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Sample records for hand food taboos

  1. Food taboos: their origins and purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Rochow, Victor Benno

    2009-01-01

    Food taboos are known from virtually all human societies. Most religions declare certain food items fit and others unfit for human consumption. Dietary rules and regulations may govern particular phases of the human life cycle and may be associated with special events such as menstrual period, pregnancy, childbirth, lactation, and -- in traditional societies -- preparation for the hunt, battle, wedding, funeral, etc. On a comparative basis many food taboos seem to make no sense at all, as to what may be declared unfit by one group may be perfectly acceptable to another. On the other hand, food taboos have a long history and one ought to expect a sound explanation for the existence (and persistence) of certain dietary customs in a given culture. Yet, this is a highly debated view and no single theory may explain why people employ special food taboos. This paper wants to revive interest in food taboo research and attempts a functionalist's explanation. However, to illustrate some of the complexity of possible reasons for food taboo five examples have been chosen, namely traditional food taboos in orthodox Jewish and Hindu societies as well as reports on aspects of dietary restrictions in communities with traditional lifestyles of Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, and Nigeria. An ecological or medical background is apparent for many, including some that are seen as religious or spiritual in origin. On the one hand food taboos can help utilizing a resource more efficiently; on the other food taboos can lead to the protection of a resource. Food taboos, whether scientifically correct or not, are often meant to protect the human individual and the observation, for example, that certain allergies and depression are associated with each other could have led to declaring food items taboo that were identified as causal agents for the allergies. Moreover, any food taboo, acknowledged by a particular group of people as part of its ways, aids in the cohesion of this group, helps that particular group maintain its identity in the face of others, and therefore creates a feeling of "belonging". PMID:19563636

  2. Food taboos: their origins and purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer-Rochow Victor

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Food taboos are known from virtually all human societies. Most religions declare certain food items fit and others unfit for human consumption. Dietary rules and regulations may govern particular phases of the human life cycle and may be associated with special events such as menstrual period, pregnancy, childbirth, lactation, and – in traditional societies – preparation for the hunt, battle, wedding, funeral, etc. On a comparative basis many food taboos seem to make no sense at all, as to what may be declared unfit by one group may be perfectly acceptable to another. On the other hand, food taboos have a long history and one ought to expect a sound explanation for the existence (and persistence of certain dietary customs in a given culture. Yet, this is a highly debated view and no single theory may explain why people employ special food taboos. This paper wants to revive interest in food taboo research and attempts a functionalist's explanation. However, to illustrate some of the complexity of possible reasons for food taboo five examples have been chosen, namely traditional food taboos in orthodox Jewish and Hindu societies as well as reports on aspects of dietary restrictions in communities with traditional lifestyles of Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, and Nigeria. An ecological or medical background is apparent for many, including some that are seen as religious or spiritual in origin. On the one hand food taboos can help utilizing a resource more efficiently; on the other food taboos can lead to the protection of a resource. Food taboos, whether scientifically correct or not, are often meant to protect the human individual and the observation, for example, that certain allergies and depression are associated with each other could have led to declaring food items taboo that were identified as causal agents for the allergies. Moreover, any food taboo, acknowledged by a particular group of people as part of its ways, aids in the cohesion of this group, helps that particular group maintain its identity in the face of others, and therefore creates a feeling of "belonging".

  3. Food taboos: their origins and purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer-Rochow Victor

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Food taboos are known from virtually all human societies. Most religions declare certain food items fit and others unfit for human consumption. Dietary rules and regulations may govern particular phases of the human life cycle and may be associated with special events such as menstrual period, pregnancy, childbirth, lactation, and – in traditional societies – preparation for the hunt, battle, wedding, funeral, etc. On a comparative basis many food taboos seem to make no sense at all,...

  4. Food Habits and Food Taboos of the Marams of Manipur, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Meithuanlungpou

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Marams are one of the sub-tribe of Naga tribes inhabiting at Senapati district of Manipur of northeast India. Marams have distinct food habit and food choices. The dietary habits of Maram are quite simple and mostly depend on the local sources of variety of vegetables and meats and other non vegetarian food items. Rice is the staple food and rice beer prepared from the locally available rice species is the favourite drink of the Marams, Their daily food intake normally includes rice, meat, fish, green leafy vegetables, potato, oil or fats etc. Food taboos may affect the nutritional status of a community or a subsection within it. Again, there may be appropriate reason for prohibiting certain food stuff. The present paper aims at exploring the food habits and food taboos of the Maram tribe living in Senapati district of Manipur, India. Information on food habits and taboos of the Maram are given in this paper.

  5. Food Habits and Food Taboos of the Marams of Manipur, India

    OpenAIRE

    G. Meithuanlungpou; Kh. N. Singh

    2015-01-01

    The Marams are one of the sub-tribe of Naga tribes inhabiting at Senapati district of Manipur of northeast India. Marams have distinct food habit and food choices. The dietary habits of Maram are quite simple and mostly depend on the local sources of variety of vegetables and meats and other non vegetarian food items. Rice is the staple food and rice beer prepared from the locally available rice species is the favourite drink of the Marams, Their daily food intake normally includes rice, meat...

  6. The human health and conservation relevance of food taboos in northeastern Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Golden, Christopher D.; Jean Comaroff

    2015-01-01

    Anthropologists and ecologists investigating the dialectical relationship between human environments and the cultural practices that shape and are shaped by them have been talking past each other for too long: the one looking purely at metaphor and the other purely at function. Our mixed-method data analysis set out to explore whether it was possible to determine empirically the human health and conservation value of the local Malagasy taboo system. This involved qualitative examination of th...

  7. Transgression and Taboo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, Jens

    2011-01-01

    This essay draws upon Georges Bataille’s notions of transgression and taboo as co-dependently involved in a play of differences as a framework for discussing agents in the field of fan fiction. More particularly, I outline the way in which fans and authors, or producers of texts, have been...... conceptualised in ways that recall transgression and taboo....

  8. Hand washing frequencies and procedures used in retail food services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohbehn, Catherine; Sneed, Jeannie; Paez, Paola; Meyer, Janell

    2008-08-01

    Transmission of viruses, bacteria, and parasites to food by way of improperly washed hands is a major contributing factor in the spread of foodborne illnesses. Field observers have assessed compliance with hand washing regulations, yet few studies have included consideration of frequency and methods used by sectors of the food service industry or have included benchmarks for hand washing. Five 3-h observation periods of employee (n = 80) hand washing behaviors during menu production, service, and cleaning were conducted in 16 food service operations for a total of 240 h of direct observation. Four operations from each of four sectors of the retail food service industry participated in the study: assisted living for the elderly, childcare, restaurants, and schools. A validated observation form, based on 2005 Food Code guidelines, was used by two trained researchers. Researchers noted when hands should have been washed, when hands were washed, and how hands were washed. Overall compliance with Food Code recommendations for frequency during production, service, and cleaning phases ranged from 5% in restaurants to 33% in assisted living facilities. Procedural compliance rates also were low. Proposed benchmarks for the number of times hand washing should occur by each employee for each sector of food service during each phase of operation are seven times per hour for assisted living, nine times per hour for childcare, 29 times per hour for restaurants, and 11 times per hour for schools. These benchmarks are high, especially for restaurant employees. Implementation would mean lost productivity and potential for dermatitis; thus, active managerial control over work assignments is needed. These benchmarks can be used for training and to guide employee hand washing behaviors. PMID:18724759

  9. Taboos, Agriculture and Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Stifel, David; Fafchamps, Marcel; Minten, Bart

    2011-01-01

    We study the impact of work taboos (fady days) on agriculture and poverty. Using cross-sectional data from a national household survey for Madagascar, we find that 18 per cent of agricultural households have two or more fady days per week and that an extra fady day is associated with 6 per cent lower per capita consumption and 5 per cent lower rice productivity. To address the possible endogeneity of fady days, we present instrumental variable estimates and heterogeneous effect regressions us...

  10. Effects of social change on wildlife consumption taboos in northeastern Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D. Golden

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Madagascar, the constellation of taboos serves as a form of informal regulatory institution and is foundational to Malagasy culture, regardless of class, ethnic group affiliation, and educational background. Many researchers have credited rapid social change as a crucial mechanism for disturbing taboos. Others suggest that taboos are innately historical. However, very little empirical research has assessed the effects of social change on taboos or quantified the stability of taboo systems over time. Here, we use a case study of the ensemble of taboos in northeastern Madagascar, still a critical aspect of social life there, as a lens through which we investigate its degree of stability over time. Our aim was: (1 to describe the food taboos of local Malagasy living in northeastern Madagascar, and (2 to quantitatively assess the stability of these taboos to address certain claims regarding cultural erosion using an empirical, hypothesis-driven approach with rich ethnographic material to aid in interpretation. We investigated the temporal stability of taboos and local adherence to the moral framework, finding that approximately 3.0% of 4857 taboos were not adhered to at least once during the course of a 7-yr follow-up study. Additionally, we quantitatively explored the mediating effects of migration, modernization, and the spread of Western religion on number of taboos and level of adherence. We found that the presence of extra-local groups and migration did not decrease the number of taboos abided by locally, but did increase rates of nonadherence. Modernization accompanied by generational shifts tended to increase rather than erode the number of taboos, and younger individuals adhered to taboos to the same degree as older individuals. The effect of Western religion depended on the denomination, but generally reduced the number of taboos, although it did not affect adherence. The ways in which social change affects the stability of taboos are complex. Migrants tended to adhere to taboos less than long-standing inhabitants, suggesting that attachment to place is significant in maintaining adherence to taboos.

  11. Bacterial contamination of the hands of food handlers as indicator of hand washing efficacy in some convenient food industries in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    AA, Lambrechts; IS, Human; JH, Doughari; JFR, Lues

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Hands of ready-to-eat food service employees have been shown to be vectors in the spread of foodborne disease, mainly because of poor personal hygiene and accounting for approximately 97% of food borne illnesses in food service establishments and homes. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of hand washing practices and sanitation before commencing work among food handlers in the convenient food industry in Gauteng, South Africa. Methods: A total of 230 samples...

  12. Can increased food processing and organic products go hand in hand?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone; Stacey, Julia

    2006-01-01

    Ecology is popular these days but in spite of this the sale of organic foods is limited to basic foods as milk, grains, fruit and vegetables.......Ecology is popular these days but in spite of this the sale of organic foods is limited to basic foods as milk, grains, fruit and vegetables....

  13. The use of fish in Ilhabela (São Paulo/Brazil): preferences, food taboos and medicinal indications / O uso de peixes em Ilhabela (São Paulo, Brasil): preferências, tabus alimentares e indicações medicinais

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Milena, Ramires; Matheus Marcos, Rotundo; Alpina, Begossi.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado em três comunidades de pescadores artesanais de Ilhabela, localizadas no litoral norte do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. O objetivo foi analisar as preferências, os tabus e as indicações medicinais dos peixes e, desta forma, representar as interações dos pescadores com os r [...] ecursos pesqueiros, visando entender os aspectos biológicos e culturais envolvidos. A coleta dos dados foi realizada através de entrevistas com o auxílio de questionários semi-estruturados. Foram entrevistadas 25 famílias, das 29 residentes nas três comunidades estudadas durante a coleta de dados, sendo que 5 delas foram realizadas na Praia do Jabaquara, 6 na Praia da Fome e 14 na Praia da Serraria. Foram citadas 18 consideradas preferidas para o consumo, 11 espécies consideradas como tabus, 5 espécies evitadas e 4 indicadas no caso de doenças. As famílias de pescadores preferem consumir peixes de escama e não consomem o baiacu, este último provavelmente devido a sua característica tóxica. Peixes como bonito, espada, cação, sororoca e cavala são evitados em casos como feridas, inflamações, gravidez e pós parto e outros como pirajica, marimba, anchova e garoupa são indicados como peixes medicinais nestas situações. Aspectos relativos ao consumo de pescado fazem parte do corpo de conhecimento dos pescadores e suas famílias e constituem um acervo rico de informações que somadas as informações biológicas são úteis para a conservação dos recursos pesqueiros. Dados como os apresentados nesse estudo, com relação ao uso de animais aquáticos para tratamento de doenças, podem servir de base para estudos futuros sobre substâncias que contenham elementos ativos na cura de doenças. Abstract in english This study was conducted in three communities of artisanal fishermen from Ilhabela, located on the northern coast of São Paulo, Brazil. The objective was to analyze the preferences, taboos and medicinal indications of fish and thus representing one of the interactions of fishermen with fish stocks. [...] Data collection was conducted through interviews with the aid of semi-structured questionnaires. We interviewed 25 families, 29 residents in three communities studied during our fieldwork for data collection. Five interviews were done in Jabaquara Beach, 6 in Fome Beach and 14 Serraria Beach. During the interviews, 18 species were cited as preferred for consumption, 11 species considered to be taboo (food prohibited), 5 species were cited as avoided as food, and 4 species indicated in case of illness. The families of fishermen prefer to consume finfish and do not consume puffer fish, the latter probably due to its toxic characteristic. Fish such as little tunny, largehead hairtail, shark, serra mackerel and king mackerel are avoided by unhealthy people and in cases of wounds, inflammation, pregnancy and postpartum. Other fish, such as sea chubs, silver porgy, bluefish and grouper are reported as medicinal in these situations. Aspects related to fish consumption are part of the knowledge of fishermen and their families and provide a wealth of information that combined to biological information is useful for the conservation of fishery resources. Data such as those presented in this study, regarding the use of aquatic animals for treatment of diseases, could serve as a basis for future studies on substances that contain active elements in curing diseases.

  14. Youth, sex, taboos and condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkuyl, D A

    1998-06-01

    This paper compares the two main approaches that prevent the exposure of youths to the risks related to sex as well as their effectiveness in educating young people about sex. Approach A is to equip young people before they have sex with enough knowledge, moral standards, and materials to make sex enjoyable without exposing them to too much risk. Approach B is to create taboos about sexual relationships outside formal marriage and enforce the taboos using culture or religion. This method often results in people being given little information and even misinformation. It is shown that approach A is more highly favored than approach B and showed better results in reduction of sex risks. However, approach B is not a complete nonsense since it was successful in many religious communities such as the Moslem world, and some claim this system used to work widely in Africa in the past. Overall, it is noted that the people either need a whole-hearted B-type approach, necessitating a complete transformation of the society or the A approach of openness, everybody being informed, and 100% support for condoms in all sexual relations with any risk. PMID:12222366

  15. Sens et enjeux d’un interdit alimentaire dans le judaïsme Food taboos in Judaism: the example of Ashkenazi Jews in London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Faure

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article porte sur la manière dont la prohibition de mêler nourritures lactées et carnées dans le judaïsme se matérialise par les objets de la cuisine et leurs usages quotidiens, à partir d’une recherche réalisée à Londres auprès de couples juifs ashkénazes qui se définissent presque tous comme orthodoxes (modern orthodox et dont la scolarisation dans des écoles juives a parfois pu contribuer à revivifier les pratiques religieuses. Par delà la diversité des habitudes culinaires et de leurs formes (ex : végétarisme, par delà les éventuelles variations individuelles de l’observance religieuse au cours du cycle de vie, l’interdit alimentaire de mêler lait et viande est respecté par l’ensemble des personnes rencontrées. Il s’agit alors d’en comprendre le sens et la portée. Les conséquences matérielles de cet interdit alimentaire permettent de saisir l’importance de la religion dans le logement et les activités de tous les jours. Elles conduisent à articuler le plan matériel et le plan symbolique en suggérant une interprétation anthropologique de cette prohibition, en lien avec les écrits bibliques et les analyses déjà menées sur le sujet.This article is based upon research on Ashkenazi Jewish families living in London. It deals with the way, in Judaïsm, the prohibition of eating meat and dairy foods together is materialised through the use of kitchen utensils on a day to day basis. Material consequences of this dietary law allow us to understand the importance of religion in the Jewish home and in everyday life. Consequences which lead to the linking of material uses and their symbolic significance by suggesting an anthropological interpretation of this dietary law in accordance with Biblical writings.

  16. Finiteness of hitting times under taboo

    OpenAIRE

    Bulinskaya, Ekaterina Vl.

    2013-01-01

    We consider a continuous-time Markov chain with a finite or countable state space. For a site y and subset H of the state space, the hitting time of y under taboo H is defined to be infinite if the process trajectory hits H before y, and the first hitting time of y otherwise. We investigate the probability that such times are finite. In particular, if the taboo set is finite, an efficient iterative scheme reduces the study to the known case of a singleton taboo. A similar procedure applies in...

  17. Catfish and mullets: the food preferences and taboos of caiçaras (southern atlantic forest coast, brazil) / BAGRES E MUGILÍDEOS: PREFERÊNCIAS E TABUS ALIMENTARES DE CAIÇARAS (LITORAL SUDESTE DA MATA ATLÂNTICA, BRASIL) / ARIIDAE Y MUGILIDAE: LAS PREFERENCIAS Y LOS TABÚES ALIMENTARIOS DE LOS CAIÇARAS (COSTA ATLÁNTICA MERIDIONAL, BRASIL)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hanazaki, Natalia; Begossi, Alpina.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Uma importante característica da dieta humana é a categorização de preferências e aversões alimentares. O objetivo deste artigo é analisar as preferências e tabus alimentares com relação a itens de proteína animal entre três comunidades caiçaras do litoral sudeste brasileiro. A literatura sobre pref [...] erências alimentares quanto ao consumo de pescado aponta para um padrão geral de preferência por peixes com escamas e aversões ou restrições de consumo por peixes sem escamas. Neste estudo, visamos discutir duas particularidades das escolhas alimentares entre caiçaras, especificamente quanto às preferências e aversões sobre o consumo de bagres (Ariidae) e sobre diferentes espécies do gênero Mugil (Mugilidae). Estas preferências e aversões alimentares podem ser explicadas por fatores ecológicos e culturais, como pela disponibilidade do recurso, pela posição da espécie na cadeia alimentar, ou através da importância destas espécies na economia e nas relações sociais dentro da comunidade. Relações entre conservação e tabus alimentares sobre certas espécies de peixe, ou grupos de espécies, parecem ser mais tênues do que as possíveis relações entre tabus de caça e conservação da fauna terrestre. Além disso, os tabus sobre espécies de peixes não resultam em deficiência nutricional nas comunidades estudadas. Abstract in spanish Una característica importante de dietas humanas es el categorizar de alimentos según su preferencia o evitación. La literatura en preferencias alimenticias de los pescadores contempla un patrón general de preferencia por pescados con escamas y una aversión o prohibición de pescados sin escamas. Se a [...] nalizaron las preferencias, evitaciones y tabúes sobre el alimento de origen animal en tres comunidades caiçaras de la costa brasileña del sudeste. Se discuten dos aspectos de la escogencia de alimento de los caiçaras, con respecto a sus preferencias, las aversiones, y los tabúes en el consumo de Ariidae y de varias especies de Mugilidae. Esta clasificación se puede explicar por factores ecológicos y culturales, como la disponibilidad ambiental de la especie, su posición en la cadena alimenticia, o su importancia en la economía y en las relaciones sociales dentro de la comunidad. Una conexión entre la conservación del recurso y los tabúes sobre ciertas especies de peces parecen más tenues que las posibles relaciones entre los tabúes de caza y la conservación de la fauna terrestre. Para las comunidades estudiadas, los tabúes sobre peces no resultaran en deficiencias nutricionales en la población humana. Abstract in english An important feature of human diets is the establishment of food categories according to its preference or avoidance. The literature on fish food preferences points out a general pattern of preference for fish with scales and an avoidance or prohibition of scaleless fish. The food preferences, avoid [...] ances, and taboos on animal protein items among three caiçara communities from the Southeastern Brazilian coast were analyzed. Two aspects of the caiçaras choice of food were discussed, regarding their preferences, avoidances, and taboos on the consumption of catfish (Ariidae) and on different species of mullets (Mugilidae). This categorization can be explained both ecologically and culturally: through the environmental availability of the species, their position in the food web, or their importance in the economy and in the social relations within the community. A connection between resource conservation and food taboos about certain fish species are unlikely when compared to the possible relations between hunting taboos and conservation of the terrestrial fauna. For the studied communities, there was no nutritional deprivation resulting from food taboos on fish species.

  18. Behavioral Bias for Food Reflected in Hand Movements: A Preliminary Study with Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Philipp A; Lohmann, Johannes; Butz, Martin V; Plewnia, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Palatable food induces general approach tendencies when compared to nonfood stimuli. For eating disorders, the modification of an attention bias toward food was proposed as a treatment option. Similar approaches have been efficient for other psychiatric conditions and, recently, successfully incorporated approach motivation. The direct impact of attentional biases on spontaneous natural behavior has hardly been investigated so far, although actions may serve as an intervention target, especially seeing the recent advances in the field of embodied cognition. In this study, we addressed the interplay of motor action execution and cognition when interacting with food objects. In a Virtual Reality (VR) setting, healthy participants repeatedly grasped or warded high-calorie food or hand-affordant ball objects using their own dominant hand. This novel experimental paradigm revealed an attention-like bias in hand-based actions: 3D objects of food were collected faster than ball objects, and this difference correlated positively with both individual body mass index and diet-related attitudes. The behavioral bias for food in hand movements complements several recent experimental and neurophysiological findings. Implications for the use of VR in the treatment of eating-related health problems are discussed. PMID:26562002

  19. The Taboo of the Perverse Dying Body

    OpenAIRE

    Kosonen, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    A human being is continuously living towards death within a mortal body that is dying little by little, second after second. In the gloss of popular media, the taboo reality of this stain of mortality is hidden by a diversion, which is created by the multiple pornographies of visual culture: the pornography of perfect bodies and the pornography of violent death. No longer invisible or ‘unspeakable’, the taboo body has been appropriated to serve a function in the mainstream dida...

  20. A Sociolinguistic Study of English Taboo Language

    OpenAIRE

    Chunming Gao

    2013-01-01

    In every society there are things which are believed to be not appropriate if spoken on public occasions. A large number of words are therefore taken as silly, vulgar or obscene when used in communication. These words are “taboos”. This paper investigates all the major varieties of English taboo, i.e., bodily excretions, death and disease, sex, four-letter words, privacy and discriminatory language, which are respectively defined and provided with concrete examples. Euphemistic an...

  1. Consequences of occupational food-related hand dermatoses with a focus on protein contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Lotte; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2012-01-01

    Background. Protein contact dermatitis is a frequent disorder among hand eczema patients who have occupational food contact. Knowledge about the consequences of having protein contact dermatitis is lacking. Objectives. To investigate the consequences of having occupational skin disease on the hands resulting from food handling, with a focus on protein contact dermatitis. Material and methods. One hundred and seventy-eight patients who were identified as having skin disease related to occupational food exposure and who answered a questionnaire concerning the consequences of their skin disease were included in the study. The patients were consecutively examined at Gentofte Hospital, Denmark between 2001 and 2010. Results. Seventy-five per cent of patients with protein contact dermatitis had to wear gloves at work, and 62.5% reported sick leave lasting for >3 weeks, as compared with 60.2% and 30%, respectively, of the patients with other occupational food-related hand dermatoses (p = 0.02). Sixty-two per cent and 43%, respectively, had to change job because of skin problems (p = 0.02). Atopic dermatitis was equally common in the two groups. Conclusion. We found that the patients with protein contact dermatitis experienced more severe and frequent consequences than patients with other food-related hand dermatoses.

  2. Hand hygiene regimens for the reduction of risk in food service environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Sarah L; McCormack, Robert R; Zhou, Sifang Steve; Macinga, David R; Fricker, Christopher M

    2012-07-01

    Pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli and human norovirus are the main etiologic agents of foodborne illness resulting from inadequate hand hygiene practices by food service workers. This study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial and antiviral efficacy of various hand hygiene product regimens under different soil conditions representative of those in food service settings and assess the impact of product formulation on this efficacy. On hands contaminated with chicken broth containing E. coli, representing a moderate soil load, a regimen combining an antimicrobial hand washing product with a 70% ethanol advanced formula (EtOH AF) gel achieved a 5.22-log reduction, whereas a nonantimicrobial hand washing product alone achieved a 3.10log reduction. When hands were heavily soiled from handling ground beef containing E. coli, a wash-sanitize regimen with a 0.5% chloroxylenol antimicrobial hand washing product and the 70% EtOH AF gel achieved a 4.60-log reduction, whereas a wash-sanitize regimen with a 62% EtOH foam achieved a 4.11-log reduction. Sanitizing with the 70% EtOH AF gel alone was more effective than hand washing with a nonantimicrobial product for reducing murine norovirus (MNV), a surrogate for human norovirus, with 2.60- and 1.79-log reductions, respectively. When combined with hand washing, the 70% EtOH AF gel produced a 3.19-log reduction against MNV. A regimen using the SaniTwice protocol with the 70% EtOH AF gel produced a 4.04-log reduction against MNV. These data suggest that although the process of hand washing helped to remove pathogens from the hands, use of a wash-sanitize regimen was even more effective for reducing organisms. Use of a high-efficacy sanitizer as part of a wash-sanitize regimen further increased the efficacy of the regimen. The use of a well-formulated alcohol-based hand rub as part of a wash-sanitize regimen should be considered as a means to reduce risk of infection transmission in food service facilities. PMID:22980014

  3. Occupational food-related hand dermatoses seen over a 10-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Lotte; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2012-01-01

    Background. Protein contact dermatitis was originally defined in 1976 by Hjorth and Roed-Petersen as a distinct kind of dermatitis seen in patients with occupational food contact. Even though occupational skin diseases are frequent in Denmark, little attention has been paid to protein contact dermatitis, and the frequency is unknown. Objectives. To evaluate the frequency of occupational food-related hand dermatoses and test results in patients occupationally exposed to foods. Materials and Methods. This was a retrospective study based on examinations, including skin prick testing and patch testing, performed at the Department of Dermato-Allergology, Gentofte University Hospital, Denmark between 2001 and 2010. Results. Of all patients (n = 372), 57.0% had irritant contact dermatitis, 22.0% had protein contact dermatitis, 2.4% had contact urticaria, and 1.8% had allergic contact dermatitis. A suggestion for diagnostic criteria is presented. Frequent risk occupations were cooking in restaurants, baking, and kitchen work. Substantially more patients reacted in skin prick testing with fresh foods than with food extracts. Conclusion. Protein contact dermatitis is a frequent disorder among patients who professionally handle foods, and should be considered to be a distinct clinical entity. When diagnosing protein contact dermatitis and in other food-related skin prick testing procedures, it is important to include fresh foods.

  4. Taboo advertising - Response to taboo in advertising - A study of the influence of age and gender

    OpenAIRE

    Schnaider, Jonathan; Härnsäter, David

    2015-01-01

    Problem: Consumer characteristics have proved to be important influencers in how advertisements are perceived among consumers. Researchers have started to investigate if this assumption is valuable also in special and uncommon marketing strategies. A new field of research regarding advertising is the study of taboo themes. Researchers have so far mainly investigated how consumer respond to advertisements containing themes of taboo, but less research examines the influence of consumer characte...

  5. Into the Breach: The Legislative Function of Taboo

    OpenAIRE

    Ali M. Abrar

    2010-01-01

    Taboos are often viewed with suspicion by modern eyes. The very word “taboo” evokes a sense of unfreedom, of limitation. Indeed, when one thinks of now-extinct taboos, the repressive and reactionary nature of taboos is clearly displayed. This, however, is not an argument for the dismantling of all taboos. There are many aspects of social life that a community may w...

  6. Detection of enterotoxin genes of Staphylococcus sp isolated from nasal cavities and hands of food handlers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    V.L.M., Rall; J.M., Sforcin; V.C.M., Augustini; M.T., Watanabe; A., Fernandes Jr.; R., Rall; M.G., Silva; J.P, Araújo Jr..

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Food handlers, an important factor in food quality, may contain bacteria that are able to cause foodborne disease. The present study aimed to research coagulase-negative (CNS) and -positive staphylococci (CPS) in 82 food handlers, analyzing nasal and hand swabs, with identification of 62 CNS (75.6%) [...] and 20 CPS strains (24.4%). Staphylococcal enterotoxins genes were investigated by PCR. In 20 CPS strains, 19 were positive for one or more genes. The percentage of CNS presenting genes for enterotoxins was high (46.8%). Despite of the staphylococcal species, the most common gene was sea (35.4%), followed by seh and sej (29.2%). The detection of new staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) genes showed a higher pathogenic potential in this genus. The presence of these gene points out the importance of CNS not only as contaminant bacteria but also as a pathogen.

  7. Totem and Taboo: Fluids in sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Hilton, Andrew K; Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2011-01-01

    The need for early, rapid, and substantial fluid resuscitation in septic patients has long been an article of faith in the intensive care community, a tribal totem that is taboo to question. The results of a recent multicenter trial in septic children in Africa, published in The New England Journal of Medicine, powerfully challenge the fluid paradigm. The salient aspects of the trial need to be understood and reflected upon. In this commentary, we discuss the background to and findings of the...

  8. Sexuality in old age: taboos and reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano da Silva Rozendo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Stereotypes of an asexual old age remain in the social imaginary. This work is based on quantitative and qualitative data of a research focused to analyze the way sexuality have been portrayed and experienced in old age. 32 seniors aged between 60 and 75 years were interviewed. Topics as homoaffectivity and casual sex still untouchable in old age. Even being a taboo, sexuality still being experienced by most of the elderlies.  

  9. Communicate science: an example of food related hands-on laboratory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addezio, Giuliana; Marsili, Antonella; Vallocchia, Massimiliano

    2014-05-01

    The Laboratorio Didattica e Divulgazione Scientifica of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV's Educational and Outreach Laboratory) organized activity with kids to convey scientific knowledge and to promote research on Earth Science, focusing on volcanic and seismic hazard. The combination of games and learning in educational activity can be a valuable tool for study of complex phenomena. Hands-on activity may help in engage kids in a learning process through direct participation that significantly improves the learning performance of children. Making learning fun motivate audience to pay attention on and stay focused on the subject. We present the experience of the hand-on laboratory "Laboratorio goloso per bambini curiosi di scienza (a delicious hands-on laboratory for kids curious about science)", performed in Frascati during the 2013 European Researchers' Night, promoted by the European Commission, as part of the program organized by the Laboratorio Didattica e Divulgazione Scientifica in the framework of Associazione Frascati Scienza (http://www.frascatiscienza.it/). The hand-on activity were designed for primary schools to create enjoyable and unusual tools for learning Earth Science. During this activity kids are involved with something related to everyday life, such as food, through manipulation, construction and implementation of simple experiments related to Earth dynamics. Children become familiar with scientific concepts such as composition of the Earth, plates tectonic, earthquakes and seismic waves propagation and experience the effect of earthquakes on buildings, exploring their important implications for seismic hazard. During the activity, composed of several steps, participants were able to learn about Earth inner structure, fragile lithosphere, waves propagations, impact of waves on building ecc.., dealing with eggs, cookies, honey, sugar, polenta, flour, chocolate, candies, liquorice sticks, bread, pudding and sweets. The activity was successful as more than 500 kids of different ages participated with great enthusiasm, as well as they parents, and gave the chance to explore and manipulate even complex scientific arguments without getting the feeling of having doing this.

  10. KNOWLEDGE OF HAND WASHING AND FOOD HANDLING PRACTICES OF THE STREET FOOD VENDORS OF AGARTALA, A NORTH EASTERN CITY OF INDIA .

    OpenAIRE

    Taranga; Himadri

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To assess the knowledge o f hand washing and food handling practices of the street food vendors. STUDY DESIGN: Community based cross - sectional study conducted in Agartala municipal area. METHODS: Structured interview schedule was administered to 234 street food vendors selected by probability proportionate to size sampling technique during 1 st July to 31 st August 2011. Microsoft Excel and Epi - info version - ...

  11. Taboos in China: To Be or Not to Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fuyu

    2012-01-01

    With powerful influence on the people, taboos should be noticed with keen awareness and handled with cautious respect for international visitors in China, a traditional country in its process of modernization, if successful cross-cultural communication is to be achieved. In the ever changing and integrating world, Chinese taboos are never free…

  12. Tattoo and taboo: on the meaning of tattoos in the analytic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacaoglan, Uta

    2012-02-01

    Tattooing projects a visual image in transference to form a backdrop for the most salient unconscious inner conflicts arising during an ongoing analytic process. Like a snapshot, the tattoo is a dialectic record of the mother-father relationship, of desires for closeness and distance, commonality and difference, identification and individuation. As Walter Benjamin famously stated about the nature of visual images in his Arcades Project, the tattoo represents "dialectics at a standstill." What seems paramount to the patient who participates in the act of tattooing is the need for stasis and immutability, as if bringing unconscious conflicts to "standstill" were to deliver a sense of stability. Unconsciously, the need is triggered by a threat to the inner stability resulting from fear of violating a taboo escalating to the point that fears of abandonment and fusion become unbearable. On the one hand, the tattoo is a visual symbolization of a taboo transgression; on the other hand, it activates the same through an act of self-injury that resembles the magical ritual acts of indigenous peoples' use of tattoos. The taboo thus serves as an ersatz for the actual violation of the taboo in real life, so that the tattoo may be ascribed a magical significance or totemic function. And yet the tattoo's success as a vehicle for constructing a transitional object is always contingent on the tangible manipulation of the skin conjoined with the creation of a symbolizing visual image. The image then acts like a "patch" to repair holes blown into Winnicott's "potential space" and to reconstruct it. PMID:22320133

  13. The Relations Among Threatened Species, Their Protection, and Taboos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Folke

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the role of taboos for the protection of species listed as "threatened" by the World Conservation Union (IUCN, and also for species known to be endemic and keystone. The study was limited to taboos that totally avoid or prohibit any use of particular species and their populations. We call them specific-species taboos . Through a literature review, 70 currently existing examples of specific-species taboos were identified and analyzed. The species avoided were grouped into biological classes. Threat categories were determined for each species, based on the IUCN Red Data Book. We found that ~ 30% of the identified taboos prohibit any use of species listed as threatened by IUCN. Of the specific-species taboos, 60% are set on reptiles and mammals. In these two classes, ~ 50% of the species are threatened, representing all of the threatened species in our analysis, with the exception of one bird species. Both endemic and keystone species that are important for ecosystem functions are avoided by specific-species taboos. Specific-species taboos have important ecological ramifications for the protection of threatened and ecologically important populations of species. We do not suggest that specific-species taboos are placed on species because they are, or have been, endangered; instead, we emphasize that species are avoided for a variety of other reasons. It is urgent to identify and analyze resource practices and social mechanisms of traditional societies, such as taboos, and to investigate their possible ecological significance. Although it may provide insights of value for conservation, not only of species, but also of ecosystem processes and functions, such information is being lost rapidly.

  14. KNOWLEDGE OF HAND WASHING AND FOOD HANDLING PRACTICES OF THE STREET FOOD VENDORS OF AGARTALA, A NORTH EASTERN CITY OF INDIA .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taranga

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To assess the knowledge o f hand washing and food handling practices of the street food vendors. STUDY DESIGN: Community based cross - sectional study conducted in Agartala municipal area. METHODS: Structured interview schedule was administered to 234 street food vendors selected by probability proportionate to size sampling technique during 1 st July to 31 st August 2011. Microsoft Excel and Epi - info version - 6 were used for data entry and analysis and p ? 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: One hundred and seventeen vendors (50% were aged between 30 – 40 years and 98.29% were males. Forty eight (20.5% vendors were illiterate and 40.2% vendors were from rural areas. One hundred and five vendors (44.9% with primary and 78 (32.1% with secondary level education knew that unclean hands and dishes can transmit diseases while serving roadside foods. 58.3%, 6 1.9%, and 69.23% of the vendors were illiterate, primary and secondary educated respectively. Majority of them were not using soap for washing hands. 87.5%, 58.09%, 74.3% and 50% of the illiterate, primary educated, secondary educated, and senior secondary educated vendors did not use detergent for washing dishes before and after each serving. One hundred and sixty five (70.5% vendors stored unsold food for the next day, while 29.1% of the vendors discarded the left - over food. CONCLUSIONS: Basic food safet y knowledge and practice of hygiene and sanitation by the street food vendors was found to be inadequate. Issuing of food license to them should be subjected to fulfillment the above conditions or they should be trained regarding safe food handling.

  15. Effects of social change on wildlife consumption taboos in northeastern Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Golden, Christopher D.; Jean Comaroff

    2015-01-01

    In Madagascar, the constellation of taboos serves as a form of informal regulatory institution and is foundational to Malagasy culture, regardless of class, ethnic group affiliation, and educational background. Many researchers have credited rapid social change as a crucial mechanism for disturbing taboos. Others suggest that taboos are innately historical. However, very little empirical research has assessed the effects of social change on taboos or quantified the stability of taboo systems ...

  16. Routing Optimization Based on Taboo Search Algorithm for Logistic Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxue Yang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Along with the widespread application of the electronic commerce in the modern business, the logistic distribution has become increasingly important. More and more enterprises recognize that the logistic distribution plays an important role in the process of production and sales. A good routing for logistic distribution can cut down transport cost and improve efficiency. In order to cut down transport cost and improve efficiency, a routing optimization based on taboo search for logistic distribution is proposed in this paper. Taboo search is a metaheuristic search method to perform local search used for logistic optimization. The taboo search is employed to accelerate convergence and the aspiration criterion is combined with the heuristics algorithm to solve routing optimization. Simulation experimental results demonstrate that the optimal routing in the logistic distribution can be quickly obtained by the taboo search algorithm

  17. Conceptual metaphors in taboo-induced lexical variation

    OpenAIRE

    Crespo Fernández, Eliecer

    2011-01-01

    Taboo is deeply woven into every culture and society, which is obviously reflected in vocabulary. Indeed, taboo keeps language users from avoiding the forbidden concept and compels them to preserve or violate it, which leads to endless series of cross varietal synonyms for forbidden concepts. In this process, though metaphor stands out as a potent source for euphemistic and dysphemistic reference, the analysis of conceptual metaphor in the Lakoffian tradition as a X-phemistic device has not b...

  18. Chinese Cultural Taboos That Affect Their Language & Behavior Choices

    OpenAIRE

    Man-ping Chu

    2009-01-01

    Every culture has its own taboos. Communication works better when the participants share more assumptions and knowledge about each other (Scollon & Scollon, 2000). However, in many cases, participants realize the existence of the rules associated with taboos only after they have violated them. Those who do not observe these social “rules” might face serious results, such as total embarrassment or, as Saville-Troike (1989) puts it, they may be accused of immorality and face social ostracism. T...

  19. Hesitant hands on changing tables: Negotiating dining patterns in diaspora food culture transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Flitsch, Mareile

    2011-01-01

    Food culture and dining patterns can, in any society, be read with regard to the history of food, social structures, economic choices, culinary techniques, food knowledge and even identities, habits and perception of comfortableness of its members and time. How then do migrants and diaspora communities translate the culinary practice into which they were socialized in their home communities into their new lifestyles and ways of eating? This article starts from the idea that autonomy over food...

  20. De-tabooing dying control - a grounded theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Dying is inescapable yet remains a neglected issue in modern health care. The research question in this study was “what is going on in the field of dying today?” What emerged was to eventually present a grounded theory of control of dying focusing specifically on how people react in relation to issues about euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS). Methods Classic grounded theory was used to analyze interviews with 55 laypersons and health care professionals in North America and Europe, surveys on attitudes to PAS among physicians and the Swedish general public, and scientific literature, North American discussion forum websites, and news sites. Results Open awareness of the nature and timing of a patient’s death became common in health care during the 1960s in the Western world. Open dying awareness contexts can be seen as the start of a weakening of a taboo towards controlled dying called de-tabooing. The growth of the hospice movement and palliative care, but also the legalization of euthanasia and PAS in the Benelux countries, and PAS in Montana, Oregon and Washington further represents de-tabooing dying control. An attitude positioning between the taboo of dying control and a growing taboo against questioning patient autonomy and self-determination called de-paternalizing is another aspect of de-tabooing. When confronted with a taboo, people first react emotionally based on “gut feelings” - emotional positioning. This is followed by reasoning and label wrestling using euphemisms and dysphemisms - reflective positioning. Rarely is de-tabooing unconditional but enabled by stipulated positioning as in soft laws (palliative care guidelines) and hard laws (euthanasia/PAS legislation). From a global perspective three shapes of dying control emerge. First, suboptimal palliative care in closed awareness contexts seen in Asian, Islamic and Latin cultures, called closed dying. Second, palliative care and sedation therapy, but not euthanasia or PAS, is seen in Europe and North America, called open dying with reversible medical control. Third, palliative care, sedation therapy, and PAS or euthanasia occurs together in the Benelux countries, Oregon, Washington and Montana, called open dying with irreversible medical control. Conclusions De-tabooing dying control is an assumed secular process starting with open awareness contexts of dying half a century ago, and continuing with the growth of the palliative care movement and later euthanasia and PAS legislation. PMID:23496849

  1. ASSESSING THE OFFENSIVENESS LEVEL OF TABOO WORDS IN PERSIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen BAKHTIAR

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Taboo words have always been embarrassing and even frightening to utter among almost all human beings. This issue takes on a very particular shape in a religion-stricken society like Iran with its own particular way of conceptualization of morality. This study examines the effect of “gender” and “ formality of situations” on the use of euphemisms in Persian. Adopting Allan & Burridge(2006’s pragmatic approach towards euphemisms, we aimed to find out 1. How social and contextual variables affect the use of euphemisms 2.then, determine the x-phemistic value of taboo-denoting words and expressins. This was carried out through distributing an opinion survey among 30 Iranian men and women ranging 20 to 30 years old, in which they were asked to determine the x-phemistic value(euphemistic-orthophemistic-dysphemistic of 15 words and expressions denoting the concept ‘prostitute’ ranging from highly euphemistic to complete taboo, based on the provided circumstances in the questionnare.

  2. Aging, Emotion, Attention, and Binding in the Taboo Stroop Task: Data and Theories

    OpenAIRE

    MacKay, Donald G.; Johnson, Laura W; Graham, Elizabeth R.; Burke, Deborah M.

    2015-01-01

    How does aging impact relations between emotion, memory, and attention? To address this question, young and older adults named the font colors of taboo and neutral words, some of which recurred in the same font color or screen location throughout two color-naming experiments. The results indicated longer color-naming response times (RTs) for taboo than neutral base-words (taboo Stroop interference); better incidental recognition of colors and locations consistently associated with taboo versu...

  3. Taboo search by successive confinement: Surveying a potential energy surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekmarev, Sergei F.

    2001-09-01

    A taboo search for minima on a potential energy surface (PES) is performed by means of confinement molecular dynamics: the molecular dynamics trajectory of the system is successively confined to various basins on the PES that have not been sampled yet. The approach is illustrated for a 13-atom Lennard-Jones cluster. It is shown that the taboo search radically accelerates the process of surveying the PES, with the probability of finding a new minimum defined by a propagating Fermi-like distribution.

  4. How effective is the invisible hand? Agricultural and food markets in Central and Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Brosig, Stephan; Hockmann, Heinrich

    2005-01-01

    This volume of proceedings, available both as hard copy and pdf , is a compilation of selected contributions to the IAMO Forum 2005, which will be held in Halle (Saale), Germany, at the Institute of Agricultural Development in Central and Eastern Europe from June 16-18, 2005. CONTENTS: Agricultural and food markets in Central and Eastern Europe: An introduction; Stephan Brosig, Heinrich Hockmann. Agricultural markets in CEE - An overview; József Popp. Regoverning agrifood markets in CEEC - Po...

  5. How effective is the invisible hand? Agricultural and food markets in Central and Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Brosig, Stephan; Heinrich HOCKMANN

    2005-01-01

    This volume of proceedings, available both as hard copy and pdf , is a compilation of selected contributions to the IAMO Forum 2005, which will be held in Halle (Saale), Germany, at the Institute of Agricultural Development in Central and Eastern Europe from June 16-18, 2005. CONTENTS: Agricultural and food markets in Central and Eastern Europe: An introduction; Stephan Brosig, Heinrich Hockmann. Agricultural markets in CEE - An overview; József Popp. Regoverning agrifood markets in CEEC - Po...

  6. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 9. Washing and drying of hands to reduce microbial contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Ewen C D; Michaels, Barry S; Smith, Debra; Greig, Judy D; Bartleson, Charles A

    2010-10-01

    During various daily activities at home and work, hands quickly become contaminated. Some activities increase the risk of finger contamination by pathogens more than others, such as the use of toilet paper to clean up following a diarrheal episode, changing the diaper of a sick infant, blowing a nose, or touching raw food materials. Many foodborne outbreak investigation reports have identified the hands of food workers as the source of pathogens in the implicated food. The most convenient and efficient way of removing pathogens from hands is through hand washing. Important components of hand washing are potable water for rinsing and soaps to loosen microbes from the skin. Hand washing should occur after any activity that soils hands and certainly before preparing, serving, or eating food. Antimicrobial soaps are marginally more effective than plain soaps, but constant use results in a buildup of the antimicrobial compound on the skin. The time taken to wash hands and the degree of friction generated during lathering are more important than water temperature for removing soil and microorganisms. However, excessive washing and scrubbing can cause skin damage and infections. Drying hands with a towel removes pathogens first by friction during rubbing with the drying material and then by wicking away the moisture into that material. Paper rather than cloth towels should be encouraged, although single-use cloth towels are present in the washrooms of higher class hotels and restaurants. Warm air dryers remove moisture and any surface microorganisms loosened by washing from hands by evaporation while the hands are rubbed together vigorously; however, these dryers take too long for efficient use. The newer dryers with high-speed air blades can achieve dryness in 10 to 15 s without hand rubbing. PMID:21067683

  7. Is hippophagy a taboo in constant evolution?

    OpenAIRE

    Leteux, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    Food choice is strongly determined by religious and cultural elements specific to each civilization. Numerous food prescriptions concern meat, beginning with the total or partial ban on meat. Among the numerous animal species concerned by religious or cultural prohibitions, horse meat occupies an original place because the ban on its consumption varies a lot according to places and times. Widely consumed in Eurasia in the Prehistory, horse meat is still eaten by many in the big steppes of Cen...

  8. The allure of the forbidden: breaking taboos, frustration, and attraction to violent video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Jodi L; Melzer, André; Steffgen, Georges; Bushman, Brad J

    2013-04-01

    Although people typically avoid engaging in antisocial or taboo behaviors, such as cheating and stealing, they may succumb in order to maximize their personal benefit. Moreover, they may be frustrated when the chance to commit a taboo behavior is withdrawn. The present study tested whether the desire to commit a taboo behavior, and the frustration from being denied such an opportunity, increases attraction to violent video games. Playing violent games allegedly offers an outlet for aggression prompted by frustration. In two experiments, some participants had no chance to commit a taboo behavior (cheating in Experiment 1, stealing in Experiment 2), others had a chance to commit a taboo behavior, and others had a withdrawn chance to commit a taboo behavior. Those in the latter group were most attracted to violent video games. Withdrawing the chance for participants to commit a taboo behavior increased their frustration, which in turn increased their attraction to violent video games. PMID:23449844

  9. Aging, Emotion, Attention, and Binding in the Taboo Stroop Task: Data and Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Donald G.; Johnson, Laura W.; Graham, Elizabeth R.; Burke, Deborah M.

    2015-01-01

    How does aging impact relations between emotion, memory, and attention? To address this question, young and older adults named the font colors of taboo and neutral words, some of which recurred in the same font color or screen location throughout two color-naming experiments. The results indicated longer color-naming response times (RTs) for taboo than neutral base-words (taboo Stroop interference); better incidental recognition of colors and locations consistently associated with taboo versus neutral words (taboo context-memory enhancement); and greater speed-up in color-naming RTs with repetition of color-consistent than color-inconsistent taboo words, but no analogous speed-up with repetition of location-consistent or location-inconsistent taboo words (the consistency type by repetition interaction for taboo words). All three phenomena remained constant with aging, consistent with the transmission deficit hypothesis and binding theory, where familiar emotional words trigger age-invariant reactions for prioritizing the binding of contextual features to the source of emotion. Binding theory also accurately predicted the interaction between consistency type and repetition for taboo words. However, one or more aspects of these phenomena failed to support the inhibition deficit hypothesis, resource capacity theory, or socio-emotional selectivity theory. We conclude that binding theory warrants further test in a range of paradigms, and that relations between aging and emotion, memory, and attention may depend on whether the task and stimuli trigger fast-reaction, involuntary binding processes, as in the taboo Stroop paradigm. PMID:26473909

  10. Aging, Emotion, Attention, and Binding in the Taboo Stroop Task: Data and Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Donald G; Johnson, Laura W; Graham, Elizabeth R; Burke, Deborah M

    2015-10-01

    How does aging impact relations between emotion, memory, and attention? To address this question, young and older adults named the font colors of taboo and neutral words, some of which recurred in the same font color or screen location throughout two color-naming experiments. The results indicated longer color-naming response times (RTs) for taboo than neutral base-words (taboo Stroop interference); better incidental recognition of colors and locations consistently associated with taboo versus neutral words (taboo context-memory enhancement); and greater speed-up in color-naming RTs with repetition of color-consistent than color-inconsistent taboo words, but no analogous speed-up with repetition of location-consistent or location-inconsistent taboo words (the consistency type by repetition interaction for taboo words). All three phenomena remained constant with aging, consistent with the transmission deficit hypothesis and binding theory, where familiar emotional words trigger age-invariant reactions for prioritizing the binding of contextual features to the source of emotion. Binding theory also accurately predicted the interaction between consistency type and repetition for taboo words. However, one or more aspects of these phenomena failed to support the inhibition deficit hypothesis, resource capacity theory, or socio-emotional selectivity theory. We conclude that binding theory warrants further test in a range of paradigms, and that relations between aging and emotion, memory, and attention may depend on whether the task and stimuli trigger fast-reaction, involuntary binding processes, as in the taboo Stroop paradigm. PMID:26473909

  11. The Breton Language : from Taboo to Recognition.

    OpenAIRE

    Le Coadic, Ronan

    2001-01-01

    In 1993, while doing a study among students from the public high-school of Landerneau (Finistère) on individual and family practice of the Breton language, the author observed the following reactions. When he presented the theme of his study, many students could not help laughing, others blushed and only a few of the "best" students sitting in the front row remained calm, raising their hand to ask for further technical details. This was exactly the behavior that his junior high-school classma...

  12. Talking Suicide : Online Conversations about a Taboo Subject

    OpenAIRE

    Westerlund, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The present article discusses intimate conversations about suicide that are pursued on the Internet. Computer-mediated communication has made it possible for participants to remain anonymous and, simultaneously, enter into a public space to share personal thoughts about a stigmatized and taboo subject. This has also created new and unique opportunities to study a type of communication that was previously very difficult to access. Most of the participants on the studied forum are teenagers or ...

  13. Routing Optimization Based on Taboo Search Algorithm for Logistic Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Hongxue Yang; Lingling Xuan

    2014-01-01

    Along with the widespread application of the electronic commerce in the modern business, the logistic distribution has become increasingly important. More and more enterprises recognize that the logistic distribution plays an important role in the process of production and sales. A good routing for logistic distribution can cut down transport cost and improve efficiency. In order to cut down transport cost and improve efficiency, a routing optimization based on taboo search for logistic distr...

  14. Love Has (NO) Boundaries: Researching a Sexual Taboo

    OpenAIRE

    Dafna Shir-Vertesh

    2013-01-01

    Sexual and emotional attraction humans feel towards animals, also known as zoophilia, is perhaps the most controversial facet of human-animal relationships. In this article I explore this seemingly ultimate transgression of interspecies boundaries and probe the Israeli cultural encounters with it. I discern how the stated concerns for normative sexuality and animal rights masquerade the underlying factors in the zoophilia taboo, and reveal the cultural implications of human-animal sexual love...

  15. Taboo Search: An Approach to the Multiple Minima Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvijovic, Djurdje; Klinowski, Jacek

    1995-02-01

    Described here is a method, based on Glover's taboo search for discrete functions, of solving the multiple minima problem for continuous functions. As demonstrated by model calculations, the algorithm avoids entrapment in local minima and continues the search to give a near-optimal final solution. Unlike other methods of global optimization, this procedure is generally applicable, easy to implement, derivative-free, and conceptually simple.

  16. Functional mechanisms involved in the internal inhibition of taboo words

    OpenAIRE

    Severens, Els; Kühn, Simone; Hartsuiker, Robert; Brass, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain processes associated with the inhibition of socially undesirable speech. It is tested whether the inhibition of undesirable speech is solely related to brain areas associated with classical stop signal tasks or rather also involves brain areas involved in endogenous self-control. During the experiment, subjects had to do a SLIP task, which was designed to elicit taboo or neutral spoonerisms. Here we show that th...

  17. Taboo: Working memory and mental control in an interactive task

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Whitney A.; Goldinger, Stephen D.

    2009-01-01

    Individual differences in working memory (WM) predict principled variation in tasks of reasoning, response time, memory, and other abilities. Theoretically, a central function of WM is keeping task-relevant information easily accessible while suppressing irrelevant information. The present experiment was a novel study of mental control, using performance in the game Taboo as a measure. We tested effects of WM capacity on several indices, including perseveration errors (repeating previous gues...

  18. Is male homosexuality still a cultural taboo for kidney donation?

    OpenAIRE

    GEUNA, Stefano; PICCOLI, Giorgina Barbara

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Among the so-called social risk behaviors, male homosexuality is probably one of the most interesting and difficult taboos. Because of changing attitudes of the general population toward irregular sexual behaviors, often considered as markers of unhealthy life styles, there is a need to reconsider at least the most important one-homosexuality. METHODS: A semistructured questionnaire included opinions on homosexuality with respect to kidney donation: Would you consider a male homos...

  19. The Allure of the Forbidden: Breaking Taboos, Frustration, and Attraction to Violent Video Games

    OpenAIRE

    Whitaker, Jodi L.; Melzer, André; Steffgen, Georges; Bushmann, Brad J.

    2013-01-01

    Although people typically avoid engaging in antisocial or taboo behaviors, such as cheating and stealing, they may succumb in order to maximize their personal benefit. Moreover, they may be frustrated when the chance to commit a taboo behavior is withdrawn. The present study tested whether the desire to commit a taboo behavior, and the frustration from being denied such an opportunity, increases attraction to violent video games. Playing violent games allegedly offers an outlet for aggression...

  20. Anger, disgust, and presumption of harm as reactions to taboo-breaking behaviors.

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez, Roberto; Giner-Sorolla, Roger

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the relationship between the presumption of harm in harm-free violations of creatural norms (taboos) and the moral emotions of anger and disgust. Experiment 1 showed that participants made a presumption of harm to others from taboo violations even in conditions described as harmless and not involving other people; this presumption was predicted by anger and not disgust. Experiment 2 manipulated taboo violation and included a cognitive load task to clarify the p...

  1. Evaluating taboo trade-offs in ecosystems services and human well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daw, Tim M; Coulthard, Sarah; Cheung, William W L; Brown, Katrina; Abunge, Caroline; Galafassi, Diego; Peterson, Garry D; McClanahan, Tim R; Omukoto, Johnstone O; Munyi, Lydiah

    2015-06-01

    Managing ecosystems for multiple ecosystem services and balancing the well-being of diverse stakeholders involves different kinds of trade-offs. Often trade-offs involve noneconomic and difficult-to-evaluate values, such as cultural identity, employment, the well-being of poor people, or particular species or ecosystem structures. Although trade-offs need to be considered for successful environmental management, they are often overlooked in favor of win-wins. Management and policy decisions demand approaches that can explicitly acknowledge and evaluate diverse trade-offs. We identified a diversity of apparent trade-offs in a small-scale tropical fishery when ecological simulations were integrated with participatory assessments of social-ecological system structure and stakeholders' well-being. Despite an apparent win-win between conservation and profitability at the aggregate scale, food production, employment, and well-being of marginalized stakeholders were differentially influenced by management decisions leading to trade-offs. Some of these trade-offs were suggested to be "taboo" trade-offs between morally incommensurable values, such as between profits and the well-being of marginalized women. These were not previously recognized as management issues. Stakeholders explored and deliberated over trade-offs supported by an interactive "toy model" representing key system trade-offs, alongside qualitative narrative scenarios of the future. The concept of taboo trade-offs suggests that psychological bias and social sensitivity may exclude key issues from decision making, which can result in policies that are difficult to implement. Our participatory modeling and scenarios approach has the potential to increase awareness of such trade-offs, promote discussion of what is acceptable, and potentially identify and reduce obstacles to management compliance. PMID:26038547

  2. Accommodating Taboo Language in English Language Teaching: Issues of Appropriacy and Authenticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanage, Indika; Walker, Tony; Bartlett, Brendan; Guo, Xuhong

    2015-01-01

    Culturally specific language practices related to vernacular uses of taboo language such as swearing represent a socially communicative minefield for learners of English. The role of classroom learning experiences to prepare learners for negotiation of taboo language use in social interactions is correspondingly complicated and ignored in much of…

  3. The Linguistic Taboo between Malays and Ibans of Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affidah Morni

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    This study attempts to determine the Malays’ and Ibans’ perceptions on the use of linguistic taboo in their culture based on the specified domains and to investigate the occurrence of linguistic taboo in different domains. The outcome of this study would provide a useful understanding over the Malays’ and Ibans’ sensitivity over the usage of certain words which are considered taboo in their community. Hence, avoid occurrences of embarrassment or offensiveness by the speakers. Questionnaires were given to 40 Sarawak Malays and 40 Ibans of varying educational background and age in Kuching area. They were selected randomly based on convenience random sampling and the data were analyzed using SPSS 10.0. The findings show that many respondents believed that taboo words should not be spoken publicly or openly where certain topics should not be discussed in candid especially in relation to sex, body parts, bodily functions, death and dying. Nonetheless, the cultural norms, rules and the notion of politeness (and among the Malays the tenets of religion play significant roles in restricting the open use of these taboo words either behaviourally or linguistically. Comparatively, the Iban respondents seemed to be more expressive and candid in using taboo words in expressing their emotions, as compared to the Malays. It is also apparent that the use of taboo words can be acceptable depending on the domains and contexts.

    Key words: Linguistic Taboo; Euphemisms; Domains

    Résumé: Cette étude tente de déterminer les perceptions des Malais et des Ibans sur l'utilisation de tabou linguistique dans leur culture basée sur les domaines spécifiés et d'enquêter sur l'occurrence de tabou linguistique dans des domaines différents. Le résultat de cette étude nous aiderait à comprendre la sensibilité des Malais et des Ibans sur l'utilisation de certains mots qui sont considérés comme tabous dans leur communauté. Par conséquent, on peut éviter les cas d'embarras ou d’être offensé par les orateurs.

    Des questionnaires ont été donnés à 40 Sarawak Malais et 40 Ibans de différents niveaux d’études et de différents âges dans la région de Kuching. Ils ont été sélectionnés de façon aléatoire dans un échantillonnage aléatoire, et les données ont été analysées en utilisant la méthode de SPSS 10.0. Les résultats montrent que de nombreuse personnes questionnées ont estimé que les mots tabous ne devraient pas être prononcés publiquement ou ouvertement, où certains sujets ne doivent pas être discutés de façon franche, notamment en ce qui concerne le sexe, les parties du corps, les fonctions corporelles, la mort et les mourants. Néanmoins, les normes culturelles, des règles et la notion de politesse (et chez les Malais, les préceptes de la religion jouent un rôle important dans la restriction de la libre utilisation de ces mots tabous. Comparativement, les Iban questionnés semblent être plus expressifs et francs dans l'utilisation de mots tabous à exprimer leurs émotions, par rapport aux Malais. Il est également évident que l'utilisation de mots tabous peut être acceptable en fonction de domaines et de contextes.

    Mots-Clés: Tabou linguistique; Euphémisme; Domaines

     

  4. Restricted random search method based on taboo search in the multiple minima problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seung Do; Jhon, Mu Shik

    1997-03-01

    The restricted random search method is proposed as a simple Monte Carlo sampling method to search minima fast in the multiple minima problem. This method is based on taboo search applied recently to continuous test functions. The concept of the taboo region instead of the taboo list is used and therefore the sampling of a region near an old configuration is restricted in this method. This method is applied to 2-dimensional test functions and the argon clusters. This method is found to be a practical and efficient method to search near-global configurations of test functions and the argon clusters.

  5. Hand Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Hand Therapy Wrist Arthroscopy Hand Surgery Anesthesia Steroid Injections See More... Hand and Arm Injuries Wrist Fracture ... Treatment Hand Therapy Wrist Arthroscopy Hand Surgery Anesthesia Steroid Injections See More... Hand and Arm Injuries Wrist Fracture ...

  6. Hand Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Hand Therapy Wrist Arthroscopy Hand Surgery Anesthesia Steroid Injections See More... Hand and Arm Injuries Wrist Fracture ... Treatment Hand Therapy Wrist Arthroscopy Hand Surgery Anesthesia Steroid Injections See More... Hand and Arm Injuries Wrist Fracture ...

  7. Hand Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Hand Therapy Wrist Arthroscopy Hand Surgery Anesthesia Steroid Injections See More... Hand and Arm Injuries Wrist Fracture ... Treatment Hand Therapy Wrist Arthroscopy Hand Surgery Anesthesia Steroid Injections See More... Hand and Arm Injuries Wrist Fracture ...

  8. Hand Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Hand Therapy Wrist Arthroscopy Hand Surgery Anesthesia Steroid Injections See More... Hand and Arm Injuries Wrist Fracture ... Treatment Hand Therapy Wrist Arthroscopy Hand Surgery Anesthesia Steroid Injections See More... Hand and Arm Injuries Wrist Fracture ...

  9. Hand Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Hand Therapy Wrist Arthroscopy Hand Surgery Anesthesia Steroid Injections See More... Hand and Arm Injuries Wrist Fracture ... Treatment Hand Therapy Wrist Arthroscopy Hand Surgery Anesthesia Steroid Injections See More... Hand and Arm Injuries Wrist Fracture ...

  10. What's the Matter with Food?: A Hands-On Action Research Study on the Effect of Using Food Preparation To Teach Students with Autism about the Three States of Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diller, Nicole

    This investigation studied the effectiveness of using food preparation to teach students with Autism about the three states of matter. A hands-on learning approach was used within the home and careers classroom. One class of five students, three boys and two girls, all diagnosed with Autism, participated in a five day academic unit about the three phases of matter: solid, liquid, and gas. The class received hands-on learning science instruction using food through various differentiated activities. Results indicate that students express focus when using food to learn. In addition, this study acknowledges that hands-on learning in science enhances the learning process of students with Autism. One of the main reasons is that students enjoy learning when this teaching style is used in the classroom, and students that enjoy what they are learning are more likely to be engaged and motivated to learn. After using this approach, all the students in the study increased their scores from the pre-assessments to the post-assessments. Students expressed through actions and words that they enjoyed using hands-on experiences to learn in the classroom. Implications for practice indicate that a variety of manipulatives are needed to teach students with Autism. Future research would help uncover additional information about student motivation and learning in the home and careers classroom.

  11. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 11. Use of antiseptics and sanitizers in community settings and issues of hand hygiene compliance in health care and food industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Ewen C D; Greig, Judy D; Michaels, Barry S; Bartleson, Charles A; Smith, Debra; Holah, John

    2010-12-01

    Hand washing with soap is a practice that has long been recognized as a major barrier to the spread of disease in food production, preparation, and service and in health care settings, including hospitals, child care centers, and elder care facilities. Many of these settings present multiple opportunities for spread of pathogens within at-risk populations, and extra vigilance must be applied. Unfortunately, hand hygiene is not always carried out effectively, and both enteric and respiratory diseases are easily spread in these environments. Where water is limited or frequent hand hygiene is required on a daily basis, such as for many patients in hospitals and astronauts in space travel, instant sanitizers or sanitary wipes are thought to be an effective way of preventing contamination and spread of organisms among coworkers and others. Most concerns regarding compliance are associated with the health care field, but the food industry also must be considered. Specific reasons for not washing hands at appropriate times are laziness, time pressure, inadequate facilities and supplies, lack of accountability, and lack of involvement by companies, managers, and workers in supporting proper hand washing. To facilitate improvements in hand hygiene, measurement of compliant and noncompliant actions is necessary before implementing any procedural changes. Training alone is not sufficient for long-lasting improvement. Multiactivity strategies also must include modification of the organization culture to encourage safe hygienic practices, motivation of employees willing to use peer pressure on noncompliant coworkers, a reward and/or penalty system, and an operational design that facilitates regular hand hygiene. PMID:21219754

  12. Socio-Cultural and Attitudinal Study of Selected Yoruba Taboos in South West Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adebola Adebileje

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a socio-cultural description of some Yoruba taboos which are an integral part of culture and youths’ attitude towards these taboos. The theoretical frame work for the study is based on Vygotskian’s sociocultural approach which holds that higher order functions develop out of social interaction. In other words, cultural development of an individual, especially the young ones, depends largely on social interactions with elders. Some socio-cultural factors like age, ...

  13. Hand collection - hand harvest

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of activities related to the collection and harvest of seeds on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1992 and 2009. Information about hand...

  14. Optimal lunar soft landing trajectories using taboo evolutionary programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutyalarao, M.; Raj, M. Xavier James

    A safe lunar landing is a key factor to undertake an effective lunar exploration. Lunar lander consists of four phases such as launch phase, the earth-moon transfer phase, circumlunar phase and landing phase. The landing phase can be either hard landing or soft landing. Hard landing means the vehicle lands under the influence of gravity without any deceleration measures. However, soft landing reduces the vertical velocity of the vehicle before landing. Therefore, for the safety of the astronauts as well as the vehicle lunar soft landing with an acceptable velocity is very much essential. So it is important to design the optimal lunar soft landing trajectory with minimum fuel consumption. Optimization of Lunar Soft landing is a complex optimal control problem. In this paper, an analysis related to lunar soft landing from a parking orbit around Moon has been carried out. A two-dimensional trajectory optimization problem is attempted. The problem is complex due to the presence of system constraints. To solve the time-history of control parameters, the problem is converted into two point boundary value problem by using the maximum principle of Pontrygen. Taboo Evolutionary Programming (TEP) technique is a stochastic method developed in recent years and successfully implemented in several fields of research. It combines the features of taboo search and single-point mutation evolutionary programming. Identifying the best unknown parameters of the problem under consideration is the central idea for many space trajectory optimization problems. The TEP technique is used in the present methodology for the best estimation of initial unknown parameters by minimizing objective function interms of fuel requirements. The optimal estimation subsequently results into an optimal trajectory design of a module for soft landing on the Moon from a lunar parking orbit. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the proposed approach is highly efficient and it reduces the minimum fuel consumption. The results are compared with the available results in literature shows that the solution of present algorithm is better than some of the existing algorithms. Keywords: soft landing, trajectory optimization, evolutionary programming, control parameters, Pontrygen principle.

  15. The self in moral judgement: How self-affirmation affects the moral condemnation of harmless sexual taboo violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooijman, Marlon; Van Dijk, Wilco W

    2015-01-01

    People frequently condemn harmless sexual taboo behaviours. Based on self-affirmation theory, we predicted that providing an opportunity to self-affirm decreases the tendency to morally condemn harmless sexual taboos. In Experiment 1, we found evidence that self-affirmation decreases the moral condemnation of harmless sexual taboos and ruled out that this was due to a decrease in how disgusting participants considered taboo acts. In Experiment 2, we replicated this effect and demonstrated the mediating role of self-directed threat emotions. These results demonstrate that the tendency to morally condemn harmless sexual taboos arises in part from the need to protect self-integrity. We discuss the implications for the role of the self and emotions in moral judgements and interventions aimed at increasing the acceptability of harmless sexual taboos. PMID:25472625

  16. In Search of the Nuclear Taboo. Past, Present, and Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most puzzling - if positive - phenomena of the past half century is the non-use of nuclear weapons. The puzzle relates to the absence of use despite the demonstrated technical effectiveness of the weapon, the enormous size of nuclear weapons stockpiles globally, the spread of nuclear weapons to states in most regions of the world, the centrality of nuclear weapons in the strategic doctrines and operational war plans of a growing number of states with very different cultures, political systems, and military traditions, and the observation of the tradition of non-use despite the lack of international legal prohibitions - unlike those in place with respect to chemical and biological weapons. This essay seeks to probe the underpinnings of nuclear weapons restraint, the strength and durability of the so-called nuclear 'taboo' - especially in light of the rise of non-states actors who covet nuclear weapons for purposes other than deterrence - and the most likely paths by which existing restraints might be breached, broken, or dissolved. Particular emphasis is placed on alternative futures as a number of other studies, including several important new volumes, have explored in depth the sources of non-use. (author)

  17. Solving touristic trip planning problem by using taboo search approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Sylejmani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce an algorithm that automatically plans a touristic trip by considering some hard and soft constrains. Opening and closing hours of POIs, trip duration and trip allocated budget represent the hard constraints, while the satisfaction factors of the POIs and travelling distance in the trip are considered as soft constraints. We use the soft constraints to evaluate the generated solution of the algorithm. The algorithm is developed by utilizing the taboo search method as a meta heuristic. The operators of Swap, Insert and Delete are used to explore the search space. The Swap and Insert operator are used in each iteration of the algorithm loop, while the Delete operator is used whenever the algorithm tends to enter in an endless cycle. The algorithm is developed by using Java programming language, while the data repositories are created in the XML format. The algorithm is tested with 40 instances of POIs of the city of Vienna. Various entry parameters of the algorithm are used to test its performance. The results gained are discussed and compared in respect to the optimal solution.

  18. In Search of the Nuclear Taboo. Past, Present, and Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, W.C.

    2010-07-01

    One of the most puzzling - if positive - phenomena of the past half century is the non-use of nuclear weapons. The puzzle relates to the absence of use despite the demonstrated technical effectiveness of the weapon, the enormous size of nuclear weapons stockpiles globally, the spread of nuclear weapons to states in most regions of the world, the centrality of nuclear weapons in the strategic doctrines and operational war plans of a growing number of states with very different cultures, political systems, and military traditions, and the observation of the tradition of non-use despite the lack of international legal prohibitions - unlike those in place with respect to chemical and biological weapons. This essay seeks to probe the underpinnings of nuclear weapons restraint, the strength and durability of the so-called nuclear 'taboo' - especially in light of the rise of non-states actors who covet nuclear weapons for purposes other than deterrence - and the most likely paths by which existing restraints might be breached, broken, or dissolved. Particular emphasis is placed on alternative futures as a number of other studies, including several important new volumes, have explored in depth the sources of non-use. (author)

  19. RELATIVE EFFICACY OF HUMAN SOCIAL INTERACTION AND FOOD AS REINFORCERS FOR DOMESTIC DOGS AND HAND-REARED WOLVES

    OpenAIRE

    Erica N. Feuerbacher; Wynne, Clive D. L

    2012-01-01

    Despite the intimate relationship dogs share with humans in Western society, we know relatively little about the variables that produce and maintain dog social behavior towards humans. One possibility is that human social interaction is itself a reinforcer for dog behavior. As an initial assessment of the variables that might maintain dog social behavior, we compared the relative efficacy of brief human social interaction to a small piece of food as a reinforcer for an arbitrary response (nos...

  20. Taboo Icons: The Bodily Photography of Andres Serrano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler Shine

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available   Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Verdana;} Andres Serrano’s photography is often dismissed as being shocking for the sake of being shocking. His infamous photograph Piss Christ (1987 is the oft-cited example at the center of the National Endowment for the Arts controversies during the Culture Wars of the 1980s and 1990s. I return to Piss Christ as a way to expand the interpretative scope of Serrano’s early photographs, which I call “taboo icons” because of their ambiguity and ability to crisscross symbolic boundaries in the unstable space between sacred and profane, thus making his images both powerful and potentially dangerous. Building upon previous scholarship that draws connections between modern and early modern aesthetic practices, I look to the material practices of Christianity in medieval Europe characterized by a sophisticated visual culture that mixed both the physical and the spiritual. The intensifying rejection and reverence of matter resulted in divergent responses, yet the contradictory nature of matter remained central to the ideological beliefs of Christianity where the doctrines of Creation, Incarnation, and Resurrection are at its core. Serrano’s visceral photographs are emphatically material and can productively be read vis-à-vis medieval visual culture. In doing so, this reading changes the narrow perception of Serrano’s early photographs and provides an alternative understanding of his artistic project that reinserts religion into contemporary American art discourse.

  1. Jeux tabous : littératures Taboo plays: Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Galtier

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available La thèse de Georges Bataille sur l’art comme transgression, et d’abord du tabou concernant la mort, est ici mise à l’épreuve de trois œuvres littéraires du XXe siècle. C’est le tabou des morts en sa violence primitive qui s’y inscrit, mais sans effacer ce qu’il frappe, d’où l’effet libérateur du texte.Georges Bataille’s thesis – art as transgression of taboo, especially taboo regarding death – is tested by three literary works of XXth century. The taboo concerning dead persons is here written, with its primitive violence but what it prohibits is not obliterated. Hence the liberating effect of the text.

  2. Socio-Cultural and Attitudinal Study of Selected Yoruba Taboos in South West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebola Adebileje

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available

    This study presents a socio-cultural description of some Yoruba taboos which are an integral part of culture and youths’ attitude towards these taboos. The theoretical frame work for the study is based on Vygotskian’s sociocultural approach which holds that higher order functions develop out of social interaction. In other words, cultural development of an individual, especially the young ones, depends largely on social interactions with elders. Some socio-cultural factors like age, sex and education are the variables employed in the analysis. Data is gathered from interviewing students and staff of Redeemer’s University, Mowe, Ogun state and Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun state in the South Western part of Nigeria. Books and documents are also consulted. In the process of describing some selected Yoruba taboos, it is discovered that: (a the language of a particular society is an integral part of its culture, (b many of the taboos have been taken over by Christianity and technology (c youths have a laissez-faire attitude as their belief in taboos is fast disappearing because parents and guardians do not educate children in these acts any more. It is concluded that for the Yoruba culture to be saved from imminent extinction, parents must expose the young ones to cultural beliefs and ensure that they speak the language. This is necessary because internalized culture allows people to respond in appropriate ways to the norms of the society or community in which they live.

    Key words: Socio-cultural; Yoruba taboos; Society’s attitude

  3. How to Break a Taboo? Comment briser un tabou ? ¿Cómo romper un tabú?

    OpenAIRE

    Jack Sim

    2011-01-01

    Prior to 2001, the word toilet and sanitation was a taboo. Polite society avoided the embarrassment of mentioning it. Academia publications about the issues were viewed as too boring to engage mass media. But avoidance of this agenda manifested into neglect of 2.6 billion people without access to proper sanitation and the death of 1.5 million children through diarrhea annually. Jack Sim broke this taboo through the creation of the World Toilet Organization (WTO). With its unique blend of humo...

  4. Taboos and Denials: Major Obstacles to Sustainable Use of the Planet

    OpenAIRE

    Cairns, John

    2004-01-01

    A taboo is a (1) prohibition excluding something from use, approach, or mention because of its sacred and inviolable nature and (2) an object, work, or act protected by such a prohibition. Denial is a refusal to believe in the existence or reality of a fact or entity. Human society professes to believe sustainable use of the planet is a means of leaving it in a habitable condition for future generations. However, a taboo, especially among mainstream politicians, has been placed on the free an...

  5. Holding Thermal Receipt Paper and Eating Food after Using Hand Sanitizer Results in High Serum Bioactive and Urine Total Levels of Bisphenol A (BPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormann, Annette M.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Nagel, Susan C.; Stahlhut, Richard W.; Moyer, Carol L.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Welshons, Wade V.; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Taylor, Julia A.

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting environmental contaminant used in a wide variety of products, and BPA metabolites are found in almost everyone’s urine, suggesting widespread exposure from multiple sources. Regulatory agencies estimate that virtually all BPA exposure is from food and beverage packaging. However, free BPA is applied to the outer layer of thermal receipt paper present in very high (∼20 mg BPA/g paper) quantities as a print developer. Not taken into account when considering thermal paper as a source of BPA exposure is that some commonly used hand sanitizers, as well as other skin care products, contain mixtures of dermal penetration enhancing chemicals that can increase by up to 100 fold the dermal absorption of lipophilic compounds such as BPA. We found that when men and women held thermal receipt paper immediately after using a hand sanitizer with penetration enhancing chemicals, significant free BPA was transferred to their hands and then to French fries that were eaten, and the combination of dermal and oral BPA absorption led to a rapid and dramatic average maximum increase (Cmax) in unconjugated (bioactive) BPA of ∼7 ng/mL in serum and ∼20 µg total BPA/g creatinine in urine within 90 min. The default method used by regulatory agencies to test for hazards posed by chemicals is intra-gastric gavage. For BPA this approach results in less than 1% of the administered dose being bioavailable in blood. It also ignores dermal absorption as well as sublingual absorption in the mouth that both bypass first-pass liver metabolism. The elevated levels of BPA that we observed due to holding thermal paper after using a product containing dermal penetration enhancing chemicals have been related to an increased risk for a wide range of developmental abnormalities as well as diseases in adults. PMID:25337790

  6. Android Hands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    such occasions, android and humanoid hand models should have similar structure, functions, and performance as the human hand. In this paper we present the anatomy, and the key functionalities of the human hand followed by a literature review on android/humanoid hands for grasping and manipulating...

  7. Lifting the Taboo Regarding Teleology and Anthropomorphism in Biology Education--Heretical Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Anat; Ginossar, Shlomit

    1998-01-01

    Advocates removing the taboo regarding anthropomorphism and teleology in biology education. Argues that for high school students, accepting such formulations does not necessarily imply anthropomorphic or teleological reasoning. Further, living organisms seem goal-oriented because of their adaptation for survival. Concludes with the argument that…

  8. The x-word and its usage : Taboo words and swearwords in general, and x-words in newspapers

    OpenAIRE

    Lindahl, Katarina

    2008-01-01

    All languages have words that are considered taboo – words that are not supposed to be said or used. Taboo words, or swearwords, can be used in many different ways and they can have different meanings depending on what context they appear in. Another aspect of taboo words is the euphemisms that are used in order to avoid obscene speech. This paper will focus on x-words, words like the f-word or the c-word, which replace the words fuck or cunt, but as the study will show they also have other m...

  9. Hand osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Bijsterbosch, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the clinical and radiographic disease course of hand osteoarthritis as well as determinants of poor clinical outcome and radiographic progression over a period of six years in 289 patients with hand osteoarthritis. Because these patients had osteoarthritis at multiple joints this enabled us to not only assess the association between progression of osteoarhtiritis in different hand joints groups but also between progression of hand osteoarthritis and osteoarthritis change at th...

  10. Chapped hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... wind Avoid washing hands with hot water Limit hand washing as much as possible while maintaining good hygiene Try to keep the air in your home humid Use mild soaps or non-soap cleansers Use ... on your hands regularly, especially if you live in a dry ...

  11. The World After Proliferation, Deterrence and Disarmament if the Nuclear Taboo is Broken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    he nuclear taboo is customarily seen as a black and white norm, separating the world of the familiar from that of an unknowable afterlife.1 Nina Tannenwald argues that 'once the threshold between use and non-use is crossed, one is immediately in a new world with all the unimaginable consequences that could follow'. It is not correct, however, to say that the consequences are 'unimaginable'. They are certainly unpredictable, but one can imagine at least some of the consequences. This article attempts to do so with regard to consequences for proliferation, deterrence and disarmament. If the nuclear taboo were broken, whether by design, accident, miscalculation, or a breakdown of command and control, one of the more easily imagined consequences would be the collapse of the Nuclear Non- Proliferation Treaty (NPT). It is safe to assume that the use of nuclear weapons in war for the first time since 1945 would be a transformational event. But would nuclear use spell the failure of deterrence and doom the prospects of a nuclear-weapons free world, making obsolete much of the current thinking about nuclear disarmament and nuclear deterrence? Not every nuclear use scenario would necessarily break the lock on the nuclear Pandora's Box. A 'demonstration shot', for example, would not have the same impact as nuclear obliteration of a city. Both would be breaches of the taboo, but the use of a single nuclear bomb probably would not disrupt the status quo as thoroughly as would a massive attack or a two-way exchange. Breaching the taboo would not necessarily reverse the powerful norm and tradition that has developed in the last 60+ years against use of nuclear weapons. There is no compelling logic to assume that nuclear weapons would thereby become re-legitimized as instruments of war. The breaking of the nuclear taboo could actually spur either or both of two opposite reactions: an increased salience of nuclear weapons and a stimulus to disarmament. Which impulse prevails will depend on the circumstances, including how the taboo gets broken. This paper first lays out the case for each of these two disparate reactions, noting that history provides limited predictive power for what would be an unprecedented event. The paper then assesses the various circumstances in which nuclear weapons might be used, and how the context of their use would affect the development of new norms. (author)

  12. The World After Proliferation, Deterrence and Disarmament if the Nuclear Taboo is Broken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, M.

    2009-07-01

    he nuclear taboo is customarily seen as a black and white norm, separating the world of the familiar from that of an unknowable afterlife.1 Nina Tannenwald argues that 'once the threshold between use and non-use is crossed, one is immediately in a new world with all the unimaginable consequences that could follow'. It is not correct, however, to say that the consequences are 'unimaginable'. They are certainly unpredictable, but one can imagine at least some of the consequences. This article attempts to do so with regard to consequences for proliferation, deterrence and disarmament. If the nuclear taboo were broken, whether by design, accident, miscalculation, or a breakdown of command and control, one of the more easily imagined consequences would be the collapse of the Nuclear Non- Proliferation Treaty (NPT). It is safe to assume that the use of nuclear weapons in war for the first time since 1945 would be a transformational event. But would nuclear use spell the failure of deterrence and doom the prospects of a nuclear-weapons free world, making obsolete much of the current thinking about nuclear disarmament and nuclear deterrence? Not every nuclear use scenario would necessarily break the lock on the nuclear Pandora's Box. A 'demonstration shot', for example, would not have the same impact as nuclear obliteration of a city. Both would be breaches of the taboo, but the use of a single nuclear bomb probably would not disrupt the status quo as thoroughly as would a massive attack or a two-way exchange. Breaching the taboo would not necessarily reverse the powerful norm and tradition that has developed in the last 60+ years against use of nuclear weapons. There is no compelling logic to assume that nuclear weapons would thereby become re-legitimized as instruments of war. The breaking of the nuclear taboo could actually spur either or both of two opposite reactions: an increased salience of nuclear weapons and a stimulus to disarmament. Which impulse prevails will depend on the circumstances, including how the taboo gets broken. This paper first lays out the case for each of these two disparate reactions, noting that history provides limited predictive power for what would be an unprecedented event. The paper then assesses the various circumstances in which nuclear weapons might be used, and how the context of their use would affect the development of new norms. (author)

  13. Offensive Language in Sex and the City : A study of male and female characters’ use of taboo words

    OpenAIRE

    Skillström Bygg, Madelene

    2006-01-01

    There are words and topics of conversation that are considered taboo and offensive in the English language. Offensive words can be divided into different categories, based on the way they are used and in what situation. Topics of conversation that are considered taboo are for example sexual activity and death. Men and women are said to use language differently, in a number of areas. One of these areas concerns offensive language. It is considered masculine to swear and women are prone to use ...

  14. Communicating Difficult and Taboo Information: A How-To Guide for Commanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosey, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Military commanders frequently mention that communicating difficult or taboo information is especially challenging. In the context of gender-integrated ground combat service there may be additional communication challenges for military commanders who may be unaccustomed to leading both men and women. Often, military commanders must communicate and deliver difficult information, or information that causes a negative emotional response from the communicator or the intended audience. This article is intended to identify some of these challenges and present practical examples and tips for military commanders to effectively communicate difficult or taboo topics and information. In addition, this article is a call for communication experts to reach out to military leaders and offer appropriate assistance in facilitating and delivering difficult communication. PMID:26741900

  15. The Hitting Times with Taboo for a Random Walk on an Integer Lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Bulinskaya, Ekaterina

    2011-01-01

    For a symmetric, homogeneous and irreducible random walk on d-dimensional integer lattice Z^d, having zero mean and a finite variance of jumps, we study the passage times (with possible infinite values) determined by the starting point x, the hitting state y and the taboo state z. We find the probability that these passages times are finite and analyze the tails of their cumulative distribution functions. In particular, it turns out that for the random walk on Z^d, except for a simple (nearest neighbor) random walk on Z, the order of the tail decrease is specified by dimension d only. In contrast, for a simple random walk on Z, the asymptotic properties of hitting times with taboo essentially depend on the mutual location of the points x, y and z. These problems originated in our recent study of branching random walk on Z^d with a single source of branching.

  16. How do speakers resist distraction? Evidence from a taboo picture-word interference task

    OpenAIRE

    D'Hooge, Elisah; Hartsuiker, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Even in the presence of irrelevant stimuli, word production is a highly accurate and fluent process. But how do speakers prevent themselves from naming the wrong things? One possibility is that an attentional system inhibits task-irrelevant representations. Alternatively, a verbal self-monitoring system might check speech for accuracy and remove errors stemming from irrelevant information. Because self-monitoring is sensitive to social appropriateness, taboo errors should be intercepted more ...

  17. Reflections on a Shared Name: Taboo and Destiny in Mayong (Assam)

    OpenAIRE

    Dowdy, Sean

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the cosmological entailments of a minor verbal taboo in Mayong (Central Assam). In brief, individuals who share personal names are forbidden from addressing or referring to each other by name, and instead must interpellate each other as mita (friend). Through an analysis of names in acts of sorcery and magic, a baptism ceremonial, and nominal modes of address in Mayong, this article demonstrates how confronting a person with a shared name is tantamount to confronting one...

  18. Bereaved parents' online grief communities: de-tabooing practices or grief-ghettos?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Christensen, Dorthe Refslund; HÃ¥rd af Segerstad, Ylva; Kasperowski, Dick

    In this talk we are primarily suggesting some logics when it comes to the concepts oftaboo and ghetto in relation to grief. We are looking at the kind of loss and grief surrounded with the most taboo and stigma: the loss of a child. There is an anomaly of the death of a child: biologically......, children are not supposed to die before their parents, old people are supposed to die. Losing a child cuts to the core of human existence. A 100 years ago, the most common death was a child. Today, it is an old person. So the percentage of parents who have suffered the death of a child is comparably small......-tabooing practices going on. In everyday interaction in the physical world there is a taboo against performing parenthood once your child is dead. It is normal for a parent to talk about their children extensively, as long as it lives. What is to be considered normal, or accepted, is a matter of perspective. A...

  19. Genetic evolutionary taboo search for optimal marker placement in infrared patient setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboldi, M.; Baroni, G.; Spadea, M. F.; Tagaste, B.; Garibaldi, C.; Cambria, R.; Orecchia, R.; Pedotti, A.

    2007-09-01

    In infrared patient setup adequate selection of the external fiducial configuration is required for compensating inner target displacements (target registration error, TRE). Genetic algorithms (GA) and taboo search (TS) were applied in a newly designed approach to optimal marker placement: the genetic evolutionary taboo search (GETS) algorithm. In the GETS paradigm, multiple solutions are simultaneously tested in a stochastic evolutionary scheme, where taboo-based decision making and adaptive memory guide the optimization process. The GETS algorithm was tested on a group of ten prostate patients, to be compared to standard optimization and to randomly selected configurations. The changes in the optimal marker configuration, when TRE is minimized for OARs, were specifically examined. Optimal GETS configurations ensured a 26.5% mean decrease in the TRE value, versus 19.4% for conventional quasi-Newton optimization. Common features in GETS marker configurations were highlighted in the dataset of ten patients, even when multiple runs of the stochastic algorithm were performed. Including OARs in TRE minimization did not considerably affect the spatial distribution of GETS marker configurations. In conclusion, the GETS algorithm proved to be highly effective in solving the optimal marker placement problem. Further work is needed to embed site-specific deformation models in the optimization process.

  20. Genetic evolutionary taboo search for optimal marker placement in infrared patient setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In infrared patient setup adequate selection of the external fiducial configuration is required for compensating inner target displacements (target registration error, TRE). Genetic algorithms (GA) and taboo search (TS) were applied in a newly designed approach to optimal marker placement: the genetic evolutionary taboo search (GETS) algorithm. In the GETS paradigm, multiple solutions are simultaneously tested in a stochastic evolutionary scheme, where taboo-based decision making and adaptive memory guide the optimization process. The GETS algorithm was tested on a group of ten prostate patients, to be compared to standard optimization and to randomly selected configurations. The changes in the optimal marker configuration, when TRE is minimized for OARs, were specifically examined. Optimal GETS configurations ensured a 26.5% mean decrease in the TRE value, versus 19.4% for conventional quasi-Newton optimization. Common features in GETS marker configurations were highlighted in the dataset of ten patients, even when multiple runs of the stochastic algorithm were performed. Including OARs in TRE minimization did not considerably affect the spatial distribution of GETS marker configurations. In conclusion, the GETS algorithm proved to be highly effective in solving the optimal marker placement problem. Further work is needed to embed site-specific deformation models in the optimization process

  1. Taboo and the different death? Perceptions of those bereaved by suicide or other traumatic death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapple, Alison; Ziebland, Sue; Hawton, Keith

    2015-05-01

    Views differ on how far the subject of death has ever been taboo in Western Society. Walter (1991) criticised the way the 'taboo thesis' has been presented, arguing that it has often been 'grossly overdrawn and lacking in subtlety'. Research suggests that suicide and other traumatic death may be particularly difficult for people to talk about or even acknowledge. We interviewed 80 people bereaved due to suicide, or other traumatic death and used interpretative thematic analysis to consider whether the 'death taboo' is evident in these bereavement narratives. People referred to suicide as a different, even stigmatised, death but we also found that those bereaved through other traumatic death felt that their reactions had to be contained and relatively silent. The exception was those bereaved through terrorism or train crash, who were encouraged to grieve openly and angrily: reactions to deaths which are seen as 'private troubles' differ from reactions to deaths which are seen as 'public issues'. Using a symbolic interactionist approach we conclude that the shock and suddenness of the death is tied up both with the circumstances of the death (suicide, murder, accident, terrorism) and the attendant consequences for the social acceptance of public displays of mourning. PMID:25683372

  2. Genetic evolutionary taboo search for optimal marker placement in infrared patient setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riboldi, M [TBMLab, Department of Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano University, Plaza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Baroni, G [TBMLab, Department of Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano University, Plaza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Spadea, M F [TBMLab, Department of Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano University, Plaza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Tagaste, B [Medical Physics Department, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan (Italy); Garibaldi, C [Medical Physics Department, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan (Italy); Cambria, R [Medical Physics Department, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan (Italy); Orecchia, R [Radiotherapy Division, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan (Italy); Pedotti, A [TBMLab, Department of Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano University, Plaza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2007-09-21

    In infrared patient setup adequate selection of the external fiducial configuration is required for compensating inner target displacements (target registration error, TRE). Genetic algorithms (GA) and taboo search (TS) were applied in a newly designed approach to optimal marker placement: the genetic evolutionary taboo search (GETS) algorithm. In the GETS paradigm, multiple solutions are simultaneously tested in a stochastic evolutionary scheme, where taboo-based decision making and adaptive memory guide the optimization process. The GETS algorithm was tested on a group of ten prostate patients, to be compared to standard optimization and to randomly selected configurations. The changes in the optimal marker configuration, when TRE is minimized for OARs, were specifically examined. Optimal GETS configurations ensured a 26.5% mean decrease in the TRE value, versus 19.4% for conventional quasi-Newton optimization. Common features in GETS marker configurations were highlighted in the dataset of ten patients, even when multiple runs of the stochastic algorithm were performed. Including OARs in TRE minimization did not considerably affect the spatial distribution of GETS marker configurations. In conclusion, the GETS algorithm proved to be highly effective in solving the optimal marker placement problem. Further work is needed to embed site-specific deformation models in the optimization process.

  3. Arguing with the incest taboo? the case of "distorted cognitions" about child sexuality

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diederik F, Janssen.

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to open up critical reflection on the notion of "cognitive distortion" (CD), as applied to child sex offenders, to a broader anthropological account of children's sexual agency, namely the arguable revitalisation and extension of incest taboos through the post-1970s rubric of child [...] sexual abuse. Sixteen scales that purport to measure CD (1984-2009) are listed, and their gist briefly appreciated against this interpretative background. Pitting social structure against the deconstructive and disloyal crime of perversion, the pronouncement of CD shows a deep complicity to the moral status quo, namely the faithful recitation and procedural accreditation of essentially regulatory rubrics, fixtures, and truisms ("sexuality", "sexual trauma", "harm", "consent"). It thus paraphrases the anthropologically expected collapse of nuance between immoral and illogical ideas at the site of social taboos, especially taboos' contemporary predicament of ever more argumentative perverts and ever more decontextualised, and thus erratic, scientific probing. In the end, the perverts are those who, in all nuances of the expression, "don't get it." Circumscribing the "rationalisations, distortions, and blame shifting" of the paraphile remains the - increasingly awkward and panicked - occasion for entrenching society's.

  4. Arguing with the incest taboo? the case of "distorted cognitions" about child sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diederik F Janssen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to open up critical reflection on the notion of "cognitive distortion" (CD, as applied to child sex offenders, to a broader anthropological account of children's sexual agency, namely the arguable revitalisation and extension of incest taboos through the post-1970s rubric of child sexual abuse. Sixteen scales that purport to measure CD (1984-2009 are listed, and their gist briefly appreciated against this interpretative background. Pitting social structure against the deconstructive and disloyal crime of perversion, the pronouncement of CD shows a deep complicity to the moral status quo, namely the faithful recitation and procedural accreditation of essentially regulatory rubrics, fixtures, and truisms ("sexuality", "sexual trauma", "harm", "consent". It thus paraphrases the anthropologically expected collapse of nuance between immoral and illogical ideas at the site of social taboos, especially taboos' contemporary predicament of ever more argumentative perverts and ever more decontextualised, and thus erratic, scientific probing. In the end, the perverts are those who, in all nuances of the expression, "don't get it." Circumscribing the "rationalisations, distortions, and blame shifting" of the paraphile remains the - increasingly awkward and panicked - occasion for entrenching society's.

  5. The evolution of cultural adaptations: Fijian food taboos protect against dangerous marine toxins

    OpenAIRE

    Henrich, Joseph; Henrich, Natalie

    2010-01-01

    The application of evolutionary theory to understanding the origins of our species' capacities for social learning has generated key insights into cultural evolution. By focusing on how our psychology has evolved to adaptively extract beliefs and practices by observing others, theorists have hypothesized how social learning can, over generations, give rise to culturally evolved adaptations. While much field research documents the subtle ways in which culturally transmitted beliefs and practic...

  6. Robotic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Omni-Hand was developed by Ross-Hime Designs, Inc. for Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. The multiple digit hand has an opposable thumb and a flexible wrist. Electric muscles called Minnacs power wrist joints and the interchangeable digits. Two hands have been delivered to NASA for evaluation for potential use on space missions and the unit is commercially available for applications like hazardous materials handling and manufacturing automation. Previous SBIR contracts resulted in the Omni-Wrist and Omni-Wrist II robotic systems, which are commercially available for spray painting, sealing, ultrasonic testing, as well as other uses.

  7. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR CODING: 24-HOUR FOOD DIARY (HAND ENTRY) (UA-D-39.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this SOP is to define the coding strategy for the 24-Hour Food Diary. This diary was developed for use during the Arizona NHEXAS project and the "Border" study. Keywords: data; coding; 24-hour food diary.The National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) i...

  8. Tabus alimentares em região do Norte do Brasil / Alimentary taboos in the North Region of Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marlene, Trigo; Maria José, Roncada; Glacilda Telles de Menezes, Stewien; Isabel Maria Teixeira Bicudo, Pereira.

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um inquérito sobre tabus alimentares em duas localidades do Município de Marabá, PA, Brasil: São Félix e Murumuru, tendo sido estudadas, respectivamente, 90 e 35 famílias. Dos tabus alimentares encontrados, foi grande a restrição feita à ingestão simultânea de leite com várias frutas, [...] especialmente com manga, laranja, cajú e abacaxi; também a ingestão simultânea de ovos com frutas foram referidas como hábitos que devem ser evitados, assim como a mistura de carne de mamíferos com peixes. Quanto à ingestão simultânea de frutas, destaca-se a proibição de uma fruta regional, o açaí, com outras 10 frutas. Foi mais elevado o número de restrições alimentares durante a lactação do que durante a gravidez, principalmente de carne de caça e de peixes, abundantes na região estudada. Os motivos mais citados para justificar os tabus alimentares foram: "faz mal", "mata", "congestão" e "vômito". Abstract in english A study was carried out into alimentary taboos in two localities (São Félix and Mummuru) in the county of Marabá, State of Pará, Brazil. Ninety families were studied in São Félix and thirty-five in Murumuru. As regards the feeding taboos found, the most frequent was that prohibiting the simultaneous [...] ingestion of milk and various types of fruit, including especially mango, orange, cashew and pineapple. The ingestion of eggs with fruit was also considered harmful as well as the eating of mammalian flesh at the same time as fish. Restrictions based on taboos were more frequent during breast feeding than during pregnancy, especially those regarding game flesh and fish that abound in the region under study. The most frequently mentioned reasons for the restrictions were: "the combination causes harm", "the combination kills", "the combination causes congestion" and "it causes vomiting".

  9. Totem e Tabu: uma "semiologia psicanalítica" em Freud? / Totem and Taboo: a Freud's "psychoanalytical semiology"?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Victor Eduardo Silva, Bento.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O tema deste artigo é a pesquisa de revisão sobre a seguinte questão: quais seriam os fundamentos freudianos para uma "semiologia psicanalítica" e para o método de pesquisa de revisão de literatura em psicanálise? Foi discutida a hipótese de que "Totem e Tabu" constituiu a primeira semiologia psican [...] alítica de Freud, pois, ainda que Freud não tenha nessa obra se utilizado dessa expressão, pareceu ter ali feito a prática da semiologia psicanalítica dos dois signos: "Totem" e "Tabu". Concluiu-se que, para manter uma ótica psicanalítica freudiana num estudo semiológico, seria necessário enfatizar a análise radical dos universais da linguagem - reveladores da natureza humana profunda -, do psiquismo inconsciente do homem, extraindo tais universais, num primeiro tempo, dos totens e mitos, mas, também, num segundo tempo, dos tabus e das religiões. A demanda pelo exame de "escritos" pareceu, assim, justificar o método de revisão de literatura em psicanálise. Abstract in english This paper focus is a review about the Freudian issues about a psychoanalytical semiology and a research method of lecture review. The hypothesis that "Totem and Taboo" is the first Freud's psychoanalytical semiology has been discussed. Though Freud did not use such a term, it was argued that Freud [...] did in this book the psychoanalytical semiology of the two signs: "Totem" and "Taboo". This paper concluded that in order to do a semiological study, it would be necessary to emphasize the analysis of the universal language patterns which reveal the deepest human nature and the unconscious psychism. Such analysis should be done in two different phases: the first one, seeking those patterns within the totems and myths; the second one, seeking the same patterns within the taboos and religions. This kind of study requires writings survey, and justifies the use of literature review as psychoanalytical method in.

  10. Application of Taboo Search and Genetic Algorithm in planning and optimization of UMTS radio networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jalili, B; Dianati, M

    2010-01-01

    Planning and optimization of 3G networks is more than just frequency allocation and coverage planning, due to the nature of WCDMA coding. It usually involves solution of an NP-Hard problem. In this paper we propose an effective method for optimizing the Common Pilot Channel (CPICH) transmit power, along with maximizing the number of served users and minimizing the number of cell sites and compare use of two meta-heuristic methods: Taboo Search (TS) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) in planning and o...

  11. The Hitting Times with Taboo for a Random Walk on an Integer Lattice

    OpenAIRE

    Bulinskaya, Ekaterina

    2011-01-01

    For a symmetric, homogeneous and irreducible random walk on d-dimensional integer lattice Z^d, having zero mean and a finite variance of jumps, we study the passage times (with possible infinite values) determined by the starting point x, the hitting state y and the taboo state z. We find the probability that these passages times are finite and analyze the tails of their cumulative distribution functions. In particular, it turns out that for the random walk on Z^d, except for a simple (neares...

  12. Hand Osteoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farzan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Osteoblastoma is one of the rarest primary bone tumors. Although, small bones of the hands and feet are the third most common location for this tumor, the hand involvement is very rare and few case observations were published in the English-language literature. Materials and Methods: In this study, we report five cases of benign osteoblastoma of the hand, 3 in metacarpals and two in phalanxes. The clinical feature is not specific. The severe nocturnal, salicylate-responsive pain is not present in patients with osteoblastoma. The pain is dull, persistent and less localized. The clinical course is usually long and there is often symptoms for months before medical attention are sought. Swelling is a more persistent finding in osteoblastoma of the hand that we found in all of our patients. The radiologic findings are indistinctive, so preoperative diagnosis based on X-ray appearance is difficult. In all of our 5 cases, we fail to consider osteoblastoma as primary diagnosis. Pathologically, osteoblastoma consisting of a well-vascularized connective tissue stroma in which there is active production of osteoid and primitive woven bone. Treatment depends on the stage and localization of the tumor. Curettage and bone grafting is sufficient in stage 1 or stage 2, but in stage 3 wide resection is necessary for prevention of recurrence. Osteosarcoma is the most important differential diagnosis that may lead to inappropriate operation.

  13. Hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibler, K.S.; Jemec, G.B.E.; Flyvholm, M.-A.; Diepgen, T.L.; Jensen, Aksel Karl Georg; Agner, T.

    2012-01-01

    /materials/methods. A survey of 3181 healthcare workers was performed. Data were analysed with logistic regression. Data on sick leave and notification to the authorities were obtained. Results. The response rate was 71% (2274 of 3181). The 1-year prevalence of hand eczema was 21%, and was positively associated with...

  14. An energy-based perturbation and a taboo strategy for improving the searching ability of stochastic structural optimization methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Longjiu; Cai, Wensheng; Shao, Xueguang

    2005-03-01

    An energy-based perturbation and a new idea of taboo strategy are proposed for structural optimization and applied in a benchmark problem, i.e., the optimization of Lennard-Jones (LJ) clusters. It is proved that the energy-based perturbation is much better than the traditional random perturbation both in convergence speed and searching ability when it is combined with a simple greedy method. By tabooing the most wide-spread funnel instead of the visited solutions, the hit rate of other funnels can be significantly improved. Global minima of (LJ) clusters up to 200 atoms are found with high efficiency.

  15. Handy Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V.S.Praveen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, structural disposition, manufacture and application of robots and computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing. The word ‘ R obotics’ means the study of robots was coined by Isaac Asimov. Robotics involves elements of mechanical and electrical engineering, as well as control theory, computing and now artificial intelligenc e. Robotics technology has matures to a point where these have many research and industrial application. Robots have been used to replace people in production line and are ideally suited for repetitive work. The Robot Institute of America defines a robot a s “ A Programmable multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts and tools of specialized device through variable programmed of variety of tasks”. So we made a robotic hand called “ HANDY HAND ” which is attached to handicap people. The essenti al part of the robotic arm is relay based brick capable of driving a DC Motor and IR sensors. This paper explains the method of interfacing the robotic hand with DC motors, relays and IR sensor which can grab and release less weight objects without any pro gramming.

  16. Artificial hand:

    OpenAIRE

    Wisse, M.; Wilbers, F (Freerk); C. Meijneke

    2011-01-01

    Artificial hand (1) suitable for robotic applications or as a prosthesis, comprising a frame (2) with a thumb (3) and at least two fingers (4,5), and having a motor drive (6) for adjusting the thumb and the fingers with respect to the frame, wherein the motor drive has a housing (7) and an axle (8) which is rotatably positioned within the housing, and wherein the housing is mounted in a first bearing (9') supported by the frame to enable that the housing may rotate with regard to the frame, a...

  17. Bereaved parents' online grief communities: de-tabooing practices or grief-ghettos?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Christensen, Dorthe Refslund

    In this talk we are primarily suggesting some logics when it comes to the concepts oftaboo and ghetto in relation to grief. We are looking at the kind of loss and grief surrounded with the most taboo and stigma: the loss of a child. There is an anomaly of the death of a child: biologically, children are not supposed to die before their parents, old people are supposed to die. Losing a child cuts to the core of human existence. A 100 years ago, the most common death was a child. Today, it is an old person. So the percentage of parents who have suffered the death of a child is comparably small compared with people who have lost an old relative. Moreover, the traditional view for socially accepted grief and mourning (at least in protestant Nordic countries) is often that you should not to grieve for too long, not too intensely or not to publicly. A taboo can be said to be a rule against something that in other contexts are totally ordinary. In the case of a child’s death you might say that in grieving too long or too intensely or too publicly is a taboo. We have been studying different contexts of bereaved parents online communities in Denmark and Sweden we see that there are different de-tabooing practices going on. In everyday interaction in the physical world there is a taboo against performing parenthood once your child is dead. It is normal for a parent to talk about their children extensively, as long as it lives. What is to be considered normal, or accepted, is a matter of perspective. A ghetto if labelled from the outside is a negative term. it is superimposed on a community by those who are not afflicted or part of that community onto those who are. The wall themselves in a perform weird things. When it comes to grieving for the death of a child a common conception is that online groups and forums for grief and bereavement practices are places where parents and dwell in extensive and exaggerated grief. However, defined from the inside, the ‘grief ghettos’ are seen as safe havens where parents are empowered to express their loss and find ways of negotiating and performing parenthood,and coping with their grief, it is a place for doing de-tabooisation. We are using data from different contexts of online grief communities in Denmark and Sweden. There are de-tabooing practices that we see are going on in a number of different online fora with different conditions for participation and sharing. We have data from a number of case studies, 3 open and one closed that we are looking into. From Denmark we have data from open fora in 3 categories: • online memorial site (Open group on a website where you can design individual memorial sites for lost ones (mindet.dk) • designated forums for parents who have lost a child (Open forum (Babyornot.dk) • subgroups in discussion forums for expecting parents (Open forum on commercial site for expecting parents (minmave.dk) In a Swedish setting we have a Closed group on Facebook which is maintained by a Swedish peer grief support community (VSFB). In the data we have differences concerning who the actors are in the various contexts, and sometimes also who the audience is. Whether the forum is open or closed, moderated or non-moderated also come into play affecting which kinds of practices are performed and how norms for grieving and coping are negotiated. (VSFB) Members in VSFB have as a basic condition that they are communicating with peers (i.e. everyone has experienced the loss of a child), even though… In the open fora are in that sense more complex and diverse group of members (expecting parents, people who have living children, people who have dead children). Practices: Photos of dead children, messages addressed to the dead children and so on. In VSFB and mindet.dk what is in common are the de-tabooing practices and the safe haven of knowing that everyone else here shares the experience of having a dead child, or claiming parenthood of a child who is no longer alive. But in contexts not specifically dedicated to bereaved parents or the memorialisation of dead child

  18. Taboo Words and Reprimands Elicit Greater Autonomic Reactivity in a First Language Than in a Second Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Catherine L.; Aycicegi, Ayse; Gleason, Jean Berko

    2003-01-01

    Second language speakers commonly acknowledge that taboo terms can be uttered with greater ease in a second language than a first language. Investigates this phenomenon psychophysiologically by having 32 Turkish-English bilinguals rate a variety of stimuli for pleasantness in Turkish first language and English second language while skin…

  19. Hands in Systemic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Hand Therapy Wrist Arthroscopy Hand Surgery Anesthesia Steroid Injections See More... Hand and Arm Injuries Wrist Fracture ... Treatment Hand Therapy Wrist Arthroscopy Hand Surgery Anesthesia Steroid Injections See More... Hand and Arm Injuries Wrist Fracture ...

  20. Stiffness in the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Hand Therapy Wrist Arthroscopy Hand Surgery Anesthesia Steroid Injections See More... Hand and Arm Injuries Wrist Fracture ... Treatment Hand Therapy Wrist Arthroscopy Hand Surgery Anesthesia Steroid Injections See More... Hand and Arm Injuries Wrist Fracture ...

  1. About Hand Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Hand Therapy Wrist Arthroscopy Hand Surgery Anesthesia Steroid Injections See More... Hand and Arm Injuries Wrist Fracture ... Treatment Hand Therapy Wrist Arthroscopy Hand Surgery Anesthesia Steroid Injections See More... Hand and Arm Injuries Wrist Fracture ...

  2. Hand Surgery: Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Hand Therapy Wrist Arthroscopy Hand Surgery Anesthesia Steroid Injections See More... Hand and Arm Injuries Wrist Fracture ... Treatment Hand Therapy Wrist Arthroscopy Hand Surgery Anesthesia Steroid Injections See More... Hand and Arm Injuries Wrist Fracture ...

  3. Find a Hand Surgeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Hand Therapy Wrist Arthroscopy Hand Surgery Anesthesia Steroid Injections See More... Hand and Arm Injuries Wrist Fracture ... Treatment Hand Therapy Wrist Arthroscopy Hand Surgery Anesthesia Steroid Injections See More... Hand and Arm Injuries Wrist Fracture ...

  4. Hand and Wrist Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Hand Therapy Wrist Arthroscopy Hand Surgery Anesthesia Steroid Injections See More... Hand and Arm Injuries Wrist Fracture ... Treatment Hand Therapy Wrist Arthroscopy Hand Surgery Anesthesia Steroid Injections See More... Hand and Arm Injuries Wrist Fracture ...

  5. Incestuous gene in consanguinophilia and incest: toward a consilience theory of incest taboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denic, Srdjan; Nicholls, M Gary

    2006-01-01

    Westermarck's theory of incest taboo states that inhibition of sexual attraction between biologically close relatives is situational and develops during co-residence in early childhood. By contrast, the biological (genetic) basis of incest taboo is presumed from its universality in all human societies and animals and teleologically, from the need to prevent the detrimental effects of inbreeding. As incest taboo violation is infrequent, the frequency of the presumed gene in the population is believed to be near 100%. We present arguments which suggest that the incestuous gene may exist in all populations and could play an important role in evolution. When malaria emerged 10,000 years ago, human adaptation proceeded by the selection of protective genotypes. Among them, homozygotes for alpha-thalassemia, hemoglobin C, and Duffy antigen negative blood group, have better survival odds in malarious regions than heterozygotes and those with normal genotypes. Since consanguinity increases homozygosity, it increases the number of persons who are resistant to malaria. To pro-create, however, biologically close individuals must not feel sexual aversion that normally develops between those who spend their early childhood together (Westermarck effect). It is reasonable to assume, therefore, that mutation of the gene that discourages inbreeding may have appeared at an early time in evolution, and produced a weak Westermarck effect. This gene (we will call it anti-w) failed to inhibit mating between kins. Inbred offspring of anti-w carriers, would statistically, more likely carry both anti-w and homozygote genotypes which increase fitness in the presence of malaria. Today, alpha-thalassemia is the single most common monogenetic disorders in man with over 500 millions carriers concentrated in malarious regions of the world. The world's consanguineous population is some 500-800 millions and is also concentrated in malarious regions. Population migration has spread the gene outside areas of high malaria endemicity. However, endemicity of malaria provides a worldwide gradient of genotype frequencies which makes the incestuous gene hypothesis testable. We propose that the incestuous anti-w allele was co-selected with some of the genes protective against malaria because anti-w facilitates mating between genetically close individuals whose offspring better survive malaria. PMID:16198502

  6. Holding thermal receipt paper and eating food after using hand sanitizer results in high serum bioactive and urine total levels of bisphenol A (BPA).

    OpenAIRE

    Hormann, Annette M.; VOM SAAL Frederick S.; Nagel, Susan C; Stahlhut, Richard W.; Moyer, Carol L.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Welshons, Wade V.; Toutain, Pierre-Louis,

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting environmental contaminant used in a wide variety of products, and BPA metabolites are found in almost everyone’s urine, suggesting widespread exposure from multiple sources. Regulatory agencies estimate that virtually all BPA exposure is from food and beverage packaging. However, free BPA is applied to the outer layer of thermal receipt paper present in very high (∼20 mg BPA/g paper) quantities as a print developer. Not taken into account when cons...

  7. Hand rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyaz, Farhaad R; Ozog, David

    2015-09-01

    Aging of the hands results from both natural processes and chronic ultraviolet light exposure. Together, these cause textural and pigmentary changes, excess skin laxity, rhytides, and soft tissue atrophy that presents as prominent bones and tendons with easily visible veins. Many options are available for the reversal of these changes. Photoaging can be improved with chemical peels and light-based treatments (such as Q-switched lasers), resurfacing lasers, intense pulsed light, and photodynamic therapy. Soft tissue atrophy can be corrected with autologous fat, nonanimal stabilized hyaluronic acid, calcium hydroxylapatite, and poly-L lactic acid injections. The literature shows that these treatments have favorable outcomes for most patients; but in order to reduce known complications, it is important to understand the proper use and limitations of each modality. PMID:26566571

  8. [Abortion--a taboo right. Women's complex experiences include both relief and pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kero, Anneli

    Women resort to abortion in all possible contexts and the motives for abortion reflect the need of women for planned parenthood. Women's experiences of abortion are complex; the abortion is experienced as a relief and regarded as a form of exercising responsibility. This does not exclude ethical reasoning or simultaneous painful feelings. As long as abortion is understood primarily as a last resort among special risk groups and not as a phenomenon which reflect reproductive expectations among all groups in society, abortion will retain its image as something taboo. In addition, as long as women's complex considerations and experiences in relation to abortion remain hidden the myths about abortion will live on. PMID:16416948

  9. Taboo topics in addiction treatment. An empirical review of clinical folklore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiauzzi, E J; Liljegren, S

    1993-01-01

    This article reviews 11 taboo topics, that is, research findings that question traditional assumptions and teachings of addiction treatment. These topics include: (1) the lack of empirical support for the Minnesota Model; (2) questions about the necessity of Alcoholics Anonymous for maintaining abstinence; (3) the existence of spontaneous remission; (4) the detrimental aspects of labeling; (5) the value of addicted individuals' self-reports; (6) the lack of empirical support for the addictive personality concept; (7) cue exposure as an underutilized intervention; (8) the interactional nature of motivation; (9) the value of smoking cessation in early recovery; (10) the overuse of the addiction concept; and (11) the lack of empirical support for the disease concept of codependency. Misconceptions arise due to the lack of communication between disciplines and the experiential bias of current addiction treatment modalities. Emphasis is placed on the importance of empiricism in order to advance the addiction field beyond faith and supposition. PMID:8315704

  10. Study on Post Transportation Vehicle Routing Problem Based on Taboo-Genetic Hybrid algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the operational efficiency of post transportation network, a hybrid post transportation model with center location and vehicle routing problem is proposed. Some important factors, such as pick-up and delivery of packages and multi-type vehicles, are also considered in the presented model. The solution of the model is divided into two stages. In the first stage, the third-level post centers and their regions are determined. Moreover, the deliver tasks between the second-level and the third-level post centers are distributed. In the second stage, the vehicle scheduling problem of each post center is solved. The center distribution method and taboo-genetic hybrid algorithm are employed in second stages, respectively. Finally, the empirical analysis is performed with actual data of Guizhou Post. The results show that the proposed model and algorithm are valid and practical.

  11. A Study about the Taboo of Rotation Timing for the Flapping Wing Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, An-Bang; Hsueh, Chia-Hsien; Chen, Shih-Shen

    2004-11-01

    Influence of rotation timing for flapping wing flight on the flying lift has been experimentally investigated in this study. Since the insects cannot extend and shrink their wings like birds, the rotation timing of wings becomes the major influential factor to affect the flying lift of the flapping wing flight. The results reveal that rotation timing has significant influence on the flying lift. The averaged flying lift increases for high rotation wing velocity. Based on the comparisons of flying lift, too late A-rotation (connecting from wing downward motion to upward one) is the most serious taboo for the motion design of the micro air vehicles with flapping wings. Too late B-rotation (connection from upward motion to downward one) should also be avoided.

  12. Tabud ja reeglid. Sissevaateid eesti laagriromaani / Taboos and Rules. Insights into Prison Camp Novels by Estonian Writers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneli Kõvamees

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article concentrates on Estonian novels depicting Soviet prison camps in the 1940s and 1950s. The goal is to map themes, motifs and characteristics in such novels, concentrating on various taboos and rules in the prison camp environment. For a long time the Soviet prison camp theme was not publicly discussed in Estonia due to political reasons. Texts dealing with prison camps could appear in print only outside the Soviet Union; the way Estonians saw these historical events and hellish experiences were depicted mostly in exile novels. Most notable are the novels by Arved Viirlaid (b. 1922, e.g., Kes tappis Eerik Hormi? (Who Killed Eerik Horm? (1974, Surnud ei loe (The Dead do not Read (1975, Vaim ja ahelad (Mind and Chains (1961.Estonian prison camp novels can be seen as “the literature of testimony”, to use the term by Leona Toker. Dramatic historical events are written down to record the events and to show the inhumane nature of Soviet society. These records of the dramatic past follow certain patterns and create certain self- and hetero-images.A prison camp is a closed territory within a closed territory; prison camps can be seen as small models of Soviet society. Prison camp novels give a detailed view of the environment of the prison camp, its inhabitants and activities. Two central aspects are labour and food; the life of the prisoner whirls around these. The most important thing is to survive, which often leads to moral decline, e.g., stealing, cheating. However, there are lines Estonians do not cross, e.g., cannibalism or homosexual relationships with superiors. Estonians are always depicted as political prisoners (not common criminals and heterosexuals, while Russians are portrayed mainly as criminals and often also as homosexuals. Another important component of the image of the Estonians is their enterprising spirit and ability to manage even under very difficult conditions. Therefore, several oppositions can be identified, e.g., Estonians vs. Russians; political prisoners vs. criminals; heterosexuals vs. homosexuals; civilized vs. barbaric, etc.

  13. TRADITIONAL FOOD HABITS OF THE BODOS OF NORTH EAST INDIA: A FIELD STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    GUDDU PRASAD BASUMATARY

    2012-01-01

    This is a brief overview of the traditional food habits of the Bodos North East India. Food is the culture and the culture is the identity of any communities. The traditional system of fooding, preparing, rituals, taboos or health care varies community wise. But the significance of the word TRADITION is decreasing day by day, in short the word tradition itself changing traditionally due to the global impact of globalization and as well as due to socio-economic development ...

  14. Well Fuck! A Comparative Case Study in DVD Subtitling: The Linguistic Transfer of Taboo Language in Reservoir Dogs from English into Dutch

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, T.M.K.

    2015-01-01

    Quentin Tarantino’s film Reservoir Dogs (1992) contains many instances of overt taboo language. This includes words, subjects or concepts that are obscene, offensive or inappropriate in a given cultural context and are not to be spoken or expressed in front of the public eye, to prevent loss of face or cause offence. The aim of this contrastive study is to shed light on the linguistic transfer of taboo language of Reservoir Dogs. The crucial contrasts between the original English dialogue and...

  15. Taboos and social contracts: Tools for ecosystem management – lessons from the Manambolomaty Lakes RAMSAR site, western Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Jules Mampiandra; Eloi Fanameha; Jeanneney Rabearivony; Russell Thorstrom

    2008-01-01

    Traditional taboos and social contracts played an importantrole in managing the Manambolomaty RAMSAR site. Taboosare defined as a prohibition imposed by social custom as aprotective measure’ and social contracts are – in conservationsense – a common agreement for achieving conservation,sustainable development and development of resourcesobjectives. The Manambolomaty Lakes RAMSAR site, District ofAntsalova in western Madagascar, is composed of four lakes(Soamalipo, Befotaka, Ankerika and Antsa...

  16. A Sociolinguistic View of Taboo Language and Euphemisms in the Algerian Society: Attitudes and Beliefs in Tlemcen Speech Community

    OpenAIRE

    GHOUNANE, nadia

    2014-01-01

    The current study is geared to investigate Tlemcen speakers? attitudes towards taboo topics namely sex and death and their euphemistic substitutions. It also aims at improving a useful understanding of these sensitive topics. Thus, it tends to prove that some linguistic expressions are the result of societal, psychological and cultural pressures. Another purpose of this work is to analyse Tlemcen speakers? views, beliefs and, therefore, exploring the motives which give a fertile soil for the ...

  17. Taboo thoughts and doubt/checking: a refinement of the factor structure for obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Anthony; Eisen, Jane L.; Maria C. Mancebo; Greenberg, Benjamin D; STOUT, ROBERT L.; Rasmussen, Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to improve upon earlier factor analyses of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptom categories by minimizing the heterogeneity in the aggressive obsessions category. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted on data from 293 adults with primary OCD. The resulting five factors (Symmetry/Ordering, Hoarding, Doubt/Checking, Contamination/Cleaning, and Taboo Thoughts) are phenomenologically more homogeneous than prior category-based factors and are consistent ...

  18. Alcohol, Drugs and Tobacco in Institutional Settings - 22nd Annual John K. Friesen Conference - Taboo Topics in Residential Care (2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Weston, Ely; Cox, Lottie; Steele, Duncan

    2013-01-01

    This video comprises presentations for the topic: “Alcohol, Drugs and Tobacco in Institutional Settings” held at the 22nd Annual John K. Friesen Conference, "Taboo Topics in Residential Care," MAY 27-28, 2013, Vancouver, BC.   Chair: Kelly Acker (Manager, Strategic Planning, Seniors’ Directorate, BC Ministry of Health).   Presentations: Ely Weston (Community Program Manager, Vancouver Coastal Health/Providence Health Care Clinical Smoking Cessation Program); Lottie...

  19. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... should wash their hands, either with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. You ... nurses – either wash their hands with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer every ...

  20. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that people should wash their hands, either with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand ... doctors and nurses – either wash their hands with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand ...

  1. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... should wash their hands, either with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. You ... nurses – either wash their hands with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer every ...

  2. Tabus sexuais entre professores e alunos Sexual taboos among teachers and students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Zuin

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O poder da sexualidade nas relações entre professores e alunos é tão intenso quanto o esforço feito pelos agentes educacionais em negá-lo. O termo tabu representa a exata designação do que tal terminologia suscita: algo misterioso e, principalmente, proibido. De fato, a questão sexual entre professores e alunos concerne a uma esfera tão proibitiva que sequer é mencionada, haja vista a escassez de pesquisas que versam a esse respeito. Daí o objetivo deste artigo, ou seja, analisar a ambivalência dos sentimentos de amor e de ódio que se objetivam na sexualidade existente entre professores e alunos.The power of sexuality in teacher-student relationships is as intense as the effort made by educational institutions to deny it. The term "taboo"represents the exact designation of what such terminology means: something mysterious and mainly forbidden. In fact, the sexual issue among teachers and students concerns such a forbidding sphere that it is hardly mentioned, which explains the little research that has been carried out in this field. Thus, this paper is aimed at analyzing the ambivalence of feelings of love and hate found in the teacher-student sexuality.

  3. Tabus sexuais entre professores e alunos / Sexual taboos among teachers and students

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antônio, Zuin.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O poder da sexualidade nas relações entre professores e alunos é tão intenso quanto o esforço feito pelos agentes educacionais em negá-lo. O termo tabu representa a exata designação do que tal terminologia suscita: algo misterioso e, principalmente, proibido. De fato, a questão sexual entre professo [...] res e alunos concerne a uma esfera tão proibitiva que sequer é mencionada, haja vista a escassez de pesquisas que versam a esse respeito. Daí o objetivo deste artigo, ou seja, analisar a ambivalência dos sentimentos de amor e de ódio que se objetivam na sexualidade existente entre professores e alunos. Abstract in english The power of sexuality in teacher-student relationships is as intense as the effort made by educational institutions to deny it. The term "taboo"represents the exact designation of what such terminology means: something mysterious and mainly forbidden. In fact, the sexual issue among teachers and st [...] udents concerns such a forbidding sphere that it is hardly mentioned, which explains the little research that has been carried out in this field. Thus, this paper is aimed at analyzing the ambivalence of feelings of love and hate found in the teacher-student sexuality.

  4. Sobre a atualidade dos tabus com relação aos professores / Taboos against teachers today

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio A. S., Zuin.

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Este texto tem como objetivo argumentar que as atuais representações aversivas dos alunos com relação aos seus mestres, os chamados tabus, são decorrentes da violência simbólica que o professor exerce sobre o aluno, com ênfase na universidade. E se a atitude violenta causa inicialmente uma sensação [...] de mal-estar, logo é identificada como algo "inerente" ao processo de ensino-aprendizagem. Tal violência torna-se valorizada tanto pelos professores quanto pelos alunos que se identificam com o professor na figura do agressor, sendo que tais alunos procuram encontrar oportunidades para poder se desforrar do ressentimento que foi engendrado nas relações cotidianas com seus mestres. Abstract in english This paper intends to argue that the current averse representations students have of their teachers, the so called taboos, follow from the symbolic violence teachers exert on them, mainly in the university. If this violent attitude initially causes a sensation of discomfort, it is soon identified as [...] something "inherent" to the teaching and learning process. Therefore, it is often highly prized by teachers and by the students who identify themselves with the professor as an aggressor, while these students look for opportunities to let go of the resentment generated by their daily relationships to their masters.

  5. The shallow boreholes at The AltotiBerina near fault Observatory (TABOO; northern Apennines of Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaraluce, L.; Collettini, C.; Cattaneo, M.; Monachesi, G.

    2014-04-01

    As part of an interdisciplinary research project, funded by the European Research Council and addressing the mechanics of weak faults, we drilled three 200-250 m-deep boreholes and installed an array of seismometers. The array augments TABOO (The AltotiBerina near fault ObservatOry), a scientific infrastructure managed by the Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology. The observatory, which consists of a geophysical network equipped with multi-sensor stations, is located in the northern Apennines (Italy) and monitors a large and active low-angle normal fault. The drilling operations started at the end of 2011 and were completed by July 2012. We instrumented the boreholes with three-component short-period (2 Hz) passive instruments at different depths. The seismometers are now fully operational and collecting waveforms characterised by a very high signal to noise ratio that is ideal for studying microearthquakes. The resulting increase in the detection capability of the seismic network will allow for a broader range of transients to be identified.

  6. Sobre a atualidade dos tabus com relação aos professores Taboos against teachers today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio A. S. Zuin

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Este texto tem como objetivo argumentar que as atuais representações aversivas dos alunos com relação aos seus mestres, os chamados tabus, são decorrentes da violência simbólica que o professor exerce sobre o aluno, com ênfase na universidade. E se a atitude violenta causa inicialmente uma sensação de mal-estar, logo é identificada como algo "inerente" ao processo de ensino-aprendizagem. Tal violência torna-se valorizada tanto pelos professores quanto pelos alunos que se identificam com o professor na figura do agressor, sendo que tais alunos procuram encontrar oportunidades para poder se desforrar do ressentimento que foi engendrado nas relações cotidianas com seus mestres.This paper intends to argue that the current averse representations students have of their teachers, the so called taboos, follow from the symbolic violence teachers exert on them, mainly in the university. If this violent attitude initially causes a sensation of discomfort, it is soon identified as something "inherent" to the teaching and learning process. Therefore, it is often highly prized by teachers and by the students who identify themselves with the professor as an aggressor, while these students look for opportunities to let go of the resentment generated by their daily relationships to their masters.

  7. Psoriasis, Depression Often Go Hand in Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_154925.html Psoriasis, Depression Often Go Hand in Hand: Study But research ... skin condition psoriasis face an elevated risk for depression, new research suggests. The depression risk may be ...

  8. New food policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove; Andersen, Lill

    The urbanisation, technical changes, and the industrialisation of the food systems on one hand and increased income and changes in lifestyles on the other hand transform the way food is produced, marketed and consumed - those changes call for changes in the nature of food policy. Concerns over food...... safety have become an important driver of reform of food policy. In particular, the BSE crisis in 1996 had a significant impact on the formulation of a change in food safety policy in the EU. The White Paper on Food Safety was prepared by the EU commision as a response to the BSE scandal as the EU felt a...... need for restablishing public confidence in its food supply, its food science, its laws and its food control. In addition, the White Paper on Food Safety points towards a farm to fork policy in that 'as the food production chain is becoming increasingly complex, the health of consumers can ony be...

  9. Anglicismo y tabú: valores axiológicos del anglicismo / Anglicism and taboo: axiological values of the pure anglicism

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eliecer, Crespo-Fernández; Carmen, Luján-García.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available La influencia del inglés en la lengua española en el ámbito del erotismo y la sexualidad ha dado lugar a un número considerable de anglicismos crudos para la designación de conceptos de la esfera sexual. Es el propósito de este trabajo examinar los valores axiológicos que el anglicismo presenta en e [...] l vocabulario sexual en el español europeo. Para ello, analizaremos los valores eufemísticos, disfemísticos y cuasieufemísticos que el anglicismo de naturaleza sexual presenta en un corpus léxico de anglicismos crudos extraídos del Diccionario gay-lésbico (2008) y del Diccionario del sexo y el erotismo (2011). El análisis realizado demuestra que las voces anglicadas utilizadas en la esfera sexual no sólo buscan atenuar los tabúes lingüísticos, sino que también se usan para ofender y degradar e incluso para que un grupo social monopolice una serie de voces alusivas a conceptos vitandos. Abstract in english The influence of English on Spanish within the field of eroticism and sexuality has led to a considerable number of pure anglicisms to designate sex-related concepts. In this regard, it is the aim of this paper to examine the axiological values that anglicisms present in Spanish sexual vocabulary. T [...] o this end, we will explore the euphemistic, dysphemistic and quasieuphemistic values that sex-related anglicisms present in a corpus of pure anglicisms excerpted from two dictionaries: Diccionario gay-lésbico (2008) and Diccionario del sexo y el erotismo (2011). The analysis reveals that English borrowings do not only veil the so called linguistic taboos, but they are also used to disparage and degrade and even as a sign of cohesion within a group.

  10. Taboo search algorithm for item assignment in synchronized zone automated order picking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingying; Wu, Yaohua

    2014-07-01

    The idle time which is part of the order fulfillment time is decided by the number of items in the zone; therefore the item assignment method affects the picking efficiency. Whereas previous studies only focus on the balance of number of kinds of items between different zones but not the number of items and the idle time in each zone. In this paper, an idle factor is proposed to measure the idle time exactly. The idle factor is proven to obey the same vary trend with the idle time, so the object of this problem can be simplified from minimizing idle time to minimizing idle factor. Based on this, the model of item assignment problem in synchronized zone automated order picking system is built. The model is a form of relaxation of parallel machine scheduling problem which had been proven to be NP-complete. To solve the model, a taboo search algorithm is proposed. The main idea of the algorithm is minimizing the greatest idle factor of zones with the 2-exchange algorithm. Finally, the simulation which applies the data collected from a tobacco distribution center is conducted to evaluate the performance of the algorithm. The result verifies the model and shows the algorithm can do a steady work to reduce idle time and the idle time can be reduced by 45.63% on average. This research proposed an approach to measure the idle time in synchronized zone automated order picking system. The approach can improve the picking efficiency significantly and can be seen as theoretical basis when optimizing the synchronized automated order picking systems.

  11. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... either with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. You and your loved ones ... hands with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer every time, both before and ...

  12. Hand hygiene strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Eskandar Alex Yazaji

    2011-01-01

    Hand hygiene is one of the major players in preventing healthcare associated infections. However, healthcare workers compliance with hand hygiene continues to be a challenge. This article will address strategies to help improving hand hygiene compliance.

  13. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your hands and make sure that everyone who touches you – including your doctor – cleanses their hands too. ... sanitizer every time, both before and after they touch you. Healthcare providers know to practice hand hygiene, ...

  14. Taboo Topics in Cat on a Hot Tin Roof and A Streetcar Named Desire by Tennessee Williams

    OpenAIRE

    Humlová, Monika

    2011-01-01

    The work is focused on the plays Cat on a Hot Tin Roof and A Streetcar Named Desire by the American playwright Tennessee Williams, and the articulation of topics that were not entirely common for a dramatic production of the period. After setting of both plays into the socio-cultural context with the special emphasis on the atmosphere of the post-war years in the United States of America and a stand of the society on the so-called taboo topics, this issue is addressed in the above mentio...

  15. SEXUALIDADE NA ADOLESCÊNCIA: MITOS E TABUS SEXUALIDAD EN LA ADOLESCENCIA: MITOS Y TABÚES SEXUALITY IN ADOLESCENCE: MYTHS AND TABOOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Baccarat de Godoy Martins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A adolescência é uma fase da vida humana em que a sexualidade se insere como uma redescoberta, trazendo certa vulnerabilidade, principalmente decorrente de mitos e tabus. Este trabalho teve como objetivo identificar alguns tabus e mitos relativos à sexualidade, vivenciados pelos adolescentes de Cuiabá-MT. Pesquisa quantitativa, cuja população de estudo foi composta por estudantes do primeiro ano do ensino médio do ensino público de Cuiabá. Os dados foram coletados por instrumento fechado e processados eletronicamente, com análises simples e bivariadas (pLa adolescencia es una fase de la vida humana en que la sexualidad se manifiesta como un redescubrimiento, provocando cierta vulnerabilidad, resultante principalmente de mitos y tabúes. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo identificar algunos tabúes y mitos en relación con la sexualidad, vivenciados por los adolescentes de Cuiabá-MT. Investigación cuantitativa, cuya población de estudio estuvo integrada por estudiantes de primer año de enseñanza secundaria pública de Cuiabá. Los datos fueron recogidos por instrumentos de respuesta cerrada y procesados electrónicamente, por análisis simples y bivariadas (pAdolescence is a phase of human life in which sexuality appears as a rediscovery, causing certain vulnerability mainly due to myths and taboos. This study aimed to identify some taboos and myths regarding sexuality, experienced by adolescents in Cuiabá-MT. Quantitative research, whose study population was composed by students from the frst year of Cuiabá public high school education. Data were collected by a closed answer instrument and electronically processed, with simple and bivariate analysis (p<0.05. Adolescents believe that alcohol and drugs increase sexual desire, do not relate the possibility of pregnancy to the practice of intercrural sex without protection, they believe there is no risk of pregnancy during the menstrual period; those without sexual experience could not tell what infuences the pleasure of sexual intercourse; among those sexually active there have been responses like “the bigger the boy’s penis the greater the pleasure of the girls” and “a boy will always feel more pleasure than girls”; for a sexual relation to happen one must love the partner (for girls and just feel attraction (for boys; boys prefer to marry a virgin. The gender differences in behavior indicate taboos rooted in the cultural cradle of society, in which sexual education, repressive in nature, contributes to maintain men and women roles and sexual values frmly set even today, although the new generations have started to introduce new behaviors. It becomes urgent to guarantee the adolescent orientation on the development of their sexuality, in order to prevent risk behaviors resulting from the taboos and myths.

  16. [Hand and endocrine diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wémeau, Jean-Louis; Ryndak, Amélie; Karrouz, Wassila; Balavoine, Anne-Sophie; Baudoux, Florence

    2013-12-01

    The whole of hormones likely influence state of hands, modifying colouring and trophicity of the skin and having influence on its muscular, tendineous, osseous, articular components. Thus state of the hands contributes to the recognition of the endocrine diseases: hot and moist hands of the Graves' disease, dry, cold and infiltrated hands in myxoedema, pale and fine hands of hypopituitarism, broad and thick hand of acromegaly, brachymetacarpia in the pseudohypoparathyroidism… Diabetes exposes particularly to tendineous and articular retractions, to whitlows and ungual mycosis. PMID:24148694

  17. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... hands a little while ago, but would you mind washing them again? Sure, Mom. It's important to ... to even ask you this, but would you mind cleansing your hands before you begin? Oh, I ...

  18. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to wash their hands. Thank you for your attention and I wish you a speedy and uneventful ... to wash their hands. Thank you for your attention and I wish you a speedy and uneventful ...

  19. Osteoarthritis of the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Osteoarthritis Email to a friend * required fields From * To * ... for those with osteoarthritis. TREATMENT The Diagnosis of Osteoarthritis When diagnosing osteoarthritis, your doctor will ask you ...

  20. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an important role in keeping you healthy by making sure that your healthcare providers wash their hands ... an important role in keeping you healthy by making sure that your healthcare providers wash their hands ...

  1. Proper hand washing (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 30 seconds. Clean under your nails. Rinse well. Dry with a clean towel. Proper hand washing is ... to 30 seconds. Clean under your nails. Rinse well. Dry with a clean towel. Proper hand washing is ...

  2. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eating, and after using the restroom. Our patient's son could have also used an alcohol-based hand ... eating, and after using the restroom. Our patient's son could have also used an alcohol-based hand ...

  3. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC – safer, healthier people. Hello. I'm Dr. John Jernigan from the ... must practice proper hand hygiene. This means that people should wash their hands, either with soap and ...

  4. Auditing hand hygiene practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Dinah

    Hand hygiene is regarded as the most effective way of preventing healthcare-associated infections. Thus hand hygiene audits are frequently undertaken by infection prevention and control teams. Although apparently straightforward, hand hygiene audit requires careful planning and conduct. Healthcare professionals need to understand the principles that underpin effective hand hygiene audit to improve their own practice and help patients, carers and the public to interpret the findings. PMID:20949824

  5. SEXUALIDADE NA ADOLESCÊNCIA: MITOS E TABUS / SEXUALITY IN ADOLESCENCE: MYTHS AND TABOOS / SEXUALIDAD EN LA ADOLESCENCIA: MITOS Y TABÚES

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Christine, Baccarat de Godoy Martins; Fabiana Maria, De Almeida; Lidiane Cristina, Alencastro; Karla, Fonseca De Matos; Solange, Pires Salomé De Souza.

    Full Text Available A adolescência é uma fase da vida humana em que a sexualidade se insere como uma redescoberta, trazendo certa vulnerabilidade, principalmente decorrente de mitos e tabus. Este trabalho teve como objetivo identificar alguns tabus e mitos relativos à sexualidade, vivenciados pelos adolescentes de Cuia [...] bá-MT. Pesquisa quantitativa, cuja população de estudo foi composta por estudantes do primeiro ano do ensino médio do ensino público de Cuiabá. Os dados foram coletados por instrumento fechado e processados eletronicamente, com análises simples e bivariadas (p Abstract in spanish La adolescencia es una fase de la vida humana en que la sexualidad se manifiesta como un redescubrimiento, provocando cierta vulnerabilidad, resultante principalmente de mitos y tabúes. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo identificar algunos tabúes y mitos en relación con la sexualidad, vivenciados por [...] los adolescentes de Cuiabá-MT. Investigación cuantitativa, cuya población de estudio estuvo integrada por estudiantes de primer año de enseñanza secundaria pública de Cuiabá. Los datos fueron recogidos por instrumentos de respuesta cerrada y procesados electrónicamente, por análisis simples y bivariadas (p Abstract in english Adolescence is a phase of human life in which sexuality appears as a rediscovery, causing certain vulnerability mainly due to myths and taboos. This study aimed to identify some taboos and myths regarding sexuality, experienced by adolescents in Cuiabá-MT. Quantitative research, whose study populati [...] on was composed by students from the frst year of Cuiabá public high school education. Data were collected by a closed answer instrument and electronically processed, with simple and bivariate analysis (p

  6. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 10. Alcohol-based antiseptics for hand disinfection and a comparison of their effectiveness with soaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Ewen C D; Michaels, Barry S; Holah, John; Smith, Debra; Greig, Judy D; Bartleson, Charles A

    2010-11-01

    Alcohol compounds are increasingly used as a substitute for hand washing in health care environments and some public places because these compounds are easy to use and do not require water or hand drying materials. However, the effectiveness of these compounds depends on how much soil (bioburden) is present on the hands. Workers in health care environments and other public places must wash their hands before using antiseptics and/or wearing gloves. However, alcohol-based antiseptics, also called rubs and sanitizers, can be very effective for rapidly destroying some pathogens by the action of the aqueous alcohol solution without the need for water or drying with towels. Alcohol-based compounds seem to be the most effective treatment against gram-negative bacteria on lightly soiled hands, but antimicrobial soaps are as good or better when hands are more heavily contaminated. Instant sanitizers have no residual effect, unlike some antimicrobial soaps that retain antimicrobial activity after the hygienic action has been completed, e.g., after hand washing. Many alcohol-based hand rubs have antimicrobial agents added to them, but each formulation must be evaluated against the target pathogens in the environment of concern before being considered for use. Wipes also are widely used for quick cleanups of hands, other body parts, and surfaces. These wipes often contain alcohol and/or antimicrobial compounds and are used for personal hygiene where water is limited. However, antiseptics and wipes are not panaceas for every situation and are less effective in the presence of more than a light soil load and against most enteric viruses. PMID:21219730

  7. Pain and Hand Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Nicholas; Lopez, Mariela; Zhang, Andrew Y

    2016-02-01

    Pain is a unique somatosensory perception that can dramatically affect our ability to function. It is also a necessary perception, without which we would do irreparable damage to ourselves. In this article, the authors assess the impact of pain on function of the hand. Pain can be categorized into acute pain, chronic pain, and neuropathic pain. Hand function and objective measurements of hand function are analyzed as well as the impact of different types of pain on each of these areas. PMID:26611383

  8. Dextrous robot hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Subramanian T. (editor); Iberall, Thea (editor)

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies of human hand function and their implications for the design of robot hands are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics addressed include human grasp choice and robotic grasp analysis, opposition space and human prehension, coordination in normal and prosthetic reaching, and intelligent exploration by the human hand. Consideration is given to a task-oriented dextrous manipulation architecture, the control architecture for the Belgrade/USC hand, the analysis of multifingered grasping and manipulation, and tactile sensing for shape interpretation. Diagrams, graphs, and photographs are provided.

  9. Adequate Hand Washing and Glove Use Are Necessary To Reduce Cross-Contamination from Hands with High Bacterial Loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Andrew L; Lee, Hyun Jung; Kwon, Junehee; Todd, Ewen; Rodriguez, Fernando Perez; Ryu, Dojin

    2016-02-01

    Hand washing and glove use are the main methods for reducing bacterial cross-contamination from hands to ready-to-eat food in a food service setting. However, bacterial transfer from hands to gloves is poorly understood, as is the effect of different durations of soap rubbing on bacterial reduction. To assess bacterial transfer from hands to gloves and to compare bacterial transfer rates to food after different soap washing times and glove use, participants' hands were artificially contaminated with Enterobacter aerogenes B199A at ?9 log CFU. Different soap rubbing times (0, 3, and 20 s), glove use, and tomato dicing activities followed. The bacterial counts in diced tomatoes and on participants' hands and gloves were then analyzed. Different soap rubbing times did not significantly change the amount of bacteria recovered from participants' hands. Dicing tomatoes with bare hands after 20 s of soap rubbing transferred significantly less bacteria (P hands after 0 s of soap rubbing. Wearing gloves while dicing greatly reduced the incidence of contaminated tomato samples compared with dicing with bare hands. Increasing soap washing time decreased the incidence of bacteria recovered from outside glove surfaces (P hand washing are necessary to reduce bacterial cross-contamination in food service environments. PMID:26818993

  10. Food for tourists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne-Mette; Corigliano, Magda Antolioli

    power of the agricultural and food processing industries has in many cases severely compromised the quality image. In Italy, on the other hand, food policies and traditions, which give a high priority to freshness, allow consumers to stay in control of food quality to a much larger extent than in......Eating is a physical necessity, but catering services and food image are also very important ingredients of cultural tourism. Food and tourism are increasingly being combined, e.g. in agri-tourism, wine tours and the sale of food products as souvenirs. However, as this paper illustrates, the...... development and standards of food for tourists are determined not by tourism policies, but by national economic, agricultural and food policies. A comparison between Denmark and Italy illustrates core elements in food cultures. Particularly in Denmark, food production is a major economic activity, and the...

  11. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... they forget. You and your loved ones can play a role in asking and reminding healthcare providers to wash their hands, especially while they're caring for you. You shouldn't feel embarrassed to ask everyone, including doctors and nurses, to wash their hands. ...

  12. Mind the hand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Jacob; Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2014-01-01

    Apart from touching the screen, what is the role of the hands for children collaborating around touchscreens? Based on embodied and multimodal interaction analysis of 8- and 9-year old pairs collaborating around touchscreens, we conclude that children use their hands to constrain and control acce...

  13. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... make sure everyone around you washes their hands. Hi, I'm Gayle. Now that you've been ... make sure everyone around you washes their hands. Hi, I'm Gayle. Now that you've been ...

  14. New food policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove; Andersen, Lill

    The urbanisation, technical changes, and the industrialisation of the food systems on one hand and increased income and changes in lifestyles on the other hand transform the way food is produced, marketed and consumed - those changes call for changes in the nature of food policy. Concerns over food safety have become an important driver of reform of food policy. In particular, the BSE crisis in 1996 had a significant impact on the formulation of a change in food safety policy in the EU. The White Paper on Food Safety was prepared by the EU commision as a response to the BSE scandal as the EU felt a need for restablishing public confidence in its food supply, its food science, its laws and its food control. In addition, the White Paper on Food Safety points towards a farm to fork policy in that 'as the food production chain is becoming increasingly complex, the health of consumers can ony be adequately protected if every link in this chain is as strong as the other'. The presentation describes the new food systems which call for changes in the food policy and call for shifting the focus from the role of the government to governance.

  15. Learning can be all Fun and Games: Constructing and Utilizing a Biology Taboo Wiktionary to Enhance Student Learning in an Introductory Biology Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey T. Olimpo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Most introductory courses in the biological sciences are inherently content-dense and rich with jargon—jargon that is often confusing and nonsensical to novice students. These characteristics present an additional paradox to instructors, who strive to achieve a balance between simply promoting passive, rote memorization of facts and engaging students in developing true, concrete understanding of the terminology. To address these concerns, we developed and implemented a Biology Taboo Wiktionary that provided students with an interactive opportunity to review and describe concepts they had encountered during their first semester of introductory biology. However, much like the traditional Taboo game, the rules were such that students could not use obvious terms to detail the main term. It was our belief that if the student could synthesize a thoughtful, scientific explanation of the term under these conditions, he or she demonstrated a true understanding of the conceptual context and meaning of the term.

  16. Is D_E_A_T_H a dirty word in Residential Care? - 22nd Annual John K. Friesen Conference - Taboo Topics in Residential Care (2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Gespard, Gina; Roberts, Della; Gallagher, Romayne; Edmunds, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This video comprises presentations for the topic: “Is D_E_A_T_H a dirty word in Residential Care?” held at the 22nd Annual John K. Friesen Conference, "Taboo Topics in Residential Care," MAY 27-28, 2013, Vancouver, BC.   Chair: Cherry Harriman (Director, Clinical Programs, Abbotsford & Chilliwack, Residential Care, Assisted Living & Specialized Populations).   Presentations: Gina Gespard (Clinical Nurse Specialist, Fraser Health Residential Care, Assisted Livi...

  17. Learning can be all Fun and Games: Constructing and Utilizing a Biology Taboo Wiktionary to Enhance Student Learning in an Introductory Biology Course

    OpenAIRE

    Olimpo, Jeffrey T.; Shannon Davis; Sarah Lagman; Raj Parekh; Patricia Shields

    2010-01-01

    Most introductory courses in the biological sciences are inherently content-dense and rich with jargon—jargon that is often confusing and nonsensical to novice students. These characteristics present an additional paradox to instructors, who strive to achieve a balance between simply promoting passive, rote memorization of facts and engaging students in developing true, concrete understanding of the terminology. To address these concerns, we developed and implemented a Biology Taboo Wi...

  18. Residents Injuring Other Residents: What is Happening? What is Being Done? - 22nd Annual John K. Friesen Conference - Taboo Topics in Residential Care (2013)

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Lynn; Drance, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    This video comprises presentations for the topic: “Residents Injuring Other Residents: What is Happening? What is Being Done?” held at the 22nd Annual John K. Friesen Conference, "Taboo Topics in Residential Care," MAY 27-28, 2013, Vancouver, BC.  Chair: Gloria Gutman (Professor/Director Emerita SFU GRC & Gerontology Department).  Presentations: Lynn McDonald (Director, Institute for Life Course and Aging, University of Toronto); Elisabeth Drance (Medical Lead for Re...

  19. Surgical hand hygiene: scrub or rub?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, A F

    2013-02-01

    Surgical hand hygiene is standard care prior to any surgical procedure. Per-operative glove punctures are observed in almost 30% of all interventions, and a risk factor for postoperative infections. In the past, washing hands with antimicrobial soap and water (surgical scrub) was the norm, mainly with chlorhexidine or iodine. More recently, alcohol-based hand rub has been successfully introduced, showing greater effectiveness, less irritation to the hands, and requiring less time than washing hands. All products should have a remnant effect that delays microbial growth under the gloved hand. Some of the alcohol-based compounds are effective (as determined by the European Norm EN 12791) within 90 s whereas others require 3-5 min, similar to the scrub. The short procedure relies heavily on proper technique and timing, since lowering the exposure time to effectiveness of bacterial killing. Today, surgical hand hygiene should meet EN 12791 in Europe, or other standards, such as the US Food and Drug Administration tentative final monograph norm in the USA. It is best performed by using an alcohol-based hand rub, but a scrub with chlorhexidine-containing soap also meets these standards. PMID:23453175

  20. Temporary ectopic hand implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Severe crushing injuries to the distal forearm can preclude immediate hand replantation, with temporary ectopic implantation as a practicable option under special circumstances. This report describes a case of temporary ectopic hand implantation for a crush injury extending from the wrist to the middle third of the forearm, using the left foot as the recipient site. The hand was replanted onto the left forearm 3 months after the ectopic implantation, with functional gains seen by 18 months. Satisfactory ambulation was retained, with no reported foot pain. Temporary ectopic implantation is a pragmatic alternative under select circumstances.

  1. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Play to listen to this CDC Podcast Running time = 5:29 Your browser does not support the ... or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer every time, both before and after they touch you. Healthcare ...

  2. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... us what you think about CDC podcasts >> Listen/Watch Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hand Hygiene ... to you by: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in ...

  3. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and that it's appropriate to ask or remind healthcare providers to practice hand hygiene. Created: 5/1/ ... because you need high quality medical care. The healthcare providers here want to do everything they can ...

  4. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... think about CDC podcasts >> Listen/Watch Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hand Hygiene Saves Lives: Patient ... objects or surfaces in the hospital room, before eating, and after using the restroom. It is important ...

  5. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... It emphasizes two key points to help prevent infections: the importance of practicing hand hygiene while in ... United States patients get more than a million infections in the hospital while they're being treated ...

  6. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... think about CDC podcasts >> Listen/Watch Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hand Hygiene Saves Lives: Patient ... Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID). Date Released: 6/19/2008. Series Name: ...

  7. Hand lotion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand cream poisoning ... number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions. This is ... should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to ...

  8. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... think about CDC podcasts >> Listen/Watch Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hand Hygiene Saves Lives: Patient ... was brought to you by: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Centers for Disease Control and ...

  9. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This podcast is for hospital patients and visitors. It emphasizes two key points to help prevent infections: ... hand hygiene while in the hospital, and that it's appropriate to ask or remind healthcare providers to ...

  10. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... healthcare providers to practice hand hygiene. Created: 5/1/2008 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and ... be serious and hard to treat, but there's one simple thing you and your family can do ...

  11. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... wound, or urinary tract, as well as pneumonia. These infections can be serious and hard to treat, ... and your family can do to help prevent these infections – wash your hands and make sure that ...

  12. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hand Hygiene Saves Lives: Patient Admission Video This podcast is for ... file can be found at Audio Download . To save the Podcast, right click the "Save this file" ...

  13. Invisible-hand Explanations

    OpenAIRE

    Dayer-Tieffenbach, Emma

    2011-01-01

    The invisible hand is a theory that shows that legislators, collective agreements and moral concerns are not indispensable to the emergence of social outcomes. It instead describes social outcomes as the unintended consequences of many self-interested actions on the part of individuals. Invisible-hand explanations however often raise criticisms. They are seen as falling short in two ways. First, they unpersuasively present the outcome they explain as an unintended consequence of agents’ behav...

  14. Deprivation hands and feet.

    OpenAIRE

    Glover, S.; Nicoll, A.; Pullan, C

    1985-01-01

    A survey of preschool children in three inner city day nurseries serving deprived areas found 13 children with pink oedematous hands and feet--'deprivation hands and feet'. The children and their families were compared with similar children in the nurseries. Growth and development were poor compared with accepted norms, but not notably different from controls. The families of the affected children were exceptional in being at a considerable social disadvantage. Other children in the families ...

  15. Revisitando os Tabus: as cautelas rituais do povo de santo / Revisiting taboos: ritualistic cautions among the "povo de santo"

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francesca, Bassi.

    Full Text Available O presente artigo propõe uma reflexão sobre o papel das interdições rituais pessoais, chamadas de quizilas, no contexto do candomblé da Bahia (Jeje-Nagô). A pesquisa de campo levou à hipótese de que, para além das proibições profiláticas e dos tabus de cunho coletivo, existem interdições pessoais ba [...] seadas em sensibilidades negativas, notadamente em ojerizas ou alergias alimentares, que guiam o iniciado numa relação particular com os orixás. A constatação de que a sensibilidade corporal desempenha um papel importante nesse tipo de gesto ritual indica, portanto, a importância de uma prática etnográfica debruçada sobre a noção de "corpo que sente". Abstract in english This article proposes a reflection about the role played by personal ritual prohibitions, known as quizilas, in the context of the candomblé of Bahia (Jeje-Nagô). My fieldwork led to the following hypothesis: besides a system of prophylactic prohibitions and besides collective taboos, there is a sys [...] tem of personal prohibitions based on negative sensitivities -on disgust feelings or on alimentary allergic reactions- and which built an especial relationship of the initiate with the orixás. As such, the ethnography of this kind of ritual behavior should arguably be based on somatic issues and on the concept of the "feeling body".

  16. Revisitando os Tabus: as cautelas rituais do povo de santo Revisiting taboos: ritualistic cautions among the "povo de santo"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Bassi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo propõe uma reflexão sobre o papel das interdições rituais pessoais, chamadas de quizilas, no contexto do candomblé da Bahia (Jeje-Nagô. A pesquisa de campo levou à hipótese de que, para além das proibições profiláticas e dos tabus de cunho coletivo, existem interdições pessoais baseadas em sensibilidades negativas, notadamente em ojerizas ou alergias alimentares, que guiam o iniciado numa relação particular com os orixás. A constatação de que a sensibilidade corporal desempenha um papel importante nesse tipo de gesto ritual indica, portanto, a importância de uma prática etnográfica debruçada sobre a noção de "corpo que sente".This article proposes a reflection about the role played by personal ritual prohibitions, known as quizilas, in the context of the candomblé of Bahia (Jeje-Nagô. My fieldwork led to the following hypothesis: besides a system of prophylactic prohibitions and besides collective taboos, there is a system of personal prohibitions based on negative sensitivities -on disgust feelings or on alimentary allergic reactions- and which built an especial relationship of the initiate with the orixás. As such, the ethnography of this kind of ritual behavior should arguably be based on somatic issues and on the concept of the "feeling body".

  17. Mycetoma of the hand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the incidence and radiographic signs of hand infection in mycetoma. A retrospective review was carried out from the radiographic records of 516 confirmed cases of mycetoma seen between January 1994 and October 2002 at the referred outpatient clinic of the Mycetoma Research Center, Soba Teaching Hospital, Khartoum University, Sudan, The hands were involved in 24 (4.6%)of the 516 patient. the wrist was involved in 9 (1.7%). Total involvement of hand and wrist was 33 (6.4%) of the 516 patients.Radiographic signs included fanning of the metacarpals, bone erosions, sclerosis, periostitis and soft tissue swelling. The most common sign was soft tissue swelling in 29(88%) while bones were involved in 15 (45%) of the 33 patients. Hand infection in this series is less than previous reports. A wide range of radiographic sign is repoted in hand mycetoma. This is the first detailed report of the radiographic findings in mycetoma of the hand. Early detection of mycetoma infection is important to avoid the need for amputation if the diagnosis is delayed. (author)

  18. Food for Disasters

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-23

    When disaster strikes, you might not have access to food or water. This podcast discusses types of emergency food supplies you should keep on hand in your emergency kit.  Created: 7/23/2012 by Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (PHPR).   Date Released: 7/23/2012.

  19. Preparation and evaluation of hand rub disinfectant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padsalgi Amol

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work is to formulate effective hand rub disinfectant by selecting broad-spectrum antimicrobial and antifungal agents. Increased need of easy-to-use hand rub disinfectant in pharmaceutical, food processing industry, hospitals, and in clinical labs necessitated development of the best possible product. Formulations were prepared using Benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine gluconate as potent disinfectants along with alcohol 70%. In low concentration they were highly effective without leaving any toxic effect on the user′s skin. A synergistic effect was observed when ethyl alcohol 70% was used in combination. Suitable emollient and skin conditioning agents were used to avoid possible dehydrating effect on the user′s skin. Excellent volatility of the preparation was observed after use, leaving a thin antimicrobial film on the user′s hand. The use of suitable excipient brought effective removal of after the use leaving a soothening effect on the skin. The aim of present work is to develop hand rub formulation which evaporates quickly after applications leaving no trace on hands as in case of hand rub gels. The present formulation was found to be effective when compared with marketed liquid hand rub.

  20. 4 Basic Steps to Food Safety at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    4 Basic Steps to Food Safety at Home 1. Clean Always wash your food, hands, counters and cooking tools. • Wash hands in warm soapy water for ... microwave • Marinate foods in the fridge. OVER 2012 Food Safety at Home Why should you care about food ...

  1. Arthritis of the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that once were easy, such as opening a jar or starting the car, become difficult due to ... The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not test dietary supplements. These compounds may cause negative interactions ...

  2. [Skin and hand disinfection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, U

    1991-04-01

    In modern medicine, hygiene has become an issue of ever increasing importance. Disinfection of hands is crucial, since hands are the main vector of bacteria. Successful disinfection depends not only on the appropriate choice of an active agent, but equally so on proper techniques and skin care. The spectre and the time profile of activity as well as the skin-protecting properties of the chosen disinfectant must be known. Basic knowledge of disinfection is necessary for a rational interpretation of the information given in the glossy printed material of advertisement. PMID:1858061

  3. [Hands cutaneous exam].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorette, Gérard; Samimi, Mahtab

    2013-12-01

    There are four different areas to consider: palms, back of the hands, fingers, periungual folds (and nails). Palmoplantar keratodermas are a group of inherited or acquired disorders. Dysidrosis is a peculiar form of eczema on the palms and lateral aspects of the fingers. SAPHO syndrome (Synovitis - Acne - Pustulosis - Hyperostosis - Osteomyelitis) presents pustules on palms. Photo-ageing is frequently noticed on the back of the hands. Paraneoplastic acrokeratosis (Bazex syndrome) affects the nose, ears, and periungual folds of fingers and toes. Spontaneous blue finger syndrome can be a benign process that resolves rapidly. PMID:24157184

  4. Hand Hygiene: When and How

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand Hygiene When and How August 2009 How to handrub? How to handwash? RUB HANDS FOR HAND HYGIENE! WASH HANDS WHEN VISIBLY SOILED Duration of the ... its use. When? YOUR 5 MOMENTS FOR HAND HYGIENE 1 BEFORETOUCHINGA PATIENT 2 B P ECFLOER R ...

  5. Performance Comparison Between FEDERICA Hand and LARM Hand

    OpenAIRE

    Carbone, Giuseppe; Rossi, Cesare; Savino, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes two robotic hands that have been developed at University Federico II of Naples and at the University of Cassino. FEDERICA Hand and LARM Hand are described in terms of design and operational features. In particular, careful attention is paid to the differences between the above-mentioned hands in terms of transmission systems. FEDERICA Hand uses tendons and pulleys to drive phalanxes, while LARM Hand uses cross four-bar linkages. Results of experimental tests are reported ...

  6. Food hygienics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with food hygienics with eighteen chapters, which mention introduction on purpose of food hygienics, administration of food hygienics, food and microscopic organism, sanitary zoology, food poisoning, food poisoning by poisonous substance, chronic poisoning by microscopic organism, food and epidemic control , control of parasitic disease, milk hygiene meat hygiene, an egg and seafood hygiene, food deterioration and preservation, food additives, food container and field hygiene, food facilities hygiene, food hygiene and environmental pollution and food sanitation inspection.

  7. Put Your Hands Together

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-03-24

    In this podcast, learn how to help stop the spread of infection and stay healthy. It's easy when you 'Put Your Hands Together.'.  Created: 3/24/2011 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID) and National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 3/24/2011.

  8. Wash Your Hands

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-03-08

    This video shows kids how to properly wash their hands, one of the most important steps we can take to avoid getting sick and spreading germs to others.  Created: 3/8/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 3/8/2010.

  9. [Hand and occupational diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Choudat, Dominique

    2013-12-01

    Hand is frequently the site of work accidents or occupational diseases. The musculoskeletal upper limb is the first recognized occupational disease and carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common of them. The most common location of occupational dermatoses is the hand. Their causes are often multifactorial, involving chemical irritants, physical, allergens and endogenous factors (mainly atopic dermatitis). Occupational exposure to microtrauma and iterative use of vibrating tools may also be the cause of hypothenar hammer syndrome and acrosyndromes. The frequent chronicity and functional impairment induced by these attacks can cause lasting disabilities, an inability to source workstation. Occupational physician is a focal point for helping to maintain the position and the prevention of socioprofessional disinsertion. Many pathologies of the hand related to professional activity may benefit from a statement in occupational disease and thus allow the patient to obtain compensation and employment protection. Prevention of occupational hand diseases should be made by all health actors, especially in occupations and industries at risk. PMID:24134812

  10. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Podcasting Best Practices Audio Script Writing Guide Children's Privacy Policy for Podcasts How are we doing? Tell us what you think about CDC podcasts >> Listen/Watch Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hand Hygiene Saves Lives: Patient Admission Video This podcast is for ...

  11. Electrically powered hand tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kurt S.; Reed, Teddy R.

    2007-01-16

    An electrically powered hand tool is described and which includes a three phase electrical motor having a plurality of poles; an electrical motor drive electrically coupled with the three phase electrical motor; and a source of electrical power which is converted to greater than about 208 volts three-phase and which is electrically coupled with the electrical motor drive.

  12. Treatment of hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veien, N K; Menne, T

    2003-01-01

    and is a fundamental aspect of the treatment of hand eczema. Although topical corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment, few studies of their rational use, efficacy and side-effects have been conducted. A combination of tacrolimus and topical corticosteroids may reduce the risk of steroid...

  13. Mechanical cornpicker hand injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mom?ilovi? Dragan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical cornpicker hand injuries are not frequent in comparison to general hand trauma, but they have a specific mechanism of occurrence and are very severe. This investigation included 221 hand injuries. The sex distribution shows a general male dominance (85.25% in their active age (84.44%. These are, seasonal injuries mostly occurring in October (75.11%. By type of injuries, mutilating crush injuries are most frequent (64.25%. After completing the treatment, in most cases the functional result were estimated as bad (50.68%. Data concerning education and training for operating agricultural machines (96.38% - patients without training and carrying out safety measures (63.35% of injured patients did not apply any protection measures are devastating. The number of these injuries, as well as consequent permanent disabilities, may be considerably reduced by preventive measures, including public health services and media. Use of contemporary agricultural machinery, as well as obligatory training for operating these machines and application of protective measures, may also reduce the incidence of hand injuries during corn picking.

  14. Hands-On Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Catherine E.; Monroe, Louise Nelson

    2004-01-01

    A professional school and university collaboration enables elementary students and their teachers to explore hydrology concepts and realize the beneficial functions of wetlands. Hands-on experiences involve young students in determining water quality at field sites after laying the groundwork with activities related to the hydrologic cycle,…

  15. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q ... Control and Prevention. CDC – safer, healthier people. Hello. I'm Dr. John Jernigan from the Centers for ... sure everyone around you washes their hands. Hi, I'm Gayle. Now that you've been admitted ...

  16. Food for tourists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne-Mette; Corigliano, Magda Antolioli

    Eating is a physical necessity, but catering services and food image are also very important ingredients of cultural tourism. Food and tourism are increasingly being combined, e.g. in agri-tourism, wine tours and the sale of food products as souvenirs. However, as this paper illustrates, the development and standards of food for tourists are determined not by tourism policies, but by national economic, agricultural and food policies. A comparison between Denmark and Italy illustrates core elements in food cultures. Particularly in Denmark, food production is a major economic activity, and the power of the agricultural and food processing industries has in many cases severely compromised the quality image. In Italy, on the other hand, food policies and traditions, which give a high priority to freshness, allow consumers to stay in control of food quality to a much larger extent than in Denmark. In both countries, a concentration of tourists in space and time tends to result in a decline of food quality. The paper concludes that only residents are in a position to put a more permanent pressure on food suppliers, and only if they are given the appropriate instruments. Further improvement of the food heritage in both countries (but especially in Denmark) will have to include a reconsideration, and probably changes, in food policies in more global terms.

  17. Three-Fingered Robot Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, C. F.; Salisbury, J. K.

    1984-01-01

    Mechanical joints and tendons resemble human hand. Robot hand has three "human-like" fingers. "Thumb" at top. Rounded tips of fingers covered with resilient material provides high friction for griping. Hand potential as prosthesis for humans.

  18. Security of the food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setola, Roberto; De Maggio, Maria Carla

    2009-01-01

    The food supply chain could became a dangerous weapon in the hands of enemies, for this reason the strategies developed to fight food adulteration (food safety) should be complemented with specific actions devoted to improve food "security" in the sense of food defence. This paper illustrate the methodological approach used in the EU project SecuFood to analyze threats, vulnerabilities and countermeasures existing in major European countries about what concerns deliberate attacks and manipulations of food. PMID:19964201

  19. 'Please, sir, can I have some more?' Food, lifestyle, diets: respect and moral responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beaufort, Inez

    2014-04-01

    This article is about respect for food, responsibility for lifestyle and diet and responsibility for those who suffer from lack of food. After some general reflections on food, feasts, flatulence, taboos and waste, I argue that we have a responsibility to live a healthy lifestyle, but that there are also morally good reasons for taking risks with our health as we cherish other goals and values. Then I discuss situations, using the example of obesity, in which people are not free to choose their lifestyle. Governments and doctors have responsibilities in enabling people to chose healthy eating habits, e.g. by facilitating access to healthy foods and by criticizing scientifically unfounded weight loss diets. I continue to defend that we need to respect food and those who prepare it, and that we have a moral responsibility to contribute to the solution of the food gap in the world. PMID:24810184

  20. Plantas relacionadas con tabúes del ciclo reproductivo de los Guaraníes de Misiones, Argentina Plants related to taboos of the reproductive cycle of guaranies from Misiones, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A Keller

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Los guaraníes de las parcialidades Mbya y Ava Chiripa observan normas de conducta específicas durante la etapa reproductiva de los miembros de sus comunidades. Algunas de estas reglas implican tabúes que se relacionan con plantas, las cuales son tratadas en la presente contribución. El manuscrito es ilustrado mediante fotografías de algunas de las especies mencionadas.Guaranis of Mbya and Ava Chiripa groups, observes norms of specific conduct during the reproductive stage of the members of his communities. Someone of these rules imply taboos related with plants, these plants are treated in the present contribution. The manuscript is illustrated by means photographies of someone of the mentioned species.

  1. The Rubber Hand Illusion: Feeling of Ownership and Proprioceptive Drift Do Not Go Hand in Hand

    OpenAIRE

    Rohde, Marieke; Di Luca, Massimiliano; Ernst, Marc O.

    2011-01-01

    In the Rubber Hand Illusion, the feeling of ownership of a rubber hand displaced from a participant's real occluded hand is evoked by synchronously stroking both hands with paintbrushes. A change of perceived finger location towards the rubber hand (proprioceptive drift) has been reported to correlate with this illusion. To measure the time course of proprioceptive drift during the Rubber Hand Illusion, we regularly interrupted stroking (performed by robot arms) to measure perceived finger lo...

  2. Solo hand surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Michael SG; Reitsma, Bert J

    2005-01-01

    Unassisted hand surgery is being undertaken by necessity for both elective and emergency cases, due to hospital resource restrictions. The authors outline the principles of local anesthesia, surgeon-controlled tourniquet techniques, and a number of new instruments which allow a surgeon to work in comfort and safety, unassisted. The traditional surgical instruments designed for the days when trained surgical assistants were available to hold them are no longer suitable. We are entering a new e...

  3. Cognitive bias, hand preference and welfare of common marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Dianne J; Rogers, Lesley J

    2015-07-01

    Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) have hand preferences for grasping pieces of food and holding them while eating and these are stable throughout adult life. We report here that left-handed marmosets have negative cognitive bias compared to right-handed marmosets. Twelve marmosets were trained to expect a food reward from a bowl with a black lid and not from one with a white lid, or vice versa. In probe tests with ambiguous, grey-lidded bowls a left-handed group (N=7) were less likely to remove the lid to inspect the bowl than a right-handed group (N=5). This difference between left- and right-handed marmosets was not dependent on rate of learning, sex or age. In fact, hand-preference was not associated with rate of learning the task. Furthermore, retrospective examination of colony records of 39 marmosets revealed that more aggression was directed towards left- than right-handed marmosets. Hence, hand preference, which can be measured easily, could serve as an indicator of cognitive bias and may signal a need for particular care in laboratory environments. We explain the results by arguing that hand preference reflects more frequent (or dominant) use of the opposite hemisphere and this predisposes individuals to behave differently. PMID:25813746

  4. Compact Dexterous Robotic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovchik, Christopher Scott (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A compact robotic hand includes a palm housing, a wrist section, and a forearm section. The palm housing supports a plurality of fingers and one or more movable palm members that cooperate with the fingers to grasp and/or release an object. Each flexible finger comprises a plurality of hingedly connected segments, including a proximal segment pivotally connected to the palm housing. The proximal finger segment includes at least one groove defining first and second cam surfaces for engagement with a cable. A plurality of lead screw assemblies each carried by the palm housing are supplied with power from a flexible shaft rotated by an actuator and output linear motion to a cable move a finger. The cable is secured within a respective groove and enables each finger to move between an opened and closed position. A decoupling assembly pivotally connected to a proximal finger segment enables a cable connected thereto to control movement of an intermediate and distal finger segment independent of movement of the proximal finger segment. The dexterous robotic hand closely resembles the function of a human hand yet is light weight and capable of grasping both heavy and light objects with a high degree of precision.

  5. Harmony: A Hand Wash Monitoring and Reminder System using Smart Watches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Abu Sayeed Mondol

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hand hygiene compliance is extremely important in hospitals, clinics and food businesses. Caregivers' compliance with hand hygiene is one of the most effective tools in preventing healthcare associated infections (HAIs in hospitals and clinics. In food businesses, hand hygiene compliance is essential to prevent food contamination, and thus food borne illness. Washing hands properly is the cornerstone of hand hygiene. However, the hand wash compliance rate by the workers (care givers, waiters, chefs, food processors and so on is not up to the mark. Monitoring hand wash compliance along with a reminder system increases the compliance rate significantly. Quality of a hand wash is also important which can be achieved by washing hands in accordance with standard guidelines. In this paper, we present Harmony, a hand wash monitoring and reminder system that monitors hand wash events and their quality, provides real time feedback, reminds the person of interest when he/she is required to wash hands, and stores related data in a server for further use. Worker worn smart watches are the key components of Harmony that can differentiate hand wash gestures from other gestures with an average accuracy of about 88%. Harmony is robust, scalable, and easy to install, and it overcomes most of the problems of existing related systems.

  6. 77 FR 71695 - Secondary Direct Food Additives Permitted in Food for Human Consumption; Sodium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ..., cafeterias, restaurants, retail food establishments, nonprofit food establishments, and other food service... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 173 Secondary Direct Food Additives Permitted in...-827-6870. Mail/Hand delivery/Courier (for paper or CD-ROM submissions): Division of Dockets...

  7. Taboos and social contracts: Tools for ecosystem management – lessons from the Manambolomaty Lakes RAMSAR site, western Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jules Mampiandra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional taboos and social contracts played an importantrole in managing the Manambolomaty RAMSAR site. Taboosare defined as a prohibition imposed by social custom as aprotective measure’ and social contracts are – in conservationsense – a common agreement for achieving conservation,sustainable development and development of resourcesobjectives. The Manambolomaty Lakes RAMSAR site, District ofAntsalova in western Madagascar, is composed of four lakes(Soamalipo, Befotaka, Ankerika and Antsamaka surroundedby the Tsimembo deciduous forest. The first three lakes withforest surrounding encompass 14,701 ha and are being managedby two local Associations: FIZAMI (FIkambanana ZanatanyAndranobe MIray and FIFAMA (FIkambanana FAmpandrosoanaMamokatra Ankerika. The associations have used traditionaltaboos and social conventions to manage their local naturalresources by incorporating a GELOSE (GEstion Locale SEcuriséemanagement system to conserve biological diversity, maintainresource sustainability and socio - economic viability. This sitehas the highest concentration of the endemic and criticallyendangered Madagascar fish eagle (Haliaeetus vociferoides,representing 10 % of the global population, and many otherspecies of different faunal groups are also in good conservationstatus such as Decken’s sifaka (Propithecus deckeni andWestern lesser bamboo lemurs (Hapalemur occidentalis andMadagascar flying fox (Pteropus rufus. Culturally, the site isknown as a unique source of the endemic tree Hazomalaniavoyroni (Hernandiaceae, which is used by the Sakalava peoplefor constructing coffins, and being buried in a coffin madeof this wood is a great honour for the Sakalava people. FromManambolomaty’s Lakes fish yields, estimated at 60 - 100 tonsper fishing season, FIZAMI and FIFAMA are one of the fewMalagasy Associations with active bank accounts supportedby management of their natural resources and associatedactivities. Their fisheries management system has increasedthe annual local revenue estimated at more than $ 1,562US / fisherman per season. The tax of fish sales to wholesalefish buyers forms 56 % of the two local Commune’s budgets. Thishas made the Community - Based Wetlands Conservation at theManambolomaty Lakes site well known in the conservation circles within Madagascar and has been modelled by other organizationsand associations. Consequently, the ManambolomatyLakes site is in the process of being added into the System ofProtected Areas of Madagascar (SAPM.

  8. Hand grip strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Henrik; Gaist, David; Petersen, Hans Christian; Hjelmborg, Jacob; McGue, Matt; Vaupel, James W; Christensen, Kaare

    2002-01-01

    Physical functioning late in life has been shown to be affected by genetic factors. Only a few genetic variants have been suggested to be associated with physical functioning, and this only in selected populations (e.g., young healthy males and elite athletes). Declining physical functioning late...... in life is a major problem in terms of prevalence, morbidity, functional limitations, and quality of life. It is therefore of interest to find a phenotype reflecting physical functioning which has a relatively high heritability and which can be measured in large samples. Hand grip strength is known...

  9. Sustainable Food Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia; Scholl, Gerd; Eberle, Ulrike

    industrialisation and globalisation of agriculture and food processing, consumption patterns that are shifting towards more dietary animal protein, modern food styles, an abundance of food on the one hand and a lack of food security on the other, and the continuously growing gap between rich and poor on both a......Not only can food consumption today not be regarded as sustainable, but the scope of the problem is wide: 1. about 800 million people worldwide are suffering hunger 2. 1 to 1.5 billion people in the world are overweight, 300 to 500 million of them obese, a tendency that is increasing 3. diet and...... lifestyle related health problems such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes are increasing, the latter in young age groups 4. social cohesion is increasingly in danger since health is closely related to socioeconomic status 5. serious environmental problems related to food production and consumption need...

  10. Ability of Hand Hygiene Interventions Using Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers and Soap To Reduce Microbial Load on Farmworker Hands Soiled during Harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aceituno, Anna Fabiszewski; Bartz, Faith E; Hodge, Domonique Watson; Shumaker, David J; Grubb, James E; Arbogast, James W; Dávila-Aviña, Jorgé; Venegas, Fabiola; Heredia, Norma; García, Santos; Leon, Juan S

    2015-11-01

    Effective hand hygiene is essential to prevent the spread of pathogens on produce farms and reduce foodborne illness. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act Proposed Rule for Produce Safety recommends the use of soap and running water for hand hygiene of produce handlers. The use of alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS) may be an effective alternative hygiene intervention where access to water is limited. There are no published data on the efficacy of either soap or ABHS-based interventions to reduce microbial contamination in agricultural settings. The goal of this study was to assess the ability of two soap-based (traditional or pumice) and two ABHS-based (label-use or two-step) hygiene interventions to reduce microbes (coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus spp.) and soil (absorbance of hand rinsate at 600 nm [A600]) on farmworker hands after harvesting produce, compared with the results for a no-hand-hygiene control. With no hand hygiene, farmworker hands were soiled (median A600, 0.48) and had high concentrations of coliforms (geometric mean, 3.4 log CFU per hand) and Enterococcus spp. (geometric mean, 5.3 log CFU per hand) after 1 to 2 h of harvesting tomatoes. Differences in microbial loads in comparison to the loads in the control group varied by indicator organism and hygiene intervention (0 to 2.3 log CFU per hand). All interventions yielded lower concentrations of Enterococcus spp. and E. coli (P coliforms, than were found in the control group. The two-step ABHS intervention led to significantly lower concentrations of coliforms and Enterococcus spp. than the pumice soap and label-use ABHS interventions (P < 0.05) and was the only intervention to yield significantly fewer samples with E. coli than were found in the control group (P < 0.05). All interventions removed soil from hands (P < 0.05), soap-based interventions more so than ABHS-based interventions (P < 0.05). ABHS-based interventions were equally as effective as hand washing with soap at reducing indicator organisms on farmworker hands. Based on these results, ABHS is an efficacious hand hygiene solution for produce handlers, even on soiled hands. PMID:26555526

  11. Effectiveness of a nonrinse, alcohol-free antiseptic hand wash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moadab, A; Rupley, K F; Wadhams, P

    2001-06-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a novel surfactant, allantoin, and benzalkonium chloride hand sanitizer using the US Food and Drug Administration's method for testing antiseptic hand washes that podiatric physicians and other health-care personnel use. The alcohol-free product, HandClens, was compared with an alcohol-based product, Purell. Independent researchers from the California College of Podiatric Medicine conducted the study using 40 volunteer students from the class of 2001. The results show that HandClens outperformed Purell and met the regulatory requirements for a hand sanitizer. Purell failed as an antimicrobial hand wash and was less effective than a control soap used in the study. PMID:11420346

  12. Arthritis of the hand - Rheumatoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Rheumatoid Arthritis Email to a friend * required fields From * To * ... tendons causes pressure on the nearby nerve. How Rheumatoid Arthritis is Diagnosed The diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis is ...

  13. Animal Bites of the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Animal Bites Email to a friend * required fields From * ... with cat bites a distant second. Other biting animals include rodents, rabbits, ferrets, farm animals, monkeys, snakes, ...

  14. Novel approaches in hand rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    GRUBIŠI?, Ivan; Skala Kavanagh, Hana; GRAZIO, Simeon

    2015-01-01

    Hand rehabilitation is a constructive activity to gradually restore health and functionality of hand and fingers. Motion disabilities of hand and fingers are a common problem and can be a result of a wide variety of diseases and traumas. This problem is especially emphasized in the elderly population. Common methods in hand rehabilitation include physical therapy that should be performed frequently. However, patients tend not to follow the program strictly and perform exercises the wr...

  15. The human hand as an inspiration for robot hand development

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    “The Human Hand as an Inspiration for Robot Hand Development” presents an edited collection of authoritative contributions in the area of robot hands. The results described in the volume are expected to lead to more robust, dependable, and inexpensive distributed systems such as those endowed with complex and advanced sensing, actuation, computation, and communication capabilities. The twenty-four chapters discuss the field of robotic grasping and manipulation viewed in light of the human hand’s capabilities and push the state-of-the-art in robot hand design and control. Topics discussed include human hand biomechanics, neural control, sensory feedback and perception, and robotic grasp and manipulation. This book will be useful for researchers from diverse areas such as robotics, biomechanics, neuroscience, and anthropologists.

  16. Right-handed Neutrinos in $\

    OpenAIRE

    Sobkow, Wieslaw

    2000-01-01

    In this paper a scenario admitting the participation of the exotic right-handed scalar $S_{R}$ coupling in addition to the standard left-handed $(V, A)_{L}$ couplings in the low energy neutrino-electron scattering is considered. The main goal is to show how the presence of the right-handed neutrinos in the $(\

  17. Hand washing promotion for preventing diarrhoea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Regina I; Ehiri, John E; Arikpo, Dachi; Meremikwu, Martin M; Critchley, Julia A

    2015-01-01

    Background Diarrhoea accounts for 1.8 million deaths in children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). One of the identified strategies to prevent diarrhoea is hand washing. Objectives To assess the effects of hand washing promotion interventions on diarrhoeal episodes in children and adults. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (27 May 2015); CENTRAL (published in the Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 5); MEDLINE (1966 to 27 May 2015); EMBASE (1974 to 27 May 2015); LILACS (1982 to 27 May 2015); PsycINFO (1967 to 27 May 2015); Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index (1981 to 27 May 2015); ERIC (1966 to 27 May 2015); SPECTR (2000 to 27 May 2015); Bibliomap (1990 to 27 May 2015); RoRe, The Grey Literature (2002 to 27 May 2015); World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trial Registry Platform (ICTRP), metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT), and reference lists of articles up to 27 May 2015. We also contacted researchers and organizations in the field. Selection criteria Individually randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs that compared the effects of hand washing interventions on diarrhoea episodes in children and adults with no intervention. Data collection and analysis Three review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We stratified the analyses for child day-care centres or schools, community, and hospital-based settings. Where appropriate, incidence rate ratios (IRR) were pooled using the generic inverse variance method and random-effects model with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence. Main results We included 22 RCTs: 12 trials from child day-care centres or schools in mainly high-income countries (54,006 participants), nine community-based trials in LMICs (15,303 participants), and one hospital-based trial among people with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) (148 participants). Hand washing promotion (education activities, sometimes with provision of soap) at child day-care facilities or schools prevents around one-third of diarrhoea episodes in high income countries (rate ratio 0.70; 95% CI 0.58 to 0.85; nine trials, 4664 participants, high quality evidence), and may prevent a similar proportion in LMICs but only two trials from urban Egypt and Kenya have evaluated this (rate ratio 0.66, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.99; two trials, 45,380 participants, low quality evidence). Only three trials reported measures of behaviour change and the methods of data collection were susceptible to bias. In one trial from the USA hand washing behaviour was reported to improve; and in the trial from Kenya that provided free soap, hand washing did not increase, but soap use did (data not pooled; three trials, 1845 participants, low quality evidence). Hand washing promotion among communities in LMICs probably prevents around one-quarter of diarrhoea episodes (rate ratio 0.72, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.83; eight trials, 14,726 participants, moderate quality evidence). However, six of these eight trials were from Asian settings, with only single trials from South America and sub-Saharan Africa. In six trials, soap was provided free alongside hand washing education, and the overall average effect size was larger than in the two trials which did not provide soap (soap provided: rate ratio 0.66, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.78; six trials, 11,422 participants; education only: rate ratio: 0.84, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.05; two trials, 3304 participants). There was increased hand washing at major prompts (before eating/cooking, after visiting the toilet or cleaning the baby's bottom), and increased compliance to hand hygiene procedure (behavioural outcome) in the intervention groups than the control in community trials (data not pooled: three trials, 3490 participants, high quality evidence). Hand washing promotion for the one trial conducted in a hospital among high-risk population showed significant reduction in mean episodes of diarrhoea (1.68 fewer) in the intervention group (Mean difference 1.68, 95% CI 1.93 to 1.43; one trial, 148 participants, moderate quality evidence). There was increase in hand washing frequency, seven times per day in the intervention group versus three times in the control in this hospital trial (one trial, 148 participants, moderate quality evidence). We found no trials evaluating or reporting the effects of hand washing promotions on diarrhoea-related deaths, all-cause-under five mortality, or costs. Authors' conclusions Hand washing promotion probably reduces diarrhoea episodes in both child day-care centres in high-income countries and among communities living in LMICs by about 30%. However, less is known about how to help people maintain hand washing habits in the longer term. PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY Hand washing promotion for preventing diarrhoea Review question This Cochrane Review summarises trials evaluating the effects of promoting hand washing on the incidence of diarrhoea among children and adults in day-care centres, schools, communities, or hospitals. After searching for relevant trials up to 27 May 2015, we included 22 randomized controlled trials conducted in both high-income countries (HICs) and low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). These trials enrolled 69,309 children and 148 adults. How does hand washing prevent diarrhoea and how might hand washing be promoted Diarrhoea causes many deaths in children below five years of age, mostly in LMICs. The organisms causing diarrhoea are transmitted from person to person through food and water contaminated with faeces, or through person-to-person contact. Hand washing after defecation, or after cleaning a baby's bottom, and before preparing and eating food, can therefore reduce the risk of diarrhoea. Hand washing can be promoted through group or individual training on hygiene education, germ-health awareness, use of posters, leaflets, comic books, songs, and drama. What this review says Hand washing promotion at child day-care facilities or schools in HICs probably prevents around 30% of diarrhoea episodes (high quality evidence), and may prevent a similar proportion in schools in LMICs (low quality evidence). Among communities in LMICs hand washing promotion prevents around 28% of diarrhoea episodes (moderate quality evidence). In the only hospital-based trial included in this review, hand washing promotion also had important reduction in the mean episodes of diarrhoea (moderate quality evidence). This is based on only a single trial with few participants and thus there is need for more trials to confirm this. Effects of hand washing promotion on related hand hygiene behaviour changes improved more in the intervention groups than in the control in all the settings (low to high quality evidence). None of the included trials assessed the effect of handwashing promotion on diarrhoeal-related deaths, all-cause under-five mortality, or the cost-effectiveness of hand washing promotions. Conclusion Hand washing promotion in HICs and LMICs settings may reduce incidence of diarrhoea by about 30%. However, less is known about how to help people maintain hand washing habits in the longer term. PMID:26346329

  18. A 3-D velocity model for earthquake location from combined geological and geophysical data: a case study from the TABOO near fault observatory (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Diana; Lupattelli, Andrea; Mirabella, Francesco; Trippetta, Fabio; Valoroso, Luisa; Lomax, Anthony; Di Stefano, Raffaele; Collettini, Cristiano; Chiaraluce, Lauro

    2014-05-01

    Accurate hypocenter location at the crustal scale strongly depends on our knowledge of the 3D velocity structure. The integration of geological and geophysical data, when available, should contribute to a reliable seismic velocity model in order to guarantee high quality earthquake locations as well as their consistency with the geological structure. Here we present a 3D, P- and S-wave velocity model of the Upper Tiber valley region (Northern Apennines) retrieved by combining an extremely robust dataset of surface and sub-surface geological data (seismic reflection profiles and boreholes), in situ and laboratory velocity measurements, and earthquake data. The study area is a portion of the Apennine belt undergoing active extension where a set of high-angle normal faults is detached on the Altotiberina low-angle normal fault (ATF). From 2010, this area hosts a scientific infrastructure (the Alto Tiberina Near Fault Observatory, TABOO; http://taboo.rm.ingv.it/), consisting of a dense array of multi-sensor stations, devoted to studying the earthquakes preparatory phase and the deformation processes along the ATF fault system. The proposed 3D velocity model is a layered model in which irregular shaped surfaces limit the boundaries between main lithological units. The model has been constructed by interpolating depth converted seismic horizons interpreted along 40 seismic reflection profiles (down to 4s two way travel times) that have been calibrated with 6 deep boreholes (down to 5 km depth) and constrained by detailed geological maps and structural surveys data. The layers of the model are characterized by similar rock types and seismic velocity properties. The P- and S-waves velocities for each layer have been derived from velocity measurements coming from both boreholes (sonic logs) and laboratory, where measurements have been performed on analogue natural samples increasing confining pressure in order to simulate crustal conditions. In order to test the 3D velocity model, we located a selected dataset of the 2010-2013 TABOO catalogue, which is composed of about 30,000 micro-earthquakes (see Valoroso et al., same session). Earthquake location was performed by applying the global-search earthquake location method NonLinLoc, which is able to manage strong velocity contrasts as that observed in the study area. The model volume is 65km x 55km x 20km and is parameterized by constant velocity, cubic cells of side 100 m. For comparison, we applied the same inversion code by using the best 1D model of the area obtained with earthquake data. The results show a significant quality improvement with the 3D model both in terms of location parameters and correlation between seismicity distribution and known geological structures.

  19. Unimanual SNARC Effect: Hand Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MariannaRiello

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A structural representation of the hand embedding information about the identity and relative position of fingers is necessary to counting routines. It may also support associations between numbers and allocentric spatial codes that predictably interact with other known numerical spatial representations, such as the mental number line. In this study, 48 Western participants whose typical counting routine proceeded from thumb-to-little on both hands performed magnitude and parity binary judgments. Response keys were pressed either with the right index and middle fingers or with the left index and middle fingers in separate blocks. 24 participants responded with either hands in prone posture (i.e. palm down and 24 participants responded with either hands in supine (i.e. palm up posture. When hands were in prone posture, the counting direction of the left hand conflicted with the direction of the left-right mental number line, whereas the counting direction of the right hand was consistent with it. When hands were in supine posture, the opposite was true. If systematic associations existed between relative number magnitude and an allocentric spatial representation of the finger series within each hand, as predicted on the basis of counting habits, interactions would be expected between hand posture and a unimanual version of the Spatial-Numerical Association of Response Codes (SNARC effect. Data revealed that with hands in prone posture a unimanual SNARC effect was present for the right hand, and with hands in supine posture a unimanual SNARC effect was present for the left hand. We propose that a posture-invariant body structural representation of the finger series provides a relevant frame of reference, a within-hand directional vector, that is associated to simple number processing. Such frame of reference can significantly interact with stimulus-response correspondence effects that have been attributed to the mapping of numbers on a mental number line.

  20. Food safety regulations in Australia and New Zealand Food Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Dilip

    2014-08-01

    Citizens of Australia and New Zealand recognise that food security is a major global issue. Food security also affects Australia and New Zealand's status as premier food exporting nations and the health and wellbeing of the Australasian population. Australia is uniquely positioned to help build a resilient food value chain and support programs aimed at addressing existing and emerging food security challenges. The Australian food governance system is fragmented and less transparent, being largely in the hands of government and semi-governmental regulatory authorities. The high level of consumer trust in Australian food governance suggests that this may be habitual and taken for granted, arising from a lack of negative experiences of food safety. In New Zealand the Ministry of Primary Industries regulates food safety issues. To improve trade and food safety, New Zealand and Australia work together through Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and other co-operative agreements. Although the potential risks to the food supply are dynamic and constantly changing, the demand, requirement and supply for providing safe food remains firm. The Australasian food industry will need to continually develop its system that supports the food safety program with the help of scientific investigations that underpin the assurance of what is and is not safe. The incorporation of a comprehensive and validated food safety program is one of the total quality management systems that will ensure that all areas of potential problems are being addressed by industry. PMID:24638225

  1. Computer control by hand gestures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemel, Intidhar; Ejbali, Ridha; Zaied, Mourad

    2015-12-01

    This work fits into the context of the interpretation of automatic gestures based on computer vision. The aim of our work is to transform a conventional screen in a surface that allows the user to use his hands as pointing devices. These can be summarized in three main steps. Hand detection in a video, monitoring detected hands and conversion paths made by the hands to computer commands. To realize this application, it is necessary to detect the hand to follow. A classification phase is essential, at the control part. For this reason, we resorted to the use of a neuro-fuzzy classifier for classification and a pattern matching method for detection.

  2. Hand Segmentation for Hand-based Biometrics in Complex Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Bu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hand-basedbiometric techniques, such as the ones based on palmprint, hand vein and handshape, is becoming more important because of their convenience and highperformance. Hand segmentation is one of the most important steps in thesetechniques. It is a challenge task to accurately segment hand in complex environment because of the complex background,varying illuminance and other unexpected interference factors. This paperproposes a novel approach to segment hand in complex environment using colorand boundary information. In the proposed approach, the hand skin color model(HSCM is firstly constructed by using artificial neural network (ANN. Thenthe HSCM is used to generate a probability map (PM and the hand is roughlysegmented from the complex background by thresholding PM. After that, the handboundary is extracted from the original image by edge detecting and votingtechniques. Finally, the hand boundary is employed to cut the roughly segmentedhand to get the final segmented hand. The experimental results show that theproposed approach can effectively segment hand in complex environment.

  3. [New food allergies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutau, G; Rittié, J L; Rancé, F; Juchet, A; Brémont, F

    1999-09-25

    RISING INCIDENCE OF FOOD ALLERGIES: Food allergies are becoming more and more common, concerning 3 to 4% of the general population. One out of four persons allergic to nuts, the most frequent food allergen, have severe signs and symptoms. A CLASSICAL DIAGNOSIS: Certain diagnosis of food allergy is established on the basis of labial and oral tests. The dose required to induce a reaction is established by the oral test, giving information about the severity of the allergy and its progression. OTHER ALLERGENS: "Emerging" food allergens include spices and condiments, exotic fruits (kiwi, avocado, cashew and pecan nuts, Brazil nuts), sesame seeds, psyllium, sunflower seeds. Endurance exercise following ingestion of a food allergen can lead to severe anaphylactic reactions. Allergen associations "food-pollen", "latex-food", "mitessnails" have been described. INDISPENSABLE PREVENTION: Avoiding contact is essential. Many allergens are "masked" within prepared foods. Precise labeling, with particular attention to nut content, must be reinforced. Individualized counseling on food allergies should be available for school children. Persons with severe allergies should keep at hand an emergency kit with antihistamines, injectable rapid action corticoids and adrenalin (1 mg/ml). PMID:10526567

  4. "I wash my hands of it!?" – Trends in hand hygiene over the past decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotter, Manfred L.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Hand hygiene is the most important measure to protect against the spread of nosocomial infections. With the development of in vitro und in vivo test methods for evaluation of the effect of hand hygiene, there has been a sharp increase over the past 50 years in the body of knowledge relating to effective methods for removal from the hands or killing and inactivation of pathogens. In 1958 the German Society of Hygiene and Microbiology (DGHM published a first “Guidelines for Testing Chemical Disinfectants” and included only those hand disinfection products on its “List of Tested Chemical Disinfectants Found To Be Effective” that had been tested as per the methods cited in the guidelines. The American Society of Testing and Materials (today: ASTM International was next, with the first test protocols for hand disinfection products, which in 1974 were adopted by the US Food and Drug Agency as “Guidelines” in a “Tentative Final Monograph” (TFM and in 1994, having revised it to incorporate new insights, it was published once again.Where the user is concerned, guidelines for hand disinfection containing information on indication and implementation are of course more important than methods dealing with efficacy testing of products. Such guidelines are compiled within the hospitals by the infection control teams set up during the 1970s. Written guidelines were also published by several healthcare institutions, scientific societies and associations. The guidelines formulated by the World Health Organisation (WHO, in an expert committee under the direction of Didier Pittet, proved to be the most successful of the attempts undertaken at global level to enhance hand hygiene. The most remarkable changes appear to be the efforts aimed at improving compliance among medical personnel and the increasing international acceptance of hand disinfection by using alcohols in the form of rubs; whether this will be with lotions or gels remains to be seen.

  5. Food additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to food-producing animals, such as chickens and cows Antioxidants in oily or fatty foods Artificial sweeteners, ... the FDA Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) about any reactions you have to food ...

  6. Classification of hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agner, T; Aalto-Korte, K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Classification of hand eczema (HE) is mandatory in epidemiological and clinical studies, and also important in clinical work. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to test a recently proposed classification system of HE in clinical practice in a prospective multicentre study. METHODS: Patients were recruited from nine different tertiary referral centres. All patients underwent examination by specialists in dermatology and were checked using relevant allergy testing. Patients were classified into one of the six diagnostic subgroups of HE: allergic contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, atopic HE, protein contact dermatitis/contact urticaria, hyperkeratotic endogenous eczema and vesicular endogenous eczema, respectively. An additional diagnosis was given if symptoms indicated that factors additional to the main diagnosis were of importance for the disease. RESULTS: Four hundred and twenty-seven patients were included, 379 (89%) of the patients could be classified directly into one of the six diagnostic subgroups, with irritant and allergic contact dermatitis comprising 249 patients (58%). For 32 (7%) more than one of the six diagnostic subgroups had been formulated as a main diagnosis, and 16 (4%) could not be classified. 38% had one additional diagnosis and 26% had two or more additional diagnoses. Eczema on feet was found in 30% of the patients, statistically significantly more frequently associated with hyperkeratotic and vesicular endogenous eczema. CONCLUSION: We find that the classification system investigated in the present study was useful, being able to give an appropriate main diagnosis for 89% of HE patients, and for another 7% when using two main diagnoses. The fact that more than half of the patients had one or more additional diagnoses illustrates that HE is a multifactorial disease.

  7. Sens et enjeux d’un interdit alimentaire dans le judaïsme Food taboos in Judaism: the example of Ashkenazi Jews in London

    OpenAIRE

    Laurence Faure

    2010-01-01

    Cet article porte sur la manière dont la prohibition de mêler nourritures lactées et carnées dans le judaïsme se matérialise par les objets de la cuisine et leurs usages quotidiens, à partir d’une recherche réalisée à Londres auprès de couples juifs ashkénazes qui se définissent presque tous comme orthodoxes (modern orthodox) et dont la scolarisation dans des écoles juives a parfois pu contribuer à revivifier les pratiques religieuses. Par delà la diversité des habitudes culinaires et de leur...

  8. Food Safety After a Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Winter Weather Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Food Safety After a Tsunami Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... wash your hands with clean water and soap before and after you eat or prepare food and after you use the latrine or bathroom. ...

  9. Hand Reader – A hand Geometry Based Personal Verification System

    OpenAIRE

    Anani, Sani

    2012-01-01

    This report presents my bachelor thesis performed at the Department of Applied Physics and Electronics at UmeåUniversity. The Digital Media Lab was the assigner, supervising and assisting me during the project.   A simple and smart system to verify a person’s identity using hand geometry as a biometrical identity is developed. The system should tolerate some deviation in hand placement and will not use pins or pegs. A complete system, hardware and software, is delivered. A webcam based hand-s...

  10. "Osseous tumors of the hand "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Farzan M

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available The majority of osseous tumors of the hand are benign. The surgeon who evaluates and treats osseous tumors of the hand has to be familiar with limb anatomy, tumor biology, various presentations of the tumors and the range of treatment possibilities and their limitations. Lesions in the hand more often present earlier in their course than those at other sites, just because they are more likely to superficial and easily noticed. A review of all cases of osseous tumors of the hand, seen by a hand surgeon over the last 10 years, at Imam Khomeini hospital was performed. Among 55 cases with osseous tumors of hand, 48 primary benign bone tumors, 3 primary malignant bone tumors, and 4 metastatic bone tumors were found. Enchondroma was the most common benign bone tumor followed by osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, aneurismal bone cyst, giant cell tumor, epidermoid cyst, and osteochondroma. There were two chondrosarcoma and one Ewing’s sarcoma as primary malignant bone tumors. Metastasis to the hand from colon, esophagus, and breast were also found. There were also two cases with Brown tumor secondary to hyperparathyroidism, we conclude that a variety of osseous tumors could occur in the hand, and usually they are benign. Although malignant neoplasms in the hand that arise from tissues other than the skin are very rare, the hand may be the site of distant breast, lung, kidney, esophagus, or colon adenocarcinoma metastases, most of which have a predilection for the distal phalanges.

  11. Food neophobia and its relation with olfaction

    OpenAIRE

    M. LuisaDemattè

    2014-01-01

    Food neophobia, that is the reluctance to try novel foods, is an attitude that dramatically affects human feeding behavior in many different aspects among which food preferences and food choices appear to be the most thoroughly considered. This attitude has an important evolutionary meaning since it protects the individual from ingesting potentially dangerous substances. On the other hand, it fosters an avoidance behavior that can extend even toward useful food elements. A strong link exists ...

  12. Food, ethics and aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tivadar, Blanka; Luthar, Breda

    2005-04-01

    The authors test the popular thesis of some of the most influential theorists of contemporary societies about the erosion of the social structuring of consumption choices and their consequent individualisation in westernised societies, using the example of food practices. The analysis is based on data obtained from a random sample of the Slovenian population within a research project entitled 'Lifestyles in a Mediated Society.' The aims of the analysis were: (a) to explore the role of socio-demographic variables in food practices, and (b) to discover the inherent logic that motivates each particular set of food practices and which makes them meaningful for the individual, by studying an association of respondents' food practices with their worldview and cultural consumption. A cluster analysis revealed six food cultures (Male traditionalists, Yes-sayers, Male modernists, Weight-watchers, Carefree hedonists, and Health-conscious hedonists) lying along a continuum where traditionalism occupies one end and post-traditionalism the other. The authors conclude that although two out of six food cultures crosscut socio-demographic affiliations and transform food consumption into a constituent part of a lifestyle as an identity project, there is still a significant influence of socio-demographic characteristics (particularly gender and formal education) on food practices in contemporary Slovenia. Furthermore, significant associations exist between food practices, on the one hand, and the respondent's worldview and cultural consumption, on the other. PMID:15808896

  13. Hands-on Virtual Clay

    OpenAIRE

    Pihuit, Adeline; Kry, Paul; Cani, Marie-Paule

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a new interaction system designed for hands-on 3D shape modeling and deformation through natural hand gestures. Our system is made of a Phantom haptic device coupled with a deformable foam ball that supports pressure sensors. These sensors detect forces exerted by the user's fingertips, and are used to control the configuration of a compliant virtual hand that is modeling soft virtual clay. During interaction, the user is provided both passive tactile feedback through the ...

  14. Neutrophilic dermatosis of dorsal hands

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, S; Gupta, D.; Garg, B; Sood, N.

    2015-01-01

    Sweet?s syndrome is characterized by erythematous tender nodules and plaques over face and extremities. Fever, leukocytosis with neutrophilia, and a neutrophilic infiltrate in the dermis are characteristic features. Neutrophilic dermatosis of dorsal hands is a rare localized variant of Sweet?s syndrome occurring predominantly over dorsa of hands. Various degrees of vascular damage may be observed on histopathology of these lesions. Both Sweet?s syndrome and its dorsal hand variant have been r...

  15. Multi-fingered robotic hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, Carl F. (inventor); Salisbury, Kenneth, Jr. (inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A robotic hand is presented having a plurality of fingers, each having a plurality of joints pivotally connected one to the other. Actuators are connected at one end to an actuating and control mechanism mounted remotely from the hand and at the other end to the joints of the fingers for manipulating the fingers and passing externally of the robot manipulating arm in between the hand and the actuating and control mechanism. The fingers include pulleys to route the actuators within the fingers. Cable tension sensing structure mounted on a portion of the hand are disclosed, as is covering of the tip of each finger with a resilient and pliable friction enhancing surface.

  16. Rejuvenation of the aging hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterwick, Kimberly J

    2005-07-01

    This article reviews aging of the hand and the treatment options for cosmetic rejuvenation. Options available for cutaneous rejuvenation include microdermabrasion, chemical peeling, intense light sources, and laser therapy, including pigment lasers, ablative resurfacing, and noninvasive rejuvenation. Protuberant veins of the aging hand can be treated effectively with sclerotherapy. The soft tissue atrophy of the aging hand is best treated with fat augmentation. The article concludes with a mention of new fillers that are just beginning to be used for soft tissue atrophy of the hand. PMID:16039431

  17. Neutrophilic dermatosis of dorsal hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, S; Gupta, D; Garg, B; Sood, N

    2015-01-01

    Sweet's syndrome is characterized by erythematous tender nodules and plaques over face and extremities. Fever, leukocytosis with neutrophilia, and a neutrophilic infiltrate in the dermis are characteristic features. Neutrophilic dermatosis of dorsal hands is a rare localized variant of Sweet's syndrome occurring predominantly over dorsa of hands. Various degrees of vascular damage may be observed on histopathology of these lesions. Both Sweet's syndrome and its dorsal hand variant have been reported in association with malignancies, inflammatory bowel diseases, and drugs. We report a patient with neutrophilic dermatoses of dorsal hands associated with erythema nodosum. He showed an excellent response to corticosteroids and dapsone. PMID:25657918

  18. Dynamic Hand Gesture Recognition Using the Skeleton of the Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Buzuloiu

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the use of the computer vision in the interpretation of human gestures. Hand gestures would be an intuitive and ideal way of exchanging information with other people in a virtual space, guiding some robots to perform certain tasks in a hostile environment, or interacting with computers. Hand gestures can be divided into two main categories: static gestures and dynamic gestures. In this paper, a novel dynamic hand gesture recognition technique is proposed. It is based on the 2D skeleton representation of the hand. For each gesture, the hand skeletons of each posture are superposed providing a single image which is the dynamic signature of the gesture. The recognition is performed by comparing this signature with the ones from a gesture alphabet, using Baddeley's distance as a measure of dissimilarities between model parameters.

  19. Bayesian solutions for food science problems?

    OpenAIRE

    Boekel, M.A.J.S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper starts with an overview of some typical food-science problems. In view of the development of safe and healthy food, the use of mathematical models in food science is much needed and the use of statistics is therefore indispensable. Because of the biological variability in the raw materials on the one hand and the complex nature of foods on the other hand food-science problems are characterized by a high degree of uncertainty as well as variability. Consequently, when dealing with t...

  20. Gage for evaluating rheumatoid hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houge, J. C.; Plautz, K. A.

    1981-01-01

    Two-axis goniometer accurately measures movements of fingers about knuckle joints, diagnosing hands structurally changed by rheumatoid arthritis. Instrument measures lateral movement which is small in normal knuckles but increased in diseased joints. Goniometer is two connected protractors that simultaneously measure angles in perpindicular planes. Dials are offset to clear bony protuberances; extension and offset adjustments span any hand size.

  1. Roentgenological atlas of hand pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atlas deals with roentgenological diagnostics of hand pathology. Developmental defects, rheumatoid arthritis, malignant and benign bone tumours, tumours of soft tissues, degenerative dystrophical injuries, traumatic injuries, foreign bodies penetrating into hand tissues, inflamatory diseases etc. are illustrated. Roentgenological semiotics and differential diagnostics are described

  2. Food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngshin Han

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant allergens (class 2 food allergy. Allergenicity of food is largely determined by structural aspects, including cross-reactivity and reduced or enhanced allergenicity with cooking that convey allergenic characteristics to food. Management of food allergy currently focuses on dietary avoidance of the offending foods, prompt recognition and treatment of allergic reactions, and nutritional support. This review includes definitions and examines the prevalence and management of food allergies and the characteristics of food allergens.

  3. Intravascular lesions of the hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duke Wayne H

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Intravascular lesions of the hand comprise reactive and neoplastic entities. The clinical diagnosis of such lesions is often difficult, and usually requires pathologic examination. We present the largest series to date of intravascular lesions affecting the hand. Methods A retrospective review of intravascular (arterial and venous lesions involving the hand was conducted. Data regarding clinicopathologic findings were analyzed. Results We identified 10 patients with intravascular lesions of their hands including thromboemboli (n = 3, reactive intravascular conditions such as papillary endothelial hyperplasia or Masson's tumor (n = 2 and fasciitis (n = 1, as well as vascular neoplasms including pyogenic granuloma (n = 2 and angioleiomyoma (n = 2. Conclusion Blood vessel injury and/or venous thrombosis may predispose to several intravascular lesions of the hand. Recognition of reactive entities from neoplastic conditions is important.

  4. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  5. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief article examines the controversy over food irradiation regarding the wholesomeness of irradiated food, its microbiological safety, loss of vitamins and changes in flavour. The benefits of food irradiation are also outlined including the destruction of certain food-borne pathogens and the prolongation of the shelf-life of food by killing pests and delaying the deterioration process. (UK)

  6. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The issue of food irradiation has become important in Australia and overseas. This article discusses the results of the Australian Consumers' Association's (ACA) Inquiry into food irradiation, commissioned by the Federal Government. Issues discussed include: what is food irradiation; why irradiate food; how much food is consumer rights; and national regulations

  7. Terminologie alimentaire (Food Terminology).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jean-Francois

    1980-01-01

    Translations and descriptions are given in French for a number of English food terms: convenience foods, fast foods, fast foods industry, fast foods restaurant, frozen foods, deep frozen foods, fast frozen foods, quick frozen foods, dry frozen foods. (MSE)

  8. Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digestive System How the Body Works Main Page Food Allergies KidsHealth > Kids > Illnesses & Injuries > I Feel Sick! > ... cow's milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies happen when the immune system ...

  9. Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin because of low blood pressure or lose consciousness. The most common chronic illnesses associated with food ... Could I be allergic to food dyes or artificial flavors? Studies have found that some food additives, ...

  10. Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breads, pasta, and brown rice. Most of your daily calorie intake should come from carbohydrates. Sugars are found in most foods. When a food contains lots of sugar, the calories can add up quickly. Soda, snack foods and ...

  11. Hairdressers - hand eczema, hair dyes and hand protection

    OpenAIRE

    Lind, Marie-Louise

    2006-01-01

    Hand eczema is a well-known problem in occupations that involve largely manual work, in combination with long periods of wet exposure and skin contact with chemicals. Hairdressing involves dermal exposure to a number of skin damaging substances. Hair cosmetic products such as hair dyes, permanent wave solutions and bleaches can cause contact allergy and extensive wet work can cause irritant contact dermatitis (ICD). In this thesis the occurrence of hand eczema was studied i...

  12. Food allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Julie; Sampson, Hugh A

    2011-01-01

    Food allergies affect up to 6% of young children and 3%–4% of adults. They encompass a range of disorders that may be IgE and/or non-IgE mediated, including anaphylaxis, pollen food syndrome, food-protein–induced enterocolitis syndrome, food-induced proctocolitis, eosinophilic gastroenteropathies, and atopic dermatitis. Many complex host factors and properties of foods are involved in the development of food allergy. With recent advances in the understanding of how these factors interact, the...

  13. FOOD SECURITY

    OpenAIRE

    Dorina Ardelean

    2013-01-01

    The assurance of food security at the individual level doesn’t implicitly provide for the one at family level as the concepts of hunger, malnutrition and food insecurity are the steps of the same process of access restricted to a sufficient supply of food. In order to achieve food security at the individual level the following is necessary: ensuring food availability (production, reserve stocks); redistribution of food availability within the country or out through internationa...

  14. Corner Detection of Hand Gesture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Zhang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the methods of corner detection of hand gesture, and mainly introduces the orthogonal three-direction chain code (3OT and uses it in corner detection of hand gesture. The study is discussed from four aspects: the techniques used in corner detection, the techniques of Freeman chain code, the main idea of 3OT, the process of corner detection with 3OT and the experiments on corner detectors used for hand gesture images of 26 letters in American Sign Language are described in detail. Experiment results show that the 3OT has well performance with exact corner detection rate and least false corner’s number.

  15. An automatic modular procedure to generate high-resolution earthquake catalogues: application to the Alto Tiberina Near Fault Observatory (TABOO), Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, R.; Chiaraluce, L.; Valoroso, L.; Waldhauser, F.; Latorre, D.; Piccinini, D.; Tinti, E.

    2014-12-01

    The Alto Tiberina Near Fault Observatory (TABOO) in the upper Tiber Valley (northern Appennines) is a INGV research infrastructure devoted to the study of preparatory processes and deformation characteristics of the Alto Tiberina Fault (ATF), a 60 km long, low-angle normal fault active since the Quaternary. The TABOO seismic network, covering an area of 120 × 120 km, consists of 60 permanent surface and 250 m deep borehole stations equipped with 3-components, 0.5s to 120s velocimeters, and strong motion sensors. Continuous seismic recordings are transmitted in real-time to the INGV, where we set up an automatic procedure that produces high-resolution earthquakes catalogues (location, magnitudes, 1st motion polarities) in near-real-time. A sensitive event detection engine running on the continuous data stream is followed by advanced phase identification, arrival-time picking, and quality assessment algorithms (MPX). Pick weights are determined from a statistical analysis of a set of predictors designed to correctly apply an a-priori chosen weighting scheme. The MPX results are used to routinely update earthquakes catalogues based on a variety of (1D and 3D) velocity models and location techniques. We are also applying the DD-RT procedure which uses cross-correlation and double-difference methods in real-time to relocate events with high precision relative to a high-resolution background catalog. P- and S-onset and location information are used to automatically compute focal mechanisms, VP/VS variations in space and time, and periodically update 3D VP and VP/VS tomographic models. We present results from four years of operation, during which this monitoring system analyzed over 1.2 million detections and recovered ~60,000 earthquakes at a detection threshold of ML 0.5. The high-resolution information is being used to study changes in seismicity patterns and fault and rock properties along the ATF in space and time, and to elaborate ground shaking scenarios adopting diverse slip distributions and rupture directivity models.

  16. Exposures related to hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibler, Kristina S; Jemec, Gregor; Agner, Tove

    2012-01-01

    Hand eczema is common in healthcare workers, owing to intensive exposure to wet work and skin irritants. Targeted interventions and vocational guidance based on documented exposures and risk factors are needed.

  17. Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Hand, Foot & Mouth Disease Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... sick. Is HFMD the Same as Foot-and-Mouth Disease? No. HFMD is often confused with foot- ...

  18. American Society of Hand Therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Orthocarolina - Gastonia, NC View all Jobs >> About ASHT Advertising & Sponsorship Opportunities Awards ASHT Blog Clinic Directory Code ... Society of Hand Therapists. All Rights Reserved. RSS Facebook Twitter YouTube YouTube Advertisement Close Member Login Username: * ...

  19. American Society of Hand Therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advertising & Sponsorship Opportunities Awards ASHT Blog Clinic Directory Code of Ethics Donate FAQs History Leadership and Governance Member Benefits ... by Association Headquarters, a chartered accredited association management company. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Hand Therapists. All ...

  20. Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives Note: Javascript is disabled or ... and what you can do if soap and clean, running water are not available. Whether you are ...

  1. Exposures related to hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibler, K.S.; Jemec, G.B.E.; Agner, T.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Hand eczema is common in healthcare workers, owing to intensive exposure to wet work and skin irritants. Targeted interventions and vocational guidance based on documented exposures and risk factors are needed. Objectives. The aims of the study were to investigate the relationship...... significantly related to the presence of hand eczema. Having children <4 years old in the household was also related to the presence of hand eczema. A lower prevalence of hand eczema was found among those using moisturizers at work, and a higher prevalence was found among those using moisturizers at home...... habits. Attention should also be paid to healthcare workers with small children at home. The preventive effect of moisturizers used during working hours should be tested in future follow-up studies. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S....

  2. Exposures related to hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibler, K.S.; Jemec, G.B.E.; Agner, T.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Hand eczema is common in healthcare workers, owing to intensive exposure to wet work and skin irritants. Targeted interventions and vocational guidance based on documented exposures and risk factors are needed. Objectives. The aims of the study were to investigate the relationship between exposures (domestic and at work) and prevalence and severity of hand eczema. Methods. Self-administered questionnaires were sent to 3181 healthcare workers in Denmark. Results. Two thousand two hund...

  3. Hand kinematics of piano playing

    OpenAIRE

    Furuya, Shinichi; Flanders, Martha; Soechting, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Dexterous use of the hand represents a sophisticated sensorimotor function. In behaviors such as playing the piano, it can involve strong temporal and spatial constraints. The purpose of this study was to determine fundamental patterns of covariation of motion across joints and digits of the human hand. Joint motion was recorded while 5 expert pianists played 30 excerpts from musical pieces, which featured ?50 different tone sequences and fingering. Principal component analysis and cluster an...

  4. Chondroid syringoma of the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Koichi; Kato, Naoki; Arino, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    We describe a patient with a benign chondroid syringoma of the little finger of the right hand. She was a 56-year-old pianist who had had the swelling for 25 years without it causing any symptoms. The tumour was excised with an excellent result. Although chondroid syringoma is rare, it should be included in the differential diagnosis of the soft tumours of the hand. PMID:12564820

  5. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-08

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a contagious illness that mainly affects children under five. In this podcast, Dr. Eileen Schneider talks about the symptoms of hand, foot, and mouth disease, how it spreads, and ways to help protect yourself and your children from getting infected with the virus.  Created: 8/8/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 8/8/2013.

  6. Factitious Lymphedema of the Hand

    OpenAIRE

    S. Sina Ahmadi Abhari; Nooshin Alimalayeri; S. Ali Ahmadi Abhari; Khadijeh Omidi Nobijari

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To report the case of a 39- year old unmarried female with factitious edema of the right hand two weeks after being struck by her brother and following self injury of the right arm. Method: A 39-year old unmarried female with severe edema of the right hand and forearm diagnosed as factitious lymphedema was admitted to Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital. After hospitalization, with elevation of affected limb, the edema had lessened. Thereafter, she was observed at ward rounds with a cloth...

  7. Hand gestures mouse cursor control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian-Avram Vincze

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the implementation of a human-computer interface for controlling the mouse cursor. The test reveal the fact: a low-cost web camera some processing algorithms are quite enough to control the mouse cursor on computers. Even if the system is influenced by the illuminance level on the plane of the hand, the current study may represent a start point for some studies on the hand tracking and gesture recognition field.

  8. Hand function after nerve repair.

    OpenAIRE

    Lundborg, Göran; Rosén, Birgitta

    2007-01-01

    Treatment of injuries to major nerve trunks in the hand and upper extremity remains a major and challenging reconstructive problem. Such injuries may cause long-lasting disabilities in terms of lost fine sensory and motor functions. Nowadays there is no surgical repair technique that can ensure recovery of tactile discrimination in the hand of an adult patient following nerve repair while very young individuals usually regain a complete recovery of functional sensibility. Post-traumatic nerve...

  9. Glomus Tumors of the Hand

    OpenAIRE

    Hazani, Ron; Houle, John M.; Kasdan, Morton L.; Wilhelmi, Bradon J

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to present a review of the current understanding of glomus tumors of the hand. Methods: Clinical cases are used to demonstrate the relevance of history and physical examination in deriving the diagnosis of this rare, but important entity. Treatment, complications, and review of the literature are presented. Results: Glomus tumors are rare vascular lesions representing approximately 1% of all hand tumors. Derived from the glomus body, they are usually fo...

  10. The Rubber Hand Illusion: feeling of ownership and proprioceptive drift do not go hand in hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Marieke; Di Luca, Massimiliano; Ernst, Marc O

    2011-01-01

    In the Rubber Hand Illusion, the feeling of ownership of a rubber hand displaced from a participant's real occluded hand is evoked by synchronously stroking both hands with paintbrushes. A change of perceived finger location towards the rubber hand (proprioceptive drift) has been reported to correlate with this illusion. To measure the time course of proprioceptive drift during the Rubber Hand Illusion, we regularly interrupted stroking (performed by robot arms) to measure perceived finger location. Measurements were made by projecting a probe dot into the field of view (using a semi-transparent mirror) and asking participants if the dot is to the left or to the right of their invisible hand (Experiment 1) or to adjust the position of the dot to that of their invisible hand (Experiment 2). We varied both the measurement frequency (every 10 s, 40 s, 120 s) and the mode of stroking (synchronous, asynchronous, just vision). Surprisingly, with frequent measurements, proprioceptive drift occurs not only in the synchronous stroking condition but also in the two control conditions (asynchronous stroking, just vision). Proprioceptive drift in the synchronous stroking condition is never higher than in the just vision condition. Only continuous exposure to asynchronous stroking prevents proprioceptive drift and thus replicates the differences in drift reported in the literature. By contrast, complementary subjective ratings (questionnaire) show that the feeling of ownership requires synchronous stroking and is not present in the asynchronous stroking condition. Thus, subjective ratings and drift are dissociated. We conclude that different mechanisms of multisensory integration are responsible for proprioceptive drift and the feeling of ownership. Proprioceptive drift relies on visuoproprioceptive integration alone, a process that is inhibited by asynchronous stroking, the most common control condition in Rubber Hand Illusion experiments. This dissociation implies that conclusions about feelings of ownership cannot be drawn from measuring proprioceptive drift alone. PMID:21738756

  11. Ethical food standard schemes and global trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Botterill, Linda Courtenay

    2012-01-01

    Global food trade embodies a range of different interpretations of the nature of food and its role in society. On the one hand, the WTO food regulation regime, in particular the SPS agreement, is based upon a somewhat instrumental value of food consumption in which food is seen as a commodity to be...... traded in accordance with international trade rules. At the same time, a number of private standards, such as GlobalG.A.P and various organic standards, are emerging which embody broadly postmaterialist values that suggest that food purchasing and consumption are also social, ethical and perhaps even...... political activities. This paper analyses the relationship between the WTO food trade regime on the one hand and the GlobalG.A.P and organic food trade regimes on the other. We suggest that competing values can co-exist in parallel institutions and in a commensalistic relationship which protects the values...

  12. Food economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    issues and such as food security, quality, obesity and health are ever important factors. This book describes the link between food markets and food companies from a theoretical and a business economics perspective. The relationships, trends and impacts on the international food market are presented, and...

  13. Biased hand use in captive emperor tamarins (Saguinus imperator).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Katharina; Sommer, Volker

    2014-05-01

    Comparing forelimb use across primates can improve the understanding of the mechanisms and functions of brain asymmetry. We broadened the comparative framework by investigating hand use biases across spontaneous behaviors in 11 captive emperor tamarins of 2 family groups. We found a right preference across 58% of pooled unimanual bouts and 60% of all tasks. The maximum biases for a single task were 88% right-hand use and 78% left-hand use. On an individual basis, for most tasks, 6 tamarins preferred their right hand, 2 tamarins the left, and 2 animals were ambidextrous. Only a single tamarin did not switch between left and right hand bias according to task, but displayed a consistent right-hand bias. Our accompanying review of the 2 dozen previous callitrichid hand use studies confirms this picture. Across the board, these report hand preferences for single tasks. Task specialization is found in less than half of the studies, hand specialization in less than a third, whereas population level handedness is almost never reported. Importantly, right-hand use is preponderant, but very rarely consistent across tasks or subjects. This might be attributable to the fact that often-employed simple (food-reaching) tasks may not be coupled to a specialized hemisphere and therefore not constrain forelimb use. A better understanding of what causes directional forelimb use in callitrichids and other animals is currently hampered by a lack of standardized methods including measurement criteria, task difficulty, and social setting as well as a dearth of taxonomic diversity and field studies. PMID:24491176

  14. Enhanced conformational sampling method for proteins based on the TaBoo SeArch algorithm: application to the folding of a mini-protein, chignolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Ryuhei; Takano, Yu; Shigeta, Yasuteru

    2015-04-15

    The conformational samplings are indispensible for obtaining reliable canonical ensembles, which provide statistical averages of physical quantities such as free energies. However, the samplings of vast conformational space of biomacromolecules by conventional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations might be insufficient, due to their inadequate accessible time-scales for investigating biological functions. Therefore, the development of methodologies for enhancing the conformational sampling of biomacromolecules still remains as a challenging issue in computational biology. To tackle this problem, we newly propose an efficient conformational search method, which is referred as TaBoo SeArch (TBSA) algorithm. In TBSA, an inverse energy histogram is used to select seeds for the conformational resampling so that states with high frequencies are inhibited, while states with low frequencies are efficiently sampled to explore the unvisited conformational space. As a demonstration, TBSA was applied to the folding of a mini-protein, chignolin, and automatically sampled the native structure (C? root mean square deviation?

  15. Food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of irradiation in food preservation is reviewed. After an introduction of the general effects of irradiation on food, examples of low, medium and high radiation dose applications of food irradiation are given. The legislation of food irradiation is discussed including wholesomeness aspects of approvals given to countries for various foods. The technical problems of irradiation, the economy of the process and consumer acceptance as aspects of a possible commercialization are also considered. (U.K.)

  16. Food justice and Christian ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Heinrich Bedford-Strohm

    2012-01-01

    The article dealt with the moral and political problem of international food justice in which the deep contradiction between the present situation of malnourishment and starvation in large parts of the global population on the one hand and the biblical notion of the preferential option for the poor on the other hand was described. This ecumenically widely accepted notion was clarified in several aspects. How deeply this is rooted in the history of Christian social thought was shown by Martin ...

  17. Evaluation of presenting conserved foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asl Soleimani H

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Food, it's production and preserving has been one of the most important problems in human life. Limitation of production due to climatic, geographic and papulational situations and conservation due to providance and prosecting for solution of one of the most fundamental human needs, has been discussed much. Difference between the lands, temperature, humidity and rainfall on one hand and texture and accumulation of papulation on the other hand, not only has limited the amount and kind of food production but also has improved the preserving methods as much as possible. Extra production in fertile lands and confirmed need for receiving food in deserts and dry areas, makes the need of exchanging and transfer of food inevitable because of economic and ethical matters and sanitation of food. Avoidance of being contaminated and resistance against decay seems very important and vital. So process of preserving and conserving of eaw or cooked food became a fundamental problem. In previous 200 years, many advanced methods have been designed for preserving food in which the role of conserving and packing in vital often. Because of industrial production, conserved food have a great influence on sanitation of people nutrition, and herefor the rate of diseases from consumption of contaminated food has been reduced in industrial countries and the tensancy of people to use conventional food has been decreased gradually. Because of high cost of industrial conserved food production some people produce conserved foods in the way which is not hygienic. That may have a high risk when ingested. In this article we discuss about unwarranted conserved foods productions.

  18. Hand infections: a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Türker

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Hand infections are common, usually resulting from an untreated injury. In this retrospective study, we report on hand infection cases needing surgical drainage in order to assess patient demographics, causation of infection, clinical course, and clinical management. Methods. Medical records of patients presenting with hand infections, excluding post-surgical infections, treated with incision and debridement over a one-year period were reviewed. Patient demographics; past medical history; infection site(s and causation; intervals between onset of infection, hospital admission, surgical intervention and days of hospitalization; gram stains and cultures; choice of antibiotics; complications; and outcomes were reviewed. Results. Most infections were caused by laceration and the most common site of infection was the palm or dorsum of the hand. Mean length of hospitalization was 6 days. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, beta-hemolytic Streptococcus and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus were the most commonly cultured microorganisms. Cephalosporins, clindamycin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, penicillin, vancomycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole were major antibiotic choices. Amputations and contracture were the primary complications. Conclusions. Surgery along with medical management were key to treatment and most soft tissue infections resolved without further complications. With prompt and appropriate care, most hand infection patients can achieve full resolution of their infection.

  19. Hands as markers of fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Barnard

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Margaret Atwood is an internationally read, translated, and critiqued writer whose novels have established her as one of the most esteemed authors in English (McCombs & Palmer, 1991:1. Critical studies of her work deal mainly with notions of identity from psychoanalytical perspectives. This study has identified a gap in current critical studies on Atwood’s works, namely the challenging of textual unity which is paralleled in the challenging of the traditional (single narrative voice. The challenging of textual unity and the single narrative voice brings about the fragmentation of both. This article will focus on the role that hands play as markers of fragmentation in “The Blind Assassin” (2000. In the novel, the writing hand destabilises the narrative voice, since it is not connected to the voice of a single author. If the author of the text – the final signified – is eliminated, the text becomes fragmentary and open, inviting the reader to contribute to the creation of meaning. Hands play a signficant role in foregrounding the narrator’s fragmented identity, and consequently, the fragmentation of the text. We will investigate this concept in the light of Roland Barthes’ notion of the scriptor, whose hand is metaphorically severed from his or her “voice”. Instead of the text being a unified entity, it becomes unstable and it displays the absence of hierarchical textual levels. Based mainly on Barthes’ writings, this article concludes that hands foreground the narrator’s fragmented identity, which is paralleled in the fragmented text.

  20. Myelopathy hand in cervical radiculopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The so-called 'myelopathy hand', or characteristic finger paralysis, often recognized in cervical compression myelopathy, has been considered a unique manifestation of cervical myelopathy. We used our original grip and release test, a 15-second test in which finger motion is captured with a digital camera, to investigate whether cervical radiculopathy has the same characteristics as myelopathy hand. Thirty patients with pure radiculopathy, id est (i.e.), who had radiating arm pain and evidence of corresponding nerve root impingement on X-ray images or MRI scans, but did not have spinal cord compression, served as the subjects. In contrast to other radiculopathies, C7 radiculopathy was manifested by a significant reduction in the number of finger motion cycles on the affected side in comparison with the unaffected side, the same as in myelopathy hand. Uncoordinated finger motion was significantly more frequent on the affected side in C6 radiculopathy than on the unaffected side. These findings contradict the conventional notion that myelopathy hand is a unique manifestation of cervical myelopathy, but some radiculopathies manifested the same kinds of finger paralysis observed in myelopathy hand. (author)

  1. Scale-eating cichlids: from hand(ed) to mouth

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, A. Richard

    2010-01-01

    Two recent studies in BMC Biology and Evolution raise important questions about a textbook case of frequency-dependent selection in scale-eating cichlid fishes. They also suggest a fascinating new line of research testing the effects of handed behavior on morphological asymmetry.

  2. Local food:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundbo, Donna Isabella Caroline

    Recently there has been more focus on food in general and local food in particular. But what is local food? And what are the perceptions of this concept according to theory and to providers and consumers of local food? This article first summarises and compares three different theoretical...... perspectives on local food, namely experience economy, local food systems and what is termed pro-industrialism. These have differing and sometimes opposite conceptualisations and aims for the concept of local food. Using the perspective of experience economy as theoretical background, the concept of local food...... as expressed by a group of Danish providers and consumers is empirically investigated through interviews, observation and surveys. From this, qualitative and quantitative data are generated, the analysis of which shows how varied perceptions of local food are. The elements of which the perceptions...

  3. The E-flat hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, I A; Glover, L

    1988-09-01

    The disability suffered by a professional pianist because of difficulty in carrying out certain of the finger movement sequences involved in playing in the key of E flat appeared to be caused by limitation of independent flexion movements between the index and long fingers of his right hand. The range of independent movement of the fingers was considerably increased, with relief of his disability, by dividing the intertendinous connection between the extensor tendons of the two fingers on the dorsum of the hand. PMID:3241037

  4. Lionfish envenomation of the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, M R; Wells, S

    1993-05-01

    Lionfish (Pterois volitans) envenomation of the hand causes excruciating pain and occurs in three grades: (1) erythematous reaction, (2) blister formation, and (3) dermal necrosis. The initial treatment in all cases is to soak the hand in nonscalding water (45 degrees C) until the pain subsides by denaturing the thermolabile venom proteins. The blisters should be immediately excised to prevent dermal necrosis, inasmuch as the blister fluid contains residual active venom. To prevent a hypersensitivity reaction, any further contact with the fish should be avoided. PMID:8515029

  5. Bionic hand that can feel

    OpenAIRE

    Parkhomenko, Y.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Those who have lost a limb such as a hand have long had the option of using a prosthetic to restore some lost functionality. Studies have shown that as many as 50 percent of prosthetic wearers rarely use them due to appearance and poor controllability. A new breakthrough in prosthesis has delivered a bionic hand that is capable of feeling just like the organic limb it replaces. When you are citing the document, use the following link http://essuir.sumdu.edu.ua/handle/123456789/33787

  6. Hands-on chemistry learning

    OpenAIRE

    Renko, Andraž

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of hands-on approach to the quality of knowledge form topic salts. In the study 163 9th grade students from five Slovenian primary schools took part. To determine the impact of prior knowledge on the successful work with the teaching unit “From salts to salts” a pre-test was designed and conducted a week before the study. The effects of learning units on the knowledge gained from hands-on approach, were determined by scoring worksheets use...

  7. Food safety and consumer behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, Lynn; Fischer, Arnout; Scholderer, Joachim; Verbeke, Wim

    Food safety is a priority for many consumers, and there is an expectation throughout society that the food supplied for human consumption is safe and nutritious to eat. Understanding technical risk estimates alone, however, will not explain the risk-related behaviours of consumers. On the one hand......, consumers may not pay enough attention to some types of food safety issue, such as the risk of food poisoning from microbial contamination, which may at best be debilitating, and at worst fatal (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 1994). This risk is certainly largely avoidable through taking...... communities have frequently bemoaned negative consumer attitudes towards some food technologies, such as genetic engineering, while failing to consider the origins of these consumer attitudes. The behaviour of consumers in relation to food safety issues can only be properly understood if there is systematic...

  8. Population, food and knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strulik, Holger; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    2008-01-01

    population. London, printed for J. Johnson, 1798) so-called preventive check hypothesis-that fertility rates vary inversely with the price of food-the current study offers a new and straightforward explanation for the demographic transition and the break with the Malthusian era. Employing a two......-sector framework with agriculture and industry, we demonstrate how fertility responds differently to productivity and income growth, depending on whether it emerges in agriculture or industry. Agricultural productivity and income growth makes food goods, and therefore children, relatively less expensive....... Industrial productivity and income growth, on the other hand, makes food goods, and therefore children, relatively more expensive. The present framework lends support to existing unified growth theories and is well in tune with historical evidence about structural transformation....

  9. Food allergies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, Paula F G

    2012-02-03

    Adverse reactions to foods are commonly implicated in the causation of ill health. However, foreign antigens, including food proteins and commensal microbes encountered in the gastrointestinal tract, are usually well tolerated. True food allergies, implying immune-mediated adverse responses to food antigens, do exist, however, and are especially common in infants and young children. Allergic reactions to food manifest clinically in a variety of presentations involving the gastrointestinal, cutaneous, and respiratory systems and in generalized reactions such as anaphylaxis. Both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated immune mechanisms are recognized. Important advances in the clinical features underlying specific food hypersensitivity disorders are reviewed.

  10. FOOD SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Ardelean

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The assurance of food security at the individual level doesn’t implicitly provide for the one at family level as the concepts of hunger, malnutrition and food insecurity are the steps of the same process of access restricted to a sufficient supply of food. In order to achieve food security at the individual level the following is necessary: ensuring food availability (production, reserve stocks; redistribution of food availability within the country or out through international exchanges; effective access of the population to purchase food consumer goods, by ensuring its effective demand as required. Food security of families (FFS is required for assuring individual food security (IFS, but it is not sufficient because the food available may be unevenly distributed between family members. National food security (NFS corresponds to the possibilities that different countries have to ensure both FFS and IFS without sacrificing other important objectives. Under the name of GAS is defined the global food security which represents permanent access for the entire population of the globe to the necessary food for a healthy and active life.

  11. Venous lakes of the hands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following pharmacologic vasodilation, multiple vascular lakes were observed on angiograms of the hand in 55 patients. Most had no history of vascular anomalies or disease. The authors believe that these lakes are venous structures and that their filling is a physiologic phenomenon

  12. Hands-On Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear science is an important topic in terms of its application to power generation, medical diagnostics and treatment, and national defense. Unfortunately, the subatomic domain is far removed from daily experience, and few learning aids are available to teachers. What follows describes a low-tech, hands-on method to teach important concepts in…

  13. Hands-On Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear science is an important topic in terms of its application to power generation, medical diagnostics and treatment, and national defense. Unfortunately, the subatomic domain is far removed from daily experience, and few learning aids are available to teachers. What follows describes a low-tech, hands-on method to teach important concepts in…

  14. Hand-held medical robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Christopher J; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2014-08-01

    Medical robots have evolved from autonomous systems to tele-operated platforms and mechanically-grounded, cooperatively-controlled robots. Whilst these approaches have seen both commercial and clinical success, uptake of these robots remains moderate because of their high cost, large physical footprint and long setup times. More recently, researchers have moved toward developing hand-held robots that are completely ungrounded and manipulated by surgeons in free space, in a similar manner to how conventional instruments are handled. These devices provide specific functions that assist the surgeon in accomplishing tasks that are otherwise challenging with manual manipulation. Hand-held robots have the advantages of being compact and easily integrated into the normal surgical workflow since there is typically little or no setup time. Hand-held devices can also have a significantly reduced cost to healthcare providers as they do not necessitate the complex, multi degree-of-freedom linkages that grounded robots require. However, the development of such devices is faced with many technical challenges, including miniaturization, cost and sterility, control stability, inertial and gravity compensation and robust instrument tracking. This review presents the emerging technical trends in hand-held medical robots and future development opportunities for promoting their wider clinical uptake. PMID:24927713

  15. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease in Singapore Commonly Confused With Foot-and-Mouth Disease Hand, foot, and mouth disease is often ... and-Mouth Disease . Outbreaks of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Large outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth ...

  16. Why Am I Left-Handed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... does since most hitters are right-handed. In basketball and other sports, a left-handed player can ... change in strategy. For instance, a left-handed basketball player will dribble with his or her left ...

  17. MAKANAN TABU DI BANJAR JAWA BARAT

    OpenAIRE

    Dadang Sukandar

    2010-01-01

    Food taboo in Indonesia is still a problem because there  are many taboo foods.  As consequences,  pregnant mother, lactating mother and children  do not eat the taboo foods so that it can reduce their food intake and finally it can decrease their nutritional status.   Objectives of this study are  1) to identify taboo foods and 2) to identify reasons of taboo foods and  3) to improve basic nutrition knowledge through training  on food and nutrition.  Study was conducted in Banjar West Java ...

  18. Food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An outline review is presented of the current state of the art of food preservation by irradiation, general effects, applications (radappertization, sprout inhibition, disinfestation etc), legislation, commercial application of food irradiation, economics, packaging and consumer acceptance. (U.K.)

  19. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods that most often trigger ... medical alert bracelet or necklace, and carry an auto-injector device containing ... diet. NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

  20. Food Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About the Protein Foods Group Nutrients and Health Benefits Vegetarian Choices Tips for Making Wise Choices Food Gallery Dairy All About the Dairy Group Nutrients and Health Benefits Non-Dairy Sources of Calcium Tips to Making ...

  1. Food Pantries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Food banks and food pantries in the city of Boston and surrounding areas that are partially supplied with local produce. Accurate as of August 2012. Inaccurate...

  2. Food Taxes: A New Holy Grail?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignaas Devisch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to reduce the growing prevalence of overweight and obesity, food taxes have been introduced in several European countries, the so-called ‘obesitax’. As yet little evidence is at hand, policy measures are being taken to counterweight the consumption of unhealthy food or the increasing diet-related diseases. Several questions need to be discussed, starting from a general perspective: can food taxes become an appropriate and just policy measure to reduce overweight and obesity and therefore increase consumer’s health? The implementation of an effective and fair food tax is an exercise riddled with uncertainty. Not only is there a need for evidence on the health and economic impact of food taxes, we also have to think about a conceptual and ethical discussion concerning the balance between health imperatives and public health on the one hand, and social and ethical standards on the other hand.

  3. Food Taxes: A New Holy Grail?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devisch, Ignaas

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to reduce the growing prevalence of overweight and obesity, food taxes have been introduced in several European countries, the so-called ‘obesitax’. As yet little evidence is at hand, policy measures are being taken to counterweight the consumption of unhealthy food or the increasing diet-related diseases. Several questions need to be discussed, starting from a general perspective: can food taxes become an appropriate and just policy measure to reduce overweight and obesity and therefore increase consumer’s health? The implementation of an effective and fair food tax is an exercise riddled with uncertainty. Not only is there a need for evidence on the health and economic impact of food taxes, we also have to think about a conceptual and ethical discussion concerning the balance between health imperatives and public health on the one hand, and social and ethical standards on the other hand. PMID:24596843

  4. The synchronism of hand’s movement in tennis serve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DALLAS GEORGIOS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is the recording of the hands’ synchronism during serve, from the moment the ball leaves the athlete’s hand until the moment it contacts theracket .From this survey, it is observed that the time of synchronization of the first serve is on average lower than the second, and with significant statistical difference(p < .05. Moreover, the first serve’s success rate seems to be irrelevant to its time synchronization and the athletes’ ranking. Nevertheless, the correlation of time synchronization between the first and second serve is noticeably high, concluding that the athletes who are first in ranking have a personal stable and correlated time, in both first and second serves.

  5. A study on prevalence of bacteria in the hands of children and their perception on hand washing in two schools of Bangalore and Kolkata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip Kumar Ray

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contaminated hands play a major role in fecal-oral transmission of diseases. In 1847, Dr Semmelweis Ignac pointed to the link between infection and unclean hands, and demonstrated that washing hands could reduce transmission of puerperal fever (child birth fever, a dreaded disease with high mortality in those days. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to find out the extent of germs present in hand, and also the students? perception on hand washing. This was assessed by questionnaire as well as by collection of swab from hand and performing bacteriological culture in the laboratory. Results: In regard to students? perception about the dirty areas of the hands, it was observed that majority (78% felt palm was likely to be more dirty while less than 70% felt that web spaces could harbor dirt. Almost 86% reported that they washed hands before eating lunch, but only 21.3% said they always used soap while 47.3% never used it. Availability of soap all the time in the school was reported by only 18.4% students. The swabs of 61% children showed potential pathogens. The commonest of these was Staphylococcus aureus which was seen in 44% samples. Conclusion: The students? hands were contaminated before taking food. Although they washed hands before meals, they hardly used soap due to non-availability of soap. The school authority should be asked to keep soaps in the toilets for hand washing.

  6. Food jags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refusal to eat; Fear of new foods ... caregiver, it is your role to provide healthy food and drink choices. You can also help your ... mealtimes positive. Children should be allowed to choose foods based on their likes and dislikes and their ...

  7. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of food irradiation are outlined. The interaction of irradiation with matter is then discussed with special reference to the major constituents of foods. The application of chemical analysis in the evaluation of the wholesomeness of irradiated foods is summarized

  8. An automatic procedure for high-resolution earthquake locations: a case study from the TABOO near fault observatory (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valoroso, Luisa; Chiaraluce, Lauro; Di Stefano, Raffaele; Latorre, Diana; Piccinini, Davide

    2014-05-01

    The characterization of the geometry, kinematics and rheology of fault zones by seismological data depends on our capability of accurately locate the largest number of low-magnitude seismic events. To this aim, we have been working for the past three years to develop an advanced modular earthquake location procedure able to automatically retrieve high-resolution earthquakes catalogues directly from continuous waveforms data. We use seismograms recorded at about 60 seismic stations located both at surface and at depth. The network covers an area of about 80x60 km with a mean inter-station distance of 6 km. These stations are part of a Near fault Observatory (TABOO; http://taboo.rm.ingv.it/), consisting of multi-sensor stations (seismic, geodetic, geochemical and electromagnetic). This permanent scientific infrastructure managed by the INGV is devoted to studying the earthquakes preparatory phase and the fast/slow (i.e., seismic/aseismic) deformation process active along the Alto Tiberina fault (ATF) located in the northern Apennines (Italy). The ATF is potentially one of the rare worldwide examples of active low-angle (< 15°) normal fault accommodating crustal extension and characterized by a regular occurrence of micro-earthquakes. The modular procedure combines: i) a sensitive detection algorithm optimized to declare low-magnitude events; ii) an accurate picking procedure that provides consistently weighted P- and S-wave arrival times, P-wave first motion polarities and the maximum waveform amplitude for local magnitude calculation; iii) both linearized iterative and non-linear global-search earthquake location algorithms to compute accurate absolute locations of single-events in a 3D geological model (see Latorre et al. same session); iv) cross-correlation and double-difference location methods to compute high-resolution relative event locations. This procedure is now running off-line with a delay of 1 week to the real-time. We are now implementing this procedure to obtain high-resolution double-difference earthquake locations in real-time (DDRT). We show locations of ~30k low-magnitude earthquakes recorded during the past 4 years (2010-2013) of network operation, reaching a completeness magnitude of the catalogue of 0.2. The spatiotemporal seismicity distribution has an almost constant and high rate of r = 24.30e-04 eqks/day*km2, interrupted by low to moderate magnitude seismic sequences such as the 2010 Pietralunga sequence (M L 3.8) and the still ongoing 2013 Gubbio sequence (M L 4.0 on 22nd December 2013). Low-magnitude seismicity images the fine scale geometry of the ATF: an E-dipping plane at low angle (15°) from 4 km down to ~15 km of depth. While in the ATF hanging-wall we observe the activation of high-angle minor synthetic and antithetic normal faults (4-5 km long) confined at depth by the detachment. Both seismic sequences activated up to now only these high-angle fault segments.

  9. The effect of rising food prices on food consumption: systematic review with meta-regression

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Rosemary; Cornelsen, Laura; Dangour, Alan D.; Turner, Rachel; Shankar, Bhavani; Mazzocchi, Mario; Richard D Smith

    2013-01-01

    Objective To quantify the relation between food prices and the demand for food with specific reference to national and household income levels. Design Systematic review with meta-regression. Data sources Online databases of peer reviewed and grey literature (ISI Web of Science, EconLit, PubMed, Medline, AgEcon, Agricola, Google, Google Scholar, IdeasREPEC, Eldis, USAID, United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, World Bank, International Food Policy Research Institute), hand searched r...

  10. High Pressure Treatment in Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Fabian Torres Bello

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available High hydrostatic pressure (HHP, a non-thermal technology, which typically uses water as a pressure transfer medium, is characterized by a minimal impact on food characteristics (sensory, nutritional, and functional. Today, this technology, present in many food companies, can effectively inactivate bacterial cells and many enzymes. All this makes HHP very attractive, with very good acceptance by consumers, who value the organoleptic characteristics of products processed by this non-thermal food preservation technology because they associate these products with fresh-like. On the other hand, this technology reduces the need for non-natural synthetic additives of low consumer acceptance.

  11. HACCP, food quality, food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper summarizes the principles and purposes of the ''Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points'' (HACCP) system and its application and implementation within the European Union for the purposes of food quality and safety control, including food irradiation. (orig./CB)

  12. Food safety and consumer behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, Lynn; Fischer, Arnout

    2005-01-01

    Food safety is a priority for many consumers, and there is an expectation throughout society that the food supplied for human consumption is safe and nutritious to eat. Understanding technical risk estimates alone, however, will not explain the risk-related behaviours of consumers. On the one hand, consumers may not pay enough attention to some types of food safety issue, such as the risk of food poisoning from microbial contamination, which may at best be debilitating, and at worst fatal (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 1994). This risk is certainly largely avoidable through taking appropriate risk mitigation measures through the food chain, not least in the domestic kitchen. However, factors related to consumer psychology may increase the risks to consumers as they produce barriers to self-protective behaviours (Frewer & Fischer, in press; Worsfold & Griffith, 1997). In contrast, public perceptions and attitudes about emerging bio-sciences and other new technologies applied to food production areamong the most important factors determining the likelihood of the successful development and implementation of agri-food technology technologies (Frewer et al., 2004). Scientific communities have frequently bemoaned negative consumer attitudes towards some food technologies, such as genetic engineering, while failing to consider the origins of these consumer attitudes. The behaviour of consumers in relation to food safety issues can only be properly understood if there is systematic understanding of the way in which consumers perceive risks, and how these relate to an effective food safety and technology commercialisation policy.

  13. Regional food culture and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L; Lee, Meei-Shyuan

    2007-01-01

    Food culture is most influenced by the locality of its origin, which will have been one of food acquisition and processing by various means. It is generally agreed, and is the basis of much United Nations, especially Food and Agriculture Organisation strategic development policy, that successful agriculture, horticulture and aquaculture along with fishing, underpin economically viable and healthy communities with their various food cultures. We also know that this must be in tandem with maternal literacy and operational health care systems. These elements are best represented on a regional basis. There is a growing consumer interest in knowing where one's food comes from as a measure of "food integrity". However, food production alone can be a precarious business and relate to a lesser or greater extent to local food culture and to trade, which may be complementary or at-odds with each other. Likewise, the local food culture may have its strengths and weaknesses as far as its ability to meet nutritional and health needs is concerned. Local food production may be restricted because of geographical or socio-economic conditions which preclude food diversity, although this may be compensated for by trade. Where food adequacy and diversity is compromised, and soils poor, various macronutrient, micronutrient (from animals and plants) and phytonutrient (nutritionally-advantageous food component from plants) deficiencies may be in evidence. These food system problems may be intertwined with food culture--for example, "rice-based and water-soluble vitamin poor"; "few animal-derived foods like meat, fish, eggs and milk with associated low calcium, vitamin D, Vitamin B12 and long chain n-3 fatty acid intakes"; "low fruit and vegetable intake with limited carotenoids and other phytonutrients". Geo-satellite surveillance and mapping as identifying such "hot spots": for regional food problems, as well as hot spots where most of the world's biodiversity is found (1.4 % of land on earth). On the other hand, regional food culture can confer considerable advantage for health and economic development, but does not necessarily do so. The challenge is to respect and retain traditional food knowledge and sustainable food systems, with good governance for food security. There has been a recent awakening of interest and concern about the lack of documentation of traditional and indigenous food cultures which are important not only for their own sake, but for the legacy of food knowledge which they can confer on future generations, provided they are not lost. Hence, the value of a special focus on African food cultures (www.healthyeatingclub.org/Africa), including Rift and Nile Valleys and North West African foods, which are the cradles of human food systems and habits. This is the case too with indigenous foods and food cultures (whether hunter-gatherer or subsistence agriculture); with relatively long-living food cultures in North East Asia, with food cultural distinction and fusion (FHILL and SENECA studies) and with migratory Food Habits. By and large, there is a remarkable resilience and ingenuity of people and their food systems, but monoculture and lack of diversity encourage food system failure. PMID:17392068

  14. Robot Hand Grips Cylinders Securely

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parma, George F.

    1989-01-01

    Jaws and linkage accommodate various sizes. Robot hand includes two pairs of parallel jaws that grasp rods, pipes, tubes, struts, and other long, heavy cylindrical objects. Hand features compact rotary drive and butterfly configuration simplifying approach and gripping maneuvers of robot. Parallelogram linkages maintain alignment of each jaw with other jaws. One bar of each linkage connected to one of two concentric, counterrotating shafts; rotation of shafts moves jaws in each pair toward or away from each other to grasp or release workpiece. Each jaw includes rigid gripping pad lined with rubber to give firm grip and to prevent damage to workpiece. Inner cylindrical surface (corner) of each jaw tapers off to flat sides. Enables jaw to grasp workpieces with diameters larger than or equal to twice the corner radius.

  15. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation has been the subject of concern and controversy for many years. The advantages of food irradiation include the reduction or elimination of dangerous bacterial organisms, the control of pests and insects which destroy certain foods, the extension of the shelf-life of many products, for example fruit, and its ability to treat products such as seafood which may be eaten raw. It can also replace existing methods of treatment which are believed to have hazardous side-effects. However, after examining the evidence produced by the proponents of food irradiation, the author questions whether it has any major contribution to make to the problems of foodborne diseases or world food shortages. More acceptable solutions, he suggests, may be found in educating food handlers to ensure that hygienic conditions prevail in the production, storage and serving of food. (author)

  16. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food can be provided with extra beneficial properties by physical processing. These benefits include a reduced possibility of food poisoning, or an increased life of the food. We are familiar with pasteurisation of milk, drying of vegetables, and canning of fruit. These physical processes work because the food absorbs energy during treatment which brings about the changes needed. The energy absorbed in these examples is heat energy. Food irradiation is a less familiar process. It produces similar benefits to other processes and it can sometimes be applied with additional advantages over conventional processing. For example, because irradiation causes little heating, foods may look and taste more natural. Also, treatment can take place with the food in its final plastic wrappers, reducing the risk of re-contamination. (author). 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab

  17. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation is a promising technology in which food products are exposed to a controlled amount of radiant energy to eliminate disease-causing bacteria. The process can also control parasites and insects, reduce spoilage and inhibit ripening and sprouting. Food irradiation is endorsed by the most important health organisations (WHO, CDC, USDA, FDA, EFSA, etc.) and allowed in nearly 40 Countries. It is to remember that irradiation is not a substitute either for comprehensive food safety programs or for good food-handling practices. Irradiated foods must be labelled with either the statement treated with radiation or treated by irradiation and the international symbol for irradiation, the radura. Some consumer associations suppose negative aspects of irradiation, such as increase of the number of free radicals in food and decrease of antioxidant vitamins that neutralize them

  18. Hand kinematics of piano playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Shinichi; Flanders, Martha; Soechting, John F

    2011-12-01

    Dexterous use of the hand represents a sophisticated sensorimotor function. In behaviors such as playing the piano, it can involve strong temporal and spatial constraints. The purpose of this study was to determine fundamental patterns of covariation of motion across joints and digits of the human hand. Joint motion was recorded while 5 expert pianists played 30 excerpts from musical pieces, which featured ?50 different tone sequences and fingering. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis using an expectation-maximization algorithm revealed that joint velocities could be categorized into several patterns, which help to simplify the description of the movements of the multiple degrees of freedom of the hand. For the thumb keystroke, two distinct patterns of joint movement covariation emerged and they depended on the spatiotemporal patterns of the task. For example, the thumb-under maneuver was clearly separated into two clusters based on the direction of hand translation along the keyboard. While the pattern of the thumb joint velocities differed between these clusters, the motions at the metacarpo-phalangeal and proximal-phalangeal joints of the four fingers were more consistent. For a keystroke executed with one of the fingers, there were three distinct patterns of joint rotations, across which motion at the striking finger was fairly consistent, but motion of the other fingers was more variable. Furthermore, the amount of movement spillover of the striking finger to the adjacent fingers was small irrespective of the finger used for the keystroke. These findings describe an unparalleled amount of independent motion of the fingers. PMID:21880938

  19. The hands of the dancer

    OpenAIRE

    Abtan, Freida

    2008-01-01

    'The hands of the dancer" is a 21 minute HD sound and video piece that focuses on the temporal experience of audiovisual composition and takes lucid dreaming as inspiration. It was created by Freida Abtan with footage of Andrea Fryett, Olivia Li, and David Drury. The video explores the multiple ways that movement and form can be abstracted through surface and temporal manipulation. The narrative evokes a dreamscape in which characters exchange identity and develop through physical transf...

  20. 16 CFR 23.3 - Misuse of the terms “hand-made,” “hand-polished,” etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., that any industry product is hand-made or hand-wrought unless the entire shaping and forming of such... bulk sheet, strip, wire, and similar items that have not been cut, shaped, or formed into jewelry parts..., that any industry product is hand-forged, hand-engraved, hand-finished, or hand-polished, or has...

  1. Hand dominance in orthopaedic surgeons.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lui, Darren F

    2012-08-01

    Handedness is perhaps the most studied human asymmetry. Laterality is the preference shown for one side and it has been studied in many aspects of medicine. Studies have shown that some orthopaedic procedures had poorer outcomes and identified laterality as a contributing factor. We developed a questionnaire to assess laterality in orthopaedic surgery and compared this to an established scoring system. Sixty-two orthopaedic surgeons surveyed with the validated Waterloo Handedness Questionnaire (WHQ) were compared with the self developed Orthopaedic Handedness Questionnaire (OHQ). Fifty-eight were found to be right hand dominant (RHD) and 4 left hand dominant (LHD). In RHD surgeons, the average WHQ score was 44.9% and OHQ 15%. For LHD surgeons the WHQ score was 30.2% and OHQ 9.4%. This represents a significant amount of time using the non dominant hand but does not necessarily determine satisfactory or successful dexterity transferable to the operating room. Training may be required for the non dominant side.

  2. Junk Food and Body Mass Index

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... no association between intake of junk food and body mass index. There was no significant difference in consumption of fast food, soft drinks or desserts between overweight and healthy weight individuals. On the other hand, fruit and vegetable ...

  3. Future Perspectives for Hand Transplant in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, M. J.; Masoumi, M.; Esfandiari, E.

    2011-01-01

    Hand transplant program is a communion of physicians and researchers during the current decade. 72 hands and digits were transplanted in 53 patients over the past 13 years. Unlike a solid organ transplant, hand transplantation involves various tissues, so it is called “composite tissue allotransplantation.” This article discusses the plans for performing the first hand transplant in Iran. PMID:25013615

  4. Future Perspectives for Hand Transplant in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Fatemi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Hand transplant program is a communion of physicians and researchers during the current de¬cade. 72 hands and digits were transplanted in 53 patients over the past 13 years. Unlike a solid organ transplant, hand transplantation involves various tissues, so it is called “composite tissue allotransplantation.” This article discusses the plans for performing the first hand transplant in Iran.

  5. Using Olfaction and Unpleasant Reminders to Reduce the Intention-behavior Gap in Hand Washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Robert; Crandall, Philip G; Seo, Han-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Lack of hand washing is a leading cause of food borne illnesses. To successfully increase hand hygiene compliance, interventions must have continual engagement with employees. This study used a real-time prospective memory (PM) scenario to measure the effectiveness of a control and sensory reminders of disgust to influence hand washing behavior and performance. First, a model of hand washing performance was built by having six participants' hands contaminated with GermGlo (a florescent micro-particle) and then washed their hands using predetermined protocols while monitored by an electronic hand hygiene verification (HHV) system. Next, eighty Hispanic/Latino participants, in a between-group experimental design, performed a PM experiment while one of four reminders were present (hand washing poster, disgusting image, disgusting sound, and disgusting odor) as the HHV recorded their hand washing performance. Visual cues, typical of hand washing campaigns, were not as effective at increasing hand hygiene compliance as disgust-induced sensory cues. Furthermore, olfactory disgust showed a significantly higher probability that individuals would engage in hand washing behaviors than all other conditions. This study provides new insight into the effectiveness of different senses and emotion to reduce the intention-behavior gap associated with modifying behaviors, and broadens current PM research to a real-time application. PMID:26732033

  6. Safer food means food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article the author presents the sanitary advantages that are brought by food irradiation. OMS experts state that this technique is safe and harmless for any average global dose between 10 KGy and 100 KGy. Whenever a seminar is held on the topic, it is always concluded that food irradiation should be promoted and favoured. In France food irradiation is authorized for some kinds of products and exceptionally above a 10 KGy dose. Historically food irradiation has been hampered in its development by its classification by American Authorities as food additives in 1958 (Delanay clause). The author draws a parallel between food irradiation and pasteurization or food deep-freezing in their beginnings. (A.C.)

  7. Ethical food standard schemes and global trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Botterill, Linda Courtenay

    2012-01-01

    Global food trade embodies a range of different interpretations of the nature of food and its role in society. On the one hand, the WTO food regulation regime, in particular the SPS agreement, is based upon a somewhat instrumental value of food consumption in which food is seen as a commodity to be traded in accordance with international trade rules. At the same time, a number of private standards, such as GlobalG.A.P and various organic standards, are emerging which embody broadly postmateriali...

  8. Establishing hand preference: why does it matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Adamo, Diane E.; Taufiq, Anam

    2011-01-01

    Hand preference has been associated with psychological and physical well-being, risk of injury, pathological irregularities, longevity, and cognitive function. To determine hand preference, individuals are often asked what hand they use to write with, or what hand is used more frequently in activities of daily living. However, relying only on one source of information may be misleading, given the strong evidence to support a disassociation between self-reported hand preference and outcomes of...

  9. Mental rotation of congenitally absent hands

    OpenAIRE

    Funk, M.; Brugger, P

    2008-01-01

    We compared motor imagery performance of normally limbed individuals with that of individuals with one or both hands missing since birth (i.e., hand amelia). To this aim, 14 unilaterally and 2 bilaterally amelic participants performed a task requiring the classification of hands depicted in different degrees of rotation as either a left or a right hand. On the same task, 24 normally limbed participants recapitulated previously reported effects; that is, that the hand motor dominance and, more...

  10. Food labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsøe Sørensen, Henrik; Clement, Jesper; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    The food industry develops tasty and healthy food but fails to deliver the message to all consumers. The consumers’ background knowledge is essential for how they find and decode relevant elements in the cocktail of signs which fight for attention on food labels. In this exploratory study, we find...... evidence for dividing consumers into two profiles: one relying on general food knowledge and another using knowledge related to signpost labels. In a combined eyetracking and questionnaire survey we analyse the influence of background knowledge and identify different patterns of visual attention for the...... two consumer profiles. This underlines the complexity in choosing and designing the ‘right’ elements for a food package that consumers actually look at and are able to make rational use of. In spite of any regulation of food information provided by authorities, consumers will still be confronted with...

  11. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food preservation by irradiation is one part of Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace program that is enjoying renewed interest. Classified as a food additive by the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1958 instead of a processing technique, irradiation lost public acceptance. Experiments have not been done to prove that there are no health hazards from gamma radiation, but there are new pressures to get Food and Drug Administration approval for testing in order to make commercial use of some radioactive wastes. Irradiation causes chemical reactions and nutritional changes, including the destruction of several vitamins, as well as the production of radiolytic products not normally found in food that could have adverse effects. The author concludes that, lacking epidemiological evidence, willing buyers should be able to purchase irradiated food as long as it is properly labeled

  12. Food labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsøe Sørensen, Henrik; Clement, Jesper; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    The food industry develops tasty and healthy food but fails to deliver the message to all consumers. The consumers’ background knowledge is essential for how they find and decode relevant elements in the cocktail of signs which fight for attention on food labels. In this exploratory study, we find...... evidence for dividing consumers into two profiles: one relying on general food knowledge and another using knowledge related to signpost labels. In a combined eyetracking and questionnaire survey we analyse the influence of background knowledge and identify different patterns of visual attention for the...... two consumer profiles. This underlines the complexity in choosing and designing the ‘right’ elements for a food package that consumers actually look at and are able to make rational use of. In spite of any regulation of food information provided by authorities, consumers will still be confronted with...

  13. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation has become a matter of topical interest also in the Federal Republic of Germany following applications for exemptions concerning irradiation tests of spices. After risks to human health by irradiation doses up to a level sufficient for product pasteurization were excluded, irradiation now offers a method suitable primarily for the disinfestation of fruit and decontamination of frozen and dried food. Codex Alimentarius standards which refer also to supervision and dosimetry have been established; they should be adopted as national law. However, in the majority of cases where individual countries including EC member-countries so far permitted food irradiation, these standards were not yet used. Approved irradiation technique for industrial use is available. Several industrial food irradiation plants, partly working also on a contractual basis, are already in operation in various countries. Consumer response still is largely unknown; since irradiated food is labelled, consumption of irradiated food will be decided upon by consumers. (orig.)

  14. Food taxes, a new holy grail?

    OpenAIRE

    Ignaas Devisch

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to reduce the growing prevalence of overweight and obesity, food taxes have been introduced in several European countries, the so-called ‘obesitax’. As yet little evidence is at hand, policy measures are being taken to counterweight the consumption of unhealthy food or the increasing diet-related diseases. Several questions need to be discussed, starting from a general perspective: can food taxes become an appropriate and just policy measure to reduce overweight and obesity and t...

  15. Public health aspects of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author debates public health aspects of food irradiation. The effect of food irradiation as a convenience to the consumer is discussed, i.e. the prevention of food deterioration and also the prevention of disease that could be passed on to the consumer by ingestion. On the other hand, the effects that could possibly be created by the application of radiation are also evaluated using toxicological and microbiological considerations. (Auth.)

  16. Observation of nanoaerosol release from a hand dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consumer exposure is one of exposures in the life cycle perspective to risk assessment. Many nanoproducts have been commercialized in the fields of health, electronics, home, food etc. Hand dryers are widely used at public rest rooms. In this study, we selected the hand dryer having a filter coated with silver nanoparticles as a popular electronic nanoproduct. A test chamber system was developed to detect nanoaerosols released from the test nanoproduct during the operation. The particle number concentration of the chamber background was confirmed to be 3 by using a condensation particle counter with a detection limit of 10 nm. When the hand dryer was turn on for 1 min, the particle number concentration in the chamber was almost linearly increased up to the peak concentration (3). It was slowly decreased after the hand dryer was turn off. When the operation was extended to 10 min, similar release pattern of nanoaerosols was observed. Therefore, it was concluded that the nanoaerosols was emitted from the hand dryer during the operation. However, the amount of released nanoaerosols was negligible, compared to indoor nanoaerosol concentration (?10,000 particles/cm3). Also, the released nanoaerosols could not be analyzed by filter sampling due to small quantity of mass.

  17. Smart Sensors for Smart Hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejczy, A. K.

    1978-01-01

    Proximity, force-torque, touch and slippage sensors developed or applied by the JPL Teleoperator Project for remote manipulator control are described, including sensor data handling by computers for display and control. Examples are quoted showing the significance of these sensors for manual or computer control of manipulators. An interesting example is a proximity sensor system implemented for a four-claw JSC end effector and tested at the Shuttle Manipulator Training Facility of JSC. New sensing concepts aimed at simplifying the implementation of 'Smart Sensors for Smart Hands' in the space environment are discussed.

  18. Hand protection from ultraviolet exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khazova, M.; O' Hagan, J.B. [Health Protection Agency, Radiation Protection Division, Chilton, Did cot (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: A number of industrial applications and public services involve exposure to ultraviolet radiation (U.V.R.) from a variety of lamps and lasers, for example, in forensic examination, biological trans-illuminators, dentistry, laser material processing, microelectronics, etc. The proposed European Union Directive on Optical Radiation would place specific requirements on employers to provide adequate safety measures to reduce exposure to U.V.R., including gloves for hand protection. The selection of gloves should be based on a risk assessment and on the performance characteristics of the gloves for the task. However, current International and national standards do not describe evaluation procedures of disposable gloves for hand protection against non-ionising radiation. A methodology for assessment of the UV protection level for disposable gloves and a simple measurement protocol are proposed, based on a common approach with UV protection by clothing and sunscreens. Glove Ultraviolet Protection Factor is defined as a time-scale increase in exposure permitted for the hand protected by a glove with respect to an unprotected hand. However, the wide variety of U.V.R. sources and the real-life conditions of glove use (stretching and wetting the surface by liquids) bring substantial challenges to the assessment method. Our study of {approx} 50 samples of widely used disposable gloves made of different materials (nitrile, vinyl, latex and chloroprene) showed that for all tested gloves a change in U.V.R. attenuation with stretching is characteristic for the type of glove material and can be included as a scaling factor in the definition of U.V.R. protection. Glove material has a bigger effect on U.V.R. protection level than variations in the glove thickness or its colour. The following approaches are suggested to overcome the problem of variable U.V.R. sources: - Worst case scenario minimal protection level, most restrictive case - Application specific UV protection factor - Lamp-type specific protection factor, for group of U.V.R. sources with similar spectral characteristics. Examples of assessment of the 'worst case scenario' are compared with the protection level against a number of the sources, together with guidance on a simplified evaluation protocol. An application specific assessment, illustrated for 'Smart Water' forensic examinations and biological trans-illuminators, demonstrates that some gloves provide inadequate protection against occupational ultraviolet exposure. (authors)

  19. Helping Hands: Enabling the Disabled

    OpenAIRE

    Prof: Nihar M. Ranjan; Rahul Pardeshi; Piyush Bhattad; Pavan Shah; Nirav Shah

    2013-01-01

    A major community in the world population is of physically handicapped and blind people. These people cannot access the computers due to their disabilities. There is a need of some technology which allows these people to get access of the mouse and keyboard without using hands and eyes. This paper gives us the brief introduction of a technology which is intended to help handicapped in getting access of the basic technologies.This technology uses the head mouse technology by which the real tim...

  20. Hand protection from ultraviolet exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: A number of industrial applications and public services involve exposure to ultraviolet radiation (U.V.R.) from a variety of lamps and lasers, for example, in forensic examination, biological trans-illuminators, dentistry, laser material processing, microelectronics, etc. The proposed European Union Directive on Optical Radiation would place specific requirements on employers to provide adequate safety measures to reduce exposure to U.V.R., including gloves for hand protection. The selection of gloves should be based on a risk assessment and on the performance characteristics of the gloves for the task. However, current International and national standards do not describe evaluation procedures of disposable gloves for hand protection against non-ionising radiation. A methodology for assessment of the UV protection level for disposable gloves and a simple measurement protocol are proposed, based on a common approach with UV protection by clothing and sunscreens. Glove Ultraviolet Protection Factor is defined as a time-scale increase in exposure permitted for the hand protected by a glove with respect to an unprotected hand. However, the wide variety of U.V.R. sources and the real-life conditions of glove use (stretching and wetting the surface by liquids) bring substantial challenges to the assessment method. Our study of ? 50 samples of widely used disposable gloves made of different materials (nitrile, vinyl, latex and chloroprene) showed that for all tested gloves a change in U.V.R. attenuation with stretching is characteristic for the type of glove material and can be included as a scaling factor in the definition of U.V.R. protection. Glove material has a bigger effect on U.V.R. protection level than variations in the glove thickness or its colour. The following approaches are suggested to overcome the problem of variable U.V.R. sources: - Worst case scenario minimal protection level, most restrictive case - Application specific UV protection factor - Lamp-type specific protection factor, for group of U.V.R. sources with similar spectral characteristics. Examples of assessment of the 'worst case scenario' are compared with the protection level against a number of the sources, together with guidance on a simplified evaluation protocol. An application specific assessment, illustrated for 'Smart Water' forensic examinations and biological trans-illuminators, demonstrates that some gloves provide inadequate protection against occupational ultraviolet exposure. (authors)

  1. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advantages and disadvantages of food irradiation are discussed. Research into food irradiation has been going on for 40 years, yet studies have yet to demonstrate conclusively whether it is safe or harmful. The Australian House of Representatives has established an inquiry into food irradiation conducted by the Standing Committee on Environment and Conservation. It will inquire into the use of ionising radiation for commercial sterilisation, disinfestation, food preservation and other purposes with particular reference to human health and safety, environmental impacts and the adequacy of assessment and regulatory procedures

  2. Quantifying the effect of hand wash duration, soap use, ground beef debris, and drying methods on the removal of Enterobacter aerogenes on hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Dane A; Danyluk, Michelle D; Harris, Linda J; Schaffner, Donald W

    2015-04-01

    Hand washing is recognized as a crucial step in preventing foodborne disease transmission by mitigating crosscontamination among hands, surfaces, and foods. This research was undertaken to establish the importance of several keys factors (soap, soil, time, and drying method) in reducing microorganisms during hand washing. A nonpathogenic nalidixic acid-resistant Enterobacter aerogenes surrogate for Salmonella was used to assess the efficacy of using soap or no soap for 5 or 20 s on hands with or without ground beef debris and drying with paper towel or air. Each experiment consisted of 20 replicates, each from a different individual with ? 6 log CFU/ml E. aerogenes on their hands. A reduction of 1.0 ± 0.4 and 1.7 ± 0.8 log CFU of E. aerogenes was observed for a 5-s wash with no soap and a 20-s wash with soap, respectively. When there was no debris on the hands, there was no significant difference between washing with and without soap for 20 s (P > 0.05). Likewise, there was no significant difference in the reductions achieved when washing without soap, whether or not debris was on the hands (P > 0.05). A significantly greater reduction (P soap when there was ground beef debris on the hands. The greatest difference (1.1 log CFU greater average reduction) in effectiveness occurred when ground beef debris was on the hands and a 20-s wash with water was compared with a 20-s wash with soap. Significantly greater (P 4.0 log CFU per towel) when hands are highly contaminated. Our results support future quantitative microbial risk assessments needed to effectively manage risks of foodborne illness in which food workers' hands are a primary cause. PMID:25836392

  3. Golf Injuries to the Hand, Wrist, or Elbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Hand Therapy Wrist Arthroscopy Hand Surgery Anesthesia Steroid Injections See More... Hand and Arm Injuries Wrist Fracture ... Treatment Hand Therapy Wrist Arthroscopy Hand Surgery Anesthesia Steroid Injections See More... Hand and Arm Injuries Wrist Fracture ...

  4. Hand images: normal and abnormal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supplemental hand scintigrams with abnormal features were obtained from 29% of patients (134 of 463) who were referred for routine, minified bone imaging with /sup 99m/Tc-Sn-polyphosphate. A wide spectrum of normal activity distribution ranging from well-defined to ''wash-out'' images is described in 329 cases (71%). In the abnormal images of the joints and individual bones, the changes, although not always characteristic of some particular disease, may often suggest a diagnosis and/or its pathophysiologic status. The joints with heavy uptake correlate well with the presence of active clinical findings, e.g., in the arthritides. The bone features associated with metabolic disease, especially when full-blown, may be fairly characteristic. A potential application is in the assessment of digital circulation, particularly in obliterative vascular diseases such as scleroderma, Buerger's disease, chronic neuropathies, and possibly other collagen or vascular diseases that involve the hands. Interesting images, probably of somewhat limited usefulness, are observed in some congenital anomalies, fractures, camptodactyly, contracture deformities, unilateral lymphedema after mastectomy, etc

  5. Factitious Lymphedema of the Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sina Ahmadi Abhari

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report the case of a 39- year old unmarried female with factitious edema of the right hand two weeks after being struck by her brother and following self injury of the right arm. Method: A 39-year old unmarried female with severe edema of the right hand and forearm diagnosed as factitious lymphedema was admitted to Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital. After hospitalization, with elevation of affected limb, the edema had lessened. Thereafter, she was observed at ward rounds with a cloth bandage wrapped around her arm. The edema had recurred. Physical Examination as well as right upper extremity X ray was normal. In mental state examination, patient's mood was dysphonic, rather anxious, and denied tourniquet application; otherwise no prominent psychiatric symptoms were detected. Patient underwent psychotherapy and 20 my fluoxetetine on daily basis was administered. Results: Patient's symptoms relieved within eight weeks and discharged while accepted to adjust herself with the situations. Conclusion: Factitious etiology may be presuming in any patient with unilateral limb lymphedema when venous or lymphatic Pathology were missing. The patient may be suffering from emotional conflicts.

  6. Steam generator hand hole shielding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, W E

    2000-05-01

    Seabrook Station is an 1198 MWE Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) that began commercial operation in 1990. Expensive and dose intensive Steam Generator Replacement Projects among PWR operators have led to an increase in steam generator preventative maintenance. Most of this preventative maintenance is performed through access ports in the shell of the steam generator just above the tube sheet known as secondary side hand holes. Secondary side work activities performed through the hand holes are typically performed without the shielding benefit of water in the secondary side of the steam generator. An increase in cleaning and inspection work scope has led to an increase in dose attributed to steam generator secondary side maintenance. This increased work scope and the station goal of maintaining personnel radiation dose ALARA led to the development of the shielding concept described in this article. This shield design saved an estimated 2.5 person-rem (25 person-Smv) the first time it was deployed and is expected to save an additional 50 person-rem (500 person-mSv) over the remaining life of the plant. PMID:10770158

  7. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and The World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19 MeV, 1 kW) and industrial unit Electronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for irradiation for; spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables. (author)

  8. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with EoE have a family history of allergic disorders such as asthma, rhinitis, dermatitis or food allergy. Keep pace with the latest information and connect with others. Join us on Facebook and Twitter . Play our Food Allergy Bubble Game ...

  9. Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs ... bowls all the way to the top; when food is frozen, it expands. Leave a little extra space — about ½ ... — you can heat up or defrost stuff in an instant. Before touching that power button, be sure you ...

  10. Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you're buying packaged foods, but what about restaurants, coffee shops, ice cream parlors, and other eateries? If you have a food allergy, you'll need to let the people serving you know about it. Most of the time, ...

  11. Food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pamphlet contains short descriptions of many methods of preserving foods with emphasis on irradiation and its possible consequences. The views of the Federation of Danish Industries with regard to questions considered worthy of debate in relation to irradiation of food are presented. Information is directed at the general danish public. (AB)

  12. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Processing of food with low levels of radiation has the potential to contribute to reducing both spoilage of food during storage - a particular problem in developing countries - and the high incidence of food-borne disease currently seen in all countries. Approval has been granted for the treatment of more than 30 products with radiation in over 30 countries but, in general, governments have been slow to authorize the use of this new technique. One reason for this slowness is a lack of understanding of what food irradiation entails. This book aims to increase understanding by providing information on the process of food irradiation in simple, non-technical language. It describes the effects that irradiation has on food, and the plant and equipment that are necessary to carry it out safely. The legislation and control mechanisms required to ensure the safety of food irradiation facilities are also discussed. Education is seen as the key to gaining the confidence of the consumers in the safety of irradiated food, and to promoting understanding of the benefits that irradiation can provide. (orig.) With 4 figs., 1 tab

  13. SaniTwice: a novel approach to hand hygiene for reducing bacterial contamination on hands when soap and water are unavailable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Sarah L; Mann, James; McCormack, Robert R; Macinga, David R; Fricker, Christopher M; Arbogast, James W; Dolan, Michael J

    2010-12-01

    The risk of inadequate hand hygiene in food handling settings is exacerbated when water is limited or unavailable, thereby making washing with soap and water difficult. The SaniTwice method involves application of excess alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS), hand "washing" for 15 s, and thorough cleaning with paper towels while hands are still wet, followed by a standard application of ABHS. This study investigated the effectiveness of the SaniTwice methodology as an alternative to hand washing for cleaning and removal of microorganisms. On hands moderately soiled with beef broth containing Escherichia coli (ATCC 11229), washing with a nonantimicrobial hand washing product achieved a 2.86 (±0.64)-log reduction in microbial contamination compared with the baseline, whereas the SaniTwice method with 62 % ethanol (EtOH) gel, 62 % EtOH foam, and 70 % EtOH advanced formula gel achieved reductions of 2.64 ± 0.89, 3.64 ± 0.57, and 4.61 ± 0.33 log units, respectively. When hands were heavily soiled from handling raw hamburger containing E. coli, washing with nonantimicrobial hand washing product and antimicrobial hand washing product achieved reductions of 2.65 ± 0.33 and 2.69 ± 0.32 log units, respectively, whereas SaniTwice with 62 % EtOH foam, 70 % EtOH gel, and 70 % EtOH advanced formula gel achieved reductions of 2.87 ± 0.42, 2.99 ± 0.51, and 3.92 ± 0.65 log units, respectively. These results clearly demonstrate that the in vivo antibacterial efficacy of the SaniTwice regimen with various ABHS is equivalent to or exceeds that of the standard hand washing approach as specified in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Code. Implementation of the SaniTwice regimen in food handling settings with limited water availability should significantly reduce the risk of foodborne infections resulting from inadequate hand hygiene. PMID:21219752

  14. Rubber Hand Illusion Affects Joint Angle Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Butz, Martin V.; Kutter, Esther F.; Lorenz, Corinna

    2014-01-01

    The Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI) is a well-established experimental paradigm. It has been shown that the RHI can affect hand location estimates, arm and hand motion towards goals, the subjective visual appearance of the own hand, and the feeling of body ownership. Several studies also indicate that the peri-hand space is partially remapped around the rubber hand. Nonetheless, the question remains if and to what extent the RHI can affect the perception of other body parts. In this study we ask i...

  15. A Squeeze of the Hand

    OpenAIRE

    Jon Cotner; Andy Fitch

    2012-01-01

    My colleague Andy Fitch and I recorded forty-five-minute dialogues for thirty straight days around New York City. Half these talks took place at a Union Square health-food store that we call “W.F.” Other locations included MoMA, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Metropolitan Opera House, Central Park, Prospect Park, and a Tribeca parking garage. What follows is our twentieth conversation. Here sickness, emptiness, a train delay, and an argument seem to prefigure disaster and the project’s s...

  16. Food porn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Anne E

    2010-01-01

    Since the term first appeared, food porn has typically referred to watching others cook on television or gazing at unattainable dishes in glossy magazines without actually cooking oneself. This forum seeks to revisit this notion of food porn that is mostly taken for granted in both popular and scholarly literature. It offers a brief perspective of the appearance and use of the term food porn to examine how it came to be a term used mostly by commentators rather than by people actively engaged in the world of cooking. Practitioners (chefs and a food television producer) and academics address whether or not food porn exists, what shape it might take, what purpose it might serve, and/or what usefulness it might have, showing that these contentious issues are more complex than the ease with which the term is used might let on. PMID:21539050

  17. 7 CFR 250.30 - State processing of donated foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...delivery of any donated foods for processing, a performance...contract value of donated food on hand and on order...applicable Federal, State and local laws. (3) The contract...shall be signed for the processor by the owner, a partner...quantity of each donated food and the...

  18. Tendon injuries of the hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Schöffl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tendon injuries are the second most common injuries of the hand and therefore an important topic in trauma and orthopedic patients. Most injuries are open injuries to the flexor or extensor tendons, but less frequent injuries, e.g., damage to the functional system tendon sheath and pulley or dull avulsions, also need to be considered. After clinical examination, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging have proved to be important diagnostic tools. Tendon injuries mostly require surgical repair, dull avulsions of the distal phalanges extensor tendon can receive conservative therapy. Injuries of the flexor tendon sheath or single pulley injuries are treated conservatively and multiple pulley injuries receive surgical repair. In the postoperative course of flexor tendon injuries, the principle of early passive movement is important to trigger an “intrinsic” tendon healing to guarantee a good outcome. Many substances were evaluated to see if they improved tendon healing; however, little evidence was found. Nevertheless, hyaluronic acid may improve intrinsic tendon healing.

  19. Middle East food safety perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idriss, Atef W; El-Habbab, Mohammad S

    2014-08-01

    Food safety and quality assurance are increasingly a major issue with the globalisation of agricultural trade, on the one hand, and intensification of agriculture, on the other. Consumer protection has become a priority in policy-making amongst the large economies of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries following a number of food safety incidents. To enhance food safety, it is necessary to establish markets underpinned by knowledge and resources, including analysis of international rejections of food products from MENA countries, international laboratory accreditation, improved reporting systems and traceability, continued development and validation of analytical methods, and more work on correlating sensory evaluation with analytical results. MENA countries should develop a national strategy for food safety based on a holistic approach that extends from farm-to-fork and involves all the relevant stakeholders. Accordingly, food safety should be a regional programme, raising awareness among policy- and decision-makers of the importance of food safety and quality for consumer protection, food trade and economic development. PMID:24415527

  20. A Framework for Virtual Hand Haptic Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaoxia; Wan, Huagen

    Virtual hand interactions play key roles in virtual environments. The recent addition of force feedback to virtual reality simulations has enhanced their realism, especially when dexterous manipulation of virtual objects is concerned. However, though there exist many works on virtual hand modeling regarding computer animation and interaction applications, much less attention is paid on haptic modeling of virtual hand. In this paper, we propose a framework for virtual hand haptic interaction. The modeling of a sophisticated virtual hand for haptic interactions is investigated with special attention paid on issues of visual realism, motion realism as well as force sensation. Specifically, our virtual hand model simulates natural anatomy in its appearance, motion and deformation, and reflects the feature of force feedback datagloves. Besides, virtual hand interactions based on the constructed virtual hand model are discussed. The proposed framework has been tested on a PC with a force feedback dataglove.

  1. Monitor for alpha beta contamination of hands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following specifications of hands alpha beta contamination monitor are presented: the position of the hands, the detection and separation of alpha and beta, the information processing, the programming, the results presentation and general characteristics. (A.L.B.)

  2. Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as flat red spots that produce oval or football-shaped blisters, surrounded with red coloration. Hand and ... diaper changes, and before eating. Although most pregnant women who become infected with hand-foot-and-mouth ...

  3. Clean Hands Save Lives: Emergency Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Winter Weather Clean Hands Save Lives: Emergency Situations DISASTER RECOVERY FACT ... water can be difficult. However, keeping your hands clean helps you avoid getting sick. It is best ...

  4. Food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waserman Susan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Food allergy is defined as an adverse immunologic response to a dietary protein. Food-related reactions are associated with a broad array of signs and symptoms that may involve many bodily systems including the skin, gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, and cardiovascular system. Food allergy is a leading cause of anaphylaxis and, therefore, referral to an allergist for appropriate and timely diagnosis and treatment is imperative. Diagnosis involves a careful history and diagnostic tests, such as skin prick testing, serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE testing and, if indicated, oral food challenges. Once the diagnosis of food allergy is confirmed, strict elimination of the offending food allergen from the diet is generally necessary. For patients with significant systemic symptoms, the treatment of choice is epinephrine administered by intramuscular injection into the lateral thigh. Although most children “outgrow” allergies to milk, egg, soy and wheat, allergies to peanut, tree nuts, fish and shellfish are often lifelong. This article provides an overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management and prognosis of patients with food allergy.

  5. Kids with Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Challenges Using Tests to Diagnose Food Allergies Alternative Food Allergy Tests to Avoid Choosing Safe Foods Foods Labeled Non-Dairy May Contain Milk Protein Natural Flavoring Can Contain Food Allergens Reporting an ...

  6. Hand Shape Affects Access to Memories

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkstra, K.; Kaschak, M.P.; Zwaan, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the ways that body posture facilitated retrieval of autobiographical memories in more detail by focusing on two aspects of congruence in position of a specific body part: hand shape and hand orientation. Hand shape is important in the tactile perception and manipulation of objects. We manipulated two aspects of hand shape: orientation (vertical vs. horizontal) and aperture (grip vs. no-grip). We manipulated orientation and aperture to create memory-congruent and mem...

  7. Playing Taboo with a Stranger

    OpenAIRE

    Pollmann, Monique; Krahmer, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Do friends communicate more accurately and more efficiently than strangers? Most people think that they do and often refer to anecdotal evidence, like a pair of good friends only needing a few words to describe names in the celebrity game. Friends can use shared knowledge or common knowledge to explain things to each other, while strangers are restricted to common knowledge. Previous studies showed that messages designed for a friend are less well understood by strangers (Fussel and Krauss, 1...

  8. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serious outbreaks of food poisoning last year in the USA from contaminated ground meat and the listing of methyl bromide, the most widely used pest control fumigant, as an ozone depleting substance, has led to a resurgence of interest, especially in the USA, in the use of ionizing radiation for the preservation of food. For a number of reasons, principally public uneasiness with radiation and the availability of other less expensive, methods for fumigating or preserving food, the use of radiation has remained limited until recently

  9. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation treatment of foods and agricultural produce is mainly applied to inhibit germination, for disinfestation, to improve hygienic conditions, etc. Briefly assessed are convenient radiation sources, irradiation techniques and the benefits of treating food in this manner. The basic principles are explained of chemical and biological changes in foods following irradiation. A survey is given of irradiation sources designed for the treatment of foodstuffs and for a number of countries a list of foodstuffs is given where irradiation is permitted. The principles of designing irradiation plants for foodstuffs are described. (J.C.)

  10. A Squeeze of the Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Cotner

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available My colleague Andy Fitch and I recorded forty-five-minute dialogues for thirty straight days around New York City. Half these talks took place at a Union Square health-food store that we call “W.F.” Other locations included MoMA, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Metropolitan Opera House, Central Park, Prospect Park, and a Tribeca parking garage. What follows is our twentieth conversation. Here sickness, emptiness, a train delay, and an argument seem to prefigure disaster and the project’s sudden end. But this disaster—much like the two-character Japanese word for “crisis”: the first one meaning “danger,” the second, “opportunity”—offers clarities perhaps best expressed by a Japanese proverb:Luck turnsWait

  11. Food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the processes involved in food preparation for consumption and technological processing that could be used to reduce contamination of foodstuffs. The food processing transfer parameters - food processing retention factor, processing efficiency and the food processing factor - are defined and their relationships discussed. Data are presented for vegetables, fruit, cereals, dairy products, meat (mammals, birds and fish-edible fraction), fungi, seafoods and drinks. Processing procedures considered includes: simple washing and boiling for fruit, vegetables and mushrooms, boiling and milling for cereals, cooking and curing for meats, butter and cheese productions for dairy products and washing and cooking for seafoods. Storage times for foodstuffs have also been considered. A wide range of chemical elements are considered, with the majority of data presented caesium, strontium and iodine, stable element databases have been reviewed and relevant data used to extend the data set. A discussion of application of the data is presented with consideration of areas where cautions is needed. (author)

  12. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various aspects of food treatment by cobalt 60 or caesium 137 gamma radiation are reviewed. One of the main applications of irradiation on foodstuffs lies in its ability to kill micro-organisms, lethal doses being all the lower as the organism concerned is more complex. The effect on parasites is also spectacular. Doses of 200 to 300 krad are recommended to destroy all parasites with no survival period and no resistance phenomenon has ever been observed. The action of gamma radiation on macromolecules was also investigated, the bactericide treatment giving rise to side effects by transformation of food components. Three examples were studied: starch, nucleic acids and a whole food, the egg. The organoleptic aspect of irradiation was examined for different treated foods, then the physical transformations of unpasteurized, heat-pasteurized and radio-pasteurized eggs were compared. The report ends with a brief analysis of the toxicity and conditions of application of the treatment

  13. Food Inspections

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This information is derived from inspections of restaurants and other food establishments in Chicago from January 1, 2010 to the present. Inspections are performed...

  14. Food poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... growing or shipping can contain animal or human waste. Food may be handled in an unsafe way ... temperature Raw fish or oysters Raw fruits or vegetables that have not been washed well Raw vegetables ...

  15. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preservation of food using irradiation may replace or be used in combination with traditional or conventional food preservation techniques. Studies have shown that the irradiation technique which uses less energy than other preservation methods is a potential way for reducing post harvest losses. However, economic feasibility among other constraints is the core factor to determine the success of the technique at commercial scale. The need and importance for considering this new technique in Malaysia are discussed here. (author)

  16. Baboons' hand preference resists to spatial factors for a communicative gesture but not for a simple manipulative action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourjade, Marie; Meunier, Hélène; Blois-Heulin, Catherine; Vauclair, Jacques

    2013-09-01

    Olive baboons (Papio anubis) do acquire and use intentional requesting gestures in experimental contexts. Individual's hand preference for these gestures is consistent with that observed for typical communicative gestures, but not for manipulative actions. Here, we examine whether the strength of hand preference may also be a good marker of hemispheric specialization for communicative gestures, hence differing from the strength of hand preference for manipulative actions. We compared the consistency of individuals' hand preference with regard to the variation in space of either (i) a communicative partner or (ii) a food item to grasp using a controlled set-up. We report more consistent hand preference for communicative gestures than for grasping actions. Established hand preference in the midline was stronger for gesturing than for grasping and allowed to predict the consistency of hand preference across positions. We found no significant relation between the direction of hand preference and the task. PMID:23852561

  17. Development of Food Retailing and Factors Affecting the Competition in Food Retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Serkan Kilic; Gokhan Senol

    2010-01-01

    Retailing is a dynamic and complex sector that offers wide range of products and services to consumers. This sector which includes different types of enterprises, has an important position within the supply chain. Food retailing has also a big potential within retailing sector. On the other hand, an intensive competition exists in food retailing. Taking place in the competitive market, food retailers attempt to gain a competitive advantage against their rivals with their geographic location,...

  18. Food extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, J M

    1978-01-01

    Extrusion processing has become an important food process in the manufacture of pasta, ready-to-eat cereals, snacks, pet foods, and textured vegetable protein (TVP). An extruder consists of tightly fitting screw rotating within a stationary barrel. Preground and conditioned ingredients enter the screw where they are conveyed, mixed, and heated by a variety of processes. The product exits the extruder through a die where it usually puffs and changes texture from the release of steam and normal forces. Mathematical models for extruder flow and torque have been found useful in describing exclusion operations. Scale-up can be facilitated by the application of these models. A variety of food extruder designs have developed. The differences and similarity of design are discussed. Pertinent literature on the extrusion of cereal/snack products, full-fat soy, TVP, pet foods (dry and semi-moist), pasta, and beverage or other food bases are discussed. In many of these applications, the extruder is a high temperature, short time process which minimizes losses in vitamins and amino acids. Color, flavor, and product shape and texture are also affected by the extrusion process. Extrusion has been widely applied in the production of nutritious foods. Emphasis is placed on the use of extrusion to denature antinutritional factors and the improvement of protein quality and digestibility. PMID:378548

  19. Robot hands and extravehicular activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Beth

    1987-01-01

    Extravehicular activity (EVA) is crucial to the success of both current and future space operations. As space operations have evolved in complexity so has the demand placed on the EVA crewman. In addition, some NASA requirements for human capabilities at remote or hazardous sites were identified. One of the keys to performing useful EVA tasks is the ability to manipulate objects accurately, quickly and without early or excessive fatigue. The current suit employs a glove which enables the crewman to perform grasping tasks, use tools, turn switches, and perform other tasks for short periods of time. However, the glove's bulk and resistance to motion ultimately causes fatigue. Due to this limitation it may not be possible to meet the productivity requirements that will be placed on the EVA crewman of the future with the current or developmental Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) hardware. In addition, this hardware will not meet the requirements for remote or hazardous operations. In an effort to develop ways for improving crew productivity, a contract was awarded to develop a prototype anthromorphic robotic hand (ARH) for use with an extravehicular space suit. The first step in this program was to perform a a design study which investigated the basic technology required for the development of an ARH to enhance crew performance and productivity. The design study phase of the contract and some additional development work is summarized.

  20. Giant grants a free hand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'I had a relatively free hand from my associates when choosing a partner. When we had compared business structures, considered the mutual chemistry and the attitude of French people concerning management, the decision process was made easier.' That's how Peter Strycek, general director of Hetech Services, describes the preparations for agreements. It worked. The Slovak supplier of heat and services for technical operations of buildings, has belonged to the GDF SUEZ company since Monday. At the beginning, at the conclusion of 2005, there was the idea to consolidate the businesses of three companies beneath one roof. That's how informally the shareholding company Hetech Services was founded. It started to manage the business of the Bratislava heat suppliers, Racianska Teplarenska and Prva Ruzinovska; including supplier of technical services AB Spravcovska. Along with activities of the head company Hetech Services installed low-current equipment in buildings, did construction supervision and for a longer period it did business with technological equipment for buildings. The company's business expanded. At the end of the year before last, Strycek announced an interest from multinational players in joining. It didn't take long and the three interested parties came to an agreement. At the beginning of last summer the owners of Hetech, Bratislava real estate businessmen, came to an agreement with the managers of the multinational energy giant GDF SUEZ, which had been founded shortly beforehand with the merger of two global players in the industry. (authors)

  1. Motives for consumer choice of traditional food and European food in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ou; De Steur, Hans; Gellynck, Xavier; Verbeke, Wim

    2015-04-01

    The demand for European (-style) foods in mainland China has been increasing dramatically during the last decade. Nevertheless, European food producers often appear to be not capable to fully exploit this huge market potential, partially due to the competition with traditional (Chinese) foods. This study examines the determinants of mainland Chinese consumers' choice of traditional food and European food. A web-based survey was administered with 541 consumers from two cities: Shanghai and Xi'an. Thereby, the Food Choice Motives model, predominantly used thus far in a European or developed context, is applied to mainland China in order to address the lack of knowledge on food motives of its consumer market and to detect associations between these motives, attitudes, and purchase intentions. Factor analysis resulted in a new Food Choice Motive construct that is considered more appropriate within the context of mainland Chinese consumers, encompassing six dimensions: Health concern, Time or money saving, Sensory appeal, Availability and familiarity, Mood and Food safety concern. Path analysis demonstrated that Time or money saving was negatively associated with attitude toward traditional food on the one hand and purchase intentions toward European food on the other hand. Availability and familiarity had a positive association with attitude toward traditional food. Mood was a positive factor driving attitude toward European food. For both food types, Sensory appeal and Attitude were positively linked to purchase intentions. Furthermore, Mood was negatively linked to the purchase intention toward traditional food in Shanghai. Food safety concern was positively associated with attitudes toward traditional food in Xi'an. PMID:25542775

  2. N-acylethanolamines, anandamide and food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S; Diep, Thi Ai

    2009-01-01

    their biosynthesis in specific tissues are not clarified. It has been suggested that endogenous anandamide could stimulate food intake by activation of cannabinoid receptors in the brain and/or in the intestinal tissue. On the other hand, endogenous OEA and PEA have been suggested to inhibit food intake...... by acting on receptors in the intestine. At present, there is no clear role for endogenous anandamide in controlling food intake via cannabinoid receptors, neither centrally nor in the gastrointestinal tract. However, OEA, PEA and perhaps also LEA may be involved in regulation of food intake by...

  3. Taboo or not taboo: a study of taboo content in Finnish EFL learning materials

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmonen, Tiina; Keturi, Suvi

    2011-01-01

    Tabu on monimuotoinen käsite, jota on vaikea määritellä yksiselitteisesti johtuen sekä tabujen valtavasta määrästä että niiden osittaisesta kulttuurisidonnaisuudesta. Tabuja ja tabukielen esiintymistä oppimateriaaleissa on tutkittu erittäin vähän ja tutkimus onkin keskittynyt lähinnä määrittelemään, mitkä aiheet ovat tabuja maailmanlaajuisissa englannin kielen oppimateriaaleissa. Tutkimuksen kohteena ovat olleet myös mahdolliset riskit, jotka liittyvät tabujen ja tabukielen oppimateriaaleihin...

  4. Review of human hand microbiome research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds-Wilson, Sarah L; Nurinova, Nilufar I; Zapka, Carrie A; Fierer, Noah; Wilson, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Recent advances have increased our understanding of the human microbiome, including the skin microbiome. Despite the importance of the hands as a vector for infection transmission, there have been no comprehensive reviews of recent advances in hand microbiome research or overviews of the factors that influence the composition of the hand microbiome. A comprehensive and systematic database search was conducted for skin microbiome-related articles published from January 1, 2008 to April 1, 2015. Only primary research articles that used culture-independent, whole community analysis methods to study the healthy hand skin microbiome were included. Eighteen articles were identified containing hand microbiome data. Most focused on bacteria, with relatively little reported on fungi, viruses, and protozoa. Bacteria from four phyla were found across all studies of the hand microbiome (most to least relative abundance): Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes. Key factors that impacted the hand microbiome composition included temporal and biogeographical dynamics, as well as intrinsic (age, gender) and extrinsic (product use, cohabitants, pet-ownership) variables. There was more temporal variability in the composition of the hand microbiome than in other body sites, making identification of the "normal" microbiome of the hands challenging. The microbiome of the hands is in constant flux as the hands are a critical vector for transmitting microorganisms between people, pets, inanimate objects and our environments. Future studies need to resolve methodological influences on results, and further investigate factors which alter the hand microbiome including the impact of products applied to hands. Increased understanding of the hand microbiome and the skin microbiome in general, will open the door to product development for disease prevention and treatment, and may lead to other applications, including novel diagnostic and forensic approaches. PMID:26278471

  5. Food Engineering within Sciences of Food

    OpenAIRE

    Athanasios Kostaropoulos

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to clarify the identity of food engineering in sciences of food. A short historical description of the evolution of the branch in the Anglo Saxon and the Continental educational systems is given. Furthermore, the distinction of basic definitions such as food science, food science and technology, food technology, and food engineering is made. Finally, the objectives of food engineering within the branch of sciences of food are described.

  6. Grips and hand movements of chimpanzees during feeding in Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzke, Mary W; Marchant, Linda F; McGrew, William C; Reece, Sandra P

    2015-03-01

    It has long been assumed that stone tool making was a major factor in the evolution of derived hominin hand morphology. However, stresses on the hand associated with food retrieval and processing also have been recognized as relevant early hominin behaviors that should be investigated. To this end, chimpanzee food manipulation was videotaped in the Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania. Grips and hand movements by 39 chimpanzees were analyzed for arboreal and terrestrial feeding involving 10 food-types and associated vegetation. It was predicted that (1) new grips would be found that had not been observed in captivity, (2) forceful precision grips would be absent from the repertoire, as in captivity, and (3) precision handling would be observed. New grips involving the full thumb and buttressed index finger, and a new integrated pattern of grips and forceful hand movements were discovered, associated with feeding on large fruits and meat. Participation of the full thumb in these grips, rather than the distal thumb and fingers, throws light on feeding behaviors that may have become increasingly significant factors in the evolution of derived hominin thumb morphology. The proximal thumb stabilizes food with the flexed index finger against the pull of the teeth and provides leverage in breaking food into portions. Isolated qualitative observations of possibly forceful pinch by the thumb and side of the index finger highlight the need for comparative quantitative data to test whether humans are unique in forceful precision gripping capability. Precision handling was not seen. PMID:25363236

  7. Comparison of traditional hand wash with alcoholic hand rub in ICU setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliekal Mona

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nosocomial infection rate are often higher for intensive care unit (ICU than other units of hospitals, and hands of health-care workers (HCWs play a major role in the transmission of the infections. Aim: To compare the efficacy of conventional hand wash with the hand rub in reducing the transient bacterial flora on the hands of nurses in ICU. Subject and Methods: The 34 nurses posted in our ICU during January-March 2003 were included. A total of 204 samples were collected for the residual bacterial flora on fingers using impression method on MacConkey agar plates. The subjects then used alcoholic hand rub or conventional hand wash and the residual bacterial flora rechecked by testing impression of fingers on MacConkey agar. Results: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., nonlactose fermenting Gram-negative bacilli, staphylococci, and streptococci formed the transient bacterial flora on the hands. Moderate to heavy bacterial density was seen in more than 92.2% of the hands before washing or hand rub application. Conventional hand wash resulted in drastic reduction in the transient bacterial flora on hands in 50% cases whereas alcoholic hand rub achieved the effect in 95% of the samples. Conclusion: Compared with conventional hand wash, alcoholic hand rub is far more efficient in reducing transient bacterial flora on the hands of HCWs and it is more convenient and time saving. It is recommended as a hand hygiene practice in critical areas such as ICU.

  8. Inspections of Hand Washing Supplies and Hand Sanitizer in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Mary M.; Blea, Mary; Trujillo, Rebecca; Greenberg, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Hand washing and hand antisepsis are proven infection control measures in the school setting, yet barriers such as lack of soap, paper towels, and hand sanitizer can hinder compliance. This pilot study measured the prevalence of hand cleaning supplies in public schools. Ten school districts (93 schools) participated in school nurse inspections. In…

  9. Inexpensive and Time-Efficient Hand Hygiene Interventions Increase Elementary School Children's Hand Hygiene Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Michelle; White, George L.; Kim, Han S.

    2008-01-01

    Routine hand hygiene has been cited by the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a cost-effective and important hygiene measure in preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Several studies have explored children's hand hygiene habits, effects of scheduled hand hygiene, hand hygiene environmental…

  10. Food Grade Silicone Braided Hose

    OpenAIRE

    Sonal B. Prajapati, Prof. Rupande N. Desai

    2013-01-01

    Silicone elastomers are becoming more and more prevalent for Food Industry. This is because with the fact that the curing systems of organic elastomers often include amines and other additives leading to potential toxic contaminants, such as nitrosamines. On the other hand there are silicone rubbers/elastomers which are amine free and, in most cases, are platinum cured. Such curing systems allow for biocompatibility. Correctly processed parts do not show detect...

  11. Food Grade Silicone Braided Hose

    OpenAIRE

    Sonal B. Prajapati; PROF. RUPANDE N.DESAI

    2013-01-01

    Silicone elastomers are becoming more and more prevalent for Food Industry. This is because with the fact that the curing systems of organic elastomers often include amines and other additives leading to potential toxic contaminants, such as nitrosamines. On the other hand there are silicone rubbers/elastomers which are amine free and, in most cases, are platinum cured. Such curing systems allow for biocompatibility. Correctly processed parts do not show detectable nitrosamine levels without ...

  12. Bacteriology and epidemiology of hand infections

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JF, Greyling; E, Visser; E, Elliot.

    Full Text Available Infection is one of the most serious and important causes of hand swelling. Neglect or incomplete treatment of hand infections will usually lead to involvement of other parts of the hand resulting in stiffness, loss of hand function, and possibly amputation (Figure 1). Hand infections are common con [...] ditions that have significant morbidity. Referral is often delayed and infections present late. Hand infections should be managed by an experienced surgeon. The aims of the investigation were: to identify the spectrum of organisms and appropriate antibiotics for hand infection; and to characterise the patterns and sites of hand infections. This information was collected against the background of a high prevalence of HiV-infected patients and increasing antibiotic resistance. A total of 66 patients treated for hand infections over a period of six months in Pelonomi Hospital, Bloemfontein, South Africa, was prospectively recruited for the study. Staphylococcus aureus was the commonest isolate. Results show that cloxacillin is still an effective first line antibiotic for community-acquired hand infections in the absence of immunosuppression. Alternative empiric therapy would be clindamycin - especially in the beta-lactam intolerant patient. Erythromycin also proved to have a favourable profile. HIV-positive patients were more prone to Gram-negative infections.

  13. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

  14. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Akiko; Kamimura, Tomomi; Nagasawa, Taeko [Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Allied Health Sciences; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Establishment

    2003-06-01

    The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

  15. Analysis of training experience of military men to hand-to-hand combat in the foreign countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marakushyn A.I.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available It is shown the main systems of hand-to-hand combat on the bases of hand-to-hand military men training in the world leading countries armies. Summarized the experience of hand-to-hand combat training. It is analyzes the main existing systems hand-to-hand training of servicemen of foreign armies. The analysis of publications, guidance documents, manuals, statutes which display the contents of hand-to-hand combat training of servicemen of foreign armies. Defined views, concerns and tendencies of hand-to-hand training to develop guidelines an advanced hand-to-hand combat training of servicemen.

  16. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference was a combined event and at the same time was a meeting of the FAIR programme of the EU, under the responsibility of the General Directorate XII, participating countries including Iceland, Norway, Hungary, and Switzerland in addition to the 15 EU member states. Under this roof, research work is sponsored in the fields of food technology, fishing industry, agriculture, forestry, and water resources management. Also, financial support is available for the mid-range food and agricultural industry, or for projects promoting rural development. There currently are over 120 transnational FAIR projects, involving more than 2000 researchers in 233 EU-sponsored research projects devoted to food aspects, some having been presented at the conference. (orig./CB)

  17. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation processing of food is based on irradiation by gamma radiation from a 60Co source or X-ray with energy < 5 MeV or electron beam with energy < 10 MeV. This technique is now completely mastered. About 30 countries use this technique to extend the storage life of food but the total quantity processed is weak, only 30000 tons a year for France. Some countries like Morocco or Tunisia have launched technical programmes about the radiation processing of dates and vegetable oil. These programmes may lead to the creation of a quality label. A joint laboratory between CEA and the Aix-Marseille-3 university is working on the detection of food irradiation in order to fight the fraud. 3 techniques are being investigated: thermoluminescence, electronic paramagnetism resonance and a chemical method. (A.C.)

  18. Networked Haptic Interaction to Implement “Hand in Hand” Human Motor Skill Training for Tank Gunnery

    OpenAIRE

    Guanyang Liu; Keke Lu; Yuru Zhang; Lingzhi Liu

    2013-01-01

    The “hand in hand” approach has been validated as effective in human motor skill training, such as handwriting, drawing, driving and so on. This paper proposes a networked haptic interaction system to simulate the “hand in hand” training scheme for tank gunnery which requires tank gunners to complete tasks accurately and quickly. In the haptic?based training system, a network connecting two haptic devices plays the role of putting hands together, based on which the algorithms of haptic guidan...

  19. Left hand, but not right hand, reaching is sensitive to visual context

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, Jos J.; Müskens, Rick; Hoonhorst, Susan; Pratt, Jay; Fischer, Martin H

    2010-01-01

    Recently, it has been reported that grasping with the left hand is more vulnerable to visual size illusions than grasping with the right hand. The present study investigated whether this increased sensitivity of the left hand for visual context extends to reaching. Left- and right-handed participants reached for targets embedded in two different visual contexts with either left or right hands. Visual context was manipulated by presenting targets either in a blank field or within an array of p...

  20. On robustness in food supply chain networks

    OpenAIRE

    Vlajic, J.V.; van der Vorst, J. G. A. J.; Hendrix, E.M.T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Today's business environment is characterized by challenges of strong global competition where companies tend to achieve leanness and maximum responsiveness to customer demand. Lean supply chain networks are vulnerable to all kind of disruptions. For food supply chain networks (FSCNs), due to their inherent characteristics on the one hand and increased level of complexity, dynamics and uncertainty on the other hand, this vulnerability is even stronger. Therefore, methods are needed ...

  1. The nutritional and hedonic value of food modulate sexual receptivity in Drosophila melanogaster females

    OpenAIRE

    Jenke A. Gorter; Jagadeesh, Samyukta; Gahr, Christoph; Jelle J. Boonekamp; Joel D. Levine; Billeter, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Food and sex often go hand in hand because of the nutritional cost of reproduction. For Drosophila melanogaster females, this relationship is especially intimate because their offspring develop on food. Since yeast and sugars are important nutritional pillars for Drosophila, availability of these foods should inform female reproductive behaviours. Yet mechanisms coupling food and sex are poorly understood. Here we show that yeast increases female sexual receptivity through interaction between...

  2. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of this data is relative to the study of chemical modifications induced by gamma radiations (60Co, 137Cs) on macromolecules of food and their contaminates with the help of two examples: starch and nucleic acids. Then the second part shows what are the consequences of irradiation on food and their preservation; we make distinction between useful effects (for instance germination inhibition of tubercules, destruction of insects or micro-organisms) and the results which are contingently bad for nutritional, technological and above all toxicologic aspects. The last part is relative to a short restatement of the problems inherent in the industrialization of this treatment

  3. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume reflects the current state of food irradiation. Three chapters are concerned with applications of irradiation to food processing; one general and two about important specific applications. The larger part of the book discusses the major problems of irradiation; acceptance and detection. Consumer acceptance varies from country to country, dependent upon attitude to new processes in general and 'atomic' processes in particular. Chapters have, therefore, been included to discuss acceptance and status in the United States, in Europe and in developing countries. Each chapter is processed separately. (author)

  4. Local food:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundbo, Donna Isabella Caroline

    consist are identified and then categorised according to whether they pertain to the food product itself or the production methods and facilities and whether they describe physical or social properties of local food. From this a model with four categories is developed. It is found that properties of the...... product are more frequently mentioned than properties of the production process. Providers emphasise social properties of the product more often than consumers, and consumers emphasise physical properties of the product more often than providers. Inversely, providers emphasise physical properties of...

  5. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 7. Barriers to reduce contamination of food by workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Ewen C D; Michaels, Barry S; Greig, Judy D; Smith, Debra; Holah, John; Bartleson, Charles A

    2010-08-01

    Contamination of food and individuals by food workers has been identified as an important contributing factor during foodborne illness investigations. Physical and chemical barriers to prevent microbial contamination of food are hurdles that block or reduce the transfer of pathogens to the food surface from the hands of a food worker, from other foods, or from the environment. In food service operations, direct contact of food by hands should be prevented by the use of barriers, especially when gloves are not worn. Although these barriers have been used for decades in food processing and food service operations, their effectiveness is sometimes questioned or their use may be ignored. Physical barriers include properly engineered building walls and doors to minimize the flow of outside particles and pests to food storage and food preparation areas; food shields to prevent aerosol contamination of displayed food by customers and workers; work clothing designated strictly for work (clothing worn outdoors can carry undesirable microorganisms, including pathogens from infected family members, into the work environment); and utensils such as spoons, tongs, and deli papers to prevent direct contact between hands and the food being prepared or served. Money and ready-to-eat foods should be handled as two separate operations, preferably by two workers. Chemical barriers include sanitizing solutions used to remove microorganisms (including pathogens) from objects or materials used during food production and preparation and to launder uniforms, work clothes, and soiled linens. However, laundering as normally practiced may not effectively eliminate viral pathogens. PMID:20819372

  6. Smart hands for the EVA retriever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Clifford W.; Li, Larry C.

    1990-01-01

    Dexterous, robotic hands are required for the extravehicular activity retriever (EVAR) system being developed by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). These hands, as part of the EVAR system, must be able to grasp objects autonomously and securely which inadvertently separate from the Space Station. Development of the required hands was initiated in 1987. Outlined here are the hand development activities, including design considerations, progress to date, and future plans. Several types of dexterous hands that were evaluated, along with a proximity-sensing capability that was developed to initiate a reflexive, adaptive grasp, are described. The evaluations resulted in the design and fabrication of a 6-degree-of-freedom (DOF) hand that has two fingers and a thumb arranged in an anthropomorphic configuration. Finger joint force and position sensors are included in the design, as well as infrared proximity sensors which allow initiation of the grasp sequence when an object is detected within the grasp envelope.

  7. Daily Food Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Summer Fall Food Waste Food Safety Newsroom Daily Food Plans & Worksheets You are here Home / Interactive Tools ... of Dairy foods or physical activity recommendations. Daily Food Plans and Worksheets for Professional Use If you ...

  8. The alien hand and related signs.

    OpenAIRE

    Doody, R S; JANKOVIC, J.

    1992-01-01

    Alien limb sign includes failure to recognise ownership of one's limb when visual cues are removed, a feeling that one body part is foreign, personification of the affected body part, and autonomous activity which is perceived as outside voluntary control. Although the hand is most frequently affected, any limb or combination of limbs may fulfil the alien limb criteria. Alien hand sign should be reserved for cases in which the hand feels foreign together with observable involuntary motor acti...

  9. Classification of Open Fractures of the Hand

    OpenAIRE

    MCLAIN, ROBERT F.; Curtis M. Steyers

    1991-01-01

    The fracture classification of Gustilo and Anderson, originally developed from experience with tibial fractures and frequently applied to long bones, has never been applied to injuries of the hand. In order to evaluate the applicability of this fracture classification to open fractures of the hand, 146 injured hands in 143 consecutive patients were retrospectively reviewed. The incidence of infection and outcome were analysed with respect to three methods of classification: mechanism of injur...

  10. Hand specific representations in language comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia P Gennari; Humphreys, Gina F.

    2014-01-01

    Theories of embodied cognition argue that language comprehension involves sensory-motor re-enactments of the actions described. However, the degree of specificity of these re-enactments as well as the relationship between action and language remains a matter of debate. Here we investigate these issues by examining how hand-specific information (left or right hand) is recruited in language comprehension and action execution. An fMRI study tested self-reported right-handed participants in two s...

  11. Photonic crystal with left-handed components

    CERN Document Server

    Markos, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We show that the periodic array of left-handed cylinders possesses a rich spectrum of guided modes when the negative permeability of cylinders equals exactly to minus value of permeability of embedding media. These resonances strongly influences propagation of electromagnetic waves through photonic structures made from left-handed materials. A series of Fano resonances excited by incident wave destroys the band frequency spectrum of square array of left-handed cylinders and increases considerably the absorption of transmitted waves.

  12. Hand in Motion Reveals Mind in Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Jonathan B.; Dale, Rick; Farmer, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, researchers have measured hand movements en route to choices on a screen to understand the dynamics of a broad range of psychological processes. We review this growing body of research and explain how manual action exposes the real-time unfolding of underlying cognitive processing. We describe how simple hand motions may be used to continuously index participants’ tentative commitments to different choice alternatives during the evolution of a behavioral response. As such, hand-trac...

  13. Food-Based Science Curriculum Increases 4th Graders Multidisciplinary Science Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, Jana A.; Carraway-Stage, Virginia G.; Cela, Artenida; Collins, Caitlin; Díaz, Sebastián R.; Collins, Angelo; Duffrin, Melani W.

    2013-01-01

    Health professionals and policymakers are asking educators to place more emphasis on food and nutrition education. Integrating these topics into science curricula using hand-on, food-based activities may strengthen students' understanding of science concepts. The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is…

  14. Tissue equivalent material for hand phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We suggest that to best reproduce the interaction between a handheld wireless transceiver and the hand holding it, the dielectric properties of the hand phantom should be similar to those of the palm of the hand. The proposed target permittivity and conductivity values are presented and tabulated at a number of frequencies of interest. We have developed suitable phantom hand materials based on carbon-loaded silicones and demonstrated that it was possible to match the proposed dielectric properties in the frequency range 600-6000 MHz

  15. Anthropomorphic Robot Hand And Teaching Glove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Charles D., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Robotic forearm-and-hand assembly manipulates objects by performing wrist and hand motions with nearly human grasping ability and dexterity. Imitates hand motions of human operator who controls robot in real time by programming via exoskeletal "teaching glove". Telemanipulator systems based on this robotic-hand concept useful where humanlike dexterity required. Underwater, high-radiation, vacuum, hot, cold, toxic, or inhospitable environments potential application sites. Particularly suited to assisting astronauts on space station in safely executing unexpected tasks requiring greater dexterity than standard gripper.

  16. Comparative Analysis of Hand Gesture Recognition Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpana K. Patel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During past few years, human hand gesture for interaction with computing devices has continues to be active area of research. In this paper survey of hand gesture recognition is provided. Hand Gesture Recognition is contained three stages: Pre-processing, Feature Extraction or matching and Classification or recognition. Each stage contains different methods and techniques. In this paper define small description of different methods used for hand gesture recognition in existing system with comparative analysis of all method with its benefits and drawbacks are provided.

  17. Food-regime(s) at a crossroad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe, Egon; Korsgaard, Steffen

    their own hands. Creating localized food systems with direct contact with costumers, mostly bypassing, but occasionally integrating with supermarkets based distribution. In this presentation we will discuss the present fragmentation of the food-regime in Denmark, focusing on the conflicting tensions of......Food production and consumption in Denmark stands at a crossroad. Multiple conflicting developments and logic point in radically different directions, and the pressures of globalization are making the tensions even more present and solutions more pressing. Danish agriculture has excelled in...... creating an industrialized foodregime, based on Northern European values of hygiene and homogeneity. Yet, pressures of global competition, consumer trends focusing on quality and uniqueness, and issues of animal welfare and disease control are questioning this logic. On the other hand, Nordic food and...

  18. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you've ever had a sip of sour milk, you know you never want to taste that again! Mold (which can be green, pink, white, or brown) is also often a sign that food has spoiled. If you're going to eat leftovers, ask a grown-up for help heating them up. By heating them, you can kill ...

  19. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of links for more information about food allergy Javascript Error Your browser JavaScript is turned off causing certain features of the ... incorrectly. Please visit your browser settings and turn JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Top ...

  20. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of links for more information about food allergy ????????????????????? Javascript Error Your browser JavaScript is turned off causing certain features of the ... incorrectly. Please visit your browser settings and turn JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Skip ...

  1. Food labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a similar food. Light, Lite: One-third fewer total calories or 50% less fat per serving. If more than half the calories are from fat, the fat content must be reduced by 50% or more. Sugar terms: Sugar-free: Less than 1/2 gram of sugar per ...

  2. Scary food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Mykletun, Reidar Johan

    2009-01-01

    This article portrays the changing status and use of a traditional Norwegian meal, Smalahove, in designing tourist experiences. Against all odds, this peculiar relic of Nordic gastronomy (salted, smoked and cooked sheep's head) has become a part of the destination brand of Voss, a small West Norw...... destinations and regional food products....

  3. Food Allergies

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the dangers of food allergies and the need to be aware if any friends or classmates have them.  Created: 4/23/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/23/2013.

  4. Weaning Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauliac, Michel; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Described in this issue of "Children in the Tropics" are handicraft, semi-industrial, and industrial projects which produce weaning foods in developing countries. The introductory section briefly discusses the global epidemiology of malnutrition and offers guidelines for combatting malnutrition. Chapter I provides a framework for reflection on the…

  5. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two letters comment on a previous editorial (Lancet, Feb. 28 1987). The following points are discussed: 1) Stated doses can be exceeded without detection. 2) The hazards and problems of detection of 'food renovation'. 3) Enforcement of labelling regulations. 4) Fraud on consumers. (U.K.)

  6. Food preservation by ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of food preservation by ionising radiation is an alternative, or a complement, to the traditional methods of heating, refrigerating, freezing or using chemical additives. The study and development of this technique has started on the beginning of the fifties but it is based on the radiation killing effect on micro-organisms discovered by the end of last century. Foodstuffs are treated in appropriate plants: isotopic facilities (gamma radiation) and accelerated electron beams produced by machines called accelerators. The FAO and WHO in close cooperation with the IAEA have played an important role on the development of the process and on the increment of the industrial application of food irradiation. Over the world there are about 37 countries trading foods treated by ionising radiation. However, governments have been slow to clear the utilization of this process. The main reason of this attitude is in general due to the fact that the advantages of the technique are not clearly understood. Therefore, the dissemination of the information could on one hand clarify who has to take decisions and on the other hand support the choice of those foods by the consumers. This is the unique way to dynamize the application of this process

  7. Food Allergy Treatment and Avoidance (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... smell of peanut butter is related to volatile organic compounds (VOCs), substances that evaporate easily. The smell ... hand washing with hot water and liquid dish soap is generally adequate to remove food allergens. Tabletops ...

  8. Food irradiation and food packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advantages and disadvantages of the use of ionising radiations as a process for food preservation are considered. Tests are summarized which have been carried out on food packaging materials (plastics, glass, metals, wood and waxes) for irradiation processing suitability with doses both below 1Mrad and also with higher doses as required for long-term storage. Results of extraction tests are tabulated. The results of searches for the most effective packaging, where sterilisation by radiation is to be used, are given and methods of carrying out the relevant tests are discussed. (UK)

  9. Impact of dietary fiber energy on the calculation of food total energy value in the Brazilian Food Composition Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel de; Grande, Fernanda; Giuntini, Eliana Bistriche; Lopes, Tássia do Vale Cardoso; Dan, Milana Cara Tanasov; Prado, Samira Bernardino Ramos do; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Charrondière, U Ruth; Lajolo, Franco Maria

    2016-02-15

    Dietary fiber (DF) contributes to the energy value of foods and including it in the calculation of total food energy has been recommended for food composition databases. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of including energy provided by the DF fermentation in the calculation of food energy. Total energy values of 1753 foods from the Brazilian Food Composition Database were calculated with or without the inclusion of DF energy. The energy values were compared, through the use of percentage difference (D%), in individual foods and in daily menus. Appreciable energy D% (?10) was observed in 321 foods, mainly in the group of vegetables, legumes and fruits. However, in the Brazilian typical menus containing foods from all groups, only D%<3 was observed. In mixed diets, the DF energy may cause slight variations in total energy; on the other hand, there is appreciable energy D% for certain foods, when individually considered. PMID:26433298

  10. Food hygiene on the wards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steuer, Walter

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A problem that is often overlooked or simply not given enough attention: the food served to patients from the kitchen is not sterile. If food is allowed to stand at room temperature for a long time, both in the case of food cooked for lunch and of food intended for supper which has been previously chilled, there is the possibility of massive spore germination or of dangerous toxin formation. Therefore regulations on how to handle food and beverages (e.g. tea must be set out in the infection control policy, and checks carried out to monitor compliance with the rules relating to temperature checks, duration and type of storage, need for reheating, etc. Making staff aware of the issues involved is of paramount importance. These include monitoring hygiene standards in the ward kitchen, formulation of a cleaning policy, periodic bacteriological checks (not only of workstations but also of the dishwasher results, whenever possible the use of disposable cloths for working surfaces and equipment, changing cleaning cloths at least once daily and hygienic hand disinfection before and after handing out food. Foodstuffs brought in by visitors represent a special hygienic and organizational problem because in many cases they already have a high baseline microbial count. Visitors must be made aware that, for example, slices of cake left in the patient’s room and often eaten only hours later can pose a risk of infection.In summary, the following principles of food hygiene must be observed on the wards: * Maintenance of the cold-hot chain * Not only reheat food, but ensure it is well heated throughout * Avoid situations giving rise to spore germination in foodstuffs brought in by visitors * Cleanliness and minimal contamination of kitchen worktops * Cleanliness of crockery and kitchen towels * Do not allow food to stand at room temperature for a long time, in particular desserts and confectionery * A standard policy must be enforced to define the hygienic status and organization for food distribution for ward kitchens too.

  11. Perfection of technical and tactical preparation of sportsmen of hand-to-hand fight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serebryak V.V.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Essence of innovative hike is considered to upgrading preparation of sportsmen of hand-to-hand fight. 58 sportsmen of section of hand-to-hand fight took part in research. Age of sportsmen are from 17 to 22 years. Developed and approved the most effective technical and tactical charts of construction of duel with the opponents of different styles of single combats. It is well-proven that offered approach instrumental in development of operative thought and adaptation to sparring of hand-to-hand fight.

  12. Rheumatoid arthritis in the hand. Chapter 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rheumatoid arthritis is primarily a disease of the synovial membrane. To demonstrate synovial changes it is necessary to show adequate detail of the soft tissue. This is best obtained by using industrial film and by hand-processing. The anatomy of the hand and the radiological appearance of rheumatoid arthritis are described. (author)

  13. The Hot Hand Belief and Framing Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMahon, Clare; Köppen, Jörn; Raab, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Recent evidence of the hot hand in sport--where success breeds success in a positive recency of successful shots, for instance--indicates that this pattern does not actually exist. Yet the belief persists. We used 2 studies to explore the effects of framing on the hot hand belief in sport. We looked at the effect of sport experience and…

  14. Clean Hands Help Prevent the Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-06

    Clean hands can help prevent the spread of infectious diseases, such as flu. This podcast explains the proper way to wash your hands.  Created: 5/6/2009 by Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Influenza Division (CCID/NCIRD/ID).   Date Released: 5/6/2009.

  15. Illness representations in patients with hand injury.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chan, Jeffrey C Y

    2009-07-01

    Differences in illness perception about hand injury may partly explain the variation in health behaviours such as adherence to post-operative therapy, coping strategy, emotional response and eventual clinical outcome. This study examined the illness perception of patients with hand injuries in the acute trauma setting.

  16. Virtual human hand: model and kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Pitarch, Esteban; Falguera, Neus Ticó; Yang, Jingzhou James

    2014-04-01

    The human hand plays an important role in daily life. It is the interface between the human and the exterior world by positioning, orienting, touching and grasping objects. The human hand has multiple degrees of freedom (DOFs) to enable mobility and dexterity. A virtual human hand model can be inserted into CAD (Computer Aided Design) models to assess the manipulation capabilities in the early design stage to reduce design time and cost. Joystick assessment is one of the important design cases. This study is a first step towards a comprehensive hand simulation tool to simulate the manipulation and grasping of objects. This paper presents a novel 25 DOFs' hand skeletal model based on hand anatomy and hand kinematics: (1) joint range of motion, (2) Denavit-Hartenberg method to define the joint relationship and (3) finger workspace determination. Novelty for this hand model includes arching the palm with the four DOFs added in the carpometacarpal and wrist joints for the ring and small fingers. PMID:22920244

  17. Greening food processing industries in Vietnam: constraints and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Thi My Dieu

    2003-01-01

    The food processing industry is a large, rapidly growing sector in Vietnam and plays a vital role in its country’s economic development. However, its development currently seems to go hand-in-hand with environmental deterioration. Up to now, most research and development activities, regulations and policy measures related to environmental management of (food processing) industry in Vietnam have mainly been focussing on what to do with wastes and emissions after they had been created. However,...

  18. Food Nanotechnology: Food Packaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part the impetus for this predicted growth is the e...

  19. Food Nanotechnology - Food Packaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part, the impetus for this predicted growth is the ...

  20. Evolution of one-handed piano compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdov, Ignat; Kidd, Mark; Modlin, Irvin M

    2008-01-01

    Electronic searches were performed to investigate the evolution of one-handed piano compositions and one-handed music techniques, and to identify individuals responsible for the development of music meant for playing with one hand. Particularly, composers such as Liszt, Ravel, Scriabin, and Prokofiev established a new model in music by writing works to meet the demands of a variety of pianist-amputees that included Count Géza Zichy (1849-1924), Paul Wittgenstein (1887-1961), and Siegfried Rapp (b. 1915). Zichy was the first to amplify the scope of the repertoire to improve the variety of one-handed music; Wittgenstein developed and adapted specific and novel performance techniques to accommodate one-handedness; and Rapp sought to promote the stature of one-handed pianists among a musically sophisticated public able to appreciate the nuances of such maestros. PMID:18590863

  1. Staphylococcus aureus and hand eczema severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haslund, P; Bangsgaard, N; Jarløv, J O; Skov, L; Skov, R; Agner, T

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of bacterial infections in hand eczema (HE) remains to be assessed. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in patients with HE compared with controls, and to relate presence of S. aureus, subtypes and toxin production to severity of HE. METHODS......: Bacterial swabs were taken at three different visits from the hand and nose in 50 patients with HE and 50 controls. Staphylococcus aureus was subtyped by spa typing and assigned to clonal complexes (CCs), and isolates were tested for exotoxin-producing S. aureus strains. The Hand Eczema Severity Index was...... used for severity assessment. RESULTS: Staphylococcus aureus was found on the hands in 24 patients with HE and four controls (P < 0.001), and presence of S. aureus was found to be related to increased severity of the eczema (P < 0.001). Patients carried identical S. aureus types on the hands and in the...

  2. Hand functioning in children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarlyneArnould

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Brain lesions may disturb hand functioning in children with cerebral palsy (CP, making it difficult or even impossible for them to perform several manual activities. Most conventional treatments for hand dysfunction in CP assume that reducing the hand dysfunctions will improve the capacity to manage activities (i.e., manual ability, MA. The aim of this study was to investigate the directional relationships (direct and indirect pathways through which hand skills influence MA in children with CP. A total of 136 children with CP (mean age: 10 years; range: 6–16 years; 35 quadriplegics, 24 diplegics, 77 hemiplegics were assessed. Six hand skills were measured on both hands: touch-pressure detection (Semmes-Weinstein aesthesiometer, stereognosis (Manual Form Perception Test, proprioception (passive mobilization of the metacarpophalangeal joints, grip strength (Jamar dynamometer, gross manual dexterity (Box and Block Test, and fine finger dexterity (Purdue Pegboard Test. MA was measured with the ABILHAND-Kids questionnaire. Correlation coefficients were used to determine the linear associations between observed variables. A path analysis of structural equation modeling was applied to test different models of causal relationships among the observed variables. Purely sensory impairments did seem not to play a significant role in the capacity to perform manual activities. According to path analysis, gross manual dexterity in both hands and stereognosis in the dominant hand were directly related to MA, whereas grip strength was indirectly related to MA through its relationship with gross manual dexterity. However, one-third of the variance in MA measures could not be explained by hand skills. It can be concluded that MA is not simply the integration of hand skills in daily activities and should be treated per se, supporting activity-based interventions.

  3. Food Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Ehlers Bloksted, Josephine; Knudsen, Anna Althea; Boie Hvid, Amanda; Bang Christensen, Andrea; Ali Ismail, Mohamed Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    This paper illustrates the connection found between food choices, and the influences from society and the digital Media, more specifically television commercials. We have covered different aspects of social and psychological theories, aiming to explain how the individual is affected by social factors. We have drawn conclusions on how the individual is inflicted by society when concerning choice making, as well as covering the psychological aspects that are relevant in connection to this. Last...

  4. Food fears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radurisation can give a new lease of shelf life to food and cut down contamination, but it is bound to cause problems - even among comparatively tame South African consumers. In this article the facts about radurization are discussed: the labelling of irradiated products, the problem of making a bad product good by using irradiation, consumer pressure, attitudes, fears and resistance. The economics of radurised foodstuffs are also discussed

  5. Mapping kinematic functional abilities of the hand to three dimensional shapes for inclusive design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitkam, Samuel T; Bix, Laura; de la Fuente, Javier; Reid Bush, Tamara

    2015-08-20

    Loss of hand function can have adverse effects on an individual's ability to maintain independence. The ability to perform daily activities, such as food preparation and medication delivery, is dependent on the hand's ability to grasp and manipulate objects. Therefore, the goal of this research was to demonstrate that three dimensional (3D) modeling of hand function can be used to improve the accessibility of handheld objects for individuals with reduced functionality through informed design. Individual models of hand functionality were created for 43 participants and group models were developed for groups of individuals without (Healthy) and with reduced functionality due to arthritis (RFA) of the hand. Cylindrical models representative of auto-injectors of varying diameters were analyzed in 3D space relative to hand function. The individual model mappings showed the cylinder diameter with the highest mapped functional values varied depending on the type of functional weighting chosen: kinematic redundancy of fingertip pad positional placement, fingertip pad orientation, or finger force directionality. The group mappings showed that for a cylinder to be grasped in a power grasp by at least 75% of the Healthy or RFA groups, a diameter of 40mm was required. This research utilizes a new hand model to objectively compare design parameters across three different kinematic factors of hand function and across groups with different functional abilities. The ability to conduct these comparisons enables the creation of designs that are universal to all - including accommodation of individuals with limits in their functional abilities. PMID:25934186

  6. The mirror illusion: does proprioceptive drift go hand in hand with sense of agency?

    OpenAIRE

    Tajima, Daisuke; Mizuno, Tota; Kume, Yuichiro; Yoshida, Takako

    2015-01-01

    Vection can be regarded as the illusion of “whole-body” position perception. In contrast, the mirror illusion is that of “body-part” position perception. When participants viewed their left hands in a mirror positioned along the midsaggital axis while moving both hands synchronously, they hardly noticed the spatial offset between the hand in the mirror and the obscured real right hand. This illusion encompasses two phenomena: proprioceptive drift and sense of agency. Proprioceptive drift repr...

  7. Effectiveness of hand sanitizers with and without organic acids for removal of rhinovirus from hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Ronald B; Fuls, Janice L; Rodgers, Nancy D

    2010-03-01

    These studies evaluated the effectiveness of ethanol hand sanitizers with or without organic acids to remove detectable rhinovirus from the hands and prevent experimental rhinovirus infection. Ethanol hand sanitizers were significantly more effective than hand washing with soap and water. The addition of organic acids to the ethanol provided residual virucidal activity that persisted for at least 4 h. Whether these treatments will reduce rhinovirus infection in the natural setting remains to be determined. PMID:20047916

  8. Food deficits, food security and food aid: concepts and measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Gabbert, Silke; Weikard, Hans-Peter

    1998-01-01

    The concepts of food deficit, hunger, undernourishment and food security are discussed. Axioms and indices for the assessment of nutrition of individuals and groups are suggested. Furthermore a measure for food aid donor performance is developed and applied to a sample of bilateral and multilateral donors providing food aid for African countries.

  9. The Effect of Antibacterial Formula Hand Cleaners on the Elimination of Microbes on Hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, J. R.

    2002-05-01

    : The purpose of this project is to find out which one of the antibacterial hand cleanser (antibacterial bar soap, antibacterial liquid hand soap, and liquid hand sanitizer) is more effective in eliminating microbes. If antibacterial- formula liquid hand soap is used on soiled hands, then it will be more effective in eliminating microbes. Germs are microorganisms that cause disease and can spread from person-to-person. Bacteria are a kind of microbe, an example of which is Transient Flora that is often found on hands. Hand washing prevents germs from spreading to others. During the procedure, swabs were used to take samples before and after the soiled hands had been washed with one of the antibacterial hand cleansers. Nutrient Easygel was poured into petri dishes to harden for 1 day, and then samples were swabbed on the gel. The Petri dishes were placed in an incubator for 24 hours, and then data was recorded accordingly. The antibacterial liquid hand soap was sufficient in eliminating the majority of bacteria. The hands had 65% of the bacteria on them, and after the liquid hand soap was used only 37% of the bacteria remained.

  10. Attentional orienting to own and others' hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria, Daniel; Madrid, Eduardo; Aranda, Clara; Ruz, María

    2015-08-01

    High-density electroencephalographic recordings were used to investigate the level of analysis at which attentional expectations modulate the processing of specific stimuli from the same perceptual category but differentiated in terms of a particular non-perceptual feature: body ownership. We used a task in which colour cues predicted whether a picture of a hand stimulus belonged to the participant or to somebody else. Participants were instructed to respond whether the target was a left or a right hand. Results revealed that the ERP pattern depended on stimulus ownership and attention orienting, which influenced the visual processing of own and someone else's hands differentially. Larger amplitude for others' than for own hands was shown at the N1 deflection (at the right hemisphere). Attentional effects were found at the P2 and P3 potentials. The P2 reflected an interaction between stimulus ownership and attentional orienting, due to a larger validity effect for others' hands. At the P3 level, the data showed a significant validity effect only for self-hand stimuli. In sum, our results suggest that (1) differences as a function of stimulus ownership can be detected at early levels of stimulus processing; (2) endogenous attention can be directed to exemplars within the same category, hand stimuli in this case; (3) the effects of attention are modulated by ownership. PMID:25953649

  11. Hand hygiene among health care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani Ameet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare-associated infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients worldwide. Transmission of health care associated pathogens generally occurs via the contaminated hands of health care workers. Hand hygiene has long been considered one of the most important infection control measures to prevent health care-associated infections. For generations, hand washing with soap and water has been considered a measure of personal hygiene. As early as 1822, a French pharmacist demonstrated that solutions containing chlorides of lime or soda could eradicate the foul odor associated with human corpses and that such solutions could be used as disinfectants and antiseptics. This paper provides a comprehensive review of data regarding hand washing and hand antisepsis in healthcare settings. In addition, it provides specific recommendations to uphold improved hand-hygiene practices and reduce transmission of pathogenic microorganisms to patients and personnel in healthcare settings. This article also makes recommendations and suggests the significance of hand health hygiene in infection control.

  12. Non-subungual melanomas of the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, M J; Wikramanayake, R; Thompson, J F; McCarthy, W H

    1992-08-01

    The non-subungual area of the hand is a rare anatomical site for malignant melanoma, lesions in this site comprising only 0.37% of 8,584 cutaneous melanomas in the Sydney Melanoma Unit database. This is approximately the same frequency of melanoma as is found on the subungual region of the hand, which represents a much smaller surface area. Not only is the sub-site distribution on the hand unusual but in addition the histogenetic types of melanoma found on the dorsum of the hand are not those commonly encountered on sun exposed skin. In this study, comparison is made between melanomas occurring on the non-subungual areas of the hand and those on the foot, an anatomically similar surface area. Comparison is also made between melanomas arising on the dorsal non-subungual surface of the hand and those on the face, a region with an equivalent surface area and similar sun exposure. The results of surgical treatment of 31 melanomas of the non-subungual region of the hand are reviewed. PMID:1402273

  13. The hand-reversal illusion revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Wook Hong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The hand-reversal illusion is a visuomotor illusion that is commonly seen in children’s play. When participants attempt to lift a designated finger while their hands are cross-folded, they are likely to erroneously lift the matched finger of the other hand; however, such errors are rare when subjects close their eyes. Based on the fact that the illusion disappears without visual input, researchers previously concluded that the illusion depends upon visual and proprioceptive conflict (Van Riper, 1935. Here, we reevaluated this visual-proprioceptive conflict hypothesis by obtaining reaction time measurements because, in the original study, subjects might have relied on a strategy of responding more slowly to minimize making errors. We found that the impairment due to cross-folding one’s hand persisted in the absence of the visual input, as evidenced by delayed response times. Further, we found that such impairment occurred when the fingers of only one hand were tested, indicating that the impairment was not due to left-right confusions of the hands during tactile identification or response selection. Based on these results, we suggest that the illusion is not solely due to the conflict between visual and proprioceptive information. Instead, we propose that the unusual configuration itself that involves a reversal of the left and right hands in external space also contributes to the impaired motor response.

  14. Skin Cancer of the Hand and Upper Extremity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Skin Cancer of the Hand and Upper Extremity Email to ... cell carcinoma is the most common type of skin cancer of the hand, followed by basal cell carcinoma ...

  15. Functional food acceptance in the food chain

    OpenAIRE

    Krutulyte, Rasa

    2010-01-01

    This thesis analyses consumer acceptance of functional foods and food manufacturers' decision to develop functional foods. The thesis sets up four key research questions: (1) How consumers accept functional foods enriched with omega-3? (2) How the intention of purchasing carrier ingredient combinations is explained by general attitudes to functional foods, consumers' health concerns, and the perceived fit of a particular carrier ingredient combination? (3) How food manufacturers decide to dev...

  16. Food irradiation: A contribution to food security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For food security at the national level every country needs to evolve its own strategies to maintain a continuous supply of food between seasons. Research and development over the past 30 years have clearly demonstrated that food irradiation is a safe, effective and environmentally clean process of food preservation. The technology is beginning to play an important role in reducing post-harvest losses of food and in facilitating wider distribution of food in the trade. 1 fig., 1 tab

  17. Specificities of hand trauma in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoli? Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Hand injuries in agriculture are characterized by massive destruction of all tissues, frequent amputations of finger, hand and often the whole extremity. These injuries are mutilant and can cause death. The aim of this paper was to show the specificities of hand injuries in agriculture in regard to hand injuries of other etiology. Methods. We analyzed patients that were treated in the Department for Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Clinical Center Vojvodina, during a five-year period (2003-2007 because of hand injuries. Results. In a five-year period there were 366 patients hospitalized because of hand injuries, out of whom 36 injuries were related to agricultural machinery use. In both groups the number of patients trended to increased, with male gender being dominant. Most of the patients were young or middle-aged men. In agricultural injuries most of the patients were in the group of 41-50-year old (30%, while in the other group, the patients were younger (21-30-year old. Hand injuries in agriculture resulted in finger amputation in 92%, while in the other group that number was much smaller (13%. Skin defect reconstruction in agricultural injuries required complex methods of skin grafting or skin flaps in more than 71%, while this was necessary in only 10% of other hand injuries. Conclusion. Hand injuries in agriculture are very mutilant and often result in conquassation and finger amputation. A possibility to preserve tissue damaged in this way is very limited, and skin closer usually requires complex methods.

  18. [Sarcoma of the hand and wrist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinau, H U; Farzaliyev, F; Stricker, I; Hauser, J; Podleska, L E

    2015-04-01

    Sarcomas of the hand and wrist are rare malignancies, which should be referred to high-volume comprehensive cancer centres providing multidisciplinary treatment options. The tumour board should propose patient-oriented oncological pathways as well as sophisticated hand and plastic reconstructive procedures. In Addition, isolated limb perfusion with TNF-alpha and melphalan is likely to lead to preoperative tumour shrinkage allowing for R0 resection in sano. Our clinical results in long-term survivors demonstrate reduced amputation rates and salvage of basic hand function when a risk-adapted treatment rationale is applied. PMID:25761400

  19. Hand eczema in the TOACS cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortz, C G; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2014-01-01

    and participate in a clinical examination including patch testing (TRUE(®) Test). RESULTS: The incidence of hand eczema was 8.8/1000 person-years. The one-year period prevalence of hand eczema in the young adults was 14.3% (127/891) and the point prevalence 7.1% (63/891) with significantly higher...... in 28-30 years old adults and it was highly associated with childhood hand eczema and atopic dermatitis together with wet work and taking care of small children in adulthood. There was no association to smoking, education level or nickel allergy in childhood. This article is protected by copyright...

  20. Circuit For Control Of Electromechanical Prosthetic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed circuit for control of electromechanical prosthetic hand derives electrical control signals from shoulder movements. Updated, electronic version of prosthesis, that includes two hooklike fingers actuated via cables from shoulder harness. Circuit built around favored shoulder harness, provides more dexterous movement, without incurring complexity of computer-controlled "bionic" or hydraulically actuated devices. Additional harness and potentiometer connected to similar control circuit mounted on other shoulder. Used to control stepping motor rotating hand about prosthetic wrist to one of number of angles consistent with number of digital outputs. Finger-control signals developed by circuit connected to first shoulder harness transmitted to prosthetic hand via sliprings at prosthetic wrist joint.

  1. Hand Gesture Recognition: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiqul Zaman Khan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Hand gesture recognition system received great attention in the recent few years because of itsmanifoldness applications and the ability to interact with machine efficiently through human computerinteraction. In this paper a survey of recent hand gesture recognition systems is presented. Key issues ofhand gesture recognition system are presented with challenges of gesture system. Review methods of recentpostures and gestures recognition system presented as well. Summary of research results of hand gesturemethods, databases, and comparison between main gesture recognition phases are also given. Advantagesand drawbacks of the discussed systems are explained finally

  2. Management of post burn hand deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabapathy S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The hand is ranked among the three most frequent sites of burns scar contracture deformity. One of the major determinants of the quality of life in burns survivors is the functionality of the hands. Burns deformities, although largely preventable, nevertheless do occur when appropriate treatment is not provided in the acute situation or when they are part of a major burns. Reconstructive procedures can greatly improve the function of the hands. Appropriate choice of procedures and timing of surgery followed by supervised physiotherapy can be a boon for a burns survivor.

  3. Junk Food and Body Mass Index

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... mass index. There was no significant difference in consumption of fast food, soft drinks or desserts between overweight and healthy weight individuals. On the other hand, fruit and vegetable consumption did vary significantly between BMI categories. The study ...

  4. Development of Anthropomorphic Robot Hand with Tactile Sensor:SKKU Hand II

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Byung June; Chun, Jooyoung; Choi, and Hyouk Ryeol

    2008-01-01

    In this research, an anthropomorphic robot hand with tactile sensing system called SKKU Hand II was developed. Different from the previous gripper-type robot hands, the thumb of SKKU Hand II is designed as one part of the palm and provides the mobility of the palm. The robot hand is actuated by built-in DC motors, and fingertip tactile sensors are attached to its fingertips. A tactile sensor which can detects contact normal forces as well as slip is made of two organic materials, such as poly...

  5. Food Product Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Inspection Service Topics Careers Data Collection and Reports Fact Sheets Food Defense and Emergency Response Food Safety ... Z Index Help Topics Careers Data Collection and Reports Fact Sheets Food Defense and Emergency Response Food Safety ...

  6. New frontiers in the rubber hand experiment: when a robotic hand becomes one's own.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspar, Emilie A; De Beir, Albert; Magalhaes De Saldanha Da Gama, Pedro A; Yernaux, Florence; Cleeremans, Axel; Vanderborght, Bram

    2015-09-01

    The rubber hand illusion is an experimental paradigm in which participants consider a fake hand to be part of their body. This paradigm has been used in many domains of psychology (i.e., research on pain, body ownership, agency) and is of clinical importance. The classic rubber hand paradigm nevertheless suffers from limitations, such as the absence of active motion or the reliance on approximate measurements, which makes strict experimental conditions difficult to obtain. Here, we report on the development of a novel technology-a robotic, user- and computer-controllable hand-that addresses many of the limitations associated with the classic rubber hand paradigm. Because participants can actively control the robotic hand, the device affords higher realism and authenticity. Our robotic hand has a comparatively low cost and opens up novel and innovative methods. In order to validate the robotic hand, we have carried out three experiments. The first two studies were based on previous research using the rubber hand, while the third was specific to the robotic hand. We measured both sense of agency and ownership. Overall, results show that participants experienced a "robotic hand illusion" in the baseline conditions. Furthermore, we also replicated previous results about agency and ownership. PMID:24942249

  7. Color-Removal by Microorganisms Isolated from Human Hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsukasa Ito

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms are essential for human life. Microorganisms decompose the carbon compounds in dead animals and plants and convert them into carbon dioxide. Intestinal bacteria assist in food digestion. Some vitamins are produced by bacteria that live in the intestines. Sewage and industrial wastewater are treated by activated sludge composed of microbial communities. All of these are due to the ability of microbes to produce many enzymes that can degrade chemicals. How do teachers make students understand that microorganisms are always associated with humans, and that microorganisms have the ability to degrade chemicals? The presence of microorganisms on humans can be shown by incubating agar plates after they are touched by the hands of students. The ability of microorganisms to degrade chemicals can be shown by an analytical measurement of the degradation of chemicals. When the chemicals are dyes (colorants in water, microbial activity on degradation of dyes can be demonstrated by observing a decreasing degree of color as a result of the enzymatic activity (e.g., azoreductase. Dyes are widely used in the textile, food, and cosmetic industries. They are generally resistant to conventional biological wastewater treatment systems such as the activated sludge process (4. The discharge of wastewater containing dye pollutes surface water. The ability of microorganisms to decolorize and degrade dyes has been widely investigated to use for bioremediation purposes (5. The goal of this tip is to understand the presence of bacteria on human skin and the ability of bacteria to degrade colorant chemicals (decolorization. In this tip, students first cultivate and isolate bacteria on their hands, and then examine potential decolorization activity of each bacterium by observing the degree of color of the liquid in tubes in which bacteria isolated from students’ hands were inoculated. Decolorization activity of bacterial isolates from human skin has been reported recently (6. To date this author has frequently obtained colorant-degrading bacterial isolates from human hands as a result of work on a scientific education project. This tip does not require analytical measurements. Students can examine a number of bacterial isolates simultaneously. Therefore, it is appropriate for high school and introductory level college courses.

  8. Personal Authentication System using Hand Vein Biometric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sathish

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With an increasing emphasis on security, automated personal identification using hand vein biometric feature is becoming a very active topic in both research and practical applications. The objective of this work is to present a biometric authentication system for high security physical access control based on hand vein pattern. Hand vein biometric is selected, as it is foolproof, offers higher security and reliable for identification.The feature extraction stage consists of removal of the noise inherent using various filtering techniques and extraction of the most discriminating information present in the images using Discrete Wavelet Transform and Adaptive Thresholding techniques. The proposed recognition system makes use of hausdorff distance as matching parameter. The biometric system developed was tested on WASET hand vein image database of Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of Automation is used and the system is implemented in MATLAB. The proposed approach found to report higher verification accuracy of 99.5%.

  9. Robot hand tackles jobs in hazardous areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A robot hand and arm designed to mimic the operation of its human counterpart, developed at the University of Southampton for use in a standard industrial glovebox, is described. It was specifically designed for use in a radioactive environment moving high dosage components around. As dosage limits go down, there is a legal requirement to remove people from that environment. The nine-axis arm is for use in a glove designed for a human hand. Drive for the motors used to power the hand is from three-phase MOSFET inventor cards, the switching pattern controlled by the Hall effect communication sensors integral to each motor. The computer software for the arm allows the hand to be positioned using a joystick on a control box, with three levels of command for grip, pinch and touch. (author)

  10. Hand and foot syndrome secondary to capecitabine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Shaikh Lal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 55-year-old woman on treatment with capecitabine and paclitaxel for breast carcinoma presented with history of a tingling sensation in her hands and feet with a progressive burning sensation. She also noted discomfort, minimal pain and stiffness while holding objects. On examination, there was patchy hyperpigmentation of both the palms and soles, and the dorsa of hands and feet. This was accompanied by a thickening of the skin more over the knuckles and toes. In addition there was a moist desquamation around the toes and over the palmar creases and a bluish discoloration of the lunulae of both thumbnails. She was diagnosed with hand and foot syndrome and started on pyridoxine and emollients. The finding of keratoderma noted in our patient is not seen commonly in hand and foot syndrome.

  11. Electromagnetic behaviour of left-handed materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafesaki, M.; Koschny, Th.; Zhou, J.; Katsarakis, N.; Tsiapa, I.; Economou, E. N.; Soukoulis, C. M.

    2007-05-01

    Using periodic materials composed of split-ring resonators (SRRs) and continuous wires is, up to now, the most common way of obtaining left-handed behaviour in the microwaves regime. In this work, using transmission simulations and measurements, we examine the electromagnetic behaviour of those materials, focusing mainly on their response to an external electric field and its crucial role in the achievement of left-handed behaviour. Moreover, we examine and theoretically demonstrate the possibility of the SRRs&wires design to give left-handed behaviour in the infrared and optical regime, as well as the possibility of obtaining left-handed behaviour using an alternative for the SRRs&wires design composed of pairs of short wires.

  12. Electromagnetic behaviour of left-handed materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafesaki, M. [Foundation for Research and Technology, Hellas (FORTH), Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), P.O. Box 1527, 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece) and Department of Materials Science and Technology, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)]. E-mail: kafesaki@iesl.forth.gr; Koschny, Th. [Foundation for Research and Technology, Hellas (FORTH), Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), P.O. Box 1527, 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Ames Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA (United States); Zhou, J. [Ames Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA (United States); Katsarakis, N. [Foundation for Research and Technology, Hellas (FORTH), Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), P.O. Box 1527, 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Science Department, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Heraklion (Greece); Tsiapa, I. [Foundation for Research and Technology, Hellas (FORTH), Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), P.O. Box 1527, 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Economou, E.N. [Foundation for Research and Technology, Hellas (FORTH), Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), P.O. Box 1527, 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Department of Physics, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Soukoulis, C.M. [Foundation for Research and Technology, Hellas (FORTH), Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), P.O. Box 1527, 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Ames Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA (United States); Department of Materials Science and Technology, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2007-05-15

    Using periodic materials composed of split-ring resonators (SRRs) and continuous wires is, up to now, the most common way of obtaining left-handed behaviour in the microwaves regime. In this work, using transmission simulations and measurements, we examine the electromagnetic behaviour of those materials, focusing mainly on their response to an external electric field and its crucial role in the achievement of left-handed behaviour. Moreover, we examine and theoretically demonstrate the possibility of the SRRs and wires design to give left-handed behaviour in the infrared and optical regime, as well as the possibility of obtaining left-handed behaviour using an alternative for the SRRs and wires design composed of pairs of short wires.

  13. Electromagnetic behaviour of left-handed materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using periodic materials composed of split-ring resonators (SRRs) and continuous wires is, up to now, the most common way of obtaining left-handed behaviour in the microwaves regime. In this work, using transmission simulations and measurements, we examine the electromagnetic behaviour of those materials, focusing mainly on their response to an external electric field and its crucial role in the achievement of left-handed behaviour. Moreover, we examine and theoretically demonstrate the possibility of the SRRs and wires design to give left-handed behaviour in the infrared and optical regime, as well as the possibility of obtaining left-handed behaviour using an alternative for the SRRs and wires design composed of pairs of short wires

  14. Food irradiation in Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report explains the process and issues that concern consumers, workers in the food industry and people involved in food policy, public health and environmental protection. It argues that safety assurances by experts are not enough, and calls for a full public debate on all issues surrounding food irradiation, including a) wholesomeness of irradiated foods - food quality, nutrition losses, chemical and other changes in irradiated foods b) consumers rights to information about irradiated foods c) health and safety of food industry workers d) the economics of irradiation - food prices, changes in patters of employment, environmental impacts e) regulation and monitoring of food irradiation and imported irradiated foods. (U.K.)

  15. Staphylococcus aureus and hand eczema severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haslund, P; Bangsgaard, N; Jarløv, J O; Skov, L; Skov, R; Agner, T

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of bacterial infections in hand eczema (HE) remains to be assessed. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in patients with HE compared with controls, and to relate presence of S. aureus, subtypes and toxin production to severity of HE. METHODS: Bacterial swabs were taken at three different visits from the hand and nose in 50 patients with HE and 50 controls. Staphylococcus aureus was subtyped by spa typing and assigned to clonal complexes (CCs), an...

  16. Dental education of left-handed students

    OpenAIRE

    Grga ?urica; Mileti? Vesna

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Asymmetrical activity of brain hemispheres is projected through laterality e.g. the dominance of one of the paired organs. A very important way of laterality manifestation is left-handedness. The lef-handed must solve various conflicts with their environment, so mild left-handedness usually shifts into dominant right-handedness in the early childhood, fortunately with no difficulties. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the number and distribution of left-handed dent...

  17. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives: Patient Admission Video

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-05-01

    This podcast is for hospital patients and visitors. It emphasizes two key points to help prevent infections: the importance of practicing hand hygiene while in the hospital, and that it's appropriate to ask or remind healthcare providers to practice hand hygiene.  Created: 5/1/2008 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID).   Date Released: 6/19/2008.

  18. Controller design for Robotic hand through Electroencephalogram

    OpenAIRE

    Pandelidis P.; Kiriazis N.; Orgianelis K.; Koulios N.

    2016-01-01

    - This paper deals with the designing, the construction and the control of a robotic hand via an electroencephalogram sensor. First a robotic device that is able to mimic a real human hand is constructed. A PID controller is designed in order to improve the performance of the robotic arm for grabbing objects. Furthermore, a novel design approach is presented for controlling the motion of the robotic arm using signals produced from an innovative electroencephalogram sensor that detects the con...

  19. Design and Control of Robotic Hands

    OpenAIRE

    Scarcia, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    The application of dexterous robotic hands out of research laboratories has been limited by the intrinsic complexity that these devices present. This is directly reflected as an economically unreasonable cost and a low overall reliability. Within the research reported in this thesis it is shown how the problem of complexity in the design of robotic hands can be tackled, taking advantage of modern technologies (i.e. rapid prototyping), leading to innovative concepts for the design of the mecha...

  20. Kinematic synthesis for smart hand prosthetics

    OpenAIRE

    Duraisamy, Karthikeyan; Isebor, Obiajulu; Pérez Gracia, Alba; Schoen, Marco P.; Naidu, Desineni Subbaram

    2006-01-01

    The dream of a bionic replacement appendage is becoming reality through the use of mechatronic prostheses that utilize the body’s myoelectric signals. This paper presents a process to accurately capture the motion of the human hand joints; the obtained information is to be used in conjunction with myoelectric signal identification for motion control. In this work, the human hand is modeled as a set of links connected by joints, which are approximated to standard revolu...