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Food taboos: their origins and purposes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Food taboos are known from virtually all human societies. Most religions declare certain food items fit and others unfit for human consumption. Dietary rules and regulations may govern particular phases of the human life cycle and may be associated with special events such as menstrual period, pregnancy, childbirth, lactation, and – in traditional societies – preparation for the hunt, battle, wedding, funeral, etc. On a comparative basis many food taboos seem to make no sense at all, as to what may be declared unfit by one group may be perfectly acceptable to another. On the other hand, food taboos have a long history and one ought to expect a sound explanation for the existence (and persistence of certain dietary customs in a given culture. Yet, this is a highly debated view and no single theory may explain why people employ special food taboos. This paper wants to revive interest in food taboo research and attempts a functionalist's explanation. However, to illustrate some of the complexity of possible reasons for food taboo five examples have been chosen, namely traditional food taboos in orthodox Jewish and Hindu societies as well as reports on aspects of dietary restrictions in communities with traditional lifestyles of Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, and Nigeria. An ecological or medical background is apparent for many, including some that are seen as religious or spiritual in origin. On the one hand food taboos can help utilizing a resource more efficiently; on the other food taboos can lead to the protection of a resource. Food taboos, whether scientifically correct or not, are often meant to protect the human individual and the observation, for example, that certain allergies and depression are associated with each other could have led to declaring food items taboo that were identified as causal agents for the allergies. Moreover, any food taboo, acknowledged by a particular group of people as part of its ways, aids in the cohesion of this group, helps that particular group maintain its identity in the face of others, and therefore creates a feeling of "belonging".

Meyer-Rochow Victor

2009-06-01

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Hand washing compliance among retail food establishment workers in Minnesota.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inadequate hand washing by food workers is an important contributing factor to foodborne disease outbreaks in retail food establishments (RFEs). We conducted a survey of RFEs to investigate the effect of hand washing training, availability of hand washing facilities, and the ability of the person in charge (PIC) to describe hand washing according to the Minnesota Food Code (food code) on workers' ability to demonstrate food code-compliant hand washing. Only 52% of the PICs could describe the hand washing procedure outlined in the food code, and only 48% of workers could demonstrate code-compliant hand washing. The most common problems observed were failure to wash for 20 s and failure to use a fingernail brush. There was a strong positive association between the PIC being a certified food manager and being able to describe the food code hand washing procedure (odds ratio [OR], 5.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2 to 13.7), and there was an even stronger association between the PIC being able to describe hand washing and workers being able to demonstrate code-compliant hand washing (OR, 15; 95% CI, 6 to 37). Significant associations were detected among correct hand washing demonstration, physical infrastructure for hand washing, and the hand washing training methods used by the establishment. However, the principal determinant of successful hand washing demonstration was the PIC's ability to describe proper hand washing procedure. These results suggest that improving hand washing practices among food workers will require interventions that address PIC knowledge of hand washing requirement and procedure and the development and implementation of effective hand washing training methods. PMID:15633696

Allwood, Paul B; Jenkins, Timothy; Paulus, Colleen; Johnson, Lars; Hedberg, Craig W

2004-12-01

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48 CFR 225.7002 - Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools. 225.7002 Section...on Foreign Acquisition 225.7002 Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring...

2010-10-01

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The use of fish in Ilhabela (São Paulo/Brazil): preferences, food taboos and medicinal indications / O uso de peixes em Ilhabela (São Paulo, Brasil): preferências, tabus alimentares e indicações medicinais  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho foi realizado em três comunidades de pescadores artesanais de Ilhabela, localizadas no litoral norte do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. O objetivo foi analisar as preferências, os tabus e as indicações medicinais dos peixes e, desta forma, representar as interações dos pescadores com os r [...] ecursos pesqueiros, visando entender os aspectos biológicos e culturais envolvidos. A coleta dos dados foi realizada através de entrevistas com o auxílio de questionários semi-estruturados. Foram entrevistadas 25 famílias, das 29 residentes nas três comunidades estudadas durante a coleta de dados, sendo que 5 delas foram realizadas na Praia do Jabaquara, 6 na Praia da Fome e 14 na Praia da Serraria. Foram citadas 18 consideradas preferidas para o consumo, 11 espécies consideradas como tabus, 5 espécies evitadas e 4 indicadas no caso de doenças. As famílias de pescadores preferem consumir peixes de escama e não consomem o baiacu, este último provavelmente devido a sua característica tóxica. Peixes como bonito, espada, cação, sororoca e cavala são evitados em casos como feridas, inflamações, gravidez e pós parto e outros como pirajica, marimba, anchova e garoupa são indicados como peixes medicinais nestas situações. Aspectos relativos ao consumo de pescado fazem parte do corpo de conhecimento dos pescadores e suas famílias e constituem um acervo rico de informações que somadas as informações biológicas são úteis para a conservação dos recursos pesqueiros. Dados como os apresentados nesse estudo, com relação ao uso de animais aquáticos para tratamento de doenças, podem servir de base para estudos futuros sobre substâncias que contenham elementos ativos na cura de doenças. Abstract in english This study was conducted in three communities of artisanal fishermen from Ilhabela, located on the northern coast of São Paulo, Brazil. The objective was to analyze the preferences, taboos and medicinal indications of fish and thus representing one of the interactions of fishermen with fish stocks. [...] Data collection was conducted through interviews with the aid of semi-structured questionnaires. We interviewed 25 families, 29 residents in three communities studied during our fieldwork for data collection. Five interviews were done in Jabaquara Beach, 6 in Fome Beach and 14 Serraria Beach. During the interviews, 18 species were cited as preferred for consumption, 11 species considered to be taboo (food prohibited), 5 species were cited as avoided as food, and 4 species indicated in case of illness. The families of fishermen prefer to consume finfish and do not consume puffer fish, the latter probably due to its toxic characteristic. Fish such as little tunny, largehead hairtail, shark, serra mackerel and king mackerel are avoided by unhealthy people and in cases of wounds, inflammation, pregnancy and postpartum. Other fish, such as sea chubs, silver porgy, bluefish and grouper are reported as medicinal in these situations. Aspects related to fish consumption are part of the knowledge of fishermen and their families and provide a wealth of information that combined to biological information is useful for the conservation of fishery resources. Data such as those presented in this study, regarding the use of aquatic animals for treatment of diseases, could serve as a basis for future studies on substances that contain active elements in curing diseases.

Milena, Ramires; Matheus Marcos, Rotundo; Alpina, Begossi.

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The use of fish in Ilhabela (São Paulo/Brazil): preferences, food taboos and medicinal indications / O uso de peixes em Ilhabela (São Paulo, Brasil): preferências, tabus alimentares e indicações medicinais  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho foi realizado em três comunidades de pescadores artesanais de Ilhabela, localizadas no litoral norte do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. O objetivo foi analisar as preferências, os tabus e as indicações medicinais dos peixes e, desta forma, representar as interações dos pescadores com os r [...] ecursos pesqueiros, visando entender os aspectos biológicos e culturais envolvidos. A coleta dos dados foi realizada através de entrevistas com o auxílio de questionários semi-estruturados. Foram entrevistadas 25 famílias, das 29 residentes nas três comunidades estudadas durante a coleta de dados, sendo que 5 delas foram realizadas na Praia do Jabaquara, 6 na Praia da Fome e 14 na Praia da Serraria. Foram citadas 18 consideradas preferidas para o consumo, 11 espécies consideradas como tabus, 5 espécies evitadas e 4 indicadas no caso de doenças. As famílias de pescadores preferem consumir peixes de escama e não consomem o baiacu, este último provavelmente devido a sua característica tóxica. Peixes como bonito, espada, cação, sororoca e cavala são evitados em casos como feridas, inflamações, gravidez e pós parto e outros como pirajica, marimba, anchova e garoupa são indicados como peixes medicinais nestas situações. Aspectos relativos ao consumo de pescado fazem parte do corpo de conhecimento dos pescadores e suas famílias e constituem um acervo rico de informações que somadas as informações biológicas são úteis para a conservação dos recursos pesqueiros. Dados como os apresentados nesse estudo, com relação ao uso de animais aquáticos para tratamento de doenças, podem servir de base para estudos futuros sobre substâncias que contenham elementos ativos na cura de doenças. Abstract in english This study was conducted in three communities of artisanal fishermen from Ilhabela, located on the northern coast of São Paulo, Brazil. The objective was to analyze the preferences, taboos and medicinal indications of fish and thus representing one of the interactions of fishermen with fish stocks. [...] Data collection was conducted through interviews with the aid of semi-structured questionnaires. We interviewed 25 families, 29 residents in three communities studied during our fieldwork for data collection. Five interviews were done in Jabaquara Beach, 6 in Fome Beach and 14 Serraria Beach. During the interviews, 18 species were cited as preferred for consumption, 11 species considered to be taboo (food prohibited), 5 species were cited as avoided as food, and 4 species indicated in case of illness. The families of fishermen prefer to consume finfish and do not consume puffer fish, the latter probably due to its toxic characteristic. Fish such as little tunny, largehead hairtail, shark, serra mackerel and king mackerel are avoided by unhealthy people and in cases of wounds, inflammation, pregnancy and postpartum. Other fish, such as sea chubs, silver porgy, bluefish and grouper are reported as medicinal in these situations. Aspects related to fish consumption are part of the knowledge of fishermen and their families and provide a wealth of information that combined to biological information is useful for the conservation of fishery resources. Data such as those presented in this study, regarding the use of aquatic animals for treatment of diseases, could serve as a basis for future studies on substances that contain active elements in curing diseases.

Milena, Ramires; Matheus Marcos, Rotundo; Alpina, Begossi.

2012-03-01

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Sens et enjeux d’un interdit alimentaire dans le judaïsme Food taboos in Judaism: the example of Ashkenazi Jews in London  

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Full Text Available Cet article porte sur la manière dont la prohibition de mêler nourritures lactées et carnées dans le judaïsme se matérialise par les objets de la cuisine et leurs usages quotidiens, à partir d’une recherche réalisée à Londres auprès de couples juifs ashkénazes qui se définissent presque tous comme orthodoxes (modern orthodox et dont la scolarisation dans des écoles juives a parfois pu contribuer à revivifier les pratiques religieuses. Par delà la diversité des habitudes culinaires et de leurs formes (ex : végétarisme, par delà les éventuelles variations individuelles de l’observance religieuse au cours du cycle de vie, l’interdit alimentaire de mêler lait et viande est respecté par l’ensemble des personnes rencontrées. Il s’agit alors d’en comprendre le sens et la portée. Les conséquences matérielles de cet interdit alimentaire permettent de saisir l’importance de la religion dans le logement et les activités de tous les jours. Elles conduisent à articuler le plan matériel et le plan symbolique en suggérant une interprétation anthropologique de cette prohibition, en lien avec les écrits bibliques et les analyses déjà menées sur le sujet.This article is based upon research on Ashkenazi Jewish families living in London. It deals with the way, in Judaïsm, the prohibition of eating meat and dairy foods together is materialised through the use of kitchen utensils on a day to day basis. Material consequences of this dietary law allow us to understand the importance of religion in the Jewish home and in everyday life. Consequences which lead to the linking of material uses and their symbolic significance by suggesting an anthropological interpretation of this dietary law in accordance with Biblical writings.

Laurence Faure

2010-12-01

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Implications of Nutritional Beliefs and Taboos--Hausa and Yoruba Pregnant Women in Lagos, Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigated taboos and beliefs about the nutritional value of foods among pregnant women from Nigeria's Hausa and Yoruba tribes. Found that Hausa women had greater nutritional anemia than Yoruba women; their babies had greater incidence of low birth weights and smaller chest and head measurements. Hausa women learned food-related beliefs from…

Abidoye, R. O.; Akinpelumi, O. B.

1997-01-01

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Catfish and mullets: the food preferences and taboos of caiçaras (southern atlantic forest coast, brazil) / BAGRES E MUGILÍDEOS: PREFERÊNCIAS E TABUS ALIMENTARES DE CAIÇARAS (LITORAL SUDESTE DA MATA ATLÂNTICA, BRASIL) / ARIIDAE Y MUGILIDAE: LAS PREFERENCIAS Y LOS TABÚES ALIMENTARIOS DE LOS CAIÇARAS (COSTA ATLÁNTICA MERIDIONAL, BRASIL)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Uma importante característica da dieta humana é a categorização de preferências e aversões alimentares. O objetivo deste artigo é analisar as preferências e tabus alimentares com relação a itens de proteína animal entre três comunidades caiçaras do litoral sudeste brasileiro. A literatura sobre pref [...] erências alimentares quanto ao consumo de pescado aponta para um padrão geral de preferência por peixes com escamas e aversões ou restrições de consumo por peixes sem escamas. Neste estudo, visamos discutir duas particularidades das escolhas alimentares entre caiçaras, especificamente quanto às preferências e aversões sobre o consumo de bagres (Ariidae) e sobre diferentes espécies do gênero Mugil (Mugilidae). Estas preferências e aversões alimentares podem ser explicadas por fatores ecológicos e culturais, como pela disponibilidade do recurso, pela posição da espécie na cadeia alimentar, ou através da importância destas espécies na economia e nas relações sociais dentro da comunidade. Relações entre conservação e tabus alimentares sobre certas espécies de peixe, ou grupos de espécies, parecem ser mais tênues do que as possíveis relações entre tabus de caça e conservação da fauna terrestre. Além disso, os tabus sobre espécies de peixes não resultam em deficiência nutricional nas comunidades estudadas. Abstract in spanish Una característica importante de dietas humanas es el categorizar de alimentos según su preferencia o evitación. La literatura en preferencias alimenticias de los pescadores contempla un patrón general de preferencia por pescados con escamas y una aversión o prohibición de pescados sin escamas. Se a [...] nalizaron las preferencias, evitaciones y tabúes sobre el alimento de origen animal en tres comunidades caiçaras de la costa brasileña del sudeste. Se discuten dos aspectos de la escogencia de alimento de los caiçaras, con respecto a sus preferencias, las aversiones, y los tabúes en el consumo de Ariidae y de varias especies de Mugilidae. Esta clasificación se puede explicar por factores ecológicos y culturales, como la disponibilidad ambiental de la especie, su posición en la cadena alimenticia, o su importancia en la economía y en las relaciones sociales dentro de la comunidad. Una conexión entre la conservación del recurso y los tabúes sobre ciertas especies de peces parecen más tenues que las posibles relaciones entre los tabúes de caza y la conservación de la fauna terrestre. Para las comunidades estudiadas, los tabúes sobre peces no resultaran en deficiencias nutricionales en la población humana. Abstract in english An important feature of human diets is the establishment of food categories according to its preference or avoidance. The literature on fish food preferences points out a general pattern of preference for fish with scales and an avoidance or prohibition of scaleless fish. The food preferences, avoid [...] ances, and taboos on animal protein items among three caiçara communities from the Southeastern Brazilian coast were analyzed. Two aspects of the caiçaras choice of food were discussed, regarding their preferences, avoidances, and taboos on the consumption of catfish (Ariidae) and on different species of mullets (Mugilidae). This categorization can be explained both ecologically and culturally: through the environmental availability of the species, their position in the food web, or their importance in the economy and in the social relations within the community. A connection between resource conservation and food taboos about certain fish species are unlikely when compared to the possible relations between hunting taboos and conservation of the terrestrial fauna. For the studied communities, there was no nutritional deprivation resulting from food taboos on fish species.

Hanazaki, Natalia; Begossi, Alpina.

2006-02-01

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Consequences of occupational food-related hand dermatoses with a focus on protein contact dermatitis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background. Protein contact dermatitis is a frequent disorder among hand eczema patients who have occupational food contact. Knowledge about the consequences of having protein contact dermatitis is lacking. Objectives. To investigate the consequences of having occupational skin disease on the hands resulting from food handling, with a focus on protein contact dermatitis. Material and methods. One hundred and seventy-eight patients who were identified as having skin disease related to occupational food exposure and who answered a questionnaire concerning the consequences of their skin disease were included in the study. The patients were consecutively examined at Gentofte Hospital, Denmark between 2001 and 2010. Results. Seventy-five per cent of patients with protein contact dermatitis had to wear gloves at work, and 62.5% reported sick leave lasting for >3 weeks, as compared with 60.2% and 30%, respectively, of the patients with other occupational food-related hand dermatoses (p = 0.02). Sixty-two per cent and 43%, respectively, had to change job because of skin problems (p = 0.02). Atopic dermatitis was equally common in the two groups. Conclusion. We found that the patients with protein contact dermatitis experienced more severe and frequent consequences than patients with other food-related hand dermatoses.

Vester, Lotte; Thyssen, Jacob P

2012-01-01

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Into the Breach: The Legislative Function of Taboo  

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Full Text Available

Taboos are often viewed with suspicion by modern eyes. The very word “taboo” evokes a sense of unfreedom, of limitation. Indeed, when one thinks of now-extinct taboos, the repressive and reactionary nature of taboos is clearly displayed. This, however, is not an argument for the dismantling of all taboos. There are many aspects of social life that a community may wish to govern but cannot through the regular legislative channels. In many cases, such governance might be viewed as an unjustifiable infringement on liberty. There are, however, some cases in which a taboo may be justified because of the protection it offers against a real harm. This article will explore the idea of informal social legislation through taboo, and will attempt to rescue (some taboos from the position of disfavour they currently find themselves in. In the process, this article will establish criteria by which justifiable taboos may be separated from the unjustifiable.

Ali M. Abrar

2010-01-01

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Identity, morals, and taboos: beliefs as assets.  

Science.gov (United States)

We develop a theory of moral behavior, individual and collective, based on a general model of identity in which people care about “who they are” and infer their own values from past choices. The model sheds light on many empirical puzzles inconsistent with earlier approaches. Identity investments respond nonmonotonically to acts or threats, and taboos on mere thoughts arise to protect beliefs about the “priceless” value of certain social assets. High endowments trigger escalating commitment and a treadmill effect, while competing identities can cause dysfunctional capital destruction. Social interactions induce both social and antisocial norms of contribution, sustained by respectively shunning free riders or do-gooders. PMID:22073409

Bénabou, Roland; Tirole, Jean

2011-01-01

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Transgression and Taboo : The Field of Fan Fiction  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This essay draws upon Georges Bataille’s notions of transgression and taboo as co-dependently involved in a play of differences as a framework for discussing agents in the field of fan fiction. More particularly, I outline the way in which fans and authors, or producers of texts, have been conceptualised in ways that recall transgression and taboo.

Kirk, Jens

2011-01-01

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Occupational food-related hand dermatoses seen over a 10-year period  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background. Protein contact dermatitis was originally defined in 1976 by Hjorth and Roed-Petersen as a distinct kind of dermatitis seen in patients with occupational food contact. Even though occupational skin diseases are frequent in Denmark, little attention has been paid to protein contact dermatitis, and the frequency is unknown. Objectives. To evaluate the frequency of occupational food-related hand dermatoses and test results in patients occupationally exposed to foods. Materials and Methods. This was a retrospective study based on examinations, including skin prick testing and patch testing, performed at the Department of Dermato-Allergology, Gentofte University Hospital, Denmark between 2001 and 2010. Results. Of all patients (n = 372), 57.0% had irritant contact dermatitis, 22.0% had protein contact dermatitis, 2.4% had contact urticaria, and 1.8% had allergic contact dermatitis. A suggestion for diagnostic criteria is presented. Frequent risk occupations were cooking in restaurants, baking, and kitchen work. Substantially more patients reacted in skin prick testing with fresh foods than with food extracts. Conclusion. Protein contact dermatitis is a frequent disorder among patients who professionally handle foods, and should be considered to be a distinct clinical entity. When diagnosing protein contact dermatitis and in other food-related skin prick testing procedures, it is important to include fresh foods.

Vester, Lotte; Thyssen, Jacob P

2012-01-01

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The Relations Among Threatened Species, Their Protection, and Taboos  

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Full Text Available We analyzed the role of taboos for the protection of species listed as "threatened" by the World Conservation Union (IUCN, and also for species known to be endemic and keystone. The study was limited to taboos that totally avoid or prohibit any use of particular species and their populations. We call them specific-species taboos . Through a literature review, 70 currently existing examples of specific-species taboos were identified and analyzed. The species avoided were grouped into biological classes. Threat categories were determined for each species, based on the IUCN Red Data Book. We found that ~ 30% of the identified taboos prohibit any use of species listed as threatened by IUCN. Of the specific-species taboos, 60% are set on reptiles and mammals. In these two classes, ~ 50% of the species are threatened, representing all of the threatened species in our analysis, with the exception of one bird species. Both endemic and keystone species that are important for ecosystem functions are avoided by specific-species taboos. Specific-species taboos have important ecological ramifications for the protection of threatened and ecologically important populations of species. We do not suggest that specific-species taboos are placed on species because they are, or have been, endangered; instead, we emphasize that species are avoided for a variety of other reasons. It is urgent to identify and analyze resource practices and social mechanisms of traditional societies, such as taboos, and to investigate their possible ecological significance. Although it may provide insights of value for conservation, not only of species, but also of ecosystem processes and functions, such information is being lost rapidly.

Carl Folke

1997-06-01

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Detection of enterotoxin genes of Staphylococcus sp isolated from nasal cavities and hands of food handlers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Food handlers, an important factor in food quality, may contain bacteria that are able to cause foodborne disease. The present study aimed to research coagulase-negative (CNS) and -positive staphylococci (CPS) in 82 food handlers, analyzing nasal and hand swabs, with identification of 62 CNS (75.6%) [...] and 20 CPS strains (24.4%). Staphylococcal enterotoxins genes were investigated by PCR. In 20 CPS strains, 19 were positive for one or more genes. The percentage of CNS presenting genes for enterotoxins was high (46.8%). Despite of the staphylococcal species, the most common gene was sea (35.4%), followed by seh and sej (29.2%). The detection of new staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) genes showed a higher pathogenic potential in this genus. The presence of these gene points out the importance of CNS not only as contaminant bacteria but also as a pathogen.

V.L.M., Rall; J.M., Sforcin; V.C.M., Augustini; M.T., Watanabe; A., Fernandes Jr.; R., Rall; M.G., Silva; J.P, Araújo Jr..

2010-03-01

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Routing Optimization Based on Taboo Search Algorithm for Logistic Distribution  

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Full Text Available Along with the widespread application of the electronic commerce in the modern business, the logistic distribution has become increasingly important. More and more enterprises recognize that the logistic distribution plays an important role in the process of production and sales. A good routing for logistic distribution can cut down transport cost and improve efficiency. In order to cut down transport cost and improve efficiency, a routing optimization based on taboo search for logistic distribution is proposed in this paper. Taboo search is a metaheuristic search method to perform local search used for logistic optimization. The taboo search is employed to accelerate convergence and the aspiration criterion is combined with the heuristics algorithm to solve routing optimization. Simulation experimental results demonstrate that the optimal routing in the logistic distribution can be quickly obtained by the taboo search algorithm

Hongxue Yang

2014-04-01

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De-tabooing dying control - a grounded theory study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Dying is inescapable yet remains a neglected issue in modern health care. The research question in this study was “what is going on in the field of dying today?” What emerged was to eventually present a grounded theory of control of dying focusing specifically on how people react in relation to issues about euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS). Methods Classic grounded theory was used to analyze interviews with 55 laypersons and health care professionals in North America and Europe, surveys on attitudes to PAS among physicians and the Swedish general public, and scientific literature, North American discussion forum websites, and news sites. Results Open awareness of the nature and timing of a patient’s death became common in health care during the 1960s in the Western world. Open dying awareness contexts can be seen as the start of a weakening of a taboo towards controlled dying called de-tabooing. The growth of the hospice movement and palliative care, but also the legalization of euthanasia and PAS in the Benelux countries, and PAS in Montana, Oregon and Washington further represents de-tabooing dying control. An attitude positioning between the taboo of dying control and a growing taboo against questioning patient autonomy and self-determination called de-paternalizing is another aspect of de-tabooing. When confronted with a taboo, people first react emotionally based on “gut feelings” - emotional positioning. This is followed by reasoning and label wrestling using euphemisms and dysphemisms - reflective positioning. Rarely is de-tabooing unconditional but enabled by stipulated positioning as in soft laws (palliative care guidelines) and hard laws (euthanasia/PAS legislation). From a global perspective three shapes of dying control emerge. First, suboptimal palliative care in closed awareness contexts seen in Asian, Islamic and Latin cultures, called closed dying. Second, palliative care and sedation therapy, but not euthanasia or PAS, is seen in Europe and North America, called open dying with reversible medical control. Third, palliative care, sedation therapy, and PAS or euthanasia occurs together in the Benelux countries, Oregon, Washington and Montana, called open dying with irreversible medical control. Conclusions De-tabooing dying control is an assumed secular process starting with open awareness contexts of dying half a century ago, and continuing with the growth of the palliative care movement and later euthanasia and PAS legislation. PMID:23496849

2013-01-01

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Is hippophagy a taboo in constant evolution?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Food choice is strongly determined by religious and cultural elements specific to each civilization. Numerous food prescriptions concern meat, beginning with the total or partial ban on meat. Among the numerous animal species concerned by religious or cultural prohibitions, horse meat occupies an original place because the ban on its consumption varies a lot according to places and times. Widely consumed in Eurasia in the Prehistory, horse meat is still eaten by many in the big steppes of Cen...

Leteux, Sylvain

2012-01-01

19

The allure of the forbidden: breaking taboos, frustration, and attraction to violent video games.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although people typically avoid engaging in antisocial or taboo behaviors, such as cheating and stealing, they may succumb in order to maximize their personal benefit. Moreover, they may be frustrated when the chance to commit a taboo behavior is withdrawn. The present study tested whether the desire to commit a taboo behavior, and the frustration from being denied such an opportunity, increases attraction to violent video games. Playing violent games allegedly offers an outlet for aggression prompted by frustration. In two experiments, some participants had no chance to commit a taboo behavior (cheating in Experiment 1, stealing in Experiment 2), others had a chance to commit a taboo behavior, and others had a withdrawn chance to commit a taboo behavior. Those in the latter group were most attracted to violent video games. Withdrawing the chance for participants to commit a taboo behavior increased their frustration, which in turn increased their attraction to violent video games. PMID:23449844

Whitaker, Jodi L; Melzer, André; Steffgen, Georges; Bushman, Brad J

2013-04-01

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Is male homosexuality still a cultural taboo for kidney donation?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Among the so-called social risk behaviors, male homosexuality is probably one of the most interesting and difficult taboos. Because of changing attitudes of the general population toward irregular sexual behaviors, often considered as markers of unhealthy life styles, there is a need to reconsider at least the most important one-homosexuality. METHODS: A semistructured questionnaire included opinions on homosexuality with respect to kidney donation: Would you consider a male homos...

Geuna, Stefano; Piccoli, Giorgina Barbara

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
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The Allure of the Forbidden: Breaking Taboos, Frustration, and Attraction to Violent Video Games  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although people typically avoid engaging in antisocial or taboo behaviors, such as cheating and stealing, they may succumb in order to maximize their personal benefit. Moreover, they may be frustrated when the chance to commit a taboo behavior is withdrawn. The present study tested whether the desire to commit a taboo behavior, and the frustration from being denied such an opportunity, increases attraction to violent video games. Playing violent games allegedly offers an outlet for aggression...

Whitaker, Jodi L.; Melzer, Andre?; Steffgen, Georges; Bushmann, Brad J.

2013-01-01

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Love Has (NO Boundaries: Researching a Sexual Taboo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sexual and emotional attraction humans feel towards animals, also known as zoophilia, is perhaps the most controversial facet of human-animal relationships. In this article I explore this seemingly ultimate transgression of interspecies boundaries and probe the Israeli cultural encounters with it. I discern how the stated concerns for normative sexuality and animal rights masquerade the underlying factors in the zoophilia taboo, and reveal the cultural implications of human-animal sexual love in Israel. My fieldwork reveals not only the limits of acceptable human-animal love, but also the limits of legitimate research, and the consequences entailed for those who resolve to challenge them.

Dafna Shir-Vertesh

2013-01-01

23

Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 9. Washing and drying of hands to reduce microbial contamination.  

Science.gov (United States)

During various daily activities at home and work, hands quickly become contaminated. Some activities increase the risk of finger contamination by pathogens more than others, such as the use of toilet paper to clean up following a diarrheal episode, changing the diaper of a sick infant, blowing a nose, or touching raw food materials. Many foodborne outbreak investigation reports have identified the hands of food workers as the source of pathogens in the implicated food. The most convenient and efficient way of removing pathogens from hands is through hand washing. Important components of hand washing are potable water for rinsing and soaps to loosen microbes from the skin. Hand washing should occur after any activity that soils hands and certainly before preparing, serving, or eating food. Antimicrobial soaps are marginally more effective than plain soaps, but constant use results in a buildup of the antimicrobial compound on the skin. The time taken to wash hands and the degree of friction generated during lathering are more important than water temperature for removing soil and microorganisms. However, excessive washing and scrubbing can cause skin damage and infections. Drying hands with a towel removes pathogens first by friction during rubbing with the drying material and then by wicking away the moisture into that material. Paper rather than cloth towels should be encouraged, although single-use cloth towels are present in the washrooms of higher class hotels and restaurants. Warm air dryers remove moisture and any surface microorganisms loosened by washing from hands by evaporation while the hands are rubbed together vigorously; however, these dryers take too long for efficient use. The newer dryers with high-speed air blades can achieve dryness in 10 to 15 s without hand rubbing. PMID:21067683

Todd, Ewen C D; Michaels, Barry S; Smith, Debra; Greig, Judy D; Bartleson, Charles A

2010-10-01

24

Optimal lunar soft landing trajectories using taboo evolutionary programming  

Science.gov (United States)

A safe lunar landing is a key factor to undertake an effective lunar exploration. Lunar lander consists of four phases such as launch phase, the earth-moon transfer phase, circumlunar phase and landing phase. The landing phase can be either hard landing or soft landing. Hard landing means the vehicle lands under the influence of gravity without any deceleration measures. However, soft landing reduces the vertical velocity of the vehicle before landing. Therefore, for the safety of the astronauts as well as the vehicle lunar soft landing with an acceptable velocity is very much essential. So it is important to design the optimal lunar soft landing trajectory with minimum fuel consumption. Optimization of Lunar Soft landing is a complex optimal control problem. In this paper, an analysis related to lunar soft landing from a parking orbit around Moon has been carried out. A two-dimensional trajectory optimization problem is attempted. The problem is complex due to the presence of system constraints. To solve the time-history of control parameters, the problem is converted into two point boundary value problem by using the maximum principle of Pontrygen. Taboo Evolutionary Programming (TEP) technique is a stochastic method developed in recent years and successfully implemented in several fields of research. It combines the features of taboo search and single-point mutation evolutionary programming. Identifying the best unknown parameters of the problem under consideration is the central idea for many space trajectory optimization problems. The TEP technique is used in the present methodology for the best estimation of initial unknown parameters by minimizing objective function interms of fuel requirements. The optimal estimation subsequently results into an optimal trajectory design of a module for soft landing on the Moon from a lunar parking orbit. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the proposed approach is highly efficient and it reduces the minimum fuel consumption. The results are compared with the available results in literature shows that the solution of present algorithm is better than some of the existing algorithms. Keywords: soft landing, trajectory optimization, evolutionary programming, control parameters, Pontrygen principle.

Mutyalarao, M.; Raj, M. Xavier James

25

In Search of the Nuclear Taboo. Past, Present, and Future  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the most puzzling - if positive - phenomena of the past half century is the non-use of nuclear weapons. The puzzle relates to the absence of use despite the demonstrated technical effectiveness of the weapon, the enormous size of nuclear weapons stockpiles globally, the spread of nuclear weapons to states in most regions of the world, the centrality of nuclear weapons in the strategic doctrines and operational war plans of a growing number of states with very different cultures, political systems, and military traditions, and the observation of the tradition of non-use despite the lack of international legal prohibitions - unlike those in place with respect to chemical and biological weapons. This essay seeks to probe the underpinnings of nuclear weapons restraint, the strength and durability of the so-called nuclear 'taboo' - especially in light of the rise of non-states actors who covet nuclear weapons for purposes other than deterrence - and the most likely paths by which existing restraints might be breached, broken, or dissolved. Particular emphasis is placed on alternative futures as a number of other studies, including several important new volumes, have explored in depth the sources of non-use. (author)

Potter, W.C.

2010-07-01

26

In Search of the Nuclear Taboo. Past, Present, and Future  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the most puzzling - if positive - phenomena of the past half century is the non-use of nuclear weapons. The puzzle relates to the absence of use despite the demonstrated technical effectiveness of the weapon, the enormous size of nuclear weapons stockpiles globally, the spread of nuclear weapons to states in most regions of the world, the centrality of nuclear weapons in the strategic doctrines and operational war plans of a growing number of states with very different cultures, political systems, and military traditions, and the observation of the tradition of non-use despite the lack of international legal prohibitions - unlike those in place with respect to chemical and biological weapons. This essay seeks to probe the underpinnings of nuclear weapons restraint, the strength and durability of the so-called nuclear 'taboo' - especially in light of the rise of non-states actors who covet nuclear weapons for purposes other than deterrence - and the most likely paths by which existing restraints might be breached, broken, or dissolved. Particular emphasis is placed on alternative futures as a number of other studies, including several important new volumes, have explored in depth the sources of non-use. (author)

27

Put Your Hands Together  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... food, harmful germs can live on almost everything. Handwashing may be your single most important act to ... spread of infection and stay healthy. More Information Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives Hand Hygiene in Healthcare ...

28

Hand Anatomy  

Science.gov (United States)

... Conditions Symptom Picker Hand Conditions A-Z Hand Anatomy Find a Hand Surgeon Menu About Hand Surgery ... Conditions Symptom Picker Hand Conditions A-Z Hand Anatomy Find a Hand Surgeon MENU Menu About Hand ...

29

Taboo Communication and Social Change: Family Planning in Asia, and Some Suggested Modifications in the Classical Diffusion Model.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taboo communication is examined in relation to its distinctive characteristics and its significance in inhibiting social change involving birth control in Asian and other countries. Taboo communication tends to occur between very high homophilous individuals, which poses problems for communications research. Research is inhibited when researchers…

Rogers, Everett M.

30

What's the Matter with Food?: A Hands-On Action Research Study on the Effect of Using Food Preparation To Teach Students with Autism about the Three States of Matter  

Science.gov (United States)

This investigation studied the effectiveness of using food preparation to teach students with Autism about the three states of matter. A hands-on learning approach was used within the home and careers classroom. One class of five students, three boys and two girls, all diagnosed with Autism, participated in a five day academic unit about the three phases of matter: solid, liquid, and gas. The class received hands-on learning science instruction using food through various differentiated activities. Results indicate that students express focus when using food to learn. In addition, this study acknowledges that hands-on learning in science enhances the learning process of students with Autism. One of the main reasons is that students enjoy learning when this teaching style is used in the classroom, and students that enjoy what they are learning are more likely to be engaged and motivated to learn. After using this approach, all the students in the study increased their scores from the pre-assessments to the post-assessments. Students expressed through actions and words that they enjoyed using hands-on experiences to learn in the classroom. Implications for practice indicate that a variety of manipulatives are needed to teach students with Autism. Future research would help uncover additional information about student motivation and learning in the home and careers classroom.

Diller, Nicole

31

Food Safety  

Science.gov (United States)

... Activity Food Safety Foods to Avoid Choking Hazards Hand Washing Smart Safety Tips Serving Seafood to Your Preschooler ... that can be choking hazards The importance of hand washing Smart safety tips Serving seafood to your preschooler ...

32

The World After Proliferation, Deterrence and Disarmament if the Nuclear Taboo is Broken  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

he nuclear taboo is customarily seen as a black and white norm, separating the world of the familiar from that of an unknowable afterlife.1 Nina Tannenwald argues that 'once the threshold between use and non-use is crossed, one is immediately in a new world with all the unimaginable consequences that could follow'. It is not correct, however, to say that the consequences are 'unimaginable'. They are certainly unpredictable, but one can imagine at least some of the consequences. This article attempts to do so with regard to consequences for proliferation, deterrence and disarmament. If the nuclear taboo were broken, whether by design, accident, miscalculation, or a breakdown of command and control, one of the more easily imagined consequences would be the collapse of the Nuclear Non- Proliferation Treaty (NPT). It is safe to assume that the use of nuclear weapons in war for the first time since 1945 would be a transformational event. But would nuclear use spell the failure of deterrence and doom the prospects of a nuclear-weapons free world, making obsolete much of the current thinking about nuclear disarmament and nuclear deterrence? Not every nuclear use scenario would necessarily break the lock on the nuclear Pandora's Box. A 'demonstration shot', for example, would not have the same impact as nuclear obliteration of a city. Both would be breaches of the taboo, but the use of a single nuclear bomb probably would not disrupt the status quo as thoroughly as would a massive attack or a two-way exchange. Breaching the taboo would not necessarily reverse the powerful norm and tradition that has developed in the last 60+ years against use of nuclear weapons. There is no compelling logic to assume that nuclear weapons would thereby become re-legitimized as instruments of war. The breaking of the nuclear taboo could actually spur either or both of two opposite reactions: an increased salience of nuclear weapons and a stimulus to disarmament. Which impulse prevails will depend on the circumstances, including how the taboo gets broken. This paper first lays out the case for each of these two disparate reactions, noting that history provides limited predictive power for what would be an unprecedented event. The paper then assesses the various circumstances in which nuclear weapons might be used, and how the context of their use would affect the development of new norms. (author)

Fitzpatrick, M.

2009-07-01

33

When and How to Wash Your Hands  

Science.gov (United States)

... gov Share Compartir When & How to Wash Your Hands When should you wash your hands? Before, during, and after preparing food Before eating ... After touching garbage How should you wash your hands? Wet your hands with clean, running water (warm ...

34

Genetic evolutionary taboo search for optimal marker placement in infrared patient setup  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In infrared patient setup adequate selection of the external fiducial configuration is required for compensating inner target displacements (target registration error, TRE). Genetic algorithms (GA) and taboo search (TS) were applied in a newly designed approach to optimal marker placement: the genetic evolutionary taboo search (GETS) algorithm. In the GETS paradigm, multiple solutions are simultaneously tested in a stochastic evolutionary scheme, where taboo-based decision making and adaptive memory guide the optimization process. The GETS algorithm was tested on a group of ten prostate patients, to be compared to standard optimization and to randomly selected configurations. The changes in the optimal marker configuration, when TRE is minimized for OARs, were specifically examined. Optimal GETS configurations ensured a 26.5% mean decrease in the TRE value, versus 19.4% for conventional quasi-Newton optimization. Common features in GETS marker configurations were highlighted in the dataset of ten patients, even when multiple runs of the stochastic algorithm were performed. Including OARs in TRE minimization did not considerably affect the spatial distribution of GETS marker configurations. In conclusion, the GETS algorithm proved to be highly effective in solving the optimal marker placement problem. Further work is needed to embed site-specific deformation models in the optimization process

35

Arguing with the incest taboo? the case of "distorted cognitions" about child sexuality  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This paper seeks to open up critical reflection on the notion of "cognitive distortion" (CD), as applied to child sex offenders, to a broader anthropological account of children's sexual agency, namely the arguable revitalisation and extension of incest taboos through the post-1970s rubric of child [...] sexual abuse. Sixteen scales that purport to measure CD (1984-2009) are listed, and their gist briefly appreciated against this interpretative background. Pitting social structure against the deconstructive and disloyal crime of perversion, the pronouncement of CD shows a deep complicity to the moral status quo, namely the faithful recitation and procedural accreditation of essentially regulatory rubrics, fixtures, and truisms ("sexuality", "sexual trauma", "harm", "consent"). It thus paraphrases the anthropologically expected collapse of nuance between immoral and illogical ideas at the site of social taboos, especially taboos' contemporary predicament of ever more argumentative perverts and ever more decontextualised, and thus erratic, scientific probing. In the end, the perverts are those who, in all nuances of the expression, "don't get it." Circumscribing the "rationalisations, distortions, and blame shifting" of the paraphile remains the - increasingly awkward and panicked - occasion for entrenching society's.

Diederik F, Janssen.

36

Arguing with the incest taboo? the case of "distorted cognitions" about child sexuality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper seeks to open up critical reflection on the notion of "cognitive distortion" (CD, as applied to child sex offenders, to a broader anthropological account of children's sexual agency, namely the arguable revitalisation and extension of incest taboos through the post-1970s rubric of child sexual abuse. Sixteen scales that purport to measure CD (1984-2009 are listed, and their gist briefly appreciated against this interpretative background. Pitting social structure against the deconstructive and disloyal crime of perversion, the pronouncement of CD shows a deep complicity to the moral status quo, namely the faithful recitation and procedural accreditation of essentially regulatory rubrics, fixtures, and truisms ("sexuality", "sexual trauma", "harm", "consent". It thus paraphrases the anthropologically expected collapse of nuance between immoral and illogical ideas at the site of social taboos, especially taboos' contemporary predicament of ever more argumentative perverts and ever more decontextualised, and thus erratic, scientific probing. In the end, the perverts are those who, in all nuances of the expression, "don't get it." Circumscribing the "rationalisations, distortions, and blame shifting" of the paraphile remains the - increasingly awkward and panicked - occasion for entrenching society's.

Diederik F Janssen

2012-01-01

37

Foods  

... Charles Brennan Department of Wine, Food and Molecular Biosciences, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647, Christchurch, New Zealand Tel. +64 ...lincoln.ac.nz/staff-profile?staffid=charles.brennan Interests: polysaccharide utilisation, glycemic response; dietary fibre; food structure and function Contribution:...Group, Department of Wine, Food and Molecular Biosciences, Agriculture and Life Sciences, Lincoln University, Canterbury, New Zealand Interests: positive components of ...

38

Holding Thermal Receipt Paper and Eating Food after Using Hand Sanitizer Results in High Serum Bioactive and Urine Total Levels of Bisphenol A (BPA)  

Science.gov (United States)

Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting environmental contaminant used in a wide variety of products, and BPA metabolites are found in almost everyone’s urine, suggesting widespread exposure from multiple sources. Regulatory agencies estimate that virtually all BPA exposure is from food and beverage packaging. However, free BPA is applied to the outer layer of thermal receipt paper present in very high (?20 mg BPA/g paper) quantities as a print developer. Not taken into account when considering thermal paper as a source of BPA exposure is that some commonly used hand sanitizers, as well as other skin care products, contain mixtures of dermal penetration enhancing chemicals that can increase by up to 100 fold the dermal absorption of lipophilic compounds such as BPA. We found that when men and women held thermal receipt paper immediately after using a hand sanitizer with penetration enhancing chemicals, significant free BPA was transferred to their hands and then to French fries that were eaten, and the combination of dermal and oral BPA absorption led to a rapid and dramatic average maximum increase (Cmax) in unconjugated (bioactive) BPA of ?7 ng/mL in serum and ?20 µg total BPA/g creatinine in urine within 90 min. The default method used by regulatory agencies to test for hazards posed by chemicals is intra-gastric gavage. For BPA this approach results in less than 1% of the administered dose being bioavailable in blood. It also ignores dermal absorption as well as sublingual absorption in the mouth that both bypass first-pass liver metabolism. The elevated levels of BPA that we observed due to holding thermal paper after using a product containing dermal penetration enhancing chemicals have been related to an increased risk for a wide range of developmental abnormalities as well as diseases in adults. PMID:25337790

Hormann, Annette M.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Nagel, Susan C.; Stahlhut, Richard W.; Moyer, Carol L.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Welshons, Wade V.; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Taylor, Julia A.

2014-01-01

39

Holding Thermal Receipt Paper and Eating Food after Using Hand Sanitizer Results in High Serum Bioactive and Urine Total Levels of Bisphenol A (BPA).  

Science.gov (United States)

Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting environmental contaminant used in a wide variety of products, and BPA metabolites are found in almost everyone's urine, suggesting widespread exposure from multiple sources. Regulatory agencies estimate that virtually all BPA exposure is from food and beverage packaging. However, free BPA is applied to the outer layer of thermal receipt paper present in very high (?20 mg BPA/g paper) quantities as a print developer. Not taken into account when considering thermal paper as a source of BPA exposure is that some commonly used hand sanitizers, as well as other skin care products, contain mixtures of dermal penetration enhancing chemicals that can increase by up to 100 fold the dermal absorption of lipophilic compounds such as BPA. We found that when men and women held thermal receipt paper immediately after using a hand sanitizer with penetration enhancing chemicals, significant free BPA was transferred to their hands and then to French fries that were eaten, and the combination of dermal and oral BPA absorption led to a rapid and dramatic average maximum increase (Cmax) in unconjugated (bioactive) BPA of ?7 ng/mL in serum and ?20 µg total BPA/g creatinine in urine within 90 min. The default method used by regulatory agencies to test for hazards posed by chemicals is intra-gastric gavage. For BPA this approach results in less than 1% of the administered dose being bioavailable in blood. It also ignores dermal absorption as well as sublingual absorption in the mouth that both bypass first-pass liver metabolism. The elevated levels of BPA that we observed due to holding thermal paper after using a product containing dermal penetration enhancing chemicals have been related to an increased risk for a wide range of developmental abnormalities as well as diseases in adults. PMID:25337790

Hormann, Annette M; Vom Saal, Frederick S; Nagel, Susan C; Stahlhut, Richard W; Moyer, Carol L; Ellersieck, Mark R; Welshons, Wade V; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Taylor, Julia A

2014-01-01

40

Tabus alimentares em região do Norte do Brasil / Alimentary taboos in the North Region of Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foi realizado um inquérito sobre tabus alimentares em duas localidades do Município de Marabá, PA, Brasil: São Félix e Murumuru, tendo sido estudadas, respectivamente, 90 e 35 famílias. Dos tabus alimentares encontrados, foi grande a restrição feita à ingestão simultânea de leite com várias frutas, [...] especialmente com manga, laranja, cajú e abacaxi; também a ingestão simultânea de ovos com frutas foram referidas como hábitos que devem ser evitados, assim como a mistura de carne de mamíferos com peixes. Quanto à ingestão simultânea de frutas, destaca-se a proibição de uma fruta regional, o açaí, com outras 10 frutas. Foi mais elevado o número de restrições alimentares durante a lactação do que durante a gravidez, principalmente de carne de caça e de peixes, abundantes na região estudada. Os motivos mais citados para justificar os tabus alimentares foram: "faz mal", "mata", "congestão" e "vômito". Abstract in english A study was carried out into alimentary taboos in two localities (São Félix and Mummuru) in the county of Marabá, State of Pará, Brazil. Ninety families were studied in São Félix and thirty-five in Murumuru. As regards the feeding taboos found, the most frequent was that prohibiting the simultaneous [...] ingestion of milk and various types of fruit, including especially mango, orange, cashew and pineapple. The ingestion of eggs with fruit was also considered harmful as well as the eating of mammalian flesh at the same time as fish. Restrictions based on taboos were more frequent during breast feeding than during pregnancy, especially those regarding game flesh and fish that abound in the region under study. The most frequently mentioned reasons for the restrictions were: "the combination causes harm", "the combination kills", "the combination causes congestion" and "it causes vomiting".

Marlene, Trigo; Maria José, Roncada; Glacilda Telles de Menezes, Stewien; Isabel Maria Teixeira Bicudo, Pereira.

 
 
 
 
41

Tabus alimentares em região do Norte do Brasil / Alimentary taboos in the North Region of Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foi realizado um inquérito sobre tabus alimentares em duas localidades do Município de Marabá, PA, Brasil: São Félix e Murumuru, tendo sido estudadas, respectivamente, 90 e 35 famílias. Dos tabus alimentares encontrados, foi grande a restrição feita à ingestão simultânea de leite com várias frutas, [...] especialmente com manga, laranja, cajú e abacaxi; também a ingestão simultânea de ovos com frutas foram referidas como hábitos que devem ser evitados, assim como a mistura de carne de mamíferos com peixes. Quanto à ingestão simultânea de frutas, destaca-se a proibição de uma fruta regional, o açaí, com outras 10 frutas. Foi mais elevado o número de restrições alimentares durante a lactação do que durante a gravidez, principalmente de carne de caça e de peixes, abundantes na região estudada. Os motivos mais citados para justificar os tabus alimentares foram: "faz mal", "mata", "congestão" e "vômito". Abstract in english A study was carried out into alimentary taboos in two localities (São Félix and Mummuru) in the county of Marabá, State of Pará, Brazil. Ninety families were studied in São Félix and thirty-five in Murumuru. As regards the feeding taboos found, the most frequent was that prohibiting the simultaneous [...] ingestion of milk and various types of fruit, including especially mango, orange, cashew and pineapple. The ingestion of eggs with fruit was also considered harmful as well as the eating of mammalian flesh at the same time as fish. Restrictions based on taboos were more frequent during breast feeding than during pregnancy, especially those regarding game flesh and fish that abound in the region under study. The most frequently mentioned reasons for the restrictions were: "the combination causes harm", "the combination kills", "the combination causes congestion" and "it causes vomiting".

Marlene, Trigo; Maria José, Roncada; Glacilda Telles de Menezes, Stewien; Isabel Maria Teixeira Bicudo, Pereira.

42

Tabus alimentares em região do Norte do Brasil Alimentary taboos in the North Region of Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foi realizado um inquérito sobre tabus alimentares em duas localidades do Município de Marabá, PA, Brasil: São Félix e Murumuru, tendo sido estudadas, respectivamente, 90 e 35 famílias. Dos tabus alimentares encontrados, foi grande a restrição feita à ingestão simultânea de leite com várias frutas, especialmente com manga, laranja, cajú e abacaxi; também a ingestão simultânea de ovos com frutas foram referidas como hábitos que devem ser evitados, assim como a mistura de carne de mamíferos com peixes. Quanto à ingestão simultânea de frutas, destaca-se a proibição de uma fruta regional, o açaí, com outras 10 frutas. Foi mais elevado o número de restrições alimentares durante a lactação do que durante a gravidez, principalmente de carne de caça e de peixes, abundantes na região estudada. Os motivos mais citados para justificar os tabus alimentares foram: "faz mal", "mata", "congestão" e "vômito".A study was carried out into alimentary taboos in two localities (São Félix and Mummuru in the county of Marabá, State of Pará, Brazil. Ninety families were studied in São Félix and thirty-five in Murumuru. As regards the feeding taboos found, the most frequent was that prohibiting the simultaneous ingestion of milk and various types of fruit, including especially mango, orange, cashew and pineapple. The ingestion of eggs with fruit was also considered harmful as well as the eating of mammalian flesh at the same time as fish. Restrictions based on taboos were more frequent during breast feeding than during pregnancy, especially those regarding game flesh and fish that abound in the region under study. The most frequently mentioned reasons for the restrictions were: "the combination causes harm", "the combination kills", "the combination causes congestion" and "it causes vomiting".

Marlene Trigo

1989-12-01

43

Hand Washing  

Science.gov (United States)

... News Anxiety Disorders Relaxation Exercises The Flu Vaccine Hand Washing KidsHealth > Teens > Body > Skin Stuff > Hand Washing Print ... or from animals and animal waste. Continue Defensive Hand Washing In 2010 the American Society for Microbiology and ...

44

Food  

... For a pdf summarising our experience and expertise on food, please click here. Reducing food waste by extending product life Started: June 2013 Due for completion: February 2014 WRAP An update of the Retailer survey, examination of the way in which product life ...Defra Brook Lyndhurst has been contracted, alongside SeaWeb - an international NGO dedicated to communicating ocean sustainability issues - to undertake a piece of action-based research (ABR) on the issue of ‘under-utilised’ species. ... Understanding consumer food waste out of home Started: February 2012 ... Brook Lyndhurst - The Food Issue Started: November 2012 Ended: November 2012 Please click here to download a pdf with information on our food expertise and experience... Consumer perceptions of the Fairtrade mark Started: April 2012 Ended: September 2012 Fairtrade International Following our 2011 work ...

45

Clean Hands Save Lives: Emergency Situations  

Science.gov (United States)

... Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Winter Weather Clean Hands Save Lives: Emergency Situations DISASTER RECOVERY FACT SHEET ... washing hands (sanitizers). When should you wash your hands? Examples include: Before preparing or eating food After ...

46

Doença mão-pé-boca no adulto: a propósito de um caso clínico / Hand, food and mouth disease in the adult: case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Introdução: A doença mão-pé-boca (DMPB) é a segunda infeção viral mais frequente (logo a seguir às infeções respiratórias comuns) e é causada pelo grupo dos enterovírus, incluindo o vírus Coxsackie A e o Enterovirus 71. É mais comum nas crianças entre os três e os dez anos de idade, sendo rara nos a [...] dultos. A maioria dos casos é autolimitada mas podem surgir complicações cardíacas e neurológicas potencialmente fatais. Descrição do caso: Relata-se o caso de um homem de 35 anos de idade que recorreu à consulta do seu médico de família por queixas de febre, dor, parestesias nas extremidades das mãos e pés, odinofagia e lesões ulceradas na cavidade oral que não melhoraram após vários ciclos de antibioterapia. Por forte suspeita de um quadro viral, foram solicitados exames complementares de diagnóstico que confirmaram a DMPB e permitiram uma abordagem terapêutica adequada e a vigilância das possíveis complicações. Comentário: Sendo a DMPB uma doença rara na idade adulta, mesmo as manifestações clínicas típicas, por serem inespecíficas numa primeira fase, podem induzir ao diagnóstico errado. Uma forte suspeita clínica pode garantir uma abordagem e vigilância corretas. Abstract in english Introduction: Hand, food and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common infection caused by the Enteroviruses group, including Coxsackievirus A and Enterovirus 71. It usually affects children between the ages of three and ten years old and is rare in adults. In most cases it is self-limited but cardiac and ne [...] urological complications or even death may ensue. Case Report: We report the case of a 35 year old man who went to his general practitioner with complaints of fever, pain, paresthesias of the hands and feet, odynophagia, and ulcerated lesions in the oral cavity that did not improve with antibiotic treatment. Suspecting a viral disease, the physician ordered tests that confirmed the diagnosis of HFMD, allowing for appropriate management and follow-up. Comment: HMFD is rare in adults and even typical manifestations can be misdiagnosed. Maintaining a strong clinical suspicion can ensure correct management and follow-up.

Ana, Dantas; Maria João, Oliveira; Olena, Lourenço; Paulo Baptista, Coelho.

2013-01-01

47

Claw hand  

Science.gov (United States)

Claw hand is a condition that causes curved or bent fingers. This makes the hand appear like the claw of an animal. See ... Claw hand can be something that someone is born with (congenital) or that they develop because of certain disorders, ...

48

Westermarck, Freud, and the incest taboo: does familial resemblance activate sexual attraction?  

Science.gov (United States)

Evolutionary psychological theories assume that sexual aversions toward kin are triggered by a nonconscious mechanism that estimates the genetic relatedness between self and other. This article presents an alternative perspective that assumes that incest avoidance arises from consciously acknowledged taboos and that when awareness of the relationship between self and other is bypassed, people find individuals who resemble their kin more sexually appealing. Three experiments demonstrate that people find others more sexually attractive if they have just been subliminally exposed to an image of their opposite-sex parent (Experiment 1) or if the face being rated is a composite image based on the self (Experiment 2). This finding is reversed when people are aware of the implied genetic relationship (Experiment 3). These findings have implications for a century-old debate between E. Westermarck and S. Freud, as well as contemporary research on evolution, mate choice, and sexual imprinting. PMID:20647594

Fraley, R Chris; Marks, Michael J

2010-09-01

49

Holiday Food Safety  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Wash hands and surfaces often SEPARATE: Separate raw meats from other foods COOK: Cook to the right temperature CHILL: Refrigerate food promptly Holiday Food Safety Video (English) (en español) Ready-to-Cook Foods: ...

50

Holiday Food Safety  

Science.gov (United States)

... Wash hands and surfaces often SEPARATE: Separate raw meats from other foods COOK: Cook to the right temperature CHILL: Refrigerate food promptly Holiday Food Safety Video (English) (en español) Ready-to-Cook Foods: ...

51

Tabud ja reeglid. Sissevaateid eesti laagriromaani / Taboos and Rules. Insights into Prison Camp Novels by Estonian Writers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article concentrates on Estonian novels depicting Soviet prison camps in the 1940s and 1950s. The goal is to map themes, motifs and characteristics in such novels, concentrating on various taboos and rules in the prison camp environment. For a long time the Soviet prison camp theme was not publicly discussed in Estonia due to political reasons. Texts dealing with prison camps could appear in print only outside the Soviet Union; the way Estonians saw these historical events and hellish experiences were depicted mostly in exile novels. Most notable are the novels by Arved Viirlaid (b. 1922, e.g., Kes tappis Eerik Hormi? (Who Killed Eerik Horm? (1974, Surnud ei loe (The Dead do not Read (1975, Vaim ja ahelad (Mind and Chains (1961.Estonian prison camp novels can be seen as “the literature of testimony”, to use the term by Leona Toker. Dramatic historical events are written down to record the events and to show the inhumane nature of Soviet society. These records of the dramatic past follow certain patterns and create certain self- and hetero-images.A prison camp is a closed territory within a closed territory; prison camps can be seen as small models of Soviet society. Prison camp novels give a detailed view of the environment of the prison camp, its inhabitants and activities. Two central aspects are labour and food; the life of the prisoner whirls around these. The most important thing is to survive, which often leads to moral decline, e.g., stealing, cheating. However, there are lines Estonians do not cross, e.g., cannibalism or homosexual relationships with superiors. Estonians are always depicted as political prisoners (not common criminals and heterosexuals, while Russians are portrayed mainly as criminals and often also as homosexuals. Another important component of the image of the Estonians is their enterprising spirit and ability to manage even under very difficult conditions. Therefore, several oppositions can be identified, e.g., Estonians vs. Russians; political prisoners vs. criminals; heterosexuals vs. homosexuals; civilized vs. barbaric, etc.

Anneli Kõvamees

2013-12-01

52

Taboo and Non-conventional Content as Attitude and Emotion Sensitive Tool  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Affect in language learning, understood as an emotional reaction to the subject, learning environment, methods and contents, shows among learners at all levels of advancement and of all age groups. Positive affect, such as a feeling of interest, pleasantness (or usefulness of tasks and satisfaction with one?s performance, results in increased motivation to learn the language, while negative emotions, such as boredom, tension or fear, typically lead to negative attitudes and, as a consequence, low results of learning. As some learners, especially adult ones, tend to conceal their emotional reactions to the learning situation, not always may language teachers recognize the sources of the difficulties they experience. It has been an interest of the authors to study young adults? affective response to an alternative to typical ELT content, which is “safe”, “universal”, “politically correct” material, in the form of “sensitive“, “nonconventional” or even “taboo” topics. Classroom research conducted in an institution of higher education showed increased interest, higher task motivation and active involvement on the part of the students with many years of English learning experience (sometimes fed up with same or similar content whose teachers decided to use some “off record” themes to practice language skills in their classrooms.

Yuliya Asotska

2011-11-01

53

Holiday Food Safety  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... these easy steps: C LEAN: Wash hands and surfaces often SEPARATE: Separate raw meats from other foods COOK: Cook to the right temperature CHILL: Refrigerate food promptly Holiday Food Safety Video ( ...

54

[Hand infections].  

Science.gov (United States)

Superficial and deep hand infections are frequent in general medical practice. Clinical examination is a crucial step for an adapted provided care. Most of the time, surgery is the only way to heal infections. However, in some cases (like bites), empiric antibiotherapy is first indicated to limit infection. Staphyloccocus aureus as well as Group Beta Streptococcus are the most frequently pathogenes associated with hand infections. Methicillin resistant S. Aureus must always be considered in the diagnoses. Whatever treatment is provided, clinical assessement must be repeated within two days. An early adaquated treatment prevent functional complications and in some cases death of the patients. PMID:24422295

Schiele, Philippe; Le Nen, Dominique

2013-11-01

55

21 CFR 872.4565 - Dental hand instrument.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-04-01 false Dental hand instrument. 872.4565 Section 872.4565 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4565 Dental hand instrument. (a)...

2010-04-01

56

How to Break a Taboo? Comment briser un tabou ? ¿Cómo romper un tabú?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Prior to 2001, the word toilet and sanitation was a taboo. Polite society avoided the embarrassment of mentioning it. Academia publications about the issues were viewed as too boring to engage mass media. But avoidance of this agenda manifested into neglect of 2.6 billion people without access to proper sanitation and the death of 1.5 million children through diarrhea annually. Jack Sim broke this taboo through the creation of the World Toilet Organization (WTO. With its unique blend of humor and facts, WTO called a spade a spade and took the global media by storm advocating for better toilets, sanitation and hygiene conditions for people all over the world. This article explains how he did it with a shoe-string budget and went on to mobilize everyone to change the world of sanitation and toilets.Avant 2001, les mots « toilettes » et « assainissement » étaient tabous. Il n’était pas de bon ton de les prononcer. Les publications universitaires sur le sujet étaient considérées comme trop ennuyeuses pour pouvoir susciter l'intérêt des médias grand public. Cependant, le fait de se désintéresser du sujet revenait à laisser à l’écart 2,6 milliards de personnes qui n’avaient pas accès à des systèmes d’assainissement corrects et à ignorer le décès de 1,5 million d’enfants dû à une diarrhée chaque année. Jack Sim a brisé ce tabou en créant la World Toilet Organization (WTO. Avec son mélange unique d’humour et de données factuelles, la WTO a appelé un chat un chat et a investi les médias internationaux afin de sensibiliser le maximum de personnes à la nécessité de mettre en place des systèmes de toilettes et d’assainissement plus efficaces et de meilleures conditions d’hygiène dans le monde entier. Cet article explique comment Jack Sim a réussi, avec un budget très limité, à inciter chacun à faire évoluer l’univers des systèmes d’assainissement et de toilettes.Antes de 2001, los términos “retrete” e “instalación sanitaria” eran un tabú. La sociedad educada evitaba mencionarlos por vergüenza, y las publicaciones académicas sobre el tema se consideraban demasiado aburridas para ser tratadas en los medios de comunicación de masas. Sin embargo, esta omisión hace que cada año haya 2.600 millones de personas sin acceso a una instalación sanitaria adecuada y 1,5 millones de niños mueran a causa de la diarrea. Jack Sim rompió con este tabú a través de la creación de la Organización Mundial del Retrete (World Toilet Organization, o WTO. Con una combinación exclusiva de datos fehacientes y humor, la WTO empezó a llamar a las cosas por su nombre e hizo temblar a los medio de comunicación globales abogando por una mejora en los retretes, las instalaciones sanitarias y las condiciones higiénicas para la gente en todo el mundo. En este artículo explica cómo lo hizo con un presupuesto más que ajustado y cómo consiguió movilizar a todos para cambiar el mundo de los inodoros y las instalaciones sanitarias.

Jack Sim

2011-12-01

57

Taboo search algorithm for item assignment in synchronized zone automated order picking system  

Science.gov (United States)

The idle time which is part of the order fulfillment time is decided by the number of items in the zone; therefore the item assignment method affects the picking efficiency. Whereas previous studies only focus on the balance of number of kinds of items between different zones but not the number of items and the idle time in each zone. In this paper, an idle factor is proposed to measure the idle time exactly. The idle factor is proven to obey the same vary trend with the idle time, so the object of this problem can be simplified from minimizing idle time to minimizing idle factor. Based on this, the model of item assignment problem in synchronized zone automated order picking system is built. The model is a form of relaxation of parallel machine scheduling problem which had been proven to be NP-complete. To solve the model, a taboo search algorithm is proposed. The main idea of the algorithm is minimizing the greatest idle factor of zones with the 2-exchange algorithm. Finally, the simulation which applies the data collected from a tobacco distribution center is conducted to evaluate the performance of the algorithm. The result verifies the model and shows the algorithm can do a steady work to reduce idle time and the idle time can be reduced by 45.63% on average. This research proposed an approach to measure the idle time in synchronized zone automated order picking system. The approach can improve the picking efficiency significantly and can be seen as theoretical basis when optimizing the synchronized automated order picking systems.

Wu, Yingying; Wu, Yaohua

2014-07-01

58

Anglicismo y tabú: valores axiológicos del anglicismo / Anglicism and taboo: axiological values of the pure anglicism  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La influencia del inglés en la lengua española en el ámbito del erotismo y la sexualidad ha dado lugar a un número considerable de anglicismos crudos para la designación de conceptos de la esfera sexual. Es el propósito de este trabajo examinar los valores axiológicos que el anglicismo presenta en e [...] l vocabulario sexual en el español europeo. Para ello, analizaremos los valores eufemísticos, disfemísticos y cuasieufemísticos que el anglicismo de naturaleza sexual presenta en un corpus léxico de anglicismos crudos extraídos del Diccionario gay-lésbico (2008) y del Diccionario del sexo y el erotismo (2011). El análisis realizado demuestra que las voces anglicadas utilizadas en la esfera sexual no sólo buscan atenuar los tabúes lingüísticos, sino que también se usan para ofender y degradar e incluso para que un grupo social monopolice una serie de voces alusivas a conceptos vitandos. Abstract in english The influence of English on Spanish within the field of eroticism and sexuality has led to a considerable number of pure anglicisms to designate sex-related concepts. In this regard, it is the aim of this paper to examine the axiological values that anglicisms present in Spanish sexual vocabulary. T [...] o this end, we will explore the euphemistic, dysphemistic and quasieuphemistic values that sex-related anglicisms present in a corpus of pure anglicisms excerpted from two dictionaries: Diccionario gay-lésbico (2008) and Diccionario del sexo y el erotismo (2011). The analysis reveals that English borrowings do not only veil the so called linguistic taboos, but they are also used to disparage and degrade and even as a sign of cohesion within a group.

Eliecer, Crespo-Fernández; Carmen, Luján-García.

2013-11-01

59

Handy Hand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, structural disposition, manufacture and application of robots and computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing. The word ‘ R obotics’ means the study of robots was coined by Isaac Asimov. Robotics involves elements of mechanical and electrical engineering, as well as control theory, computing and now artificial intelligenc e. Robotics technology has matures to a point where these have many research and industrial application. Robots have been used to replace people in production line and are ideally suited for repetitive work. The Robot Institute of America defines a robot a s “ A Programmable multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts and tools of specialized device through variable programmed of variety of tasks”. So we made a robotic hand called “ HANDY HAND ” which is attached to handicap people. The essenti al part of the robotic arm is relay based brick capable of driving a DC Motor and IR sensors. This paper explains the method of interfacing the robotic hand with DC motors, relays and IR sensor which can grab and release less weight objects without any pro gramming.

M.V.S.Praveen

2014-01-01

60

Combination therapies with oxaliplatin and oral capecitabine or intravenous 5-FU show similar toxicity profiles in gastrointestinal carcinoma patients if hand-food syndrome prophylaxis is performed continuously  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of anticancer drugs in palliative settings is often limited by their severe toxic effects. In gastrointestinal carcinomas the 5-fluorouracil-based palliative regimen FOLFOX-4 is often preferred to the equally effective, but more convenient oral capecitabine-based regimen XELOX. This preference is mainly based on the fact that the highly effective oral agent capecitabine induces hand-foot syndrome (HFS). In this study, we investigated whether the continuous administration of skin proph...

Wehler, Thomas C.; Cao, Yang; Galle, Peter R.; Theobald, Matthias; Moehler, Markus; Schimanski, Carl C.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

SEXUALIDADE NA ADOLESCÊNCIA: MITOS E TABUS SEXUALIDAD EN LA ADOLESCENCIA: MITOS Y TABÚES SEXUALITY IN ADOLESCENCE: MYTHS AND TABOOS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A adolescência é uma fase da vida humana em que a sexualidade se insere como uma redescoberta, trazendo certa vulnerabilidade, principalmente decorrente de mitos e tabus. Este trabalho teve como objetivo identificar alguns tabus e mitos relativos à sexualidade, vivenciados pelos adolescentes de Cuiabá-MT. Pesquisa quantitativa, cuja população de estudo foi composta por estudantes do primeiro ano do ensino médio do ensino público de Cuiabá. Os dados foram coletados por instrumento fechado e processados eletronicamente, com análises simples e bivariadas (pLa adolescencia es una fase de la vida humana en que la sexualidad se manifiesta como un redescubrimiento, provocando cierta vulnerabilidad, resultante principalmente de mitos y tabúes. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo identificar algunos tabúes y mitos en relación con la sexualidad, vivenciados por los adolescentes de Cuiabá-MT. Investigación cuantitativa, cuya población de estudio estuvo integrada por estudiantes de primer año de enseñanza secundaria pública de Cuiabá. Los datos fueron recogidos por instrumentos de respuesta cerrada y procesados electrónicamente, por análisis simples y bivariadas (pAdolescence is a phase of human life in which sexuality appears as a rediscovery, causing certain vulnerability mainly due to myths and taboos. This study aimed to identify some taboos and myths regarding sexuality, experienced by adolescents in Cuiabá-MT. Quantitative research, whose study population was composed by students from the frst year of Cuiabá public high school education. Data were collected by a closed answer instrument and electronically processed, with simple and bivariate analysis (p<0.05. Adolescents believe that alcohol and drugs increase sexual desire, do not relate the possibility of pregnancy to the practice of intercrural sex without protection, they believe there is no risk of pregnancy during the menstrual period; those without sexual experience could not tell what infuences the pleasure of sexual intercourse; among those sexually active there have been responses like “the bigger the boy’s penis the greater the pleasure of the girls” and “a boy will always feel more pleasure than girls”; for a sexual relation to happen one must love the partner (for girls and just feel attraction (for boys; boys prefer to marry a virgin. The gender differences in behavior indicate taboos rooted in the cultural cradle of society, in which sexual education, repressive in nature, contributes to maintain men and women roles and sexual values frmly set even today, although the new generations have started to introduce new behaviors. It becomes urgent to guarantee the adolescent orientation on the development of their sexuality, in order to prevent risk behaviors resulting from the taboos and myths.

Christine Baccarat de Godoy Martins

2012-01-01

62

Menstrual taboos among Havik Brahmin women: a study of ritual change.  

Science.gov (United States)

Field work among the Havik Brahmins in a 1 village in the Malnad area of Karnataka State, South India provides some understanding of menstrual practices in 1964, 1985, and 1987. Changes in the pollution and purity rituals which were part of their belief system lead to the replacement of religious ritual with hygiene. Women's status reflected in the change from a subordinate one with a menstrual taboos to a more urbanized one with educational opportunities and economic independence. Ethnographic background is provide on social organization, education, women's professions, ritual organization, and the reasons for change. Menstrual beliefs and practices, reproductive beliefs, menarche, and the significance of rituals are also described for 1966 and 1987. The Havik Brahmin have a patrilocal, patrilineal, and patriarchal society with joint family practices. The ideal of a nuclear family was still not predominately attained even in 1987 with 14 nuclear families out of 32 families or in 1964 with 12 out of 28. Women in 1964 supported their husbands, were not included in decision making and had little contact with the outside world. Higher education is still secondary to marriage, and frequently women spend time in college while kin seek a suitable groom. Women 40 years had primarily a 7th grade education, while only 3 40 years did not have at least a high school education. Employment now enhances a woman's marital options. Fathers still view security for their daughters in marriage. Women's religious involvement is restricted to 1 service and they are prohibited from learning sacred Vedic prayers. The village structure is based on castes, residential sites, and ritual statuses. Havik Brahmins are the highest status and their men have a ritual status of purity (maDi) or neutrality, while women during menses become polluted (muTTuceTtu). The rationale for change is the opinion that decreased ritual observance is essential to economic viability, and there are cheating rules: orthopraxy rather orthodoxy. Evidence of change in reproductive beliefs is that most women 40 do not know the ritual creation story, and most in 1987 did not believe in menstrual pollution, which identified woman's destructive power, penance for not being pregnant, and denied life to many souls waiting for incarnation. By 1987, menarche was ritualized only in staying "outside," and those in town practiced little if any ritual because of the inconvenience and social pressure not to. Few also believe that touching a menstruating women will shorten one's life, but there is variation in practice. PMID:12317387

Ullrich, H E

1992-01-01

63

Hand Hygiene Saves Lives  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... around you must practice proper hand hygiene. This means that people should wash their hands, either with ... around you must practice proper hand hygiene. This means that people should wash their hands, either with ...

64

Learning can be all Fun and Games: Constructing and Utilizing a Biology Taboo Wiktionary to Enhance Student Learning in an Introductory Biology Course  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most introductory courses in the biological sciences are inherently content-dense and rich with jargon—jargon that is often confusing and nonsensical to novice students. These characteristics present an additional paradox to instructors, who strive to achieve a balance between simply promoting passive, rote memorization of facts and engaging students in developing true, concrete understanding of the terminology. To address these concerns, we developed and implemented a Biology Taboo Wiktionary that provided students with an interactive opportunity to review and describe concepts they had encountered during their first semester of introductory biology. However, much like the traditional Taboo game, the rules were such that students could not use obvious terms to detail the main term. It was our belief that if the student could synthesize a thoughtful, scientific explanation of the term under these conditions, he or she demonstrated a true understanding of the conceptual context and meaning of the term.

Jeffrey T. Olimpo

2010-12-01

65

Revisitando os Tabus: as cautelas rituais do povo de santo / Revisiting taboos: ritualistic cautions among the "povo de santo"  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente artigo propõe uma reflexão sobre o papel das interdições rituais pessoais, chamadas de quizilas, no contexto do candomblé da Bahia (Jeje-Nagô). A pesquisa de campo levou à hipótese de que, para além das proibições profiláticas e dos tabus de cunho coletivo, existem interdições pessoais ba [...] seadas em sensibilidades negativas, notadamente em ojerizas ou alergias alimentares, que guiam o iniciado numa relação particular com os orixás. A constatação de que a sensibilidade corporal desempenha um papel importante nesse tipo de gesto ritual indica, portanto, a importância de uma prática etnográfica debruçada sobre a noção de "corpo que sente". Abstract in english This article proposes a reflection about the role played by personal ritual prohibitions, known as quizilas, in the context of the candomblé of Bahia (Jeje-Nagô). My fieldwork led to the following hypothesis: besides a system of prophylactic prohibitions and besides collective taboos, there is a sys [...] tem of personal prohibitions based on negative sensitivities -on disgust feelings or on alimentary allergic reactions- and which built an especial relationship of the initiate with the orixás. As such, the ethnography of this kind of ritual behavior should arguably be based on somatic issues and on the concept of the "feeling body".

Francesca, Bassi.

66

Hand Hygiene Saves Lives  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... either with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. You and your loved ones ... hands with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer every time, both before and ...

67

Chapped hands (image)  

Science.gov (United States)

Chapped hands can be sore and painful. Chapped hands may be soothed by the use of moisturizing lotions and the avoidance of excess exposure to water. If hands become badly chapped, hydrocortisone creams (available over the ...

68

Hand Hygiene Saves Lives  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... your hands and make sure that everyone who touches you – including your doctor – cleanses their hands too. ... sanitizer every time, both before and after they touch you. Healthcare providers know to practice hand hygiene, ...

69

Donor-related issues in hand transplantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The policies and procedures for solid-organ donation, under the auspices of the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network, currently cannot be applied to hand donation, because a hand allograft is considered a tissue in the United States and is under the jurisdiction of the Food and Drug Administration. Hand transplant centers have developed their own protocols. This article discusses the unique elements of such protocols, including training and education, the consent process, the necessary recipient and donor data, donor management, and operating room procedures. Candidate listing, allocation, and oversight of hand donation in the future are also discussed. PMID:22051395

McDiarmid, Sue V; Azari, Kodi K

2011-11-01

70

Food Chain & Food Web  

Science.gov (United States)

What are the differences and similarities between food chain and food web? Print (2) Garden Gate Print (1) Venn Diagram Garden Gate Venn Diagram Let's learn about the food chain and food web.Read the notes.Food Chain 4 Also, view more notes on food chain and food web. Go to the 7th title Food Chain which is before the Habitats and food chain title of the webpage.Food Chain Power Point Presentation Record what you learn ...

B, Ms.

2011-10-27

71

Plantas relacionadas con tabúes del ciclo reproductivo de los Guaraníes de Misiones, Argentina Plants related to taboos of the reproductive cycle of guaranies from Misiones, Argentina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los guaraníes de las parcialidades Mbya y Ava Chiripa observan normas de conducta específicas durante la etapa reproductiva de los miembros de sus comunidades. Algunas de estas reglas implican tabúes que se relacionan con plantas, las cuales son tratadas en la presente contribución. El manuscrito es ilustrado mediante fotografías de algunas de las especies mencionadas.Guaranis of Mbya and Ava Chiripa groups, observes norms of specific conduct during the reproductive stage of the members of his communities. Someone of these rules imply taboos related with plants, these plants are treated in the present contribution. The manuscript is illustrated by means photographies of someone of the mentioned species.

Héctor A Keller

2010-06-01

72

New food policy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The urbanisation, technical changes, and the industrialisation of the food systems on one hand and increased income and changes in lifestyles on the other hand transform the way food is produced, marketed and consumed - those changes call for changes in the nature of food policy. Concerns over food safety have become an important driver of reform of food policy. In particular, the BSE crisis in 1996 had a significant impact on the formulation of a change in food safety policy in the EU. The White Paper on Food Safety was prepared by the EU commision as a response to the BSE scandal as the EU felt a need for restablishing public confidence in its food supply, its food science, its laws and its food control. In addition, the White Paper on Food Safety points towards a farm to fork policy in that 'as the food production chain is becoming increasingly complex, the health of consumers can ony be adequately protected if every link in this chain is as strong as the other'. The presentation describes the new food systems which call for changes in the food policy and call for shifting the focus from the role of the government to governance.

Christensen, Tove; Andersen, Lill

73

Hand Hygiene Saves Lives  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... know to practice hand hygiene, but sometimes they forget. You and your loved ones can play a ... know to practice hand hygiene, but sometimes they forget. You and your loved ones can play a ...

74

Hand Hygiene Saves Lives  

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Full Text Available ... would you mind cleansing your hands before you begin? Oh, I washed them right before I came ... would you mind cleansing your hands before you begin? Oh, I washed them right before I came ...

75

Hand Hygiene Saves Lives  

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Full Text Available ... eating, and after using the restroom. Our patient's son could have also used an alcohol-based hand ... eating, and after using the restroom. Our patient's son could have also used an alcohol-based hand ...

76

Put Your Hands Together  

Science.gov (United States)

... Learn about CDC-TV Share Compartir Put Your Hands Together Source: National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic ... London estimate that if everyone routinely washed their hands, a million deaths a year could be prevented. ...

77

Hand Injuries and Disorders  

Science.gov (United States)

... for a living, you are always using your hands. When there is something wrong with them, you ... not be able to do your regular activities. Hand problems include Carpal tunnel syndrome - compression of a ...

78

Hand and Finger Exercises  

Science.gov (United States)

... vision and language needs, call (614) 293-3191. Hand and Finger Exercises ? Place your palm flat on ... times for ____ seconds. ? Pick up objects with your hand. Start out with larger objects. Repeat ____ times for ____ ...

79

Hand Hygiene Saves Lives  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... too. Patients and their loved ones who take an active role and become involved in their treatment ... hands, either with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. You and your loved ...

80

Hand Hygiene Saves Lives  

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Full Text Available ... hands very often, especially after touching objects or surfaces in the hospital room, before eating, and after ... wash their hands very often, especially after touching surfaces in the patient's room, before eating, and after ...

 
 
 
 
81

Hand Hygiene Saves Lives  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... is important that healthcare providers – including doctors and nurses – either wash their hands with soap and water ... feel embarrassed to ask everyone, including doctors and nurses, to wash their hands. They really want to ...

82

Hand fracture - aftercare  

Science.gov (United States)

Boxer’s fracture; Metacarpal fracture ... are called the metacarpal bones. You have a fracture (break) in one or more of these bones. This is called a hand (or metacarpal) fracture. Some hand fractures require wearing a splint or ...

83

Put Your Hands Together  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... of infection and stay healthy. More Information Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives Hand Hygiene in Healthcare Settings ... Health Release Date: 4/20/2011 Your Wake-Up Call Release Date: 4/1/2011 Fighting Flu ...

84

Hand Hygiene Saves Lives  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... to wash their hands. Thank you for your attention and I wish you a speedy and uneventful ... to wash their hands. Thank you for your attention and I wish you a speedy and uneventful ...

85

Auditing hand hygiene practice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hand hygiene is regarded as the most effective way of preventing healthcare-associated infections. Thus hand hygiene audits are frequently undertaken by infection prevention and control teams. Although apparently straightforward, hand hygiene audit requires careful planning and conduct. Healthcare professionals need to understand the principles that underpin effective hand hygiene audit to improve their own practice and help patients, carers and the public to interpret the findings. PMID:20949824

Gould, Dinah

86

Mycetoma of the hand.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Hand infection in this series is less than previous reports. A wide range of radiographic signs is reported in hand mycetoma. This is the first detailed report of the radiographic findings in mycetoma of the hand. Early detection of mycetoma infection is important to avoid the need for amputation if diagnosis is delayed.

Mohamed E. Abd El-Bagi

2004-03-01

87

Hand x-ray  

Science.gov (United States)

X-ray - hand ... A hand x-ray is taken in a hospital radiology department or your health care provider's office by an ... technician. You will be asked to place your hand on the x-ray table, and keep it ...

88

Taboos and social contracts: Tools for ecosystem management – lessons from the Manambolomaty Lakes RAMSAR site, western Madagascar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditional taboos and social contracts played an importantrole in managing the Manambolomaty RAMSAR site. Taboosare defined as a prohibition imposed by social custom as aprotective measure’ and social contracts are – in conservationsense – a common agreement for achieving conservation,sustainable development and development of resourcesobjectives. The Manambolomaty Lakes RAMSAR site, District ofAntsalova in western Madagascar, is composed of four lakes(Soamalipo, Befotaka, Ankerika and Antsamaka surroundedby the Tsimembo deciduous forest. The first three lakes withforest surrounding encompass 14,701 ha and are being managedby two local Associations: FIZAMI (FIkambanana ZanatanyAndranobe MIray and FIFAMA (FIkambanana FAmpandrosoanaMamokatra Ankerika. The associations have used traditionaltaboos and social conventions to manage their local naturalresources by incorporating a GELOSE (GEstion Locale SEcuriséemanagement system to conserve biological diversity, maintainresource sustainability and socio - economic viability. This sitehas the highest concentration of the endemic and criticallyendangered Madagascar fish eagle (Haliaeetus vociferoides,representing 10 % of the global population, and many otherspecies of different faunal groups are also in good conservationstatus such as Decken’s sifaka (Propithecus deckeni andWestern lesser bamboo lemurs (Hapalemur occidentalis andMadagascar flying fox (Pteropus rufus. Culturally, the site isknown as a unique source of the endemic tree Hazomalaniavoyroni (Hernandiaceae, which is used by the Sakalava peoplefor constructing coffins, and being buried in a coffin madeof this wood is a great honour for the Sakalava people. FromManambolomaty’s Lakes fish yields, estimated at 60 - 100 tonsper fishing season, FIZAMI and FIFAMA are one of the fewMalagasy Associations with active bank accounts supportedby management of their natural resources and associatedactivities. Their fisheries management system has increasedthe annual local revenue estimated at more than $ 1,562US / fisherman per season. The tax of fish sales to wholesalefish buyers forms 56 % of the two local Commune’s budgets. Thishas made the Community - Based Wetlands Conservation at theManambolomaty Lakes site well known in the conservation circles within Madagascar and has been modelled by other organizationsand associations. Consequently, the ManambolomatyLakes site is in the process of being added into the System ofProtected Areas of Madagascar (SAPM.

Jules Mampiandra

2008-12-01

89

Holiday Food Safety  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Wash hands and surfaces often SEPARATE: Separate raw meats from other foods COOK: Cook to the right ... Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to top

90

An automatic procedure for high-resolution earthquake locations: a case study from the TABOO near fault observatory (Northern Apennines, Italy)  

Science.gov (United States)

The characterization of the geometry, kinematics and rheology of fault zones by seismological data depends on our capability of accurately locate the largest number of low-magnitude seismic events. To this aim, we have been working for the past three years to develop an advanced modular earthquake location procedure able to automatically retrieve high-resolution earthquakes catalogues directly from continuous waveforms data. We use seismograms recorded at about 60 seismic stations located both at surface and at depth. The network covers an area of about 80x60 km with a mean inter-station distance of 6 km. These stations are part of a Near fault Observatory (TABOO; http://taboo.rm.ingv.it/), consisting of multi-sensor stations (seismic, geodetic, geochemical and electromagnetic). This permanent scientific infrastructure managed by the INGV is devoted to studying the earthquakes preparatory phase and the fast/slow (i.e., seismic/aseismic) deformation process active along the Alto Tiberina fault (ATF) located in the northern Apennines (Italy). The ATF is potentially one of the rare worldwide examples of active low-angle (antithetic normal faults (4-5 km long) confined at depth by the detachment. Both seismic sequences activated up to now only these high-angle fault segments.

Valoroso, Luisa; Chiaraluce, Lauro; Di Stefano, Raffaele; Latorre, Diana; Piccinini, Davide

2014-05-01

91

Implants in the hand; Implantate der Hand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Increasingly, implants in the region of hand joints and the wrist represent an alternative for the treatment of post-traumatic, inflamed, or degenerative joint damage. The diversity of hand functions also results in varied solutions, which are effective in their stability, mobility, and distraction. Different materials are necessary for this, and they require subtile radiological control. The native X-ray represents the substantial method to observe migration of the implants. Each interface between titanium, ceramic, zirconium, pyrocarbon, and silicon to the bone has to be assessed differently in order to obtain a relevant statement. The finger joints and to a limited extent the wrist represent the artificial joints with limited alternative therapy. Other implants in the hand should only be applied after strict indication and patient compliance, as arthrodesis and resection arthroplasty have shown very good long-term results. (orig.) [German] Implantate im Bereich der Gelenke der Hand und des Handgelenks stellen zunehmend Alternativen bei der Versorgung posttraumatischer, entzuendlicher oder degenerativer Gelenkschaeden dar. Die Vielfalt der Handfunktionen fuehrt auch zu unterschiedlichen Loesungen, die durch Stabilitaet, Mobilitaet und Distraktion wirksam werden. Dafuer sind unterschiedliche Materialien erforderlich, die eine subtile radiologische Kontrolle erfordern. Das Nativroentgen stellt das wesentlichste Verfahren zur Verlaufsbeobachtung von Implantaten dar. Das Interface zwischen Titan, Keramik, Zirkonium, Pyrokarbon und Silikon zum Knochen muss unterschiedlich bewertet werden, um relevante Aussagen treffen zu koennen. Die Fingergelenke und in begrenztem Ausmass auch das Handgelenk stellen Kunstgelenke mit geringen Alternativtherapiemoeglichkeiten dar. Die uebrigen Implantate der Hand sollten nur bei strenger Indikationsstellung und hoher Patientencompliance Anwendung finden, da Arthrodese oder Resektionsarthroplastik gute Langzeitresultate aufweisen. (orig.)

Wanivenhaus, A. [Medizinische Universitaet, Universitaetsklinik fuer Orthopaedie, Wien (Austria)

2006-09-15

92

Hand deburring guide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Appropriate hand deburring techniques have always been difficult to define because of the infinite variety of part shapes, sizes, materials, and burr conditions. This guide, however, has been prepared to assist those responsible for hand deburring. The purpose of the guide is to define Bendix Kansas City burr specifications and inspection practices; to define the results of practical tests on hand deburring; to define some typical in-house practices; and to define the in-house tools available for this work.

Gillespie, L.K.

1979-07-01

93

'Please, sir, can I have some more?' Food, lifestyle, diets: respect and moral responsibility.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article is about respect for food, responsibility for lifestyle and diet and responsibility for those who suffer from lack of food. After some general reflections on food, feasts, flatulence, taboos and waste, I argue that we have a responsibility to live a healthy lifestyle, but that there are also morally good reasons for taking risks with our health as we cherish other goals and values. Then I discuss situations, using the example of obesity, in which people are not free to choose their lifestyle. Governments and doctors have responsibilities in enabling people to chose healthy eating habits, e.g. by facilitating access to healthy foods and by criticizing scientifically unfounded weight loss diets. I continue to defend that we need to respect food and those who prepare it, and that we have a moral responsibility to contribute to the solution of the food gap in the world. PMID:24810184

de Beaufort, Inez

2014-04-01

94

Wash Your Hands  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... 7: Saving Lives. Protecting People.™ Search The CDC Note: Javascript is disabled or ... Wash Your Hands Source: Office of the Associate Director for Communication, Division ...

95

Dextrous robot hands  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies of human hand function and their implications for the design of robot hands are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics addressed include human grasp choice and robotic grasp analysis, opposition space and human prehension, coordination in normal and prosthetic reaching, and intelligent exploration by the human hand. Consideration is given to a task-oriented dextrous manipulation architecture, the control architecture for the Belgrade/USC hand, the analysis of multifingered grasping and manipulation, and tactile sensing for shape interpretation. Diagrams, graphs, and photographs are provided.

Venkataraman, Subramanian T. (editor); Iberall, Thea (editor)

1990-01-01

96

Food for Disasters  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

When disaster strikes, you might not have access to food or water. This podcast discusses types of emergency food supplies you should keep on hand in your emergency kit.  Created: 7/23/2012 by Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (PHPR).   Date Released: 7/23/2012.

2012-07-23

97

Hand Hygiene Saves Lives  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... before eating, and after using the restroom. It is important that healthcare providers – including doctors and nurses – either wash their hands with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer every time, both before and ...

98

Hand Hygiene Saves Lives  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... make sure everyone around you washes their hands. Hi, I'm Gayle. Now that you've been ... make sure everyone around you washes their hands. Hi, I'm Gayle. Now that you've been ...

99

Hand Hygiene Saves Lives  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... you want it. New to podcasting? See Podcast Help and RSS Help Features Browse Search Subscribe Listen/Watch Hand Hygiene ... and visitors. It emphasizes two key points to help prevent infections: the importance of practicing hand hygiene ...

100

Hand Hygiene Saves Lives  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... patients… Steven, I know that you washed your hands a little while ago, but would you mind washing them again? Sure, Mom. It's important to remember ... patients… Steven, I know that you washed your hands a little while ago, but would you mind washing them again? Sure, Mom. It's important to remember ...

 
 
 
 
101

A 3-D velocity model for earthquake location from combined geological and geophysical data: a case study from the TABOO near fault observatory (Northern Apennines, Italy)  

Science.gov (United States)

Accurate hypocenter location at the crustal scale strongly depends on our knowledge of the 3D velocity structure. The integration of geological and geophysical data, when available, should contribute to a reliable seismic velocity model in order to guarantee high quality earthquake locations as well as their consistency with the geological structure. Here we present a 3D, P- and S-wave velocity model of the Upper Tiber valley region (Northern Apennines) retrieved by combining an extremely robust dataset of surface and sub-surface geological data (seismic reflection profiles and boreholes), in situ and laboratory velocity measurements, and earthquake data. The study area is a portion of the Apennine belt undergoing active extension where a set of high-angle normal faults is detached on the Altotiberina low-angle normal fault (ATF). From 2010, this area hosts a scientific infrastructure (the Alto Tiberina Near Fault Observatory, TABOO; http://taboo.rm.ingv.it/), consisting of a dense array of multi-sensor stations, devoted to studying the earthquakes preparatory phase and the deformation processes along the ATF fault system. The proposed 3D velocity model is a layered model in which irregular shaped surfaces limit the boundaries between main lithological units. The model has been constructed by interpolating depth converted seismic horizons interpreted along 40 seismic reflection profiles (down to 4s two way travel times) that have been calibrated with 6 deep boreholes (down to 5 km depth) and constrained by detailed geological maps and structural surveys data. The layers of the model are characterized by similar rock types and seismic velocity properties. The P- and S-waves velocities for each layer have been derived from velocity measurements coming from both boreholes (sonic logs) and laboratory, where measurements have been performed on analogue natural samples increasing confining pressure in order to simulate crustal conditions. In order to test the 3D velocity model, we located a selected dataset of the 2010-2013 TABOO catalogue, which is composed of about 30,000 micro-earthquakes (see Valoroso et al., same session). Earthquake location was performed by applying the global-search earthquake location method NonLinLoc, which is able to manage strong velocity contrasts as that observed in the study area. The model volume is 65km x 55km x 20km and is parameterized by constant velocity, cubic cells of side 100 m. For comparison, we applied the same inversion code by using the best 1D model of the area obtained with earthquake data. The results show a significant quality improvement with the 3D model both in terms of location parameters and correlation between seismicity distribution and known geological structures.

Latorre, Diana; Lupattelli, Andrea; Mirabella, Francesco; Trippetta, Fabio; Valoroso, Luisa; Lomax, Anthony; Di Stefano, Raffaele; Collettini, Cristiano; Chiaraluce, Lauro

2014-05-01

102

Food security: status and concerns of India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

At one hand, various factors like food production, rising food prices, poverty, unemployment, climate changes, efficient public distribution of food, affecting the food security are the major concerns at domestic front, passing of ambitious Food Security Bill in Sep, 2013 by UPA government in India to provide the basic food staples at highly subsidized prices aimed at ensuring the economic access to food for around two-third of its population coupled with India’s obligations of agriculture ...

Kumar, Rajesh; Bagaria, Nidhi; Santra, Swarup

2014-01-01

103

Food for tourists  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Eating is a physical necessity, but catering services and food image are also very important ingredients of cultural tourism. Food and tourism are increasingly being combined, e.g. in agri-tourism, wine tours and the sale of food products as souvenirs. However, as this paper illustrates, the development and standards of food for tourists are determined not by tourism policies, but by national economic, agricultural and food policies. A comparison between Denmark and Italy illustrates core elements in food cultures. Particularly in Denmark, food production is a major economic activity, and the power of the agricultural and food processing industries has in many cases severely compromised the quality image. In Italy, on the other hand, food policies and traditions, which give a high priority to freshness, allow consumers to stay in control of food quality to a much larger extent than in Denmark. In both countries, a concentration of tourists in space and time tends to result in a decline of food quality. The paper concludes that only residents are in a position to put a more permanent pressure on food suppliers, and only if they are given the appropriate instruments. Further improvement of the food heritage in both countries (but especially in Denmark) will have to include a reconsideration, and probably changes, in food policies in more global terms.

Hjalager, Anne-Mette; Corigliano, Magda Antolioli

104

Plantas relacionadas con tabúes del ciclo reproductivo de los Guaraníes de Misiones, Argentina / Plants related to taboos of the reproductive cycle of guaranies from Misiones, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los guaraníes de las parcialidades Mbya y Ava Chiripa observan normas de conducta específicas durante la etapa reproductiva de los miembros de sus comunidades. Algunas de estas reglas implican tabúes que se relacionan con plantas, las cuales son tratadas en la presente contribución. El manuscrito es [...] ilustrado mediante fotografías de algunas de las especies mencionadas. Abstract in english Guaranis of Mbya and Ava Chiripa groups, observes norms of specific conduct during the reproductive stage of the members of his communities. Someone of these rules imply taboos related with plants, these plants are treated in the present contribution. The manuscript is illustrated by means photograp [...] hies of someone of the mentioned species.

Héctor A, Keller.

105

"Fever in the Hand"  

Science.gov (United States)

A 14-year-old female adolescent was being treated for malnutrition secondary to anorexia nervosa. She complained of severe "shooting" pain, swelling, and color and temperature changes in her left (dominant) hand. She had recently suffered a fall during a hockey game and pounded on the table during a "temper tantrum." On exam, the left hand was cyanotic, edematous, and cold, with severe hyperesthesia. A bone scan showed marked reduction in flow to the left hand. She underwent eight sympathetic ganglion blocks resulting in transitory Horner's syndrome. Favorable plethysmographic changes occurred and her recovery was complete. Her eventual diagnosis was reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome. PMID:10360004

Silber

1996-10-01

106

Tuberculosis of the hand.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eleven cases of tuberculous infection affecting the hand are presented. The age incidence, clinical presentations and investigations are discussed. Treatment includes chemotherapy, radical synovectomy and early mobilisation. Hand function after surgery in the follow-up period of three to twenty-one months was very satisfactory with the exception of three cases which presented at a very late stage with secondary involvement of the wrists. The confusion that exists while using such terms as "Tuberculous Dactylitis" and "Tuberculous Tenosynovitis" is discussed. An alternative suggestion is made that "Tuberculosis of the Hand" be used. PMID:738660

Leung, P C

1978-10-01

107

Infections of the hand.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper the importance is stressed of the dangers associated with neglecting hand infections in Paua New Guinea, where, for understandable reasons, there is a tendency for people to be slow in seeking treatment. The prevention of hand infections is emphasised, and the principles in regard to rest, antibiotic therapy, and surgical decompression are discussed. The more common types of hand infection are described, with particular reference to surgical anatomy and surgical drainage. Some of the more complicated infections such as middle palmar and thenar space infections, suppurative tenosynovitis, osteomyelitis and septic arthritis are of sufficient importance to warrant the attentions of the specialist surgeon when this is possible. PMID:1061456

Gray, F J

1975-06-01

108

Food Allergy  

Science.gov (United States)

... Eye Allergy Eye Drops Food Allergy Food Allergy Food Intolerance Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome (FPIES) Gastroesophageal Reflux ... intolerant to it. Some of the symptoms of food intolerance and food allergy are similar, but the differences ...

109

Hand transplant surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

In September 1998 the world's first hand transplant was performed in Lyon, France. A new era in reconstructive surgery had begun. This case highlighted the potential for composite tissue allotransplantation (CTA). While CTA is not a new technique, it unifies the principles of reconstructive microsurgery and transplant surgery, achieving the goals of absolute correction of a defect with anatomically and physiologically identical tissue with none of the issues of donor site morbidity associated with autologous tissue transfer. The adoption of this technique for non-life threatening conditions to improve quality of life has generated a number of new ethical considerations. Additionally, the prominence of transplanted hands has led to much discussion around the issue of body identity and psychological assessment of potential recipients. This is fundamental to any hand transplantation programme. With the advent of hand transplantation dawning in the UK, we review the many ethical considerations that contribute to this new frontier. PMID:25350176

Nassimizadeh, M; Nassimizadeh, Ak; Power, D

2014-11-01

110

Hand Hygiene Saves Lives  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Your doctor has chosen to admit you to this facility ... sure that everyone who touches you – including your doctor – cleanses their hands too. Patients and their loved ...

111

Wash Your Hands  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... higher resolution file Share this Video Embed: What do you think of our videos? Your feedback about CDC-TV and our videos ...

151

[Ballistic hand trauma].  

Science.gov (United States)

46 victims of projectile accidents or explosions were treated over a 5 years period between 1984 and 1989. 3 categories were distinguished: injuries due to a single projectile (12 cases), only inducing serious bone damage and, apart from 3 immediate amputations, the final result was satisfactory. Injuries due to multiple scattered projectiles (11 cases), less severe in terms of the initial lesions, not requiring any amputations, with good results in 8 cases. Explosion injuries (23 cases) in which the effect of the explosion induced considerable initial lesions leading to one hand amputation and 33 finger amputations; the association of skeletal and soft tissue lesions raises the problem of excision and primary cover, requiring large flaps. The course is long and 8 out of 26 hands had serious sequelae, while the reconstruction of an elementary pinch can be considered to be an acceptable result in the other cases. PMID:1725712

Iselin, F; Audren, J L; Hautefort, E; Gouet, O; Peze, W; Pradet, G

1991-01-01

152

Food safety regulations in Australia and New Zealand Food Standards.  

Science.gov (United States)

Citizens of Australia and New Zealand recognise that food security is a major global issue. Food security also affects Australia and New Zealand's status as premier food exporting nations and the health and wellbeing of the Australasian population. Australia is uniquely positioned to help build a resilient food value chain and support programs aimed at addressing existing and emerging food security challenges. The Australian food governance system is fragmented and less transparent, being largely in the hands of government and semi-governmental regulatory authorities. The high level of consumer trust in Australian food governance suggests that this may be habitual and taken for granted, arising from a lack of negative experiences of food safety. In New Zealand the Ministry of Primary Industries regulates food safety issues. To improve trade and food safety, New Zealand and Australia work together through Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and other co-operative agreements. Although the potential risks to the food supply are dynamic and constantly changing, the demand, requirement and supply for providing safe food remains firm. The Australasian food industry will need to continually develop its system that supports the food safety program with the help of scientific investigations that underpin the assurance of what is and is not safe. The incorporation of a comprehensive and validated food safety program is one of the total quality management systems that will ensure that all areas of potential problems are being addressed by industry. PMID:24638225

Ghosh, Dilip

2014-08-01

153

Hands-on-CERN  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the Hands-On CERN project is to increase understanding of the most fundamental processes inside matter, and to explain modern research about particle collisions. The site includes many lab activities, interactive resources, and background information for teachers and learners. CERN is the European Organization for Nuclear Research. It's primary function is to provide the particle accelerators and other infrastructure needed for high-energy physics research. Its laboratory houses the LHC (Large Hadron Collider).

2011-09-13

154

Radioactivity and foods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this article is to describe and contrast two relationships between radiation and food on the one hand, beneficial preservation of food by controlled exposure to ionizing radiation; and, on the other, contamination of food by accidental incorporation of radioactive nuclides within the food itself. In food irradiation, electrons or electromagnetic radiation is used to destroy microorganisms and insects or prevent seed germination. The economic advantages and health benefits of sterilizing food in this manner are clear, and numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes or induced radioactivity is produced in the irradiated food. An altogether different situation is presented by exposure of food animals and farming areas to radioactive materials, as occurred after the major Soviet nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl. This article furnishes the basic information needed to understand the nature of food contamination associated with that event and describes the work of international organizations seeking to establish appropriate safe limits for levels of radioactivity in foods

155

Food Allergy  

Science.gov (United States)

Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... tree nuts, soy, and wheat. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

156

Food additives  

Science.gov (United States)

Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. Direct food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

157

Personalized Medicine and Companion Diagnostics Go Hand-in-Hand  

Science.gov (United States)

... Articulos en Espanol Personalized Medicine and Companion Diagnostics Go Hand-in-Hand Search the Consumer Updates Section ... safe and effective use of the drug. They go together. Because the companion diagnostic test is designed ...

158

Hands Up: Attentional Prioritization of Space Near the Hand  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explored whether hand location affected spatial attention. The authors used a visual covert-orienting paradigm to examine whether spatial attention mechanisms--location prioritization and shifting attention--were supported by bimodal, hand-centered representations of space. Placing 1 hand next to a target location, participants detected…

Reed, Catherine L.; Grubb, Jefferson D.; Steele, Cleophus

2006-01-01

159

Hand preference, performance abilities and hand selection in children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is widely know that the pattern of human handedness is such that approximately 90% of the population is right handed with the remainder being left handed, at least in the adult population. What is less well understood is how handedness develops and at what age adult-like handedness patterns emerge. Quantified in terms of both preference and performance, a plethora of different behavioural assessments are currently in use with both children and adults. Handedness questionnaires are commonly used; however, these possess inherent limitations, considering their subjective nature. Hand performance measures have also been implemented; however, such tasks appear to measure different components of handedness. In addition to these traditional measures, handedness has been successfully assessed through observation of hand selection in reaching, which has proven to be a unique and effective manner in understanding the development of handedness in children. Research over the past several decades has demonstrated that young children display weak, inconsistent hand preference tendencies and are slower with both hands. Performance differences between the hands are larger for young children, and consistency improves with age. However, there remains some controversy surrounding the age at which hand preference and hand performance abilities can be considered fully developed. The following paper will provide a review of the literature pertaining to hand preference, performance abilities and hand selection in children in an attempt to ascertain the age at which adult-like patterns of hand preference and performance emerge.

SaraMarieScharoun

2014-02-01

160

Hands-On Universe  

Science.gov (United States)

For the past four years, with support from the National Science Foundation, the Department of Energy, and the Department of Defense, Hands-On Universe (HOU) has developed and piloted an educational program that enables high school students to request their own observations from professional observatories. HOU students download CCD images from automated telescopes to their classroom computers and use the HOU- IP image processing software to visualize and analyze their data. HOU also provides comprehensive curriculum that integrates many of the topics and skills outlined in the national goals for science and math education into open-ended astronomical investigations. Over the next several years HOU will be implemented in undergraduate programs, middle schools, and informal science education centers.

Hoette, V.; Pack, H.; Spuck, T.; Rodriguez, B.; Lohman, R.; Toler, D.; Morin, T.; Pennypacker, C.; Gordon, S.; Marshall, A.; Refling, J.; Asbell-Clarke, J.; Barclay, T.

1996-12-01

 
 
 
 
161

Hands-On Electronics  

Science.gov (United States)

Packed full of real circuits to build and test, Hands-On Electronics is a unique introduction to analog and digital electronics theory and practice. Ideal both as a college textbook and for self-study, the friendly style, clear illustrations and construction details included in the book encourage rapid and effective learning of analog and digital circuit design theory. All the major topics for a typical one semester course are covered including RC circuits, diodes, transistors, op-amps, oscillators, TTL logic, counters, D/A converters and more. There are also chapters explaining how to use the equipment needed for the examples (oscilloscope, multimeter and breadboard) together with pin-out diagrams and manufacturers' specifications for all the key components referred to in the book. Practical introduction with real circuit examples to build Compact - just right for a single semester introductory text Ideal for both college use and self-study

Kaplan, Daniel M.; White, Christopher G.

2003-05-01

162

Hand-foot-mouth disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Hand-foot-mouth disease is a common viral infection that most often begins in the throat. ... Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is most commonly caused by a virus called coxsackievirus A16. Children ...

163

Health Tip: Scrub Hands Thoroughly  

Science.gov (United States)

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Health Tip: Scrub Hands Thoroughly Use proper washing techniques to reduce risk ... News) -- To get rid of germs on your hands, you should make sure you're washing properly. ...

164

Altered Vision Near the Hands  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study explored the manner in which hand position may affect visual processing. We studied three classic visual attention tasks (visual search, inhibition of return, and attentional blink) during which the participants held their hands either near the stimulus display, or far from the display. Remarkably, the hands altered visual…

Abrams, Richard A.; Davoli, Christopher C.; Du, Feng; Knapp, William H., III; Paull, Daniel

2008-01-01

165

Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives  

Science.gov (United States)

... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives When & How to Wash Hands — Key times and tips Show Me the Science — ... more about when and how to wash your hands, the importance of using soap and water, and ...

166

Unimanual SNARC Effect: Hand Matters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A structural representation of the hand embedding information about the identity and relative position of fingers is necessary to counting routines. It may also support associations between numbers and allocentric spatial codes that predictably interact with other known numerical spatial representations, such as the mental number line. In this study, 48 Western participants whose typical counting routine proceeded from thumb-to-little on both hands performed magnitude and parity binary judgments. Response keys were pressed either with the right index and middle fingers or with the left index and middle fingers in separate blocks. 24 participants responded with either hands in prone posture (i.e. palm down and 24 participants responded with either hands in supine (i.e. palm up posture. When hands were in prone posture, the counting direction of the left hand conflicted with the direction of the left-right mental number line, whereas the counting direction of the right hand was consistent with it. When hands were in supine posture, the opposite was true. If systematic associations existed between relative number magnitude and an allocentric spatial representation of the finger series within each hand, as predicted on the basis of counting habits, interactions would be expected between hand posture and a unimanual version of the Spatial-Numerical Association of Response Codes (SNARC effect. Data revealed that with hands in prone posture a unimanual SNARC effect was present for the right hand, and with hands in supine posture a unimanual SNARC effect was present for the left hand. We propose that a posture-invariant body structural representation of the finger series provides a relevant frame of reference, a within-hand directional vector, that is associated to simple number processing. Such frame of reference can significantly interact with stimulus-response correspondence effects that have been attributed to the mapping of numbers on a mental number line.

MariannaRiello

2011-12-01

167

Food allergy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant allergens (class 2 food allergy. Allergenicity of food is largely determined by structural aspects, including cross-reactivity and reduced or enhanced allergenicity with cooking that convey allergenic characteristics to food. Management of food allergy currently focuses on dietary avoidance of the offending foods, prompt recognition and treatment of allergic reactions, and nutritional support. This review includes definitions and examines the prevalence and management of food allergies and the characteristics of food allergens.

Youngshin Han

2012-05-01

168

Hand held radiation detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A hand-held radiation detector is described for measuring localized radiation at extremely low levels, the detector comprising: a housing including two peripherally engaged, axially extending, tubular members, one of the members being entirely insulative, the other of the members being metallic; a radiation window at one end of the metallic tubular member, the window including a metallic portion in electrical contact with the metallic tubular member; a sealed chamber defined by the housing, the chamber being filled with gas; a needle within the chamber serving as an anode, the metallic tubular member and the metallic portion of the radiation window serving as a cathode; a voltage means connected between the anode and cathode; the point of the needle being located entirely within the portion of the chamber defined by the insulative tubular member and axially spaced from the other end of the metallic tubular member such that the electric field lines emanating from the radiation window, including those at the periphery, are forced into the amplifying region. Efficient electron multiplication occurs responsive to radiation entering the chamber

169

Hand Segmentation for Hand-based Biometrics in Complex Environments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hand-basedbiometric techniques, such as the ones based on palmprint, hand vein and handshape, is becoming more important because of their convenience and highperformance. Hand segmentation is one of the most important steps in thesetechniques. It is a challenge task to accurately segment hand in complex environment because of the complex background,varying illuminance and other unexpected interference factors. This paperproposes a novel approach to segment hand in complex environment using colorand boundary information. In the proposed approach, the hand skin color model(HSCM is firstly constructed by using artificial neural network (ANN. Thenthe HSCM is used to generate a probability map (PM and the hand is roughlysegmented from the complex background by thresholding PM. After that, the handboundary is extracted from the original image by edge detecting and votingtechniques. Finally, the hand boundary is employed to cut the roughly segmentedhand to get the final segmented hand. The experimental results show that theproposed approach can effectively segment hand in complex environment.

Wei Bu

2013-10-01

170

Making Healthy Food Choices  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Students will see that food advertisements may not be the best information to use when deciding what to eat. They will investigate several resources for good information about foods and nutrition. Allow several weeks to complete this unit. UEN Core CurriculumStandard 1 Students will develop a sense of self. Objective 1 Describe and practice responsible behaviors for health and safety. a. Practice appropriate personal hygiene (e.g., bathe, wash hands, clean clothes). b. Describe the benefits of eating a variety of nutritious foods. c. Describe the benefits of physical activity. d. Describe substances that are helpful and harmful to the body. e. Practice basic safety and identify hazards. Making Healthy Food Choices #1 Task Definition - ...

Fox, Miss

2011-12-15

171

HENRY'S "HAND OF GOD"  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper the author discusses the views and statements of the French football player Thierry Henry he gave after his illegal play during the playoff match between France and the Republic of Ireland to claim one of the final spots in the World Cup 2010 in South Africa. First, by controlling the ball with his hand before passing it on for the goal Henry has shown disregard for the constitutive rules of football. Then, by stating that he is "not a referee" he demonstrated that for some players rules are not inherent to football and that they can be relativized, given that for them winning is the goal of the highest ontological status. Furthermore, he has rejected the rules of sportsmanship, thus expressing his opinion that the opponents are just obstacles which have to be removed in order to achieve your goals. Henry's action has disrupted major moral values, such as justice, honesty, responsibility and beneficence. The rules of fair play have totally been ignored both in Henry's action and in the Football Association of France's unwillingness to comment on whether a replay should take place. They have ignored one of the basic principles stated in the "Declaration of the International Fair Play Committee", according to which, fair play is much more than playing to the rules of the game; it's about the attitude of the sportsperson. It's about respecting your opponent and preserving his or her physical and psychological integrity. Finally, the author believes that the rules, moral values and fair play in football are required for this game to become actually possible to play.

Željko Kalu?erovi?

2014-04-01

172

Dynamic Hand Gesture Recognition Using the Skeleton of the Hand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper discusses the use of the computer vision in the interpretation of human gestures. Hand gestures would be an intuitive and ideal way of exchanging information with other people in a virtual space, guiding some robots to perform certain tasks in a hostile environment, or interacting with computers. Hand gestures can be divided into two main categories: static gestures and dynamic gestures. In this paper, a novel dynamic hand gesture recognition technique is proposed. It is ba...

Vasile Buzuloiu; Patrick Lambert; Didier Coquin; Bogdan Ionescu

2005-01-01

173

"Osseous tumors of the hand "  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The majority of osseous tumors of the hand are benign. The surgeon who evaluates and treats osseous tumors of the hand has to be familiar with limb anatomy, tumor biology, various presentations of the tumors and the range of treatment possibilities and their limitations. Lesions in the hand more often present earlier in their course than those at other sites, just because they are more likely to superficial and easily noticed. A review of all cases of osseous tumors of the hand, seen by a hand surgeon over the last 10 years, at Imam Khomeini hospital was performed. Among 55 cases with osseous tumors of hand, 48 primary benign bone tumors, 3 primary malignant bone tumors, and 4 metastatic bone tumors were found. Enchondroma was the most common benign bone tumor followed by osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, aneurismal bone cyst, giant cell tumor, epidermoid cyst, and osteochondroma. There were two chondrosarcoma and one Ewing’s sarcoma as primary malignant bone tumors. Metastasis to the hand from colon, esophagus, and breast were also found. There were also two cases with Brown tumor secondary to hyperparathyroidism, we conclude that a variety of osseous tumors could occur in the hand, and usually they are benign. Although malignant neoplasms in the hand that arise from tissues other than the skin are very rare, the hand may be the site of distant breast, lung, kidney, esophagus, or colon adenocarcinoma metastases, most of which have a predilection for the distal phalanges.

"Farzan M

2002-08-01

174

Food Timeline  

Science.gov (United States)

The Food Timeline was created as an independent research project on food history and period recipes. The timeline begins before 17,000 B.C. with gatherable foods (shellfish, eggs, mushrooms) and chronicles the appearance of cultivated plants, domesticated food animals, and commercial food products up to the present day. Each type of food is represented by a link to additional information on it, and there are also links to period recipes appearing in chronological order on the timeline.

Lynne Olver, Chief Librarian, Morris County Library (NJ)

175

Food Packaging  

Science.gov (United States)

Students learn how food packages are designed and made, including the three main functions. The packaging design and materials must keep food clean, protect or aid in the physical and chemical changes that can take place in food, and identify a food appealingly. Then, in the associated activity, students act as if they are packaging engineers by designing and creating their own food packages for particular food types.

Engineering K-Phd Program

176

Food allergy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Food allergies affect up to 6% of young children and 3%–4% of adults. They encompass a range of disorders that may be IgE and/or non-IgE mediated, including anaphylaxis, pollen food syndrome, food-protein–induced enterocolitis syndrome, food-induced proctocolitis, eosinophilic gastroenteropathies, and atopic dermatitis. Many complex host factors and properties of foods are involved in the development of food allergy. With recent advances in the understanding of how these factors interact,...

Wang, Julie; Sampson, Hugh A.

2011-01-01

177

Hand Anthropometry and SMS Satisfaction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of hand anthropometry on Short Message Service (SMS satisfaction was investigated using structured questionnaire interviews with 110 subjects, aged between 17-25 years old. Hand size was measured to assess its effect on mobile phone design factors satisfaction whereas thumb circumference and length were measured for keypad design factors. Small hand-sized subjects were found to be more satisfied with mobile phone dimensions than large hand-sized subjects. Thumb circumference significantly affects users` satisfaction towards key size and space between keys whereas thumb length significantly affects keypad layout satisfaction. Both thumb circumference and length significantly correlate negatively with the corresponding keypad design factors. Results confirm that hand anthropometry do affect users messaging satisfaction. These findings should prove useful to mobile phone designers who could look into the possibility of designing customized mobile phones that cater to large hand and thumb sized users, so as to increase their subjective satisfaction.

Vimala Balakrishnan

2008-01-01

178

Hand Anthropometry and SMS Satisfaction  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of hand anthropometry on Short Message Service (SMS) satisfaction was investigated using structured questionnaire interviews with 110 subjects, aged between 17-25 years old. Hand size was measured to assess its effect on mobile phone design factors satisfaction whereas thumb circumference and length were measured for keypad design factors. Small hand-sized subjects were found to be more satisfied with mobile phone dimensions than large hand-sized subjects. Thumb circumference significantly affects users` satisfaction towards key size and space between keys whereas thumb length significantly affects keypad layout satisfaction. Both thumb circumference and length significantly correlate negatively with the corresponding keypad design factors. Results confirm that hand anthropometry do affect users messaging satisfaction. These findings should prove useful to mobile phone designers who could look into the possibility of designing customized mobile phones that cater to large hand and thumb sized users, so as to increase their subjective satisfaction.

Balakrishnan, Vimala; Yeow, Paul H. P.

179

Hand in Hand: Media Literacy and Internet Safety  

Science.gov (United States)

Internet safety cannot be effectively taught without also teaching media literacy. The two go hand in hand, and both are necessary, but neither is sufficient. To understand why, it is important to first appreciate what the real risks to children are. Many of the early Internet safety programs were based on a fear of predators. Predators turned out…

Gallagher, Frank

2011-01-01

180

78 FR 65661 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Food Safety Survey  

Science.gov (United States)

...Additionally, Food Safety Survey data are used to measure trends in consumer food safety habits including hand and cutting board washing, cooking practices, and use of food thermometers. Finally, data are used to evaluate educational...

2013-11-01

 
 
 
 
181

Dynamic Hand Gesture Recognition Using the Skeleton of the Hand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper discusses the use of the computer vision in the interpretation of human gestures. Hand gestures would be an intuitive and ideal way of exchanging information with other people in a virtual space, guiding some robots to perform certain tasks in a hostile environment, or interacting with computers. Hand gestures can be divided into two main categories: static gestures and dynamic gestures. In this paper, a novel dynamic hand gesture recognition technique is proposed. It is based on the 2D skeleton representation of the hand. For each gesture, the hand skeletons of each posture are superposed providing a single image which is the dynamic signature of the gesture. The recognition is performed by comparing this signature with the ones from a gesture alphabet, using Baddeley's distance as a measure of dissimilarities between model parameters.

Coquin Didier

2005-01-01

182

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gives details of sources used for food irradiation, brief description of the process, safety of food irradiation process, practical applications and the amount of doses used for spices, condiments, mangoes etc., limitations of food irradiation, international status of clearance of irradiated foods, versatility of the process

183

Roentgenological atlas of hand pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The atlas deals with roentgenological diagnostics of hand pathology. Developmental defects, rheumatoid arthritis, malignant and benign bone tumours, tumours of soft tissues, degenerative dystrophical injuries, traumatic injuries, foreign bodies penetrating into hand tissues, inflamatory diseases etc. are illustrated. Roentgenological semiotics and differential diagnostics are described

184

3D Printed Robotic Hand  

Science.gov (United States)

Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

2013-01-01

185

Moisturizing alcohol hand gels for surgical hand preparation.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the use of novel formulary technology, unique moisturizing hand gels have been developed that offer significant advantages in perioperative and other health care settings. These advantages include the time-saving capabilities of a waterless formulation, the persistence and effectiveness of a surgical scrub, and the moisturization and protective properties of a lotion. Extensive laboratory and clinical studies, involving in vivo antimicrobial activity against resident and transient flora, skin moisturization on normal and dry skin, and compatibility with latex gloves, have supported these advantages. Nondrying alcohol hand gels can be used for antiseptic hand washing, hand scrubs between procedures (i.e., reentry scrubs), brushless surgical scrubs, moisturizers, and glove-donning aids. PMID:10736642

Jones, R D; Jampani, H; Mulberry, G; Rizer, R L

2000-03-01

186

American Society for Surgery of the Hand  

Science.gov (United States)

... For Patients Member Resources My Account Staff Directory Benefits Policies Member News Get Involved Journal of Hand Surgery Grants and Awards Touching Hands Project Job Listings Social Media e-Learning Portal Hand-e Industry Guide ASSH ...

187

Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD)  

Science.gov (United States)

... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD) Hand, foot, and ... mouth sores, and a skin rash. Read more ... Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Topics About Hand, Foot, ...

188

Food masquerade.  

Science.gov (United States)

Radishes cut to look like roses, watermelons carved into fruit baskets, apples made into swans, cakes frosted to look like dolls—when did this game of food masquerade start and how? This essay speculates about food's on-going history of disguise, of pretending to be what it's not. From the Renaissance courtier's delight in confections disguised as beasts, birds, and other fancies to our present day fascination with Japanese bento lunch boxes, food masquerade would seem to be a fanciful part of the history of food.Food masquerade injects some levity into our growing seriousness about food, our suspicion that most supermarket food is riddled with toxins and bad karma. It proposes that eating food should be fun. Food masquerade also gets to the very heart of artistic visual representation: the magical transformation of paint, clay or wood into an image of something else. It is a synecdoche for art itself. PMID:21539044

Bermingham, Ann

2010-01-01

189

Food allergies.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Adverse reactions to foods are commonly implicated in the causation of ill health. However, foreign antigens, including food proteins and commensal microbes encountered in the gastrointestinal tract, are usually well tolerated. True food allergies, implying immune-mediated adverse responses to food antigens, do exist, however, and are especially common in infants and young children. Allergic reactions to food manifest clinically in a variety of presentations involving the gastrointestinal, cutaneous, and respiratory systems and in generalized reactions such as anaphylaxis. Both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated immune mechanisms are recognized. Important advances in the clinical features underlying specific food hypersensitivity disorders are reviewed.

O'Leary, Paula F G

2012-02-03

190

Food taxes: a new holy grail?  

Science.gov (United States)

In an effort to reduce the growing prevalence of overweight and obesity, food taxes have been introduced in several European countries, the so-called 'obesitax'. As yet little evidence is at hand, policy measures are being taken to counterweight the consumption of unhealthy food or the increasing diet-related diseases. Several questions need to be discussed, starting from a general perspective: can food taxes become an appropriate and just policy measure to reduce overweight and obesity and therefore increase consumer's health? The implementation of an effective and fair food tax is an exercise riddled with uncertainty. Not only is there a need for evidence on the health and economic impact of food taxes, we also have to think about a conceptual and ethical discussion concerning the balance between health imperatives and public health on the one hand, and social and ethical standards on the other hand. PMID:24596843

Devisch, Ignaas

2013-08-01

191

Food Taxes: A New Holy Grail?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In an effort to reduce the growing prevalence of overweight and obesity, food taxes have been introduced in several European countries, the so-called ‘obesitax’. As yet little evidence is at hand, policy measures are being taken to counterweight the consumption of unhealthy food or the increasing diet-related diseases. Several questions need to be discussed, starting from a general perspective: can food taxes become an appropriate and just policy measure to reduce overweight and obesity and therefore increase consumer’s health? The implementation of an effective and fair food tax is an exercise riddled with uncertainty. Not only is there a need for evidence on the health and economic impact of food taxes, we also have to think about a conceptual and ethical discussion concerning the balance between health imperatives and public health on the one hand, and social and ethical standards on the other hand.

Ignaas Devisch

2013-01-01

192

FOOD SECURITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The assurance of food security at the individual level doesn’t implicitly provide for the one at family level as the concepts of hunger, malnutrition and food insecurity are the steps of the same process of access restricted to a sufficient supply of food. In order to achieve food security at the individual level the following is necessary: ensuring food availability (production, reserve stocks; redistribution of food availability within the country or out through international exchanges; effective access of the population to purchase food consumer goods, by ensuring its effective demand as required. Food security of families (FFS is required for assuring individual food security (IFS, but it is not sufficient because the food available may be unevenly distributed between family members. National food security (NFS corresponds to the possibilities that different countries have to ensure both FFS and IFS without sacrificing other important objectives. Under the name of GAS is defined the global food security which represents permanent access for the entire population of the globe to the necessary food for a healthy and active life.

Dorina Ardelean

2013-12-01

193

Radiation cancer on the hand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty-two patients with radiodermatitis on the hand have been seen at Kyushu University Hospital during the past 20 years. Six of them developed radiogenic squamous cell carcinoma. Malignant change occurred in three physicians who had been carelessly exposed while employing X-ray machines and in three patients who had received radiation for benign conditions, two for hand eczema and one for tinea infection of the hand. Of the six patients, one showed clinically and microscopically positive axillary metastasis in the lymph nodes. He had an axillary lymph node dissection and upper arm amputation. There were no deaths attributable to radiation cancer during the follow-up period, which averaged five years. In conclusion, I have emphasized the importance of early preventive surgical treatment, because the incidence of malignant neoplasms increases with the passage of time, as well as the importance of continuous follow-up for patients with chronic radiodermatitis on the hand. (author)

194

Acute management of hand burns.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hand burns occur commonly either as part of more extensive burn injuries or in isolation. Optimal management requires careful examination, appropriate wound care, timely surgical excision if warranted, and aggressive range-of-motion therapy. PMID:19801119

Sterling, Jose; Gibran, Nicole S; Klein, Matthew B

2009-11-01

195

Hand-schuller-christian disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A boy of 4 years presented with exophthalmos and cutaneous lesions. Clinical examination, histology and other investigations confirmed the diagnosis of Hand-Schuller-Christian disease.

Malhotra S

1992-01-01

196

[Hand, foot and mouth disease].  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors described a case of viral stomatitis of the type of hand, foot and mouth disease with mucosal and skin manifestations in an adult with a significant rise of neutralizing antibodies against the Coxsackie B4 virus. PMID:1886880

Slezák, R; Horác?k, J; Drizhal, I; Novák, I; Havel, P

1991-03-01

197

Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a contagious illness that mainly affects children under five. In this podcast, Dr. Eileen Schneider talks about the symptoms of hand, foot, and mouth disease, how it spreads, and ways to help protect yourself and your children from getting infected with the virus.  Created: 8/8/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 8/8/2013.

2013-08-08

198

Factitious Lymphedema of the Hand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: To report the case of a 39- year old unmarried female with factitious edema of the right hand two weeks after being struck by her brother and following self injury of the right arm. Method: A 39-year old unmarried female with severe edema of the right hand and forearm diagnosed as factitious lymphedema was admitted to Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital. After hospitalization, with elevation of affected limb, the edema had lessened. Thereafter, she was observed at ward rounds with a cloth...

Sina Ahmadi Abhari, S.; Nooshin Alimalayeri; Ali Ahmadi Abhari, S.; Khadijeh Omidi Nobijari

2006-01-01

199

Regional food culture and development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food culture is most influenced by the locality of its origin, which will have been one of food acquisition and processing by various means. It is generally agreed, and is the basis of much United Nations, especially Food and Agriculture Organisation strategic development policy, that successful agriculture, horticulture and aquaculture along with fishing, underpin economically viable and healthy communities with their various food cultures. We also know that this must be in tandem with maternal literacy and operational health care systems. These elements are best represented on a regional basis. There is a growing consumer interest in knowing where one's food comes from as a measure of "food integrity". However, food production alone can be a precarious business and relate to a lesser or greater extent to local food culture and to trade, which may be complementary or at-odds with each other. Likewise, the local food culture may have its strengths and weaknesses as far as its ability to meet nutritional and health needs is concerned. Local food production may be restricted because of geographical or socio-economic conditions which preclude food diversity, although this may be compensated for by trade. Where food adequacy and diversity is compromised, and soils poor, various macronutrient, micronutrient (from animals and plants) and phytonutrient (nutritionally-advantageous food component from plants) deficiencies may be in evidence. These food system problems may be intertwined with food culture--for example, "rice-based and water-soluble vitamin poor"; "few animal-derived foods like meat, fish, eggs and milk with associated low calcium, vitamin D, Vitamin B12 and long chain n-3 fatty acid intakes"; "low fruit and vegetable intake with limited carotenoids and other phytonutrients". Geo-satellite surveillance and mapping as identifying such "hot spots": for regional food problems, as well as hot spots where most of the world's biodiversity is found (1.4 % of land on earth). On the other hand, regional food culture can confer considerable advantage for health and economic development, but does not necessarily do so. The challenge is to respect and retain traditional food knowledge and sustainable food systems, with good governance for food security. There has been a recent awakening of interest and concern about the lack of documentation of traditional and indigenous food cultures which are important not only for their own sake, but for the legacy of food knowledge which they can confer on future generations, provided they are not lost. Hence, the value of a special focus on African food cultures (www.healthyeatingclub.org/Africa), including Rift and Nile Valleys and North West African foods, which are the cradles of human food systems and habits. This is the case too with indigenous foods and food cultures (whether hunter-gatherer or subsistence agriculture); with relatively long-living food cultures in North East Asia, with food cultural distinction and fusion (FHILL and SENECA studies) and with migratory Food Habits. By and large, there is a remarkable resilience and ingenuity of people and their food systems, but monoculture and lack of diversity encourage food system failure. PMID:17392068

Wahlqvist, Mark L; Lee, Meei-Shyuan

2007-01-01

200

Food Labeling  

Science.gov (United States)

... dietary proteins, vitamins, and minerals in each serving Definitions for terms such as low-fat and high-fiber Information to help you see how a food fits into an overall daily diet Food and Drug Administration

 
 
 
 
201

Food Tourism  

AND DISTINCTIVE FOOD AND DRINK CULTURE SUCH AS FRANCE, ITALY, \\SPAIN AND THAILAND USE IT AS A .... VisitBritain's advisory guide to food and \\drink in .... Chinese and Korean will be added to ..... Valleys of South Wales, \\Cardiff.

202

Food safety and consumer behaviour  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Food safety is a priority for many consumers, and there is an expectation throughout society that the food supplied for human consumption is safe and nutritious to eat. Understanding technical risk estimates alone, however, will not explain the risk-related behaviours of consumers. On the one hand, consumers may not pay enough attention to some types of food safety issue, such as the risk of food poisoning from microbial contamination, which may at best be debilitating, and at worst fatal (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 1994). This risk is certainly largely avoidable through taking appropriate risk mitigation measures through the food chain, not least in the domestic kitchen. However, factors related to consumer psychology may increase the risks to consumers as they produce barriers to self-protective behaviours (Frewer & Fischer, in press; Worsfold & Griffith, 1997). In contrast, public perceptions and attitudes about emerging bio-sciences and other new technologies applied to food production areamong the most important factors determining the likelihood of the successful development and implementation of agri-food technology technologies (Frewer et al., 2004). Scientific communities have frequently bemoaned negative consumer attitudes towards some food technologies, such as genetic engineering, while failing to consider the origins of these consumer attitudes. The behaviour of consumers in relation to food safety issues can only be properly understood if there is systematic understanding of the way in which consumers perceive risks, and how these relate to an effective food safety and technology commercialisation policy.

Frewer, Lynn; Fischer, Arnout

2005-01-01

203

Food Webs  

Science.gov (United States)

The representation depicts 4 different food webs: Antarctica, the African Grasslands, the Australia Grasslands and a Marine environment. A separate food web for scavengers and decomposers is present in the African Grasslands section. Viewers must first build the web by moving boxes with the organism's picture and name to the appropriate spot on a grid. Clues describing food requirements are given as the boxes are moved. When the boxes are correctly placed a complete food web (with arrows) is displayed.

204

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of food irradiation are outlined. The interaction of irradiation with matter is then discussed with special reference to the major constituents of foods. The application of chemical analysis in the evaluation of the wholesomeness of irradiated foods is summarized

205

Food jags  

Science.gov (United States)

Refusal to eat; Fear of new foods ... caregiver, it is your role to provide healthy food and drink choices. You can also help your ... mealtimes positive. Children should be allowed to choose foods based on their likes and dislikes and their ...

206

Food Safety  

Science.gov (United States)

... plastic wrap from touching the food. If a food comes packaged in a foam tray, remove it from the tray and be ... plastic wrapping before microwaving. The heat can make foam trays and plastic ... dinners or other foods. If you're using the microwave to defrost ...

207

HACCP, food quality, food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper summarizes the principles and purposes of the ''Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points'' (HACCP) system and its application and implementation within the European Union for the purposes of food quality and safety control, including food irradiation. (orig./CB)

208

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This popular-level article emphasizes that the ultimate health effects of irradiated food products are unknown. They may include vitamin loss, contamination of food by botulism bacteria, mutations in bacteria, increased production of aflatoxins, changes in food, carcinogenesis from unknown causes, presence of miscellaneous harmful chemicals, and the lack of a way of for a consumer to detect irradiated food. It is claimed that the nuclear industry is applying pressure on the Canadian government to relax labeling requirements on packages of irradiated food in order to find a market for its otherwise unnecessary products

209

Potassium-rich Foods and Stroke Risk  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... right-hand corner of the player. Potassium-rich Foods and Stroke Risk HealthDay September 5, 2014 Related ... a sweet potato a day? Both of these foods are rich in potassium and a new study ...

210

Potassium-rich Foods and Stroke Risk  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... hand corner of the player. Potassium-rich Foods and Stroke Risk HealthDay September 5, 2014 Related MedlinePlus ... Both of these foods are rich in potassium and a new study suggests that postmenopausal women who ...

211

Hand development in trisomy 21.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate hand size and maturity in fetuses with trisomy 21 (Down syndrome). Twenty-five fetuses, crown-rump length (CRL) 55-222 mm, foot length (FL) 8-42 mm, were included in the study. After whole-body radiography (Hewlett Packard Faxitron), special radiographs of the hand and foot were taken. Hand length was measured as the length of the third finger from the distal tip of the distal phalanx to the proximal tip of the metacarpal bone, the digital-metacarpal length (DML). The lengths of the proximal phalangeal bone (PPL) and the metacarpal bone (MCL) of the third finger were also measured. The DML, PPL, and MCL values of each fetus were related to CRL and FL. The individual hand bones were evaluated with regard to time of appearance on radiographs, sequence in comparison with the normal sequence of appearance, and morphology. The hand length is normal during the first half of the fetal period, whereas the length of individual bones in the third finger is reduced. The normal sequence of ossification, with the middle phalanx of the fifth finger last to ossify, also occurred in Down syndrome; however, this bone appeared later in Down syndrome. In four of the fetuses it did not appear. PMID:9779798

Kjaer, M S; Keeling, J W; Andersen, E; Fischer Hansen, B; Kjaer, I

1998-10-12

212

Hands as markers of fragmentation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Margaret Atwood is an internationally read, translated, and critiqued writer whose novels have established her as one of the most esteemed authors in English (McCombs & Palmer, 1991:1. Critical studies of her work deal mainly with notions of identity from psychoanalytical perspectives. This study has identified a gap in current critical studies on Atwood’s works, namely the challenging of textual unity which is paralleled in the challenging of the traditional (single narrative voice. The challenging of textual unity and the single narrative voice brings about the fragmentation of both. This article will focus on the role that hands play as markers of fragmentation in “The Blind Assassin” (2000. In the novel, the writing hand destabilises the narrative voice, since it is not connected to the voice of a single author. If the author of the text – the final signified – is eliminated, the text becomes fragmentary and open, inviting the reader to contribute to the creation of meaning. Hands play a signficant role in foregrounding the narrator’s fragmented identity, and consequently, the fragmentation of the text. We will investigate this concept in the light of Roland Barthes’ notion of the scriptor, whose hand is metaphorically severed from his or her “voice”. Instead of the text being a unified entity, it becomes unstable and it displays the absence of hierarchical textual levels. Based mainly on Barthes’ writings, this article concludes that hands foreground the narrator’s fragmented identity, which is paralleled in the fragmented text.

A. Barnard

2005-07-01

213

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Food irradiation is a promising technology in which food products are exposed to a controlled amount of radiant energy to eliminate disease-causing bacteria. The process can also control parasites and insects, reduce spoilage and inhibit ripening and sprouting. Food irradiation is endorsed by the most important health organisations (WHO, CDC, USDA, FDA, EFSA, etc.) and allowed in nearly 40 Countries. It is to remember that irradiation is not a substitute either for comprehensive food safety programs or for good food-handling practices. Irradiated foods must be labelled with either the statement treated with radiation or treated by irradiation and the international symbol for irradiation, the radura. Some consumer associations suppose negative aspects of irradiation, such as increase of the number of free radicals in food and decrease of antioxidant vitamins that neutralize them

214

[Hand hygiene: revolution and globalization].  

Science.gov (United States)

Hand hygiene is the primary measure to prevent healthcare-associated infections and the spread of antimicrobial resistance. Low staff compliance remains a major problem. Successful promotion requires a multimodal strategy. The World Health Organization (WHO) proposes an approach including at least five components: system change, in particular the recourse to alcohol-based hand rubbing as the new standard of care, staff education using newly developed tools, monitoring and feedback of staff performance, reminders in the workplace, and promotion of an institutional safety climate. Patient participation in hand hygiene promotion is under testing. Early results of the strategy tested in a large number of healthcare settings in both limited- and high-resource countries are extremely encouraging. PMID:19492514

Pittet, Didier

2009-04-01

215

Hand injuries in agricultural accidents  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of hand injuries due to farming accidents in a defined population with a representative mixture of agricultural activities. During a 12-month period all agricultural accidents treated at the five hospitals in the County of Ringkøbing, Denmark were prospectively registered. Follow-up was done by telephone interview 4 months after the accident. Of the 260 persons injured in agricultural accidents, 117 (45%) had lesions of the upper extremity and 73 persons (28%) had hand injuries. The most common injuries were lacerations and amputations (45%) followed by fractures (36%). Mean sick leave was 25 days, and mean work impairment was 31 days in patients with hand injuries.

Hansen, Torben Bæk; Carstensen, O

1999-01-01

216

Hand-Based Biometric Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Hand-based biometric analysis systems and techniques provide robust hand-based identification and verification. An image of a hand is obtained, which is then segmented into a palm region and separate finger regions. Acquisition of the image is performed without requiring particular orientation or placement restrictions. Segmentation is performed without the use of reference points on the images. Each segment is analyzed by calculating a set of Zernike moment descriptors for the segment. The feature parameters thus obtained are then fused and compared to stored sets of descriptors in enrollment templates to arrive at an identity decision. By using Zernike moments, and through additional manipulation, the biometric analysis is invariant to rotation, scale, or translation or an input image. Additionally, the analysis uses re-use of commonly seen terms in Zernike calculations to achieve additional efficiencies over traditional Zernike moment calculation.

Bebis, George

2013-01-01

217

Diagnostic imaging of the hand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With its complex anatomy and specialized biomechanics, the human hand has always presented physicians with a unique challenge when it comes to diagnosing and treating the diseases that afflict it. And while recent decades have seen a rapid increase in the number of therapeutic options, many diseases and injuries of the hand are still commonly misinterpreted. In diagnostic imaging of the hand, an interdisciplinary team, comprisingspecialists in radiology, surgery, and rheumatology, presents a comprehensive,reliable guide to this topographically intricate area. Highlights include: - More than 1000 high-quality illustrations - All state-of-the-art imaging modalities-including multidetector CT, with 2D displays and 3D reconstructions, and contrast-enhanced MRI with multi-channel, phased-array coils - An overview of all currently used methods of examination - A detailed presentation of the anatomic and functional foundations necessary for diagnosis - Full coverage of all disorders of the hand - Systematic treatment of each disease's definition, pathogenesis, and clinical symptoms, according to a graduated diagnostic plan - Easy-to-use format, featuring crisp images and line drawings seamlessly integrated with concise text, summary tables, and handy checklists - A heavily cross-referenced appendix of differential diagnosis tables - Emphasis on interdisciplinary consultation throughout designed to help both radiologists and clinicians develop the most efficient and effectives develop the most efficient and effective strategies for evaluating and treating patients, Diagnostic imaging of the hand will leave specialists of all levels with a fresh appreciation for - and a richer understanding of - the expanding array of cutting-edge alternatives for diagnosing and treating disorders of the hand. (orig.)

218

Multifocal osteoblastoma of the hand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Osteoblastoma is a benign bone tumor with uncertain radiologic and typical histologic pattern that, in most cases, can be diagnosed without any problems. Usually, it is a solitary bone tumor. The case presented is a 9-year-old child with multiple osteoblastomas occurring in multiple bones of the right hand. The child had pain in his right hand for several weeks. On physical examination, no swelling or other symptoms were elicited. All lesions noted radiologically were treated by curettage, and in all the pattern of osteoblastoma was diagnosed. (orig.)

Adler, C.P. [Inst. of Pathology, Univ. of Freiburg (Germany)

2000-10-01

219

Multifocal osteoblastoma of the hand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Osteoblastoma is a benign bone tumor with uncertain radiologic and typical histologic pattern that, in most cases, can be diagnosed without any problems. Usually, it is a solitary bone tumor. The case presented is a 9-year-old child with multiple osteoblastomas occurring in multiple bones of the right hand. The child had pain in his right hand for several weeks. On physical examination, no swelling or other symptoms were elicited. All lesions noted radiologically were treated by curettage, and in all the pattern of osteoblastoma was diagnosed. (orig.)

220

Intrinsic contractures of the hand.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contractures of the intrinsic muscles of the fingers disrupt the delicate and complex balance of intrinsic and extrinsic muscles, which allows the hand to be so versatile and functional. The loss of muscle function primarily affects the interphalangeal joints but also may affect etacarpophalangeal joints. The resulting clinical picture is often termed, intrinsic contracture or intrinsic-plus hand. Disruption of the balance between intrinsic and extrinsic muscles has many causes and may be secondary to changes within the intrinsic musculature or the tendon unit. This article reviews diagnosis, etiology, and treatment algorithms in the management of intrinsic contractures of the fingers. PMID:22117926

Paksima, Nader; Besh, Basil R

2012-02-01

 
 
 
 
221

Local flaps of the hand.  

Science.gov (United States)

A local flap consists of skin and subcutaneous tissue that is harvested from a site near a given defect while maintaining its intrinsic blood supply. Local skin flaps can be a used as a reliable source of soft tissue replacement that replaces like with like. Flaps are categorized based on composition, method of transfer, flap design, and blood supply, but flap circulation is considered the most critical factor for the flap survival. This article reviews the classification of local skin flaps of the hand and offers a practical reconstructive approach for several soft tissue defects of the hand and digits. PMID:24731606

Rehim, Shady A; Chung, Kevin C

2014-05-01

222

2.MD Hand Span Measures  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Hand span is a measure of distance from the tip of the thumb to the tip of the little finger with the hand fully extended. Each student places his or h...

223

Public health aspects of food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author debates public health aspects of food irradiation. The effect of food irradiation as a convenience to the consumer is discussed, i.e. the prevention of food deterioration and also the prevention of disease that could be passed on to the consumer by ingestion. On the other hand, the effects that could possibly be created by the application of radiation are also evaluated using toxicological and microbiological considerations. (Auth.)

224

Food irradiation: contaminating our food  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nuclear industry has promoted food irradiation as an effective and safe means of preserving food at minimum risk to the public. However, wide-scale food irradiation programmes such as that approved in the United States of America would have an adverse impact on public health in the following ways: through the consumption of carcinogenic substances generated in irradiated foods, through the use of irradiation to mask bacteriological contamination of spoiled food, through the replacement of fresh foods with nutritionally depleted foods, through accidents with leaks or mishandling of the radiation sources used and through the environmental damage resulting from reactor operation or spent fuel reprocessing necessary to produce the required isotopes for food irradiation. The food irradiation market is potentially enormous, requiring a large number of facilities and isotopes, some, such as caesium-137, would come from the production of nuclear weapons. Evidence of the presence of carcinogenic or mutagenic activity in irradiated foods is discussed. Although the US Federal Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a food irradiation programme it would actually be against the FDA's legal obligation which is to protect the health and safety of the American people. (UK)

225

Safer food means food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this article the author presents the sanitary advantages that are brought by food irradiation. OMS experts state that this technique is safe and harmless for any average global dose between 10 KGy and 100 KGy. Whenever a seminar is held on the topic, it is always concluded that food irradiation should be promoted and favoured. In France food irradiation is authorized for some kinds of products and exceptionally above a 10 KGy dose. Historically food irradiation has been hampered in its development by its classification by American Authorities as food additives in 1958 (Delanay clause). The author draws a parallel between food irradiation and pasteurization or food deep-freezing in their beginnings. (A.C.)

226

Postburn contractures of the hand.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several functionally limiting sequelae can follow deep thermal injury to the hand. Despite appropriate initial management, contractures are common. Whereas acute burn care is often managed by multidisciplinary, specialized burn units, postburn contractures may be referred to hand surgeons, who should be familiar with the patterns of burn contracture and nonsurgical and operative options to improve function and expected outcomes. The most common and functionally limiting sequelae are contractures of the webspace, hand, and digits. Webspace contractures and postburn syndactyly are managed with scar excision and local soft tissue rearrangement or skin grafting. The burn claw hand presents as extension contracture of the metacarpophalangeal joints and flexion contractures of the proximal interphalangeal joints. The mainstays of management of these contractures include complete surgical excision of scar tissue and resurfacing of the resultant soft tissue defect, most commonly with full-thickness skin grafts. If scar contracture release results in major exposure of the tendons or joints, distant tissue transfer may be required. Early motion and rehabilitative modalities are essential to prevent initial contracture formation and recontracture after surgical release. PMID:25154575

Fufa, Duretti T; Chuang, Shiow-Shuh; Yang, Jui-Yung

2014-09-01

227

Hands-On Nuclear Physics  

Science.gov (United States)

Nuclear science is an important topic in terms of its application to power generation, medical diagnostics and treatment, and national defense. Unfortunately, the subatomic domain is far removed from daily experience, and few learning aids are available to teachers. What follows describes a low-tech, hands-on method to teach important concepts in…

Whittaker, Jeff

2013-01-01

228

Hand-held medical robots.  

Science.gov (United States)

Medical robots have evolved from autonomous systems to tele-operated platforms and mechanically-grounded, cooperatively-controlled robots. Whilst these approaches have seen both commercial and clinical success, uptake of these robots remains moderate because of their high cost, large physical footprint and long setup times. More recently, researchers have moved toward developing hand-held robots that are completely ungrounded and manipulated by surgeons in free space, in a similar manner to how conventional instruments are handled. These devices provide specific functions that assist the surgeon in accomplishing tasks that are otherwise challenging with manual manipulation. Hand-held robots have the advantages of being compact and easily integrated into the normal surgical workflow since there is typically little or no setup time. Hand-held devices can also have a significantly reduced cost to healthcare providers as they do not necessitate the complex, multi degree-of-freedom linkages that grounded robots require. However, the development of such devices is faced with many technical challenges, including miniaturization, cost and sterility, control stability, inertial and gravity compensation and robust instrument tracking. This review presents the emerging technical trends in hand-held medical robots and future development opportunities for promoting their wider clinical uptake. PMID:24927713

Payne, Christopher J; Yang, Guang-Zhong

2014-08-01

229

Unusual case of cleft hand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present a case of a six-year-old male child with cleft hand deformity involving the dominant right hand. It was a rare case of atypical cleft hand with no missing tissue but cleft extending to metacarpal level and associated hypoplasia of thumb and index finger. As per Manske?s classification of cleft hand our patient belongs to the Class III variety. There was associated malposition of the index finger with absence of first web space and syndactly of thumb and index finger at the metacarpal level. A modified Snow-Littler procedure was planned. The surgical plan involved closure of cleft, release of thumb and index finger syndactly and reconstruction of the first web space. The functional outcome was good considering hypoplasia of the index finger and thumb. Depending upon the function of the thumb tendon transfers can be planned to augment thumb function at a later date along with correction of rotational deformities of the index and middle finger.

Sahasrabudhe Parag

2007-01-01

230

Arthritis of the hand - Rheumatoid  

Science.gov (United States)

... with rheumatoid arthritis have wrist and hand problems. CAUSES Rheumatoid arthritis affects the cells that lubricate and line joints. ... bones in the wrist In addition, patients with rheumatoid arthritis often have ... of the tendons causes pressure on the adjacent nerve. They may make ...

231

Pyoderma gangrenosum of the hand.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pyoderma gangrenosum is a rare, painful, ulcerative neutrophilic dermatosis that is not usually seen on the hands. Pyoderma gangrenosum is a diagnosis of exclusion, as there are no specific laboratory or histopathologic findings to confirm the diagnosis. Heightened awareness and early recognition are needed to decrease morbidity in these patients. PMID:24440862

Schotanus, Maaike; van Hout, Naomi; Vos, Dagmar

2014-02-01

232

Why Am I Left-Handed?  

Science.gov (United States)

... does since most hitters are right-handed. In basketball and other sports, a left-handed player can ... change in strategy. For instance, a left-handed basketball player will dribble with his or her left ...

233

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Food irradiation has become a matter of topical interest also in the Federal Republic of Germany following applications for exemptions concerning irradiation tests of spices. After risks to human health by irradiation doses up to a level sufficient for product pasteurization were excluded, irradiation now offers a method suitable primarily for the disinfestation of fruit and decontamination of frozen and dried food. Codex Alimentarius standards which refer also to supervision and dosimetry have been established; they should be adopted as national law. However, in the majority of cases where individual countries including EC member-countries so far permitted food irradiation, these standards were not yet used. Approved irradiation technique for industrial use is available. Several industrial food irradiation plants, partly working also on a contractual basis, are already in operation in various countries. Consumer response still is largely unknown; since irradiated food is labelled, consumption of irradiated food will be decided upon by consumers. (orig.)

234

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Food preservation by irradiation is one part of Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace program that is enjoying renewed interest. Classified as a food additive by the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1958 instead of a processing technique, irradiation lost public acceptance. Experiments have not been done to prove that there are no health hazards from gamma radiation, but there are new pressures to get Food and Drug Administration approval for testing in order to make commercial use of some radioactive wastes. Irradiation causes chemical reactions and nutritional changes, including the destruction of several vitamins, as well as the production of radiolytic products not normally found in food that could have adverse effects. The author concludes that, lacking epidemiological evidence, willing buyers should be able to purchase irradiated food as long as it is properly labeled

235

Food Trends.  

Science.gov (United States)

An overall perspective on trends in food consumption is presented. Nutrition awareness is at an all-time high; consumption is influenced by changes in disposable income, availability of convenience foods, smaller household size, and an increasing proportion of ethnic minorities in the population. (18 references) (LB)

Schwenk, Nancy E.

1991-01-01

236

Food Allergy  

Science.gov (United States)

... of links for more information about food allergy Javascript Error Your browser JavaScript is turned off causing certain features of the ... incorrectly. Please visit your browser settings and turn JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Food ...

237

ISO& food  

food standards create confidence in the products we eat and drink ...ISO International Standards create confidence in the products we eat or drink by ensuring the world uses ...TC 54) – Focuses on essential oils used in food products, perfumes, cosmetics, phytotherapy, aromatherapy, and

238

Food preservation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pamphlet contains short descriptions of many methods of preserving foods with emphasis on irradiation and its possible consequences. The views of the Federation of Danish Industries with regard to questions considered worthy of debate in relation to irradiation of food are presented. Information is directed at the general danish public. (AB)

239

Food Poisoning  

Science.gov (United States)

... or brown) is also often a sign that food has spoiled. If you're going to eat leftovers, ask a grown-up for help heating them up. By heating them, you can kill bacteria that grew while it was in the fridge. Check the date. Lots of packaged foods have expiration dates or "sell by" (which means ...

240

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Processing of food with low levels of radiation has the potential to contribute to reducing both spoilage of food during storage - a particular problem in developing countries - and the high incidence of food-borne disease currently seen in all countries. Approval has been granted for the treatment of more than 30 products with radiation in over 30 countries but, in general, governments have been slow to authorize the use of this new technique. One reason for this slowness is a lack of understanding of what food irradiation entails. This book aims to increase understanding by providing information on the process of food irradiation in simple, non-technical language. It describes the effects that irradiation has on food, and the plant and equipment that are necessary to carry it out safely. The legislation and control mechanisms required to ensure the safety of food irradiation facilities are also discussed. Education is seen as the key to gaining the confidence of the consumers in the safety of irradiated food, and to promoting understanding of the benefits that irradiation can provide. (orig.) With 4 figs., 1 tab

 
 
 
 
241

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and The World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19 MeV, 1 kW) and industrial unit Electronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for irradiation for; spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables. (author)

242

Holiday Food Safety  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Food Safety Success Kit Holiday Food Safety Video Ready-to-Cook Foods Additional Information Holiday Food Safety ... promptly Holiday Food Safety Video (English) (en español) Ready-to-Cook Foods: Follow Directions to Keep Your ...

243

[Management of chronic hand eczema].  

Science.gov (United States)

The management of hand eczema, more readily called chronic hand dermatitis, is complex. This heaviness is related not only to the disease itself by its different clinical forms but also the multiplicity and diversity of etiological factors, triggering / maintaining or aggravating factors. The repeated therapeutic failures are ransom of incorrect information about the disease and its environment, a lack of clarity in the prescription and duration of treatment in general too short. The reference treatment is high potency topical steroids with or without occlusion for 4-8 weeks followed by alitretinoin 30 mg / day for at least 3-6 months with a monthly lipid and liver monitoring and mandatory monthly pregnancy test in women of childbearing. Associated measures and patient education are the cornerstones of successful treatment. Other alternative treatments such as phototherapy, methotrexate, cyclosporin, mycophenolate mofetil etc. can be considered in case of resistance or for clearing followed by topical treatments. PMID:24953623

Lahfa, M

2014-06-01

244

Management of chronic hand eczema.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hand eczema (HE) is one of the most frequent skin diseases and has often a chronically relapsing course with a poor prognosis resulting in a high social and economic impact for the individual and the society. In this article, we highlight the results of an expert workshop on the 'management of severe chronic hand eczema' with the focus on the epidemiology, the burden of severe HE, its classification and diagnostic procedures, and the current status of treatment options according to an evidence-based approach (randomized controlled clinical trials, RCTs). We conclude that despite the abundance of topical and systemic treatment options, disease management in patients with severe chronic HE is frequently inadequate. There is a strong need for RCTs of existing and new treatment options based on clearly diagnosed subtypes of HE and its severity. PMID:17868211

Diepgen, Thomas L; Agner, Tove; Aberer, Werner; Berth-Jones, John; Cambazard, Frédéric; Elsner, Peter; McFadden, John; Coenraads, Pieter Jan

2007-10-01

245

Tendon injuries of the hand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tendon injuries are the second most common injuries of the hand and therefore an important topic in trauma and orthopedic patients. Most injuries are open injuries to the flexor or extensor tendons, but less frequent injuries, e.g., damage to the functional system tendon sheath and pulley or dull avulsions, also need to be considered. After clinical examination, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging have proved to be important diagnostic tools. Tendon injuries mostly require surgical repa...

Volker Schöffl; Andreas Heid; Xfc Pper, Thomas K.

2012-01-01

246

Hand injuries in competition climbers.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

All 67 of the competitors at the first British Open climbing competition were examined for signs of previous or present hand injury. The most important clinical findings were that 26 per cent of the climbers had signs of previous injury to the A2 pulley of the ring finger, and that fixed flexion deformity of the proximal interphalangeal joints of the fingers was present in 24 per cent.

Bollen, S. R.; Gunson, C. K.

1990-01-01

247

[Current management of hand leprosy].  

Science.gov (United States)

Leprosy, a chronic infectious disease caused by mycobacterium leprae affects an estimated 700,000 persons each year. Clinically, leprosy can be categorized as paucibacillary or multibacillary disease. Leprosy is important largely because of the deformities, disabilities and handicap it causes in a proportion of those affected by the disease. There are surgical procedures and techniques to correct or limit the deterioration of these conditions. In the past these surgical procedures were only performed in special institutions for treating leprosy and their complications. However, with the widespread use of multidrug therapy (PCT) and the consequent reduction in the prevalence of leprosy, there is progressive integration of the care of people affected by leprosy into the general health services. Surgery, as in intervention in the management of leprosy and its complications is used in patients who are already under anti-leprosy treatment, or after the have completed it satisfactorily. Therefore, preventive surgery like nerve decompression and corrective surgery should not be practiced in places where there is no leprosy program. This paper describes the nerve decompression for preventing paralytic deformities. Procedures for correction of claw deformity of finger and thumb resulting from ulnar or combined ulnar and median nerve paralysis, so commonly seen in leprosy-affected persons are given separately. In order to carry out these procedures, many involving tendon transfers with or without tendon grafting, the surgeon has to be well versed in the structural and functional anatomy of the hand and should training in hand surgery. Furthermore, supportive physiotherapy and if possible, occupational therapy services for pre and post-operative management of the hand should be available. If the corrective procedures are carried out in the absence of any of these requirements, the venture is bound to result in failure, worsen the hand disability as well as make any subsequent correction very much more difficult. PMID:15071961

Chaise, F

2004-02-01

248

Food & Community  

Science.gov (United States)

With an increased concern over the nature of food production across the globe, it would make sense that a number of organizations and foundations would see fit to address these conditions through any number of crucial initiatives. Launched in 2000, Food & Society is one such initiative. Created by the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, the purpose of the initiative is âÂÂto support the creation and expansion of community-based food systems that are locally owned and controlled, environmentally sound, and health promoting.â On their homepage, visitors can sign up to receive news updates and look through a calendar of upcoming events. Another highlight of the homepage is the âÂÂFood in the NewsâÂÂ, which features the latest information on such topics as farmersâ markets and recent reports, such as âÂÂPerceptions of the U.S. Food System: What and How Americans Think About Their FoodâÂÂ.

2005-01-01

249

The hands of the projectionist.  

Science.gov (United States)

This essay considers the work of projection and the hand of the projectionist as important components of the social space of the cinema as it comes into being in the nineteenth century and the early decades of the twentieth. I bring the concept ofMaurice Merleau-Ponty on the place of the body as an entity that applies itself to the world "like a hand to an instrument" into a discussion of the pre-cinematic projector as an instrument that we can interpret as evidence of the experience of the work of the projectionist in the spirit of film theory and media archaeology, moving work on instrumentation in a different direction from the analysis of the work of the black box in laboratory studies. Projection is described as a psychological as well as a mechanical process. It is suggested that we interpret the projector not simply in its activity as it projects films, but in its movement from site to site and in the workings of the hand of its operator behind the scenes. This account suggests a different perspective on the cinematic turn of the nineteenth century, a concept typically approached through the study of the image, the look, the camera, and the screen. PMID:21995224

Cartwright, Lisa

2011-09-01

250

A hand and foot monitor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The laboratory design of hand and foot monitor is discussed. The main purpose of which is to detect the presence of radioactive contamination on hand and foot. It is designed as a stationary apparatus and functions as an alarm system in cases where the maximum permissible concentration of radioactivity on the surface of foot and hand is exceeded. The maximum permissible concentration of radioactivity on term ''exposure'' has been fixed 0.35 mR/Hr. Further details of the apparatus are as follow: A contamination level of 0.35 mR/hr and above is marked by a red pilot lamp flash, whereas below it, a green one prevails. To detect the presence of radiation a G.M. tube is used which operates in the range between 10-4-IR/hr. A yellow pilot lamp indicates the stand by condition. A circuit employing a LDR is used to regulate the stand by and the operating condition. Relevant to the design and the detector used, the type of radiation detected comes from Gamma emitting sources. (author)

251

Future Perspectives for Hand Transplant in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hand transplant program is a communion of physicians and researchers during the current de?cade. 72 hands and digits were transplanted in 53 patients over the past 13 years. Unlike a solid organ transplant, hand transplantation involves various tissues, so it is called “composite tissue allotransplantation.” This article discusses the plans for performing the first hand transplant in Iran.

M. J. Fatemi

2011-10-01

252

Food allergy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Food allergy is defined as an adverse immunologic response to a dietary protein. Food-related reactions are associated with a broad array of signs and symptoms that may involve many bodily systems including the skin, gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, and cardiovascular system. Food allergy is a leading cause of anaphylaxis and, therefore, referral to an allergist for appropriate and timely diagnosis and treatment is imperative. Diagnosis involves a careful history and diagnostic tests, such as skin prick testing, serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE testing and, if indicated, oral food challenges. Once the diagnosis of food allergy is confirmed, strict elimination of the offending food allergen from the diet is generally necessary. For patients with significant systemic symptoms, the treatment of choice is epinephrine administered by intramuscular injection into the lateral thigh. Although most children “outgrow” allergies to milk, egg, soy and wheat, allergies to peanut, tree nuts, fish and shellfish are often lifelong. This article provides an overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management and prognosis of patients with food allergy.

Waserman Susan

2011-11-01

253

Development of Food Retailing and Factors Affecting the Competition in Food Retailing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Retailing is a dynamic and complex sector that offers wide range of products and services to consumers. This sector which includes different types of enterprises, has an important position within the supply chain. Food retailing has also a big potential within retailing sector. On the other hand, an intensive competition exists in food retailing. Taking place in the competitive market, food retailers attempt to gain a competitive advantage against their rivals with their geographic location,...

Serkan Kilic; Gokhan Senol

2010-01-01

254

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review of recent developments in the field of wholesomeness research and legal clearances is presented. The work of the International Project in the Field of Food Irradiation, the decisions of the 1976 meeting of the FAO/IAEA/WHO Joint Expert Committee on Food Irradiation, and the steps taken by the Codex Alimentarius Commission are mentioned in some detail. On the basis of the developments which have taken place at the international level it is concluded that the chances of world-wide commercial application of food irradiation have improved considerably since this topic was reviewed at the First International Meeting on Radiation Processing. (author)

255

Irradiated foods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This special edition of 'Food Manufacture' presents papers on the following aspects of the use of irradiation in the food industry:- 1) an outline view of current technology and its potential. 2) Safety and wholesomeness of irradiated and non-irradiated foods. 3) A review of the known effects of irradiation on packaging. 4) The problems of regulating the use of irradiation and consumer protection against abuse. 5) The detection problem - current procedures. 6) Description of the Gammaster BV plant in Holland. 7) World outline review. 8) Current and future commercial activities in Europe. (U.K.)

256

Prolonged disengagement from distractors near the hands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Because items near our hands are often more important than items far from our hands, the brain processes visual items near our hands differently than items far from our hands. Multiple experiments have attributed this processing difference to spatial attention, but the exact mechanism behind how spatial attention near our hands changes is still under investigation. The current experiments sought to differentiate between two of the proposed mechanisms: a prioritization of the space near the hands and a prolonged disengagement of spatial attention near the hands. To differentiate between these two accounts, we used the additional singleton paradigm in which observers searched for a shape singleton among homogenously shaped distractors. On half the trials, one of the distractors was a different color. Both the prioritization and disengagement accounts predict differently colored distractors near the hands will slow target responses more than differently colored distractors far from the hands, but the prioritization account also predicts faster responses to targets near the hands than far from the hands. The disengagement account does not make this prediction, because attention does not need to be disengaged when the target appears near the hand. We found support for the disengagement account: Salient distractors near the hands slowed responses more than those far from the hands, yet observers did not respond faster to targets near the hands.

DanielBVatterott

2013-08-01

257

Peptides and food intake.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food intake, whereas the other subpopulation coexpresses pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript that inhibits food intake. AgRP antagonizes the effects of the POMC product, ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH). Both populations project to areas important in the regulation of food intake, including the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, which also receives important inputs from other hypothalamic nuclei. PMID:24795698

Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

2014-01-01

258

Hand protection from ultraviolet exposure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Full text of publication follows: A number of industrial applications and public services involve exposure to ultraviolet radiation (U.V.R.) from a variety of lamps and lasers, for example, in forensic examination, biological trans-illuminators, dentistry, laser material processing, microelectronics, etc. The proposed European Union Directive on Optical Radiation would place specific requirements on employers to provide adequate safety measures to reduce exposure to U.V.R., including gloves for hand protection. The selection of gloves should be based on a risk assessment and on the performance characteristics of the gloves for the task. However, current International and national standards do not describe evaluation procedures of disposable gloves for hand protection against non-ionising radiation. A methodology for assessment of the UV protection level for disposable gloves and a simple measurement protocol are proposed, based on a common approach with UV protection by clothing and sunscreens. Glove Ultraviolet Protection Factor is defined as a time-scale increase in exposure permitted for the hand protected by a glove with respect to an unprotected hand. However, the wide variety of U.V.R. sources and the real-life conditions of glove use (stretching and wetting the surface by liquids) bring substantial challenges to the assessment method. Our study of {approx} 50 samples of widely used disposable gloves made of different materials (nitrile, vinyl, latex and chloroprene) showed that for all tested gloves a change in U.V.R. attenuation with stretching is characteristic for the type of glove material and can be included as a scaling factor in the definition of U.V.R. protection. Glove material has a bigger effect on U.V.R. protection level than variations in the glove thickness or its colour. The following approaches are suggested to overcome the problem of variable U.V.R. sources: - Worst case scenario minimal protection level, most restrictive case - Application specific UV protection factor - Lamp-type specific protection factor, for group of U.V.R. sources with similar spectral characteristics. Examples of assessment of the 'worst case scenario' are compared with the protection level against a number of the sources, together with guidance on a simplified evaluation protocol. An application specific assessment, illustrated for 'Smart Water' forensic examinations and biological trans-illuminators, demonstrates that some gloves provide inadequate protection against occupational ultraviolet exposure. (authors)

Khazova, M.; O' Hagan, J.B. [Health Protection Agency, Radiation Protection Division, Chilton, Did cot (United Kingdom)

2006-07-01

259

Hand protection from ultraviolet exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text of publication follows: A number of industrial applications and public services involve exposure to ultraviolet radiation (U.V.R.) from a variety of lamps and lasers, for example, in forensic examination, biological trans-illuminators, dentistry, laser material processing, microelectronics, etc. The proposed European Union Directive on Optical Radiation would place specific requirements on employers to provide adequate safety measures to reduce exposure to U.V.R., including gloves for hand protection. The selection of gloves should be based on a risk assessment and on the performance characteristics of the gloves for the task. However, current International and national standards do not describe evaluation procedures of disposable gloves for hand protection against non-ionising radiation. A methodology for assessment of the UV protection level for disposable gloves and a simple measurement protocol are proposed, based on a common approach with UV protection by clothing and sunscreens. Glove Ultraviolet Protection Factor is defined as a time-scale increase in exposure permitted for the hand protected by a glove with respect to an unprotected hand. However, the wide variety of U.V.R. sources and the real-life conditions of glove use (stretching and wetting the surface by liquids) bring substantial challenges to the assessment method. Our study of ? 50 samples of widely used disposable gloves made of different materials (nitrile, vinyl, latex and chloroprene) (nitrile, vinyl, latex and chloroprene) showed that for all tested gloves a change in U.V.R. attenuation with stretching is characteristic for the type of glove material and can be included as a scaling factor in the definition of U.V.R. protection. Glove material has a bigger effect on U.V.R. protection level than variations in the glove thickness or its colour. The following approaches are suggested to overcome the problem of variable U.V.R. sources: - Worst case scenario minimal protection level, most restrictive case - Application specific UV protection factor - Lamp-type specific protection factor, for group of U.V.R. sources with similar spectral characteristics. Examples of assessment of the 'worst case scenario' are compared with the protection level against a number of the sources, together with guidance on a simplified evaluation protocol. An application specific assessment, illustrated for 'Smart Water' forensic examinations and biological trans-illuminators, demonstrates that some gloves provide inadequate protection against occupational ultraviolet exposure. (authors)

260

Is It Food Allergy or Food Intolerance?  

Science.gov (United States)

... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Food Allergy Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Is it Food Allergy or Food Intolerance? Food allergy is sometimes ...

 
 
 
 
261

Food Allergy  

Science.gov (United States)

... this page Get email updates Order publications Download eBook versions of the Food Allergy Guidelines Executive Summary ... Allergy See all... Research NIAID Role Funded Research Programs Laboratory of Allergic Diseases Expert Panels and Workshops ...

262

Food processing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper discusses the processes involved in food preparation for consumption and technological processing that could be used to reduce contamination of foodstuffs. The food processing transfer parameters - food processing retention factor, processing efficiency and the food processing factor - are defined and their relationships discussed. Data are presented for vegetables, fruit, cereals, dairy products, meat (mammals, birds and fish-edible fraction), fungi, seafoods and drinks. Processing procedures considered includes: simple washing and boiling for fruit, vegetables and mushrooms, boiling and milling for cereals, cooking and curing for meats, butter and cheese productions for dairy products and washing and cooking for seafoods. Storage times for foodstuffs have also been considered. A wide range of chemical elements are considered, with the majority of data presented caesium, strontium and iodine, stable element databases have been reviewed and relevant data used to extend the data set. A discussion of application of the data is presented with consideration of areas where cautions is needed. (author)

263

"Convenience Food."  

Science.gov (United States)

Defines the meaning of the American expression "convenience food," quoting definitions given by dictionaries and specialized publications. Discusses the problem of finding the exact equivalent of this expression in French, and recommends some acceptable translations. (MES)

Lemieux, Colette

1980-01-01

264

Food safety.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food can never be entirely safe. Food safety is threatened by numerous pathogens that cause a variety of foodborne diseases, algal toxins that cause mostly acute disease, and fungal toxins that may be acutely toxic but may also have chronic sequelae, such as teratogenic, immunotoxic, nephrotoxic, and estrogenic effects. Perhaps more worrisome, the industrial activities of the last century and more have resulted in massive increases in our exposure to toxic metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic, which now are present in the entire food chain and exhibit various toxicities. Industrial processes also released chemicals that, although banned a long time ago, persist in the environment and contaminate our food. These include organochlorine compounds, such as 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene) (DDT), other pesticides, dioxins, and dioxin-like compounds. DDT and its breakdown product dichlorophenyl dichloroethylene affect the developing male and female reproductive organs. In addition, there is increasing evidence that they exhibit neurodevelopmental toxicities in human infants and children. They share this characteristic with the dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Other food contaminants can arise from the treatment of animals with veterinary drugs or the spraying of food crops, which may leave residues. Among the pesticides applied to food crops, the organophosphates have been the focus of much regulatory attention because there is growing evidence that they, too, affect the developing brain. Numerous chemical contaminants are formed during the processing and cooking of foods. Many of them are known or suspected carcinogens. Other food contaminants leach from the packaging or storage containers. Examples that have garnered increasing attention in recent years are phthalates, which have been shown to induce malformations in the male reproductive system in laboratory animals, and bisphenol A, which negatively affects the development of the central nervous system and the male reproductive organs. Genetically modified foods present new challenges to regulatory agencies around the world because consumer fears that the possible health risks of these foods have not been allayed. An emerging threat to food safety possibly comes from the increasing use of nanomaterials, which are already used in packaging materials, even though their toxicity remains largely unexplored. Numerous scientific groups have underscored the importance of addressing this issue and developing the necessary tools for doing so. Governmental agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration and other agencies in the USA and their counterparts in other nations have the increasingly difficult task of monitoring the food supply for these chemicals and determining the human health risks associated with exposure to these substances. The approach taken until recently focused on one chemical at a time and one exposure route (oral, inhalational, dermal) at a time. It is increasingly recognized, however, that many of the numerous chemicals we are exposed to everyday are ubiquitous, resulting in exposure from food, water, air, dust, and soil. In addition, many of these chemicals act on the same target tissue by similar mechanisms. "Mixture toxicology" is a rapidly growing science that addresses the complex interactions between chemicals and investigates the effects of cumulative exposure to such "common mechanism groups" of chemicals. It is to be hoped that this results in a deeper understanding of the risks we face from multiple concurrent exposures and makes our food supply safer. PMID:19911313

Borchers, Andrea; Teuber, Suzanne S; Keen, Carl L; Gershwin, M Eric

2010-10-01

265

Food consumption  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Patterns of food consumption are of considerable interest to both nutritionists and anthropologists. Nutritionists may perceive that either qualitative or quantitative dietary inadequacies may lead to nutritional problems in the individual, household or community. Ecologically orientated anthropologists seek to explain patterns of consumption using adaptive models which may employ both biological and cultural factors. Of common concern to both is the way in which food is distributed within a ...

Ulijaszek, S. J.; Strickland, S. S.

1993-01-01

266

Food neophobia and its relation with olfaction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Food neophobia, that is the reluctance to try novel foods, is an attitude that dramatically affects human feeding behavior in many different aspects among which food preferences and food choices appear to be the most thoroughly considered. This attitude has an important evolutionary meaning since it protects the individual from ingesting potentially dangerous substances. On the other hand, it fosters an avoidance behavior that can extend even toward useful food elements. A strong link exists between food neophobia and both the variety in one person’s diet and previous exposures to different foods. In this review, the more recent findings about food neophobia will be concisely described. Given the suggested connection between the exposure to different foods and food neophobia, this review will focus on the relation between this attitude and human chemosensory abilities. Olfaction, in particular, is a sensory modality that has a central role in flavor perception and in food preference acquisition. Therefore, the latest evidences about its relation with food neophobia will be discussed along with the applied and cognitive implications.

M. LuisaDemattè

2014-02-01

267

Food neophobia and its relation with olfaction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food neophobia, that is the reluctance to try novel foods, is an attitude that dramatically affects human feeding behavior in many different aspects among which food preferences and food choices appear to be the most thoroughly considered. This attitude has an important evolutionary meaning since it protects the individual from ingesting potentially dangerous substances. On the other hand, it fosters an avoidance behavior that can extend even toward useful food elements. A strong link exists between food neophobia and both the variety in one person's diet and previous exposures to different foods. In this review, the more recent findings about food neophobia will be concisely described. Given the suggested connection between the exposure to different foods and food neophobia, this review will focus on the relation between this attitude and human chemosensory abilities. Olfaction, in particular, is a sensory modality that has a central role in flavor perception and in food preference acquisition. Therefore, the latest evidences about its relation with food neophobia will be discussed along with the applied and cognitive implications. PMID:24596565

Demattè, M Luisa; Endrizzi, Isabella; Gasperi, Flavia

2014-01-01

268

Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

Miyahara, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Akiko; Kamimura, Tomomi; Nagasawa, Taeko [Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Allied Health Sciences; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Establishment

2003-06-01

269

Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

270

Gastrointestinal food allergy in infants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food allergies are classified into three types, "IgE-mediated," "combined IgE- and cell-mediated" and "cell-mediated/non-IgE-mediated," depending on the involvement of IgE in their pathogenesis. Patients who develop predominantly cutaneous and/or respiratory symptoms belong to the IgE-mediated food allergy type. On the other hand, patients with gastrointestinal food allergy (GI allergy) usually develop gastrointestinal symptoms several hours after ingestion of offending foods; they belong to the cell-mediated/non-IgE-mediated or combined IgE- and cell-mediated food allergy types. GI allergies are also classified into a number of different clinical entities: food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES), food protein-induced proctocolitis (FPIP), food protein-induced enteropathy (Enteropathy) and eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGID). In the case of IgE-mediated food allergy, the diagnostic approaches and pathogenic mechanisms are well characterized. In contrast, the diagnostic approaches and pathogenic mechanisms of GI allergy remain mostly unclear. In this review, we summarized each type of GI allergy in regard to its historical background and updated clinical features, offending foods, etiology, diagnosis, examinations, treatment and pathogenesis. There are still many problems, especially in regard to the diagnostic approaches for GI allergy, that are closely associated with the definition of each disease. In addition, there are a number of unresolved issues regarding the pathogenic mechanisms of GI allergy that need further study and elucidation. Therefore, we discussed some of the diagnostic and research issues for GI allergy that need further investigation. PMID:23974876

Morita, Hideaki; Nomura, Ichiro; Matsuda, Akio; Saito, Hirohisa; Matsumoto, Kenji

2013-09-01

271

Food Engineering within Sciences of Food  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to clarify the identity of food engineering in sciences of food. A short historical description of the evolution of the branch in the Anglo Saxon and the Continental educational systems is given. Furthermore, the distinction of basic definitions such as food science, food science and technology, food technology, and food engineering is made. Finally, the objectives of food engineering within the branch of sciences of food are described.

Athanasios Kostaropoulos

2012-10-01

272

Snowblower injuries to the hand.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to describe the nature and incidence of hand injuries caused by snowblowers, as well as the accident conditions and accident prevention. We conducted a retrospective evaluation over ten consecutive winters. Nine patients were included. All were men with an average age of 49.7 years (17-71). The accidents occurred at home in seven out of nine patients. The machine was running in 50% of the injury events. In most cases, the injuries occurred when the patient tried to unclog snow from the lateral discharge chute. Only four out of the nine patients had read the instructions or received instructions from the salesperson. The dominant hand was injured in 7 out of 9 patients. An average of 2.7 fingers were injured. The longest fingers were most commonly injured: 8 middle fingers, 7 ring fingers, 4 little fingers, 2 indexes and 1 thumb. All the fractures were open. Three patients were operated on several times. In 7 out of 9 cases, the patients had sequelae such as amputation. The mean time off work was 11.4 weeks (3-24). All the patients were experienced snowblower users (9 years and 57th use on average). Snowblower accidents are very mutilating. Prevention must include protected access to blades and better verbal and written safety warnings. PMID:24996696

Jardin, E; Uhring, J; Rey, P-B; Ferrier, M; Obert, L

2014-09-01

273

Factitious Lymphedema of the Hand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To report the case of a 39- year old unmarried female with factitious edema of the right hand two weeks after being struck by her brother and following self injury of the right arm. Method: A 39-year old unmarried female with severe edema of the right hand and forearm diagnosed as factitious lymphedema was admitted to Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital. After hospitalization, with elevation of affected limb, the edema had lessened. Thereafter, she was observed at ward rounds with a cloth bandage wrapped around her arm. The edema had recurred. Physical Examination as well as right upper extremity X ray was normal. In mental state examination, patient's mood was dysphonic, rather anxious, and denied tourniquet application; otherwise no prominent psychiatric symptoms were detected. Patient underwent psychotherapy and 20 my fluoxetetine on daily basis was administered. Results: Patient's symptoms relieved within eight weeks and discharged while accepted to adjust herself with the situations. Conclusion: Factitious etiology may be presuming in any patient with unilateral limb lymphedema when venous or lymphatic Pathology were missing. The patient may be suffering from emotional conflicts.

S. Sina Ahmadi Abhari

2006-08-01

274

Hand, foot and mouth disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is an acute viral illness with a distinct clinical presentation of oral and characteristic distal extremity lesions. Knowledge of this is important for the dentists as the oral lesions are the first clinical signs and sometimes may be the only sign because the condition occasionally may regress even before the lesions appear on the extremities. This case describes a 5-year-old boy in whom low-grade fever of 38.7°C and oral lesions were the initial manifestations. Proper diagnosis was established later based on the typical location of the initial intraoral ulcers on the soft palate followed by cutaneous lesions on the hands and feet with vesicle formation surrounded by an erythematous halo. The recognition of HFMD is important for both pediatricians and pedodontists as oral manifestations are the first signs and may mimic many other conditions like acute herpetic gingivostomstomatitis, apthous stomatitis, chickenpox, erythema multiformae and misdiagnosis may involve an inappropriate prescription of medication. PMID:21911958

Muppa, Radhika; Bhupatiraju, Prameela; Duddu, Mahesh; Dandempally, Arthi

2011-01-01

275

Technology and Engineering Education Students' Perceptions of Hands-On and Hands-Off Activities  

Science.gov (United States)

Technology and engineering education students responded to a survey regarding hands-on and hands-off activities. First, the students listed hands-on and hands-off activities and what characterized the two types of activities. Activities such as building or assembling something as well as working manually with tools were viewed as hands-on. Passive…

Sianez, David M.; Fugere, Madeleine A.; Lennon, Carter A.

2010-01-01

276

Holiday Food Safety  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... holidays happy. On this page: Holiday Food Safety Success Kit Holiday Food Safety Video Ready-to-Cook Foods Additional Information Holiday Food Safety Success Kit The Holiday Food Safety Success Kit , developed ...

277

Irradiation and Food Safety  

Science.gov (United States)

... other foods. COOK. Cook food to the right temperature. CHILL. Refrigerate food promptly. For more information on food irradiation and other food safety issues, contact USDA's Meat and Poultry Hotline at 1-888-MPHotline (1- ...

278

Food and Your Bones  

Science.gov (United States)

... Home » Food and Your Bones Food and Your Bones The food that you eat can affect your ... by taking multivitamins or supplements . Good-for-Your-Bones Foods Food Nutrient Dairy products such as low- ...

279

Tendon injuries of the hand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tendon injuries are the second most common injuries of the hand and therefore an important topic in trauma and orthopedic patients. Most injuries are open injuries to the flexor or extensor tendons, but less frequent injuries, e.g., damage to the functional system tendon sheath and pulley or dull avulsions, also need to be considered. After clinical examination, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging have proved to be important diagnostic tools. Tendon injuries mostly require surgical repair, dull avulsions of the distal phalanges extensor tendon can receive conservative therapy. Injuries of the flexor tendon sheath or single pulley injuries are treated conservatively and multiple pulley injuries receive surgical repair. In the postoperative course of flexor tendon injuries, the principle of early passive movement is important to trigger an “intrinsic” tendon healing to guarantee a good outcome. Many substances were evaluated to see if they improved tendon healing; however, little evidence was found. Nevertheless, hyaluronic acid may improve intrinsic tendon healing.

Volker Schöffl

2012-01-01

280

[Ambulatory surgery of the hand].  

Science.gov (United States)

After performing ambulatory surgery in hospital, then in a private clinic, without specifically distinguishing this activity, we have created an independent Hand Surgery Center in 1980. This unit was recognized by the Social Security, with whom we have signed an agreement. This 20-year experience of ambulatory surgery has enabled us to outline its advantages and disadvantages, both for the patient and for the medical staff and the health care system. Savings on medical costs cannot be the aim of this practice, which is justified only if the patient's comfort is improved while at the same time guaranteeing the quality of care. It will only be developed harmoniously if precise "specifications" are drawn up to avoid errors and mistakes that may lead to an unjustified summary "execution". We have continued the figure-based study of which we had presented the preliminary results to the Academy of Surgery as early as 1984. PMID:2129969

Foucher, G; Meurice, M; Haberer, J P

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

29 CFR 1915.133 - Hand tools.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand tools. 1915.133 Section 1915.133 Labor...AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Tools and Related Equipment § 1915.133 Hand tools. The provisions of this section...

2010-07-01

282

A Squeeze of the Hand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available My colleague Andy Fitch and I recorded forty-five-minute dialogues for thirty straight days around New York City. Half these talks took place at a Union Square health-food store that we call “W.F.” Other locations included MoMA, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Metropolitan Opera House, Central Park, Prospect Park, and a Tribeca parking garage. What follows is our twentieth conversation. Here sickness, emptiness, a train delay, and an argument seem to prefigure disaster and the project’s sudden end. But this disaster—much like the two-character Japanese word for “crisis”: the first one meaning “danger,” the second, “opportunity”—offers clarities perhaps best expressed by a Japanese proverb:Luck turnsWait

Jon Cotner

2012-05-01

283

Hand Shape Affects Access to Memories  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study examined the ways that body posture facilitated retrieval of autobiographical memories in more detail by focusing on two aspects of congruence in position of a specific body part: hand shape and hand orientation. Hand shape is important in the tactile perception and manipulation of objects. We manipulated two aspects of hand shape: orientation (vertical vs. horizontal) and aperture (grip vs. no-grip). We manipulated orientation and aperture to create memory-congruent and mem...

Dijkstra, K.; Kaschak, M. P.; Zwaan, R. A.

2008-01-01

284

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Food treatment by means of ionizing energy, or irradiation, is an innovative method for its preservation. In order to treat important volumes of food, it is necessary to have industrial irradiation installations. The effect of radiations on food is analyzed in the present special work and a calculus scheme for an Irradiation Plant is proposed, discussing different aspects related to its project and design: ionizing radiation sources, adequate civil work, security and auxiliary systems to the installations, dosimetric methods and financing evaluation methods of the project. Finally, the conceptual design and calculus of an irradiation industrial plant of tubercles is made, based on the actual needs of a specific agricultural zone of our country. (Author)

285

29 CFR 1915.133 - Hand tools.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand tools. 1915.133 Section 1915.133...and Related Equipment § 1915.133 Hand tools. The provisions of this section...shall not issue or permit the use of unsafe hand tools. (b) Wrenches,...

2010-07-01

286

Response Preparation with Static versus Moving Hands  

Science.gov (United States)

This research tested the response inhibition account of the hand-advantage found in the finger precuing task. According to this account, the advantage of preparing two fingers on one hand (represented in one hemisphere) as opposed to preparing two fingers on two hands (represented in two hemispheres) is due, in part, to a response inhibition…

Adam, Jos J.; Moresi, Sofie

2007-01-01

287

38 CFR 4.69 - Dominant hand.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dominant hand. 4.69 Section 4.69 Pensions...Musculoskeletal System § 4.69 Dominant hand. Handedness for the purpose of a...by testing on VA examination. Only one hand shall be considered dominant. The...

2010-07-01

288

Altered attention for stimuli on the hands.  

Science.gov (United States)

Attention operates in the space near the hands with unique, action-related priorities. Here, we examined how attention treats objects on the hands themselves. We tested two hypotheses. First, attention may treat stimuli on the hands like stimuli near the hands, as though the surface of the hands were the proximal case of near-hand space. Alternatively, we proposed that the surface of the hands may be attentionally distinct from the surrounding space. Specifically, we predicted that attention should be slow to orient toward the hands in order to remain entrained to near-hand space, where the targets of actions are usually located. In four experiments, we observed delayed orienting of attention on the hands compared to orienting attention near or far from the hands. Similar delayed orienting was also found for tools connected to the body compared to tools disconnected from the body. These results support our second hypothesis: attention operates differently on the functional surfaces of the hand. We suggest this effect serves a functional role in the execution of manual actions. PMID:25051509

Taylor, J Eric T; Witt, Jessica K

2014-10-01

289

29 CFR 1926.301 - Hand tools.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand tools. 1926.301 Section 1926.301 Labor...SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Tools-Hand and Power § 1926.301 Hand tools. (a) Employers shall not issue or...

2010-07-01

290

29 CFR 1917.51 - Hand tools.  

Science.gov (United States)

...7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand tools. 1917.51 Section 1917.51 Labor Regulations...Cargo Handling Gear and Equipment § 1917.51 Hand tools. (a) Hand tools used by employees shall be maintained in safe...

2010-07-01

291

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first part of this data is relative to the study of chemical modifications induced by gamma radiations (60Co, 137Cs) on macromolecules of food and their contaminates with the help of two examples: starch and nucleic acids. Then the second part shows what are the consequences of irradiation on food and their preservation; we make distinction between useful effects (for instance germination inhibition of tubercules, destruction of insects or micro-organisms) and the results which are contingently bad for nutritional, technological and above all toxicologic aspects. The last part is relative to a short restatement of the problems inherent in the industrialization of this treatment

292

Nutrition - Food Guide Pyramid - Physical Activity  

Science.gov (United States)

Students will learn about the food guide pyramid, nutrition, physical activity and ways to implement it into their lives. Materials Needed: Computer, print outs as instructed below, paper and pencil. #1 What\\'s your food guide pyramid? Go to the following website. MyPyramid.gov Click on My Pyramid Plan on the right hand side. Enter your information and click submit. Your results will show. Print a PDF of your results and a Meal Tracking ...

King, Stacey M.

2007-11-30

293

A preliminary evaluation of the effect of glove use by food handlers in fast food restaurants.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted to determine whether the levels of selected microorganisms differed on foods handled by gloved and bare hands at fast food restaurants. Three hundred seventy-one plain flour tortillas were purchased from fast food restaurants and analyzed for Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., coliform bacteria, and heterotrophic plate count bacteria. Approximately 46% of the samples were handled by workers wearing gloves compared with 52% of samples with bare hand contact. Coliform bacteria were found in 9.6% of samples handled by gloved workers and 4.4% of samples handled by bare hands, although this difference was not statistically significant. The distribution of heterotrophic plate count bacteria, a general measure of hygiene, was also higher in samples handled by gloved workers in one restaurant chain. The presence of E. coli, Klebsiella sp., and S. aureus was detected in one, two, and eight samples, respectively, and there were no significant differences between samples handled by gloved or bare hands. Neither direct contact of the tortilla with the food preparation surface nor gender of the worker affected the level of any organism tested. The observed tendency of food workers to wear the same pair of gloves for extended periods and complacency might account for the apparent failure of gloves to reduce or prevent bacterial contamination. The results further suggest that glove use might be counterproductive because workers might wash their hands less frequently when gloved. PMID:15690825

Lynch, Robert A; Phillips, Margaret L; Elledge, Brenda L; Hanumanthaiah, Sridhar; Boatright, Daniel T

2005-01-01

294

Food preservation by ionising radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The process of food preservation by ionising radiation is an alternative, or a complement, to the traditional methods of heating, refrigerating, freezing or using chemical additives. The study and development of this technique has started on the beginning of the fifties but it is based on the radiation killing effect on micro-organisms discovered by the end of last century. Foodstuffs are treated in appropriate plants: isotopic facilities (gamma radiation) and accelerated electron beams produced by machines called accelerators. The FAO and WHO in close cooperation with the IAEA have played an important role on the development of the process and on the increment of the industrial application of food irradiation. Over the world there are about 37 countries trading foods treated by ionising radiation. However, governments have been slow to clear the utilization of this process. The main reason of this attitude is in general due to the fact that the advantages of the technique are not clearly understood. Therefore, the dissemination of the information could on one hand clarify who has to take decisions and on the other hand support the choice of those foods by the consumers. This is the unique way to dynamize the application of this process

295

Food hygiene on the wards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A problem that is often overlooked or simply not given enough attention: the food served to patients from the kitchen is not sterile. If food is allowed to stand at room temperature for a long time, both in the case of food cooked for lunch and of food intended for supper which has been previously chilled, there is the possibility of massive spore germination or of dangerous toxin formation. Therefore regulations on how to handle food and beverages (e.g. tea must be set out in the infection control policy, and checks carried out to monitor compliance with the rules relating to temperature checks, duration and type of storage, need for reheating, etc. Making staff aware of the issues involved is of paramount importance. These include monitoring hygiene standards in the ward kitchen, formulation of a cleaning policy, periodic bacteriological checks (not only of workstations but also of the dishwasher results, whenever possible the use of disposable cloths for working surfaces and equipment, changing cleaning cloths at least once daily and hygienic hand disinfection before and after handing out food. Foodstuffs brought in by visitors represent a special hygienic and organizational problem because in many cases they already have a high baseline microbial count. Visitors must be made aware that, for example, slices of cake left in the patient’s room and often eaten only hours later can pose a risk of infection.In summary, the following principles of food hygiene must be observed on the wards: * Maintenance of the cold-hot chain * Not only reheat food, but ensure it is well heated throughout * Avoid situations giving rise to spore germination in foodstuffs brought in by visitors * Cleanliness and minimal contamination of kitchen worktops * Cleanliness of crockery and kitchen towels * Do not allow food to stand at room temperature for a long time, in particular desserts and confectionery * A standard policy must be enforced to define the hygienic status and organization for food distribution for ward kitchens too.

Steuer, Walter

2007-09-01

296

Giant grants a free hand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'I had a relatively free hand from my associates when choosing a partner. When we had compared business structures, considered the mutual chemistry and the attitude of French people concerning management, the decision process was made easier.' That's how Peter Strycek, general director of Hetech Services, describes the preparations for agreements. It worked. The Slovak supplier of heat and services for technical operations of buildings, has belonged to the GDF SUEZ company since Monday. At the beginning, at the conclusion of 2005, there was the idea to consolidate the businesses of three companies beneath one roof. That's how informally the shareholding company Hetech Services was founded. It started to manage the business of the Bratislava heat suppliers, Racianska Teplarenska and Prva Ruzinovska; including supplier of technical services AB Spravcovska. Along with activities of the head company Hetech Services installed low-current equipment in buildings, did construction supervision and for a longer period it did business with technological equipment for buildings. The company's business expanded. At the end of the year before last, Strycek announced an interest from multinational players in joining. It didn't take long and the three interested parties came to an agreement. At the beginning of last summer the owners of Hetech, Bratislava real estate businessmen, came to an agreement with the managers of the multinational energy giant GDF SUEZ, which had been foundedrgy giant GDF SUEZ, which had been founded shortly beforehand with the merger of two global players in the industry. (authors)

297

Food Dudes  

extensive research was carried out to identify the key psychological factors influencing children?s food ...In addition, certain factors increase a child?s likelihood of imitating ...aim of the Unit was to research the psychological factors that influence children?s

298

Food Allergies  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the dangers of food allergies and the need to be aware if any friends or classmates have them.  Created: 4/23/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/23/2013.

2013-04-23

299

Testing Food  

Science.gov (United States)

Students determine the relative amounts of oils in food. They then apply their understanding to an additional situation. The task assesses students' abilities to make simple observations, make generalized inferences from their observations, and apply their understanding to an additional situation.

Project, New Y.

2012-02-03

300

Food Allergies  

Science.gov (United States)

... allergy reactions: milk eggs peanuts soy wheat tree nuts (such as walnuts and cashews) fish shellfish (such as shrimp) Young kids who have food allergies often outgrow their allergy — but not always. A lot ... with tree nut allergy outgrow their allergy. Fish and shellfish allergies ...

 
 
 
 
301

Food service workers' self-reported food preparation practices: an EHS-Net study.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted by the Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net), a network of environmental health specialists and epidemiologists at federal and state health agencies, whose mission is to improve environmental health practice. One of EHS-Net's primary goals is to improve the understanding of the underlying causes of foodborne illness using a system-based approach. As part of this ongoing effort, EHS-Net analyzed data from a telephone survey of food service workers designed to increase our understanding of food preparation practices (a cause of foodborne illness) in restaurants. Results indicated that risky food preparation practices were commonly reported. Respondents said that at work they did not always wear gloves while touching ready-to-eat (RTE) food (60%), did not always wash their hands or change their gloves between handling raw meat and RTE food (23% and 33%), did not use a thermometer to check food temperatures (53%), and had worked while sick with vomiting or diarrhea (5%). Several factors were associated with safer food preparation practices. Workers responsible for food preparation reported washing their hands and wearing gloves when handling RTE food more often than workers not responsible for food preparation. Workers who cooked reported changing their gloves more often than workers who did not cook. Older workers and managers reported washing their hands more often than younger workers and non-managers. Workers in chain restaurants more frequently reported using thermometers than workers in independently owned restaurants. This study provides valuable information concerning the prevalence of food preparation practices and factors that may impact those practices. Additional research is needed to better understand those factors. PMID:15881976

Green, Laura; Selman, Carol; Banerjee, Anyana; Marcus, Ruthanne; Medus, Carlota; Angulo, Frederick J; Radke, Vince; Buchanan, Sharunda

2005-01-01

302

16 CFR 23.3 - Misuse of the terms “hand-made,” “hand-polished,” etc.  

Science.gov (United States)

...PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.3 Misuse of the terms “hand-made,” “hand-polished,” etc. (a) It is unfair or deceptive...directly or by implication, that any industry product is hand-made or hand-wrought unless the entire...

2010-01-01

303

Verbal Prompting, Hand-over-Hand Instruction, and Passive Observation in Teaching Children with Developmental Disabilities.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study involving six children (ages 5-13) with mental retardation found that overall passive modeling was significantly more effective than hand-over-hand modeling in teaching skills, and that passive modeling was significantly more effective than hand-over-hand modeling with response-contingent verbal prompting. (Author/CR)

Biederman, G. B.; Fairhall, J. L.; Raven, K. A.; Davey, V. A.

1998-01-01

304

Comparison of traditional hand wash with alcoholic hand rub in ICU setup  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Nosocomial infection rate are often higher for intensive care unit (ICU than other units of hospitals, and hands of health-care workers (HCWs play a major role in the transmission of the infections. Aim: To compare the efficacy of conventional hand wash with the hand rub in reducing the transient bacterial flora on the hands of nurses in ICU. Subject and Methods: The 34 nurses posted in our ICU during January-March 2003 were included. A total of 204 samples were collected for the residual bacterial flora on fingers using impression method on MacConkey agar plates. The subjects then used alcoholic hand rub or conventional hand wash and the residual bacterial flora rechecked by testing impression of fingers on MacConkey agar. Results: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., nonlactose fermenting Gram-negative bacilli, staphylococci, and streptococci formed the transient bacterial flora on the hands. Moderate to heavy bacterial density was seen in more than 92.2% of the hands before washing or hand rub application. Conventional hand wash resulted in drastic reduction in the transient bacterial flora on hands in 50% cases whereas alcoholic hand rub achieved the effect in 95% of the samples. Conclusion: Compared with conventional hand wash, alcoholic hand rub is far more efficient in reducing transient bacterial flora on the hands of HCWs and it is more convenient and time saving. It is recommended as a hand hygiene practice in critical areas such as ICU.

Maliekal Mona

2005-01-01

305

Inspections of Hand Washing Supplies and Hand Sanitizer in Public Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

Hand washing and hand antisepsis are proven infection control measures in the school setting, yet barriers such as lack of soap, paper towels, and hand sanitizer can hinder compliance. This pilot study measured the prevalence of hand cleaning supplies in public schools. Ten school districts (93 schools) participated in school nurse inspections. In…

Ramos, Mary M.; Blea, Mary; Trujillo, Rebecca; Greenberg, Cynthia

2010-01-01

306

Washing Food: Does It Promote Food Safety?  

Science.gov (United States)

... Forms FSIS Forms Administrative Forms Standard Forms FSIS Food Safety and Inspection Service United States Department of ... Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Washing Food: Does it Promote Food Safety? Historically, we equate ...

307

Bacteriology and epidemiology of hand infections  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Infection is one of the most serious and important causes of hand swelling. Neglect or incomplete treatment of hand infections will usually lead to involvement of other parts of the hand resulting in stiffness, loss of hand function, and possibly amputation (Figure 1). Hand infections are common con [...] ditions that have significant morbidity. Referral is often delayed and infections present late. Hand infections should be managed by an experienced surgeon. The aims of the investigation were: to identify the spectrum of organisms and appropriate antibiotics for hand infection; and to characterise the patterns and sites of hand infections. This information was collected against the background of a high prevalence of HiV-infected patients and increasing antibiotic resistance. A total of 66 patients treated for hand infections over a period of six months in Pelonomi Hospital, Bloemfontein, South Africa, was prospectively recruited for the study. Staphylococcus aureus was the commonest isolate. Results show that cloxacillin is still an effective first line antibiotic for community-acquired hand infections in the absence of immunosuppression. Alternative empiric therapy would be clindamycin - especially in the beta-lactam intolerant patient. Erythromycin also proved to have a favourable profile. HIV-positive patients were more prone to Gram-negative infections.

JF, Greyling; E, Visser; E, Elliot.

308

Analysis of training experience of military men to hand-to-hand combat in the foreign countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is shown the main systems of hand-to-hand combat on the bases of hand-to-hand military men training in the world leading countries armies. Summarized the experience of hand-to-hand combat training. It is analyzes the main existing systems hand-to-hand training of servicemen of foreign armies. The analysis of publications, guidance documents, manuals, statutes which display the contents of hand-to-hand combat training of servicemen of foreign armies. Defined views, concerns and tendencies of hand-to-hand training to develop guidelines an advanced hand-to-hand combat training of servicemen.

Marakushyn A.I.

2011-02-01

309

Hemispheric asymmetries in goal-directed hand movements are independent of hand preference.  

Science.gov (United States)

Asymmetries in the kinematics and neural substrates of voluntary right and left eye-hand coordinated movements have been accredited to differential hemispheric specialization. An alternative explanation for between-hand movement differences could result from hand preference related effects. To test both assumptions, an experiment was conducted with left- and right-handers performing goal-directed movements with either hand paced by a metronome. Spatiotemporal accuracy was comparable between hands, whereas hand peak velocity was reached earlier when moving with the left compared to the right hand. The underlying brain activation patterns showed that both left- and right-handers activated more areas involved in visuomotor attention and saccadic control when using their left compared to the right hand. Altogether, these results confirm a unique perceptuomotor processing specialization of the left brain/right hand system that is independent of hand preference. PMID:22634213

Lavrysen, Ann; Heremans, Elke; Peeters, Ron; Wenderoth, Nici; Feys, Peter; Swinnen, Stephan P; Helsen, Werner F

2012-09-01

310

Food deficits, food security and food aid : concepts and measurement  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The concepts of food deficit, hunger, undernourishment and food security are discussed. Axioms and indices for the assessment of nutrition of individuals and groups are suggested. Furthermore a measure for food aid donor performance is developed and applied to a sample of bilateral and multilateral donors providing food aid for African countries.

Gabbert, Silke; Weikard, Hans-peter

1998-01-01

311

Food irradiation: A contribution to food security  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For food security at the national level every country needs to evolve its own strategies to maintain a continuous supply of food between seasons. Research and development over the past 30 years have clearly demonstrated that food irradiation is a safe, effective and environmentally clean process of food preservation. The technology is beginning to play an important role in reducing post-harvest losses of food and in facilitating wider distribution of food in the trade. 1 fig., 1 tab

312

Food fears  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radurisation can give a new lease of shelf life to food and cut down contamination, but it is bound to cause problems - even among comparatively tame South African consumers. In this article the facts about radurization are discussed: the labelling of irradiated products, the problem of making a bad product good by using irradiation, consumer pressure, attitudes, fears and resistance. The economics of radurised foodstuffs are also discussed

313

Food Choice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper illustrates the connection found between food choices, and the influences from society and the digital Media, more specifically television commercials. We have covered different aspects of social and psychological theories, aiming to explain how the individual is affected by social factors. We have drawn conclusions on how the individual is inflicted by society when concerning choice making, as well as covering the psychological aspects that are relevant in connection to this. Last...

Ehlers Bloksted, Josephine; Knudsen, Anna Althea; Boie Hvid, Amanda; Bang Christensen, Andrea; Ali Ismail, Mohamed Ahmed

2012-01-01

314

Food Anxieties: Issues for the Food Sector  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

People have become obsessed with the harmful effects of eating (Rozin, 1999) and are experiencing ‘food anxiety’, a by-product of modern food. The aim of this research was to explore the nature of food anxiety in Ireland and the potential implications for the food sector. The research objectives were to determine the range of issues causing food anxiety in Irish consumers; to investigate the impact of food anxiety on food choice behaviour; to examine the potential of food anxiety as a seg...

Kelly, Denise

2009-01-01

315

Hand washing Compliance - Is It A Reality?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Transmission of microorganisms from the hands of health care workers is the main source of cross-infection in hospitals and can be prevented by hand washing. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of noncompliance with hand washing during routine patient care.Materials And Methods: This is an observational study. The participants in the study were Health Care Workers (HCWs. Doctors, nurses and ward aides working in different wards of the hospital who were observed for compliance with hand washing.Results: In 270 observed opportunities for hand washing, average compliance was 63.3%. Noncompliance was highest among doctors followed by nurses. Ward aides were most compliant. Conclusions: Compliance with hand washing was moderate. Variation across the hospital ward and type of HCW suggests that targeted educational programs may be useful. Noncompliance suggests that understaffing may decrease quality of patient care.

Suchitra JB

2007-03-01

316

Holiday Food Safety  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Health A to Z Index Follow FDA En Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food ... food promptly Holiday Food Safety Video (English) (en español) Ready-to-Cook Foods: Follow Directions to Keep ...

317

Hand Specific Representations in Language Comprehension  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Theories of embodied cognition argue that language comprehension involves sensory-motor re-enactments of the actions described. However, the degree of specificity of these re-enactments as well as the relationship between action and language remains a matter of debate. Here we investigate these issues by examining how hand-specific information (left or right hand is recruited in language comprehension and action execution. An fMRI study tested right-handed participants in two separate tasks that were designed to be as similar as possible to increase sensitivity of the comparison across task: an action execution go/no-go task where participants performed right or left hand actions, and a language task where participants read sentences describing the same left or right handed actions as in the execution task. We found that language-induced activity did not match the hand-specific patterns of activity found for action execution in primary somatosensory and motor cortex, but it overlapped with pre-motor and parietal regions associated with action planning. Within these pre-motor regions, both right hand actions and sentences elicited stronger activity than left hand actions and sentences - a dominant hand effect -. Importantly, both dorsal and ventral sections of the left pre-central gyrus were recruited by both tasks, suggesting different action features being recruited. These results suggest that (a language comprehension elicits motor representations that are hand-specific and akin to multimodal action plans, rather than full action re-enactments; and (b language comprehension and action execution share schematic hand-specific representations that are richer for the dominant hand, and thus linked to previous motor experience.

SilviaPGennari

2014-06-01

318

Enlarged hands and feet - Not always acromegaly  

Science.gov (United States)

Pachydermoperiostosis maybe mistaken for acromegaly as it can present with progressive enlargement of hands and feet. We describe a 32 year old male with enlargement of hands and feet and extensive keloid formation. Family history was positive for similar complaints. X ray imaging showed normal heel pad thickness with acroosteolysis and subperiosteal new bone formation in hands and feet. IGF-1 was normal and glucose suppressed GH values were normal. PMID:23565412

Ghatnatti, Vikrant; Sarma, Dipti; Saikia, Uma

2012-01-01

319

Personal Authentication System using Hand Vein Biometric  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With an increasing emphasis on security, automated personal identification using hand vein biometric feature is becoming a very active topic in both research and practical applications. The objective of this work is to present a biometric authentication system for high security physical access control based on hand vein pattern. Hand vein biometric is selected, as it is foolproof, offers higher security and reliable for identification.The feature extraction stage consists of removal of the no...

Sathish, G.; Saravanan, Dr S. V.; Narmadha, Dr S.; Uma Maheswari, Dr S.

2012-01-01

320

Food irradiation in Britain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report explains the process and issues that concern consumers, workers in the food industry and people involved in food policy, public health and environmental protection. It argues that safety assurances by experts are not enough, and calls for a full public debate on all issues surrounding food irradiation, including a) wholesomeness of irradiated foods - food quality, nutrition losses, chemical and other changes in irradiated foods b) consumers rights to information about irradiated foods c) health and safety of food industry workers d) the economics of irradiation - food prices, changes in patters of employment, environmental impacts e) regulation and monitoring of food irradiation and imported irradiated foods. (U.K.)

 
 
 
 
321

Food and Drug Interactions: A General Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although it is well known and identifi ed that drug-drug interactions exist, the recognition of importance of food and drug interactions to practice has been growing much slower. On the other hand, drug-food/nutrient interactions continue to grow with the common use of medications. Beside the awareness of this type of interactions, food-drug interaction studies are critical to evaluate appropriate dosing, timing, and formulation of new drug candidates. Drug-food interactions take place mechanistically due to altered intestinal transport and metabolism, or systemic distribution, metabolism and excretion. In addition, some people have greater risk of food and drug interactions who have a poor diet, have serious health problems, childrens and pregnant women. In this article, basic informations about importance, classifi cations, transporters and enzymes of drug and nutrient interaction are given and some specifi c examples of both drug and nutrients and infl uences on each other are included.

Semih Otles

2014-03-01

322

Food Irradiation In Vietnam And Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2008, Japan Atomic Energy Commission of Cabinet Office performed the study of current status of food irradiation in the world. The results showed that the total quantity of irradiated foods in 2005 was 405,000 tons. Seven main countries for food irradiation were China, USA, Ukraine, Brazil, South Africa, Vietnam and Japan. In Japan, only the potato irradiation for sprout inhibition is continued more than 35 years since 1974 but the quantity is decreasing. On the other hand, the food irradiation of Vietnam has been developed rapidly in a short time to export the frozen seafood and fruit. This paper shows the status of food irradiation in Vietnam and Japan, and the progress in both countries after 2005. (author)

323

An ellipsoidal representation of human hand anthropometry  

Science.gov (United States)

Anthropometric data concerning the heometry of the hand's surface are presently modeled as a function of gross external hand measurements; an effort is made to evaluate the accuracy with which ellipsoids describe the geometry of the hand segments. Graphical comparisons indicate that differences between the ellipsoidal approximations and the breadth and depth measurements were greatest near the joints. On the bases of the present data, a set of overlapping ellipsoids could furnish a more accurate representation of hand geometry for adaptation to ellipsoid segment-geometry employing biomechanical models.

Buchholz, Bryan; Armstrong, Thomas J.

1991-01-01

324

Survival of pneumococcus on hands and fomites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Pneumococcal hand contamination in Indigenous children in remote communities is common (37%. It is not clear whether this requires frequent inoculation, or if pneumococci will survive on hands for long periods of time. Thus the aim of this study was to determine the survival time of pneumococci on hands and fomites. Findings The hands of 3 adult volunteers, a glass plate and plastic ball were inoculated with pneumococci suspended in two different media. Survival at specified time intervals was determined by swabbing and re-culture onto horse blood agar. Pneumococci inoculated onto hands of volunteers were recovered after 3 minutes at 4% to 79% of the initial inoculum. Recovery from one individual was consistently higher. By one hour, only a small number of pneumococci were recovered and this was dependent on the suspension medium used. At subsequent intervals and up to 3 hours after inoculation, Conclusion The poor survival of pneumococci on hands suggests that the high prevalence of pneumococcal hand contamination in some populations is related to frequent inoculation rather than long survival. It is plausible that hand contamination plays a (brief role in transmission directly, and indirectly through contamination via fomites. Regular hand washing and timely cleansing or removal of contaminated fomites may aid control of pneumococcal transmission via these routes.

Beissbarth Jemima

2008-11-01

325

Determinants of Attentional Modulation Near the Hands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A series of visual search experiments conducted by Abrams et al. (2008 indicates that disengagement of visual attention is slowed when the array of objects that are to be searched are close to the hands (hands on the monitor than if they are not close to the hands (hands in the lap. These experiments establish the impact one's hands can have on visual attentional processing. In the current paper we more closely examine these two hand postures with the goal of pinpointing which characteristics are crucial for the observed differences in attentional processing. Specifically, in a set of 4 experiments we investigated additional hand postures and additional modes of response to address this goal. We replicated the original Abrams et al. (2008 effect when only the two original postures were used; however, surprisingly, the effect was extinguished with the new range of postures and response modes, and this extinction persisted across different populations (German and English students, and different experimental hardware. Furthermore, analyses indicated that it is unlikely that the extinction of the effect was caused by increased practice due to additional blocks of trials or by an increased probability that participants were able to guess the purpose of the experiment. As such our results suggest that in addition to the nature of the postures of the hand, the number of postures is a further important factor that influences the impact the hands have on visual processing.

HolgerSchultheis

2013-11-01

326

Emotions affect the recognition of hand gestures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The body is closely tied to the processing of social and emotional information. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a relationship between emotions and social attitudes conveyed through gestures exists. Thus, we tested the effect of pro-social (i.e., happy face) and anti-social (i.e., angry face) emotional primes on the ability to detect socially relevant hand postures (i.e., pictures depicting an open/closed hand). In particular, participants were required to establish, as quickly as possible, if the test stimulus (i.e., a hand posture) was the same or different, compared to the reference stimulus (i.e., a hand posture) previously displayed in the computer screen. Results show that facial primes, displayed between the reference and the test stimuli, influence the recognition of hand postures, according to the social attitude implicitly related to the stimulus. We found that perception of pro-social (i.e., happy face) primes resulted in slower RTs in detecting the open hand posture as compared to the closed hand posture. Vice-versa, perception of the anti-social (i.e., angry face) prime resulted in slower RTs in detecting the closed hand posture compared to the open hand posture. These results suggest that the social attitude implicitly conveyed by the displayed stimuli might represent the conceptual link between emotions and gestures. PMID:24421763

Vicario, Carmelo M; Newman, Anica

2013-01-01

327

[Food safety viewed from the registration and inspection agencies].  

Science.gov (United States)

When food safety is mentioned, people would think about food which is in compliance with Food Sanitation Act and standard, and edible food. Because there is difference in terms of food and additives standards between Japan and other countries, a variety of food cannot be imported from foreign countries to Japan. In addition, in 2006, with the introduction of the Positive List, which takes a close-up of pesticide remained in food and anti-biotic, we adopted an effective policy towards imported food which does not reach the national standards. On one hand, in order to ensure food safety, domestic producers, hotels, fast food stores, and restaurants all try to strengthen management on food quality and employees health. However, food poisoning happens frequently. Chemicals and natural poisoning play a part but the major part is played by micro-organism (bacteria). So it become more and more important to develop food safety policies to avoid harm from bad food. Therefore, as an authority with the responsibility of quarantine, inspection and registration, it is important to conduct food inspection and it is even more important to provide comprehensive suggestions. PMID:21720130

Shiomi, Yukihiro

2011-01-01

328

Replace hand washing with use of a waterless alcohol hand rub?  

Science.gov (United States)

Hand hygiene is one of the basic components of any infection control program and is frequently considered synonymous with hand washing. However, health care workers frequently do not wash their hands, and compliance rarely exceeds 40%. Hand rubbing with a waterless, alcohol-based rub-in cleanser is commonly used in many European countries instead of hand washing. Scientific evidence and ease of use support employment of a hand rub for routine hand hygiene. It is microbiologically more effective in vitro and in vivo, it saves time, and preliminary data demonstrate better compliance than with hand washing. Therefore, a task force comprising experts from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and from professional societies is designing guidelines for the use of a hand rub in the United States. Today, most countries of Northern Europe recommend a hand rub for hand hygiene unless the hands are visibly soiled. Side effects are rare and are mainly related to dryness of the skin. This review evaluates the scientific and clinical evidence that support the use of alcohol-based hand rubs in health care facilities as a new option for hand hygiene. PMID:10913411

Widmer, A F

2000-07-01

329

Food intake patterns in urban Beijing Chinese.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the food consumption patterns of 430 Beijing Chinese adults and assessed the impact on these patterns of the following socio-demographic characteristics: gender, age, educational achievement, and gross household income. Food intake by category, food variety and meal patterns were assessed using a 156-item food frequency questionnaire. It was found that gender and age were the most important factors to influence food consumption patterns. Men consumed more wheat products, red meat and tea, whereas women consumed more vegetables, fruit, nuts, fish, eggs and milk. Women also tended to consume a wider variety of food than did men. Furthermore, it was found that younger and more educated people tended to consume a wider variety of food. Age also had an important influence on the food intake. Younger and generally more educated adults tended to consume foods associated with affluence: meats, soft drinks and beer, while the older population tended to consume more vegetables (women only), milk and tea in their diets. Because education is closely correlated with age in this Beijing Chinese population, it appeared to have little effect on the food intake patterns, after adjusting for age. The older members of this population, who probably have a decreased functional reserve of nutrients, and the less educated, appeared not to be taking advantage of the availability of a wide variety of food, further increasing the risk of nutrient deficiency. On the other hand, the younger and more educated, who tended to consume a wide variety of foods, were more likely to maintain adequate nutritional standards. However, their tendency to consume food associated with affluence, such as meat and beer, may point toward an increased risk of those diseases prevalent in affluent societies, such as obesity, diabeties, cardiovascular disease, certain cancers and osteoporosis. Ongoing nutrition surveillance and appropriate nutrition education will be required increasingly for Beijing Chinese and similar communities. PMID:24393637

Fu, P; Zhang, H; Siew, S M; Wang, S Q; Xue, A; Hsu-Hage, B H; Wahlqvist, M L; Wang, Y F; Li, X X

1998-06-01

330

Theorizing Food Sovereignty: An analysis of public and academic discourse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Food is at the nexus of a truly striking range of the global political, environmental, economic and human rights issues we face today, from climate change and water scarcity to poverty and economic stability. The consolidation of each step of food production in the hands of just a few companies has siphoned value and wealth from rural areas, edging out small producers and forcing farmers to becoming a part of the corporate production system. The food sovereignty movement has become one of the...

Winsauer, Emily A.

2012-01-01

331

Eating interrupted: the effect of intent on hand-to-mouth actions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evidence from recent neurophysiological studies on nonhuman primates as well as from human behavioral studies suggests that actions with similar kinematic requirements but different end-state goals are supported by separate neural networks. It is unknown whether these different networks supporting seemingly similar reach-to-grasp actions are lateralized, or if they are equally represented in both hemispheres. Recently published behavioral evidence suggests certain networks are lateralized to the left hemisphere. Specifically, when participants used their right hand, their maximum grip aperture (MGA) was smaller when grasping to eat food items than when grasping to place the same items. Left-handed movements showed no difference between tasks. The present study investigates whether the differences between grasp-to-eat and grasp-to-place actions are driven by an intent to eat, or if placing an item into the mouth (sans ingestion) is sufficient to produce asymmetries. Twelve right-handed adults were asked to reach to grasp food items to 1) eat them, 2) place them in a bib, or 3) place them between their lips and then toss them into a nearby receptacle. Participants performed each task with large and small food items, using both their dominant and nondominant hands. The current study replicated the previous finding of smaller MGAs for the eat condition during right-handed but not left-handed grasps. MGAs in the eat and spit conditions did not significantly differ from each other, suggesting that eating and bringing a food item to the mouth both utilize similar motor plans, likely originating within the same neural network. Results are discussed in relation to neurophysiology and development. PMID:24990561

Flindall, Jason W; Gonzalez, Claudia L R

2014-10-15

332

Food justice and Christian ethics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article dealt with the moral and political problem of international food justice in which the deep contradiction between the present situation of malnourishment and starvation in large parts of the global population on the one hand and the biblical notion of the preferential option for the poor on the other hand was described. This ecumenically widely accepted notion was clarified in several aspects. How deeply this is rooted in the history of Christian social thought was shown by Martin Luther’s writings on the economy which have remained relatively unknown in the churches and in the scholarly world. The article then presented three models of Christian economic ethic: the technical economic model, the utopian economic model and the public theological economic model. On the basis of the public theological model seven challenges for international food justice were presented. The basis for these challenges is an understanding of globalisation which guarantees just participation for everyone and deals with nature in an ecologically sustainable way. The interests of small farmers are the basis for judging the activities of big agro-corporations. Public theology is the background for an active involvement of the churches as agents of a global civil society to promote international food justice.

Heinrich Bedford-Strohm

2012-12-01

333

Household Food Security in the Rural South: Assuring Access to Enough Food for Healthy Lives.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food insecurity is more prevalent in the rural South than in metropolitan areas of the South and rural areas in other regions. This reflects the lower incomes and higher poverty rates in the rural South. On the other hand, the prevalence of poverty-linked hunger--the most severe range of food insecurity--is about the same in the rural South as in…

Nord, Mark

2001-01-01

334

Food Engineering within Sciences of Food  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this paper is to clarify the identity of food engineering in sciences of food. A short historical description of the evolution of the branch in the Anglo Saxon and the Continental educational systems is given. Furthermore, the distinction of basic definitions such as food science, food science and ...

Athanasios Kostaropoulos

2012-01-01

335

Emotions affect the recognition of hand postures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The body is closely tied to the processing of social and emotional information. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a relationship between emotions and social attitudes conveyed through gestures exists. Thus we tested the effect of pro-social (i.e. happy face and anti-social (i.e. angry face emotional primes on the ability to detect socially relevant handpostures (i.e. pictures depicting an open/closed hand. In particular, participants were required to establish, as quickly as possible, if the test stimulus (i.e. a hand posture was the same or different, compared to the reference stimulus (i.e. a hand posture previously displayed in the computer screen. Results show that facial primes, displayed between the reference and the test stimuli, influence the recognition of hand postures, according to the social attitude implicitly related to the stimulus. We found that perception of pro-social (i.e. happy face primes resulted in slower RTs in detecting the open hand posture as compared to the closed hand posture. Vice-versa, perception of the anti-social (i.e. angry face prime resulted in slower RTs in detecting the closed hand posture compared to the open hand posture. These results suggest that the social attitude implicitly suggested by the displayed stimuli might represent the conceptual link between emotions and gestures.

CarmeloMarioVicario

2013-12-01

336

Guidelines for hand hygiene in hospital  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The appropriate compliance of rules regarding hand hygiene, have been and continue to be, one of the basic points of all prevention programs of nosocomial infections. Aim: The aim of the present study was the presentation of guidelines for hand hygiene by nurses. Method and material: Study of international and Greek literature from electronic databases Medline, PubMed and scientific journals, KEELPNO mainly from the last three years. The keywords used were: nosocomial infections, hand hygiene, antiseptics and guidelines. Results: There are numerous studies that demonstrate the central role of hand hygiene of employees in transmission of microorganisms in the hospital environment. Hand hygiene is a process, which should not be omitted or replaced by the use of antiseptics. The professionals position in the hospital, the workplace and staff shortages, in conjunction with the large number of hospitalized patients seem to be the main factors that negatively affect the compliance with hand hygiene. The staff working in the hospital, especially with high-risk patients (ICU, surgery should not wear artificial nails, nail polish and jewelry - rings and should not have inflammation or infection on their hands. Conclusions: Hand hygiene should be applied before and after contact with each patient. Nurses have to comply with these guidelines, in order for the effective prevention and control of nosocomial infections.

Christina Sotnikova

2013-10-01

337

Clean Hands Help Prevent the Flu  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

Clean hands can help prevent the spread of infectious diseases, such as flu. This podcast explains the proper way to wash your hands.  Created: 5/6/2009 by Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Influenza Division (CCID/NCIRD/ID).   Date Released: 5/6/2009.

2009-05-06

338

How well can hand size predict height?  

Science.gov (United States)

This activity is deigned to introduce the concepts of bivariate relationships. It is one of the hands-on activities of the ‘real-time online hands-on activities’. Students collect their own data, enter and retrieve the data in real time. Data are stored in the web database and are shared on the net.

Lee, Carl

339

Hand-Clap Songs across the Curriculum  

Science.gov (United States)

This teaching tip focuses on using hand-clapping to teach content area material across the curriculum. We begin with a brief history of hand-clap songs, followed by a rationale for using them in content area literacy. Then, we describe the instructional lesson, share samples that resulted, and discuss lesson extensions. Our goal is to have…

Batchelor, Katherine E.; Bintz, William P.

2012-01-01

340

Illness representations in patients with hand injury.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Differences in illness perception about hand injury may partly explain the variation in health behaviours such as adherence to post-operative therapy, coping strategy, emotional response and eventual clinical outcome. This study examined the illness perception of patients with hand injuries in the acute trauma setting.

Chan, Jeffrey C Y

2009-07-01

 
 
 
 
341

Florid reactive periostitis of the hands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reactive periostitis of the hand can be a confounding lesion on both radiological and histological grounds. An erroneous diagnosis of a malignant tumor, particularly an osteosarcoma, is a possibility. Two cases of florid reactive periostitis of the hand mistaken for osteosarcoma are reported here to illustrate this entity and caution against a diagnostic pitfall. (orig.)

342

The Hot Hand Belief and Framing Effects  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: Recent evidence of the hot hand in sport--where success breeds success in a positive recency of successful shots, for instance--indicates that this pattern does not actually exist. Yet the belief persists. We used 2 studies to explore the effects of framing on the hot hand belief in sport. We looked at the effect of sport experience and…

MacMahon, Clare; Köppen, Jörn; Raab, Markus

2014-01-01

343

The Left-Handed: "Their Sinister" History.  

Science.gov (United States)

The history of left-handedness can provide teachers and parents a better understanding of left-handed children and give those children more pride in their difference. No child should be made to feel that he or she is abnormal because of using the left hand, although some specific instruction for these students is necessary in handwriting. Many…

Costas, Elaine Fowler

344

Comparative roentgenometry of the senile Hand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Increasing age is a risk factor for the development of osteoarthrosis of the joints of the hand in adults between 21 and 60 years of age. Only in the very old (?80 years) is osteoarthrosis of the hand part of the age related degeneration. The literature contains different parameters and indices correlating the amounts of minerals and ashes of metacarpal bones. Our results peak in favour of the presumptions published by Exton-Smith et al. (1969 b) that bone mass belongs among the biological characteristics of old age. Our investigations of hand roentgenograms reveal that remodeling of the joint socket as described by pathologists is not a general but an elective phenomenon. With age the wrist shows only an increasing angle of the radial joint surface (males, right hand) and there is a variation of form in the medial sesamoid bone at the first metacarpus (males, left hand). (orig.)

345

Air Muscle Actuated Low Cost Humanoid Hand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The control of humanoid robot hands has historically been expensive due to the cost of precision actuators. This paper presents the design and implementation of a low-cost air muscle actuated humanoid hand developed at Curtin University of Technology. This hand offers 10 individually controllable degrees of freedom ranging from the elbow to the fingers, with overall control handled through a computer GUI. The hand is actuated through 20 McKibben-style air muscles, each supplied by a pneumatic pressure-balancing valve that allows for proportional control to be achieved with simple and inexpensive components. The hand was successfully able to perform a number of human-equivalent tasks, such as grasping and relocating objects.

Peter Scarfe

2008-11-01

346

The Importance of Nurses Hand Hygiene  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Nurses are aware of the rationale for hand hygiene procedures. Nurses represent a large working group that performs the greatest amount of direct patient care in Health Services. Handhygiene is one of the most effective measures to prevent hospital acquired infections.Aim: to point out the importance of nurses’ hand hygieneMethod: a review of articles with key words “hand, hygiene, hand, contamination, nurse, and guideline”.Results: Infectious diseases are a particular risk to the very young, the elderly, those with a pre-existing disease, and people with a compromised immune system. Nurses washing their hands not onlyprevent them from getting sick, but it also reduces the risk of infecting others.

Maria Malliarou

2013-01-01

347

Hand functioning in children with cerebral palsy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brain lesions may disturb hand functioning in children with cerebral palsy (CP), making it difficult or even impossible for them to perform several manual activities. Most conventional treatments for hand dysfunction in CP assume that reducing the hand dysfunctions will improve the capacity to manage activities (i.e., manual ability, MA). The aim of this study was to investigate the directional relationships (direct and indirect pathways) through which hand skills influence MA in children with CP. A total of 136 children with CP (mean age: 10?years; range: 6-16?years; 35 quadriplegics, 24 diplegics, 77 hemiplegics) were assessed. Six hand skills were measured on both hands: touch-pressure detection (Semmes-Weinstein esthesiometer), stereognosis (Manual Form Perception Test), proprioception (passive mobilization of the metacarpophalangeal joints), grip strength (GS) (Jamar dynamometer), gross manual dexterity (GMD) (Box and Block Test), and fine finger dexterity (Purdue Pegboard Test). MA was measured with the ABILHAND-Kids questionnaire. Correlation coefficients were used to determine the linear associations between observed variables. A path analysis of structural equation modeling was applied to test different models of causal relationships among the observed variables. Purely sensory impairments did seem not to play a significant role in the capacity to perform manual activities. According to path analysis, GMD in both hands and stereognosis in the dominant hand were directly related to MA, whereas GS was indirectly related to MA through its relationship with GMD. However, one-third of the variance in MA measures could not be explained by hand skills. It can be concluded that MA is not simply the integration of hand skills in daily activities and should be treated per se, supporting activity-based interventions. PMID:24782821

Arnould, Carlyne; Bleyenheuft, Yannick; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

2014-01-01

348

Hand eczema guidelines based on the Danish guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of hand eczema  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background. Classification of hand eczema has traditionally been based both on aetiology and clinical appearance. For 20% of cases, the aetiology is unknown. Objectives. To suggest a classification based on well-defined aetiology as well as on predefined clinical patterns and on the dynamics of hand eczema. Methods. Literature studies and discussions among members of the Danish Contact Dermatitis Group. Results. Criteria are given for the aetiological diagnoses of allergic contact dermatitis of the hands, irritant contact dermatitis of the hands, protein contact dermatitis of the hands, atopic hand eczema and aetiologically unclassifiable hand eczema. Six different clinical patterns are described and illustrated. Suggestions for general treatment principles are given. Conclusion. Operational guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of hand eczema are described.

Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

2011-01-01

349

Food, Globalization and Sustainability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Food is increasingly traded internationally, thereby transforming the organisation of food production and consumption globally and influencing most food-related practices. This transition is generating unfamiliar challenges related to sustainability of food provision, the social impacts of international trade and global food governance. Distance in time and space between food producers and consumers is increasing and new concerns are arising. These include the environmental impact of food pro...

Oosterveer, P. J. M.; Sonnenfeld, D. A.

2011-01-01

350

Food Chains and Webs  

Science.gov (United States)

Learn more about food chains, food webs, and how the organisms in them affect each other. In class, you have learned what food webs and food chains are. Today, you will explore how the organisms in these systems interact. Step One: Food Chains What happens when you take something out of a food chain? Go to the Chain Reaction website: Chain Reaction--Food Chains This internet site will help you ...

Thompson, Ms.

2007-02-21

351

Biology of food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author presents his arguments for food scientists and biologists that the hazards of food irradiation outweigh the benefits. The subject is discussed in the following sections: introduction (units, mutagenesis, seed viability), history of food irradiation, effects of irradiation on organoleptic qualities of staple foods, radiolytic products and selective destruction of nutrients, production of microbial toxins in stored irradiated foods and loss of quality in wheat, deleterious consequences of eating irradiated foods, misrepresentation of the facts about food irradiation. (author)

352

FoodReview  

Science.gov (United States)

The Economic Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture has recently made the FoodReview publication available (Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only). FoodReview, issued three times a year, deals with "trends in [US] food consumption, food assistance, nutrition, food product development, food safety, and food product trade." Selected archives of the publication are available, and articles can be downloaded individually.

1996-01-01

353

Stigmatization of Repetitive Hand Use in Newspaper Reports of Hand Illness  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Failure to provide a balanced evidence-based consideration of the role of activity in illness can stigmatize individuals and their activities. We assessed the prevalence of language that stigmatized repetitive hand use and those that use their hand repetitively in newspaper coverage of common hand illnesses. The LexisNexis Academic database was used to search five major US newspapers for articles containing keywords about common hand illnesses during a 3-year period. Article language was asse...

Anthony, Shawn; Lozano-calderon, Santiago; Ring, David

2008-01-01

354

Food health law : a legal perspective on EU competence to regulate the "healthiness" of food  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The EU has developed a detailed stringent set of food safety rules aimed at limiting or containing the risk that people experience negative health effects from the consumption of food. In doing so, the legislator has focused on food safety in a relatively narrow sense, not including the potential risks to human health of foods with, e.g., negative nutritional features. While EU food safety legislation seems successful in preventing food-borne illnesses, public focus has shifted to the growing prevalence of lifestyle-related illnesses. There is convincing scientific evidence of a correlation between obesity and non-communicable diseases, on the one hand, and unhealthy food on the other. The EU has taken initiatives to stop this development, but these are directed at guiding consumer choice rather than at regulating foods from the point of view of their composition and nutritional value. The question arises whether the EU would at all be competent to step in and regulate ‘food health’. This article analyses different elements in the EU Treaties with a particular view toward a possible legal basis for regulating food health.

Edinger, Wieke Willemijn Huizing

2014-01-01

355

FULLTEXT Food Sovereignty: towards democracy in localized food systems. Windfuhr &  

... food sovereignty, right to food, trade, access to resources, agroecology, agricultural biodiversity, sustainable agriculture, Farmers' Rights, ...genetic resources for food and agriculture, Technology Democracy, Food security FULLTEXT Food Sovereignty: towards democracy in localized food systems. Windfuhr ...

356

Hand Preference and Skill in 115 Children of Two Left-Handed Parents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studied hand skill and performance in children (N=115) of left-handed parents using peg moving tasks and soccer kicks. Concluded that being raised by two left-handed parents does little to hinder the expression of the rs plus gene. Correlations for handedness in families depend more on genetics than experience. (Author/JAC)

Annett, Marian

1983-01-01

357

Color-Removal by Microorganisms Isolated from Human Hands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Microorganisms are essential for human life. Microorganisms decompose the carbon compounds in dead animals and plants and convert them into carbon dioxide. Intestinal bacteria assist in food digestion. Some vitamins are produced by bacteria that live in the intestines. Sewage and industrial wastewater are treated by activated sludge composed of microbial communities. All of these are due to the ability of microbes to produce many enzymes that can degrade chemicals. How do teachers make students understand that microorganisms are always associated with humans, and that microorganisms have the ability to degrade chemicals? The presence of microorganisms on humans can be shown by incubating agar plates after they are touched by the hands of students. The ability of microorganisms to degrade chemicals can be shown by an analytical measurement of the degradation of chemicals. When the chemicals are dyes (colorants in water, microbial activity on degradation of dyes can be demonstrated by observing a decreasing degree of color as a result of the enzymatic activity (e.g., azoreductase. Dyes are widely used in the textile, food, and cosmetic industries. They are generally resistant to conventional biological wastewater treatment systems such as the activated sludge process (4. The discharge of wastewater containing dye pollutes surface water. The ability of microorganisms to decolorize and degrade dyes has been widely investigated to use for bioremediation purposes (5. The goal of this tip is to understand the presence of bacteria on human skin and the ability of bacteria to degrade colorant chemicals (decolorization. In this tip, students first cultivate and isolate bacteria on their hands, and then examine potential decolorization activity of each bacterium by observing the degree of color of the liquid in tubes in which bacteria isolated from students’ hands were inoculated. Decolorization activity of bacterial isolates from human skin has been reported recently (6. To date this author has frequently obtained colorant-degrading bacterial isolates from human hands as a result of work on a scientific education project. This tip does not require analytical measurements. Students can examine a number of bacterial isolates simultaneously. Therefore, it is appropriate for high school and introductory level college courses.

Tsukasa Ito

2013-12-01

358

Understanding Issues Facing One-handed Users.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Statistics show that around 3 million users are potentially excluded from two-handed operations, for example, tying their shoelaces. A further three million users can only use one-hand to hold a mug of tea, or turn a water tap. These figures are based on users with long-term difficulties [Martin, 1988], in addition to these are those suffering temporary dexterity losses. Although statistics highlight the severity of the problem, they do not provide an insight into how products can be improved. Therefore, users with difficulty of two-handed co-operation (long term or temporary) have been asked to record their experiences. These experiences have been analysed to understand the difficulties faced by the users; coping strategies developed and; how these can be transferred to aid the designer to address these difficulties. This paper aims to discuss issues surrounding the problem faced by one-handed users, and how designers can learn from these problems. The research method is: • to identify the problems faced by a long-term one-handed user; • to identify the problems faced by a temporary one-handed user with design background; and • an assessment of products for suitability for one-handed users. Keyword: usability,user experience,inclusive design

Ahmed, Saeema

2004-01-01

359

Hand contamination with human rhinovirus in Bangladesh.  

Science.gov (United States)

As one step in developing a measure of hand contamination with respiratory viruses, this study assessed if human rhinovirus (HRV) was detectable on hands in a low income non-temperate community where respiratory disease is a leading cause of child death. Research assistants observed residents in a low income community in Dhaka, Bangladesh. When they observed a resident sneeze or pick their nose, they collected a hand rinse and anterior nare sample from the resident. Samples were first tested for HRV RNA by real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR). A subset of rRT-PCR positive samples were cultured into MRC-5 and HeLa Ohio cells. Among 177 hand samples tested for HRV by real-time RT-PCR, 52 (29%) were positive. Among 15 RT-PCR positive hand samples that were cultured, two grew HRV. HRV was detected in each of the sampling months (January, February, June, July, November, and December). This study demonstrates in the natural setting that, at least after sneezing or nasal cleaning, hands were contaminated commonly with potentially infectious HRV. Future research could explore if HRV RNA is present consistently and is associated sufficiently with the incidence of respiratory illness in communities that it may provide a proxy measure of respiratory viral hand contamination. J. Med. Virol. 86:21772180, 2014. © Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:24760731

Luby, Stephen P; Lu, Xiaoyan; Cromeans, Theresa; Sharker, M A Yushuf; Kadir, Mohammad Abdul; Erdman, Dean D

2014-12-01

360

Improving compliance with hand hygiene in hospitals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hand hygiene prevents cross-infection in hospitals, but compliance with recommended instructions often is poor among healthcare workers. Although some previous interventions to improve compliance have been successful, none has achieved lasting improvement. This article reviews reported barriers to appropriate hand hygiene and factors associated with poor compliance. Easy access to hand hygiene in a timely fashion and the availability of skin-care lotion both appear to be necessary prerequisites for appropriate hand-hygiene behavior. In particular, in high-demand situations, hand rub with an alcohol-based solution appears to be the only alternative that allows a decent compliance. The hand-hygiene compliance level does not rely on individual factors alone, and the same can be said for its promotion. Because of the complexity of the process of change, it is not surprising that solo interventions often fail, and multimodal, multidisciplinary strategies are necessary. A framework that includes parameters to be considered for hand-hygiene promotion is proposed, based on epidemiologically driven evidence and review of the current knowledge. Strategies for promotion in hospitals should include reasons for noncompliance with recommendations at individual, group, and institutional levels. Potential tools for change should address each of these elements and consider their interactivity. PMID:10879568

Pittet, D

2000-06-01

 
 
 
 
361

Hand hygiene among health care workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Healthcare-associated infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients worldwide. Transmission of health care associated pathogens generally occurs via the contaminated hands of health care workers. Hand hygiene has long been considered one of the most important infection control measures to prevent health care-associated infections. For generations, hand washing with soap and water has been considered a measure of personal hygiene. As early as 1822, a French pharmacist demonstrated that solutions containing chlorides of lime or soda could eradicate the foul odor associated with human corpses and that such solutions could be used as disinfectants and antiseptics. This paper provides a comprehensive review of data regarding hand washing and hand antisepsis in healthcare settings. In addition, it provides specific recommendations to uphold improved hand-hygiene practices and reduce transmission of pathogenic microorganisms to patients and personnel in healthcare settings. This article also makes recommendations and suggests the significance of hand health hygiene in infection control.

Mani Ameet

2010-01-01

362

Specificities of hand trauma in agriculture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background/Aim. Hand injuries in agriculture are characterized by massive destruction of all tissues, frequent amputations of finger, hand and often the whole extremity. These injuries are mutilant and can cause death. The aim of this paper was to show the specificities of hand injuries in agriculture in regard to hand injuries of other etiology. Methods. We analyzed patients that were treated in the Department for Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Clinical Center Vojvodina, during a five-year period (2003-2007 because of hand injuries. Results. In a five-year period there were 366 patients hospitalized because of hand injuries, out of whom 36 injuries were related to agricultural machinery use. In both groups the number of patients trended to increased, with male gender being dominant. Most of the patients were young or middle-aged men. In agricultural injuries most of the patients were in the group of 41-50-year old (30%, while in the other group, the patients were younger (21-30-year old. Hand injuries in agriculture resulted in finger amputation in 92%, while in the other group that number was much smaller (13%. Skin defect reconstruction in agricultural injuries required complex methods of skin grafting or skin flaps in more than 71%, while this was necessary in only 10% of other hand injuries. Conclusion. Hand injuries in agriculture are very mutilant and often result in conquassation and finger amputation. A possibility to preserve tissue damaged in this way is very limited, and skin closer usually requires complex methods.

Nikoli? Jelena

2009-01-01

363

ASL Based Hand Gesture Recognition System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available American Sign Language (ASL is a well developed and standard way of communication for hearing impaired people living in Englishspeaking communities. Since the advent of modern technology, different intelligent computer-aided application have been developed that can recognize hand gesture and hence translates gestures into understandable forms. In this proposed system, ASL based hand gesture system is presented that uses evolutionary programming technique called SIFT algorithm. Hand gestures images representing different English alphabets are used as an input to the system and then it is tested for a different set of images. The sign recognition accuracy obtained will be up to the mark.

Mr. Swapnil A. Bobade

2013-05-01

364

[The rheumatic hand - diagnostics in practice].  

Science.gov (United States)

Many rheumatic diseases show changes and are visible in the hands. The pattern of distribution in the relevant joints, soft-tissue changes, skin manifestations, neurological and vascular symptoms and clinical findings provide fundamental information. Imaging and lab results provide diagnostic support. In this review, common diseases are presented in terms of their clinical expressions in the hands: osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease, psoriatic arthritis, reactive arthritis, systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis/polymyositis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Furthermore, we discuss pathological findings of the hands as a result of diabetic cheiroarthropathia, endocarditis, secondary hypertrophic osteo-arthropathy and chronic regional pain syndrom. PMID:21932198

Micheroli, R; Kyburz, D; Ciurea, A; Tamborrini, G

2011-09-01

365

Prepackaged hand hygiene educational tools facilitate implementation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee released hand hygiene guidelines recommending that hospitals educate personnel to increase compliance with hand hygiene. However, few educational tools are available to assist hospitals in this effort. Eight hospitals were recruited to implement hand hygiene educational tools. Key informant interviews were conducted with infection control professionals (ICPs) at 5 participating hospitals. Lack of personnel time was the primary barrier to implementing the educational tools. Multimodal, prepackaged educational tools are needed to decrease barriers and facilitate implementation of interventions locally by ICPs. PMID:16630980

Lawton, Rachel M; Turon, Tara; Cochran, Ronda L; Cardo, Denise

2006-04-01

366

Alien hand syndrome in left posterior stroke.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alien hand syndrome is a rare neurological disorder characterized by involuntary and uncontrollable motor behaviour, usually of an arm or hand. The patient perceives the affected limb as alien, and may personify it. The case of a 61-year-old right-handed woman who developed right posterior AHS after ischaemic stroke in the left posterior cerebral artery territory is reported. Neuroimaging studies disclosed no frontal or parietal involvement, while a posterior thalamic lesion was detected. A possible role of the thalamus in the genesis of AHS is discussed. PMID:21327399

Bartolo, Michelangelo; Zucchella, C; Pichiecchio, A; Pucci, E; Sandrini, G; Sinforiani, E

2011-06-01

367

Hand Gesture Recognition: A Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hand gesture recognition system received great attention in the recent few years because of itsmanifoldness applications and the ability to interact with machine efficiently through human computerinteraction. In this paper a survey of recent hand gesture recognition systems is presented. Key issues ofhand gesture recognition system are presented with challenges of gesture system. Review methods of recentpostures and gestures recognition system presented as well. Summary of research results of hand gesturemethods, databases, and comparison between main gesture recognition phases are also given. Advantagesand drawbacks of the discussed systems are explained finally

Rafiqul Zaman Khan

2012-08-01

368

Dog bite injuries to the hand.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Dog bites to the hand and forearm are common. Although bites are usually minor, aggressive dogs may cause extensive bites developing to a public health problem. In a database review of dog bites to the hand applied to Emergency Department or to the Department of Hand Surgery in Malmö, Sweden 2008-2009, we found 81 cases 42 men and 39 women; median age 45 (range 2-88) years. Three of 81 (4%) were children younger than 11 years. Six of the 81 (8%) patients included had bilateral injur...

Nygaard Wulff, Marianne; Dahlin, Lars

2011-01-01

369

Hand Geometry Recognition System Using Feature Extraction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biometrics traits such as fingerprints, handgeometry, face and voice verification provide a reliablealternative for identity verification and are gainingcommercial and high user acceptability rate. Handgeometry based biometric system has proven to be themost suitable and acceptable biometric trait formedium and low security application. Geometricmeasurements of the human hand have been used foridentity authentication in a number of commercialsystems.This paper proposes a technique for hand biometricfeature extraction using hand contour matching. Handshape feature is obtained by using Euclidian distancefrom starting reference point and then calculate the tipand valley point of finger. Then apply somemathematical calculation for calculate the handgeometry features like finger length, width andperimeter.

Poonam Rathi , Dr. Sipi Dubey

2013-06-01

370

Hand preference for sending mobile-phone text messages: associations with sex, writing hand, and throwing hand.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hand preference for sending mobile-phone text messages ("texting") and its relationship with hand preference for other activities were investigated in a questionnaire study with 886 participants. Overall rates of both sinistrality and dextrality were reduced for texting, in comparison with other activities, due to the substantial number of individuals who use both hands simultaneously when performing this activity. Because they both involve verbal expression, it was hypothesised that the association between hand preferences for texting and writing might be stronger than the association between either of these tasks and more spatial activities, such as throwing. This prediction was not confirmed, either in the sample as a whole or in a sub-group of individuals who reported writing and throwing with opposite hands. Females were less likely than males to use their left hand when sending text messages. Implications of these findings are discussed, in relation to theoretical views of handedness and in relation to practical aspects of mobile-phone design. PMID:19003623

Lambert, Anthony; Hallett, Charlene

2009-07-01

371

Functional food acceptance in the food chain  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This thesis analyses consumer acceptance of functional foods and food manufacturers' decision to develop functional foods. The thesis sets up four key research questions: (1) How consumers accept functional foods enriched with omega-3? (2) How the intention of purchasing carrier ingredient combinations is explained by general attitudes to functional foods, consumers' health concerns, and the perceived fit of a particular carrier ingredient combination? (3) How food manufacturers decide to develop functional foods? (4) What are the determinants and drivers of food manufacturers' decision to develop functional foods? Research question 1 The health benefit of a functional food product is in fact limited if it is not eaten regularly and thus is not part of the healthy diet. For that reason it is highly relevant to look at the dietary change research when studying functional food acceptance. The purpose of paper 1 was to understand the process by which people choose healthy foods enriched with omega-3 ingredientas a case. The Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) (Schwarzer, 1992) was applied as the theoretical framework. The qualitative study has demonstrated partial usefulness of the HAPA model as an appropriate theoretical framework for consumers' choice of foods enriched with omega-3, fish oil supplements and to a lesser extent fatty fish naturally rich in omega-3. Self-efficacy and the outcome expectancy played a major role in choosing among the above mentioned options. Consumers' risk perception, as far as the choice of fatty fish and functional foods is concerned, are limited, which is why risk perception is the least useful one among all the three HAPA constructs. Research question 2 In paper 2, consumers' acceptance of different ingredients in selected foods was researched. The main aim of the paper was to determine which functional ingredients consumers would accept in selected product categories. Yoghurt, muesli bars, fish balls, tuna salad, baby meals, rye bread and bacon liver pâté were examined. Determinants of the acceptance of carrier ingredient combinations were another central issue of the paper. Results revealed that the general attitudes towards functional foods are related to the purchase intention with regard to functional foods described by their carrier/ingredient combinations. Consumers' attitudes towards specific carrier ingredient combinations define consumers' acceptance of functional foods. Research question 3 An extensive literature review was conducted and the theoretical framework of food manufacturers' decision to develop innovative functional foods by food manufacturers was developed as a part of paper 3. The paper discusses factors that possibly influence food manufacturers' decision making with regards to production of functional foods. Internal factors such as organisational characteristics, innovation characteristics, and external factors such as functional food ingredient suppliers' marketing efforts, collaboration between suppliers and food manufacturers and participation invarious networks are discussed as they are all expected to influence food manufacturers' decision to develop new functional foods. The research presented in paper 3 relies on a detailed review of relevant innovation management and food marketing literature. Research question 4 Food manufacturers' view on what are the key drivers of product development in functional food companies was the main focus of paper 4. This is a firm survey that identifies some of the key drivers for product development in functional food companies in Europe and North America. The results show that food ingredient suppliers' marketing efforts are one of the key influential factors for developing functional foods. Food manufacturers prefer long-term relationships with suppliers and they see suppliers' competencies in R&D as a bridge to consumer acceptance. Last but not least, results revealed that firm' internal factors, such as managerial initiative towards innovations and employees' competences, were important factors in deciding to develo

Krutulyte, Rasa

2010-01-01

372

Hygienic Practices among Food Vendors in Educational Institutions in Ghana: The Case of Konongo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the booming street food industry in the developing world there is an urgent need to ensure food vendors adhere to hygienic practices to protect public health. This study assessed the adherence to food hygiene practices by food vendors in educational institutions in Konongo, Ghana. Structured questionnaires, extensive observation and interviews were used for the study involving 60 food vendors from 20 basic schools. Attributable to the influence of school authorities and the level of in-training of food vendors, the study points out that food vendors in educational institutions generally adhered to good food hygiene practices, namely, regular medical examination (93%, protection of food from flies and dust (55%; proper serving of food (100%; good hand hygiene (63%; and the use of personal protective clothing (52%. The training of food vendors on food hygiene, instead of the level of education had a significant association (p < 0.05 with crucial food hygiene practices such as medical examination, hand hygiene and protection of food from flies and dust. Further, regulatory bodies legally mandated to efficiently monitor the activities of food vendors lacked the adequate capacity to do so. The study proposes that efforts should be geared towards developing training programmes for food vendors as well as capacity building of the stakeholders.

Isaac Monney

2013-07-01

373

Electromagnetic behaviour of left-handed materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using periodic materials composed of split-ring resonators (SRRs) and continuous wires is, up to now, the most common way of obtaining left-handed behaviour in the microwaves regime. In this work, using transmission simulations and measurements, we examine the electromagnetic behaviour of those materials, focusing mainly on their response to an external electric field and its crucial role in the achievement of left-handed behaviour. Moreover, we examine and theoretically demonstrate the possibility of the SRRs and wires design to give left-handed behaviour in the infrared and optical regime, as well as the possibility of obtaining left-handed behaviour using an alternative for the SRRs and wires design composed of pairs of short wires

374

Hand hygiene compliance rate among healthcare professionals.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

The overall hand hygiene compliance rate of healthcare professionals reached 50% after a long education campaign, and was highest among the nurses. Further study is needed to explore the reasons for non-compliance.

Syed Z. Bukhari

2011-05-01

375

A cost comparison of hand hygiene regimens.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cost and quality of two hand hygiene regimens were compared. A waterless alcohol-based rub was significantly less costly than traditional handwashing because of reduced time required, and was associated with significantly better quality. PMID:15382395

Cimiotti, Jeannie P; Stone, Patricia W; Larson, Elaine L

2004-01-01

376

Implementing AORN recommended practices for hand hygiene.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article focuses on implementing the revised AORN "Recommended practices for hand hygiene in the perioperative setting." The content of the document has been expanded and reorganized from the previous iteration and now includes specific activity statements about water temperature, water and soap dispensing controls, the type of dispensers to use, paper towel dispenser requirements, placement of soap and rub dispensers, and regulatory requirements for products and recommendations for hand hygiene practices. A successful hand hygiene program allows end users to have input into the selection and evaluation of products and should include educating personnel about proper hand hygiene, product composition and safety, and how and when to use specific products. Measures for competency evaluation and compliance monitoring include observations, quizzes, skills labs, electronic monitoring systems, handheld device applications, and data collection forms. PMID:22464622

Patrick, Marcia; Van Wicklin, Sharon A

2012-04-01

377

Reliability of hand preference items and factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examined the test-retest reliability of a 32-item version of the Waterloo Handedness Questionnaire (Steenhuis & Bryden, 1987, 1988, 1989) on 500 subjects. The questionnaire was shown to be reliable in terms of basic factor structure. High test-retest reliability was also found within subjects' responses and across items for both right-handers and left-handers, although left-handers were less consistent than right-handers, particularly with regard to direction of hand preference on individual questionnaire items. Furthermore, the direction of hand preference was more reliable than was the degree of hand preference. These data support a multidimensional view of hand preference in which both direction and degree can be reliably assessed. PMID:2286655

Steenhuis, R E; Bryden, M P; Schwartz, M; Lawson, S

1990-12-01

378

Hand Gesture Recognition Using Neural Networks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gestural interfaces have the potential of enhancing control operations in numerous applications. For Air Force systems, machine-recognition of whole-hand gestures may be useful as an alternative controller, especially when conventional controls are less a...

P. R. Morton, E. L. Fix, G. L. Calhoun

1996-01-01

379

Hand Gesture Recognition using Neural Network  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a simple method to recognize sign gesturesof American Sign Language using features like number of Peaksand Valleys in an image with its position in an image. Signlanguage is mainly employed by deaf-mutes to communicatewith each other through gestures and visions. We extract theskin part which represents the hand from an image usingL*a*b* Color space. Every hand gesture is cropped from animage such that hand is placed in the center of image for ease offinding features. The system does require hand to be properlyaligned to the camera and does not need any special colormarkers, glove or wearable sensors. The experimental resultsshow that 100% recognition rate for testing and training dataset.

Rajesh Mapari

2012-12-01

380

Static hand gesture recognition from a video  

Science.gov (United States)

A sign language (also signed language) is a language which, instead of acoustically conveyed sound patterns, uses visually transmitted sign patterns to convey meaning- "simultaneously combining hand shapes, orientation and movement of the hands". Sign languages commonly develop in deaf communities, which can include interpreters, friends and families of deaf people as well as people who are deaf or hard of hearing themselves. In this paper, we proposed a novel system for recognition of static hand gestures from a video, based on Kohonen neural network. We proposed algorithm to separate out key frames, which include correct gestures from a video sequence. We segment, hand images from complex and non uniform background. Features are extracted by applying Kohonen on key frames and recognition is done.

Rokade, Rajeshree S.; Doye, Dharmpal

2011-10-01

 
 
 
 
381

A REVIEW ON HAND GETSURE RECOGNITION SYSTEMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gesture recognition is a topic in computerscience and language technology with the goal ofinterpreting human gestures via mathematicalalgorithms. Gestures can originate from any bodilymotion or state but commonly originate from the faceor hand. Current focuses in the field include emotionrecognition from the face and hand gesture recognition.Many approaches have been made using cameras andcomputer vision algorithms to interpret sign language.However, the identification and recognition of posture,gait and human behaviors is also the subject of gesturerecognition techniques. This paper handles the casestudy on the different hand gesture recognition systemsand also the devices with data glove and vocalizersystem. These systems are beneficial for disable peopleand their hands will speak having worn the gesturevocalizer data glove.

Mr. Prashant Chaudhari,Prof. G. R. Phulay,Mr. Ravindra Patil

2013-01-01

382

Hand and foot syndrome secondary to capecitabine.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 55-year-old woman on treatment with capecitabine and paclitaxel for breast carcinoma presented with history of a tingling sensation in her hands and feet with a progressive burning sensation. She also noted discomfort, minimal pain and stiffness while holding objects. On examination, there was patchy hyperpigmentation of both the palms and soles, and the dorsa of hands and feet. This was accompanied by a thickening of the skin more over the knuckles and toes. In addition there was a moist desquamation around the toes and over the palmar creases and a bluish discoloration of the lunulae of both thumbnails. She was diagnosed with hand and foot syndrome and started on pyridoxine and emollients. The finding of keratoderma noted in our patient is not seen commonly in hand and foot syndrome. PMID:25201844

Lal, Hina Shaikh

2014-01-01

383

Development of Food Retailing and Factors Affecting the Competition in Food Retailing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Retailing is a dynamic and complex sector that offers wide range of products and services to consumers. This sector which includes different types of enterprises, has an important position within the supply chain. Food retailing has also a big potential within retailing sector. On the other hand, an intensive competition exists in food retailing. Taking place in the competitive market, food retailers attempt to gain a competitive advantage against their rivals with their geographic location, product selection and type, offered service quality and pricing alternatives. Additionally, food retailers also incline to develop their own branded products. The purpose of this study is to examine the development of food retailing sector, competitive structure and the main factors affecting this structure.

Serkan Kilic

2010-04-01

384

MRT of the hand in chronic polyarthritis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Forty hands of 39 patients with rheumatic joint disease were examined by MRT. The method differentiates between inflammatory exsudative and proliferative processes in soft tissues and bone. T2-weighted images provided criteria for judging the activity of the disease. MRT provided better demonstration of the soft tissues than just conventional radiography. The methods were of equal value for showing bone lesions. MRT is suitable as a means of diagnosing rheumatoid changes in the hand. (orig.)

385

Design and Development of Robot Hand System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research on robot hand design is being carried out to accommodate a variety of tasks such as grasping and manipulation of objects in the field of industrial applications, service robots and rehabilitation robots. Problem statement: To design and develop a microcontroller-based four fingered robotic hand with a simple and minimal control strategy to pick and place application with object detection by simple IR sensor logic. Approach: The methodology is based on anthropomorphic design with three fingers and an opposing thumb. Each finger has three links and three double revolute joints. Each finger is actuated by a single opposing pair of tendons. The robot hand system is interfaced to microcontroller with software control by means of 14 independent commands for the motion of joints: close and open for fore finger, middle finger, ring finger and thumb finger and wrist up and down, base clockwise and counter clockwise, pick and place and home position. The tendoning system and wireless feedback logic provide the hand with the ability to confirm to object topology and therefore providing the advantage of using a simple control structure. Results: Reliable grasping and releasing is achieved with simple control mechanisms and IR sensors/push-button switches. The hand can pick a variety of objects with different surface characteristics and shapes without having to reconstruct its surface description. Picking of the object is successfully completed as long as the object is within the workspace of the hand and placed the object at the desired position within the workspace by relevant software control using keyboard commands. Conclusion: Hardware and software development of microcontroller-based four-fingered robotic hand is addressed. Details of hand control software for mainly pick and place applications are presented. Results of the experimental work for pick and place application of different objects is enumerated.

Panchumarthy Seetharamaiah

2011-01-01

386

Ectrodactyly/split hand feet malformation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Split-hand/split-foot malformation is a rare limb malformation with median clefts of the hands and feet and aplasia/hypoplasia of the phalanges, metacarpals and metatarsals. When present as an isolated anomaly, it is usually inherited as an autosomal dominant form. We report a case of autosomal recessive inheritance and discuss the antenatal diagnosis, genetic counseling and treatment for the malformation.

Jindal Geetanjali

2009-01-01

387

Hand Hygiene Saves Lives: Patient Admission Video  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This podcast is for hospital patients and visitors. It emphasizes two key points to help prevent infections: the importance of practicing hand hygiene while in the hospital, and that it's appropriate to ask or remind healthcare providers to practice hand hygiene.  Created: 5/1/2008 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID).   Date Released: 6/19/2008.

2008-05-01

388

A new concept for surgical hand disinfection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the development of and justification for a different procedure in surgical hand disinfection based on results of our own studies and data from the literature. An overview of the importance of hand disinfection, outstanding persons who substantially contributed to its development, and fundamentals of its implementation are also presented.Focussing on the resident flora as the target of surgical hand disinfection, the microflora of the hand is addressed. Consequences for disinfection are discussed as a result of this analysis. Results of our own studies on reducing spore load through social handwashing, on alcohol concentration and bacterial count in worn-glove juice, and on the comparison of the effectivity of standard handwashing methods vs. alcoholic hand disinfections vs. disinfection alone without handwashing vs. disinfection alone plus additional brushing-in of the tested (European Standard DIN prEN12791 disinfectant ethanol 79% v/v, 60% v/v propan-1-ol or 60% v/v propan-2-ol around the fingernails are also discussed. To summarize, disinfection alone and disinfection in conjunction with brushing-in of alcohol tend to be superior to the standard method with a previous washing with soap. From a dermatological and microbiological hygienic point of view, it is recommended that handwashing with soap should be performed to remove bacterial spores at least 10 minutes prior to hand disinfection, in order to optimize skin tolerance and to prevent reducing the efficacy of the disinfection.

Kramer, Axel

2006-08-01

389

Food insecurity, neighborhood food access, and food assistance in Philadelphia.  

Science.gov (United States)

An estimated 17.6 million American households were food insecure in 2012, meaning they were unable to obtain enough food for an active and healthy life. Programs to augment local access to healthy foods are increasingly widespread, with unclear effects on food security. At the same time, the US government has recently enacted major cuts to federal food assistance programs. In this study, we examined the association between food insecurity (skipping or reducing meal size because of budget), neighborhood food access (self-reported access to fruits and vegetables and quality of grocery stores), and receipt of food assistance using the 2008, 2010, and 2012 waves of the Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Health Survey. Of 11,599 respondents, 16.7 % reported food insecurity; 79.4 % of the food insecure found it easy or very easy to find fruits and vegetables, and 60.6 % reported excellent or good quality neighborhood grocery stores. In our regression models adjusting for individual- and neighborhood-level covariates, compared to those who reported very difficult access to fruits and vegetables, those who reported difficult, easy or very easy access were less likely to report food insecurity (OR 0.62: 95 % CI 0.43-0.90, 0.33: 95 % CI 0.23-0.47, and 0.28: 95 % CI 0.20-0.40). Compared to those who reported poor stores, those who reported fair, good, and excellent quality stores were also less likely to report food insecurity (OR 0.81: 95 % CI 0.60-1.08, 0.58: 95 % CI 0.43-0.78, and 0.43: 95 % CI 0.31-0.59). Compared to individuals not receiving food assistance, those receiving Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits were significantly more likely to be food insecure (OR 1.36: 95 % CI 1.11-1.67), while those receiving benefits from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) (OR 1.17: 95 % CI 0.77-1.78) and those receiving both SNAP and WIC (OR 0.84: 95 % CI 0.61-1.17) did not have significantly different odds of food insecurity. In conclusion, better neighborhood food access is associated with lower risk of food insecurity. However, most food insecure individuals reported good access. Improving diet in communities with high rates of food insecurity likely requires not only improved access but also greater affordability. PMID:25047157

Mayer, Victoria L; Hillier, Amy; Bachhuber, Marcus A; Long, Judith A

2014-12-01

390

Holiday Food Safety  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Resource Library Food Facts for Consumers Selected Health Topics For Women Kids & Teens Resources for You Foodsafety.gov Fightbac.org Food Safety and Inspection Service Holiday Food Safety Many ...

391

Food guide plate  

Science.gov (United States)

... with empty calories. These are foods high in sugar or fat. Eating a balance of healthy foods from all 5 food groups Making better choices when eating out at restaurants Cooking at home more often, where you can control ...

392

Food Allergy Diagnosis  

Science.gov (United States)

... on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Food Allergy Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area ... out if your symptoms are caused by an allergy to specific foods, food intolerance, or other health ...

393

Food Label and You  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Home Food Ingredients, Packaging & Labeling Labeling & Nutrition Section ... Nutrition Labeling Information for Restaurants & Retail Establishments The Food Label and You — Video FDA presents an entertaining ...

394

food ind eff pc  

...Ireland) 1972 A Guide for Food Industry Effluents Discharge Consents and...of companies operate within the food sector including; cheese and milk...grease, suspended solids and water. Food Industry Effluent Discharge Standards Consent...

395

Food Label and You  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Road Food (Finding Nutrition Information on the Road) Game Show Review (Are You Smarter Than A Food Label?) The Food Label & You (full video) Introduction back to menu CSI (Calorie Scene Investigators) ...

396

Food Label and You  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... to Z Index Follow FDA En Español Enter Search terms Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Home Food Ingredients, ...

397

Figuring Out Food Labels  

Science.gov (United States)

... in percentages . Food contains fat, protein, carbohydrates, and fiber. Food also contains vitamins, such as A and C, ... Kids also can use labels to compare two foods. Which one has more fiber? Which one has more fat? Which one has ...

398

Forest Food Web  

Science.gov (United States)

Food webs are an interconnection of producers, consumers, and decomposers. It is important to understand that a change to any level of the food web directly and indirectly affects other organisms within the food web.

Katie Hale (CSUF;Biological Sciences)

2007-07-14

399

Food, Eating and Alzheimer's  

Science.gov (United States)

... foods . Offer vegetables, fruits, whole grains, low-fat dairy products and lean protein foods. Limit foods with high saturated fat and cholesterol . Some fat is essential for health — but not all fats are equal. Go light ...

400

Holiday Food Safety  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Your Health A to Z Index Follow FDA En Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home ... Refrigerate food promptly Holiday Food Safety Video (English) (en español) Ready-to-Cook Foods: Follow Directions to ...

 
 
 
 
401

MRSA and Food Products  

Science.gov (United States)

... VA) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) MRSA and Food Products Be food safe Studies over many years have ... Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), in a variety of food products including retail meats and raw milk. While more ...

402

Food Statistics Pocketbook 2009  

The agri-food sector is the food sector plus agriculture and fishing. Agriculture \\and ...... Convenience/speed. Number of .... fish. Dolphin friend ly tuna. £ m illion. \\2006. 2007. •. Sales of ethical food and drink, including organic, fairtrade, free-.

403

Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... about the foods you eat. Are they primarily nutrient-dense, like these, [ photos of melon, red bell ... Gloria are older adults who choose to eat nutrient-dense foods, foods that are high in nutrients ...

404

Tylor vs. Westermarck: Explaining the Incest Taboo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the late 19th century arguments explaining incest avoidance were framed separately by Edward Tylor and Edward Westermarck. Tylor offered an environmental theory asserting that people have to marry outside of their own kin and communities or die out from the detrimental effects of isolation. Westermarck turned to Darwin’s theory to explain that harmful inbreeding had been selected against in the human genome. By the late 20th and early 21st centuries explanations of human behaviors have become increasingly encompassed by natural selection theory. The debate concerning the productiveness of evolutionary biology for explaining complex human behaviors is highly contentious and continues unabated. Although human evolutionists repeatedly say that environment is important for understanding human behavior they often do not develop this part of the equation. Behind the prestige of evolutionary biology selection models of human behavior have passed into popular science and the public psyche. Often heard today from a wide range of highly visible media sources is an assortment of topics on human behaviors which are framed by Darwinian assumptions. Contemplations about incest and inbreeding avoidance fall into this category and are presented by Darwinian social science as the best case example demonstrating evolutionary suppositions about human behavior. In the article that follows these issues are framed and examined. The argument is offered that evolutionary approaches are not always the most compelling and that convincing environmental explanations are overlooked.

Gregory C. Leavitt

2013-01-01

405

"Suicide Machine" Seekers: Transgressing Suicidal Taboos Online  

Science.gov (United States)

Internet-mediated joint suicides or "Net group suicides" ("Net shinju") has become a significant social problem in Japan since 2002. Despite a privileged view of suicide-related cyberspaces as a murky underworld, there has been little study about how the participants of such spaces interact and perform their "suicidal" identity. Viewing cyberspace…

Seko, Yukari

2008-01-01

406

Sex as a taboo subject in kindergarten  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Preschool period and experience which child gains in that time, have a big impact on individuals subsequent conception of sexuality and relations between genders. Therefore sexuality shouldn't be a theme that is left out by parents and preschool teachers. Because of the research of 75 professional workers (preschool teachers and assistants) from kindergarten Ciciban Ljubljana, Kindergarten Zelena jama Ljubljana and Kindergarten Ilke Devetak Tolmin, I came to a conclusion that sexuality is sti...

Ivanc?ic?, Nika

2011-01-01

407

Introduction: from local food to localised food  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Local food has captured the interest of a number of academic disciplines and many of them are represented in this special issue of Anthropology of Food, based on a European Scientific Foundation exploratory workshop where European researchers met to discuss the concept of local food (see part 2). Through a pluridisciplinary perspective, this issue deepens the problematic and adds to research questions on local food in both empirical and theoretical ways, while raising an uncertainty about the...

Georgina Holt; Virginie Amilien

2007-01-01

408

Introduction: from local food to localised food  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Local food has captured the interest of a number of academic disciplines and many of them are represented in this special issue of Anthropology of Food, based on a European Scientific Foundation exploratory workshop where European researchers met to discuss the concept of local food (see part 2. Through a pluridisciplinary perspective, this issue deepens the problematic and adds to research questions on local food in both empirical and theoretical ways, while raising an uncertainty about the...

Georgina Holt

2007-04-01

409

Food protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The motion is to consolidate the Food Protection (Emergency Prohibitions) (England) (No 2) Order 1987 and seven subsequent amendment orders, into one order. The orders are those under which restrictions on the movement of sheep as a result of the Chernobyl accident are carried out. A debate lasting more than two hours followed and this is reported verbatim. Much of the early part of the debate concerns a telex message allegedly from the chief scientist of the radiochemical institute saying that meat contaminated by radiation after Chernobyl was sold in Britain. Both the source and the content of the telex were found not to be as alleged. In particular, the allegation that 10kg lambs had gone to market. The minister pointed out that these lambs were not big enough to be sold. The debate broadened into a more general discussion as to levels of contamination in sheep and the government diligence or otherwise in protecting the public. The motion was agreed to. (U.K.).

Gummer, S.; Campbell-Savours, D.N.; Maxwell-Hyslop, R.

1987-11-25

410

Food protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The motion is to consolidate the Food Protection (Emergency Prohibitions) (England) (No 2) Order 1987 and seven subsequent amendment orders, into one order. The orders are those under which restrictions on the movement of sheep as a result of the Chernobyl accident are carried out. A debate lasting more than two hours followed and this is reported verbatim. Much of the early part of the debate concerns a telex message allegedly from the chief scientist of the radiochemical institute saying that meat contaminated by radiation after Chernobyl was sold in Britain. Both the source and the content of the telex were found not to be as alleged. In particular, the allegation that 10kg lambs had gone to market. The minister pointed out that these lambs were not big enough to be sold. The debate broadened into a more general discussion as to levels of contamination in sheep and the government diligence or otherwise in protecting the public. The motion was agreed to. (U.K.)

411

Norovirus on swabs taken from hands illustrate route of transmission: a case study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, environmental swabs from kitchen and bathroom surfaces have been described as an additional tool for the detection of norovirus in outbreak settings. This article describes an outbreak investigation in response to the reporting of gastroenteritis in three unrelated groups of 6, 12, and 13 adults approximately 30 h after having meals in the same restaurant. Fecal samples were collected from 13 patients and six food handlers, and environmental swabs were taken from the soap dispenser, working bench, doorknobs of cupboards, and the grip of a knife in the kitchen and in bathrooms as well as from the hands of each of three employees on the day of inspection. Clinical and environmental samples were analyzed separately in time and location for the presence of norovirus by real-time reverse transcription PCR. Structured interviews revealed that all staff members had suffered from gastroenteritis, one after the other. Norovirus RNA (GGI.6) was detected in 17 of 19 fecal samples as well as in 4 environmental samples, including a swab sample from the hands of a staff member who was preparing ready-to-eat food. Sequences obtained from clinical and environmental samples showed an identity of 100% (235 nucleotides). To our knowledge, this is the first case study to directly demonstrate the presence of norovirus RNA on a food handler's hands in an outbreak setting. This finding provides direct evidence for the feasibility of transmission of norovirus by a food handler to food. Education of food handlers on the infectivity of norovirus and updating of hygienic codes are strongly recommended. PMID:19722414

Boxman, Ingeborg; Dijkman, Remco; Verhoef, Linda; Maat, Angelique; van Dijk, Geert; Vennema, Harry; Koopmans, Marion

2009-08-01

412

The food we eat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper on the 'food we eat' includes a suggestion that food irradiation may prove invaluable to the future food industry. The use of food irradiation to inactivate or destroy micro-organisms is described - irradiation would not be used on all foods, it would complement existing methods of reducing contamination by micro-organisms. The chemical changes in spoiled food and chemical additives are also discussed. (U.K.)

413

Food additives - Invited Author  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Food additives are defined as substances which aren’t consumed alone as food, but are permitted to be used to protect, fix and prevent unwanted changes of food during preparation, classification, processing, packaging, transportation, storage and distribution of them. The purpose is to extend the shelf life of foods, to preserve the food qualities, to improve/develop sensory properties, to prevent the health risks, to reduce food losses, to have the technological requirement, to increase fo...

Tülay Erkan,

2010-01-01

414

[Occupational burden of the skin: the example of hands].  

Science.gov (United States)

The target body part primarily affected by stress in an occupation are the hands. The hands are involved in 90-95 % of the nearly 18,000 cases of occupation-related skin diseases registered every year. Harmful substances and stressing procedures, such as, e. g., wet work, tensides, organic solvents, lubricating coolants, metals, and even foods, are able to cause irritation of the skin. These noxious substances penetrate the skin and either cause direct damage of the protective skin barrier (irritative contact dermatitis (CD)) or provoke an immunological reaction (allergic CD); both will become manifest in eczemas of various forms. In order to avoid such eczemas preventive measures have to be taken. Primary prevention includes the reduction of harmful substances or even their replacement (e. g., chromate in cement or powder in latex gloves). Secondary prevention comprises, among other measures, training programs to educate in methods of skin protection and skin care. If all these measures are taken in a consistent manner the occurrence of skin diseases that are subject to compensation claims can be avoided. PMID:18369568

Niedner, R

2008-03-01

415

Rising food costs & global food security: key issues & relevance for India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rising food costs can have major impact on vulnerable households, pushing those least able to cope further into poverty and hunger. On the other hand, provided appropriate policies and infrastructure are in place, higher agricultural prices can also raise farmers' incomes and rural wages, improve rural economies and stimulate investment for longer-term economic growth. High food prices since 2007 have had both short-term impacts and long-term consequences, both good and bad. This article reviews the evidence of how rising costs have affected global food security since the food price crisis of 2007-2008, and their impact on different categories of households and countries. In light of recent studies, we know more about how households, and countries, cope or not with food price shocks but a number of contentious issues remain. These include the adequacy of current estimates and the interpretation of national and household food and nutrition security indicators. India is a particularly important country in this regard, given the high number of food insecure, the relative weight of India in global estimates of food and nutrition insecurity, and the puzzles that remain concerning the country's reported declining per capita calorie consumption. Competing explanations for what is behind it are not in agreement, but these all point to the importance of policy and programme innovation and greater investment necessary to reach the achievable goal of food and nutrition security for all. PMID:24135190

Gustafson, Daniel J

2013-09-01

416

Food irradiation: Its role in food safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document provides a brief overview of the process of food irradiation and describes the potential for food irradiation in the Asia-Pacific region. The advantages in controlling food-borne diseases and in promoting trade are discussed. 4 tabs

417

Food allergens: Hypersensitivity to food and food constituents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Adverse reactions to food which occur only in susceptible individuals may result from true physical hypersensitivity to components of foods or from psychological factors. Non-allergic food hypersensitivity may be due to a metabolic defect in the affected individual, while in food allergy immune mechanism is involved. Food allergy can be further subdivided into IgE-mediated food allergy and non-IgE-mediated food allergy, depending on the underlying allergic mechanism. Most cases of confirmed food allergy involve the production of IgE antibodies and a network of interactions between various cell types and chemical mediators. This type of allergic reaction is known as an IgE-mediated allergy (or a type I hypersensitivity reaction, and it produces immediate symptoms. The most severe form of IgE-mediated allergy is systematic answer known as anaphylaxis that can be fatal in the absence of adequate medical help. Other less severe allergy manifestations are symptoms like swelling, itching, redness and heat in the mouth, gut, skin or respiratory tract. Hypersensitivity to food requires special dietary treatment, but total exclusion of some foods from the diet can be very difficult, because of the wide distribution of some foodstuffs in the diet or their presence as impurities in other foods. It is very important that producers have good systems of control, traceability and labeling of possible presence of food allergens in order to help people with food allergies to conduct their restrictive diets that are in most cases their lifelong treatment.

Stankovi? Ivan

2008-01-01

418

Is food irradiation harmful  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper reports on a seminar on 'The irradiation of food', held in London, 1987, and organised by the Royal Society and the Association of British Science Writers. A description is given of the food irradiation techniques. Problems with food irradiation are discussed with respect to the nutritional value of food, killing of microorganisms, survival of fungi following treatment, mutation of irradiated bacteria, and chemical changes produced in the food. Monitoring and controls of food that has been irradiated is discussed. A personal opinion of irradiated food by the author is given, including a verdict on irradiated food. (UK)

419

Correction of severe postburn claw hand.  

Science.gov (United States)

Burn scar contractures are perhaps the most frequent and most frustrating sequelae of thermal injuries to the hand. Unfortunately, stiffness occurs in the burned hand quickly. A week of neglect in the burned hand can lead to digital malpositioning and distortion that may be difficult to correct. The dorsal contracture is the most common of all the complications of the burned hand. It is the result of damage to the thin dorsal skin and scant subcutaneous tissue, which offers little protection to the deeper structures. Consequently, these injuries are deep resulting in a spectrum of deformities that has remained the bane of reconstructive surgery. Flap coverage will be required in the event of exposure of joints and tendons with absent paratenons. Multiple different flap types are available to treat complex severe postburn hand contractures. In our center, which is the largest regional burn center in northwest Iran, we have considerable experience in the treatment of thermal hand injuries. Between 2005 and 2010, we treated 53 consecutive patients with 65 severe postburn hand deformities. There were 35 men and 18 women with a mean age of 35±3 years. Flame injury was the inciting traumatic event in each patient. The severity of original injury and inadequate early treatment resulted in all of the fingers developing a severe extension contracture with scarred and adherent extensor tendons and subluxed metacarpophalangeal joints. In 36 cases, the injury was in the patients' dominant hand. We first incised the dorsal aspect of the contracted hands where there was maximum tension, then tenolysed the extensor tendons and released the volar capsules, collateral ligaments, and volar plate in all cases. In 30 cases, we also tenolysed the flexor tendons. We reduced the subluxed metacarpophalangeal joints and fixed them with Kirschner wires in 70 to 90 degrees flexion. Then, we planned and performed axial groin flaps to reconstruct the defects in all of them. In all of these patients, there was availability of intact skin in the territory of groin flap. However, in case of burn scars in this region, we had other options such as posterior interosseous flap in mind. Six patients experienced superficial necrosis at the distal margin of the flap, which was successfully treated with local wound care and dressing changes. There were no other complications. Physical therapy was initiated after Kirschner wire removal. PMID:22105641

Davami, Babak; Pourkhameneh, Golnar

2011-12-01

420

Using Food to Demonstrate Earth Science Concepts  

Science.gov (United States)

One way to better engage K-16 students with the earth sciences is through classroom demonstrations with food. We summarize references from journals and the world wide web that use food to illustrate earth science concepts. Examples of how edible substances have been used include using candy bars to demonstrate weathering concepts, ice cream to mimic glaciers, and grapes to demonstrate evaporation. We also categorize these demonstrations into geology, weather, space science, and oceanography categories. We further categorize the topics by grade level, web versus traditional print format, amount of time necessary to prepare a lesson plan, and whether the activity is better used as a demonstration or hands on activity.

Walter, J.; Francek, M.

2001-12-01

 
 
 
 
421

Hand dermatitis in beauticians in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One hundred and sixty-one beauticians and hairdressers (146 women and 15 men were examined for the presence of hand dermatitis and those with hand eczema were patch tested with a battery of antigens standardised for beauticians. Forty-two (26.1% subjects were found to have hand dermatitis and of these, in 31 (69.3% the patch tests were positive; the following antigens elicited a positive response; paraphenylene diamine (35.5%, rubber antigens (22.6%, nickel (22.6%, shampoos (12.9%, ammonium thioglycollate (9.7%, ammonium persulphate (3.2%, henna mixture (3.2% and detergents (6.5%. In addition, irritant reaction was seen in 7; in 5 patients it was to shampoos and in 2 to ammonium persulphate. Of the 8 patients who, on questioning, had a history of atopy, 7 (87.5% had hand eczema, while 1 (12.5% did not, and this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001, suggesting that beauticians with a history of atopy were more likely to develop hand eczema.

Khanna Neena

1997-01-01

422

More than two HANDs to tango.  

Science.gov (United States)

Developing a validated tool for the rapid and efficient assessment of cognitive functioning in HIV-infected patients in a typical outpatient clinical setting has been an unmet goal of HIV research since the recognition of the syndrome of HIV-associated dementia (HAD) nearly 20 years ago. In this issue of JNIP Cross et al. report the application of the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) in a U.S.-based urban outpatient clinic to evaluate its utility as a substitute for the more time- and effort-demanding formalized testing criteria known as the Frascati criteria that was developed in 2007 to define the syndrome of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). In this study an unselected cohort of 507 individuals (68 % African American) that were assessed using the IHDS in a cross-sectional study revealed a 41 % prevalence of cognitive impairment (labeled ‘symptomatic HAND’) that was associated with African American race, older age, unemployment, education level, and depression. While the associations between cognitive impairment and older age, education, unemployment status and depression in HIV-infected patients are not surprising, the association with African American ancestry and cognitive impairment in the setting of HIV infection is a novel finding of this study. This commentary discusses several important issues raised by the study, including the pitfalls of assessing cognitive functioning with rapid screening tools, cognitive testing criteria, normative testing control groups, accounting for HAND co-morbidity factors, considerations for clinical trials assessing HAND, and selective population vulnerability to HAND. PMID:24233518

Kolson, Dennis; Buch, Shilpa

2013-12-01

423

Dental education of left-handed students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Asymmetrical activity of brain hemispheres is projected through laterality e.g. the dominance of one of the paired organs. A very important way of laterality manifestation is left-handedness. The lef-handed must solve various conflicts with their environment, so mild left-handedness usually shifts into dominant right-handedness in the early childhood, fortunately with no difficulties. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the number and distribution of left-handed dental students, check the possibilities and propose measures for solving the problem in their education. Material and methods: The study was conducted at Belgrade University School of Dentistry, dept. of restorative dentistry and endodontics. During two academic years, six generations of senior dental students (III, IV and V year students completed a questionnaire, i.e. 1385 individuals were included in the survey. Results: The questionnaire revealed that out of the total number or students involved in the study 62 (4.48% students were left-handed. The distribution of left-handed students is relatively uniform and concentrated between 4-6% of the sample. Conclusion: Even though the number of left-handed students is small, it is necessary to change conditions for their education and enable their proper development.

Grga ?urica

2006-01-01

424

Comparison of surgically induced astigmatism between one-handed and two-handed cataract surgery techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Atsushi Kawahara,1 Daijiro Kurosaka,2 Akitoshi Yoshida31Department of Ophthalmology, Sapporo Tokushukai Hospital, Sapporo, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Iwate Medical University, Morioka, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Asahikawa Medical University, Asahikawa, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to compare surgically induced astigmatism (SIA between one-handed and two-handed cataract surgery techniques.Methods: Eighty-eight eyes of 44 patients with no ocular disease other than cataract, who underwent cataract surgery by a single surgeon, were selected for this study. Cataract surgery was performed by coaxial phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation via a 2.4 mm transconjunctival single-plane sclerocorneal incision at the 12 o'clock position. In each patient, one eye was subjected to coaxial phacoemulsification using a one-handed technique while the fellow eye was subjected to coaxial phacoemulsification using a two-handed technique. For the two-handed technique, a corneal side port was created at the 2 o'clock position. The appropriate incision meridian was identified by a preoperative axis mark. SIA was calculated using the Alpins method.Results: Mean SIA was 0.40 ± 0.28 diopters (D in the one-handed technique group and 0.39 ± 0.25 D in the two-handed technique group. No statistically significant difference was found in the mean SIA score. The mean torque value was ?0.05 ± 0.26 D in the one-handed technique group and 0.11 ± 0.37 D in the two-handed technique group. Mean torque was significantly lower (P<0.05 in the one-handed technique group than in the two-handed technique group.Conclusion: The results indicate that the corneal side port in two-handed cataract surgery has a rotating effect on the axis of astigmatism.Keywords: cataract surgery, corneal side port, surgically induced astigmatism

Kawahara A

2013-10-01

425

Computer screen saver hand hygiene information curbs a negative trend in hand hygiene behavior  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Appropriate hand hygiene among health care workers is the most important infection prevention measure; however, compliance is generally low. Gain-framed messages (ie, messages that emphasize the benefits of hand hygiene rather than the risks of noncompliance) may be most effective, but have not been tested. Methods: The study was conducted in a 27-bed neonatal intensive care unit. We performed an inter- rupted time series analysis of objectively measured hand disinfection event...

Helder, O. K.; Weggelaar, A. M.; Waarsenburg, D. J. C.; Looman, C. W. N.; Goudoever, J. B.; Brug, J.; Kornelisse, R. F.

2012-01-01

426

International standards and agreements in food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The economies of both developed and developing countries have been effected by their exported food and agricultural products. Trading policies of food and agricultural products are governed by international agreement as well as national regulations. Trade in food and agricultural commodities may be affected by both principal Agreements within the overall World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, though neither specifically refers to irradiation or irradiated foods. The principal Agreements are the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement and the Sanitary and Phyto sanitary (SPS) Agreement. The SPS of the WTO requires governments to harmonize their sanitary and phyto sanitary measures on as wide basis as possible. Related standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard setting bodies such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission (food safety); the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (plant health and quarantine); and International Office of Epizootic (animal health and zoo noses) should be used in such a harmonization. International Standards for Phyto sanitary Measures (ISPM) no.18 was published under the IPPC by FAO (April 2003, Rome-Italy). ISPM standard provides technical guidance on the specific procedure for the application of ionizing radiation as a phyto sanitary treatment for regulated pests or articles. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods (Stand 106-1983) and Recommended International Code of Practice were first published in 1983 and revised in March 2003. Scope of this standard applies to foods processed by ionizing radiation that is used in conjunction with applicable hygienic codes, food standards and transportation codes. It does not apply to foods exposed to doses imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes. Codex documents on Principles and Guidelines for the Import/Export Inspection and Certification of Foods have been prepared to guide international trade.On the other hand national regulations should take account of internationally agreed Codes and Guidelines regarding the irradiation facilities and radiation processing

427

International standards and agreements in food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The economies of both developed and developing countries have been effected by their exported food and agricultural products. Trading policies of food and agricultural products are governed by international agreement as well as national regulations. Trade in food and agricultural commodities may be affected by both principal Agreements within the overall World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, though neither specifically refers to irradiation or irradiated foods. The principal Agreements are the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement and the Sanitary and Phyto sanitary (SPS) Agreement. The SPS of the WTO requires governments to harmonize their sanitary and phyto sanitary measures on as wide basis as possible. Related standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard setting bodies such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission (food safety); the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (plant health and quarantine); and International Office of Epizootic (animal health and zoo noses) should be used in such a harmonization. International Standards for Phyto sanitary Measures (ISPM) no.18 was published under the IPPC by FAO (April 2003, Rome-Italy). ISPM standard provides technical guidance on the specific procedure for the application of ionizing radiation as a phyto sanitary treatment for regulated pests or articles. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods (Stand 106-1983) and Recommended International Code of Practice were first published in 1983 and revised in March 2003. Scope of this standard applies to foods processed by ionizing radiation that is used in conjunction with applicable hygienic codes, food standards and transportation codes. It does not apply to foods exposed to doses imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes. Codex documents on Principles and Guidelines for the Import/Export Inspection and Certification of Foods have been prepared to guide international trade.On the other hand national regulations should take account of internationally agreed Codes and Guidelines regarding the irradiation facilities and radiation processing. (author)

428

Access to waterless hand sanitizer improves student hand hygiene behavior in primary schools in Nairobi, Kenya.  

Science.gov (United States)

Handwashing is difficult in settings with limited resources and water access. In primary schools within urban Kibera, Kenya, we investigated the impact of providing waterless hand sanitizer on student hand hygiene behavior. Two schools received a waterless hand sanitizer intervention, two schools received a handwashing with soap intervention, and two schools received no intervention. Hand cleaning behavior after toilet use was monitored for 2 months using structured observation. Hand cleaning after toileting was 82% at sanitizer schools (N = 2,507 toileting events), 38% at soap schools (N = 3,429), and 37% at control schools (N = 2,797). Students at sanitizer schools were 23% less likely to have observed rhinorrhea than control students (P = 0.02); reductions in student-reported gastrointestinal and respiratory illness symptoms were not statistically significant. Providing waterless hand sanitizer markedly increased student hand cleaning after toilet use, whereas the soap intervention did not. Waterless hand sanitizer may be a promising option to improve student hand cleansing behavior, particularly in schools with limited water access. PMID:23836575

Pickering, Amy J; Davis, Jennifer; Blum, Annalise G; Scalmanini, Jenna; Oyier, Beryl; Okoth, George; Breiman, Robert F; Ram, Pavani K

2013-09-01

429

Ethical food standard schemes and global trade : paralleling the WTO?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Global food trade embodies a range of different interpretations of the nature of food and its role in society. On the one hand, the WTO food regulation regime, in particular the SPS agreement, is based upon a somewhat instrumental value of food consumption in which food is seen as a commodity to be traded in accordance with international trade rules. At the same time, a number of private standards, such as GlobalG.A.P and various organic standards, are emerging which embody broadly postmaterialist values that suggest that food purchasing and consumption are also social, ethical and perhaps even political activities. This paper analyses the relationship between the WTO food trade regime on the one hand and the GlobalG.A.P and organic food trade regimes on the other. We suggest that competing values can co-exist in parallel institutions and in a commensalistic relationship which protects the values base of each institution while giving expression to both materialist and postmaterialist understandings of the nature of food.

Daugbjerg, Carsten; Botterill, Linda Courtenay

2012-01-01

430

Hand hygiene - patient and staff protection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hygienic hand disinfection must be conducted after every contact with or step performed on the patient where the risk of contamination is given, i.e., after every change of wound dressing, manipulation of catheters, contact with contaminated surfaces near the patient, and taking off protective gloves, and before aseptic tasks such as changing wound dressings. The agents of choice are alcohol-based hand disinfectants. The declared length of application must be strictly observed, because efficacy is not ensured if the application time is abbreviated. In cases where a virucidal hand disinfection is necessary, a preparation with manufacturer-declared efficacy against the respective virus must be chosen. Protective gloves must be worn for predictable or probable contact with pathogens, and where contamination with bodily excretions, secretions, and blood is possible. The regular performance of skin-care and skin-protection measures serves to prevent irritatively toxic skin damage.

Kramer, Axel

2006-08-01

431

Human computer interaction using hand gestures  

CERN Document Server

Human computer interaction (HCI) plays a vital role in bridging the 'Digital Divide', bringing people closer to consumer electronics control in the 'lounge'. Keyboards and mouse or remotes do alienate old and new generations alike from control interfaces. Hand Gesture Recognition systems bring hope of connecting people with machines in a natural way. This will lead to consumers being able to use their hands naturally to communicate with any electronic equipment in their 'lounge.' This monograph will include the state of the art hand gesture recognition approaches and how they evolved from their inception. The author would also detail his research in this area for the past 8 years and how the future might turn out to be using HCI. This monograph will serve as a valuable guide for researchers (who would endeavour into) in the world of HCI.

Premaratne, Prashan

2014-01-01

432

Unconstrained and Contactless Hand Geometry Biometrics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a hand biometric system for contact-less, platform-free scenarios, proposing innovative methods in feature extraction, template creation and template matching. The evaluation of the proposed method considers both the use of three contact-less publicly available hand databases, and the comparison of the performance to two competitive pattern recognition techniques existing in literature: namely Support Vector Machines (SVM and k-Nearest Neighbour (k-NN. Results highlight the fact that the proposed method outcomes existing approaches in literature in terms of computational cost, accuracy in human identification, number of extracted features and number of samples for template creation. The proposed method is a suitable solution for human identification in contact-less scenarios based on hand biometrics, providing a feasible solution to devices with limited hardware requirements like mobile devices.

Carmen Sánchez-Ávila

2011-10-01

433

MEMS ACCELEROMETER BASED HAND GESTURE RECOGNITION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an MEMS accelerometer mostly based on gesture recognition algorithm and its applications. The hardware module consists of a triaxial mems accelerometer, microcontroller, and zigbee wireless transmission module for sensing and collecting accelerations of handwriting and hand gesture trajectories. Users will use this hardware module to write down digits, alphabets in digital kind by making four hand gestures. The accelerations of hand motions measured by the accelerometer are transmitted wirelessly to a personal computer for trajectory recognition. The trajectory algorithm composed of information assortment collection, signal preprocessing for reconstructing the trajectories to attenuate the cumulative errors caused by drift of sensors. So, by changing the position of MEMS (micro electro mechanical systems we can able to show the alphabetical characters and numerical within the PC.

Meenaakumari.M, M.Muthulakshmi

2013-05-01

434

Biomimetic actuator and sensor for robot hand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To manufacture a robot hand that essentially mimics the functions of a human hand, it is necessary to develop flexible actuators and sensors. In this study, we propose the design, manufacture, and performance verification of flexible actuators and sensors based on Electro Active Polymer (EAP). EAP is fabricated as a type of film, and it moves with changes in the voltage because of contraction and expansion in the polymer film. Furthermore, if a force is applied to an EAP film, its thickness and effective area change, and therefore, the capacitance also changes. By using this mechanism, we produce capacitive actuators and sensors. In this study, we propose an EAP based capacitive sensor and evaluate its use as a robot hand sensor.

Kim, Baekchul; Chung, Jinah; Cho, Hanjoung; Shin, Seunghoon; Lee, Hyoungsuk; Moon, Hyungpil; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Koo, Jachoon [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2012-12-15

435

Biomechanical hand-functionality measurement system  

Science.gov (United States)

Functional assessment of the hands may now be accomplished via a biomechanical handset designed to repeatably and reproducibly aid in the identification of fine motor performance issues which may be present in either or both hands of the test subject. The test is accomplished by monitoring the force triangle defined by the thumb (digit I), index finger (digit II), and small finger (digit V) as they maintain a grip on a hand sensor throughout several repetitive exercises. The sensor consists of three independent load cells built into a single block. The three independently applied forces are sampled every 4ms. These forces are evaluated as a function of time and test parameters are then derived for use as diagnostic aids.

Paske, William C.; Metzger, Charles L.; Sutherland, Jeffrey M.

2005-05-01

436

Posterior alien hand syndrome: case report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The alien hand syndrome (AHS) is involuntary uncontrolled movement of an arm with a sense of estrangement from the limb itself. AHS was initially used to describe interhemispheric disconnection phenomena in patients with lesions in the anterior corpus callosum, but it has been found in patients with posterior cerebral lesions without involvement of the corpus callosum, for example parietal infarcts or corticobasal degeneration. The posterior alien hand syndrome is less frequent and presents with nonpurposive behaviour like lifting the arm or writhing fingers. We report an 80-year-old woman with a posterior AHS of the dominant right hand. MRI showed atrophy of the pre- and postcentral gyri without involvement of the corpus callosum. We discuss the aetiology of the posterior AHS and the differences from the anterior varieties. (orig.)

437

Fusion of hand and arm gestures  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to improve the link between an operator and its machine, some human oriented communication systems are now using natural languages like speech or gesture. The goal of this paper is to present a gesture recognition system based on the fusion of measurements issued from different kind of sources. It is necessary to have some sensors that are able to capture at least the position and the orientation of the hand such as Dataglove and a video camera. Datagloge gives a measure of the hand posture and a video camera gives a measure of the general arm gesture which represents the physical and spatial properties of the gesture, and based on the 2D skeleton representation of the arm. The measurements used are partially complementary and partially redundant. The application is distributed on intelligent cooperating sensors. The paper presents the measurement of the hand and the arm gestures, the fusion processes, and the implementation solution.

Coquin, D.; Benoit, E.; Sawada, H.; Ionescu, B.

2005-12-01

438

A Microcontroller Based Four Fingered Robotic Hand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we deal with the design and development of a Four Fingered Robotic Hand(FFRH using 8-bit microcontroller, sensors and wireless feedback. The design of the system is based ona simple, flexible and minimal control strategy. The robot system has 14 independent commands for allthe four fingers open and close, wrist up and down, base clockwise and counter clockwise, Pick andPlace and Home position to move the fingers. Implementation of pick and place operation of the objectusing these commands are discussed. The mechanical hardware design of the Robotic hand based onconnected double revolute joint mechanisms is briefed. The tendoning system of the double revolute jointmechanism and wireless feedback network provide the hand with the ability to confirm to object topologyand therefore providing the advantage of using a simple control algorithm. Finally, the results of theexperimental work for pick and place application are enumerated.

P.S.Ramaiah

2011-05-01

439

Anthropomorphic passive mechanism for performing hand exercises.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hand disabilities resulting from traumas, accidents and other causes impact how people carry on everyday tasks, thus, the importance of physical therapy. This process is characterized for performing repetitive sequences of motion with the guidance of a physical therapist, and in some cases, requires doing the therapy without attendance, which may lead to unsatisfactory results due to pain, unclear guides and poor feedback on their performance. This paper presents the development of a humanoid passive mechanism for hand exercising using its limbs for achieving flexion/extension, pronation/supination and radial/ulnar deviations. Preliminary tests show an interest in having similar devices for hand training associated as a leisure activity that could be used as a stress reliever that allows entertaining while training. PMID:24732553

Uribe-Quevedo, Alvaro; Leon-Rodriguez, Hernando; Perez-Gutierrez, Byron

2014-01-01

440

Food-regime(s) at a crossroad : The future of present and future of Danish food  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Food production and consumption in Denmark stands at a crossroad. Multiple conflicting developments and logic point in radically different directions, and the pressures of globalization are making the tensions even more present and solutions more pressing. Danish agriculture has excelled in creating an industrialized foodregime, based on Northern European values of hygiene and homogeneity. Yet, pressures of global competition, consumer trends focusing on quality and uniqueness, and issues of animal welfare and disease control are questioning this logic. On the other hand, Nordic food and Nordic chefs are enjoying somewhat more than fifteen minutes of fame with a new interpretation of Nordic produce in combination with state of the art cooking techniques. Yet, the New Nordic food trend emphasizes the uniqueness of local Nordic terroirs and presses for less industrialized production, in a manner not entirely unlike the organics movement. Optimistic policy makers dream of food as a new export success for Denmark, yet this seems to entail a transformation of the traditional food production in Denmark. Finally, local and grassroots inspired food producers are beginning to take matters into their own hands. Creating localized food systems with direct contact with costumers, mostly bypassing, but occasionally integrating with supermarkets based distribution. In this presentation we will discuss the present fragmentation of the food-regime in Denmark, focusing on the conflicting tensions of localization-globalization, craftsmanship-industrialization, homogeneity-uniqueness, mass-niche, optimization-environmentalism etc. We also sketch what we believe to be the promising development and potential challenges for food production and consumption in Denmark.

Noe, Egon; Korsgaard, Steffen