and shellfish are often lifelong. This article provides an overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management and prognosis of patients with food allergy.

Waserman Susan; Watson Wade

2011-01-01

224

Food additives.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI cannot always be ingested as a single dose on an empty stomach with impunity.

Berglund F

1978-01-01

225

Food irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Serious outbreaks of food poisoning last year in the USA from contaminated ground meat and the listing of methyl bromide, the most widely used pest control fumigant, as an ozone depleting substance, has led to a resurgence of interest, especially in the USA, in the use of ionizing radiation for the preservation of food. For a number of reasons, principally public uneasiness with radiation and the availability of other less expensive, methods for fumigating or preserving food, the use of radiation has remained limited until recently.

Borsa, J.; Kunstadt, P. [MDS Nordion, Kanata, Ontario (Canada)

1998-07-01

226

Food Preservation  

Science.gov (United States)

In this lesson, from Science NetLinks, students' attention is drawn to the issue of food spoilage and the different methods that are traditionally used to prolong the freshness of food. Using a number of online resources, they learn about how Chilean fruit and lettuce for salad are carefully harvested, treated, packaged, and transported in refrigerated vessels to maintain their freshness. Students are then introduced to the canning, drying, freezing, and vacuum-sealing processes that are commonly used by food producers and in the home.

Science Netlinks;

2004-04-05

227

Gastrointestinal food allergy in infants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Food allergies are classified into three types, "IgE-mediated," "combined IgE- and cell-mediated" and "cell-mediated/non-IgE-mediated," depending on the involvement of IgE in their pathogenesis. Patients who develop predominantly cutaneous and/or respiratory symptoms belong to the IgE-mediated food allergy type. On the other hand, patients with gastrointestinal food allergy (GI allergy) usually develop gastrointestinal symptoms several hours after ingestion of offending foods; they belong to the cell-mediated/non-IgE-mediated or combined IgE- and cell-mediated food allergy types. GI allergies are also classified into a number of different clinical entities: food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES), food protein-induced proctocolitis (FPIP), food protein-induced enteropathy (Enteropathy) and eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGID). In the case of IgE-mediated food allergy, the diagnostic approaches and pathogenic mechanisms are well characterized. In contrast, the diagnostic approaches and pathogenic mechanisms of GI allergy remain mostly unclear. In this review, we summarized each type of GI allergy in regard to its historical background and updated clinical features, offending foods, etiology, diagnosis, examinations, treatment and pathogenesis. There are still many problems, especially in regard to the diagnostic approaches for GI allergy, that are closely associated with the definition of each disease. In addition, there are a number of unresolved issues regarding the pathogenic mechanisms of GI allergy that need further study and elucidation. Therefore, we discussed some of the diagnostic and research issues for GI allergy that need further investigation.

Morita H; Nomura I; Matsuda A; Saito H; Matsumoto K

2013-09-01

228

Differences in social and vocal behavior between left- and right-handed common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) show either a left- or right-hand preference for reaching to pick up food and they retain the same preference throughout adult life. We compared the behavior of 10 right-handed and 10 left-handed marmosets, matched for age and sex. They were presented with live crickets both when alone and when in their social group. The marmosets captured more crickets and the latency to capture the first cricket was shorter when they were in a group than when they were alone. This effect of social facilitation was significantly greater for right- than left-handed individuals. The number of vocalizations (tsik, crackle, very brief whistle, cough, and phee) produced by the left- and right-handed marmosets differed significantly: right-handed marmosets produced an increased number of all of these calls when the crickets were presented, whereas left-handed marmosets did not show a change from pretesting levels. The right-handed marmosets also produced more tsik (mobbing) calls than left-handed marmosets when they were presented with a fear-inducing stimulus and performed more head cocking and parallax movements than the left-handed marmosets. Hence, hand preference is associated with differences in exploratory and social behavior, the latter including vocal communication. PMID:20853949

Gordon, Dianne J; Rogers, Lesley J

2010-11-01

229

Differences in social and vocal behavior between left- and right-handed common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) show either a left- or right-hand preference for reaching to pick up food and they retain the same preference throughout adult life. We compared the behavior of 10 right-handed and 10 left-handed marmosets, matched for age and sex. They were presented with live crickets both when alone and when in their social group. The marmosets captured more crickets and the latency to capture the first cricket was shorter when they were in a group than when they were alone. This effect of social facilitation was significantly greater for right- than left-handed individuals. The number of vocalizations (tsik, crackle, very brief whistle, cough, and phee) produced by the left- and right-handed marmosets differed significantly: right-handed marmosets produced an increased number of all of these calls when the crickets were presented, whereas left-handed marmosets did not show a change from pretesting levels. The right-handed marmosets also produced more tsik (mobbing) calls than left-handed marmosets when they were presented with a fear-inducing stimulus and performed more head cocking and parallax movements than the left-handed marmosets. Hence, hand preference is associated with differences in exploratory and social behavior, the latter including vocal communication.

Gordon DJ; Rogers LJ

2010-11-01

230

Future Perspectives for Hand Transplant in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hand transplant program is a communion of physicians and researchers during the current de¬cade. 72 hands and digits were transplanted in 53 patients over the past 13 years. Unlike a solid organ transplant, hand transplantation involves various tissues, so it is called “composite tissue allotransplantation.” This article discusses the plans for performing the first hand transplant in Iran.

M. J. Fatemi; M. Masoumi; E. Esfandiari

2011-01-01

231

Roughness Perception during the Rubber Hand Illusion  

Science.gov (United States)

Watching a rubber hand being stroked by a paintbrush while feeling identical stroking of one's own occluded hand can create a compelling illusion that the seen hand becomes part of one's own body. It has been suggested that this so-called rubber hand illusion (RHI) does not simply reflect a bottom-up multisensory integration process but that the…

Schutz-Bosbach, Simone; Tausche, Peggy; Weiss, Carmen

2009-01-01

232

Hand-held massaging device  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A hand-held massaging device (M) comprises a massaging plate (5) that can be made to execute oscillating movements and can be heated by an electrical resistance heater (11). The temperature is automatically limited in that the heating elements (11) used have a positive temperature coefficient and reach their maximum temperature in the low-temperature range. Thereby, the danger of overheating of the heating elements (11) is virtually ruled out without an external temperature limiter (Fig. 1).

HERMANN HEINZ-GUENTER; KIENZLER GERHARD

233

STATE OF ART: HAND BIOMETRIC  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper present a state of art about biometric hand, different techniques used.Biometric is essentially used to avoid risks of password easy to find or Stoll; with as slogan save Time and Attendance. We can note that biometrics is a true alternative to the passwords and other identifiers to make safe the access controls. It makes it possible to check that the user is well the person who it claims to be.

Sarâh BENZIANE; Abdelkader BENYETTOU

2012-01-01

234

Osteoid osteomas of the hand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Osteoid osteoma is infrequently locallized to the hand. Initially the lesion causes unspecific symptoms, and the radiographic changes are discrete. Three cases were seen during a period of 5 years. Bone scintigraphy was a useful diagnostic tool, and CT facilitated the identification of the nidus. One of the lesions was a double nidus osteoid osteoma of the scaphoid bone. Only 12 instances of multifocal osteoid osteomas have been reported, none of which was localized to the carpal bones. (orig.)

1991-01-01

235

Tools used for hand deburring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This guide is designed to help in quick identification of those tools most commonly used to deburr hand size or smaller parts. Photographs and textual descriptions are used to provide rapid yet detailed information. The data presented include the Bendix Kansas City Division coded tool number, tool description, tool crib in which the tool can be found, the maximum and minimum inventory requirements, the cost of each tool, and the number of the illustration that shows the tool.

Gillespie, L.K.

1981-03-01

236

Search for Right-Handed  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report on a search for right-handed W bosons (WR ). We used data collectedwith the DØ detector at the Fermilab Tevatron p¯p collider atps =1.8TeV to search for WR decays into an electron and a massive right-handedneutrino WSigmaR! eSigmaNR . Using the inclusive electron data, we set mass limitsindependent of the NR decay:mWR? 650 GeV/c2andmWR? 720 GeV/c2at the 95% confidence level, valid formNR!12 mWRandmNRømWRrespectively.The latter also represents a new lower limit on the mass of a heavyleft-handed W boson (W0) decaying into e. In addition, limits onmWRvalidfor larger values of the NR mass are obtained assuming that NR decays to anelectron and two jets.Right-handed W gauge bosons (WR ) are additional intermediate vector particles thatarise in extensions of the Standard Model (SM) such as the left-right symmetric model(LRM) [?]. In the LRM, an enlarged SU(2)R Theta SU(2)L Theta U(1) symmetry group replacesthe SU(2)...

S. Abachi; M. Abolins; I. Adam; H. Aihara; J. Alitti

237

Food Allergy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Food allergies, defined as an immune response to food proteins, affect as many as 8% of young children and 2% of adults in westernized countries, and their prevalence appears to be rising like all allergic diseases. In addition to well-recognized urticaria and anaphylaxis triggered by IgE antibody-mediated immune responses, there is an increasing recognition of cell-mediated disorders such as eosinophilic esophagitis and food protein-induced enterocolitis. New knowledge is being developed on the pathogenesis of both IgE and non-IgE mediated disease. Currently, management of food allergies consists of educating the patient to avoid ingesting the responsible allergen and initiating therapy if ingestion occurs. However, novel strategies are being studied, including sublingual/oral immunotherapy and others with a hope for the future.

Cianferoni A

2013-05-01

238

Food safety.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food can never be entirely safe. Food safety is threatened by numerous pathogens that cause a variety of foodborne diseases, algal toxins that cause mostly acute disease, and fungal toxins that may be acutely toxic but may also have chronic sequelae, such as teratogenic, immunotoxic, nephrotoxic, and estrogenic effects. Perhaps more worrisome, the industrial activities of the last century and more have resulted in massive increases in our exposure to toxic metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic, which now are present in the entire food chain and exhibit various toxicities. Industrial processes also released chemicals that, although banned a long time ago, persist in the environment and contaminate our food. These include organochlorine compounds, such as 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene) (DDT), other pesticides, dioxins, and dioxin-like compounds. DDT and its breakdown product dichlorophenyl dichloroethylene affect the developing male and female reproductive organs. In addition, there is increasing evidence that they exhibit neurodevelopmental toxicities in human infants and children. They share this characteristic with the dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Other food contaminants can arise from the treatment of animals with veterinary drugs or the spraying of food crops, which may leave residues. Among the pesticides applied to food crops, the organophosphates have been the focus of much regulatory attention because there is growing evidence that they, too, affect the developing brain. Numerous chemical contaminants are formed during the processing and cooking of foods. Many of them are known or suspected carcinogens. Other food contaminants leach from the packaging or storage containers. Examples that have garnered increasing attention in recent years are phthalates, which have been shown to induce malformations in the male reproductive system in laboratory animals, and bisphenol A, which negatively affects the development of the central nervous system and the male reproductive organs. Genetically modified foods present new challenges to regulatory agencies around the world because consumer fears that the possible health risks of these foods have not been allayed. An emerging threat to food safety possibly comes from the increasing use of nanomaterials, which are already used in packaging materials, even though their toxicity remains largely unexplored. Numerous scientific groups have underscored the importance of addressing this issue and developing the necessary tools for doing so. Governmental agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration and other agencies in the USA and their counterparts in other nations have the increasingly difficult task of monitoring the food supply for these chemicals and determining the human health risks associated with exposure to these substances. The approach taken until recently focused on one chemical at a time and one exposure route (oral, inhalational, dermal) at a time. It is increasingly recognized, however, that many of the numerous chemicals we are exposed to everyday are ubiquitous, resulting in exposure from food, water, air, dust, and soil. In addition, many of these chemicals act on the same target tissue by similar mechanisms. "Mixture toxicology" is a rapidly growing science that addresses the complex interactions between chemicals and investigates the effects of cumulative exposure to such "common mechanism groups" of chemicals. It is to be hoped that this results in a deeper understanding of the risks we face from multiple concurrent exposures and makes our food supply safer. PMID:19911313

Borchers, Andrea; Teuber, Suzanne S; Keen, Carl L; Gershwin, M Eric

2010-10-01

239

Food safety.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Food can never be entirely safe. Food safety is threatened by numerous pathogens that cause a variety of foodborne diseases, algal toxins that cause mostly acute disease, and fungal toxins that may be acutely toxic but may also have chronic sequelae, such as teratogenic, immunotoxic, nephrotoxic, and estrogenic effects. Perhaps more worrisome, the industrial activities of the last century and more have resulted in massive increases in our exposure to toxic metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic, which now are present in the entire food chain and exhibit various toxicities. Industrial processes also released chemicals that, although banned a long time ago, persist in the environment and contaminate our food. These include organochlorine compounds, such as 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene) (DDT), other pesticides, dioxins, and dioxin-like compounds. DDT and its breakdown product dichlorophenyl dichloroethylene affect the developing male and female reproductive organs. In addition, there is increasing evidence that they exhibit neurodevelopmental toxicities in human infants and children. They share this characteristic with the dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Other food contaminants can arise from the treatment of animals with veterinary drugs or the spraying of food crops, which may leave residues. Among the pesticides applied to food crops, the organophosphates have been the focus of much regulatory attention because there is growing evidence that they, too, affect the developing brain. Numerous chemical contaminants are formed during the processing and cooking of foods. Many of them are known or suspected carcinogens. Other food contaminants leach from the packaging or storage containers. Examples that have garnered increasing attention in recent years are phthalates, which have been shown to induce malformations in the male reproductive system in laboratory animals, and bisphenol A, which negatively affects the development of the central nervous system and the male reproductive organs. Genetically modified foods present new challenges to regulatory agencies around the world because consumer fears that the possible health risks of these foods have not been allayed. An emerging threat to food safety possibly comes from the increasing use of nanomaterials, which are already used in packaging materials, even though their toxicity remains largely unexplored. Numerous scientific groups have underscored the importance of addressing this issue and developing the necessary tools for doing so. Governmental agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration and other agencies in the USA and their counterparts in other nations have the increasingly difficult task of monitoring the food supply for these chemicals and determining the human health risks associated with exposure to these substances. The approach taken until recently focused on one chemical at a time and one exposure route (oral, inhalational, dermal) at a time. It is increasingly recognized, however, that many of the numerous chemicals we are exposed to everyday are ubiquitous, resulting in exposure from food, water, air, dust, and soil. In addition, many of these chemicals act on the same target tissue by similar mechanisms. "Mixture toxicology" is a rapidly growing science that addresses the complex interactions between chemicals and investigates the effects of cumulative exposure to such "common mechanism groups" of chemicals. It is to be hoped that this results in a deeper understanding of the risks we face from multiple concurrent exposures and makes our food supply safer.

Borchers A; Teuber SS; Keen CL; Gershwin ME

2010-10-01

240

Food irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report seeks to provide an objective review of food irradiation in the context of UK and EC legislation, technological potential and consumer perspective. It is not a technical treatise but provides an extensive scientific bibliography. (UK).

Blackholly, Helen; Thomas, Paul (Bradford Univ. (United Kingdom). Food Policy Research Unit)

1989-03-01

 
 
 
 
241

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a growing tendency worldwide to apply ionizing radiation for food preservation, or for delaying growth or ripening processes. However, research into the effects of such irradiation with ionizing radiation is lagging behind, leaving the knowledge about effects and possible hazards incomplete. The authors very carefully have analysed the available research results and present a detailed account of the current scientific knowledge and assessments. Their conclusion is: irradiated food is to be considered noxious unless its wholesomeness has been unambiguously proven. Consumers so far had not much chance to raise their voice in the debate about the wholesomeness of food irradiation, or have not been heard, the authors say. They call for establishing a European and a worldwide information network to bring together opponents to and information speaking against food irradiation, in order to create a counterweight to the market strategies of the pro-irradiation industry, and to launch initiatives on the political level. (orig./HP).

1990-01-01

242

Food processing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The paper discusses the processes involved in food preparation for consumption and technological processing that could be used to reduce contamination of foodstuffs. The food processing transfer parameters - food processing retention factor, processing efficiency and the food processing factor - are defined and their relationships discussed. Data are presented for vegetables, fruit, cereals, dairy products, meat (mammals, birds and fish-edible fraction), fungi, seafoods and drinks. Processing procedures considered includes: simple washing and boiling for fruit, vegetables and mushrooms, boiling and milling for cereals, cooking and curing for meats, butter and cheese productions for dairy products and washing and cooking for seafoods. Storage times for foodstuffs have also been considered. A wide range of chemical elements are considered, with the majority of data presented caesium, strontium and iodine, stable element databases have been reviewed and relevant data used to extend the data set. A discussion of application of the data is presented with consideration of areas where cautions is needed. (author)

2009-01-01

243

Food and Your Bones  

Science.gov (United States)

... You are here Home » Food and Your Bones Food and Your Bones The food that you eat ... taking multivitamins or supplements . Good-for-Your-Bones Foods Food Nutrient Dairy products such as low-fat ...

244

Attitudes towards genetically modified and organic foods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Finnish students (N=3261) filled out a questionnaire on attitudes towards genetically modified and organic food, plus the rational-experiential inventory, the magical thinking about food and health scale, Schwartz's value survey and the behavioural inhibition scale. In addition, they reported their eating of meat. Structural equation modelling of these measures had greater explanatory power for attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) foods than for attitudes towards organic foods (OF). GM attitudes were best predicted by natural science education and magical food and health beliefs, which mediated the influence of thinking styles. Positive attitudes towards organic food, on the other hand, were more directly related to such individual differences as thinking styles and set of values. The results of the study indicate that OF attitudes are rooted in more fundamental personal attributes than GM attitudes, which are embedded in a more complex but also in a more modifiable network of characteristics. PMID:16546293

Saher, Marieke; Lindeman, Marjaana; Hursti, Ulla-Kaisa Koivisto

2006-03-20

245

Attitudes towards genetically modified and organic foods.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Finnish students (N=3261) filled out a questionnaire on attitudes towards genetically modified and organic food, plus the rational-experiential inventory, the magical thinking about food and health scale, Schwartz's value survey and the behavioural inhibition scale. In addition, they reported their eating of meat. Structural equation modelling of these measures had greater explanatory power for attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) foods than for attitudes towards organic foods (OF). GM attitudes were best predicted by natural science education and magical food and health beliefs, which mediated the influence of thinking styles. Positive attitudes towards organic food, on the other hand, were more directly related to such individual differences as thinking styles and set of values. The results of the study indicate that OF attitudes are rooted in more fundamental personal attributes than GM attitudes, which are embedded in a more complex but also in a more modifiable network of characteristics.

Saher M; Lindeman M; Hursti UK

2006-05-01

246

Does body posture influence hand preference in an ancestral primate model?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The origin of human handedness and its evolution in primates is presently under debate. Current hypotheses suggest that body posture (postural origin hypothesis and bipedalism hypothesis) have an important impact on the evolution of handedness in primates. To gain insight into the origin of manual lateralization in primates, we studied gray mouse lemurs, suggested to represent the most ancestral primate condition. First, we investigated hand preference in a simple food grasping task to explore the importance of hand usage in a natural foraging situation. Second, we explored the influence of body posture by applying a forced food grasping task with varying postural demands (sit, biped, cling, triped). Results The tested mouse lemur population did not prefer to use their hands alone to grasp for food items. Instead, they preferred to pick them up using a mouth-hand combination or the mouth alone. If mouth usage was inhibited, they showed an individual but no population level handedness for all four postural forced food grasping tasks. Additionally, we found no influence of body posture on hand preference in gray mouse lemurs. Conclusion Our results do not support the current theories of primate handedness. Rather, they propose that ecological adaptation indicated by postural habit and body size of a given species has an important impact on hand preference in primates. Our findings suggest that small-bodied, quadrupedal primates, adapted to the fine branch niche of dense forests, prefer mouth retrieval of food and are less manually lateralized than large-bodied species which consume food in a more upright, and less stable body posture.

Scheumann Marina; Joly-Radko Marine; Leliveld Lisette; Zimmermann Elke

2011-01-01

247

Does body posture influence hand preference in an ancestral primate model?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The origin of human handedness and its evolution in primates is presently under debate. Current hypotheses suggest that body posture (postural origin hypothesis and bipedalism hypothesis) have an important impact on the evolution of handedness in primates. To gain insight into the origin of manual lateralization in primates, we studied gray mouse lemurs, suggested to represent the most ancestral primate condition. First, we investigated hand preference in a simple food grasping task to explore the importance of hand usage in a natural foraging situation. Second, we explored the influence of body posture by applying a forced food grasping task with varying postural demands (sit, biped, cling, triped). RESULTS: The tested mouse lemur population did not prefer to use their hands alone to grasp for food items. Instead, they preferred to pick them up using a mouth-hand combination or the mouth alone. If mouth usage was inhibited, they showed an individual but no population level handedness for all four postural forced food grasping tasks. Additionally, we found no influence of body posture on hand preference in gray mouse lemurs. CONCLUSION: Our results do not support the current theories of primate handedness. Rather, they propose that ecological adaptation indicated by postural habit and body size of a given species has an important impact on hand preference in primates. Our findings suggest that small-bodied, quadrupedal primates, adapted to the fine branch niche of dense forests, prefer mouth retrieval of food and are less manually lateralized than large-bodied species which consume food in a more upright, and less stable body posture.

Scheumann M; Joly-Radko M; Leliveld L; Zimmermann E

2011-01-01

248

HAND-OPERATED GRASS SHEARS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention proposes mounting a handle arrangement (HA) in a pivotable manner relative to a blade support (GK, SK) or a cutting head of a blade support about a pivoting axis in order to produce hand-operated grass shears, said pivoting axis running perpendicular to the cutting plane of the blade arrangement. Advantageously, a pulling cable (ZS) is used for the force transmission between the handle arrangement (HA) and the blade arrangement (OM, UM), said pulling cable running along the pivoting axis (SA) at least along some sections.

REICHART VINCENT

249

Hand-Held Power Tool  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In a hand-held power tool with a drive motor and a clutch connected to the drive motor and having an output part, the drive pinion is fixedly connected to the output part of the clutch so as to be driven by the drive motor for driving a tool. The drive pinion has a first individual part and a second individual part that are fixedly connected to each other. The first individual part has a toothing and the second individual part is connected to the output part of the clutch.

HITTMANN MARKUS; SCHENK RALF; RETHABER ACHIM

250

A preliminary evaluation of the effect of glove use by food handlers in fast food restaurants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A study was conducted to determine whether the levels of selected microorganisms differed on foods handled by gloved and bare hands at fast food restaurants. Three hundred seventy-one plain flour tortillas were purchased from fast food restaurants and analyzed for Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., coliform bacteria, and heterotrophic plate count bacteria. Approximately 46% of the samples were handled by workers wearing gloves compared with 52% of samples with bare hand contact. Coliform bacteria were found in 9.6% of samples handled by gloved workers and 4.4% of samples handled by bare hands, although this difference was not statistically significant. The distribution of heterotrophic plate count bacteria, a general measure of hygiene, was also higher in samples handled by gloved workers in one restaurant chain. The presence of E. coli, Klebsiella sp., and S. aureus was detected in one, two, and eight samples, respectively, and there were no significant differences between samples handled by gloved or bare hands. Neither direct contact of the tortilla with the food preparation surface nor gender of the worker affected the level of any organism tested. The observed tendency of food workers to wear the same pair of gloves for extended periods and complacency might account for the apparent failure of gloves to reduce or prevent bacterial contamination. The results further suggest that glove use might be counterproductive because workers might wash their hands less frequently when gloved.

Lynch RA; Phillips ML; Elledge BL; Hanumanthaiah S; Boatright DT

2005-01-01

251

Nutrition - Food Guide Pyramid - Physical Activity  

Science.gov (United States)

Students will learn about the food guide pyramid, nutrition, physical activity and ways to implement it into their lives. Materials Needed: Computer, print outs as instructed below, paper and pencil. #1 What\\'s your food guide pyramid? Go to the following website. MyPyramid.gov Click on My Pyramid Plan on the right hand side. Enter your information and click submit. Your results will show. Print a PDF of your results and a Meal Tracking ...

King, Stacey M.

2007-11-30

252

On the Left-Handed, Right-Handed and Two-Sided Primes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper concerns a classification of prime numbers into left-handed, right-handed and two-sided prime numbers. It is conjectured that the number of right-handed primes is infinite. The paper gives a list of left-hand primes, a list of right-handed prime...

L. M. Chawla J. E. Maxfield A. Muwafi

1968-01-01

253

Palmar dermatoglyphics in congenital hand anomalies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A palmar dermatoglyphic study of 392 hands of patients with congenital hand anomalies was performed to evaluate the number of digital triradii, the position of an axial triradius, the incidence of hypothenar patterns, the pattern intensity, and the main line index. Remarkable variations, which are rare in normal hands, were frequently observed. The results deviated from the normal range in cases of ectrodactyly and syndactyly, but were within the normal range in cases of polydactyly. The dermatoglyphics associated with each type of hand anomaly was characteristic and discriminative. Dermatoglyphics was also helpful in evaluating the function of the hand, and in estimating the time of the damage to the hand in embryogenesis.

Watanabe K; Nakamura R; Miura T

1994-11-01

254

Factitious Lymphedema of the Hand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To report the case of a 39- year old unmarried female with factitious edema of the right hand two weeks after being struck by her brother and following self injury of the right arm. Method: A 39-year old unmarried female with severe edema of the right hand and forearm diagnosed as factitious lymphedema was admitted to Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital. After hospitalization, with elevation of affected limb, the edema had lessened. Thereafter, she was observed at ward rounds with a cloth bandage wrapped around her arm. The edema had recurred. Physical Examination as well as right upper extremity X ray was normal. In mental state examination, patient's mood was dysphonic, rather anxious, and denied tourniquet application; otherwise no prominent psychiatric symptoms were detected. Patient underwent psychotherapy and 20 my fluoxetetine on daily basis was administered. Results: Patient's symptoms relieved within eight weeks and discharged while accepted to adjust herself with the situations. Conclusion: Factitious etiology may be presuming in any patient with unilateral limb lymphedema when venous or lymphatic Pathology were missing. The patient may be suffering from emotional conflicts.

S. Ali Ahmadi Abhari; Nooshin Alimalayeri; S. Sina Ahmadi Abhari; Khadijeh Omidi Nobijari

2006-01-01

255

Steam generator hand hole shielding.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seabrook Station is an 1198 MWE Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) that began commercial operation in 1990. Expensive and dose intensive Steam Generator Replacement Projects among PWR operators have led to an increase in steam generator preventative maintenance. Most of this preventative maintenance is performed through access ports in the shell of the steam generator just above the tube sheet known as secondary side hand holes. Secondary side work activities performed through the hand holes are typically performed without the shielding benefit of water in the secondary side of the steam generator. An increase in cleaning and inspection work scope has led to an increase in dose attributed to steam generator secondary side maintenance. This increased work scope and the station goal of maintaining personnel radiation dose ALARA led to the development of the shielding concept described in this article. This shield design saved an estimated 2.5 person-rem (25 person-Smv) the first time it was deployed and is expected to save an additional 50 person-rem (500 person-mSv) over the remaining life of the plant. PMID:10770158

Cox, W E

2000-05-01

256

Portable hand-held tympanometer  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A portable, hand-held tympanometer that has the capability of performing the tympanometry and of displaying and storing the test results all within the hand-held instrument. A separate unit that is not in any way attached to the tympanometer during the testing is provided to print the test results and to recharge the tympanometer battery. The tympanometer has a body portion and a head portion to which a speculum is attached, the speculum being adapted to engage the canal of the ear being examined in sealed relation thereto. A speaker in the speculum transmits acoustic signals into the ear canal and a microphone in the speculum receives the signals that are reflected back through the canal by the tympanic membrane. A pressure transducer is located in the head portion of the tympanometer, and a miniature pump located in the body portion operates to introduce a range of pressures into the ear canal while the acoustic signals are being transmitted and received. The tympanometer also includes a liquid crystal display in the head portion which indicates the admittance of the tympanic membrane as determined by the speaker and microphone.

HELLER JAMES W; KUGLER ANDREW J; LONGACRE JR ANDREW; WILLIAMS DANIEL L

257

Food hygiene on the wards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A problem that is often overlooked or simply not given enough attention: the food served to patients from the kitchen is not sterile. If food is allowed to stand at room temperature for a long time, both in the case of food cooked for lunch and of food intended for supper which has been previously chilled, there is the possibility of massive spore germination or of dangerous toxin formation. Therefore regulations on how to handle food and beverages (e.g. tea) must be set out in the infection control policy, and checks carried out to monitor compliance with the rules relating to temperature checks, duration and type of storage, need for reheating, etc. Making staff aware of the issues involved is of paramount importance. These include monitoring hygiene standards in the ward kitchen, formulation of a cleaning policy, periodic bacteriological checks (not only of workstations but also of the dishwasher results), whenever possible the use of disposable cloths for working surfaces and equipment, changing cleaning cloths at least once daily and hygienic hand disinfection before and after handing out food. Foodstuffs brought in by visitors represent a special hygienic and organizational problem because in many cases they already have a high baseline microbial count. Visitors must be made aware that, for example, slices of cake left in the patient’s room and often eaten only hours later can pose a risk of infection.In summary, the following principles of food hygiene must be observed on the wards: * Maintenance of the cold-hot chain * Not only reheat food, but ensure it is well heated throughout * Avoid situations giving rise to spore germination in foodstuffs brought in by visitors * Cleanliness and minimal contamination of kitchen worktops * Cleanliness of crockery and kitchen towels * Do not allow food to stand at room temperature for a long time, in particular desserts and confectionery * A standard policy must be enforced to define the hygienic status and organization for food distribution for ward kitchens too.

Steuer, Walter

2007-01-01

258

Food hygiene on the wards.  

Science.gov (United States)

A PROBLEM THAT IS OFTEN OVERLOOKED OR SIMPLY NOT GIVEN ENOUGH ATTENTION: the food served to patients from the kitchen is not sterile. If food is allowed to stand at room temperature for a long time, both in the case of food cooked for lunch and of food intended for supper which has been previously chilled, there is the possibility of massive spore germination or of dangerous toxin formation. Therefore regulations on how to handle food and beverages (e.g. tea) must be set out in the infection control policy, and checks carried out to monitor compliance with the rules relating to temperature checks, duration and type of storage, need for reheating, etc. Making staff aware of the issues involved is of paramount importance. These include monitoring hygiene standards in the ward kitchen, formulation of a cleaning policy, periodic bacteriological checks (not only of workstations but also of the dishwasher results), whenever possible the use of disposable cloths for working surfaces and equipment, changing cleaning cloths at least once daily and hygienic hand disinfection before and after handing out food. Foodstuffs brought in by visitors represent a special hygienic and organizational problem because in many cases they already have a high baseline microbial count. Visitors must be made aware that, for example, slices of cake left in the patient's room and often eaten only hours later can pose a risk of infection.In summary, the following principles of food hygiene must be observed on the wards:Maintenance of the cold-hot chainNot only reheat food, but ensure it is well heated throughout Avoid situations giving rise to spore germination in foodstuffs brought in by visitorsCleanliness and minimal contamination of kitchen worktopsCleanliness of crockery and kitchen towels Do not allow food to stand at room temperature for a long time, in particular desserts and confectionery A standard policy must be enforced to define the hygienic status and organization for food distribution for ward kitchens too. PMID:20200664

Steuer, Walter

2007-09-13

259

Effects of hand wash agents: Prevent the laboratory associated infections  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find out the prevalence of bacteria and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in hands of the laboratory workers. Laboratory associated infections are an occupational hazard for laboratory workers in the microbiology laboratory. The workers can expose to infection if they do not properly wash their hands before taking food. Materials: Swabs from 35 laboratory workers was taken before and after applying the different disinfectants. The swabs were directly inoculated onto blood agar, MacConkey agar and nutrient agar. Inoculated plates were incubated at 37ºC for 24 hours. The antibiotic sensitivity testing was done by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method according to CLSI guidelines. Results: This study detects the major pathogenic bacteria in hands i.e. Staphylococcus aureus (40.58%), CoNS (21.74%), Klebsiella oxytoca and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8.70%) were isolated. Conclusion: This study helps to minimize the infections by proper hand washing and also minimizing the spread of infection from one person to others.

Singh Gurjeet, Urhekar AD, Raksha

2013-01-01

260

Food irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This volume reflects the current state of food irradiation. Three chapters are concerned with applications of irradiation to food processing; one general and two about important specific applications. The larger part of the book discusses the major problems of irradiation; acceptance and detection. Consumer acceptance varies from country to country, dependent upon attitude to new processes in general and 'atomic' processes in particular. Chapters have, therefore, been included to discuss acceptance and status in the United States, in Europe and in developing countries. Each chapter is processed separately. (author).

Thorne, Stuart (King' s Coll., London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Food Science) (ed.)

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Employing the Hand as an Interface Device  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We propose algorithms and applications for using the hand as an interface device in virtual and physical spaces. In virtual drawing, by tracking the hand in 3-D and estimating a virtual plane in space, the intended drawing of user is recognized. In a virtual marble game, the instantaneous orientation of the hand is simulated to render a graphical scene of the game board. Real-time visual feedback allows the user to navigate a virtual ball in a maze. In 3-D model construction, the system tracks the hand motion in space while the user is traversing edges of a physical object. The object is then rendered virtually by the computer. These applications involve estimating the 3-D absolute position and/or orientation of the hand in space. We propose parametric modelling of the central region of the hand to extract this information. A stereo camera is used to first build a preliminary disparity map of the hand. Then, the best fitting plane to the disparity points is computed using robust estimation. The 3-D hand plane is calculated based on the disparity plane and the position and orientation parameters of the hand. Tracking the hand region over a sequence of frames and coping with noise using robust modelling of the hand motion enables estimating the trajectory of the hand in space. The algorithms are real-time and experiments are presented to demonstrate the proposed applications of using the hand as an interface device.

Afshin Sepehri; Yaser Yacoob; Larry S. Davis

2006-01-01

262

Mitos e tabus da maternidade: um enfoque sobre o processo saúde-doença/ Myths and taboos of motherhood: focusing on the health-disease process/ Mitos y tabús de la maternidad: un enfoque sobre el proceso salud-enfermedad  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Objetivo: conhecer mitos e tabus relativos à maternidade e suas implicações no processo saúde/doença. Método: pesquisa desenvolvida na abordagem qualitativa, no ambiente natural, com mulheres de classes populares que vivenciaram a maternidade. A seleção dos sujeitos foi intencional e a coleta de dados realizada por meio de entrevistas e observação participante durante a prestação de cuidados à saúde dessas mulheres. A análise dos dados seguiu a orientação (more) da análise de conteúdo. Constatou-se que o tema em estudo permeia, como uma ideologia, o viver das mulheres. Mitos e tabus são relacionados à saúde/doença: higiene no pós-parto; proteção da integridade do recém-nascido; menstruação; alternativas para solucionar problemas de saúde; questões de gênero: condutas que seguem para evitar tornarem-se "mulheres fáceis". Há elementos que traduzem os valores culturais do cotidiano das mulheres e a necessidade da junção entre o conhecimento científico e as práticas populares. Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Conocer mitos y tabúes relativos a la maternidad y sus implicaciones en el proceso salud/enfermedad. Método: Investigación desarrollada en el abordaje cualitativo, en el ambiente natural, con mujeres de clases sociales populares que experimentaron la maternidad. La selección de los sujetos fue intencional y la recolección de datos realizada por medio de entrevistas y observación participante durante la prestación de atención a la salud de estas mujeres. (more) El análisis de los datos siguió la orientación del análisis de contenidos. Resultados: se constató que el tema en estudio penetra, como una ideología, en el vivir de las mujeres. Mitos y tabúes son relacionados a la salud/enfermedad: higiene en el pos-parto; protección de la integridad del recién-nacido; menstruo; alternativas para solucionar problemas de salud; cuestiones de género; conductas que siguen para evitar que se quedan "mujeres fáciles". Hay elementos que traducen los valores culturales del cotidiano de las mujeres y la necesidad de la combinación del conocimiento científico con las prácticas populares. Abstract in english Objective: To learn about myths and taboos related with motherhood and their implications in the health/disease process. Method: Study carried out using a qualitative approach, in a natural setting, with women of poor classes who experienced motherhood. The selection of subjects was performed intentionally, and data collection was made by means of semi-structured interviews and participant observation at the moment those women were given healthcare attention. Data analysi (more) s followed the content analysis. Results: The topic under study permeates, as an ideology, the women´s lives. The myths and taboos are related to health/disease: postpartum hygiene; protection of the newborn´s integrity; menses; alternatives for a solution of health problems; and gender issues, the conducts the women follow to avoid becoming "saucy" being evidenced. In the research, it was possible to capture elements that translate the cultural values of the women´s daily lives and the need for associating scientific knowledge with popular practices.

Luz, Anna Maria Hecker; Berni, Neiva Iolanda de Oliveira; Selli, Lucilda

2007-02-01

263

Food Safety and Hyienic Practices of Street Food Vendors in Owerri, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper examines the food safety and hygienic practices of street food vendors in Owerri, Nigeria. It argues that although street foods play an important role in meeting the food demands of urban dwellers, there are several health hazards associated with them. The study found that women made up 66.67% of the vendors while males made up 33.33%. The average age group was 31-40 years. 23.81% of the vendors prepared food in unhygienic conditions. 42.86% did not use aprons; 47.62% handled food with bare hands and 52.38% wore no hair covering while 61.90% handled money while serving food. 19.05% wore jewelry while serving food and 28.57% blew air into polythene bag before use. 9.52% of the vendors stored food for serving openly in the stalls while 23.81% stored them in the wheelbarrows. 42.86% had leftovers for serving the next day with poor storage facilities. 47.62% of the vendors washed their utensils with dirty water which is recycled and used severally in 28.57% despite the fact that only 9.52% of them complained of water shortages. Thr paper recommends that there is need for health education of these vendors in order to ensure food safety for the consumers. Keywords: food safety; hygienic; street food; vendors; Owerri Nigeria

Comfort O. Chukuezi

2010-01-01

264

Why Am I Left-Handed?  

Science.gov (United States)

... like righties. What Makes a Person Left- (or Right-) Handed? Scientists aren't sure why some people turn ... of your brain. Do You Fit in a Right-Handed World? Some products, like scissors, are made to ...

265

Food irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two letters comment on a previous editorial (Lancet, Feb. 28 1987). The following points are discussed: 1) Stated doses can be exceeded without detection. 2) The hazards and problems of detection of 'food renovation'. 3) Enforcement of labelling regulations. 4) Fraud on consumers. (U.K.).

Robbins, C.J.; Holmes, A.W.

1987-04-04

266

Food irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A summary of the conclusions by the Advisory Committee on Irradiated and Novel Foods set up by the DHSS in 1982 is presented. The main concerns of the report were with safety, nutritional value and control of the process. Selective quotes from the report are given as well as the dose ranges recommended for certain purposes. (U.K.).

Bender, A.E.

1986-06-01

267

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two letters comment on a previous editorial (Lancet, Feb. 28 1987). The following points are discussed: 1) Stated doses can be exceeded without detection. 2) The hazards and problems of detection of 'food renovation'. 3) Enforcement of labelling regulations. 4) Fraud on consumers. (U.K.).

1987-01-01

268

Food irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author reviews in outline the present status of industrial gamma irradiation plants for food and medical sterilization and in particular lists commercial irradiation plants currently operating in the U.K., considering briefly plant design, efficiency, costs and dose control. (UK).

Butcher, Charles

1989-09-01

269

Food Allergies  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the dangers of food allergies and the need to be aware if any friends or classmates have them.  Created: 4/23/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/23/2013.

2013-04-23

270

Food container  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Container for heating food in an electrical bread toaster or other radiant heating device comprises a closed or partially open pouch formed of flexible sheet material comprsing a woven fabric, such as glass or KEVLAR fibers, coated or impregnated with an electrically non-conductive heat resistant material, for example PTFE.

UNWIN GUY DARELL

271

FOOD PRODUCT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A food product which incorporates polyunsaturated fatty acids and an encapsulated pro-oxidant, said food product having a water activity of 0.75 or less. The pro-oxidants may be metal salts such as copper, manganese, iron and/or zinc salts. Sources of omega-3 fatty acids include fish oil. The present invention is directed especially to nutrition products, such as nutrition bars and soups, sweet powders and other food products, with a water activity (aw) of 0.75 or less, as well as to processes for preparing such products, wherein the products incorporate omega-3 and/or omega-6 and/or other polyunsaturated fatty acids in combination with encapsulated pro-oxidants, such as salts of copper, iron, manganese and zinc.The formulations according to the invention can be expected to have a very good shelf life, yet include polyunsaturated fatty acids which generally have a tendency to oxidize, together with normally pro-oxidant compounds in encapsulated form. Previously, it would have been expected that where pro-oxidants and omega-3 or other unsaturated fatty acids are combined in the same formulation, the fatty acids would oxidize and the shelf life of the food product would be unacceptable.

PALMER ALAN EDWARD; RUDAN BRENDA JEAN; GAUTAM AKHILESH; PATRICK MATTHEW; DAGERATH MICHAEL LYNN

272

FOOD PRODUCT.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A food product which incorporates polyunsaturated fatty acids and an encapsulated pro-oxidant, said food product having a water activity of 0.75 or less. The pro-oxidants may be metal salts such as copper, manganese, iron and/or zinc salts. Sources of omega-3 fatty acids include fish oil. The present invention is directed especially to nutrition products, such as nutrition bars and soups, sweet powders and other food products, with a water activity (aw) of 0.75 or less, as well as to processes for preparing such products, wherein the products incorporate omega-3 and/or omega-6 and/or other polyunsaturated fatty acids in combination with encapsulated pro-oxidants, such as salts of copper, iron, manganese and zinc. The formulations according to the invention can be expected to have a very good shelf life, yet include polyunsaturated fatty acids which generally have a tendency to oxidize, together with normally pro-oxidant compounds in encapsulated form. Previously, it would have been ex pected that where pro-oxidants and omega-3 or other unsaturated fatty acids are combined in the same formulation, the fatty acids would oxidize and the shelf life of the food product would be unacceptable.

GAUTAM AKHILESH; PALMER ALAN EDWARD; RUDAN BRENDA JEAN; PATRICK MATTHEW; DAGERATH MICHAEL LYNN

273

SOFT TISSUE COVERAGE IN HAND  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The foucher flap is a cutaneous island with a pedicle that has the triple advantages of arterial, venous, and neural connections.The foucher flap can cover a defect within a radius equal to the length of its pedicle. It can be used in an emergency to preservea distal thumb fragment whose vascular repair by micro-surgical means is not possible. Objective: Evaluation of the role offoucher island. Design: Prospective study Setting: Orthopaedic unit Bahawal Victoria Hospital Bahawalpur. Period: Oct 1994to Dec 1998. Materials & Method: The procedure has been employed in four patients. All male patients of ranging age from 6-40years. Results: Good results in all four cases regarding to our criteria. Conclusion: Foucher island flap is recommended tocoverage the soft tissue defects over the volar and dorsal aspect of the hand and especially over the distal thumb.

BASHARAT MANZOOR

2003-01-01

274

HAND-HELD ELECTRIC BLOWER  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a hand-held electric blower (1) including an air-guiding pipe (2) comprising a proximal portion or suction pipe (3) provided with an air inlet (4), a distal air outlet portion or exhaust nozzle (5), and a fan (6). According to the invention, said fan (6) is characterized in that it consists of an axial fan (6), and in that said suction pipe (3) has, upstream from the axial fan (6), an elbow (8), the proximal end of which defines the air inlet (4) and is directed downward in terms of a working position of the device, in which the operating handle (10) of the blower is positioned above said elbow.

PELLENC ROGER

275

Mental rotation of congenitally absent hands.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We compared motor imagery performance of normally limbed individuals with that of individuals with one or both hands missing since birth (i.e., hand amelia). To this aim, 14 unilaterally and 2 bilaterally amelic participants performed a task requiring the classification of hands depicted in different degrees of rotation as either a left or a right hand. On the same task, 24 normally limbed participants recapitulated previously reported effects; that is, that the hand motor dominance and, more generally, a lifelong use of hands are important determinants of left-right decisions. Unilaterally amelic participants responded slower to hands corresponding to their absent, compared with their existing, hand. Moreover, left and right hand amelic participants showed prolonged reaction times to hands (whether left or right) depicted in unnatural orientations compared with natural orientations. Among the bilateral amelics, the individual with phantom sensations, but not the one without, showed similar differentiation. These findings demonstrate that the visual recognition of a hand never physically developed is prolonged, but still modulated by different rotation angles. They are further compatible with the view that phantom limbs in hand amelia may constrain motor imagery as much as do amputation phantoms.

Funk M; Brugger P

2008-01-01

276

Hand dermatitis in beauticians in India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One hundred and sixty-one beauticians and hairdressers (146 women and 15 men) were examined for the presence of hand dermatitis and those with hand eczema were patch tested with a battery of antigens standardised for beauticians. Forty-two (26.1%) subjects were found to have hand dermatitis a...

Khanna Neena

277

Acute Dorsal Hand Burns in Children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hand burns in children, whether isolated or part of massive burns, require special attention. A crucial element in this respect is the preservation and full restoration of hand function. Most cases of severe sequelae after burns are associated with hand burns. From January 2002 to November 2004, 125...

Argirova, M.; Hadzhiyski, O.

278

Greening food processing industries in Vietnam: constraints and opportunities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The food processing industry is a large, rapidly growing sector in Vietnam and plays a vital role in its country’s economic development. However, its development currently seems to go hand-in-hand with environmental deterioration. Up to now, most research and development activities, regulations and ...

Tran Thi My Dieu

279

Greening Food Processing Industries in Vietnam: Opportunities and Constraints  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The food processing sector in Vietnam plays a vital role in its economic development, but its rapid growth seems to go hand-in-hand with environmental deterioration. Several decades of applying the conventional end-of-pipe approach made clear that it only deals with treating the symptoms. It is nece...

Tran Thi My Dieu

280

Food & Color Additive Petitions  

Science.gov (United States)

Resources related to food and color additive petitions, including petitions currently held in abeyance. Quick ... Food. Print; ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/foodadditivesingredients

 
 
 
 
281

A Squeeze of the Hand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available My colleague Andy Fitch and I recorded forty-five-minute dialogues for thirty straight days around New York City. Half these talks took place at a Union Square health-food store that we call “W.F.” Other locations included MoMA, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Metropolitan Opera House, Central Park, Prospect Park, and a Tribeca parking garage. What follows is our twentieth conversation. Here sickness, emptiness, a train delay, and an argument seem to prefigure disaster and the project’s sudden end. But this disaster—much like the two-character Japanese word for “crisis”: the first one meaning “danger,” the second, “opportunity”—offers clarities perhaps best expressed by a Japanese proverb:Luck turnsWait

Jon Cotner; Andy Fitch

2012-01-01

282

The effect of hand splints on stereotypic hand behavior in Rett's syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of hand splints and one elbow restraint on persistent stereotypic hand movements of four girls with Rett's syndrome. Among the most characteristic features of Rett's syndrome are stereotypic hand wringing and loss of previously acquired functional hand skills. Hand splints and one elbow restraint were used in this study. The subject's stereotypic hand behavior and functional hand use were calculated from five-minute segmental video tape recordings. The study consisted of three phases: baseline, intervention, and withdrawal. All subjects demonstrated a decrease in stereotypic hand behavior after the application of hand splints. Although splints showed a positive effect on hand movements in Rett's syndrome, they could also lead to other, undesirable, movements. Whether splints have a positive effect on the functional use of the hand should be investigated in more subjects. PMID:11858375

Bumin, Gonca; Uyanik, Mine; Kayihan, Hülya; Düger, Tülin; Topçu, Meral

283

Toucan hand feeding and nestling growth.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A retrospective analysis of hand-feeding records and growth data from 3 facilities was performed to determine the growth pattern for 8 toucan species raised in captivity. General philosophies of breeding and rearing were similar but approaches to hand-feeding varied. General hand-feeding and chick management records from hatch to fledging were reviewed for 2 of the 3 facilities. Effective hand-feeding formulas were commercially available and minimally modified. Growth curves were developed. Curves approximated typical expected patterns of nestling growth with no loss of weight at fledging. This study provides a basis for hand-feeding protocols and growth curves to assess development.

St Leger J; Vince M; Jennings J; McKerney E; Nilson E

2012-05-01

284

[Hand motor dysfunctions in computer users].  

Science.gov (United States)

It were studied 239 female typists aged from 16 to 62 years (mean age 20,1±7,8 years) using author's questionnaire for computer typists to assess hand function and develop preventive measures of disturbances revealed. Indirect signs of tunnel hand neuropathy (27,2%), focal hand dystonia (21,4%) and muscular-tonic syndromes of different localization (18%) have been found. Typists are a risk group of fine hand motor dysfunctions. As preventive measures, authors recommend to use computer auxiliary devices, to change a motor stereotype during the day, to make hand "motor holidays", to organize working place. PMID:21183901

Shavlovskaia, O A; Shvarkov, S B; Posokhov, S I

2010-01-01

285

[Hand motor dysfunctions in computer users].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It were studied 239 female typists aged from 16 to 62 years (mean age 20,1±7,8 years) using author's questionnaire for computer typists to assess hand function and develop preventive measures of disturbances revealed. Indirect signs of tunnel hand neuropathy (27,2%), focal hand dystonia (21,4%) and muscular-tonic syndromes of different localization (18%) have been found. Typists are a risk group of fine hand motor dysfunctions. As preventive measures, authors recommend to use computer auxiliary devices, to change a motor stereotype during the day, to make hand "motor holidays", to organize working place.

Shavlovskaia OA; Shvarkov SB; Posokhov SI

2010-01-01

286

High-risk food consumption and food safety practices in a Canadian community.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Understanding consumers' high-risk food consumption patterns and food handling in the home is critical in reducing foodborne illness. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of unsafe food practices of individuals in a Canadian-based population, specifically, high-risk food consumption and home food safety practices. During November 2005 to March 2006, a sample of 2,332 randomly selected residents of the Waterloo Region (Ontario, Canada) participated in a telephone survey of food consumption and food safety. Questions covered consumption of high-risk foods, hand washing practices, safe food handling knowledge, source of food safety education, meat thawing and cooking practices, cross-contamination after raw food preparation, and refrigeration temperatures. Certain high-risk food behaviors were common among respondents and were associated with demographic characteristics. In general, unsafe practices increased with increasing total annual household income level. Males were more likely to report engaging in risky practices than were females. Specific high-risk behaviors of public health concern were reported by elderly individuals (e.g., consuming undercooked eggs), children (e.g., consuming chicken nuggets), and rural residents (e.g., drinking unpasteurized milk). Respondents appeared to know proper food safety practices, but did not put them into practice. Thus, educational programs emphasizing specific practices to improve food safety should be directed to targeted audiences, and they should stress the importance of consumer behavior in the safety of foods prepared at home. Further investigation of consumer perceptions is needed to design such programs to effectively increase the implementation of safe food practices by consumers.

Nesbitt A; Majowicz S; Finley R; Marshall B; Pollari F; Sargeant J; Ribble C; Wilson J; Sittler N

2009-12-01

287

High-risk food consumption and food safety practices in a Canadian community.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding consumers' high-risk food consumption patterns and food handling in the home is critical in reducing foodborne illness. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of unsafe food practices of individuals in a Canadian-based population, specifically, high-risk food consumption and home food safety practices. During November 2005 to March 2006, a sample of 2,332 randomly selected residents of the Waterloo Region (Ontario, Canada) participated in a telephone survey of food consumption and food safety. Questions covered consumption of high-risk foods, hand washing practices, safe food handling knowledge, source of food safety education, meat thawing and cooking practices, cross-contamination after raw food preparation, and refrigeration temperatures. Certain high-risk food behaviors were common among respondents and were associated with demographic characteristics. In general, unsafe practices increased with increasing total annual household income level. Males were more likely to report engaging in risky practices than were females. Specific high-risk behaviors of public health concern were reported by elderly individuals (e.g., consuming undercooked eggs), children (e.g., consuming chicken nuggets), and rural residents (e.g., drinking unpasteurized milk). Respondents appeared to know proper food safety practices, but did not put them into practice. Thus, educational programs emphasizing specific practices to improve food safety should be directed to targeted audiences, and they should stress the importance of consumer behavior in the safety of foods prepared at home. Further investigation of consumer perceptions is needed to design such programs to effectively increase the implementation of safe food practices by consumers. PMID:20003742

Nesbitt, Andrea; Majowicz, Shannon; Finley, Rita; Marshall, Barbara; Pollari, Frank; Sargeant, Jan; Ribble, Carl; Wilson, Jeff; Sittler, Nancy

2009-12-01

288

Food Nanotechnology - Food Packaging Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part, the impetus for this predicted growth is the ...

289

Food Nanotechnology: Food Packaging Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part the impetus for this predicted growth is the e...

290

The effect of "anatomical plausibility" of hand angle on the rubber-hand illusion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the rubber-hand illusion (RHI), when an actual hand hidden from view and a rubber hand in view are simultaneously stimulated, participants mistakenly perceive tactile sensation as arising from the rubber hand, not from the actual hand. Some studies have revealed that the magnitude of RHI decreases when the actual and rubber hand are incongruent in terms of hand angle. However, the acceptable range of angular deviations between the actual and rubber hand and its determination factor has not been investigated so far. I attempt to examine the angle-congruency effect between the actual and rubber hands on RHI. The left rubber hand simulated by 3-D computer graphics was rotated at 8 angles. Participants perceived higher ownership of the stimulated rubber hand when the angles were at 0 degrees, 45 degrees, 90 degrees, and 315 degrees (these are easy to mimic with the actual hand) than at 180 degrees, 225 degrees, and 270 degrees (these are difficult to mimic with the actual hand). The perceived location of the actual hand became closer to that of the simulated rubber hand with increased perception of ownership of the rubber hand. Moreover, the onset duration of RHI became shorter, especially for the angles of 0 degrees, 45 degrees, and 315 degrees. These results suggest that RHI occurs mainly within the range where people usually rotate their hand and that body representation might include the knowledge of "anatomical plausibility".

Ide M

2013-01-01

291

Food irradiation: A contribution to food security  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For food security at the national level every country needs to evolve its own strategies to maintain a continuous supply of food between seasons. Research and development over the past 30 years have clearly demonstrated that food irradiation is a safe, effective and environmentally clean process of food preservation. The technology is beginning to play an important role in reducing post-harvest losses of food and in facilitating wider distribution of food in the trade. 1 fig., 1 tab

1989-01-01

292

Food allergens: Hypersensitivity to food and food constituents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Adverse reactions to food which occur only in susceptible individuals may result from true physical hypersensitivity to components of foods or from psychological factors. Non-allergic food hypersensitivity may be due to a metabolic defect in the affected individual, while in food allergy immune mech...

Stankovi? Ivan

293

Food Irradiation In Vietnam And Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2008, Japan Atomic Energy Commission of Cabinet Office performed the study of current status of food irradiation in the world. The results showed that the total quantity of irradiated foods in 2005 was 405,000 tons. Seven main countries for food irradiation were China, USA, Ukraine, Brazil, South Africa, Vietnam and Japan. In Japan, only the potato irradiation for sprout inhibition is continued more than 35 years since 1974 but the quantity is decreasing. On the other hand, the food irradiation of Vietnam has been developed rapidly in a short time to export the frozen seafood and fruit. This paper shows the status of food irradiation in Vietnam and Japan, and the progress in both countries after 2005. (author)

2011-01-01

294

FDA Food Code  

Science.gov (United States)

The Food Code represents FDA's best advice for a system of provisions that address the safety and protection of food offered at retail and in food ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/retailfoodprotection

295

FOOD PRODUCT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Firm food products that are suitable for cold use as a spreadable product and for hot use as a frying medium, can be obtained if the products comprise 20 to 80 wt% fat, whereby the fat is present as a clumped fat network. A hydrophilic emulsifier is also present. These products do not show severe spattering when used as a frying medium and are preferably high temperature ambient stable (at temperatures greater than or equal to 25 ·C).

DANIELS Stephen Charles; NORTON Ian Timothy; PELAN Edward G.; WILLIAMS Andrea

296

Food product  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Firm food products that are suitable for cold use as a spreadable product and for hot use as a frying medium, can be obtained if the products comprise 20 to 80 wt % fat, whereby the fat is present as a clumped fat network. A hydrophilic emulsifier is also present. These products do not show severe spattering when used as a frying medium and are preferably high temperature ambient stable (at temperatures greater than or equal to 25° C.).

DANIELS STEPHEN CHARLES; NORTON IAN TIMOTHY; PELAN EDWARD G; WILLIAMS ANDREA

297

Food Court  

Science.gov (United States)

This unit of four lessons from NCTM's Illuminations lets students conduct surveys and represent data in a variety of ways. They also find and compare measures of center. The lessons center around a food court, where students create and use menus in a meaningful way. Topics covered include bar graphs, line plots, and pictographs, measures of center, and probability of events. Individual lessons link to related tools where appropriate, and include questions for students, assessment options, and teacher reflection questions.

Burton, Grace M.

2008-01-01

298

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The conference was a combined event and at the same time was a meeting of the FAIR programme of the EU, under the responsibility of the General Directorate XII, participating countries including Iceland, Norway, Hungary, and Switzerland in addition to the 15 EU member states. Under this roof, research work is sponsored in the fields of food technology, fishing industry, agriculture, forestry, and water resources management. Also, financial support is available for the mid-range food and agricultural industry, or for projects promoting rural development. There currently are over 120 transnational FAIR projects, involving more than 2000 researchers in 233 EU-sponsored research projects devoted to food aspects, some having been presented at the conference. (orig./CB)[de] Die Tagung ist zugleich auch eine Veranstaltung des FAIR-Programmes der EU, das von der Generaldirektion XII betreut wird. Neben den 15 EU-Mitgliedstaaten sind noch Island, Norwegen, Ungarn und die Schweiz beteiligt. Forschungsarbeiten in den Bereichen Lebensmitteltechnologie, Fischerei, Land-, Forst- und Wasserwirtschaft werden ueber Kooperationsvorhaben gefoerdert; daneben wird auch direkt die mittelstaendische Lebensmittel- und Agrarindustrie gefoerdert; daneben wird auch direkt die mittelstaendische Lebensmittel- und Agrarindustrie gefoerdert sowie Projekte der laendlichen Entwicklung finanziert werden. Die FAIR-Projekte bestehen zur Zeit aus ueber 120 transnationalen Vorhaben, mehr als 2000 Forscher sind Teilnehmer an insgesamt 233 EU-Forschungsvorhaben im Lebensmittelbereich; darunter auch Teilnehmer der Tagung. (orig.SR)

1999-01-01

299

Giant grants a free hand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'I had a relatively free hand from my associates when choosing a partner. When we had compared business structures, considered the mutual chemistry and the attitude of French people concerning management, the decision process was made easier.' That's how Peter Strycek, general director of Hetech Services, describes the preparations for agreements. It worked. The Slovak supplier of heat and services for technical operations of buildings, has belonged to the GDF SUEZ company since Monday. At the beginning, at the conclusion of 2005, there was the idea to consolidate the businesses of three companies beneath one roof. That's how informally the shareholding company Hetech Services was founded. It started to manage the business of the Bratislava heat suppliers, Racianska Teplarenska and Prva Ruzinovska; including supplier of technical services AB Spravcovska. Along with activities of the head company Hetech Services installed low-current equipment in buildings, did construction supervision and for a longer period it did business with technological equipment for buildings. The company's business expanded. At the end of the year before last, Strycek announced an interest from multinational players in joining. It didn't take long and the three interested parties came to an agreement. At the beginning of last summer the owners of Hetech, Bratislava real estate businessmen, came to an agreement with the managers of the multinational energy giant GDF SUEZ, which had been founded shortly beforehand with the merger of two global players in the industry. (authors)

2009-01-22

300

Inexpensive and Time-Efficient Hand Hygiene Interventions Increase Elementary School Children's Hand Hygiene Rates  

Science.gov (United States)

|Routine hand hygiene has been cited by the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a cost-effective and important hygiene measure in preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Several studies have explored children's hand hygiene habits, effects of scheduled hand hygiene, hand hygiene environmental…

Snow, Michelle; White, George L.; Kim, Han S.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Comparison of traditional hand wash with alcoholic hand rub in ICU setup  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Nosocomial infection rate are often higher for intensive care unit (ICU) than other units of hospitals, and hands of health-care workers (HCWs) play a major role in the transmission of the infections. Aim: To compare the efficacy of conventional hand wash with the hand rub in reducing the transient bacterial flora on the hands of nurses in ICU. Subject and Methods: The 34 nurses posted in our ICU during January-March 2003 were included. A total of 204 samples were collected for the residual bacterial flora on fingers using impression method on MacConkey agar plates. The subjects then used alcoholic hand rub or conventional hand wash and the residual bacterial flora rechecked by testing impression of fingers on MacConkey agar. Results: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., nonlactose fermenting Gram-negative bacilli, staphylococci, and streptococci formed the transient bacterial flora on the hands. Moderate to heavy bacterial density was seen in more than 92.2% of the hands before washing or hand rub application. Conventional hand wash resulted in drastic reduction in the transient bacterial flora on hands in 50% cases whereas alcoholic hand rub achieved the effect in 95% of the samples. Conclusion: Compared with conventional hand wash, alcoholic hand rub is far more efficient in reducing transient bacterial flora on the hands of HCWs and it is more convenient and time saving. It is recommended as a hand hygiene practice in critical areas such as ICU.

Maliekal Mona; Hemvani Nanda; Ukande Usha; Geed Sanjay; Bhattacherjee Maitreyee; George Julie; Chitnis D

2005-01-01

302

Package those Foods!  

Science.gov (United States)

This activity provides students with the opportunity to create a food package for a specific food. The students have three components to focus on in the design of their food package. The package will have to keep the food clean, protect or aid in the physical and chemical changes that can take place in the food, and identify the food appealingly.

Engineering K-Ph.d. Program

303

Hemispheric asymmetries in goal-directed hand movements are independent of hand preference.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Asymmetries in the kinematics and neural substrates of voluntary right and left eye-hand coordinated movements have been accredited to differential hemispheric specialization. An alternative explanation for between-hand movement differences could result from hand preference related effects. To test both assumptions, an experiment was conducted with left- and right-handers performing goal-directed movements with either hand paced by a metronome. Spatiotemporal accuracy was comparable between hands, whereas hand peak velocity was reached earlier when moving with the left compared to the right hand. The underlying brain activation patterns showed that both left- and right-handers activated more areas involved in visuomotor attention and saccadic control when using their left compared to the right hand. Altogether, these results confirm a unique perceptuomotor processing specialization of the left brain/right hand system that is independent of hand preference.

Lavrysen A; Heremans E; Peeters R; Wenderoth N; Feys P; Swinnen SP; Helsen WF

2012-09-01

304

Bacteriology and epidemiology of hand infections  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Infection is one of the most serious and important causes of hand swelling. Neglect or incomplete treatment of hand infections will usually lead to involvement of other parts of the hand resulting in stiffness, loss of hand function, and possibly amputation (Figure 1). Hand infections are common conditions that have significant morbidity. Referral is often delayed and infections present late. Hand infections should be managed by an experienced surgeon. The aims of the inv (more) estigation were: to identify the spectrum of organisms and appropriate antibiotics for hand infection; and to characterise the patterns and sites of hand infections. This information was collected against the background of a high prevalence of HiV-infected patients and increasing antibiotic resistance. A total of 66 patients treated for hand infections over a period of six months in Pelonomi Hospital, Bloemfontein, South Africa, was prospectively recruited for the study. Staphylococcus aureus was the commonest isolate. Results show that cloxacillin is still an effective first line antibiotic for community-acquired hand infections in the absence of immunosuppression. Alternative empiric therapy would be clindamycin - especially in the beta-lactam intolerant patient. Erythromycin also proved to have a favourable profile. HIV-positive patients were more prone to Gram-negative infections.

Greyling, JF; Visser, E; Elliot, E

2012-01-01

305

Food justice and Christian ethics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article dealt with the moral and political problem of international food justice in which the deep contradiction between the present situation of malnourishment and starvation in large parts of the global population on the one hand and the biblical notion of the preferential option for the poor on the other hand was described. This ecumenically widely accepted notion was clarified in several aspects. How deeply this is rooted in the history of Christian social thought was shown by Martin Luther’s writings on the economy which have remained relatively unknown in the churches and in the scholarly world. The article then presented three models of Christian economic ethic: the technical economic model, the utopian economic model and the public theological economic model. On the basis of the public theological model seven challenges for international food justice were presented. The basis for these challenges is an understanding of globalisation which guarantees just participation for everyone and deals with nature in an ecologically sustainable way. The interests of small farmers are the basis for judging the activities of big agro-corporations. Public theology is the background for an active involvement of the churches as agents of a global civil society to promote international food justice.

Heinrich Bedford-Strohm

2012-01-01

306

[Indicators of contamination and their relation to the presence of Escherichia coli in ready-to-eat foods].  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between indicator microorganism counts and the presence of Escherichia coli was determined in ready-to-eat food in food stores. Aerobic counts (CA), total coliforms (CT) and molds and yeast (ML) were registered in each food sample as well as the presence of E. coli in food, surface and hand samples. There was a high percentage of E. coli in cooked food (46% in 1 g), in raw food (31% in 0.1 g), in surfaces (37%) and in hands (21%). Significant correlations were found in CT, CA and ML in cooked food (P = 0.0001); no significant correlations were found in raw food (P > 0.01). The CT count in cooked food with E. coli was significantly higher than CT count in cooked food without E. coli (median 5.00 cfu/g and 1.54 cfu/g, respectively). Meanwhile, no significant differences were found in raw food. PMID:12920989

de Sousa, G B; Tamagnini, L M; González, R D

307

[Indicators of contamination and their relation to the presence of Escherichia coli in ready-to-eat foods  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The relationship between indicator microorganism counts and the presence of Escherichia coli was determined in ready-to-eat food in food stores. Aerobic counts (CA), total coliforms (CT) and molds and yeast (ML) were registered in each food sample as well as the presence of E. coli in food, surface and hand samples. There was a high percentage of E. coli in cooked food (46% in 1 g), in raw food (31% in 0.1 g), in surfaces (37%) and in hands (21%). Significant correlations were found in CT, CA and ML in cooked food (P = 0.0001); no significant correlations were found in raw food (P > 0.01). The CT count in cooked food with E. coli was significantly higher than CT count in cooked food without E. coli (median 5.00 cfu/g and 1.54 cfu/g, respectively). Meanwhile, no significant differences were found in raw food.

de Sousa GB; Tamagnini LM; González RD

2003-04-01

308

Fast Foods, Organic Foods, Fad Diets  

Science.gov (United States)

There is no standard definition of fast food. Generally, fast food is eaten without cutlery, and fast-food restaurants have no wait staff. Failure to have a standardized definition makes it difficult to compare studies. Foods available outside the home tend to be high in energy and fat compared w...

309

Food irradiation: its role in food safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are food safety criteria generally defined by international groups and specifically defined by individual countries. Food irradiation will be discussed in the light of food safety regulations. The merits and acceptability of food irradiation in promoting trade within and between countries will also be discussed. The need for public awareness and training of technical personnel will be highlighted

1985-01-01

310

Hand washing Compliance - Is It A Reality?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Transmission of microorganisms from the hands of health care workers is the main source of cross-infection in hospitals and can be prevented by hand washing. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of noncompliance with hand washing during routine patient care.Materials And Methods: This is an observational study. The participants in the study were Health Care Workers (HCWs). Doctors, nurses and ward aides working in different wards of the hospital who were observed for compliance with hand washing.Results: In 270 observed opportunities for hand washing, average compliance was 63.3%. Noncompliance was highest among doctors followed by nurses. Ward aides were most compliant. Conclusions: Compliance with hand washing was moderate. Variation across the hospital ward and type of HCW suggests that targeted educational programs may be useful. Noncompliance suggests that understaffing may decrease quality of patient care.

Suchitra JB; Lakshmidevi N

2007-01-01

311

Two Hand Gesture Recognition Using Stereo Camera  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper proposes method for gesturerecognition by two hands. In this research stereo camera wasused to calculate depth map of the frame. Based on depthinformation precise tracking of the hands was applied. Depthmap calculates in hardware level. Oversensitivity of camera tolight generates horizontal noise. Especially appeared horizontalnoise affects on tracking two hands located in same altitude. Inthis paper we suggest masking method to avoid horizontal noisein software level.

Rustam Rakhimov lgorevich; Pusik Park; Jongchan Choi; Dugki Min

2013-01-01

312

The diabetic hand: a forgotten complication?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The manifestations of diabetes in the hand were much discussed in the 1970s and 1980s. The present review aims to revisit the diabetic hand and to discuss the pathology of the hand that may be clinically important in diabetic patients. In the strict sense of the term, the "diabetic hand" encompasses the three most widely studied conditions which have traditionally been associated with diabetes, namely limited joint mobility, Dupuytren's contracture and trigger finger. There is evidence that these entities are significantly more frequent in patients with diabetes and also that they may be associated with diabetes duration, poor metabolic control and presence of microvascular complications. In a more general sense, though, there are other conditions affecting the hands, which also occur more frequently in diabetes. From a practical point of view, increased alertness both for neuropathic hand ulcers in patients with profound neuropathy and for diabetic hand infections is absolutely necessary. Recently, reduced hand strength is beginning to be recognized as a further complication of diabetes. Thus, the hand may reveal substantial pathology in diabetes, and ideally, clinical examination should not ignore it.

Papanas N; Maltezos E

2010-05-01

313

Survival of pneumococcus on hands and fomites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Pneumococcal hand contamination in Indigenous children in remote communities is common (37%). It is not clear whether this requires frequent inoculation, or if pneumococci will survive on hands for long periods of time. Thus the aim of this study was to determine the survival time of pneumococci on hands and fomites. Findings The hands of 3 adult volunteers, a glass plate and plastic ball were inoculated with pneumococci suspended in two different media. Survival at specified time intervals was determined by swabbing and re-culture onto horse blood agar. Pneumococci inoculated onto hands of volunteers were recovered after 3 minutes at 4% to 79% of the initial inoculum. Recovery from one individual was consistently higher. By one hour, only a small number of pneumococci were recovered and this was dependent on the suspension medium used. At subsequent intervals and up to 3 hours after inoculation, Conclusion The poor survival of pneumococci on hands suggests that the high prevalence of pneumococcal hand contamination in some populations is related to frequent inoculation rather than long survival. It is plausible that hand contamination plays a (brief) role in transmission directly, and indirectly through contamination via fomites. Regular hand washing and timely cleansing or removal of contaminated fomites may aid control of pneumococcal transmission via these routes.

Smith-Vaughan Heidi; Crichton Faith; Beissbarth Jemima; Morris Peter S; Leach Amanda J

2008-01-01

314

Replace hand washing with use of a waterless alcohol hand rub?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hand hygiene is one of the basic components of any infection control program and is frequently considered synonymous with hand washing. However, health care workers frequently do not wash their hands, and compliance rarely exceeds 40%. Hand rubbing with a waterless, alcohol-based rub-in cleanser is commonly used in many European countries instead of hand washing. Scientific evidence and ease of use support employment of a hand rub for routine hand hygiene. It is microbiologically more effective in vitro and in vivo, it saves time, and preliminary data demonstrate better compliance than with hand washing. Therefore, a task force comprising experts from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and from professional societies is designing guidelines for the use of a hand rub in the United States. Today, most countries of Northern Europe recommend a hand rub for hand hygiene unless the hands are visibly soiled. Side effects are rare and are mainly related to dryness of the skin. This review evaluates the scientific and clinical evidence that support the use of alcohol-based hand rubs in health care facilities as a new option for hand hygiene.

Widmer AF

2000-07-01

315

Food preservation by irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The process of food irradiation involves exposing the food to ionizing radiation so that a prescribed quantity is absorbed. Radiation sources used for food irradiation are gamma rays from Co/sub 60/ or Cs/sub 137/, x-rays, or electron beams. Some highlights in food irradiation are improvement of food hygiene, decontamination of food, guarantine treatments, irradiation of dried and cured fish, and shelf-stable foods. (ACR)

van Kooij, J.

1981-09-01

316

Biology of food irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author presents his arguments for food scientists and biologists that the hazards of food irradiation outweigh the benefits. The subject is discussed in the following sections: introduction (units, mutagenesis, seed viability), history of food irradiation, effects of irradiation on organoleptic qualities of staple foods, radiolytic products and selective destruction of nutrients, production of microbial toxins in stored irradiated foods and loss of quality in wheat, deleterious consequences of eating irradiated foods, misrepresentation of the facts about food irradiation. (author).

Murray, D.R.

1990-01-01

317

Debate on food irradiation. [Food safety debate - food irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An amendment moved on the food safety bill provided that any regulations made which relate to irradiation shall only be made after a diagnostic test has been established to determine whether or not food has been subject to irradiation and also that a scientific review has been conducted into the effects of irradiation on pesticide residues and other toxins in food, vitamin content of food, food additives and food packaging materials, and the results thereof published. The debate which followed lasted an hour and a quarter and is reported verbatim. After a short definition of irradiation, the debate was concerned with the nutritional value of irradiated food, the radiation effects for the public, the dose levels which are safe to use, public opinion and the lack of research into the effects of irradiating food. The amendment was withdrawn after the debate. (UK).

1990-01-01

318

Hygienic Practices among Food Vendors in Educational Institutions in Ghana: The Case of Konongo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the booming street food industry in the developing world there is an urgent need to ensure food vendors adhere to hygienic practices to protect public health. This study assessed the adherence to food hygiene practices by food vendors in educational institutions in Konongo, Ghana. Structured questionnaires, extensive observation and interviews were used for the study involving 60 food vendors from 20 basic schools. Attributable to the influence of school authorities and the level of in-training of food vendors, the study points out that food vendors in educational institutions generally adhered to good food hygiene practices, namely, regular medical examination (93%), protection of food from flies and dust (55%); proper serving of food (100%); good hand hygiene (63%); and the use of personal protective clothing (52%). The training of food vendors on food hygiene, instead of the level of education had a significant association (p < 0.05) with crucial food hygiene practices such as medical examination, hand hygiene and protection of food from flies and dust. Further, regulatory bodies legally mandated to efficiently monitor the activities of food vendors lacked the adequate capacity to do so. The study proposes that efforts should be geared towards developing training programmes for food vendors as well as capacity building of the stakeholders.

Isaac Monney; Dominic Agyei; Wellington Owusu

2013-01-01

319

Hand proximity--not arm posture--alters vision near the hands.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent research has revealed remarkable changes in vision and cognition when participants place their hands near the stimuli that they are evaluating. In this paradigm, participants perform a task both with their hands on the sides of the monitor (near) and with their hands on their laps (far). However, that experimental setup has typically confounded hand position with body posture: When participants had their hands near the stimuli, they also always had their hands up around shoulder height. Thus, it is possible that the reported changes "near the hands" are instead artifacts of this posture. In the present study, participants performed a visual search task with their hands near and far from the stimuli. However, in the hands-near condition, participants rested their hands on a table, and in the hands-far condition, they had their arms raised. After eliminating the postural confound, we still found evidence for slower search rates near the hands--replicating earlier results and indicating that the hands' proximity to the stimuli is truly what affects vision.

Weidler BJ; Abrams RA

2013-05-01

320

Guidelines for hand hygiene in hospital  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The appropriate compliance of rules regarding hand hygiene, have been and continue to be, one of the basic points of all prevention programs of nosocomial infections. Aim: The aim of the present study was the presentation of guidelines for hand hygiene by nurses. Method and material: Study of international and Greek literature from electronic databases Medline, PubMed and scientific journals, KEELPNO mainly from the last three years. The keywords used were: nosocomial infections, hand hygiene, antiseptics and guidelines. Results: There are numerous studies that demonstrate the central role of hand hygiene of employees in transmission of microorganisms in the hospital environment. Hand hygiene is a process, which should not be omitted or replaced by the use of antiseptics. The professionals position in the hospital, the workplace and staff shortages, in conjunction with the large number of hospitalized patients seem to be the main factors that negatively affect the compliance with hand hygiene. The staff working in the hospital, especially with high-risk patients (ICU, surgery) should not wear artificial nails, nail polish and jewelry - rings and should not have inflammation or infection on their hands. Conclusions: Hand hygiene should be applied before and after contact with each patient. Nurses have to comply with these guidelines, in order for the effective prevention and control of nosocomial infections.

Christina Sotnikova; Georgia Fasoi

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Monitor for alpha beta contamination of hands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The following specifications of hands alpha beta contamination monitor are presented: the position of the hands, the detection and separation of alpha and beta, the information processing, the programming, the results presentation and general characteristics. (A.L.B.)

1958-01-01

322

Monitor of contamination of hands uaand clothes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] An instrument was designed for measuring alpha and beta contamination of hands and of beta contamination of clothing and working surfaces. Proportional flow counters and GM counters, respectively, are used as detectors. The design allows simultaneous measurement of the contamination of both hands, this even with low-energy beta radionuclides, such as carbon 14. (Ha)

1981-01-01

323

Right-handed neutrino magnetic moments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We discuss the phenomenology of the most general effective Lagrangian, up to operators of dimension five, built with standard model fields and interactions including right-handed neutrinos. In particular, we find there is a dimension five electroweak moment operator of right-handed neutrinos, not discussed previously in the literature, which could have interesting phenomenological consequences.

2009-07-01

324

TREATMENT AND COSMETIC CREAM FOR HAND CARE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: cosmetics. ^ SUBSTANCE: treatment-and-cosmetic cream for hand care contains mummy, vegetable oil - sunflower seed, false flax oil, wheat germ oil, gelling agent (kemaben 2E), preserving agent (rheocar ATN), brier superextract, sea-buckthorn superextract, specially purified water. ^ EFFECT: nourished cleans rejuvenates hand skin regenerates skin damages of different. ^ 1 tbl

STEPANOV DMITRIJ IL ICH

325

Right-handed neutrino magnetic moments  

CERN Multimedia

We discuss the phenomenology of the most general effective Lagrangian, up to operators of dimension 5, build with standard model fields and interactions including right-handed neutrinos. In particular we find there is a dimension 5 electroweak moment operator of right-handed neutrinos, not discussed previously in the literature, which could have interesting phenomenological consequences.

Aparici, Alberto; Santamaria, Arcadi; Wudka, Jose

2009-01-01

326

Performance characteristics of anthropomorphic prosthetic hands.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper we set forth a review of performance characteristics for both common commercial prosthetics as well as anthropomorphic research devices. Based on these specifications as well as surveyed results from prosthetic users, ranges of hand attributes are evaluated and discussed. End user information is used to describe the performance requirements for prosthetic hands for clinical use.

Belter JT; Dollar AM

2011-06-01

327

[Digital subtraction angiography of the hand  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The conventional angiography using a serial film changer is the gold standard in hand arteriography. Since Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA) is available, this method may substitute the conventional technique because of several advantages. This paper offers practical advice on intraarterial DSA-techniques and indications for hand arteriography additionally. Furthermore, differential diagnosis of arteriographic findings and the validity of DSA is discussed.

Arlart IP

1989-01-01

328

Virtual human hand: model and kinematics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The human hand plays an important role in daily life. It is the interface between the human and the exterior world by positioning, orienting, touching and grasping objects. The human hand has multiple degrees of freedom (DOFs) to enable mobility and dexterity. A virtual human hand model can be inserted into CAD (Computer Aided Design) models to assess the manipulation capabilities in the early design stage to reduce design time and cost. Joystick assessment is one of the important design cases. This study is a first step towards a comprehensive hand simulation tool to simulate the manipulation and grasping of objects. This paper presents a novel 25 DOFs' hand skeletal model based on hand anatomy and hand kinematics: (1) joint range of motion, (2) Denavit-Hartenberg method to define the joint relationship and (3) finger workspace determination. Novelty for this hand model includes arching the palm with the four DOFs added in the carpometacarpal and wrist joints for the ring and small fingers.

Peña-Pitarch E; Falguera NT; Yang JJ

2012-08-01

329

Virtual human hand: model and kinematics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The human hand plays an important role in daily life. It is the interface between the human and the exterior world by positioning, orienting, touching and grasping objects. The human hand has multiple degrees of freedom (DOFs) to enable mobility and dexterity. A virtual human hand model can be inserted into CAD (Computer Aided Design) models to assess the manipulation capabilities in the early design stage to reduce design time and cost. Joystick assessment is one of the important design cases. This study is a first step towards a comprehensive hand simulation tool to simulate the manipulation and grasping of objects. This paper presents a novel 25 DOFs' hand skeletal model based on hand anatomy and hand kinematics: (1) joint range of motion, (2) Denavit-Hartenberg method to define the joint relationship and (3) finger workspace determination. Novelty for this hand model includes arching the palm with the four DOFs added in the carpometacarpal and wrist joints for the ring and small fingers. PMID:22920244

Peña-Pitarch, Esteban; Falguera, Neus Ticó; Yang, Jingzhou James

2012-08-24

330

A HAND-HYGIENE BEHAVIOUR MONITORING SYSTEM  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract of WO 2008133495 (A1) The invention relates to a hand-hygiene behaviour monitoring system, comprising: means for detecting the occurrence of an event specified in a hand-hygiene rule, wherein the event involves a person; means for updating behaviour data that is related to acts accordin...

Van Schie, M.; Wiesman, R.F.F.

331

Hand position on steering wheel during driving.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study hand position on the steering wheel during driving and differences in hand position within and between the genders. METHODS: This cross-sectional pilot study was conducted in Ornskoldsvik, Sweden. Photos were taken of drivers on a public road with a speed limit of 70 km/h, and hand position and gender were registered. RESULTS: Hand positions on the steering wheel with one or both hands in a 10 minutes to 2 o'clock position is common, males 55 percent and females 64 percent, during low-risk driving conditions. Symmetric (left-right) hand positions, at 9 and 3, 10 and 2, and finally 11 and 1 o'clock are rare, 6 percent among males and 12 percent among females. CONCLUSIONS: The results call for further studies of hand position on the steering wheel during naturalistic driving in traffic areas where rear-end impacts are frequent, particularly because upper hand position might affect spinal posture and thereby increased backset distance between the back of the head and the head restraint (backset), which influences neck injury risk in rear-end impacts.

Jonsson B

2011-04-01

332

Hand Hygiene Practices among Medical Students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background. Hand hygiene is a cost-effective method in preventing infection transmission. Hand hygiene practices have been found to be faulty in most healthcare settings. We conducted a study to evaluate the awareness, and compliance of hand hygiene among undergraduate medical students during their clinical phase in Qassim College of Medicine, Saudi Arabia. Methods. A questionnaire based on World Health Organization's concept of "Five Moments for Hand Hygiene" was used to evaluate the awareness of the indications for hand hygiene and compliance was observed during Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) sessions. Sixty students including thirty-six males (60%) and twenty-four females (40%) participated voluntarily in the study. Results. The average awareness regarding the positive indications of hand hygiene was 56%. Rest of the 44% of students were either not sure or unaware of the indications of hygiene. Only 29% of students were able to identify all the five indications for hand hygiene in the questionnaire. Compliance as assessed during OSCE sessions was only 17% with no significant difference between the genders. Conclusion. It was concluded that serious efforts are needed to improve the hand hygiene practices among medical students.

Al Kadi A; Salati SA

2012-01-01

333

Personal recognition using hand shape and texture.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper proposes a new bimodal biometric system using feature-level fusion of hand shape and palm texture. The proposed combination is of significance since both the palmprint and hand-shape images are proposed to be extracted from the single hand image acquired from a digital camera. Several new hand-shape features that can be used to represent the hand shape and improve the performance are investigated. The new approach for palmprint recognition using discrete cosine transform coefficients, which can be directly obtained from the camera hardware, is demonstrated. None of the prior work on hand-shape or palmprint recognition has given any attention on the critical issue of feature selection. Our experimental results demonstrate that while majority of palmprint or hand-shape features are useful in predicting the subjects identity, only a small subset of these features are necessary in practice for building an accurate model for identification. The comparison and combination of proposed features is evaluated on the diverse classification schemes; naive Bayes (normal, estimated, multinomial), decision trees (C4.5, LMT), k-NN, SVM, and FFN. Although more work remains to be done, our results to date indicate that the combination of selected hand-shape and palmprint features constitutes a promising addition to the biometrics-based personal recognition systems.

Kumar A; Zhang D

2006-08-01

334

Food protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This motion allows the emergency prohibitions restricting the movement and slaughter of sheep contaminated as a result of Chernobyl reactor accident to be continued. The areas in Scotland subject to the restrictions are designated. The way in which the sheep are colour-coded so that the movement can be controlled is explained. The debate, which lasted about half an hour, is reported verbatim. In it, concern over the disruption of sheep farming in Scotland is expressed. Whole-body monitoring for people living in Wales and Scotland is urged and concern expressed over other sources of radiation contamination, eg., from the Sellafield reprocessing plant. Other food sources that may be contaminated, eg., rabbits, trout and deer, are discussed. The motion was carried.

Forsyth, M.; Foulkes, G.; Wallace, J.; Robertson, J.H.; Monro, H.; Livsey, R.; Walker, B.

1988-01-20

335

The Importance of Nurses Hand Hygiene  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Nurses are aware of the rationale for hand hygiene procedures. Nurses represent a large working group that performs the greatest amount of direct patient care in Health Services. Handhygiene is one of the most effective measures to prevent hospital acquired infections.Aim: to point out the importance of nurses’ hand hygieneMethod: a review of articles with key words “hand, hygiene, hand, contamination, nurse, and guideline”.Results: Infectious diseases are a particular risk to the very young, the elderly, those with a pre-existing disease, and people with a compromised immune system. Nurses washing their hands not onlyprevent them from getting sick, but it also reduces the risk of infecting others.

Maria Malliarou; Pavlos Sarafis; Sofia Zyga; Theodoros C. Constantinidis

2013-01-01

336

Air Muscle Actuated Low Cost Humanoid Hand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The control of humanoid robot hands has historically been expensive due to the cost of precision actuators. This paper presents the design and implementation of a low-cost air muscle actuated humanoid hand developed at Curtin University of Technology. This hand offers 10 individually controllable degrees of freedom ranging from the elbow to the fingers, with overall control handled through a computer GUI. The hand is actuated through 20 McKibben-style air muscles, each supplied by a pneumatic pressure-balancing valve that allows for proportional control to be achieved with simple and inexpensive components. The hand was successfully able to perform a number of human-equivalent tasks, such as grasping and relocating objects.

Peter Scarfe; Euan Lindsay

2008-01-01

337

[Suicide with a manipulated hand grenade].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Explosion injuries in civilians are rare. An uncommon case of suicide with a manipulated hand grenade is presented. The findings at the scene and on the body (i.a. massive soot blackening of the skin, singeing, size and number of splinters) gave reason to doubt the use of trinitrotoluene (TNT), the usual explosive charge in hand grenades. Further investigations showed that parts of several hand grenades and black powder from standard fire-crackers commercially available without legal restriction had been used as propelling charge. The victim, who was in a sitting position, held the hand grenade in the left hand and triggered it with the right. He bled to death due to a fracture of the right femur and lacerations of the liver. The chronological course and total circumstances of the case suggested suicide in a strongly intoxicated condition (BAC 2.5 per mille). In the flat, a larger number of unlicensed weapons and weapon parts were found.

Preuss-Wössner J; Kroll J

2010-11-01

338

[Suicide with a manipulated hand grenade].  

Science.gov (United States)

Explosion injuries in civilians are rare. An uncommon case of suicide with a manipulated hand grenade is presented. The findings at the scene and on the body (i.a. massive soot blackening of the skin, singeing, size and number of splinters) gave reason to doubt the use of trinitrotoluene (TNT), the usual explosive charge in hand grenades. Further investigations showed that parts of several hand grenades and black powder from standard fire-crackers commercially available without legal restriction had been used as propelling charge. The victim, who was in a sitting position, held the hand grenade in the left hand and triggered it with the right. He bled to death due to a fracture of the right femur and lacerations of the liver. The chronological course and total circumstances of the case suggested suicide in a strongly intoxicated condition (BAC 2.5 per mille). In the flat, a larger number of unlicensed weapons and weapon parts were found. PMID:21254702

Preuss-Wössner, Johanna; Kroll, Jürgen

339

"Suicide Machine" Seekers: Transgressing Suicidal Taboos Online  

Science.gov (United States)

|Internet-mediated joint suicides or "Net group suicides" ("Net shinju") has become a significant social problem in Japan since 2002. Despite a privileged view of suicide-related cyberspaces as a murky underworld, there has been little study about how the participants of such spaces interact and perform their "suicidal" identity. Viewing…

Seko, Yukari

2008-01-01

340

Tylor vs. Westermarck: Explaining the Incest Taboo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the late 19th century arguments explaining incest avoidance were framed separately by Edward Tylor and Edward Westermarck. Tylor offered an environmental theory asserting that people have to marry outside of their own kin and communities or die out from the detrimental effects of isolation. Westermarck turned to Darwin’s theory to explain that harmful inbreeding had been selected against in the human genome. By the late 20th and early 21st centuries explanations of human behaviors have become increasingly encompassed by natural selection theory. The debate concerning the productiveness of evolutionary biology for explaining complex human behaviors is highly contentious and continues unabated. Although human evolutionists repeatedly say that environment is important for understanding human behavior they often do not develop this part of the equation. Behind the prestige of evolutionary biology selection models of human behavior have passed into popular science and the public psyche. Often heard today from a wide range of highly visible media sources is an assortment of topics on human behaviors which are framed by Darwinian assumptions. Contemplations about incest and inbreeding avoidance fall into this category and are presented by Darwinian social science as the best case example demonstrating evolutionary suppositions about human behavior. In the article that follows these issues are framed and examined. The argument is offered that evolutionary approaches are not always the most compelling and that convincing environmental explanations are overlooked.

Gregory C. Leavitt

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Hand biometric recognition based on fused hand geometry and vascular patterns.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A hand biometric authentication method based on measurements of the user's hand geometry and vascular pattern is proposed. To acquire the hand geometry, the thickness of the side view of the hand, the K-curvature with a hand-shaped chain code, the lengths and angles of the finger valleys, and the lengths and profiles of the fingers were used, and for the vascular pattern, the direction-based vascular-pattern extraction method was used, and thus, a new multimodal biometric approach is proposed. The proposed multimodal biometric system uses only one image to extract the feature points. This system can be configured for low-cost devices. Our multimodal biometric-approach hand-geometry (the side view of the hand and the back of hand) and vascular-pattern recognition method performs at the score level. The results of our study showed that the equal error rate of the proposed system was 0.06%.

Park G; Kim S

2013-01-01

342

Food-related coping strategies after Hurricane Andrew.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This telephone survey examined food-related coping strategies in Floridian households after Hurricane Andrew. Approximately 137 households of university faculty and staff who lived in hurricane-damaged areas were interviewed. The average respondent was a college-educated woman between 41 and 60 years old. Prevailing food-purchasing problems included food stores that were either closed, without perishable food, distant, or crowded. In the absence of electricity and water, changes in food preparation included preparation of meals without a stove, more frequent use of grills and canned food, simpler meals, and less cooking. Changes in kitchen cleanup included using more disposables, cleaning more often, washing dishes by hand, and cleaning up less often because of damage in the kitchen. Respondents indicated that the hurricane experience taught them that they should have acquired more general supplies (eg, coolers, thermoses, propane stoves, and gas burners), more water and ice, and more nonperishable foods before the hurricane.

Magnus MH

1994-06-01

343

Food-related coping strategies after Hurricane Andrew.  

Science.gov (United States)

This telephone survey examined food-related coping strategies in Floridian households after Hurricane Andrew. Approximately 137 households of university faculty and staff who lived in hurricane-damaged areas were interviewed. The average respondent was a college-educated woman between 41 and 60 years old. Prevailing food-purchasing problems included food stores that were either closed, without perishable food, distant, or crowded. In the absence of electricity and water, changes in food preparation included preparation of meals without a stove, more frequent use of grills and canned food, simpler meals, and less cooking. Changes in kitchen cleanup included using more disposables, cleaning more often, washing dishes by hand, and cleaning up less often because of damage in the kitchen. Respondents indicated that the hurricane experience taught them that they should have acquired more general supplies (eg, coolers, thermoses, propane stoves, and gas burners), more water and ice, and more nonperishable foods before the hurricane. PMID:8195551

Magnus, M H

1994-06-01

344

Functional food acceptance in the food chain  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This thesis analyses consumer acceptance of functional foods and food manufacturers' decision to develop functional foods. The thesis sets up four key research questions: (1) How consumers accept functional foods enriched with omega-3? (2) How the intention of purchasing carrier ingredient combinations is explained by general attitudes to functional foods, consumers' health concerns, and the perceived fit of a particular carrier ingredient combination? (3) How food manufacturers decide to develop functional foods? (4) What are the determinants and drivers of food manufacturers' decision to develop functional foods? Research question 1 The health benefit of a functional food product is in fact limited if it is not eaten regularly and thus is not part of the healthy diet. For that reason it is highly relevant to look at the dietary change research when studying functional food acceptance. The purpose of paper 1 was to understand the process by which people choose healthy foods enriched with omega-3 ingredientas a case. The Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) (Schwarzer, 1992) was applied as the theoretical framework. The qualitative study has demonstrated partial usefulness of the HAPA model as an appropriate theoretical framework for consumers' choice of foods enriched with omega-3, fish oil supplements and to a lesser extent fatty fish naturally rich in omega-3. Self-efficacy and the outcome expectancy played a major role in choosing among the above mentioned options. Consumers' risk perception, as far as the choice of fatty fish and functional foods is concerned, are limited, which is why risk perception is the least useful one among all the three HAPA constructs. Research question 2 In paper 2, consumers' acceptance of different ingredients in selected foods was researched. The main aim of the paper was to determine which functional ingredients consumers would accept in selected product categories. Yoghurt, muesli bars, fish balls, tuna salad, baby meals, rye bread and bacon liver pâté were examined. Determinants of the acceptance of carrier ingredient combinations were another central issue of the paper. Results revealed that the general attitudes towards functional foods are related to the purchase intention with regard to functional foods described by their carrier/ingredient combinations. Consumers' attitudes towards specific carrier ingredient combinations define consumers' acceptance of functional foods. Research question 3 An extensive literature review was conducted and the theoretical framework of food manufacturers' decision to develop innovative functional foods by food manufacturers was developed as a part of paper 3. The paper discusses factors that possibly influence food manufacturers' decision making with regards to production of functional foods. Internal factors such as organisational characteristics, innovation characteristics, and external factors such as functional food ingredient suppliers' marketing efforts, collaboration between suppliers and food manufacturers and participation invarious networks are discussed as they are all expected to influence food manufacturers' decision to develop new functional foods. The research presented in paper 3 relies on a detailed review of relevant innovation management and food marketing literature. Research question 4 Food manufacturers' view on what are the key drivers of product development in functional food companies was the main focus of paper 4. This is a firm survey that identifies some of the key drivers for product development in functional food companies in Europe and North America. The results show that food ingredient suppliers' marketing efforts are one of the key influential factors for developing functional foods. Food manufacturers prefer long-term relationships with suppliers and they see suppliers' competencies in R&D as a bridge to consumer acceptance. Last but not least, results revealed that firm' internal factors, such as managerial initiative towards innovations and employees' competences, were important factors in deciding to develo

Krutulyte, Rasa

2010-01-01

345

Food for Thought  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... say about food has an affect on an adolescent's weight. They included more than 22 hundred children ... often controlling when it comes to food and adolescents. Food restriction was significantly higher in parents with ...

346

Norovirus: Food Handlers  

Science.gov (United States)

... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks For Food Handlers Norovirus and Working With Food About 50% of all ... should know about this virus. Foods Contaminated with Norovirus Can Make People Sick Norovirus is a leading ...

347

Food for Thought  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... home. The findings suggest that parents are often controlling when it comes to food and adolescents. Food ... is increasing evidence about the detrimental effects of controlling food practices, so it's important for parents to ...

348

Food Label and You  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Nutrition Labeling Information for Restaurants & Retail Establishments - The Food Label and You — Video FDA presents an entertaining and ... Game Show Review (Are You Smarter Than A Food Label?) The Food Label & You (full video) Introduction back ...

349

Food Label and You  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Road Food (Finding Nutrition Information on the Road) Game Show Review (Are You Smarter Than A Food ... daily value. Two studio "sports announcers" describe the "game day" food action of two parties: the first, ...

350

Diabetes food pyramid (image)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Diabetes Food Pyramid divides food into six groups, which vary in size to show relative amounts of servings for ... Guide Pyramid released by the USDA. In the Diabetes Food Pyramid, the groups are based on protein content ...

351

Food Label and You  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Home Food Ingredients, Packaging & Labeling Labeling & Nutrition Section ... Nutrition Labeling Information for Restaurants & Retail Establishments - The Food Label and You — Video FDA presents an entertaining ...

352

Food Label and You  

Science.gov (United States)

... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Home Food Ingredients, Packaging & Labeling Labeling & Nutrition Section ... Nutrition Labeling Information for Restaurants & Retail Establishments - The Food Label and You — Video FDA presents an entertaining ...

353

FOOD PRESERVATION PROCESS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention refers to a new process for preservation of different foods which secures to the processed food an extended shelf life, which can be extended in up to five years without the addition of preservatives, and the use of freezing or cooling. The referred to process further allows keeping the natural characteristics of the processed food, such as flavor and texture. The process for preserving different foods of the present invention comprises the steps: a. Packing food in a package b. Heating the food/package system keeping the food in contact with the atmospheric air external to the package c. Changing the gaseous composition inside the package containing food d. Closing/sealing the package containing food e. Thermal treatment of the closed/sealed package containing food and can be used for several types of foods comprising, among them, fish, seafood, poultry, meat, pork, cold cuts, pastes, pasta, cereals, vegetables, fruits, dairy products, ready food, desserts or mixtures thereof.

EGANA JUAN CARLOS BERISSO

354

FOOD PRESERVATION PROCESS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention refers to a new process for preservation of different foods which secures to the processed food an extended shelf life, which can be extended in up to five years without the addition of preservatives, and the use of freezing or cooling. The referred to process further allows keeping the natural characteristics of the processed food, such as flavor and texture. The process for preserving different foods of the present invention comprises the steps: a. Packing food in a package; b. Heating the food / package system keeping the food in contact with the atmospheric air external to the package; c. Changing the gaseous composition inside the package containing food; d. Closing / sealing the package containing food; e.; Thermal treatment of the closed / sealed package containing food; and can be used for several types of foods comprising, among them, fish, seafood, poultry, meat, pork, cold cuts, pastes, pasta, cereals, vegetables, fruits, dairy products, ready food, desserts or mixtures thereof.

BERISSO GABRIEL; EGANA JUAN CARLOS BERISSO; SANTE CARUSO PASCOAL; RAMOS JOSE FLAVIO; PINTO SIL JORGE MANUEL

355

MRSA and Food Products  

Science.gov (United States)

... of Veterans Affairs (VA) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) MRSA and Food Products Be food safe Studies over ... years have found antibiotic-resistant organisms, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), in a variety of food products including ...

356

Hand hygiene among health care workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Healthcare-associated infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients worldwide. Transmission of health care associated pathogens generally occurs via the contaminated hands of health care workers. Hand hygiene has long been considered one of the most important infection control measures to prevent health care-associated infections. For generations, hand washing with soap and water has been considered a measure of personal hygiene. As early as 1822, a French pharmacist demonstrated that solutions containing chlorides of lime or soda could eradicate the foul odor associated with human corpses and that such solutions could be used as disinfectants and antiseptics. This paper provides a comprehensive review of data regarding hand washing and hand antisepsis in healthcare settings. In addition, it provides specific recommendations to uphold improved hand-hygiene practices and reduce transmission of pathogenic microorganisms to patients and personnel in healthcare settings. This article also makes recommendations and suggests the significance of hand health hygiene in infection control.

Mani Ameet; Shubangi A; Saini Rajiv

2010-01-01

357

Osteogenesis imperfecta: a case with hand deformities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In a 51-year-old woman with a history of fractures and dislocations after low intensity trauma in childhood, intensive blue sclera, short stature, and hearing loss, the diagnosis of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) was suspected. She was referred to our clinic with hand deformities and left knee pain and stiffness. She had difficulty in walking and reported a history of immobilization for 6 months because of knee pain. She had bilateral flexion contracture of the elbows which occurred following dislocations of the elbows in childhood. She had Z deformity of the first phalanges, reducible swan-neck deformity of the third finger of the left and the second finger of the right hand, flexion contracture of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the fifth finger of the left hand, and syndactyly of the third and fourth fingers of the right hand. Flexion contractures of both knees were observed. Pes planus and short toes were the deformities of the feet. Acute phase reactants of the patient were normal. She had no history of arthritis or morning stiffness. Bone mineral density evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) showed severe osteoporosis of the femur and lumbar vertebrae. She had radiographic evidence of healed fractures of the left fibula, the third metacarpal, and the fourth and fifth middle phalanges of the right hand. OI, affecting the type I collagen tissue of the sclera, skin, ligaments, and skeleton, presenting with ligament laxity resulting in subluxations and hand deformities may be misdiagnosed as hand deformities of rheumatoid arthritis.

Oz B; Olmez N; Memis A

2005-09-01

358

Survey Of Food Handlers For Dermatological Problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Occupational health problem in food handlers have become increasingly common in the recent years. Forty three workers, cooks and bakers were surveyed for work related problems. We noticed watering and burning of eyes in 18%, running nose in 13.95%, burning sensation of hands in 11.6%, excessive sweating in 4.65%, chronic paronychia in 11.6%, palmar hyperkeratosis in 9.3%, fissuring of distal finger tips, nail dystrophy, multiple warts in 6.9%, scaling of hands, prurigo simplex in 2.3%.

Davis Suraj V; Nayak Umesh; Mehta Vandana; Shenoi S. D

2003-01-01

359

Food we eat  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper on the 'food we eat' includes a suggestion that food irradiation may prove invaluable to the future food industry. The use of food irradiation to inactivate or destroy micro-organisms is described - irradiation would not be used on all foods, it would complement existing methods of reducing contamination by micro-organisms. The chemical changes in spoiled food and chemical additives are also discussed. (U.K.).

Campbell-Platt, G.

1988-05-19

360

Introduction: from local food to localised food  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Local food has captured the interest of a number of academic disciplines and many of them are represented in this special issue of Anthropology of Food, based on a European Scientific Foundation exploratory workshop where European researchers met to discuss the concept of local food (see part 2). Through a pluridisciplinary perspective, this issue deepens the problematic and adds to research questions on local food in both empirical and theoretical ways, while raising an uncertainty about the...

Georgina Holt; Virginie Amilien

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Salvaging a Psycho-Flexed Hand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 35 years old lady presented with clenched fist with the background of a psychiatric symptoms.Examination revealed psychotic features with predominant negative symptoms and secondary contractureof left hand. Presumptive diagnosis of psycho-flexed hand was made and referred to department of Psychiatricand Neurological Rehabilitation. Manipulation under anesthesia, corrective casting, splinting, localelectrotherapy, physiotherapy and occupational therapy are established methods of managing contracturesin rehabilitation medicine. When contractures of hands are identified in patients with psychiatric illness,same principles can be utilized and can be managed effectively by combined and co-coordinated efforts of amultidisciplinary team.

Srivastava A; Gupta A; Kumar R; Gangadhar BN; Murali T

2008-01-01

362

Alien hand syndrome in left posterior stroke.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alien hand syndrome is a rare neurological disorder characterized by involuntary and uncontrollable motor behaviour, usually of an arm or hand. The patient perceives the affected limb as alien, and may personify it. The case of a 61-year-old right-handed woman who developed right posterior AHS after ischaemic stroke in the left posterior cerebral artery territory is reported. Neuroimaging studies disclosed no frontal or parietal involvement, while a posterior thalamic lesion was detected. A possible role of the thalamus in the genesis of AHS is discussed. PMID:21327399

Bartolo, Michelangelo; Zucchella, C; Pichiecchio, A; Pucci, E; Sandrini, G; Sinforiani, E

2011-02-16

363

[Digital necrosis in hand by uncommon mechanism].  

Science.gov (United States)

A 43-year-old, non-smoking man presented with acute ischemic lesions of his left hand. He had been taking beta-blockers for his arterial hypertension. The day before the occurrence of these acute lesions, he self medicated with a drug containing ergotamine and caffeine because of a headache. About one hour after mild trauma to the hand, he noticed intense cyanosis accompanied by severe pain in the fingers that progressed to digital necrosis. Hematological tests, hand radiography, echo Doppler, and nailfold videocapillaroscopy were performed. Digital necrosis owing to an unusual combination of ischemic mechanisms is assumed. PMID:24010508

Leroux, Maria Bibiana; Lashak, Celina; Mazzurco, Martin

2013-07-14

364

[Digital necrosis in hand by uncommon mechanism].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 43-year-old, non-smoking man presented with acute ischemic lesions of his left hand. He had been taking beta-blockers for his arterial hypertension. The day before the occurrence of these acute lesions, he self medicated with a drug containing ergotamine and caffeine because of a headache. About one hour after mild trauma to the hand, he noticed intense cyanosis accompanied by severe pain in the fingers that progressed to digital necrosis. Hematological tests, hand radiography, echo Doppler, and nailfold videocapillaroscopy were performed. Digital necrosis owing to an unusual combination of ischemic mechanisms is assumed.

Leroux MB; Lashak C; Mazzurco M

2013-01-01

365

Thermal Right-Handed Sneutrino Dark Matter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We discuss the relic abundance of the right-handed sneutrinos in the supersymmetric FD-term model of hybrid inflation. As well as providing a natural solution to the ?- and gravitino overabundance problems, the model offers the lightest right-handed sneutrino as a candidate for thermal dark matter. The FD-term model predicts a new quartic coupling of purely right-handed sneutrinos to the Higgs doublets that thermalizes the sneutrinos and makes them annihilate sufficiently fast to a level compatible with the current cosmic microwave background data. We discuss this scenario and identify favourable regions of the parameter space within mSUGRA.

2008-11-23

366

Hand Gesture Recognition: A Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hand gesture recognition system received great attention in the recent few years because of itsmanifoldness applications and the ability to interact with machine efficiently through human computerinteraction. In this paper a survey of recent hand gesture recognition systems is presented. Key issues ofhand gesture recognition system are presented with challenges of gesture system. Review methods of recentpostures and gestures recognition system presented as well. Summary of research results of hand gesturemethods, databases, and comparison between main gesture recognition phases are also given. Advantagesand drawbacks of the discussed systems are explained finally

Rafiqul Zaman Khan; Noor Adnan Ibraheem

2012-01-01

367

Hand Geometry Recognition System Using Feature Extraction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biometrics traits such as fingerprints, handgeometry, face and voice verification provide a reliablealternative for identity verification and are gainingcommercial and high user acceptability rate. Handgeometry based biometric system has proven to be themost suitable and acceptable biometric trait formedium and low security application. Geometricmeasurements of the human hand have been used foridentity authentication in a number of commercialsystems.This paper proposes a technique for hand biometricfeature extraction using hand contour matching. Handshape feature is obtained by using Euclidian distancefrom starting reference point and then calculate the tipand valley point of finger. Then apply somemathematical calculation for calculate the handgeometry features like finger length, width andperimeter.

Poonam Rathi , Dr. Sipi Dubey

2013-01-01

368

Management of post burn hand deformities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The hand is ranked among the three most frequent sites of burns scar contracture deformity. One of the major determinants of the quality of life in burns survivors is the functionality of the hands. Burns deformities, although largely preventable, nevertheless do occur when appropriate treatment is not provided in the acute situation or when they are part of a major burns. Reconstructive procedures can greatly improve the function of the hands. Appropriate choice of procedures and timing of surgery followed by supervised physiotherapy can be a boon for a burns survivor.

Sabapathy S; Bajantri Babu; Bharathi R

2010-01-01

369

Food irradiation: Its role in food safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This document provides a brief overview of the process of food irradiation and describes the potential for food irradiation in the Asia-Pacific region. The advantages in controlling food-borne diseases and in promoting trade are discussed. 4 tabs

1985-01-01

370

Big Food, Food Systems, and Global Health  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In an article that forms part of the PLoS Medicine series on Big Food, guest editors David Stuckler and Marion Nestle lay out why more examination of the food industry is necessary, and offer three competing views on how public health professionals might engage with Big Food.

Stuckler, David; Nestle, Marion

371

FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION  

Science.gov (United States)

Text VersionFOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION. ADVISORY COMMITTEE CONSUMER REPRESENTATIVES. ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/aboutadvisorycommittees

372

Is food irradiation harmful  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper reports on a seminar on 'The irradiation of food', held in London, 1987, and organised by the Royal Society and the Association of British Science Writers. A description is given of the food irradiation techniques. Problems with food irradiation are discussed with respect to the nutritional value of food, killing of microorganisms, survival of fungi following treatment, mutation of irradiated bacteria, and chemical changes produced in the food. Monitoring and controls of food that has been irradiated is discussed. A personal opinion of irradiated food by the author is given, including a verdict on irradiated food.

Quick, John.

1988-01-01

373

Food protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The motion is to consolidate the Food Protection (Emergency Prohibitions) (England) (No 2) Order 1987 and seven subsequent amendment orders, into one order. The orders are those under which restrictions on the movement of sheep as a result of the Chernobyl accident are carried out. A debate lasting more than two hours followed and this is reported verbatim. Much of the early part of the debate concerns a telex message allegedly from the chief scientist of the radiochemical institute saying that meat contaminated by radiation after Chernobyl was sold in Britain. Both the source and the content of the telex were found not to be as alleged. In particular, the allegation that 10kg lambs had gone to market. The minister pointed out that these lambs were not big enough to be sold. The debate broadened into a more general discussion as to levels of contamination in sheep and the government diligence or otherwise in protecting the public. The motion was agreed to. (U.K.).

Gummer, S.; Campbell-Savours, D.N.; Maxwell-Hyslop, R.

1987-11-25

374

Food allergens: Hypersensitivity to food and food constituents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Adverse reactions to food which occur only in susceptible individuals may result from true physical hypersensitivity to components of foods or from psychological factors. Non-allergic food hypersensitivity may be due to a metabolic defect in the affected individual, while in food allergy immune mechanism is involved. Food allergy can be further subdivided into IgE-mediated food allergy and non-IgE-mediated food allergy, depending on the underlying allergic mechanism. Most cases of confirmed food allergy involve the production of IgE antibodies and a network of interactions between various cell types and chemical mediators. This type of allergic reaction is known as an IgE-mediated allergy (or a type I hypersensitivity reaction), and it produces immediate symptoms. The most severe form of IgE-mediated allergy is systematic answer known as anaphylaxis that can be fatal in the absence of adequate medical help. Other less severe allergy manifestations are symptoms like swelling, itching, redness and heat in the mouth, gut, skin or respiratory tract. Hypersensitivity to food requires special dietary treatment, but total exclusion of some foods from the diet can be very difficult, because of the wide distribution of some foodstuffs in the diet or their presence as impurities in other foods. It is very important that producers have good systems of control, traceability and labeling of possible presence of food allergens in order to help people with food allergies to conduct their restrictive diets that are in most cases their lifelong treatment.

Stankovi? Ivan

2008-01-01

375

Anaerobic treatment of food industry wastewaters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Food industry effluents are characterized by high pollutional loads, high temperatures and contain rapidly degrading substances such as saccharides and starches. Basic features of anaerobic treatment processes are discussed. By comparison with conventional aerobic processes it is demonstrated that for the majority of food industry applications, anaerobic treatment processes may be the more cost-effective solution. In well-designed anaerobic systems, the energy value of the methane gas produced is more than the energy required to operate the facility. Aerobic treatment on the other hand requires the input of a large amount of air energy.

Oleszkiewicz, J.A.; Olthof, M.

1982-06-01

376

Are there excitability changes in the hand motor cortex during speech in left-handed subjects?  

Science.gov (United States)

Hemispheric dominance was investigated in left-handed subjects using single transcranial magnetic stimulation to assess the possible effect of forced change in the dominant hand. Single transcranial magnetic stimuli were delivered randomly over the hand area of the left or right motor cortex of 8 Japanese self-declared left-handed adult volunteers. Electromyographic responses were recorded in the relaxed first dorsal interosseous muscle while the subjects read aloud. Laterality quotient calculated by the Edinburgh Inventory ranged from -100 to -5.26 and laterality index calculated from motor evoked potentials ranged from -86.2 to 38.8. There was no significant correlation between laterality quotient and laterality index. Mean data values across all 8 subjects indicated significant increases only in the left hand. Our ratio analysis of facilitation of the hand motor potentials showed that 2 each of the 8 self-declared left-handers were right- and left-hand dominant and the other 4 were bilateral-hand dominant. Speech dominancy was localized primarily in the right cerebral hemisphere in left-handed subjects, but some individuals exhibited bilateral or left dominance, possibly attributable to the forced change of hand preference for writing in childhood. Our findings suggest changes in the connections between the speech and hand motor areas. PMID:22450479

Tokimura, Hiroshi; Tokimura, Yoshika; Arita, Kazunori

2012-01-01

377

Are there excitability changes in the hand motor cortex during speech in left-handed subjects?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hemispheric dominance was investigated in left-handed subjects using single transcranial magnetic stimulation to assess the possible effect of forced change in the dominant hand. Single transcranial magnetic stimuli were delivered randomly over the hand area of the left or right motor cortex of 8 Japanese self-declared left-handed adult volunteers. Electromyographic responses were recorded in the relaxed first dorsal interosseous muscle while the subjects read aloud. Laterality quotient calculated by the Edinburgh Inventory ranged from -100 to -5.26 and laterality index calculated from motor evoked potentials ranged from -86.2 to 38.8. There was no significant correlation between laterality quotient and laterality index. Mean data values across all 8 subjects indicated significant increases only in the left hand. Our ratio analysis of facilitation of the hand motor potentials showed that 2 each of the 8 self-declared left-handers were right- and left-hand dominant and the other 4 were bilateral-hand dominant. Speech dominancy was localized primarily in the right cerebral hemisphere in left-handed subjects, but some individuals exhibited bilateral or left dominance, possibly attributable to the forced change of hand preference for writing in childhood. Our findings suggest changes in the connections between the speech and hand motor areas.

Tokimura H; Tokimura Y; Arita K

2012-01-01

378

Relationship between hand function and grip force control in women with hand osteoarthritis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hand osteoarthritis (OA) usually results in decreased strength and function of the hand and deficits in motor control. However, no data exists on the relationship among these symptomatological features of hand OA. Ten females with hand OA and ten matched, nondisabled control subjects participated in this study. The outcomes of the Moberg Pickup Test (MPUT) and other functional hand tests were correlated with the measures of grip force control obtained during the performance of a functional task of lifting and transporting a handheld object. Strong correlations existed between the MPUT and parameters of grip force control, such as latency (r = 0.85) and force at the moment of liftoff (r = 0.72), seen in these patients. The established strong correlation between the MPUT and parameters of grip force control might help researchers and clinicians better understand how deficits in controlling grip forces affect hand function in patients with hand OA.

Paula Martins Nunes, PT; Diana Guimarães de Oliveira, PT; Alexander S. Aruin, PhD; Marcio José dos Santos, PT, MS, PhD

2012-01-01

379

[Food irradiation with ionizing radiation; an overview  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Irradiation of food in the Netherlands may only be performed by a company that works according to the (Dutch) law on nuclear energy. Irradiation is used to reduce the number of pathogenic and spoilage micro-organisms in food. Thus the use of preservatives can be diminished. The use of this technique for the decontamination of food is sustained by the FAO/WHO. Codex Alimentarius Committee and other organisations like the Dutch Public Health Council. It should be accepted world wide and used in every country. Irradiation of food is at the moment allowed in 38 countries and practically performed in 28 countries. Gamma radiation from the cobalt-60 isotope is the commonly used source of radiation. The treatment causes in most foodstuffs no organoleptic changes. On the other hand, organoleptic deteriorations provoked by micro-organisms rest unchanged by the treatment. An inferior lot can not be 'irradiated' into an impeccable food. In the Netherlands it is only allowed to irradiate foodstuffs mentioned in the (Dutch) Irradiated Food Products Act which-is part of the (Dutch) Food and Commodities Act.

Nooitgedagt AJ

1997-03-01

380

Ethical food standard schemes and global trade : paralleling the WTO?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Global food trade embodies a range of different interpretations of the nature of food and its role in society. On the one hand, the WTO food regulation regime, in particular the SPS agreement, is based upon a somewhat instrumental value of food consumption in which food is seen as a commodity to be traded in accordance with international trade rules. At the same time, a number of private standards, such as GlobalG.A.P and various organic standards, are emerging which embody broadly postmaterialist values that suggest that food purchasing and consumption are also social, ethical and perhaps even political activities. This paper analyses the relationship between the WTO food trade regime on the one hand and the GlobalG.A.P and organic food trade regimes on the other. We suggest that competing values can co-exist in parallel institutions and in a commensalistic relationship which protects the values base of each institution while giving expression to both materialist and postmaterialist understandings of the nature of food.

Daugbjerg, Carsten; Botterill, Linda Courtenay

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Genomics for food functionality and palatability.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the 1980s, Japan proposed the terminology of 'functional food' and its concept [1], and since then the importance of conducting basic and applied studies on food functionality has been emphasized globally. Functional foods in particular as well as common foods in general are constituted with a variety of components including functional factors, and it has been recognized as difficult to evaluate their functionalities by usual chemical, biochemical and physiological methodologies [2]. Against this backdrop, nutrigenomics came into being as a new method of evaluating functional foods, as well as nutrients, in a holistic manner. Meanwhile the endowed chair, Functional Food Genomics, was established at the University of Tokyo with the aegis of 32 food companies in Japan. This academia-industry collaboration has been working well to disclose why and how some particular functional foods elicit their effects in the body. These include soy protein isolate, cocoa polyphenol, sesamin as a lignan of sesame origin, and many others. On the other hand, food safety has been gaining public attention, and we applied genomics for assessment of the wholesomeness of newly developed hypoallergenic wheat flour compared with normal flour. The application of this way of holistic evaluation suggested that the new product was basically the same as the normal product in terms of all-gene expression profiles. The same method was applied to a new sweet protein, neoculin, which resembled toxic lectins in conformation. The result indicated that neoculin had lost its lectin activity, possessing no particular toxic effect. It is thus likely that genomics can be applied to a variety of foods in general for the purpose of simultaneously assessing their functionality.

Abe K

2009-01-01

382

International standards and agreements in food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The economies of both developed and developing countries have been effected by their exported food and agricultural products. Trading policies of food and agricultural products are governed by international agreement as well as national regulations. Trade in food and agricultural commodities may be affected by both principal Agreements within the overall World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, though neither specifically refers to irradiation or irradiated foods. The principal Agreements are the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement and the Sanitary and Phyto sanitary (SPS) Agreement. The SPS of the WTO requires governments to harmonize their sanitary and phyto sanitary measures on as wide basis as possible. Related standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard setting bodies such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission (food safety); the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (plant health and quarantine); and International Office of Epizootic (animal health and zoo noses) should be used in such a harmonization. International Standards for Phyto sanitary Measures (ISPM) no.18 was published under the IPPC by FAO (April 2003, Rome-Italy). ISPM standard provides technical guidance on the specific procedure for the application of ionizing radiation as a phyto sanitary treatment for regulated pests or articles. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods (Stand 106-1983) and Recommended International Code of Practice were first published in 1983 and revised in March 2003. Scope of this standard applies to foods processed by ionizing radiation that is used in conjunction with applicable hygienic codes, food standards and transportation codes. It does not apply to foods exposed to doses imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes. Codex documents on Principles and Guidelines for the Import/Export Inspection and Certification of Foods have been prepared to guide international trade.On the other hand national regulations should take account of internationally agreed Codes and Guidelines regarding the irradiation facilities and radiation processing. (author)

2004-01-01

383

Early management of ballistic hand trauma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Complex hand wounds are an unfortunate consequence of conflict. Increased battlefield survival rates have resulted in an evolving range of ballistic hand trauma encountered by deployed surgical teams, requiring increased knowledge and understanding of these injuries. In the civilian setting, the combined threats of gun crime and acts of terrorism warrant appreciation for such injury among all surgeons. Surgeons often have to relearn the management of ballistic hand trauma and other aspects of war surgery under difficult circumstances because the experiences of their predecessors may be forgotten. Current evidence regarding these injuries is scarce. Ballistic hand trauma is rarely isolated. The demand on surgical resources from combat injury is significant, and it is imperative that a phased strategy be followed in this setting. Minimal, accurate débridement and decompression with early stability are crucial. Delayed primary closure and an awareness of future reconstructive options are fundamental.

Eardley WG; Stewart MP

2010-02-01

384

[Hand hygiene: basic, but not trivial].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hand hygiene is considered as the pillar of infection control and prevention. Healthcare-associated infections have a great impact on morbidity, length of hospital stay, and treatment costs. Hand disinfection is considered to be the single most effective tool to prevent healthcare-associated infections and cross-transmission of multi-drug resistant bacteria. The WHO defined "5 moments" for hand hygiene and highlighted the need for new strategies to improve everyday hand hygiene practices on the basis of the current low compliance. Reasons for non-compliance are multifaceted and behavioural, religious, and sociocultural aspects have to be considered when designing intervention programs. Despite all these barriers it is worth the effort to aim at quality of care improvement.

Scheithauer S; Schwanz T; Lemmen S

2011-07-01

385

Hand Gesture Recognition using Neural Network  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a simple method to recognize sign gesturesof American Sign Language using features like number of Peaksand Valleys in an image with its position in an image. Signlanguage is mainly employed by deaf-mutes to communicatewith each other through gestures and visions. We extract theskin part which represents the hand from an image usingL*a*b* Color space. Every hand gesture is cropped from animage such that hand is placed in the center of image for ease offinding features. The system does require hand to be properlyaligned to the camera and does not need any special colormarkers, glove or wearable sensors. The experimental resultsshow that 100% recognition rate for testing and training dataset.

Rajesh Mapari; Dr. Govind Kharat

2012-01-01

386

A REVIEW ON HAND GETSURE RECOGNITION SYSTEMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gesture recognition is a topic in computerscience and language technology with the goal ofinterpreting human gestures via mathematicalalgorithms. Gestures can originate from any bodilymotion or state but commonly originate from the faceor hand. Current focuses in the field include emotionrecognition from the face and hand gesture recognition.Many approaches have been made using cameras andcomputer vision algorithms to interpret sign language.However, the identification and recognition of posture,gait and human behaviors is also the subject of gesturerecognition techniques. This paper handles the casestudy on the different hand gesture recognition systemsand also the devices with data glove and vocalizersystem. These systems are beneficial for disable peopleand their hands will speak having worn the gesturevocalizer data glove.

Mr. Prashant Chaudhari,Prof. G. R. Phulay,Mr. Ravindra Patil

2013-01-01

387

Multifocal osseous tuberculosis involving hand and feet.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A rare case of multifocal cystic tuberculosis of hands and feet is presented in an adolescent female. The presence of multiple lytic areas mimicked secondary metastases and biopsy remained the mainstay for final diagnosis.

Amin MU; Shafique M; Mahmood R; Ali L; Nadeem A; Anees

2008-04-01

388

Transfusion hand-rest fixing plaster  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model belongs to the technical field of medical appliances, particularly a transfusion hand-rest fixing plaster used when in transfusion. The transfusion hand-rest fixing plaster comprises a fixing plate and a lacing. The utility model is characterized in that the lacing is arranged on the fixing plate and has at least one free end. The lacing is a fabric or a glue-containing article the fixing plate is made of timber or high-molecular material. When in transfusion, a child's hand can be conveniently put flatwise on the fixing plate of the utility model and is fixed on the fixing plate by the lacing. The transfusion hand-rest fixing plaster has the advantages of sanitation and convenience.

XIE JINHUA

389

Creative mechanism design for a prosthetic hand.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper, an auxiliary methodology called the creative mechanism design is introduced into the innovation of gripping devices for prosthetic hands. This methodology is a systematic approach based on modification of existing devices for the generation of all possible topological structures of mechanisms and mechanical devices. An existing gripping device (Teh Lin ATG-5F prosthetic hand) constructed by a planar six-bar linkage with one degree of freedom is dealt with by using this methodology. Through the processes of generalization, number synthesis, specialization and particularization for the existing design, five new mechanisms are created in this study to apply to anthropomorphic prosthetic hands. The results show that the methodology for creative mechanism design is a powerful tool for creating new categories of mechanisms to avoid existing designs that have patent protection and can help designers in the conceptual phase. Also, this methodology is validated as a useful way to improve prosthetic hands for amputees.

Chang WT; Tseng CH; Wu LL

2004-01-01

390

Hand and wrist problems in the gymnast.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The exact pathomechanics of problems in the wrists of gymnasts are yet to be defined. This article discusses injuries and overload phenomena in the wrist and skin problems, fractures, and sprains of the hand, including mallet finger.

Weiker GG

1992-01-01

391

Robot hand tackles jobs in hazardous areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A robot hand and arm designed to mimic the operation of its human counterpart, developed at the University of Southampton for use in a standard industrial glovebox, is described. It was specifically designed for use in a radioactive environment moving high dosage components around. As dosage limits go down, there is a legal requirement to remove people from that environment. The nine-axis arm is for use in a glove designed for a human hand. Drive for the motors used to power the hand is from three-phase MOSFET inventor cards, the switching pattern controlled by the Hall effect communication sensors integral to each motor. The computer software for the arm allows the hand to be positioned using a joystick on a control box, with three levels of command for grip, pinch and touch. (author)

1989-01-01

392

Robot hand tackles jobs in hazardous areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A robot hand and arm designed to mimic the operation of its human counterpart, developed at the University of Southampton for use in a standard industrial glovebox, is described. It was specifically designed for use in a radioactive environment moving high dosage components around. As dosage limits go down, there is a legal requirement to remove people from that environment. The nine-axis arm is for use in a glove designed for a human hand. Drive for the motors used to power the hand is from three-phase MOSFET inventor cards, the switching pattern controlled by the Hall effect communication sensors integral to each motor. The computer software for the arm allows the hand to be positioned using a joystick on a control box, with three levels of command for grip, pinch and touch.

Simms, Mark; Crowder, Richard.

1989-03-01

393

Materialism and food security.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present studies examined if materialists have an elevated concern about food availability, presumably stemming from a general survival security motivation. Study 1 found that materialists set a greater life goal of food security, and reported more food insecurity during their childhood. Materialists reported less present-day food insecurity. Study 2 revealed that materialists stored/hoarded more food at home, and that obese persons endorsed materialism more than low/normal weight persons. Study 3 found that experimentally decreasing participants' feelings of survival security (via a mortality salience manipulation) led to greater endorsement of materialism, food security as goal, and using food for emotional comfort. The results imply that materialists overcame the food insecurity of their childhood by making food security a top life goal, but that materialists' current concerns about food security may not wholly stem from genuine threats to their food supply. PMID:16171902

Allen, M W; Wilson, M

2005-09-19

394

Materialism and food security.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present studies examined if materialists have an elevated concern about food availability, presumably stemming from a general survival security motivation. Study 1 found that materialists set a greater life goal of food security, and reported more food insecurity during their childhood. Materialists reported less present-day food insecurity. Study 2 revealed that materialists stored/hoarded more food at home, and that obese persons endorsed materialism more than low/normal weight persons. Study 3 found that experimentally decreasing participants' feelings of survival security (via a mortality salience manipulation) led to greater endorsement of materialism, food security as goal, and using food for emotional comfort. The results imply that materialists overcame the food insecurity of their childhood by making food security a top life goal, but that materialists' current concerns about food security may not wholly stem from genuine threats to their food supply.

Allen MW; Wilson M

2005-12-01

395

Patient hand hygiene practices in surgical patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the hand hygiene practices of surgical patients. Most of the research has been directed at the health care worker, and this may discount the role that hand hygiene of the surgical patient might play in surgical site infections. METHODS: A quasiexperimental, pretest/post-test study was conducted in which patients (n = 72) and nurses (n = 42) were interviewed to examine perceptions and knowledge about patient hand hygiene. Concurrently, observations were conducted to determine whether surgical patients were offered assistance by the nursing staff. Following an initial observation period, nursing staff received an educational session regarding general hand hygiene information and observation results. One month after the education session, patient/nurse dyads were observed for an additional 6 weeks to determine the impact of the educational intervention. RESULTS: Eighty observations, 72 patient interviews, and 42 nurse interviews were completed preintervention, and 83 observations were completed postintervention. In response to the survey, more than half of patients (n = 41, 55%) reported that they were not offered the opportunity to clean their hands, but a majority of the nursing staff reported (n = 25, 60%) that they offered patients the opportunity to clean their hands. Prior to the educational intervention, nursing staff assisted patients in 14 of 81 hand hygiene opportunities. Following the intervention, nursing staff assisted patients 37 out of 83 opportunities (17.3% vs 44.6%, respectively, [?(2)1 = 13.008, P = .0003]). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that efforts to increase hand hygiene should be directed toward patients as well as health care workers.

Ardizzone LL; Smolowitz J; Kline N; Thom B; Larson EL

2013-06-01

396

Design and Development of Robot Hand System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research on robot hand design is being carried out to accommodate a variety of tasks such as grasping and manipulation of objects in the field of industrial applications, service robots and rehabilitation robots. Problem statement: To design and develop a microcontroller-based four fingered robotic hand with a simple and minimal control strategy to pick and place application with object detection by simple IR sensor logic. Approach: The methodology is based on anthropomorphic design with three fingers and an opposing thumb. Each finger has three links and three double revolute joints. Each finger is actuated by a single opposing pair of tendons. The robot hand system is interfaced to microcontroller with software control by means of 14 independent commands for the motion of joints: close and open for fore finger, middle finger, ring finger and thumb finger and wrist up and down, base clockwise and counter clockwise, pick and place and home position. The tendoning system and wireless feedback logic provide the hand with the ability to confirm to object topology and therefore providing the advantage of using a simple control structure. Results: Reliable grasping and releasing is achieved with simple control mechanisms and IR sensors/push-button switches. The hand can pick a variety of objects with different surface characteristics and shapes without having to reconstruct its surface description. Picking of the object is successfully completed as long as the object is within the workspace of the hand and placed the object at the desired position within the workspace by relevant software control using keyboard commands. Conclusion: Hardware and software development of microcontroller-based four-fingered robotic hand is addressed. Details of hand control software for mainly pick and place applications are presented. Results of the experimental work for pick and place application of different objects is enumerated.

Panchumarthy Seetharamaiah; Mandapati V. Rao; Geddapu V. Satyanarayana

2011-01-01

397

Ectrodactyly/split hand feet malformation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Split-hand/split-foot malformation is a rare limb malformation with median clefts of the hands and feet and aplasia/hypoplasia of the phalanges, metacarpals and metatarsals. When present as an isolated anomaly, it is usually inherited as an autosomal dominant form. We report a case of autosomal recessive inheritance and discuss the antenatal diagnosis, genetic counseling and treatment for the malformation.

Jindal Geetanjali; Parmar Veena; Gupta Vipul

2009-01-01

398

The hand: a window to arthritis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hand joint involvement in rheumatic diseases is often precocious and predominant as compared to other skeletomuscular regions. Clinical examination not always allows for easy detection of fluid outpouring and synovial involvement, and undoubtedly does not allow to diagnose pathognomonic bone alterations of several rheumatic conditions. Articular ultrasonography is an innocuous methodology, easily reproducible and directly applied by a rheumatologist. The aim of this vignette is to present ultrasonography elementary lesions of the hand for a prompt diagnosis.

G. Filippou; B. Frediani; A. Gallo; L. Menza; P. Falsetti; F. Baldi; M. Galeazzi; R. Marcolongo

2011-01-01

399

Hand massage instrument, for massaging body  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hand massage instrument comprises rolling bodies, for hand massage of the whole body, has roller friction bodies (2, 3, 6) held in facing rows by at least one monofilament cord (4). The roller friction bodies (2, 3) are a low friction plastics polyoxymethylene or polyamide. The monofilament cord (4) is of a shear resistant material "Trevira" (RTM) or nylon. The rotating handle (6) is a celluloid (nitrate cellulose and camphor), polyacetal resin, polyacetal butyrate or acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS).

STEINER PAUL

400

Quantum levitation by left-handed metamaterials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Left-handed metamaterials make perfect lenses that image classical electromagnetic fields with significantly higher resolution than the diffraction limit. Here, we consider the quantum physics of such devices. We show that the Casimir force of two conducting plates may turn from attraction to repulsion if a perfect lens is sandwiched between them. For optical left-handed metamaterials, this repulsive force of the quantum vacuum may levitate ultra-thin mirrors.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Quantum levitation by left-handed metamaterials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Left-handed metamaterials make perfect lenses that image classical electromagnetic fields with significantly higher resolution than the diffraction limit. Here, we consider the quantum physics of such devices. We show that the Casimir force of two conducting plates may turn from attraction to repulsion if a perfect lens is sandwiched between them. For optical left-handed metamaterials, this repulsive force of the quantum vacuum may levitate ultra-thin mirrors.

Leonhardt, Ulf; Philbin, Thomas G [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

2007-08-15

402

A new concept for surgical hand disinfection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the development of and justification for a different procedure in surgical hand disinfection based on results of our own studies and data from the literature. An overview of the importance of hand disinfection, outstanding persons who substantially contributed to its development, and fundamentals of its implementation are also presented.Focussing on the resident flora as the target of surgical hand disinfection, the microflora of the hand is addressed. Consequences for disinfection are discussed as a result of this analysis. Results of our own studies on reducing spore load through social handwashing, on alcohol concentration and bacterial count in worn-glove juice, and on the comparison of the effectivity of standard handwashing methods vs. alcoholic hand disinfections vs. disinfection alone without handwashing vs. disinfection alone plus additional brushing-in of the tested (European Standard DIN prEN12791) disinfectant ethanol 79% v/v, 60% v/v propan-1-ol or 60% v/v propan-2-ol around the fingernails are also discussed. To summarize, disinfection alone and disinfection in conjunction with brushing-in of alcohol tend to be superior to the standard method with a previous washing with soap. From a dermatological and microbiological hygienic point of view, it is recommended that handwashing with soap should be performed to remove bacterial spores at least 10 minutes prior to hand disinfection, in order to optimize skin tolerance and to prevent reducing the efficacy of the disinfection.

Hübner, Nils-Olaf; Below, Harald; Kramer, Axel

2006-01-01

403

Microbial Efficacy of Waterless Hand Hygiene in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

Science.gov (United States)

Millions of people die from diarrheal and respiratory diseases every year due to lack of proper sanitation, hygiene, and access to clean water. The act of handwashing with soap has been found to effectively reduce both diarrheal and respiratory illness, however, handwashing at critical times (i.e. after using the toilet, before preparing food) remains infrequent around the world. This research investigates the potential for alcohol- based hand sanitizer (ABHS) to be an effective and appropriate hand hygiene option in developing countries. A study was conducted to assess the microbiological effectiveness of ABHS, as compared to handwashing with soap and water, in field conditions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 205 participants, including mothers, nurses, students, and teachers, were introduced to ABHS, given a standardized amount (2ml) of product, and instructed on how to use the product correctly. Hand samples were obtained using the hand rinse method before and after the use of ABHS from 152 participants. The other 53 participants were hand sampled before and after handwashing with a non-antimicrobial liquid soap and clean water (prior to using ABHS). Visual inspections of the hands were performed before hand sampling to record the level of dirt on the hands. All hand samples were processed and analyzed by membrane filtration for concentrations of two microbial indicators, enterococci and E. coli. User perceptions of the product and willingness to pay are also documented. The results of this study provide valuable insight on the prospective of promoting ABHS in developing countries and water scarce areas.

Pickering, A.; Boehm, A.; Davis, J.

2008-12-01

404

Food Business Entrepreneurship  

Science.gov (United States)

Though not a very traditional career path for food scientists, one option is to go into business for yourself by starting a food business. Food business entrepreneurship is a difficult career that entails long work hours, extensive decision making, and tasks that require knowledge beyond food science. However, there is high potential for rewards, including financial rewards, career progression, and personal flexibility.

Weber, Peter

405

CONTAINER FOR FOOD PRODUCTS.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A container for food products comprises, inside a sealed containment body (1), a first meat-based food product (2) and a second food product (3) constituted by broth aspic deriving from the fist meat-based food product (2) and by a component such as vegetable broth.

SERGIO TEDESCHI

406

Container for food products  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A container for food products comprises, inside a sealed containment body (1), a first meat-based food product (2) and a second food product (3) constituted by broth aspic deriving from the fist meat-based food product (2) and by a component such as vegetable broth.

TEDESCHI SERGIO

407

How to read food labels  

Science.gov (United States)

Food labels tell you the nutrition facts about the foods you buy. Use the food labels to help you choose healthier foods. ... also pay attention to trans fats on any food label. These fats raise "bad" cholesterol and lower your " ...

408

Climate change and food security  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dynamic interactions between and within the biogeophysical and human environments lead to the production, processing, distribution, preparation and consumption of food, resulting in food systems that underpin food security. Food systems encompass food availability (production, distribution and excha...

Gregory, P.J; Ingram, J.S.I; Brklacich, M

409

Osteogenesis imperfecta: a case with hand deformities.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a 51-year-old woman with a history of fractures and dislocations after low intensity trauma in childhood, intensive blue sclera, short stature, and hearing loss, the diagnosis of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) was suspected. She was referred to our clinic with hand deformities and left knee pain and stiffness. She had difficulty in walking and reported a history of immobilization for 6 months because of knee pain. She had bilateral flexion contracture of the elbows which occurred following dislocations of the elbows in childhood. She had Z deformity of the first phalanges, reducible swan-neck deformity of the third finger of the left and the second finger of the right hand, flexion contracture of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the fifth finger of the left hand, and syndactyly of the third and fourth fingers of the right hand. Flexion contractures of both knees were observed. Pes planus and short toes were the deformities of the feet. Acute phase reactants of the patient were normal. She had no history of arthritis or morning stiffness. Bone mineral density evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) showed severe osteoporosis of the femur and lumbar vertebrae. She had radiographic evidence of healed fractures of the left fibula, the third metacarpal, and the fourth and fifth middle phalanges of the right hand. OI, affecting the type I collagen tissue of the sclera, skin, ligaments, and skeleton, presenting with ligament laxity resulting in subluxations and hand deformities may be misdiagnosed as hand deformities of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:15856364

Oz, Bengi; Olmez, Nese; Memis, Asuman

2005-04-23

410

Food problems and food irradiation, recent trend  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Food irradiation is to contribute to the stable security of foodstuffs which is the fundamental condition of human survival by improving the preservation of foodstuffs and food sanitation utilizing the biological effect due to irradiation. The research and development have been carried out internationally since 1950s, but after the safety declaration of irradiated foods in 1980 by the international organ concerned, the permission and practical use for foods in various foreign countries, the technology transfer to developing countries and so on have been advanced. At present, food irradiation is permitted in 38 countries, and the practical irradiation is carried out in 24 countries. In Japan, the irradiation of potatoes to prevent germination was permitted in 1972, and the practical irradiation on potatoes of yearly 15,000 t is carried out. In the near future, irradiated foods will appear in international foodstuff market, and Japan which imports foodstuffs must cope with them. Foodstuffs and the safety, food irradiation, the soundness of irradiated foods, food irradiation in various foreign countries and Japan, the trend of international organs and the criticism of food irradiation are reported. (K.I.).

1990-11-01

411

An anthropomorphic hand exoskeleton to prevent astronaut hand fatigue during extravehicular activities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This correspondence presents a prototype of a powered hand exoskeleton that is designed to fit over the gloved hand of an astronaut and offset the stiffness of the pressurized space suit. This will keep the productive time spent in extravehicular activity from being constrained by hand fatigue. The exoskeleton has a three-finger design, the third and fourth fingers being combined to lighten and simplify the assembly. The motions of the hand are monitored by an array of pressure sensors mounted between the exoskeleton and the hand. Controller commands are determined by a state-of-the-art programmable microcontroller using pressure sensor input. These commands are applied to a PWM driven dc motor array which provides the motive power to move the exoskeleton fingers. The resultant motion of the exoskeleton allows the astronaut to perform both precision grasping tasks with the thumb and forefinger, as well as a power grasp with the entire hand.

Shields BL; Main JA; Peterson SW; Strauss AM

1997-09-01

412

Food chemistry. 2. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This second edition of the textbook deals with all essential aspects of food chemistry. The revision improved in particular the chapters on food preservation, including irradiation of food, food additives, and pollutants and residues, including radionuclides. The chapter on the German legal regime for foodstuffs has been updated to cover the recent amendments of the law, and the information on processes applied in food technology has been largely enhanced. (VHE) With 153 figs., 78 tabs.

1989-01-01

413

Predictors of hand hygiene compliance in the era of alcohol-based hand rinse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Predictors of hand-hygiene compliance have not been re-evaluated in the alcohol-based hand rinse (ABHR) era. AIM: To re-evaluate predictors of hand-hygiene compliance in the era of ABHR. METHODS: Hand-hygiene compliance was monitored at a Canadian teaching hospital for a period of two years using direct observation. Standardized definitions of compliance were used and potential predictors of compliance were recorded. A generalized linear mixed model was developed to evaluate the impact of predictors of hand-hygiene compliance while correcting for clustering. FINDINGS: We observed 7364 opportunities for hand hygiene among 3487 healthcare workers. Hand-hygiene compliance was 45% and did not vary over time. Predictors of improved compliance on multivariate analysis included the indication for hand hygiene with higher compliance seen after body fluid exposure (odds ratio: 4.7; 95% confidence interval: 3.7-6.1) and after patient contact (3.9; 3.5-4.4) compared with hand hygiene prior to patient contact. Glove use was associated with higher compliance (1.3; 1.1-1.4). A professional designation other than nurse or physician was associated with lower compliance (0.72; 0.61-0.86). The number of hand hygiene opportunities per hour was not associated with lower compliance. Higher ward level use of ABHR (vs use of soap/water) was associated with better compliance (P = 0.035). CONCLUSIONS: In the ABHR era a higher frequency of hand-hygiene opportunities is no longer the primary barrier to achieving optimal hand-hygiene compliance. However, heterogeneous use of ABHR by ward may still provide a target for improvement.

Lebovic G; Siddiqui N; Muller MP

2013-04-01

414

Augmented robotic device for EVA hand manoeuvres  

Science.gov (United States)

During extravehicular activities (EVAs), pressurised space suits can lead to difficulties in performing hand manoeuvres and fatigue. This is often the cause of EVAs being terminated early, or taking longer to complete. Assistive robotic gloves can be used to augment the natural motion of a human hand, meaning work can be carried out more efficiently with less stress to the astronaut. Lightweight and low profile solutions must be found in order for the assistive robotic glove to be easily integrated with a space suit pressure garment. Pneumatic muscle actuators combined with force sensors are one such solution. These actuators are extremely light, yet can output high forces using pressurised gases as the actuation drive. Their movement is omnidirectional, so when combined with a flexible exoskeleton that itself provides a degree of freedom of movement, individual fingers can be controlled during flexion and extension. This setup allows actuators and other hardware to be stored remotely on the user's body, resulting in the least possible mass being supported by the hand. Two prototype gloves have been developed at the University of Sydney; prototype I using a fibreglass exoskeleton to provide flexion force, and prototype II using torsion springs to achieve the same result. The gloves have been designed to increase the ease of human movements, rather than to add unnatural ability to the hand. A state space control algorithm has been developed to ensure that human initiated movements are recognised, and calibration methods have been implemented to accommodate the different characteristics of each wearer's hands. For this calibration technique, it was necessary to take into account the natural tremors of the human hand which may have otherwise initiated unexpected control signals. Prototype I was able to actuate the user's hand in 1 degree of freedom (DOF) from full flexion to partial extension, and prototype II actuated a user's finger in 2 DOF with forces achieved comparable to those of a natural, healthy hand. The minimum mass held by the user on the hand was 240 g, with remote hardware, including a compressed air bottle, having a further mass of 1.6 kg. These results indicate that the design is able to augment human motion in a low profile, low mass package, and could be a valuable addition to a space suit during an EVA.

Matheson, Eloise; Brooker, Graham

2012-12-01

415

The coevolution of human hands and feet.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Human hands and feet have longer, more robust first digits, and shorter lateral digits compared to African apes. These similarities are often assumed to be independently evolved adaptations for manipulative activities and bipedalism, respectively. However, hands and feet are serially homologous structures that share virtually identical developmental blueprints, raising the possibility that digital proportions coevolved in human hands and feet because of underlying developmental linkages that increase phenotypic covariation between them. Here we show that phenotypic covariation between serially homologous fingers and toes in Homo and Pan is not only higher than expected, it also causes these digits to evolve along highly parallel trajectories under episodes of simulated directional selection, even when selection pressures push their means in divergent directions. Further, our estimates of the selection pressures required to produce human-like fingers and toes from an African ape-like ancestor indicate that selection on the toes was substantially stronger, and likely led to parallel phenotypic changes in the hands. Our data support the hypothesis that human hands and feet coevolved, and suggest that the evolution of long robust big toes and short lateral toes for bipedalism led to changes in hominin fingers that may have facilitated the emergence of stone tool technology.

Rolian C; Lieberman DE; Hallgrímsson B

2010-06-01

416

The coevolution of human hands and feet.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human hands and feet have longer, more robust first digits, and shorter lateral digits compared to African apes. These similarities are often assumed to be independently evolved adaptations for manipulative activities and bipedalism, respectively. However, hands and feet are serially homologous structures that share virtually identical developmental blueprints, raising the possibility that digital proportions coevolved in human hands and feet because of underlying developmental linkages that increase phenotypic covariation between them. Here we show that phenotypic covariation between serially homologous fingers and toes in Homo and Pan is not only higher than expected, it also causes these digits to evolve along highly parallel trajectories under episodes of simulated directional selection, even when selection pressures push their means in divergent directions. Further, our estimates of the selection pressures required to produce human-like fingers and toes from an African ape-like ancestor indicate that selection on the toes was substantially stronger, and likely led to parallel phenotypic changes in the hands. Our data support the hypothesis that human hands and feet coevolved, and suggest that the evolution of long robust big toes and short lateral toes for bipedalism led to changes in hominin fingers that may have facilitated the emergence of stone tool technology. PMID:20624181

Rolian, Campbell; Lieberman, Daniel E; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt

2010-06-01

417

Dental education of left-handed students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Asymmetrical activity of brain hemispheres is projected through laterality e.g. the dominance of one of the paired organs. A very important way of laterality manifestation is left-handedness. The lef-handed must solve various conflicts with their environment, so mild left-handedness usually shifts into dominant right-handedness in the early childhood, fortunately with no difficulties. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the number and distribution of left-handed dental students, check the possibilities and propose measures for solving the problem in their education. Material and methods: The study was conducted at Belgrade University School of Dentistry, dept. of restorative dentistry and endodontics. During two academic years, six generations of senior dental students (III, IV and V year students) completed a questionnaire, i.e. 1385 individuals were included in the survey. Results: The questionnaire revealed that out of the total number or students involved in the study 62 (4.48%) students were left-handed. The distribution of left-handed students is relatively uniform and concentrated between 4-6% of the sample. Conclusion: Even though the number of left-handed students is small, it is necessary to change conditions for their education and enable their proper development.

Grga ?urica; Mileti? Vesna

2006-01-01

418

Rheumatoid Hand Deformities: Pathophysiology and Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

Rheumatoid disease, as it affects the hand, is a disease of the synovium lining the joints and sheaths of the tendon. The proliferating synovium destroys the articular surfaces of the joint, interferes with the gliding mechanism of the tendons and weakens the supporting ligaments of the joints. The degree and variety of deformities is multifold. Treatment of the rheumatoid hand is aimed at conservation and restoration of hand function, as well as prevention of future deformities. Rheumatologists, physical therapists and hand surgeons carry out important functions in the well-planned, integrated regimen. Surgical treatment of the rheumatoid hand deformity may alleviate pain, lessen deformity and improve function in selected cases. It should be integrated in the general medical management of a patient. Treatment of tendon ruptures includes tenorrhaphy, tendon grafting and arthrodesis in the case of mallet finger deformity. The wrist joint is improved by synovectomy and carpal tunnel release is accomplished by median nerve decompression. Metacarpal phalangeal joint deformities may be treated by synovectomy or silastic joint replacement when there is destruction of the articular joint surface, severe subluxation, or persistent painful motion. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.

Apfelberg, David B.; Maser, Morton R.; Lash, Harvey; Kaye, Ronald L.; Britton, Melvin C.; Bobrove, Arthur

1978-01-01

419

Hand dermatitis in beauticians in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One hundred and sixty-one beauticians and hairdressers (146 women and 15 men) were examined for the presence of hand dermatitis and those with hand eczema were patch tested with a battery of antigens standardised for beauticians. Forty-two (26.1%) subjects were found to have hand dermatitis and of these, in 31 (69.3%) the patch tests were positive; the following antigens elicited a positive response; paraphenylene diamine (35.5%), rubber antigens (22.6%), nickel (22.6%), shampoos (12.9%), ammonium thioglycollate (9.7%), ammonium persulphate (3.2%), henna mixture (3.2%) and detergents (6.5%). In addition, irritant reaction was seen in 7; in 5 patients it was to shampoos and in 2 to ammonium persulphate. Of the 8 patients who, on questioning, had a history of atopy, 7 (87.5%) had hand eczema, while 1 (12.5%) did not, and this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001), suggesting that beauticians with a history of atopy were more likely to develop hand eczema.

Khanna Neena

1997-01-01

420

Quality of life after severe hand injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explores the quality of life in 118 patients following severe and major hand injury with a Hand Injury Severity Score >50. Each patient answered five different validated outcome measures (DASH (Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand), FLZ(M) ('Fragen zur Lebenszufriedenheit'), HADS (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score), BDDE-SR (Body Dysmorphic Disorder Examination-Self Report) and FBeK ('Fragebogen zur Beurteilung des eigenen Körpers'), which were incorporated into a single questionnaire. Each of these questionnaires covered one or more of the established quality-of-life domains. Patients with pain and pressure sensations were significantly less satisfied in life, showed lower levels of health satisfaction, had higher levels of anxiety and depression and showed higher body dysmorphic disorder levels (all p < 0.001). General life satisfaction in this hand-injury study group is highly dependent on the patients` satisfaction with their health and appearance as well as self-confidence. The quality-of-life outcomes improve with time, and despite evidence of continued impairment in the injured hand, the majority of patients had a normal quality of life. PMID:21705290

Kovacs, L; Grob, M; Zimmermann, A; Eder, M; Herschbach, P; Henrich, G; Zimmer, R; Biemer, E; Papadopulos, N A

2011-06-25

 
 
 
 
421

Access to waterless hand sanitizer improves student hand hygiene behavior in primary schools in Nairobi, Kenya.  

Science.gov (United States)

Handwashing is difficult in settings with limited resources and water access. In primary schools within urban Kibera, Kenya, we investigated the impact of providing waterless hand sanitizer on student hand hygiene behavior. Two schools received a waterless hand sanitizer intervention, two schools received a handwashing with soap intervention, and two schools received no intervention. Hand cleaning behavior after toilet use was monitored for 2 months using structured observation. Hand cleaning after toileting was 82% at sanitizer schools (N = 2,507 toileting events), 38% at soap schools (N = 3,429), and 37% at control schools (N = 2,797). Students at sanitizer schools were 23% less likely to have observed rhinorrhea than control students (P = 0.02); reductions in student-reported gastrointestinal and respiratory illness symptoms were not statistically significant. Providing waterless hand sanitizer markedly increased student hand cleaning after toilet use, whereas the soap intervention did not. Waterless hand sanitizer may be a promising option to improve student hand cleansing behavior, particularly in schools with limited water access. PMID:23836575

Pickering, Amy J; Davis, Jennifer; Blum, Annalise G; Scalmanini, Jenna; Oyier, Beryl; Okoth, George; Breiman, Robert F; Ram, Pavani K

2013-07-08

422

Comparison of surgically induced astigmatism between one-handed and two-handed cataract surgery techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The purpose of this study was to compare surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) between one-handed and two-handed cataract surgery techniques. Methods Eighty-eight eyes of 44 patients with no ocular disease other than cataract, who underwent cataract surgery by a single surgeon, were selected for this study. Cataract surgery was performed by coaxial phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation via a 2.4 mm transconjunctival single-plane sclerocorneal incision at the 12 o’clock position. In each patient, one eye was subjected to coaxial phacoemulsification using a one-handed technique while the fellow eye was subjected to coaxial phacoemulsification using a two-handed technique. For the two-handed technique, a corneal side port was created at the 2 o’clock position. The appropriate incision meridian was identified by a preoperative axis mark. SIA was calculated using the Alpins method. Results Mean SIA was 0.40 ± 0.28 diopters (D) in the one-handed technique group and 0.39 ± 0.25 D in the two-handed technique group. No statistically significant difference was found in the mean SIA score. The mean torque value was ?0.05 ± 0.26 D in the one-handed technique group and 0.11 ± 0.37 D in the two-handed technique group. Mean torque was significantly lower (Pcataract surgery has a rotating effect on the axis of astigmatism.

Kawahara, Asushi; Kurosaka, Daijiro; Yoshida, Aktoshi

2013-01-01

423

Access to waterless hand sanitizer improves student hand hygiene behavior in primary schools in nairobi, kenya.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract. Handwashing is difficult in settings with limited resources and water access. In primary schools within urban Kibera, Kenya, we investigated the impact of providing waterless hand sanitizer on student hand hygiene behavior. Two schools received a waterless hand sanitizer intervention, two schools received a handwashing with soap intervention, and two schools received no intervention. Hand cleaning behavior after toilet use was monitored for 2 months using structured observation. Hand cleaning after toileting was 82% at sanitizer schools (N = 2,507 toileting events), 38% at soap schools (N = 3,429), and 37% at control schools (N = 2,797). Students at sanitizer schools were 23% less likely to have observed rhinorrhea than control students (P = 0.02); reductions in student-reported gastrointestinal and respiratory illness symptoms were not statistically significant. Providing waterless hand sanitizer markedly increased student hand cleaning after toilet use, whereas the soap intervention did not. Waterless hand sanitizer may be a promising option to improve student hand cleansing behavior, particularly in schools with limited water access.

Pickering AJ; Davis J; Blum AG; Scalmanini J; Oyier B; Okoth G; Breiman RF; Ram PK

2013-09-01

424

Identifying Key Risk Behaviors Regarding Personal Hygiene and Food Safety Practices of Food Handlers Working in Eating Establishments Located Within a Hospital Campus in Kolkata  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Hospital canteens cater to a large population group and personal hygiene and food safety practices of food handlers assume immense importance to prevent food borne disease outbreaks. Objectives: To assess the self-reported behaviour of food handlers on personal hygiene and food safety practices and to find out their morbidity profile. Methods: An observational study was conducted by interviewing 67 consenting food handlers working in different eateries inside a hospital campus, using a pretested, predesigned schedule. Results: Majority (46.3%) of food handlers were educated upto primary level. Only 14.9% foodhandlers received preplacement training and 10.5%, preplacement medical checkup. Though practices of hand washing after going to toilet (95.5%) and before preparing food (79.1%) was reported to be quite high but for most other practices, hygiene was found to be low. Cuts/injuries on hands was reported as the most common morbidity in 44.8% but 11.9% continued work without any treatment. Conclusion: Preplacement training and in-service education on personal / food hygiene should be provided to all food handlers. Periodic medical checkups and routine sanitary inspection can improve their adherence to personal hygiene and food safety practices and prevent outbreak of food borne illnesses

Prianka Mukhopadhyay*, Gautam Kr. Joardar, Kanad Bag, Amrita Samanta, Sonali Sain and Sesadri Koley

2012-01-01

425

Fast Food Facts: Interactive Food Finder  

Science.gov (United States)

Before grabbing a quick bite at a fast food eatery, curious diners may want to check this site, provided by Olen Publishing, and based on the Fast Food Facts handbook, which is published by the Minnesota Attorney General's Office. Food Finder allows users to search any of nineteen fast food restaurants from Arby's to White Castle. Any or all restaurants can be searched on food names, maximum calories, percent calories from fat, and maximum sodium, fat, and cholesterol. Then simply "fire up the deep fryer." To browse all products of all restaurants, simply fire up the deep fryer without entering any search terms. This fun and informative (if slightly frightening) site tallies the cost of that next fast food meal to your health.

1998-01-01

426

Cold: An important factor in the food industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Developments in the refrigeration industry and the food industry have gone hand in hand. 75% of present turnover in the cooling medium industry depends on food and the food industry. Temperature dependency of foods results from microbial, chemical/biochemical and physical aspects. The quality deterioration of various foods in the temperature range -25/sup 0/C to -5/sup 0/C was recorded in diagrams. This deterioration process can be seen as an accumulative one. Deep freezing has no competition as the most frequently-used method of universal conservation. Whether refrigerated conservation represents competition for deep-freezing was critically examined. Intervention storage (paid for by the state) of foods has become an important factor in agricultural policy in all countries. What would happen to the use of cold storage buildings if an alternative solution was found in agricultural policy. The retail trade and bulk consumers calculate for 3% freezing costs for their normal food storage. Modulated frosters and machine rooms, heat recycling, electronic controls and cooling tasks in the retail sector are gone into. Within the coming years, freeze engineering will continue as the dominant method for storing food.

Persson, P.O.

1984-01-01

427

Hand hygiene - patient and staff protection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hygienic hand disinfection must be conducted after every contact with or step performed on the patient where the risk of contamination is given, i.e., after every change of wound dressing, manipulation of catheters, contact with contaminated surfaces near the patient, and taking off protective gloves, and before aseptic tasks such as changing wound dressings. The agents of choice are alcohol-based hand disinfectants. The declared length of application must be strictly observed, because efficacy is not ensured if the application time is abbreviated. In cases where a virucidal hand disinfection is necessary, a preparation with manufacturer-declared efficacy against the respective virus must be chosen. Protective gloves must be worn for predictable or probable contact with pathogens, and where contamination with bodily excretions, secretions, and blood is possible. The regular performance of skin-care and skin-protection measures serves to prevent irritatively toxic skin damage.

Kramer, Axel

2006-01-01

428

A Microcontroller Based Four Fingered Robotic Hand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we deal with the design and development of a Four Fingered Robotic Hand(FFRH) using 8-bit microcontroller, sensors and wireless feedback. The design of the system is based ona simple, flexible and minimal control strategy. The robot system has 14 independent commands for allthe four fingers open and close, wrist up and down, base clockwise and counter clockwise, Pick andPlace and Home position to move the fingers. Implementation of pick and place operation of the objectusing these commands are discussed. The mechanical hardware design of the Robotic hand based onconnected double revolute joint mechanisms is briefed. The tendoning system of the double revolute jointmechanism and wireless feedback network provide the hand with the ability to confirm to object topologyand therefore providing the advantage of using a simple control algorithm. Finally, the results of theexperimental work for pick and place application are enumerated.

P.S.Ramaiah; M.Venkateswara Rao; G.V.Satyanarayana

2011-01-01

429

Hand, foot and mouth disease in Nagpur  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a viral infection of children caused by Coxsackie virus-A16, a type of enterovirus closely related with the virus that causes herpangina. Although seen worldwide, it is not common in India. Hand, foot and mouth disease is sporadically reported from India as a mild illness. This report describes four cases of HFMD from Nagpur, Central India, seen between September 2005 and April 2006. All patients presented with a mild febrile prodrome followed by the appearance of aphthous-like oral ulcers and vesicular lesions on the hands and feet. All cases were clinically diagnosed. Coxsackie virus A16 was isolated from the serum of one of the patients. All the patients were in the age group of 3-5 years from different schools. It was a mild illness and all the four patients recovered without any complication. There were no secondary cases in the families.

Saoji Vikrant

2008-01-01

430

Unconstrained and Contactless Hand Geometry Biometrics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a hand biometric system for contact-less, platform-free scenarios, proposing innovative methods in feature extraction, template creation and template matching. The evaluation of the proposed method considers both the use of three contact-less publicly available hand databases, and the comparison of the performance to two competitive pattern recognition techniques existing in literature: namely Support Vector Machines (SVM) and k-Nearest Neighbour (k-NN). Results highlight the fact that the proposed method outcomes existing approaches in literature in terms of computational cost, accuracy in human identification, number of extracted features and number of samples for template creation. The proposed method is a suitable solution for human identification in contact-less scenarios based on hand biometrics, providing a feasible solution to devices with limited hardware requirements like mobile devices.

Alberto de-Santos-Sierra; Carmen Sánchez-Ávila; Gonzalo Bailador del Pozo; Javier Guerra-Casanova

2011-01-01

431

Benign noninfectious subcutaneous emphysema of the hand.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 17-year-old girl presented pain and subcutaneous crepitation in the left hand. Because of lack of systemic symptoms, non-infectious cause was considered. Radiographic and magnetic resonance imaging revealed subcutaneous emphysema. A chest x-ray was reported as normal but chest computerised tomography revealed pneumomediastinum. On the third day of the hospitalisation, subcutaneous emphysema spread to arm, shoulder, head, left hemithorax, back, bilateral supraclavicular, cervical, submandibular and periorbital regions. Pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema disappeared during 6 weeks of follow up with conservative methods. This might have prevented unnecessary surgical intervention. This report demonstrates that benign non-infectious subcutaneous emphysema of the hand due to pneumomediastinum should be kept in mind in hand surgery. PMID:14574604

Ozalay, Metin; Akpinar, Sercan; Hersekli, Murat Ali; Ozkoç, Gürkan; Tando?an, Reha N

2003-08-09

432

Benign noninfectious subcutaneous emphysema of the hand.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 17-year-old girl presented pain and subcutaneous crepitation in the left hand. Because of lack of systemic symptoms, non-infectious cause was considered. Radiographic and magnetic resonance imaging revealed subcutaneous emphysema. A chest x-ray was reported as normal but chest computerised tomography revealed pneumomediastinum. On the third day of the hospitalisation, subcutaneous emphysema spread to arm, shoulder, head, left hemithorax, back, bilateral supraclavicular, cervical, submandibular and periorbital regions. Pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema disappeared during 6 weeks of follow up with conservative methods. This might have prevented unnecessary surgical intervention. This report demonstrates that benign non-infectious subcutaneous emphysema of the hand due to pneumomediastinum should be kept in mind in hand surgery.

Ozalay M; Akpinar S; Hersekli MA; Ozkoç G; Tando?an RN

2003-10-01

433

MEMS ACCELEROMETER BASED HAND GESTURE RECOGNITION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an MEMS accelerometer mostly based on gesture recognition algorithm and its applications. The hardware module consists of a triaxial mems accelerometer, microcontroller, and zigbee wireless transmission module for sensing and collecting accelerations of handwriting and hand gesture trajectories. Users will use this hardware module to write down digits, alphabets in digital kind by making four hand gestures. The accelerations of hand motions measured by the accelerometer are transmitted wirelessly to a personal computer for trajectory recognition. The trajectory algorithm composed of information assortment collection, signal preprocessing for reconstructing the trajectories to attenuate the cumulative errors caused by drift of sensors. So, by changing the position of MEMS (micro electro mechanical systems) we can able to show the alphabetical characters and numerical within the PC.

Meenaakumari.M, M.Muthulakshmi

2013-01-01

434

Ultrasonography of the hand, wrist, and elbow.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

High-frequency diagnostic ultrasonography of the hand, wrist and elbow has significant potential to improve the quality of diagnosis and care provided by neuromuscular and musculoskeletal specialists. In patients referred for weakness, pain and numbness of the hand, wrist or elbow, diagnostic ultrasonography can be an adjunct to electrodiagnosis and help in identifying ruptured tendons and treating conditions such as carpal tunnel syndrome or trigger finger. Use of a small high-frequency (>10-15 MHz) transducer, an instrument with a blunt pointed tip to enhance sonopalpation and a model of the hand, wrist and elbow is advised to enhance visualization of small anatomical structures and complex bony contours. A range of conditions, including tendon and ligament ruptures, trigger finger, de Quervain tenosynovitis, intersection syndrome, lateral epicondylitis, and osteoarthritis, is described along with detailed ultrasonography-guided injection techniques for carpal tunnel syndrome and trigger finger.

Bodor M; Fullerton B

2010-08-01

435

Ultrasonography of the hand, wrist, and elbow.  

Science.gov (United States)

High-frequency diagnostic ultrasonography of the hand, wrist and elbow has significant potential to improve the quality of diagnosis and care provided by neuromuscular and musculoskeletal specialists. In patients referred for weakness, pain and numbness of the hand, wrist or elbow, diagnostic ultrasonography can be an adjunct to electrodiagnosis and help in identifying ruptured tendons and treating conditions such as carpal tunnel syndrome or trigger finger. Use of a small high-frequency (>10-15 MHz) transducer, an instrument with a blunt pointed tip to enhance sonopalpation and a model of the hand, wrist and elbow is advised to enhance visualization of small anatomical structures and complex bony contours. A range of conditions, including tendon and ligament ruptures, trigger finger, de Quervain tenosynovitis, intersection syndrome, lateral epicondylitis, and osteoarthritis, is described along with detailed ultrasonography-guided injection techniques for carpal tunnel syndrome and trigger finger. PMID:20797547

Bodor, Marko; Fullerton, Brad

2010-08-01

436

Posterior alien hand syndrome: case report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The alien hand syndrome (AHS) is involuntary uncontrolled movement of an arm with a sense of estrangement from the limb itself. AHS was initially used to describe interhemispheric disconnection phenomena in patients with lesions in the anterior corpus callosum, but it has been found in patients with posterior cerebral lesions without involvement of the corpus callosum, for example parietal infarcts or corticobasal degeneration. The posterior alien hand syndrome is less frequent and presents with nonpurposive behaviour like lifting the arm or writhing fingers. We report an 80-year-old woman with a posterior AHS of the dominant right hand. MRI showed atrophy of the pre- and postcentral gyri without involvement of the corpus callosum. We discuss the aetiology of the posterior AHS and the differences from the anterior varieties. (orig.)

Rohde, S.; Weidauer, S.; Lanfermann, H.; Zanella, F. [Institute of Neuroradiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Schleusenweg 2-16, 60528 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

2002-11-01

437

Posterior alien hand syndrome: case report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The alien hand syndrome (AHS) is involuntary uncontrolled movement of an arm with a sense of estrangement from the limb itself. AHS was initially used to describe interhemispheric disconnection phenomena in patients with lesions in the anterior corpus callosum, but it has been found in patients with posterior cerebral lesions without involvement of the corpus callosum, for example parietal infarcts or corticobasal degeneration. The posterior alien hand syndrome is less frequent and presents with nonpurposive behaviour like lifting the arm or writhing fingers. We report an 80-year-old woman with a posterior AHS of the dominant right hand. MRI showed atrophy of the pre- and postcentral gyri without involvement of the corpus callosum. We discuss the aetiology of the posterior AHS and the differences from the anterior varieties. (orig.)

2002-01-01

438

Tonkean macaques communicate with their right hand.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There are two conflicting hypotheses to explain the origins of language. Vocal origin theory states that language results from the gradual evolution of animals' vocal communication, but gestural origin theory considers that language evolved from gestures, with the initial left-hemispheric control of manual gestures gradually encompassing vocalizations. To contribute to this debate, we investigated functional hemispheric specialization related to hand biases when grasping or showing an object through manual gesture in Tonkean macaques. The results of this study, the first quantitative study on Tonkean macaques' handedness, showed a remarkable convergence of the Tonkean macaques' handedness patterns with those of baboons and human infants, with hand preferences for manual communicative gestures significantly favoring the use of the right hand. Our findings support the hypothesis that left hemispheric lateralization for language is derived from a gestural communication system that was present in the common ancestor of macaques, baboons and humans.

Meunier H; Fizet J; Vauclair J

2013-08-01

439

Psychiatric risk factors in pediatric hand fractures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Various psychopathologies are becoming more commonly recognized as a cause of violence in the pediatric population. In this study, we aimed to investigate (1) the link between the pediatric hand fractures and psychopathology and (2) the prevalence of repeated hand injuries in the same population. METHOD: We retrospectively reviewed 208 patients treated at a level 1 trauma center and recorded age, sex, past medical and psychiatric history as well as type, etiology, and treatment of hand fractures for analysis. A mental health professional has confirmed psychiatric diagnosis. Fisher exact tests and independent samples t tests were performed for analysis. RESULTS: Metacarpal fractures were the most common hand fracture seen in patients with a psychiatric history (P=0.05). More than half (52.9%, n=18) of the patients with a positive psychiatric history had a subsequent injury whereas only 14.6% (n=29) of patients negative for psychiatric issues had a subsequent injury (P<0.001). The most common psychiatric disorders were attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, and substance abuse. Psychiatric diagnosis was significantly more frequent in those sustaining an injury due to punching compared with other mechanisms (38% vs. 8%, P<0.001). Twenty one (38%) of the 55 children whose injuries were due to punching had a documented psychiatric diagnosis. Of the 55