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The use of fish in Ilhabela (São Paulo/Brazil): preferences, food taboos and medicinal indications / O uso de peixes em Ilhabela (São Paulo, Brasil): preferências, tabus alimentares e indicações medicinais  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho foi realizado em três comunidades de pescadores artesanais de Ilhabela, localizadas no litoral norte do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. O objetivo foi analisar as preferências, os tabus e as indicações medicinais dos peixes e, desta forma, representar as interações dos pescadores com os r [...] ecursos pesqueiros, visando entender os aspectos biológicos e culturais envolvidos. A coleta dos dados foi realizada através de entrevistas com o auxílio de questionários semi-estruturados. Foram entrevistadas 25 famílias, das 29 residentes nas três comunidades estudadas durante a coleta de dados, sendo que 5 delas foram realizadas na Praia do Jabaquara, 6 na Praia da Fome e 14 na Praia da Serraria. Foram citadas 18 consideradas preferidas para o consumo, 11 espécies consideradas como tabus, 5 espécies evitadas e 4 indicadas no caso de doenças. As famílias de pescadores preferem consumir peixes de escama e não consomem o baiacu, este último provavelmente devido a sua característica tóxica. Peixes como bonito, espada, cação, sororoca e cavala são evitados em casos como feridas, inflamações, gravidez e pós parto e outros como pirajica, marimba, anchova e garoupa são indicados como peixes medicinais nestas situações. Aspectos relativos ao consumo de pescado fazem parte do corpo de conhecimento dos pescadores e suas famílias e constituem um acervo rico de informações que somadas as informações biológicas são úteis para a conservação dos recursos pesqueiros. Dados como os apresentados nesse estudo, com relação ao uso de animais aquáticos para tratamento de doenças, podem servir de base para estudos futuros sobre substâncias que contenham elementos ativos na cura de doenças. Abstract in english This study was conducted in three communities of artisanal fishermen from Ilhabela, located on the northern coast of São Paulo, Brazil. The objective was to analyze the preferences, taboos and medicinal indications of fish and thus representing one of the interactions of fishermen with fish stocks. [...] Data collection was conducted through interviews with the aid of semi-structured questionnaires. We interviewed 25 families, 29 residents in three communities studied during our fieldwork for data collection. Five interviews were done in Jabaquara Beach, 6 in Fome Beach and 14 Serraria Beach. During the interviews, 18 species were cited as preferred for consumption, 11 species considered to be taboo (food prohibited), 5 species were cited as avoided as food, and 4 species indicated in case of illness. The families of fishermen prefer to consume finfish and do not consume puffer fish, the latter probably due to its toxic characteristic. Fish such as little tunny, largehead hairtail, shark, serra mackerel and king mackerel are avoided by unhealthy people and in cases of wounds, inflammation, pregnancy and postpartum. Other fish, such as sea chubs, silver porgy, bluefish and grouper are reported as medicinal in these situations. Aspects related to fish consumption are part of the knowledge of fishermen and their families and provide a wealth of information that combined to biological information is useful for the conservation of fishery resources. Data such as those presented in this study, regarding the use of aquatic animals for treatment of diseases, could serve as a basis for future studies on substances that contain active elements in curing diseases.

Milena, Ramires; Matheus Marcos, Rotundo; Alpina, Begossi.

2012-03-01

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Sens et enjeux d’un interdit alimentaire dans le judaïsme Food taboos in Judaism: the example of Ashkenazi Jews in London  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cet article porte sur la manière dont la prohibition de mêler nourritures lactées et carnées dans le judaïsme se matérialise par les objets de la cuisine et leurs usages quotidiens, à partir d’une recherche réalisée à Londres auprès de couples juifs ashkénazes qui se définissent presque tous comme orthodoxes (modern orthodox et dont la scolarisation dans des écoles juives a parfois pu contribuer à revivifier les pratiques religieuses. Par delà la diversité des habitudes culinaires et de leurs formes (ex : végétarisme, par delà les éventuelles variations individuelles de l’observance religieuse au cours du cycle de vie, l’interdit alimentaire de mêler lait et viande est respecté par l’ensemble des personnes rencontrées. Il s’agit alors d’en comprendre le sens et la portée. Les conséquences matérielles de cet interdit alimentaire permettent de saisir l’importance de la religion dans le logement et les activités de tous les jours. Elles conduisent à articuler le plan matériel et le plan symbolique en suggérant une interprétation anthropologique de cette prohibition, en lien avec les écrits bibliques et les analyses déjà menées sur le sujet.This article is based upon research on Ashkenazi Jewish families living in London. It deals with the way, in Judaïsm, the prohibition of eating meat and dairy foods together is materialised through the use of kitchen utensils on a day to day basis. Material consequences of this dietary law allow us to understand the importance of religion in the Jewish home and in everyday life. Consequences which lead to the linking of material uses and their symbolic significance by suggesting an anthropological interpretation of this dietary law in accordance with Biblical writings.

Laurence Faure

2010-12-01

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Jeux tabous : littératures Taboo plays: Literature  

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Full Text Available La thèse de Georges Bataille sur l’art comme transgression, et d’abord du tabou concernant la mort, est ici mise à l’épreuve de trois œuvres littéraires du XXe siècle. C’est le tabou des morts en sa violence primitive qui s’y inscrit, mais sans effacer ce qu’il frappe, d’où l’effet libérateur du texte.Georges Bataille’s thesis – art as transgression of taboo, especially taboo regarding death – is tested by three literary works of XXth century. The taboo concerning dead persons is here written, with its primitive violence but what it prohibits is not obliterated. Hence the liberating effect of the text.

Brigitte Galtier

2009-09-01

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The Relations Among Threatened Species, Their Protection, and Taboos  

OpenAIRE

We analyzed the role of taboos for the protection of species listed as "threatened" by the World Conservation Union (IUCN), and also for species known to be endemic and keystone. The study was limited to taboos that totally avoid or prohibit any use of particular species and their populations. We call them specific-species taboos . Through a literature review, 70 currently existing examples of specific-species taboos were identified and analyzed. The species avoided were grouped int...

Carl Folke; Johan Colding

1997-01-01

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Identity, Morals and Taboos: Beliefs as Assets  

OpenAIRE

We develop a theory of moral behavior, individual and collective, based on a general model of identity in which people care about “who they are” and infer their own values from past choices. The model sheds light on many empirical puzzles inconsistent with earlier approaches. Identity investments respond nonmonotonically to recent acts or threats, and taboos on mere thoughts arise to protect beliefs about the “priceless” value of certain social assets. High endowments trigger escal...

Be?nabou, Roland; Tirole, Jean

2011-01-01

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A hand-made supplementary food for malnourished children.  

Science.gov (United States)

We tested the possibility to prepare a hyperproteic and hyperenergetic supplementary food for malnutrition rehabilitation in children starting from available ingredients in popular markets in Sierra Leone. Twelve residents in Paediatrics from University of Parma, Italy, prepared in a hospital near the capital Freetown with modest technology a mixture of peanut flour, palm oil, milk powder, sugar and vitamins to which they gave the name of "Parma pap". Three hundred and thirty-two malnourished children (mean age 14±6.3 months) who were receiving Feeding Program Supplementations (FPS), were enrolled in the study: 177 participants received randomly FSP portions only (Group 1), and 159 participants were treated with FSP regimen plus a supplement of "Parma pap" (Group 2). Outcomes of the study were computed as WHZ-score increment (? value) by subtracting the discharge WHZ-score from the admission WHZ-score. The best ?-WHZ-scores (>+4) were recorded among participants of Group 2 (64%) rather than in Group 1 (21%; p=0.040). The children receiving FSP portions plus "Parma pap" recovered faster (5.54 week on average) than those treated with FSP regimen only (8.16 on average). The percentage of children who did not recover was higher in Group 1 (25.3%) than in Group 2 (; 13%; p=0.05). A slight positive correlation has been found between WHZ-scores at admission and at the end of the study (r=0.19; p=0.045). During the experience in Sierra Leone we have had the chance to give "Parma pap" to twenty one malnourished children admitted to Xaverian Mission in Makeni, northern Sierra Leone, not taking other supplementary food. Sixteen of these children recovered in 4.9 week on average and five in 6 to 8 weeks. Mean ?-WHZ-scores ranged between + 1 and + 5. The data from the present study suggest that "Parma pap" could be an effective additional food to FPS regimen in malnutrition recovering. Further researches are needed on the contrary to prove if "Parma pap" could be defined as a veritable ready to use therapeutic food, although this characteristic seems already to result from the experience in Makeni Mission. PMID:25567460

Vanelli, Maurizio; Virdis, Raffaele; Contini, Sandro; Corradi, Mara; Cremonini, Giulia; Marchesi, Maddalena; Mele, Alessandra; Monti, Francesca; Pagano, Blandina; Proietti, Ilaria; Savina, Francesca; Verna, Marta; Vitale, Rosa; Zanzucchi, Matteo; Brighenti, Furio; Vittadini, Elena; Del Rio, Daniele; Scazzina, Francesca; Porcu, Andrea

2014-01-01

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Norovirus transmission between hands, gloves, utensils, and fresh produce during simulated food handling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human noroviruses (HuNoVs), a leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis worldwide, are easily transferred via ready-to-eat (RTE) foods, often prepared by infected food handlers. In this study, the transmission of HuNoV and murine norovirus (MuNoV) from virus-contaminated hands to latex gloves during gloving, as well as from virus-contaminated donor surfaces to recipient surfaces after simulated preparation of cucumber sandwiches, was inspected. Virus transfer was investigated by swabbing with polyester swabs, followed by nucleic acid extraction from the swabs with a commercial kit and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. During gloving, transfer of MuNoV dried on the hand was observed 10/12 times. HuNoV, dried on latex gloves, was disseminated to clean pairs of gloves 10/12 times, whereas HuNoV without drying was disseminated 11/12 times. In the sandwich-preparing simulation, both viruses were transferred repeatedly to the first recipient surface (left hand, cucumber, and knife) during the preparation. Both MuNoV and HuNoV were transferred more efficiently from latex gloves to cucumbers (1.2% ± 0.6% and 1.5% ± 1.9%) than vice versa (0.7% ± 0.5% and 0.5% ± 0.4%). We estimated that transfer of at least one infective HuNoV from contaminated hands to the sandwich prepared was likely to occur if the hands of the food handler contained 3 log10 or more HuNoVs before gloving. Virus-contaminated gloves were estimated to transfer HuNoV to the food servings more efficiently than a single contaminated cucumber during handling. Our results indicate that virus-free food ingredients and good hand hygiene are needed to prevent HuNoV contamination of RTE foods. PMID:24951789

Rönnqvist, M; Aho, E; Mikkelä, A; Ranta, J; Tuominen, P; Rättö, M; Maunula, L

2014-09-01

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Transgression and Taboo : The Field of Fan Fiction  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This essay draws upon Georges Bataille’s notions of transgression and taboo as co-dependently involved in a play of differences as a framework for discussing agents in the field of fan fiction. More particularly, I outline the way in which fans and authors, or producers of texts, have been conceptualised in ways that recall transgression and taboo.

Kirk, Jens

2011-01-01

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Consequences of occupational food-related hand dermatoses with a focus on protein contact dermatitis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background. Protein contact dermatitis is a frequent disorder among hand eczema patients who have occupational food contact. Knowledge about the consequences of having protein contact dermatitis is lacking. Objectives. To investigate the consequences of having occupational skin disease on the hands resulting from food handling, with a focus on protein contact dermatitis. Material and methods. One hundred and seventy-eight patients who were identified as having skin disease related to occupational food exposure and who answered a questionnaire concerning the consequences of their skin disease were included in the study. The patients were consecutively examined at Gentofte Hospital, Denmark between 2001 and 2010. Results. Seventy-five per cent of patients with protein contact dermatitis had to wear gloves at work, and 62.5% reported sick leave lasting for >3 weeks, as compared with 60.2% and 30%, respectively, of the patients with other occupational food-related hand dermatoses (p = 0.02). Sixty-two per cent and 43%, respectively, had to change job because of skin problems (p = 0.02). Atopic dermatitis was equally common in the two groups. Conclusion. We found that the patients with protein contact dermatitis experienced more severe and frequent consequences than patients with other food-related hand dermatoses.

Vester, Lotte; Thyssen, Jacob P

2012-01-01

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The Relations Among Threatened Species, Their Protection, and Taboos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We analyzed the role of taboos for the protection of species listed as "threatened" by the World Conservation Union (IUCN, and also for species known to be endemic and keystone. The study was limited to taboos that totally avoid or prohibit any use of particular species and their populations. We call them specific-species taboos . Through a literature review, 70 currently existing examples of specific-species taboos were identified and analyzed. The species avoided were grouped into biological classes. Threat categories were determined for each species, based on the IUCN Red Data Book. We found that ~ 30% of the identified taboos prohibit any use of species listed as threatened by IUCN. Of the specific-species taboos, 60% are set on reptiles and mammals. In these two classes, ~ 50% of the species are threatened, representing all of the threatened species in our analysis, with the exception of one bird species. Both endemic and keystone species that are important for ecosystem functions are avoided by specific-species taboos. Specific-species taboos have important ecological ramifications for the protection of threatened and ecologically important populations of species. We do not suggest that specific-species taboos are placed on species because they are, or have been, endangered; instead, we emphasize that species are avoided for a variety of other reasons. It is urgent to identify and analyze resource practices and social mechanisms of traditional societies, such as taboos, and to investigate their possible ecological significance. Although it may provide insights of value for conservation, not only of species, but also of ecosystem processes and functions, such information is being lost rapidly.

Carl Folke

1997-06-01

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Taboos in China: To Be or Not to Be  

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Full Text Available With powerful influence on the people, taboos should be noticed with keen awareness and handled with cautious respect for international visitors in China, a traditional country in its process of modernization, if successful cross-cultural communication is to be achieved. In the ever changing and integrating world, Chinese taboos are never free from differentiation: some are permant; some are newly shaped; some are weakening; and some have even totally disappeared. The introduction of Chinese taboos in different aspects of life and their tendency of development should hopefully provide help for those from the rest of the world to overcome cultural barriers in relation with the Chinese people.

Fuyu Chen

2012-06-01

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Occupational food-related hand dermatoses seen over a 10-year period  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background. Protein contact dermatitis was originally defined in 1976 by Hjorth and Roed-Petersen as a distinct kind of dermatitis seen in patients with occupational food contact. Even though occupational skin diseases are frequent in Denmark, little attention has been paid to protein contact dermatitis, and the frequency is unknown. Objectives. To evaluate the frequency of occupational food-related hand dermatoses and test results in patients occupationally exposed to foods. Materials and Methods. This was a retrospective study based on examinations, including skin prick testing and patch testing, performed at the Department of Dermato-Allergology, Gentofte University Hospital, Denmark between 2001 and 2010. Results. Of all patients (n = 372), 57.0% had irritant contact dermatitis, 22.0% had protein contact dermatitis, 2.4% had contact urticaria, and 1.8% had allergic contact dermatitis. A suggestion for diagnostic criteria is presented. Frequent risk occupations were cooking in restaurants, baking, and kitchen work. Substantially more patients reacted in skin prick testing with fresh foods than with food extracts. Conclusion. Protein contact dermatitis is a frequent disorder among patients who professionally handle foods, and should be considered to be a distinct clinical entity. When diagnosing protein contact dermatitis and in other food-related skin prick testing procedures, it is important to include fresh foods.

Vester, Lotte; Thyssen, Jacob P

2012-01-01

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Routing Optimization Based on Taboo Search Algorithm for Logistic Distribution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Along with the widespread application of the electronic commerce in the modern business, the logistic distribution has become increasingly important. More and more enterprises recognize that the logistic distribution plays an important role in the process of production and sales. A good routing for logistic distribution can cut down transport cost and improve efficiency. In order to cut down transport cost and improve efficiency, a routing optimization based on taboo search for logistic distribution is proposed in this paper. Taboo search is a metaheuristic search method to perform local search used for logistic optimization. The taboo search is employed to accelerate convergence and the aspiration criterion is combined with the heuristics algorithm to solve routing optimization. Simulation experimental results demonstrate that the optimal routing in the logistic distribution can be quickly obtained by the taboo search algorithm

Hongxue Yang

2014-04-01

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De-tabooing dying control - a grounded theory study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Dying is inescapable yet remains a neglected issue in modern health care. The research question in this study was “what is going on in the field of dying today?” What emerged was to eventually present a grounded theory of control of dying focusing specifically on how people react in relation to issues about euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS). Methods Classic grounded theory was used to analyze interviews with 55 laypersons and health care professionals in North America and Europe, surveys on attitudes to PAS among physicians and the Swedish general public, and scientific literature, North American discussion forum websites, and news sites. Results Open awareness of the nature and timing of a patient’s death became common in health care during the 1960s in the Western world. Open dying awareness contexts can be seen as the start of a weakening of a taboo towards controlled dying called de-tabooing. The growth of the hospice movement and palliative care, but also the legalization of euthanasia and PAS in the Benelux countries, and PAS in Montana, Oregon and Washington further represents de-tabooing dying control. An attitude positioning between the taboo of dying control and a growing taboo against questioning patient autonomy and self-determination called de-paternalizing is another aspect of de-tabooing. When confronted with a taboo, people first react emotionally based on “gut feelings” - emotional positioning. This is followed by reasoning and label wrestling using euphemisms and dysphemisms - reflective positioning. Rarely is de-tabooing unconditional but enabled by stipulated positioning as in soft laws (palliative care guidelines) and hard laws (euthanasia/PAS legislation). From a global perspective three shapes of dying control emerge. First, suboptimal palliative care in closed awareness contexts seen in Asian, Islamic and Latin cultures, called closed dying. Second, palliative care and sedation therapy, but not euthanasia or PAS, is seen in Europe and North America, called open dying with reversible medical control. Third, palliative care, sedation therapy, and PAS or euthanasia occurs together in the Benelux countries, Oregon, Washington and Montana, called open dying with irreversible medical control. Conclusions De-tabooing dying control is an assumed secular process starting with open awareness contexts of dying half a century ago, and continuing with the growth of the palliative care movement and later euthanasia and PAS legislation. PMID:23496849

2013-01-01

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ASSESSING THE OFFENSIVENESS LEVEL OF TABOO WORDS IN PERSIAN  

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Full Text Available Taboo words have always been embarrassing and even frightening to utter among almost all human beings. This issue takes on a very particular shape in a religion-stricken society like Iran with its own particular way of conceptualization of morality. This study examines the effect of “gender” and “ formality of situations” on the use of euphemisms in Persian. Adopting Allan & Burridge(2006’s pragmatic approach towards euphemisms, we aimed to find out 1. How social and contextual variables affect the use of euphemisms 2.then, determine the x-phemistic value of taboo-denoting words and expressins. This was carried out through distributing an opinion survey among 30 Iranian men and women ranging 20 to 30 years old, in which they were asked to determine the x-phemistic value(euphemistic-orthophemistic-dysphemistic of 15 words and expressions denoting the concept ‘prostitute’ ranging from highly euphemistic to complete taboo, based on the provided circumstances in the questionnare.

Mohsen BAKHTIAR

2011-10-01

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Chinese Cultural Taboos That Affect Their Language & Behavior Choices  

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Full Text Available Every culture has its own taboos. Communication works better when the participants share more assumptions and knowledge about each other (Scollon & Scollon, 2000. However, in many cases, participants realize the existence of the rules associated with taboos only after they have violated them. Those who do not observe these social “rules” might face serious results, such as total embarrassment or, as Saville-Troike (1989 puts it, they may be accused of immorality and face social ostracism. This paper reports that certain verbal and non-verbal taboos among Chinese people centuries ago still affect their language and behavior choices. Two types of Chinese possible taboos in language and behavior are introduced and compared with cultures of the Koreans and Americans: (1 gift-giving taboos which are phonologically linked to the “separation” and “death” in Chinese society, and (2 verbal expressions which are linked to the twelve zodiac-animals in Chinese traditional metaphors. This research paper also tries to answer two questions related to Asian culture and history: (1 whether Koreans share more of these phonologically-linked taboos than Americans do because Korean language has very similar sounds to Chinese; and (2 whether Koreans share with Chinese people more of the zodiac-animal-linked metaphors (i.e., the rat, the bull/cow, the tiger, the rabbit, the dragon, the snake, the horse, the sheep/lamb, the monkey, the chicken, the dog, and the pig than Americans do because Korean people also use the same animals as a cycle of every twelve years. Data were collected in two ways: questionnaires and interviews.

Man-ping Chu

2009-07-01

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Communicate science: an example of food related hands-on laboratory approach  

Science.gov (United States)

The Laboratorio Didattica e Divulgazione Scientifica of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV's Educational and Outreach Laboratory) organized activity with kids to convey scientific knowledge and to promote research on Earth Science, focusing on volcanic and seismic hazard. The combination of games and learning in educational activity can be a valuable tool for study of complex phenomena. Hands-on activity may help in engage kids in a learning process through direct participation that significantly improves the learning performance of children. Making learning fun motivate audience to pay attention on and stay focused on the subject. We present the experience of the hand-on laboratory "Laboratorio goloso per bambini curiosi di scienza (a delicious hands-on laboratory for kids curious about science)", performed in Frascati during the 2013 European Researchers' Night, promoted by the European Commission, as part of the program organized by the Laboratorio Didattica e Divulgazione Scientifica in the framework of Associazione Frascati Scienza (http://www.frascatiscienza.it/). The hand-on activity were designed for primary schools to create enjoyable and unusual tools for learning Earth Science. During this activity kids are involved with something related to everyday life, such as food, through manipulation, construction and implementation of simple experiments related to Earth dynamics. Children become familiar with scientific concepts such as composition of the Earth, plates tectonic, earthquakes and seismic waves propagation and experience the effect of earthquakes on buildings, exploring their important implications for seismic hazard. During the activity, composed of several steps, participants were able to learn about Earth inner structure, fragile lithosphere, waves propagations, impact of waves on building ecc.., dealing with eggs, cookies, honey, sugar, polenta, flour, chocolate, candies, liquorice sticks, bread, pudding and sweets. The activity was successful as more than 500 kids of different ages participated with great enthusiasm, as well as they parents, and gave the chance to explore and manipulate even complex scientific arguments without getting the feeling of having doing this.

D'Addezio, Giuliana; Marsili, Antonella; Vallocchia, Massimiliano

2014-05-01

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Is hippophagy a taboo in constant evolution?  

OpenAIRE

Food choice is strongly determined by religious and cultural elements specific to each civilization. Numerous food prescriptions concern meat, beginning with the total or partial ban on meat. Among the numerous animal species concerned by religious or cultural prohibitions, horse meat occupies an original place because the ban on its consumption varies a lot according to places and times. Widely consumed in Eurasia in the Prehistory, horse meat is still eaten by many in the big steppes of Cen...

Leteux, Sylvain

2012-01-01

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The allure of the forbidden: breaking taboos, frustration, and attraction to violent video games.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although people typically avoid engaging in antisocial or taboo behaviors, such as cheating and stealing, they may succumb in order to maximize their personal benefit. Moreover, they may be frustrated when the chance to commit a taboo behavior is withdrawn. The present study tested whether the desire to commit a taboo behavior, and the frustration from being denied such an opportunity, increases attraction to violent video games. Playing violent games allegedly offers an outlet for aggression prompted by frustration. In two experiments, some participants had no chance to commit a taboo behavior (cheating in Experiment 1, stealing in Experiment 2), others had a chance to commit a taboo behavior, and others had a withdrawn chance to commit a taboo behavior. Those in the latter group were most attracted to violent video games. Withdrawing the chance for participants to commit a taboo behavior increased their frustration, which in turn increased their attraction to violent video games. PMID:23449844

Whitaker, Jodi L; Melzer, André; Steffgen, Georges; Bushman, Brad J

2013-04-01

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Taboo: Working memory and mental control in an interactive task  

OpenAIRE

Individual differences in working memory (WM) predict principled variation in tasks of reasoning, response time, memory, and other abilities. Theoretically, a central function of WM is keeping task-relevant information easily accessible while suppressing irrelevant information. The present experiment was a novel study of mental control, using performance in the game Taboo as a measure. We tested effects of WM capacity on several indices, including perseveration errors (repeating previous gues...

Hansen, Whitney A.; Goldinger, Stephen D.

2009-01-01

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Routing Optimization Based on Taboo Search Algorithm for Logistic Distribution  

OpenAIRE

Along with the widespread application of the electronic commerce in the modern business, the logistic distribution has become increasingly important. More and more enterprises recognize that the logistic distribution plays an important role in the process of production and sales. A good routing for logistic distribution can cut down transport cost and improve efficiency. In order to cut down transport cost and improve efficiency, a routing optimization based on taboo search for logistic distr...

Hongxue Yang; Lingling Xuan

2014-01-01

22

The Allure of the Forbidden: Breaking Taboos, Frustration, and Attraction to Violent Video Games  

OpenAIRE

Although people typically avoid engaging in antisocial or taboo behaviors, such as cheating and stealing, they may succumb in order to maximize their personal benefit. Moreover, they may be frustrated when the chance to commit a taboo behavior is withdrawn. The present study tested whether the desire to commit a taboo behavior, and the frustration from being denied such an opportunity, increases attraction to violent video games. Playing violent games allegedly offers an outlet for aggression...

Whitaker, Jodi L.; Melzer, Andre?; Steffgen, Georges; Bushmann, Brad J.

2013-01-01

23

Hesitant hands on changing tables: Negotiating dining patterns in diaspora food culture transfer  

OpenAIRE

Food culture and dining patterns can, in any society, be read with regard to the history of food, social structures, economic choices, culinary techniques, food knowledge and even identities, habits and perception of comfortableness of its members and time. How then do migrants and diaspora communities translate the culinary practice into which they were socialized in their home communities into their new lifestyles and ways of eating? This article starts from the idea that autonomy over food...

Flitsch, Mareile

2011-01-01

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Love Has (NO Boundaries: Researching a Sexual Taboo  

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Full Text Available Sexual and emotional attraction humans feel towards animals, also known as zoophilia, is perhaps the most controversial facet of human-animal relationships. In this article I explore this seemingly ultimate transgression of interspecies boundaries and probe the Israeli cultural encounters with it. I discern how the stated concerns for normative sexuality and animal rights masquerade the underlying factors in the zoophilia taboo, and reveal the cultural implications of human-animal sexual love in Israel. My fieldwork reveals not only the limits of acceptable human-animal love, but also the limits of legitimate research, and the consequences entailed for those who resolve to challenge them.

Dafna Shir-Vertesh

2013-01-01

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The Linguistic Taboo between Malays and Ibans of Sarawak, Malaysia  

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Full Text Available

This study attempts to determine the Malays’ and Ibans’ perceptions on the use of linguistic taboo in their culture based on the specified domains and to investigate the occurrence of linguistic taboo in different domains. The outcome of this study would provide a useful understanding over the Malays’ and Ibans’ sensitivity over the usage of certain words which are considered taboo in their community. Hence, avoid occurrences of embarrassment or offensiveness by the speakers. Questionnaires were given to 40 Sarawak Malays and 40 Ibans of varying educational background and age in Kuching area. They were selected randomly based on convenience random sampling and the data were analyzed using SPSS 10.0. The findings show that many respondents believed that taboo words should not be spoken publicly or openly where certain topics should not be discussed in candid especially in relation to sex, body parts, bodily functions, death and dying. Nonetheless, the cultural norms, rules and the notion of politeness (and among the Malays the tenets of religion play significant roles in restricting the open use of these taboo words either behaviourally or linguistically. Comparatively, the Iban respondents seemed to be more expressive and candid in using taboo words in expressing their emotions, as compared to the Malays. It is also apparent that the use of taboo words can be acceptable depending on the domains and contexts.

Key words: Linguistic Taboo; Euphemisms; Domains

Résumé: Cette étude tente de déterminer les perceptions des Malais et des Ibans sur l'utilisation de tabou linguistique dans leur culture basée sur les domaines spécifiés et d'enquêter sur l'occurrence de tabou linguistique dans des domaines différents. Le résultat d

Affidah Morni

2009-06-01

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Breaking the silence, dismantling taboos: Latino novels on AIDS.  

Science.gov (United States)

As AIDS has ravaged the world in the last two decades, literature has played an important role in giving testimony of the epidemic. According to different communities and particular experiences, AIDS literature can offer ways of coping and surviving. In the last few years the U.S. Latino/a population has been highly affected by AIDS. The first genres to register AIDS were poetry and theatre. In this essay I examine how AIDS is represented in the first four Latino novels to deal with the subject matter: Ana Castillo's So Far from God, Daniel Torres's Morirás si da una primavera, Elías Miguel Muñoz's The Greatest Performance, and Jaime Manrique's latin Moon in Manhattan. My critical reading centers on how AIDS constitutes a new articulation of identity, particularly gay and ethnic identity. Most importantly, I propose that these novels contribute to dismantling homophobia and compulsory heterosexuality, deconstructing sexual and cultural taboos, and breaking the silence on AIDS/SIDA. PMID:9505230

Sandoval Sánchez, A

1998-01-01

27

Trend Surface Analysis of Hand, Food and Mouth Disease in Sarawak  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study we aim to fit a trend surface model for Hand, Foot And Mouth Disease (HFMD in Sarawak and also check the adequacy of the model obtained. For this, the epidemiological data of year 2012(outbreak year and 2011 are used. Models were built up to second order polynomial based on the idea that number of HFMD cases can be described by regression residual analysis. With Moran I statistic, residuals from all the trend surface models were examined for spatial autocorrelation. All six trend surface models for 2011 data had residuals that were not spatially autocorrelated. However, one model for 2012 data showed spatial autocorrelation. The best model for each year of the two years that represent disease outbreak and non-outbreak situations was selected based on Mallows’ Cp statistic. These models could be used to predict the number of cases for locations of interest.

M.S. Noraishah

2013-06-01

28

In Search of the Nuclear Taboo. Past, Present, and Future  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the most puzzling - if positive - phenomena of the past half century is the non-use of nuclear weapons. The puzzle relates to the absence of use despite the demonstrated technical effectiveness of the weapon, the enormous size of nuclear weapons stockpiles globally, the spread of nuclear weapons to states in most regions of the world, the centrality of nuclear weapons in the strategic doctrines and operational war plans of a growing number of states with very different cultures, political systems, and military traditions, and the observation of the tradition of non-use despite the lack of international legal prohibitions - unlike those in place with respect to chemical and biological weapons. This essay seeks to probe the underpinnings of nuclear weapons restraint, the strength and durability of the so-called nuclear 'taboo' - especially in light of the rise of non-states actors who covet nuclear weapons for purposes other than deterrence - and the most likely paths by which existing restraints might be breached, broken, or dissolved. Particular emphasis is placed on alternative futures as a number of other studies, including several important new volumes, have explored in depth the sources of non-use. (author)

29

Put Your Hands Together  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... food, harmful germs can live on almost everything. Handwashing may be your single most important act to ... spread of infection and stay healthy. More Information Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives Hand Hygiene in Healthcare ...

30

Put Your Hands Together  

Science.gov (United States)

... food, harmful germs can live on almost everything. Handwashing may be your single most important act to ... spread of infection and stay healthy. More Information Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives Hand Hygiene in Healthcare ...

31

The x-word and its usage : Taboo words and swearwords in general, and x-words in newspapers  

OpenAIRE

All languages have words that are considered taboo – words that are not supposed to be said or used. Taboo words, or swearwords, can be used in many different ways and they can have different meanings depending on what context they appear in. Another aspect of taboo words is the euphemisms that are used in order to avoid obscene speech. This paper will focus on x-words, words like the f-word or the c-word, which replace the words fuck or cunt, but as the study will show they also have other...

Lindahl, Katarina

2008-01-01

32

Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 11. Use of antiseptics and sanitizers in community settings and issues of hand hygiene compliance in health care and food industries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hand washing with soap is a practice that has long been recognized as a major barrier to the spread of disease in food production, preparation, and service and in health care settings, including hospitals, child care centers, and elder care facilities. Many of these settings present multiple opportunities for spread of pathogens within at-risk populations, and extra vigilance must be applied. Unfortunately, hand hygiene is not always carried out effectively, and both enteric and respiratory diseases are easily spread in these environments. Where water is limited or frequent hand hygiene is required on a daily basis, such as for many patients in hospitals and astronauts in space travel, instant sanitizers or sanitary wipes are thought to be an effective way of preventing contamination and spread of organisms among coworkers and others. Most concerns regarding compliance are associated with the health care field, but the food industry also must be considered. Specific reasons for not washing hands at appropriate times are laziness, time pressure, inadequate facilities and supplies, lack of accountability, and lack of involvement by companies, managers, and workers in supporting proper hand washing. To facilitate improvements in hand hygiene, measurement of compliant and noncompliant actions is necessary before implementing any procedural changes. Training alone is not sufficient for long-lasting improvement. Multiactivity strategies also must include modification of the organization culture to encourage safe hygienic practices, motivation of employees willing to use peer pressure on noncompliant coworkers, a reward and/or penalty system, and an operational design that facilitates regular hand hygiene. PMID:21219754

Todd, Ewen C D; Greig, Judy D; Michaels, Barry S; Bartleson, Charles A; Smith, Debra; Holah, John

2010-12-01

33

Offensive Language in Sex and the City : A study of male and female characters’ use of taboo words  

OpenAIRE

There are words and topics of conversation that are considered taboo and offensive in the English language. Offensive words can be divided into different categories, based on the way they are used and in what situation. Topics of conversation that are considered taboo are for example sexual activity and death. Men and women are said to use language differently, in a number of areas. One of these areas concerns offensive language. It is considered masculine to swear and women are prone to use ...

Skillstro?m Bygg, Madelene

2006-01-01

34

Touching on taboos : imagining and reconceptualizing motherhood in some post-'68 Italian women's autobiographical writings  

OpenAIRE

This article holds that the theme of the maternal, and of motherhood itself, constitutes a taboo in women’s autobiographical writing of the most feminist period in Italy’s history, immediately after 1968. In the first part, the article underlines the fact that the voices heard in many of these texts are daughterly discourses, not motherly ones (and this is part of a tendency that extends beyond literature to the fields of sociology, history and psychoanalysis). It suggests, too, that the ...

Fanning, Ursula

2011-01-01

35

Genetic evolutionary taboo search for optimal marker placement in infrared patient setup  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In infrared patient setup adequate selection of the external fiducial configuration is required for compensating inner target displacements (target registration error, TRE). Genetic algorithms (GA) and taboo search (TS) were applied in a newly designed approach to optimal marker placement: the genetic evolutionary taboo search (GETS) algorithm. In the GETS paradigm, multiple solutions are simultaneously tested in a stochastic evolutionary scheme, where taboo-based decision making and adaptive memory guide the optimization process. The GETS algorithm was tested on a group of ten prostate patients, to be compared to standard optimization and to randomly selected configurations. The changes in the optimal marker configuration, when TRE is minimized for OARs, were specifically examined. Optimal GETS configurations ensured a 26.5% mean decrease in the TRE value, versus 19.4% for conventional quasi-Newton optimization. Common features in GETS marker configurations were highlighted in the dataset of ten patients, even when multiple runs of the stochastic algorithm were performed. Including OARs in TRE minimization did not considerably affect the spatial distribution of GETS marker configurations. In conclusion, the GETS algorithm proved to be highly effective in solving the optimal marker placement problem. Further work is needed to embed site-specific deformation models in the optimization process

36

Hand Anatomy  

Science.gov (United States)

... Injuries Procedures & Treatment Español Symptom Picker Videos Hand Anatomy Find a Hand Surgeon Menu About Hand Surgery ... Injuries Procedures & Treatment Español Symptom Picker Videos Hand Anatomy Find a Hand Surgeon MENU Menu About Hand ...

37

When and How to Wash Your Hands  

Science.gov (United States)

... Lives CDC.gov Share Compartir When & How to Wash Your Hands Esta página en español Keeping hands ... 60% alcohol to clean hands. When should you wash your hands? Before, during, and after preparing food ...

38

An in-home video study and questionnaire survey of food preparation, kitchen sanitation, and hand washing practices.  

Science.gov (United States)

Foodborne illnesses pose a problem to all individuals but are especially significant for infants, the elderly, and individuals with compromised immune systems. Personal hygiene is recognized as the number-one way people can lower their risk. The majority of meals in the U.S. are eaten at home. Little is known, however, about the actual application of personal hygiene and sanitation behaviors in the home. The study discussed in this article assessed knowledge of hygiene practices compared to observed behaviors and determined whether knowledge equated to practice. It was a descriptive study involving a convenience sample of 30 households. Subjects were recruited from the Boston area and a researcher and/or a research assistant traveled to the homes of study participants to videotape a standard food preparation procedure preceded by floor mopping. The results highlight the differences between individuals' reported beliefs and actual practice. This information can aid food safety and other health professionals in targeting food safety education so that consumers understand their own critical role in decreasing their risk for foodborne illness. PMID:20556938

Scott, Elizabeth; Herbold, Nancie

2010-06-01

39

Hand Therapy  

Science.gov (United States)

... Picker Videos Hand Anatomy Find a Hand Surgeon Hand Therapy Email to a friend * required fields From * ... ensure a healthy style of work. Find a Hand Therapist Search for a hand therapist in your ...

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Holding thermal receipt paper and eating food after using hand sanitizer results in high serum bioactive and urine total levels of bisphenol A (BPA).  

Science.gov (United States)

Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting environmental contaminant used in a wide variety of products, and BPA metabolites are found in almost everyone's urine, suggesting widespread exposure from multiple sources. Regulatory agencies estimate that virtually all BPA exposure is from food and beverage packaging. However, free BPA is applied to the outer layer of thermal receipt paper present in very high (?20 mg BPA/g paper) quantities as a print developer. Not taken into account when considering thermal paper as a source of BPA exposure is that some commonly used hand sanitizers, as well as other skin care products, contain mixtures of dermal penetration enhancing chemicals that can increase by up to 100 fold the dermal absorption of lipophilic compounds such as BPA. We found that when men and women held thermal receipt paper immediately after using a hand sanitizer with penetration enhancing chemicals, significant free BPA was transferred to their hands and then to French fries that were eaten, and the combination of dermal and oral BPA absorption led to a rapid and dramatic average maximum increase (Cmax) in unconjugated (bioactive) BPA of ?7 ng/mL in serum and ?20 µg total BPA/g creatinine in urine within 90 min. The default method used by regulatory agencies to test for hazards posed by chemicals is intra-gastric gavage. For BPA this approach results in less than 1% of the administered dose being bioavailable in blood. It also ignores dermal absorption as well as sublingual absorption in the mouth that both bypass first-pass liver metabolism. The elevated levels of BPA that we observed due to holding thermal paper after using a product containing dermal penetration enhancing chemicals have been related to an increased risk for a wide range of developmental abnormalities as well as diseases in adults. PMID:25337790

Hormann, Annette M; Vom Saal, Frederick S; Nagel, Susan C; Stahlhut, Richard W; Moyer, Carol L; Ellersieck, Mark R; Welshons, Wade V; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Taylor, Julia A

2014-01-01

41

Incestuous gene in consanguinophilia and incest: toward a consilience theory of incest taboo.  

Science.gov (United States)

Westermarck's theory of incest taboo states that inhibition of sexual attraction between biologically close relatives is situational and develops during co-residence in early childhood. By contrast, the biological (genetic) basis of incest taboo is presumed from its universality in all human societies and animals and teleologically, from the need to prevent the detrimental effects of inbreeding. As incest taboo violation is infrequent, the frequency of the presumed gene in the population is believed to be near 100%. We present arguments which suggest that the incestuous gene may exist in all populations and could play an important role in evolution. When malaria emerged 10,000 years ago, human adaptation proceeded by the selection of protective genotypes. Among them, homozygotes for alpha-thalassemia, hemoglobin C, and Duffy antigen negative blood group, have better survival odds in malarious regions than heterozygotes and those with normal genotypes. Since consanguinity increases homozygosity, it increases the number of persons who are resistant to malaria. To pro-create, however, biologically close individuals must not feel sexual aversion that normally develops between those who spend their early childhood together (Westermarck effect). It is reasonable to assume, therefore, that mutation of the gene that discourages inbreeding may have appeared at an early time in evolution, and produced a weak Westermarck effect. This gene (we will call it anti-w) failed to inhibit mating between kins. Inbred offspring of anti-w carriers, would statistically, more likely carry both anti-w and homozygote genotypes which increase fitness in the presence of malaria. Today, alpha-thalassemia is the single most common monogenetic disorders in man with over 500 millions carriers concentrated in malarious regions of the world. The world's consanguineous population is some 500-800 millions and is also concentrated in malarious regions. Population migration has spread the gene outside areas of high malaria endemicity. However, endemicity of malaria provides a worldwide gradient of genotype frequencies which makes the incestuous gene hypothesis testable. We propose that the incestuous anti-w allele was co-selected with some of the genes protective against malaria because anti-w facilitates mating between genetically close individuals whose offspring better survive malaria. PMID:16198502

Denic, Srdjan; Nicholls, M Gary

2006-01-01

42

Study on Post Transportation Vehicle Routing Problem Based on Taboo-Genetic Hybrid algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To enhance the operational efficiency of post transportation network, a hybrid post transportation model with center location and vehicle routing problem is proposed. Some important factors, such as pick-up and delivery of packages and multi-type vehicles, are also considered in the presented model. The solution of the model is divided into two stages. In the first stage, the third-level post centers and their regions are determined. Moreover, the deliver tasks between the second-level and the third-level post centers are distributed. In the second stage, the vehicle scheduling problem of each post center is solved. The center distribution method and taboo-genetic hybrid algorithm are employed in second stages, respectively. Finally, the empirical analysis is performed with actual data of Guizhou Post. The results show that the proposed model and algorithm are valid and practical.

Wang Yong

2013-01-01

43

Procedimentos para lidar com o tabu da morte / Procedures for dealing with the taboo of death  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A morte, por mais estudada que seja, continua sendo um mistério. Lidar com ela não é algo nada fácil e por essa razão ela assusta tanto. Todos os medos do ser humano estão, no fundo, relacionados com o da morte. Tudo isso por ela ser um mistério do qual pouco ou nada sabemos, embora seja natural. À [...] vista disso, as religiões dão a este tema o seu principal enfoque. Assim sendo, procuro neste artigo tratar o tabu da morte, refletindo temas relacionados a ele. Temas que estão presentes na vida das pessoas, sobretudo quando passam pela experiência da perda de alguém do seu círculo familiar ou de amizade. Dentre eles, abordo a Unção dos Enfermos, as Exéquias, a Missa do Sétimo Dia e a tradição de rezar pelos mortos. Temas que ajudam a lidar com o tabu da morte ou a perda de um ente querido. Abstract in english The more death is studied, the more it remains a mystery. Dealing with death is no easy matter and for that reason it is so frightening. All the fears of human beings are fundamentally related to the fear of death. This is because it is a mystery about which we know little or nothing, although it is [...] natural to die. In view of this, religions give this topic a primary focus. Therefore, in this article an attempt is made to deal with the taboo surrounding death and reflect on issues associated with it. These themes are present in people's lives, especially when they have the experience of losing someone in their family or circle of friends. Among these subjects, the aspects of the Anointing of the Sick, the Funeral Mass, the Seventh Day Mass and the tradition of praying for the dead are all touched upon. These are all themes that help to deal with the taboo of death or losing a loved one.

José Carlos, Pereira.

2699-27-01

44

Doença mão-pé-boca no adulto: a propósito de um caso clínico / Hand, food and mouth disease in the adult: case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Introdução: A doença mão-pé-boca (DMPB) é a segunda infeção viral mais frequente (logo a seguir às infeções respiratórias comuns) e é causada pelo grupo dos enterovírus, incluindo o vírus Coxsackie A e o Enterovirus 71. É mais comum nas crianças entre os três e os dez anos de idade, sendo rara nos a [...] dultos. A maioria dos casos é autolimitada mas podem surgir complicações cardíacas e neurológicas potencialmente fatais. Descrição do caso: Relata-se o caso de um homem de 35 anos de idade que recorreu à consulta do seu médico de família por queixas de febre, dor, parestesias nas extremidades das mãos e pés, odinofagia e lesões ulceradas na cavidade oral que não melhoraram após vários ciclos de antibioterapia. Por forte suspeita de um quadro viral, foram solicitados exames complementares de diagnóstico que confirmaram a DMPB e permitiram uma abordagem terapêutica adequada e a vigilância das possíveis complicações. Comentário: Sendo a DMPB uma doença rara na idade adulta, mesmo as manifestações clínicas típicas, por serem inespecíficas numa primeira fase, podem induzir ao diagnóstico errado. Uma forte suspeita clínica pode garantir uma abordagem e vigilância corretas. Abstract in english Introduction: Hand, food and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common infection caused by the Enteroviruses group, including Coxsackievirus A and Enterovirus 71. It usually affects children between the ages of three and ten years old and is rare in adults. In most cases it is self-limited but cardiac and ne [...] urological complications or even death may ensue. Case Report: We report the case of a 35 year old man who went to his general practitioner with complaints of fever, pain, paresthesias of the hands and feet, odynophagia, and ulcerated lesions in the oral cavity that did not improve with antibiotic treatment. Suspecting a viral disease, the physician ordered tests that confirmed the diagnosis of HFMD, allowing for appropriate management and follow-up. Comment: HMFD is rare in adults and even typical manifestations can be misdiagnosed. Maintaining a strong clinical suspicion can ensure correct management and follow-up.

Ana, Dantas; Maria João, Oliveira; Olena, Lourenço; Paulo Baptista, Coelho.

2013-01-01

45

TRADITIONAL FOOD HABITS OF THE BODOS OF NORTH EAST INDIA: A FIELD STUDY  

OpenAIRE

This is a brief overview of the traditional food habits of the Bodos North East India. Food is the culture and the culture is the identity of any communities. The traditional system of fooding, preparing, rituals, taboos or health care varies community wise. But the significance of the word TRADITION is decreasing day by day, in short the word tradition itself changing traditionally due to the global impact of globalization and as well as due to socio-economic development ...

GUDDU PRASAD BASUMATARY

2012-01-01

46

Tabus sexuais entre professores e alunos Sexual taboos among teachers and students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O poder da sexualidade nas relações entre professores e alunos é tão intenso quanto o esforço feito pelos agentes educacionais em negá-lo. O termo tabu representa a exata designação do que tal terminologia suscita: algo misterioso e, principalmente, proibido. De fato, a questão sexual entre professores e alunos concerne a uma esfera tão proibitiva que sequer é mencionada, haja vista a escassez de pesquisas que versam a esse respeito. Daí o objetivo deste artigo, ou seja, analisar a ambivalência dos sentimentos de amor e de ódio que se objetivam na sexualidade existente entre professores e alunos.The power of sexuality in teacher-student relationships is as intense as the effort made by educational institutions to deny it. The term "taboo"represents the exact designation of what such terminology means: something mysterious and mainly forbidden. In fact, the sexual issue among teachers and students concerns such a forbidding sphere that it is hardly mentioned, which explains the little research that has been carried out in this field. Thus, this paper is aimed at analyzing the ambivalence of feelings of love and hate found in the teacher-student sexuality.

Antônio Zuin

2008-08-01

47

Taboo and Non-conventional Content as Attitude and Emotion Sensitive Tool  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Affect in language learning, understood as an emotional reaction to the subject, learning environment, methods and contents, shows among learners at all levels of advancement and of all age groups. Positive affect, such as a feeling of interest, pleasantness (or usefulness of tasks and satisfaction with one?s performance, results in increased motivation to learn the language, while negative emotions, such as boredom, tension or fear, typically lead to negative attitudes and, as a consequence, low results of learning. As some learners, especially adult ones, tend to conceal their emotional reactions to the learning situation, not always may language teachers recognize the sources of the difficulties they experience. It has been an interest of the authors to study young adults? affective response to an alternative to typical ELT content, which is “safe”, “universal”, “politically correct” material, in the form of “sensitive“, “nonconventional” or even “taboo” topics. Classroom research conducted in an institution of higher education showed increased interest, higher task motivation and active involvement on the part of the students with many years of English learning experience (sometimes fed up with same or similar content whose teachers decided to use some “off record” themes to practice language skills in their classrooms.

Yuliya Asotska

2011-11-01

48

Tabus sexuais entre professores e alunos / Sexual taboos among teachers and students  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O poder da sexualidade nas relações entre professores e alunos é tão intenso quanto o esforço feito pelos agentes educacionais em negá-lo. O termo tabu representa a exata designação do que tal terminologia suscita: algo misterioso e, principalmente, proibido. De fato, a questão sexual entre professo [...] res e alunos concerne a uma esfera tão proibitiva que sequer é mencionada, haja vista a escassez de pesquisas que versam a esse respeito. Daí o objetivo deste artigo, ou seja, analisar a ambivalência dos sentimentos de amor e de ódio que se objetivam na sexualidade existente entre professores e alunos. Abstract in english The power of sexuality in teacher-student relationships is as intense as the effort made by educational institutions to deny it. The term "taboo"represents the exact designation of what such terminology means: something mysterious and mainly forbidden. In fact, the sexual issue among teachers and st [...] udents concerns such a forbidding sphere that it is hardly mentioned, which explains the little research that has been carried out in this field. Thus, this paper is aimed at analyzing the ambivalence of feelings of love and hate found in the teacher-student sexuality.

Antônio, Zuin.

2008-08-01

49

Hand Safety  

Science.gov (United States)

... hand injuries when carving. Turkey Carving Nothing says “Thanksgiving” like football, family and the enticing aromas of ... pie. But no matter what’s included in a Thanksgiving spread, one dish nobody anticipates is a hand ...

50

Claw hand  

Science.gov (United States)

Claw hand is a condition that causes curved or bent fingers. This makes the hand appear like the claw of an animal. See ... Claw hand can be something that someone is born with (congenital) or that they develop because of certain disorders, ...

51

Holiday Food Safety  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... these easy steps: C LEAN: Wash hands and surfaces often SEPARATE: Separate raw meats from other foods COOK: Cook to the right temperature CHILL: Refrigerate food promptly Holiday Food Safety Video ( ...

52

How to Break a Taboo? Comment briser un tabou ? ¿Cómo romper un tabú?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Prior to 2001, the word toilet and sanitation was a taboo. Polite society avoided the embarrassment of mentioning it. Academia publications about the issues were viewed as too boring to engage mass media. But avoidance of this agenda manifested into neglect of 2.6 billion people without access to proper sanitation and the death of 1.5 million children through diarrhea annually. Jack Sim broke this taboo through the creation of the World Toilet Organization (WTO. With its unique blend of humor and facts, WTO called a spade a spade and took the global media by storm advocating for better toilets, sanitation and hygiene conditions for people all over the world. This article explains how he did it with a shoe-string budget and went on to mobilize everyone to change the world of sanitation and toilets.Avant 2001, les mots « toilettes » et « assainissement » étaient tabous. Il n’était pas de bon ton de les prononcer. Les publications universitaires sur le sujet étaient considérées comme trop ennuyeuses pour pouvoir susciter l'intérêt des médias grand public. Cependant, le fait de se désintéresser du sujet revenait à laisser à l’écart 2,6 milliards de personnes qui n’avaient pas accès à des systèmes d’assainissement corrects et à ignorer le décès de 1,5 million d’enfants dû à une diarrhée chaque année. Jack Sim a brisé ce tabou en créant la World Toilet Organization (WTO. Avec son mélange unique d’humour et de données factuelles, la WTO a appelé un chat un chat et a investi les médias internationaux afin de sensibiliser le maximum de personnes à la nécessité de mettre en place des systèmes de toilettes et d’assainissement plus efficaces et de meilleures conditions d’hygiène dans le monde entier. Cet article explique comment Jack Sim a réussi, avec un budget très limité, à inciter chacun à faire évoluer l’univers des systèmes d’assainissement et de toilettes.Antes de 2001, los términos “retrete” e “instalación sanitaria” eran un tabú. La sociedad educada evitaba mencionarlos por vergüenza, y las publicaciones académicas sobre el tema se consideraban demasiado aburridas para ser tratadas en los medios de comunicación de masas. Sin embargo, esta omisión hace que cada año haya 2.600 millones de personas sin acceso a una instalación sanitaria adecuada y 1,5 millones de niños mueran a causa de la diarrea. Jack Sim rompió con este tabú a través de la creación de la Organización Mundial del Retrete (World Toilet Organization, o WTO. Con una combinación exclusiva de datos fehacientes y humor, la WTO empezó a llamar a las cosas por su nombre e hizo temblar a los medio de comunicación globales abogando por una mejora en los retretes, las instalaciones sanitarias y las condiciones higiénicas para la gente en todo el mundo. En este artículo explica cómo lo hizo con un presupuesto más que ajustado y cómo consiguió movilizar a todos para cambiar el mundo de los inodoros y las instalaciones sanitarias.

Jack Sim

2011-12-01

53

Taboo search algorithm for item assignment in synchronized zone automated order picking system  

Science.gov (United States)

The idle time which is part of the order fulfillment time is decided by the number of items in the zone; therefore the item assignment method affects the picking efficiency. Whereas previous studies only focus on the balance of number of kinds of items between different zones but not the number of items and the idle time in each zone. In this paper, an idle factor is proposed to measure the idle time exactly. The idle factor is proven to obey the same vary trend with the idle time, so the object of this problem can be simplified from minimizing idle time to minimizing idle factor. Based on this, the model of item assignment problem in synchronized zone automated order picking system is built. The model is a form of relaxation of parallel machine scheduling problem which had been proven to be NP-complete. To solve the model, a taboo search algorithm is proposed. The main idea of the algorithm is minimizing the greatest idle factor of zones with the 2-exchange algorithm. Finally, the simulation which applies the data collected from a tobacco distribution center is conducted to evaluate the performance of the algorithm. The result verifies the model and shows the algorithm can do a steady work to reduce idle time and the idle time can be reduced by 45.63% on average. This research proposed an approach to measure the idle time in synchronized zone automated order picking system. The approach can improve the picking efficiency significantly and can be seen as theoretical basis when optimizing the synchronized automated order picking systems.

Wu, Yingying; Wu, Yaohua

2014-07-01

54

Anglicismo y tabú: valores axiológicos del anglicismo / Anglicism and taboo: axiological values of the pure anglicism  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La influencia del inglés en la lengua española en el ámbito del erotismo y la sexualidad ha dado lugar a un número considerable de anglicismos crudos para la designación de conceptos de la esfera sexual. Es el propósito de este trabajo examinar los valores axiológicos que el anglicismo presenta en e [...] l vocabulario sexual en el español europeo. Para ello, analizaremos los valores eufemísticos, disfemísticos y cuasieufemísticos que el anglicismo de naturaleza sexual presenta en un corpus léxico de anglicismos crudos extraídos del Diccionario gay-lésbico (2008) y del Diccionario del sexo y el erotismo (2011). El análisis realizado demuestra que las voces anglicadas utilizadas en la esfera sexual no sólo buscan atenuar los tabúes lingüísticos, sino que también se usan para ofender y degradar e incluso para que un grupo social monopolice una serie de voces alusivas a conceptos vitandos. Abstract in english The influence of English on Spanish within the field of eroticism and sexuality has led to a considerable number of pure anglicisms to designate sex-related concepts. In this regard, it is the aim of this paper to examine the axiological values that anglicisms present in Spanish sexual vocabulary. T [...] o this end, we will explore the euphemistic, dysphemistic and quasieuphemistic values that sex-related anglicisms present in a corpus of pure anglicisms excerpted from two dictionaries: Diccionario gay-lésbico (2008) and Diccionario del sexo y el erotismo (2011). The analysis reveals that English borrowings do not only veil the so called linguistic taboos, but they are also used to disparage and degrade and even as a sign of cohesion within a group.

Eliecer, Crespo-Fernández; Carmen, Luján-García.

2013-11-01

55

NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR CODING: 24-HOUR FOOD DIARY (HAND ENTRY) (UA-D-39.0)  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this SOP is to define the coding strategy for the 24-Hour Food Diary. This diary was developed for use during the Arizona NHEXAS project and the "Border" study. Keywords: data; coding; 24-hour food diary. The National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) i...

56

SEXUALIDADE NA ADOLESCÊNCIA: MITOS E TABUS SEXUALIDAD EN LA ADOLESCENCIA: MITOS Y TABÚES SEXUALITY IN ADOLESCENCE: MYTHS AND TABOOS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A adolescência é uma fase da vida humana em que a sexualidade se insere como uma redescoberta, trazendo certa vulnerabilidade, principalmente decorrente de mitos e tabus. Este trabalho teve como objetivo identificar alguns tabus e mitos relativos à sexualidade, vivenciados pelos adolescentes de Cuiabá-MT. Pesquisa quantitativa, cuja população de estudo foi composta por estudantes do primeiro ano do ensino médio do ensino público de Cuiabá. Os dados foram coletados por instrumento fechado e processados eletronicamente, com análises simples e bivariadas (pLa adolescencia es una fase de la vida humana en que la sexualidad se manifiesta como un redescubrimiento, provocando cierta vulnerabilidad, resultante principalmente de mitos y tabúes. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo identificar algunos tabúes y mitos en relación con la sexualidad, vivenciados por los adolescentes de Cuiabá-MT. Investigación cuantitativa, cuya población de estudio estuvo integrada por estudiantes de primer año de enseñanza secundaria pública de Cuiabá. Los datos fueron recogidos por instrumentos de respuesta cerrada y procesados electrónicamente, por análisis simples y bivariadas (pAdolescence is a phase of human life in which sexuality appears as a rediscovery, causing certain vulnerability mainly due to myths and taboos. This study aimed to identify some taboos and myths regarding sexuality, experienced by adolescents in Cuiabá-MT. Quantitative research, whose study population was composed by students from the frst year of Cuiabá public high school education. Data were collected by a closed answer instrument and electronically processed, with simple and bivariate analysis (p<0.05. Adolescents believe that alcohol and drugs increase sexual desire, do not relate the possibility of pregnancy to the practice of intercrural sex without protection, they believe there is no risk of pregnancy during the menstrual period; those without sexual experience could not tell what infuences the pleasure of sexual intercourse; among those sexually active there have been responses like “the bigger the boy’s penis the greater the pleasure of the girls” and “a boy will always feel more pleasure than girls”; for a sexual relation to happen one must love the partner (for girls and just feel attraction (for boys; boys prefer to marry a virgin. The gender differences in behavior indicate taboos rooted in the cultural cradle of society, in which sexual education, repressive in nature, contributes to maintain men and women roles and sexual values frmly set even today, although the new generations have started to introduce new behaviors. It becomes urgent to guarantee the adolescent orientation on the development of their sexuality, in order to prevent risk behaviors resulting from the taboos and myths.

Christine Baccarat de Godoy Martins

2012-01-01

57

Hand Washing  

Science.gov (United States)

... If soap and water aren't available, waterless hand sanitizers, soaps, or scrubs are a good alternative. They're usually available as a liquid, wipes, spray, or towelettes, and often come ... or sports bag. Good hand washing is the key to preventing the spread ...

58

Culture and sexual scripts out of Africa. A North American trainer's view of taboos, tradition, trouble and truth.  

Science.gov (United States)

The author's experiences in sub-Saharan Africa draw attention to the importance of cultural respect to the creation of effective sex education programs. The obstacles related to health and sexuality in Africa--taboos against discussing sexuality, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), uncontrolled fertility rates, poor access to contraception, child sexual abuse, sepsis from illegal abortion, female genital mutilation, sex discrimination, and rape--are overwhelming. Massive migration to urban areas has weakened connections to the extended family and village elders, leaving young Africans to attempt to sort out traditional African values from emerging Western concepts. Male dominance makes it impossible for most African women to insist that their partners practice safe sex, and the persistence of female circumcision further empowers men to control female sexuality. To ensure that sexuality curricula reflect a culture's belief system, there must be input from youth, parent educators, religious leaders, and local government and community leaders. All programming must be available to both literate and illiterate individuals, and educators should be trained in the local dialect. It is advisable to work with a counterpart indigenous to the target area. Knowledge of a culture's sexual script is mandatory. Also essential are interventions that foster desensitization about the open discussion of sexuality. Finally, outside educators should be aware that taboos and rituals that commemorate rites of passage generally serve a specific, useful purpose and should be respected. PMID:12287357

Ecker, N

1994-01-01

59

Hand Battery  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity about chemistry and electricity, learners form a battery by placing their hands onto plates of different metals. Learners detect the current by reading a DC microammeter attached to the metal plates. Learners experiment with different metals to find out what combination produces the most current as well as testing what happens when they press harder on the plates or wet their hands. Learners also investigate what happens when they wire the plates to a voltmeter.

The Exploratorium

2011-12-05

60

NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR CLEANING: 24 HOUR FOOD DIARY (HAND ENTRY) (UA-D-40.0)  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the SOP is to define the particular steps involved in cleaning the electronic data generated from data entry of the 24 Hour Food Diary. The procedure was developed to use during the Arizona NHEXAS project and the "Border" study. Keywords: data; cleaning; 24 hour ...

61

About Hand Surgery  

Science.gov (United States)

... Videos Hand Anatomy Find a Hand Surgeon About Hand Surgery Our hands serve many purposes. Hands help ... Hand. Definition developed by ASSH Council. Find A Hand Surgeon City or Province State Search Advanced Search ...

62

Holding Thermal Receipt Paper and Eating Food after Using Hand Sanitizer Results in High Serum Bioactive and Urine Total Levels of Bisphenol A (BPA)  

OpenAIRE

Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting environmental contaminant used in a wide variety of products, and BPA metabolites are found in almost everyone’s urine, suggesting widespread exposure from multiple sources. Regulatory agencies estimate that virtually all BPA exposure is from food and beverage packaging. However, free BPA is applied to the outer layer of thermal receipt paper present in very high (?20 mg BPA/g paper) quantities as a print developer. Not taken into account when ...

Hormann, Annette M.; Vom Saal, Frederick S.; Nagel, Susan C.; Stahlhut, Richard W.; Moyer, Carol L.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Welshons, Wade V.; Toutain, Pierre-louis; Taylor, Julia A.

2014-01-01

63

Hand Osteoblastoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Aim: Osteoblastoma is one of the rarest primary bone tumors. Although, small bones of the hands and feet are the third most common location for this tumor, the hand involvement is very rare and few case observations were published in the English-language literature. Materials and Methods: In this study, we report five cases of benign osteoblastoma of the hand, 3 in metacarpals and two in phalanxes. The clinical feature is not specific. The severe nocturnal, salicylate-responsive pain is not present in patients with osteoblastoma. The pain is dull, persistent and less localized. The clinical course is usually long and there is often symptoms for months before medical attention are sought. Swelling is a more persistent finding in osteoblastoma of the hand that we found in all of our patients. The radiologic findings are indistinctive, so preoperative diagnosis based on X-ray appearance is difficult. In all of our 5 cases, we fail to consider osteoblastoma as primary diagnosis. Pathologically, osteoblastoma consisting of a well-vascularized connective tissue stroma in which there is active production of osteoid and primitive woven bone. Treatment depends on the stage and localization of the tumor. Curettage and bone grafting is sufficient in stage 1 or stage 2, but in stage 3 wide resection is necessary for prevention of recurrence. Osteosarcoma is the most important differential diagnosis that may lead to inappropriate operation.

M. Farzan

2006-06-01

64

SEXUALIDADE NA ADOLESCÊNCIA: MITOS E TABUS / SEXUALITY IN ADOLESCENCE: MYTHS AND TABOOS / SEXUALIDAD EN LA ADOLESCENCIA: MITOS Y TABÚES  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A adolescência é uma fase da vida humana em que a sexualidade se insere como uma redescoberta, trazendo certa vulnerabilidade, principalmente decorrente de mitos e tabus. Este trabalho teve como objetivo identificar alguns tabus e mitos relativos à sexualidade, vivenciados pelos adolescentes de Cuia [...] bá-MT. Pesquisa quantitativa, cuja população de estudo foi composta por estudantes do primeiro ano do ensino médio do ensino público de Cuiabá. Os dados foram coletados por instrumento fechado e processados eletronicamente, com análises simples e bivariadas (p Abstract in spanish La adolescencia es una fase de la vida humana en que la sexualidad se manifiesta como un redescubrimiento, provocando cierta vulnerabilidad, resultante principalmente de mitos y tabúes. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo identificar algunos tabúes y mitos en relación con la sexualidad, vivenciados por [...] los adolescentes de Cuiabá-MT. Investigación cuantitativa, cuya población de estudio estuvo integrada por estudiantes de primer año de enseñanza secundaria pública de Cuiabá. Los datos fueron recogidos por instrumentos de respuesta cerrada y procesados electrónicamente, por análisis simples y bivariadas (p Abstract in english Adolescence is a phase of human life in which sexuality appears as a rediscovery, causing certain vulnerability mainly due to myths and taboos. This study aimed to identify some taboos and myths regarding sexuality, experienced by adolescents in Cuiabá-MT. Quantitative research, whose study populati [...] on was composed by students from the frst year of Cuiabá public high school education. Data were collected by a closed answer instrument and electronically processed, with simple and bivariate analysis (p

Christine, Baccarat de Godoy Martins; Fabiana Maria, De Almeida; Lidiane Cristina, Alencastro; Karla, Fonseca De Matos; Solange, Pires Salomé De Souza.

65

Robot Hands  

Science.gov (United States)

This activity explores how sensing is part of robotics. Learners try tying their shoes with different constraints. After tying shoes normally, learners attempt to tie their shoes while wearing thick gloves or with popsicle sticks taped to their hands so their fingers can't bend. A connection is made to the limitations of the motion of robots, and the role of design in allowing robots to perform different functions.

2012-06-26

66

Handy Hand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, structural disposition, manufacture and application of robots and computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing. The word ‘ R obotics’ means the study of robots was coined by Isaac Asimov. Robotics involves elements of mechanical and electrical engineering, as well as control theory, computing and now artificial intelligenc e. Robotics technology has matures to a point where these have many research and industrial application. Robots have been used to replace people in production line and are ideally suited for repetitive work. The Robot Institute of America defines a robot a s “ A Programmable multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts and tools of specialized device through variable programmed of variety of tasks”. So we made a robotic hand called “ HANDY HAND ” which is attached to handicap people. The essenti al part of the robotic arm is relay based brick capable of driving a DC Motor and IR sensors. This paper explains the method of interfacing the robotic hand with DC motors, relays and IR sensor which can grab and release less weight objects without any pro gramming.

M.V.S.Praveen

2014-01-01

67

Learning can be all Fun and Games: Constructing and Utilizing a Biology Taboo Wiktionary to Enhance Student Learning in an Introductory Biology Course  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most introductory courses in the biological sciences are inherently content-dense and rich with jargon—jargon that is often confusing and nonsensical to novice students. These characteristics present an additional paradox to instructors, who strive to achieve a balance between simply promoting passive, rote memorization of facts and engaging students in developing true, concrete understanding of the terminology. To address these concerns, we developed and implemented a Biology Taboo Wiktionary that provided students with an interactive opportunity to review and describe concepts they had encountered during their first semester of introductory biology. However, much like the traditional Taboo game, the rules were such that students could not use obvious terms to detail the main term. It was our belief that if the student could synthesize a thoughtful, scientific explanation of the term under these conditions, he or she demonstrated a true understanding of the conceptual context and meaning of the term.

Jeffrey T. Olimpo

2010-10-01

68

Revisitando os Tabus: as cautelas rituais do povo de santo / Revisiting taboos: ritualistic cautions among the "povo de santo"  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente artigo propõe uma reflexão sobre o papel das interdições rituais pessoais, chamadas de quizilas, no contexto do candomblé da Bahia (Jeje-Nagô). A pesquisa de campo levou à hipótese de que, para além das proibições profiláticas e dos tabus de cunho coletivo, existem interdições pessoais ba [...] seadas em sensibilidades negativas, notadamente em ojerizas ou alergias alimentares, que guiam o iniciado numa relação particular com os orixás. A constatação de que a sensibilidade corporal desempenha um papel importante nesse tipo de gesto ritual indica, portanto, a importância de uma prática etnográfica debruçada sobre a noção de "corpo que sente". Abstract in english This article proposes a reflection about the role played by personal ritual prohibitions, known as quizilas, in the context of the candomblé of Bahia (Jeje-Nagô). My fieldwork led to the following hypothesis: besides a system of prophylactic prohibitions and besides collective taboos, there is a sys [...] tem of personal prohibitions based on negative sensitivities -on disgust feelings or on alimentary allergic reactions- and which built an especial relationship of the initiate with the orixás. As such, the ethnography of this kind of ritual behavior should arguably be based on somatic issues and on the concept of the "feeling body".

Francesca, Bassi.

69

Food Chain & Food Web  

Science.gov (United States)

What are the differences and similarities between food chain and food web? Print (2) Garden Gate Print (1) Venn Diagram Garden Gate Venn Diagram Let's learn about the food chain and food web.Read the notes.Food Chain 4 Also, view more notes on food chain and food web. Go to the 7th title Food Chain which is before the Habitats and food chain title of the webpage.Food Chain Power Point Presentation Record what you learn ...

Ms. B

2011-10-27

70

Hand Hygiene Saves Lives  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... that people should wash their hands, either with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand ... doctors and nurses – either wash their hands with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand ...

71

Hand Hygiene Saves Lives  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... should wash their hands, either with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. You ... nurses – either wash their hands with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer every ...

72

New food policy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The urbanisation, technical changes, and the industrialisation of the food systems on one hand and increased income and changes in lifestyles on the other hand transform the way food is produced, marketed and consumed - those changes call for changes in the nature of food policy. Concerns over food safety have become an important driver of reform of food policy. In particular, the BSE crisis in 1996 had a significant impact on the formulation of a change in food safety policy in the EU. The White Paper on Food Safety was prepared by the EU commision as a response to the BSE scandal as the EU felt a need for restablishing public confidence in its food supply, its food science, its laws and its food control. In addition, the White Paper on Food Safety points towards a farm to fork policy in that 'as the food production chain is becoming increasingly complex, the health of consumers can ony be adequately protected if every link in this chain is as strong as the other'. The presentation describes the new food systems which call for changes in the food policy and call for shifting the focus from the role of the government to governance.

Christensen, Tove; Andersen, Lill

73

Hand Hygiene Saves Lives  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... either with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. You and your loved ones ... hands with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer every time, both before and ...

74

Hand or foot spasms  

Science.gov (United States)

Foot spasms; Carpopedal spasm; Spasms of the hands or feet; Hand spasm ... Cramps or spasms in the muscles often have no clear cause. Possible causes of hand or foot spasms include: Abnormal levels ...

75

Hand hygiene strategies  

OpenAIRE

Hand hygiene is one of the major players in preventing healthcare associated infections. However, healthcare workers compliance with hand hygiene continues to be a challenge. This article will address strategies to help improving hand hygiene compliance.

Eskandar Alex Yazaji

2011-01-01

76

Taboos and social contracts: Tools for ecosystem management – lessons from the Manambolomaty Lakes RAMSAR site, western Madagascar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditional taboos and social contracts played an importantrole in managing the Manambolomaty RAMSAR site. Taboosare defined as a prohibition imposed by social custom as aprotective measure’ and social contracts are – in conservationsense – a common agreement for achieving conservation,sustainable development and development of resourcesobjectives. The Manambolomaty Lakes RAMSAR site, District ofAntsalova in western Madagascar, is composed of four lakes(Soamalipo, Befotaka, Ankerika and Antsamaka surroundedby the Tsimembo deciduous forest. The first three lakes withforest surrounding encompass 14,701 ha and are being managedby two local Associations: FIZAMI (FIkambanana ZanatanyAndranobe MIray and FIFAMA (FIkambanana FAmpandrosoanaMamokatra Ankerika. The associations have used traditionaltaboos and social conventions to manage their local naturalresources by incorporating a GELOSE (GEstion Locale SEcuriséemanagement system to conserve biological diversity, maintainresource sustainability and socio - economic viability. This sitehas the highest concentration of the endemic and criticallyendangered Madagascar fish eagle (Haliaeetus vociferoides,representing 10 % of the global population, and many otherspecies of different faunal groups are also in good conservationstatus such as Decken’s sifaka (Propithecus deckeni andWestern lesser bamboo lemurs (Hapalemur occidentalis andMadagascar flying fox (Pteropus rufus. Culturally, the site isknown as a unique source of the endemic tree Hazomalaniavoyroni (Hernandiaceae, which is used by the Sakalava peoplefor constructing coffins, and being buried in a coffin madeof this wood is a great honour for the Sakalava people. FromManambolomaty’s Lakes fish yields, estimated at 60 - 100 tonsper fishing season, FIZAMI and FIFAMA are one of the fewMalagasy Associations with active bank accounts supportedby management of their natural resources and associatedactivities. Their fisheries management system has increasedthe annual local revenue estimated at more than $ 1,562US / fisherman per season. The tax of fish sales to wholesalefish buyers forms 56 % of the two local Commune’s budgets. Thishas made the Community - Based Wetlands Conservation at theManambolomaty Lakes site well known in the conservation circles within Madagascar and has been modelled by other organizationsand associations. Consequently, the ManambolomatyLakes site is in the process of being added into the System ofProtected Areas of Madagascar (SAPM.

Jules Mampiandra

2008-12-01

77

Hand Hygiene Saves Lives  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... should wash their hands, either with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. You and your loved ones ... nurses – either wash their hands with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer every time, both before and ...

78

Hand-Washing Global  

OpenAIRE

By the practical nature of the case, here is no theoretical argument but pragmatic reasoning for washing hands, with scientific evidence of hand-washing flushing out diseases into a sanitary condition globally. All facts found show some people surviving long without hand-washing, not denying healthful hand-washing, spreading health. Hand-washing remains a medium simplest most efficacious for global health. Thus this essay delivers an important message of global health ...

Wu, John Y.

2014-01-01

79

Food security: status and concerns of India  

OpenAIRE

At one hand, various factors like food production, rising food prices, poverty, unemployment, climate changes, efficient public distribution of food, affecting the food security are the major concerns at domestic front, passing of ambitious Food Security Bill in Sep, 2013 by UPA government in India to provide the basic food staples at highly subsidized prices aimed at ensuring the economic access to food for around two-third of its population coupled with India’s obligations of agriculture ...

Kumar, Rajesh; Bagaria, Nidhi; Santra, Swarup

2014-01-01

80

Food for tourists  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Eating is a physical necessity, but catering services and food image are also very important ingredients of cultural tourism. Food and tourism are increasingly being combined, e.g. in agri-tourism, wine tours and the sale of food products as souvenirs. However, as this paper illustrates, the development and standards of food for tourists are determined not by tourism policies, but by national economic, agricultural and food policies. A comparison between Denmark and Italy illustrates core elements in food cultures. Particularly in Denmark, food production is a major economic activity, and the power of the agricultural and food processing industries has in many cases severely compromised the quality image. In Italy, on the other hand, food policies and traditions, which give a high priority to freshness, allow consumers to stay in control of food quality to a much larger extent than in Denmark. In both countries, a concentration of tourists in space and time tends to result in a decline of food quality. The paper concludes that only residents are in a position to put a more permanent pressure on food suppliers, and only if they are given the appropriate instruments. Further improvement of the food heritage in both countries (but especially in Denmark) will have to include a reconsideration, and probably changes, in food policies in more global terms.

Hjalager, Anne-Mette; Corigliano, Magda Antolioli

81

Food hygienics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book deals with food hygienics with eighteen chapters, which mention introduction on purpose of food hygienics, administration of food hygienics, food and microscopic organism, sanitary zoology, food poisoning, food poisoning by poisonous substance, chronic poisoning by microscopic organism, food and epidemic control , control of parasitic disease, milk hygiene meat hygiene, an egg and seafood hygiene, food deterioration and preservation, food additives, food container and field hygiene, food facilities hygiene, food hygiene and environmental pollution and food sanitation inspection.

82

Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 10. Alcohol-based antiseptics for hand disinfection and a comparison of their effectiveness with soaps.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alcohol compounds are increasingly used as a substitute for hand washing in health care environments and some public places because these compounds are easy to use and do not require water or hand drying materials. However, the effectiveness of these compounds depends on how much soil (bioburden) is present on the hands. Workers in health care environments and other public places must wash their hands before using antiseptics and/or wearing gloves. However, alcohol-based antiseptics, also called rubs and sanitizers, can be very effective for rapidly destroying some pathogens by the action of the aqueous alcohol solution without the need for water or drying with towels. Alcohol-based compounds seem to be the most effective treatment against gram-negative bacteria on lightly soiled hands, but antimicrobial soaps are as good or better when hands are more heavily contaminated. Instant sanitizers have no residual effect, unlike some antimicrobial soaps that retain antimicrobial activity after the hygienic action has been completed, e.g., after hand washing. Many alcohol-based hand rubs have antimicrobial agents added to them, but each formulation must be evaluated against the target pathogens in the environment of concern before being considered for use. Wipes also are widely used for quick cleanups of hands, other body parts, and surfaces. These wipes often contain alcohol and/or antimicrobial compounds and are used for personal hygiene where water is limited. However, antiseptics and wipes are not panaceas for every situation and are less effective in the presence of more than a light soil load and against most enteric viruses. PMID:21219730

Todd, Ewen C D; Michaels, Barry S; Holah, John; Smith, Debra; Greig, Judy D; Bartleson, Charles A

2010-11-01

83

Food Poisoning  

Science.gov (United States)

... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ... and store foods properly. Continue Do I Have Food Poisoning? Someone who has food poisoning might: have ...

84

Hand Hygiene Saves Lives  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... wash your hands very often, especially after touching objects or surfaces in the hospital room, before eating, ... wash your hands very often, especially after touching objects or surfaces in the hospital room, before eating, ...

85

Put Your Hands Together  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... the spread of infection and stay healthy. More Information Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives Hand Hygiene in ... Index Policies Using this Site Link to Us Contact CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1600 ...

86

Osteoarthritis of the Hand  

Science.gov (United States)

... Videos Hand Anatomy Find a Hand Surgeon Arthritis - Osteoarthritis Email to a friend * required fields From * To * ... open a jar or turn a key. TREATMENT Osteoarthritis Diagnosis Your doctor will ask you about your ...

87

Hand Hygiene Saves Lives  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... family can do to help prevent these infections – wash your hands and make sure that everyone who ... your care and make sure everyone around you washes their hands. Hi, I'm Gayle. Now that ...

88

Wash Your Hands  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... CDC-TV Learn about CDC-TV Share Compartir Wash Your Hands Source: Office of the Associate Director ... Our video shows how it is best to WASH YOUR HANDS with soap and clean running water ...

89

Hand Hygiene Saves Lives  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Listen/Watch Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hand Hygiene Saves Lives: Patient Admission Video This podcast ... to help prevent infections: the importance of practicing hand hygiene while in the hospital, and that it's ...

90

Put Your Hands Together  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Learn about CDC-TV Share Compartir Put Your Hands Together Source: National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic ... London estimate that if everyone routinely washed their hands, a million deaths a year could be prevented. ...

91

Hand and Finger Exercises  

Science.gov (United States)

... vision and language needs, call (614) 293-3191. Hand and Finger Exercises ? Place your palm flat on ... times for ____ seconds. ? Pick up objects with your hand. Start out with larger objects. Repeat ____ times for ____ ...

92

Wash Your Hands  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Learn about CDC-TV Share Compartir Wash Your Hands Source: Office of the Associate Director for Communication, ... shows how it is best to WASH YOUR HANDS with soap and clean running water for about ...

93

Hand Injuries and Disorders  

Science.gov (United States)

... for a living, you are always using your hands. When there is something wrong with them, you ... not be able to do your regular activities. Hand problems include Carpal tunnel syndrome - compression of a ...

94

Hand Hygiene Saves Lives  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... is important that healthcare providers – including doctors and nurses – either wash their hands with soap and water ... feel embarrassed to ask everyone, including doctors and nurses, to wash their hands. They really want to ...

95

Hand Hygiene Saves Lives  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... to wash their hands. Thank you for your attention and I wish you a speedy and uneventful ... to wash their hands. Thank you for your attention and I wish you a speedy and uneventful ...

96

Hand x-ray  

Science.gov (United States)

X-ray - hand ... A hand x-ray is taken in a hospital radiology department or your health care provider's office by an ... technician. You will be asked to place your hand on the x-ray table, and keep it ...

97

Evidence for right-hand feeding biases in a left-handed population.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have recently shown that actions with similar kinematic requirements, but different end-state goals may be supported by distinct neural networks. Specifically, we demonstrated that when right-handed individuals reach-to-grasp food items with intent to eat, they produce smaller maximum grip apertures (MGAs) than when they grasp the same item with intent to place it in a location near the mouth. This effect was restricted to right-handed movements; left-handed movements showed no difference between tasks. The current study investigates whether (and to which side) the effect may be lateralized in left-handed individuals. Twenty-one self-identified left-handed participants grasped food items of three different sizes while grasp kinematics were captured via an Optotrak Certus motion capture array. A main effect of task was identified wherein the grasp-to-eat action generated significantly smaller MGAs than did the grasp-to-place action. Further analysis revealed that similar to the findings in right-handed individuals, this effect was significant only during right-handed movements. Upon further inspection however, we found individual differences in the magnitude and direction of the observed lateralization. These results underscore the evolutionary significance of the grasp-to-eat movement in producing population-level right-handedness in humans as well as highlighting the heterogeneity of the left-handed population. PMID:25256315

Flindall, Jason W; Stone, Kayla D; Gonzalez, Claudia L R

2015-05-01

98

Hand Sanitizers Carry Unproven Claims to Prevent MRSA Infections  

Science.gov (United States)

... Sanitizing Wipes, and Clean Well All-Natural Antibacterial Foaming Hand Soap, by Oh So Clean Inc., also ... Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Consumer Updates: About FDA Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation- ...

99

Implants in the hand; Implantate der Hand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Increasingly, implants in the region of hand joints and the wrist represent an alternative for the treatment of post-traumatic, inflamed, or degenerative joint damage. The diversity of hand functions also results in varied solutions, which are effective in their stability, mobility, and distraction. Different materials are necessary for this, and they require subtile radiological control. The native X-ray represents the substantial method to observe migration of the implants. Each interface between titanium, ceramic, zirconium, pyrocarbon, and silicon to the bone has to be assessed differently in order to obtain a relevant statement. The finger joints and to a limited extent the wrist represent the artificial joints with limited alternative therapy. Other implants in the hand should only be applied after strict indication and patient compliance, as arthrodesis and resection arthroplasty have shown very good long-term results. (orig.) [German] Implantate im Bereich der Gelenke der Hand und des Handgelenks stellen zunehmend Alternativen bei der Versorgung posttraumatischer, entzuendlicher oder degenerativer Gelenkschaeden dar. Die Vielfalt der Handfunktionen fuehrt auch zu unterschiedlichen Loesungen, die durch Stabilitaet, Mobilitaet und Distraktion wirksam werden. Dafuer sind unterschiedliche Materialien erforderlich, die eine subtile radiologische Kontrolle erfordern. Das Nativroentgen stellt das wesentlichste Verfahren zur Verlaufsbeobachtung von Implantaten dar. Das Interface zwischen Titan, Keramik, Zirkonium, Pyrokarbon und Silikon zum Knochen muss unterschiedlich bewertet werden, um relevante Aussagen treffen zu koennen. Die Fingergelenke und in begrenztem Ausmass auch das Handgelenk stellen Kunstgelenke mit geringen Alternativtherapiemoeglichkeiten dar. Die uebrigen Implantate der Hand sollten nur bei strenger Indikationsstellung und hoher Patientencompliance Anwendung finden, da Arthrodese oder Resektionsarthroplastik gute Langzeitresultate aufweisen. (orig.)

Wanivenhaus, A. [Medizinische Universitaet, Universitaetsklinik fuer Orthopaedie, Wien (Austria)

2006-09-15

100

Coordination of Hand Shape  

OpenAIRE

The neural control of hand movement involves coordination of the sensory, motor and memory systems. Recent studies have documented the motor coordinates for hand shape, but less is known about the corresponding patterns of somatosensory activity. To initiate this line of investigation, the present study characterized the sense of hand shape by evaluating the influence of differences in the amount of grasping or twisting force, and differences in forearm orientation. Human subjects were asked ...

Pesyna, Colin; Pundi, Krishna; Flanders, Martha

2011-01-01

101

Coordination of hand shape.  

Science.gov (United States)

The neural control of hand movement involves coordination of the sensory, motor, and memory systems. Recent studies have documented the motor coordinates for hand shape, but less is known about the corresponding patterns of somatosensory activity. To initiate this line of investigation, the present study characterized the sense of hand shape by evaluating the influence of differences in the amount of grasping or twisting force, and differences in forearm orientation. Human subjects were asked to use the left hand to report the perceived shape of the right hand. In the first experiment, six commonly grasped items were arranged on the table in front of the subject: bottle, doorknob, egg, notebook, carton, and pan. With eyes closed, subjects used the right hand to lightly touch, forcefully support, or imagine holding each object, while 15 joint angles were measured in each hand with a pair of wired gloves. The forces introduced by supporting or twisting did not influence the perceptual report of hand shape, but for most objects, the report was distorted in a consistent manner by differences in forearm orientation. Subjects appeared to adjust the intrinsic joint angles of the left hand, as well as the left wrist posture, so as to maintain the imagined object in its proper spatial orientation. In a second experiment, this result was largely replicated with unfamiliar objects. Thus, somatosensory and motor information appear to be coordinated in an object-based, spatial-coordinate system, sensitive to orientation relative to gravitational forces, but invariant to grasp forcefulness. PMID:21389230

Pesyna, Colin; Pundi, Krishna; Flanders, Martha

2011-03-01

102

Hand-eye Calibration  

OpenAIRE

Whenever a sensor is mounted on a robot hand, it is important to know the relationship between the sensor and the hand. The problem of determining this relationship is referred to as the hand-eye calibration problem. Hand-eye calibration is impor tant in at least two types of tasks: (1) map sensor centered measurements into the robot workspace frame and (2) tasks allowing the robot to precisely move the sensor. In the past some solutions were proposed, particularly in the case of the sensor b...

Horaud, Radu; Dornaika, Fadi

1995-01-01

103

Hand Hygiene Saves Lives  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... and make sure that everyone who touches you – including your doctor – cleanses their hands too. Patients and their loved ones who take an active ... and make sure that everyone who touches you – including your doctor – cleanses their hands too. Patients and their loved ones who take an active ...

104

Hand Hygiene Saves Lives  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. You and your loved ones should wash your ... soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer every time, both before and after they touch ...

105

Hand Hygiene Saves Lives  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... make sure everyone around you washes their hands. Hi, I'm Gayle. Now that you've been ... make sure everyone around you washes their hands. Hi, I'm Gayle. Now that you've been ...

106

Food safety regulations in Australia and New Zealand Food Standards.  

Science.gov (United States)

Citizens of Australia and New Zealand recognise that food security is a major global issue. Food security also affects Australia and New Zealand's status as premier food exporting nations and the health and wellbeing of the Australasian population. Australia is uniquely positioned to help build a resilient food value chain and support programs aimed at addressing existing and emerging food security challenges. The Australian food governance system is fragmented and less transparent, being largely in the hands of government and semi-governmental regulatory authorities. The high level of consumer trust in Australian food governance suggests that this may be habitual and taken for granted, arising from a lack of negative experiences of food safety. In New Zealand the Ministry of Primary Industries regulates food safety issues. To improve trade and food safety, New Zealand and Australia work together through Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and other co-operative agreements. Although the potential risks to the food supply are dynamic and constantly changing, the demand, requirement and supply for providing safe food remains firm. The Australasian food industry will need to continually develop its system that supports the food safety program with the help of scientific investigations that underpin the assurance of what is and is not safe. The incorporation of a comprehensive and validated food safety program is one of the total quality management systems that will ensure that all areas of potential problems are being addressed by industry. PMID:24638225

Ghosh, Dilip

2014-08-01

107

Grip Morphology and Hand Use in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Evidence of a Left Hemisphere Specialization in Motor Skill  

OpenAIRE

Three experiments on grip morphology and hand use were conducted in a sample of chimpanzees. In Experiment 1, grip morphology when grasping food items was recorded, and it was found that subjects who adopted a precision grip were more right-handed than chimpanzees using other grips. In Experiment 2, the effect of food type on grasping was assessed. Smaller food items elicited significantly more precision grips for the right hand. In Experiment 3, error rates in grasping foods were compared be...

Hopkins, William D.; Cantalupo, Claudio; Wesley, Michael J.; Hostetter, Autumn B.; Pilcher, Dawn L.

2002-01-01

108

Preparation and evaluation of hand rub disinfectant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present work is to formulate effective hand rub disinfectant by selecting broad-spectrum antimicrobial and antifungal agents. Increased need of easy-to-use hand rub disinfectant in pharmaceutical, food processing industry, hospitals, and in clinical labs necessitated development of the best possible product. Formulations were prepared using Benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine gluconate as potent disinfectants along with alcohol 70%. In low concentration they were highly effective without leaving any toxic effect on the user?s skin. A synergistic effect was observed when ethyl alcohol 70% was used in combination. Suitable emollient and skin conditioning agents were used to avoid possible dehydrating effect on the user?s skin. Excellent volatility of the preparation was observed after use, leaving a thin antimicrobial film on the user?s hand. The use of suitable excipient brought effective removal of after the use leaving a soothening effect on the skin. The aim of present work is to develop hand rub formulation which evaporates quickly after applications leaving no trace on hands as in case of hand rub gels. The present formulation was found to be effective when compared with marketed liquid hand rub.

Padsalgi Amol

2008-01-01

109

Food Safety  

Science.gov (United States)

... Learn more about food safety Resources for Nutrition & Health Food Groups & Related Topics Fruits Vegetables Grains Protein Foods Dairy Oils Empty Calories Audiences Preschoolers Kids College Students ...

110

Radioactivity and foods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this article is to describe and contrast two relationships between radiation and food-on the one hand, beneficial preservation of food by controlled exposure to ionizing radiation; and, on the other, contamination of food by accidental incorporation of radioactive nuclides within the food itself. In food irradiation, electrons or electromagnetic radiation is used to destroy microorganisms and insects or prevent seed germination. The economic advantages and health benefits of sterilizing food in this manner are clear, and numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes or induced radioactivity is produced in the irradiated food. An altogether different situation is presented by exposure of food animals and farming areas to radioactive materials, as occurred after the major Soviet nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl. This article furnishes the basic information needed to understand the nature of food contamination associated with that event and describes the work of international organizations seeking to establish appropriate safe limits for levels of radioactivity in foods. 14 refs, 4 tabs

111

Radioactivity and foods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this article is to describe and contrast two relationships between radiation and food on the one hand, beneficial preservation of food by controlled exposure to ionizing radiation; and, on the other, contamination of food by accidental incorporation of radioactive nuclides within the food itself. In food irradiation, electrons or electromagnetic radiation is used to destroy microorganisms and insects or prevent seed germination. The economic advantages and health benefits of sterilizing food in this manner are clear, and numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes or induced radioactivity is produced in the irradiated food. An altogether different situation is presented by exposure of food animals and farming areas to radioactive materials, as occurred after the major Soviet nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl. This article furnishes the basic information needed to understand the nature of food contamination associated with that event and describes the work of international organizations seeking to establish appropriate safe limits for levels of radioactivity in foods

112

Temporary ectopic hand implantation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Severe crushing injuries to the distal forearm can preclude immediate hand replantation, with temporary ectopic implantation as a practicable option under special circumstances. This report describes a case of temporary ectopic hand implantation for a crush injury extending from the wrist to the middle third of the forearm, using the left foot as the recipient site. The hand was replanted onto the left forearm 3 months after the ectopic implantation, with functional gains seen by 18 months. Satisfactory ambulation was retained, with no reported foot pain. Temporary ectopic implantation is a pragmatic alternative under select circumstances.

Xu Zhang

2015-03-01

113

Contamination of Foods by Food Handlers: Experiments on Hepatitis A Virus Transfer to Food and Its Interruption  

OpenAIRE

Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is an important pathogen which has been responsible for many food-borne outbreaks. HAV-excreting food handlers, especially those with poor hygienic practices, can contaminate the foods which they handle. Consumption of such foods without further processing has been known to result in cases of infectious hepatitis. Since quantitative data on virus transfer during contact of hands with foods is not available, we investigated the transfer of HAV from artificially contamin...

Bidawid, S.; Farber, J. M.; Sattar, S. A.

2000-01-01

114

Enhanced conformational sampling method for proteins based on the TaBoo SeArch algorithm: Application to the folding of a mini-protein, chignolin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The conformational samplings are indispensible for obtaining reliable canonical ensembles, which provide statistical averages of physical quantities such as free energies. However, the samplings of vast conformational space of biomacromolecules by conventional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations might be insufficient, due to their inadequate accessible time-scales for investigating biological functions. Therefore, the development of methodologies for enhancing the conformational sampling of biomacromolecules still remains as a challenging issue in computational biology. To tackle this problem, we newly propose an efficient conformational search method, which is referred as TaBoo SeArch (TBSA) algorithm. In TBSA, an inverse energy histogram is used to select seeds for the conformational resampling so that states with high frequencies are inhibited, while states with low frequencies are efficiently sampled to explore the unvisited conformational space. As a demonstration, TBSA was applied to the folding of a mini-protein, chignolin, and automatically sampled the native structure (C? root mean square deviation?energy landscape method based on the conformational sampling of TBSA were quantitatively evaluated through free energy calculations with both implicit and explicit solvent models, which enable us to find several metastable states on the folding landscape. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25691321

Harada, Ryuhei; Takano, Yu; Shigeta, Yasuteru

2015-04-15

115

Hand and Wrist Injuries  

Science.gov (United States)

... American Physical Therapy Association American Medical Society for Sports Medicine HAND AND WRIST INJURIES Sports Tips are brought to you by the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine. They provide general information only and are not ...

116

Put Your Hands Together  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... if everyone routinely washed their hands, a million deaths a year could be prevented. From doorknobs to ... Fortification Release Date: 7/9/2013 Screen for Life: Meryl Streep Release Date: 5/8/2013 Our ...

117

Hand Hygiene Saves Lives  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Listen/Watch Hand Hygiene Saves Lives: Patient Admission Video This podcast is for hospital patients and visitors. ... than those who don't. In the following video, you'll see how easy it is to ...

118

Wash Your Hands  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... based product. The video also points out that alcohol-based hand rubs significantly reduce the number of germs on skin and are fast-acting. More Information ... this Video Embed: What do you think of our videos? Your feedback about CDC-TV and our videos ...

137

Wash Your Hands  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Hands Source: Office of the Associate Director for Communication, Division of Communication Services, Broadcast Services Running Time: (0:30) Release ... 8/2013 Our Cultures Are Our Source of Health Release Date: 2/7/2013 Hidden Sodium Release ...

138

Drawing Dynamic Hands.  

Science.gov (United States)

This student artist's handbook provides illustrations and instructions for visualizing and drawing the human hand in a variety of positions. Focus is on realistic representation and imitation of the natural human form. Eleven chapters cover: (1) "Forms and Structures"; (2) "Proportions and Measurements"; (3) "Anatomy and Structure"; (4)…

Hogarth, Burne

139

Electrically powered hand tool  

Science.gov (United States)

An electrically powered hand tool is described and which includes a three phase electrical motor having a plurality of poles; an electrical motor drive electrically coupled with the three phase electrical motor; and a source of electrical power which is converted to greater than about 208 volts three-phase and which is electrically coupled with the electrical motor drive.

Myers, Kurt S.; Reed, Teddy R.

2007-01-16

140

Hand Hygiene Saves Lives  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... another patient's room. Hello. How is the patient doing today? About the same, I think. Well I'm just going to examine him briefly. Doctor, I'm embarrassed to even ask you this, but would you mind cleansing your hands before you begin? Oh, I washed them right before I came in the room. If you ...

141

Wash Your Hands  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Safe Teen Drivers Release Date: 10/18/2010 Global Disease Detectives in Kibera Release Date: 10/5/ ... Drugs: Seasonal Flu Release Date: 9/27/2010 Global Disease Detectives Release Date: 9/20/2010 Hand ...

142

Mechanical cornpicker hand injuries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mechanical cornpicker hand injuries are not frequent in comparison to general hand trauma, but they have a specific mechanism of occurrence and are very severe. This investigation included 221 hand injuries. The sex distribution shows a general male dominance (85.25% in their active age (84.44%. These are, seasonal injuries mostly occurring in October (75.11%. By type of injuries, mutilating crush injuries are most frequent (64.25%. After completing the treatment, in most cases the functional result were estimated as bad (50.68%. Data concerning education and training for operating agricultural machines (96.38% - patients without training and carrying out safety measures (63.35% of injured patients did not apply any protection measures are devastating. The number of these injuries, as well as consequent permanent disabilities, may be considerably reduced by preventive measures, including public health services and media. Use of contemporary agricultural machinery, as well as obligatory training for operating these machines and application of protective measures, may also reduce the incidence of hand injuries during corn picking.

Mom?ilovi? Dragan

2005-01-01

143

Food allergy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant allergens (class 2 food allergy. Allergenicity of food is largely determined by structural aspects, including cross-reactivity and reduced or enhanced allergenicity with cooking that convey allergenic characteristics to food. Management of food allergy currently focuses on dietary avoidance of the offending foods, prompt recognition and treatment of allergic reactions, and nutritional support. This review includes definitions and examines the prevalence and management of food allergies and the characteristics of food allergens.

Youngshin Han

2012-05-01

144

Put Your Hands Together  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... could be prevented. From doorknobs to animals to food, harmful germs can live on almost everything. Handwashing may be your single most important act to help stop ... The Immunization Baby Book Release Date: 6/9/2014 Babies on ...

145

Making Healthy Food Choices  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Students will see that food advertisements may not be the best information to use when deciding what to eat. They will investigate several resources for good information about foods and nutrition. Allow several weeks to complete this unit. UEN Core CurriculumStandard 1 Students will develop a sense of self. Objective 1 Describe and practice responsible behaviors for health and safety. a. Practice appropriate personal hygiene (e.g., bathe, wash hands, clean clothes). b. Describe the benefits of eating a variety of nutritious foods. c. Describe the benefits of physical activity. d. Describe substances that are helpful and harmful to the body. e. Practice basic safety and identify hazards. Making Healthy Food Choices #1 Task Definition - ...

Miss Fox

2011-12-15

146

Food Allergy  

Science.gov (United States)

Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the ... peanuts, tree nuts, soy, and wheat. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

147

Food Allergies  

Science.gov (United States)

Doctors are diagnosing more and more people with food allergies. People can be allergic to any food, but eight ... show if there are antibodies to a particular food in the person's blood — indicating an immune system reaction to that ...

148

Food Allergies  

Science.gov (United States)

... cow's milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies occur when your immune system ... had a serious reaction. Back Continue How Are Food Allergies Treated? There is no special medicine for ...

149

Spanish food patterns.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data from household food budgetary surveys and regional, population-based, cross-sectional studies show a declining trend in energy intake in the last decades, also applicable to protein, fat and carbohydrate intakes in absolute terms. The pattern suggests a lower fat content in the diet. Protein intake is 200% of the recommended level. Spanish food patterns underwent dramatic changes between the 1960s and the 1980s, including an important increase in fat intake, up to 44% energy intake from fat in the 1980s. The trend changed in the 1990s, and current fat supply provides an average of 37% of energy intake. Main sources of fat in the Spanish diet are added fats for cooking (49% of total fat intake), especially olive oil; meat and meat products (25%); and a lower percentage provided by milk and dairy products. Most saturated fatty acids are supplied by meats (30%) and dairy products (27%). Rapid urbanisation processes and the growing proportion of females in the active workforce have led to important changes in food patterns in the last decades. On the one hand, some changes had a positive impact, such as increasing variety in the diet and access to food; on the other hand, some changes moved the Spanish diet away from the traditional Mediterranean food pattern. Current food patterns evidence high consumption of animal products: meat, fish, milk and dairy products. It seems advisable to increase consumption of plant foods, particularly whole-grain cereals, potatoes and pulses. Intake of fruit and vegetables shows a shift towards a greater consumption of processed foods rather than fresh products, and overall a greater consumption would be recommended. PMID:11918489

Aranceta, J

2001-12-01

150

Food allergy  

OpenAIRE

Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy) or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant all...

Youngshin Han; Jihyun Kim; Kangmo Ahn

2012-01-01

151

Food security  

OpenAIRE

The assurance of food security at the individual level doesn’t implicitly provide for the one at family level as the concepts of hunger, malnutrition and food insecurity are the steps of the same process of access restricted to a sufficient supply of food. In order to achieve food security at the individual level the following is necessary: ensuring food availability (production, reserve stocks); redistribution of food availability within the country or out through internatio...

Dorina Ardelean

2007-01-01

152

Food Packaging  

Science.gov (United States)

Students learn how food packages are designed and made, including the three main functions. The packaging design and materials must keep food clean, protect or aid in the physical and chemical changes that can take place in food, and identify a food appealingly. Then, in the associated activity, students act as if they are packaging engineers by designing and creating their own food packages for particular food types.

Engineering K-PhD Program,

153

Radiology of the hand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The coverage of the author is extensive but inevitably not comprehensive. Congenital dysplasias, dysostoses, and chromosomal aberrations are covered and referenced. However, rheumatoid diseases are scantily covered. The text is sparse and in almost telegraphic style lists with useful data the site affected, the radiographic features, and the differential diagnoses. Illustrations provide an exercise in reviewing disorders affecting the hands and also provides a viewbox reference manual.

Thijn, C.J.P.

1985-01-01

154

[Food habits and culture factors in pregnant adolescents].  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to identify the food habits of pregnant adolescents and their perception about which, of her cultural concepts, have higher influence. 54 subjects between 12 and 19 years old from Guadalajara City were included and socioeconomic, dietetic data, as food frequency consumption and cultural concepts about feeding were also explored. Chi square was used for identifying association between variables. The fat intake was lower in late vs. Early and middle stage of adolescence (57 vs. 71 g/d, p = 0.05). The iron, calcium and zinc intake was also deficient in the early/middle stage; meanwhile, the folic acid consumption was very low in the late stage of adolescence. Corn tortillas were the most consumed cereal and food (93-96%); junk food and sodas (62 and 55%) prevailed in the early/middle stage. About local costumes, "tacos", "pozole" and burgers were the most referred (74.1%). They also mentioned that fat (36.7%), junk food (30%), chili (26.7%), sodas (23.3%), processed meals (26.7%) and salt (10%) were harmful. They also believed that vegetables (77%), fruits (60 %), milk (21%), broths (17%), and meat (12.5%) were beneficial; and, 96% considered that chicken and bean broths were nutritious (myth). There were some prohibited foods (taboos) during pregnancy: chili (48%), junk food (20%), and salt (16%). Prejudices were more common among later adolescents (60.9%) (p = 0.03). The erratic food habits and the conceptual confusion of these adolescents cause a low intake of nutrients and place them in a nutritional risk. PMID:18589568

Herrera-Suárez, Claudia Carolina; Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar M; Romero-Velarde, Enrique; Romo-Huerta, Hiliana P; García De Alba García, Javier E; Troyo-Sanromán, Rogelio

2008-03-01

155

Hand dermatitis: an allergist's nightmare.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hand dermatitis is a common skin complaint. We use our hands to explore our environment; subsequently, our hands are in frequent contact with potential allergens and irritants. Patients with hand dermatitis may present to their allergist with this complaint. Approaching the diagnosis and treatment of hand dermatitis can be challenging, as both internal and external factors may contribute to the overall condition. Furthermore, the differential diagnosis of hand dermatitis is broad and the cause often multifactorial. Obtaining a thorough history and performing a focused examination may help the clinician differentiate between multiple causes of hand dermatitis. Numerous treatment options exist for hand dermatitis, and new potential treatments are in development as well. We aim to provide the allergist with a streamlined toolkit for help in the diagnosis and management of hand dermatitis. PMID:25228264

Wold, Lindsey; Chen, Jennifer K; Lampel, Heather P

2014-11-01

156

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper discusses the need for effective and efficient technologies in improving the food handling system. It defines the basic premises for the development of food handling. The application of food irradiation technology is briefly discussed. The paper points out key considerations for the adoption of food irradiation technology in the ASEAN region (author)

157

Food Groups  

Science.gov (United States)

Welcome to the Five Food Groups MyPlate illustrates the five food groups that are the building blocks for a healthy diet using a familiar image – ... half your grains whole. >> See Grains Group Protein Foods Go lean with protein. >> See Protein Foods Group ...

158

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gives details of sources used for food irradiation, brief description of the process, safety of food irradiation process, practical applications and the amount of doses used for spices, condiments, mangoes etc., limitations of food irradiation, international status of clearance of irradiated foods, versatility of the process

159

"I wash my hands of it!?" – Trends in hand hygiene over the past decades  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hand hygiene is the most important measure to protect against the spread of nosocomial infections. With the development of in vitro und in vivo test methods for evaluation of the effect of hand hygiene, there has been a sharp increase over the past 50 years in the body of knowledge relating to effective methods for removal from the hands or killing and inactivation of pathogens. In 1958 the German Society of Hygiene and Microbiology (DGHM published a first “Guidelines for Testing Chemical Disinfectants” and included only those hand disinfection products on its “List of Tested Chemical Disinfectants Found To Be Effective” that had been tested as per the methods cited in the guidelines. The American Society of Testing and Materials (today: ASTM International was next, with the first test protocols for hand disinfection products, which in 1974 were adopted by the US Food and Drug Agency as “Guidelines” in a “Tentative Final Monograph” (TFM and in 1994, having revised it to incorporate new insights, it was published once again.Where the user is concerned, guidelines for hand disinfection containing information on indication and implementation are of course more important than methods dealing with efficacy testing of products. Such guidelines are compiled within the hospitals by the infection control teams set up during the 1970s. Written guidelines were also published by several healthcare institutions, scientific societies and associations. The guidelines formulated by the World Health Organisation (WHO, in an expert committee under the direction of Didier Pittet, proved to be the most successful of the attempts undertaken at global level to enhance hand hygiene. The most remarkable changes appear to be the efforts aimed at improving compliance among medical personnel and the increasing international acceptance of hand disinfection by using alcohols in the form of rubs; whether this will be with lotions or gels remains to be seen.

Rotter, Manfred L.

2007-09-01

160

Posttraumatic radial club hand.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fifteen adult patients with an unstable ununited fracture of the distal third of the radius and severe radial deviation deformity resembling a radial club hand were retrospectively reviewed at an average of 25 months after operative treatment. There were eight women and seven men with an average age of 57 years (range, 33-79 years). The average duration of nonunion was 56 months (range, 6-252 months). Six patients had a concomitant fracture of the ulna and four had dislocation of the distal radioulnar joint. Three patients were treated with wrist arthrodesis and 12 with plate fixation and autogenous bone grafting. The distal ulna was excised and used for bone graft in eight patients. Correction of deformity was facilitated by z-lengthening of the brachioradialis and flexor carpal radialis in four patients and distraction histogenesis (llizarov) in two patients. One patient failed to heal the fracture and was treated with wrist arthrodesis. Functional alignment and use of the hand was restored in all patients. PMID:15559692

Ring, David; Prommersberger, Karl; Jupiter, Jesse B

2004-01-01

161

Hands Up: Attentional Prioritization of Space Near the Hand  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explored whether hand location affected spatial attention. The authors used a visual covert-orienting paradigm to examine whether spatial attention mechanisms--location prioritization and shifting attention--were supported by bimodal, hand-centered representations of space. Placing 1 hand next to a target location, participants detected…

Reed, Catherine L.; Grubb, Jefferson D.; Steele, Cleophus

2006-01-01

162

Hand-foot-mouth disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Hand-foot-mouth disease is a common viral infection that most often begins in the throat. ... Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is most commonly caused by a virus called coxsackievirus A16. Children under age 10 are ...

163

Psoriatic Arthritis of the Hand  

Science.gov (United States)

... Videos Hand Anatomy Find a Hand Surgeon Psoriatic Arthritis Email to a friend * required fields From * To * ... of patients with psoriasis may develop an associated arthritis. Arthritis means inflamed joint. A normal joint consists ...

164

Arthritis of the hand - Rheumatoid  

Science.gov (United States)

... Picker Videos Hand Anatomy Find a Hand Surgeon Arthritis - Rheumatoid Email to a friend * required fields From * ... in to name and customize your collection. DESCRIPTION Arthritis means an inflamed joint. A joint normally consists ...

165

Fried Foods and Heart Failure Risk  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... FAQs Contact Us Search MedlinePlus Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Cool ... right-hand corner of the player. Fried Foods and Heart Failure Risk HealthDay March 4, 2015 ...

166

Fried Foods and Heart Failure Risk  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... of Health Home About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Search MedlinePlus ... right-hand corner of the player. Fried Foods and Heart Failure Risk HealthDay March 4, 2015 ...

167

Going to School with Food Allergies  

Science.gov (United States)

... that could contain allergens, such as materials for art, class projects, or class pets and their food. ... won't have the epinephrine auto-injector on hand at all times, be sure that it's available ...

168

The human hand as an inspiration for robot hand development  

CERN Document Server

“The Human Hand as an Inspiration for Robot Hand Development” presents an edited collection of authoritative contributions in the area of robot hands. The results described in the volume are expected to lead to more robust, dependable, and inexpensive distributed systems such as those endowed with complex and advanced sensing, actuation, computation, and communication capabilities. The twenty-four chapters discuss the field of robotic grasping and manipulation viewed in light of the human hand’s capabilities and push the state-of-the-art in robot hand design and control. Topics discussed include human hand biomechanics, neural control, sensory feedback and perception, and robotic grasp and manipulation. This book will be useful for researchers from diverse areas such as robotics, biomechanics, neuroscience, and anthropologists.

Santos, Veronica

2014-01-01

169

Food allergies.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Adverse reactions to foods are commonly implicated in the causation of ill health. However, foreign antigens, including food proteins and commensal microbes encountered in the gastrointestinal tract, are usually well tolerated. True food allergies, implying immune-mediated adverse responses to food antigens, do exist, however, and are especially common in infants and young children. Allergic reactions to food manifest clinically in a variety of presentations involving the gastrointestinal, cutaneous, and respiratory systems and in generalized reactions such as anaphylaxis. Both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated immune mechanisms are recognized. Important advances in the clinical features underlying specific food hypersensitivity disorders are reviewed.

O'Leary, Paula F G

2012-02-03

170

Food Taxes: A New Holy Grail?  

Science.gov (United States)

In an effort to reduce the growing prevalence of overweight and obesity, food taxes have been introduced in several European countries, the so-called ‘obesitax’. As yet little evidence is at hand, policy measures are being taken to counterweight the consumption of unhealthy food or the increasing diet-related diseases. Several questions need to be discussed, starting from a general perspective: can food taxes become an appropriate and just policy measure to reduce overweight and obesity and therefore increase consumer’s health? The implementation of an effective and fair food tax is an exercise riddled with uncertainty. Not only is there a need for evidence on the health and economic impact of food taxes, we also have to think about a conceptual and ethical discussion concerning the balance between health imperatives and public health on the one hand, and social and ethical standards on the other hand. PMID:24596843

Devisch, Ignaas

2013-01-01

171

Food Taxes: A New Holy Grail?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In an effort to reduce the growing prevalence of overweight and obesity, food taxes have been introduced in several European countries, the so-called ‘obesitax’. As yet little evidence is at hand, policy measures are being taken to counterweight the consumption of unhealthy food or the increasing diet-related diseases. Several questions need to be discussed, starting from a general perspective: can food taxes become an appropriate and just policy measure to reduce overweight and obesity and therefore increase consumer’s health? The implementation of an effective and fair food tax is an exercise riddled with uncertainty. Not only is there a need for evidence on the health and economic impact of food taxes, we also have to think about a conceptual and ethical discussion concerning the balance between health imperatives and public health on the one hand, and social and ethical standards on the other hand.

Ignaas Devisch

2013-01-01

172

Regional food culture and development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food culture is most influenced by the locality of its origin, which will have been one of food acquisition and processing by various means. It is generally agreed, and is the basis of much United Nations, especially Food and Agriculture Organisation strategic development policy, that successful agriculture, horticulture and aquaculture along with fishing, underpin economically viable and healthy communities with their various food cultures. We also know that this must be in tandem with maternal literacy and operational health care systems. These elements are best represented on a regional basis. There is a growing consumer interest in knowing where one's food comes from as a measure of "food integrity". However, food production alone can be a precarious business and relate to a lesser or greater extent to local food culture and to trade, which may be complementary or at-odds with each other. Likewise, the local food culture may have its strengths and weaknesses as far as its ability to meet nutritional and health needs is concerned. Local food production may be restricted because of geographical or socio-economic conditions which preclude food diversity, although this may be compensated for by trade. Where food adequacy and diversity is compromised, and soils poor, various macronutrient, micronutrient (from animals and plants) and phytonutrient (nutritionally-advantageous food component from plants) deficiencies may be in evidence. These food system problems may be intertwined with food culture--for example, "rice-based and water-soluble vitamin poor"; "few animal-derived foods like meat, fish, eggs and milk with associated low calcium, vitamin D, Vitamin B12 and long chain n-3 fatty acid intakes"; "low fruit and vegetable intake with limited carotenoids and other phytonutrients". Geo-satellite surveillance and mapping as identifying such "hot spots": for regional food problems, as well as hot spots where most of the world's biodiversity is found (1.4 % of land on earth). On the other hand, regional food culture can confer considerable advantage for health and economic development, but does not necessarily do so. The challenge is to respect and retain traditional food knowledge and sustainable food systems, with good governance for food security. There has been a recent awakening of interest and concern about the lack of documentation of traditional and indigenous food cultures which are important not only for their own sake, but for the legacy of food knowledge which they can confer on future generations, provided they are not lost. Hence, the value of a special focus on African food cultures (www.healthyeatingclub.org/Africa), including Rift and Nile Valleys and North West African foods, which are the cradles of human food systems and habits. This is the case too with indigenous foods and food cultures (whether hunter-gatherer or subsistence agriculture); with relatively long-living food cultures in North East Asia, with food cultural distinction and fusion (FHILL and SENECA studies) and with migratory Food Habits. By and large, there is a remarkable resilience and ingenuity of people and their food systems, but monoculture and lack of diversity encourage food system failure. PMID:17392068

Wahlqvist, Mark L; Lee, Meei-Shyuan

2007-01-01

173

Unimanual SNARC Effect: Hand Matters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A structural representation of the hand embedding information about the identity and relative position of fingers is necessary to counting routines. It may also support associations between numbers and allocentric spatial codes that predictably interact with other known numerical spatial representations, such as the mental number line. In this study, 48 Western participants whose typical counting routine proceeded from thumb-to-little on both hands performed magnitude and parity binary judgments. Response keys were pressed either with the right index and middle fingers or with the left index and middle fingers in separate blocks. 24 participants responded with either hands in prone posture (i.e. palm down and 24 participants responded with either hands in supine (i.e. palm up posture. When hands were in prone posture, the counting direction of the left hand conflicted with the direction of the left-right mental number line, whereas the counting direction of the right hand was consistent with it. When hands were in supine posture, the opposite was true. If systematic associations existed between relative number magnitude and an allocentric spatial representation of the finger series within each hand, as predicted on the basis of counting habits, interactions would be expected between hand posture and a unimanual version of the Spatial-Numerical Association of Response Codes (SNARC effect. Data revealed that with hands in prone posture a unimanual SNARC effect was present for the right hand, and with hands in supine posture a unimanual SNARC effect was present for the left hand. We propose that a posture-invariant body structural representation of the finger series provides a relevant frame of reference, a within-hand directional vector, that is associated to simple number processing. Such frame of reference can significantly interact with stimulus-response correspondence effects that have been attributed to the mapping of numbers on a mental number line.

MariannaRiello

2011-12-01

174

FOOD SECURITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The assurance of food security at the individual level doesn’t implicitly provide for the one at family level as the concepts of hunger, malnutrition and food insecurity are the steps of the same process of access restricted to a sufficient supply of food. In order to achieve food security at the individual level the following is necessary: ensuring food availability (production, reserve stocks; redistribution of food availability within the country or out through international exchanges; effective access of the population to purchase food consumer goods, by ensuring its effective demand as required. Food security of families (FFS is required for assuring individual food security (IFS, but it is not sufficient because the food available may be unevenly distributed between family members. National food security (NFS corresponds to the possibilities that different countries have to ensure both FFS and IFS without sacrificing other important objectives. Under the name of GAS is defined the global food security which represents permanent access for the entire population of the globe to the necessary food for a healthy and active life.

Dorina Ardelean

2013-12-01

175

Bacterial Contamination of Hands Increases Risk of Cross-Contamination among Low-Income Puerto Rican Meal Preparers  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To examine the association of microbial contamination of the meal preparer's hands with microbial status of food and kitchen/utensil surfaces during home preparation of a "Chicken and Salad" meal. Design and Setting: Observational home food safety assessment. Before starting meal preparation, participants' hands were tested to estimate…

Dharod, Jigna Morarji; Paciello, Stefania; Bermudez-Millan, Angela; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar; Damio, Grace; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael

2009-01-01

176

Food Chain  

Science.gov (United States)

This video segment from IdahoPTV's D4K describes how energy moves through nature. You will learn about the food chain, and its members: producers, consumers, scavengers. It shows where humans fit into the food chain.

Idaho PTV

2011-09-04

177

Food Webs  

Science.gov (United States)

The representation depicts 4 different food webs: Antarctica, the African Grasslands, the Australia Grasslands and a Marine environment. A separate food web for scavengers and decomposers is present in the African Grasslands section. Viewers must first build the web by moving boxes with the organism's picture and name to the appropriate spot on a grid. Clues describing food requirements are given as the boxes are moved. When the boxes are correctly placed a complete food web (with arrows) is displayed.

178

Cinematic Motion by Hand  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Within Cinema, animation always had an unclear relation with live-action recording since its very beginning. We learned – helped by ASIFA (International Animated Film Association) – that we should separate one from the other and we also realized that we (still) don’t have a general theory of cinema that embraces both. Yet, over the last years, animation and live-action footage became completely tangled in cinematic productions. Obviously, this means that each of them is just a technical strategy supported by its own specialists and as one became dominant, the other turned out to be marginal. But what if we could ascertain a specific ontology for animation within technology that would explain how its marginality is rooted to its essence at least in one of its forms? In this paper I will try to argue that, by overwhelming the cinematic technical standard workings with their hand, authors exposed its functional scheme to contingency, thus opening the production process to new unpredictable expressive and communicative possibilities. I will attempt to explain how this corresponds to a renewed way of comprehending technology by, simultaneously, revealing the human reality it contains and physiologically incorporating it. Special attention is given to authors such as Norman McLaren, Len Lye, and Pierre Hébert.

Graca, Marina Estela

2006-01-01

179

Food jags  

Science.gov (United States)

Refusal to eat; Fear of new foods ... caregiver, it is your role to provide healthy food and drink choices. You can also help your ... mealtimes positive. Children should be allowed to choose foods based on their likes and dislikes and their ...

180

"Osseous tumors of the hand "  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The majority of osseous tumors of the hand are benign. The surgeon who evaluates and treats osseous tumors of the hand has to be familiar with limb anatomy, tumor biology, various presentations of the tumors and the range of treatment possibilities and their limitations. Lesions in the hand more often present earlier in their course than those at other sites, just because they are more likely to superficial and easily noticed. A review of all cases of osseous tumors of the hand, seen by a hand surgeon over the last 10 years, at Imam Khomeini hospital was performed. Among 55 cases with osseous tumors of hand, 48 primary benign bone tumors, 3 primary malignant bone tumors, and 4 metastatic bone tumors were found. Enchondroma was the most common benign bone tumor followed by osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, aneurismal bone cyst, giant cell tumor, epidermoid cyst, and osteochondroma. There were two chondrosarcoma and one Ewing’s sarcoma as primary malignant bone tumors. Metastasis to the hand from colon, esophagus, and breast were also found. There were also two cases with Brown tumor secondary to hyperparathyroidism, we conclude that a variety of osseous tumors could occur in the hand, and usually they are benign. Although malignant neoplasms in the hand that arise from tissues other than the skin are very rare, the hand may be the site of distant breast, lung, kidney, esophagus, or colon adenocarcinoma metastases, most of which have a predilection for the distal phalanges.

"Farzan M

2002-08-01

181

Fried Foods and Heart Failure Risk  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... lower right-hand corner of the player. Fried Foods and Heart Failure Risk HealthDay March 4, 2015 ... than 15,000 male physicians who filled out food surveys during a 3- year period, including questions ...

182

HACCP, food quality, food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper summarizes the principles and purposes of the ''Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points'' (HACCP) system and its application and implementation within the European Union for the purposes of food quality and safety control, including food irradiation. (orig./CB)

183

Food Chains and Food Webs  

Science.gov (United States)

This lesson explains how energy travels through an ecosystem. This flow can be diagrammed in food chains and food webs as shown in the lesson's illustrations. Key terms are hyperlinked so students can easily view definitions of new concepts.

2012-06-14

184

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Food can be provided with extra beneficial properties by physical processing. These benefits include a reduced possibility of food poisoning, or an increased life of the food. We are familiar with pasteurisation of milk, drying of vegetables, and canning of fruit. These physical processes work because the food absorbs energy during treatment which brings about the changes needed. The energy absorbed in these examples is heat energy. Food irradiation is a less familiar process. It produces similar benefits to other processes and it can sometimes be applied with additional advantages over conventional processing. For example, because irradiation causes little heating, foods may look and taste more natural. Also, treatment can take place with the food in its final plastic wrappers, reducing the risk of re-contamination. (author). 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab

185

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Food irradiation has been the subject of concern and controversy for many years. The advantages of food irradiation include the reduction or elimination of dangerous bacterial organisms, the control of pests and insects which destroy certain foods, the extension of the shelf-life of many products, for example fruit, and its ability to treat products such as seafood which may be eaten raw. It can also replace existing methods of treatment which are believed to have hazardous side-effects. However, after examining the evidence produced by the proponents of food irradiation, the author questions whether it has any major contribution to make to the problems of foodborne diseases or world food shortages. More acceptable solutions, he suggests, may be found in educating food handlers to ensure that hygienic conditions prevail in the production, storage and serving of food. (author)

186

European norms in hand hygiene.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the area of hand hygiene, European Norms exist, or are under development, with regard to protective gloves and for assessing the antimicrobial efficacy of hand disinfectants. Important norms for gloves are EN 420 (General requirements), EN 374 (Protective gloves against chemicals and microorganisms) and EN 455 (Medical gloves for single use). A suspension test for the demonstration of bactericidal activity (prEN 12054) is obligatory for hand disinfectants in all fields of application; a test to prove activity against yeasts applies only to hygienic hand rub. (Optional) Claims for virucidal activities can be substantiated by prEN 1476 and, in future, for mycobactericidal capacity by a test which is still under development. In vivo tests exist for post-contamination treatments, hygienic hand wash and hygienic hand rub (EN 1499 and EN 1500 respectively), and for the preoperative surgical hand rub/wash (prEN 12791). The two former tests employ artificially contaminated hands, the latter test is done with clean hands. All in vivo tests use reference hand treatments (with unmedicated soap or 2-propanol 60% (vol.) or 1-propanol 60% (vol.), respectively) against the results of which are compared with those achieved with the product under test and with the same volunteers. An antiseptic soap needs to be significantly more efficacious than unmedicated soap, a product for hygienic hand rub must not be inferior to the reference treatment with 2-propanol, and a surgical hand disinfectant must not cause a smaller bacterial reduction than the reference preparation with 1-propanol, immediately, and after 3 h. An (optional) claim for sustained activity of a surgical disinfectant needs to be demonstrated by achieving a significantly stronger bacterial reduction after 3 h than the reference preparation. PMID:15110115

Rotter, M L

2004-04-01

187

Intravascular lesions of the hand  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Introduction Intravascular lesions of the hand comprise reactive and neoplastic entities. The clinical diagnosis of such lesions is often difficult, and usually requires pathologic examination. We present the largest series to date of intravascular lesions affecting the hand. Methods A retrospective review of intravascular (arterial and venous) lesions involving the hand was conducted. Data regarding clinicopathologic findings were analyzed. Results We identified 10 patients with int...

Duke Wayne H; Pantanowitz Liron

2008-01-01

188

Nonlinear left-handed metamaterials  

OpenAIRE

We analyze nonlinear properties of microstructured materials with negative refraction, the so-called left-handed metamaterials. We demonstrate that the hysteresis-type dependence of the magnetic permeability on the field intensity allows changing the material properties from left- to right-handed and back. Using the finite-difference time-domain simulations, we study wave transmission through the slab of nonlinear left-handed material, and predict existence of temporal solit...

Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Zharov, Alexander A.; Zharova, Nina A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

2004-01-01

189

Public health aspects of food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author debates public health aspects of food irradiation. The effect of food irradiation as a convenience to the consumer is discussed, i.e. the prevention of food deterioration and also the prevention of disease that could be passed on to the consumer by ingestion. On the other hand, the effects that could possibly be created by the application of radiation are also evaluated using toxicological and microbiological considerations. (Auth.)

190

"Osseous tumors of the hand "  

OpenAIRE

The majority of osseous tumors of the hand are benign. The surgeon who evaluates and treats osseous tumors of the hand has to be familiar with limb anatomy, tumor biology, various presentations of the tumors and the range of treatment possibilities and their limitations. Lesions in the hand more often present earlier in their course than those at other sites, just because they are more likely to superficial and easily noticed. A review of all cases of osseous tumors of the hand, seen by a han...

Farzan M; Smj, Mortazavi

2002-01-01

191

Neutrophilic dermatosis of dorsal hands.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sweet's syndrome is characterized by erythematous tender nodules and plaques over face and extremities. Fever, leukocytosis with neutrophilia, and a neutrophilic infiltrate in the dermis are characteristic features. Neutrophilic dermatosis of dorsal hands is a rare localized variant of Sweet's syndrome occurring predominantly over dorsa of hands. Various degrees of vascular damage may be observed on histopathology of these lesions. Both Sweet's syndrome and its dorsal hand variant have been reported in association with malignancies, inflammatory bowel diseases, and drugs. We report a patient with neutrophilic dermatoses of dorsal hands associated with erythema nodosum. He showed an excellent response to corticosteroids and dapsone. PMID:25657918

Kaur, S; Gupta, D; Garg, B; Sood, N

2015-01-01

192

Using food as a tool to teach science to 3rd grade students in Appalachian Ohio  

OpenAIRE

The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. In 2007–2008, a foods curriculum developed by professionals in nutrition and education was implemented in 10 3rd-grade classrooms in Appalachian Ohio; teachers in these classrooms implemented 45 hands-on foods activities that covered 10 food topics. Subjects included measurement; food safety; vegetables; fruits; milk a...

Duffrin, Melani W.; Hovland, Jana; Carraway-stage, Virginia; Mcleod, Sara; Duffrin, Christopher; Phillips, Sharon; Rivera, David; Saum, Diana; Johanson, George; Graham, Annette; Lee, Tammy; Bosse, Michael; Berryman, Darlene

2010-01-01

193

Dynamic Hand Gesture Recognition Using the Skeleton of the Hand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper discusses the use of the computer vision in the interpretation of human gestures. Hand gestures would be an intuitive and ideal way of exchanging information with other people in a virtual space, guiding some robots to perform certain tasks in a hostile environment, or interacting with computers. Hand gestures can be divided into two main categories: static gestures and dynamic gestures. In this paper, a novel dynamic hand gesture recognition technique is proposed. It is based on the 2D skeleton representation of the hand. For each gesture, the hand skeletons of each posture are superposed providing a single image which is the dynamic signature of the gesture. The recognition is performed by comparing this signature with the ones from a gesture alphabet, using Baddeley's distance as a measure of dissimilarities between model parameters.

Vasile Buzuloiu

2005-08-01

194

Food irradiation: contaminating our food  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nuclear industry has promoted food irradiation as an effective and safe means of preserving food at minimum risk to the public. However, wide-scale food irradiation programmes such as that approved in the United States of America would have an adverse impact on public health in the following ways: through the consumption of carcinogenic substances generated in irradiated foods, through the use of irradiation to mask bacteriological contamination of spoiled food, through the replacement of fresh foods with nutritionally depleted foods, through accidents with leaks or mishandling of the radiation sources used and through the environmental damage resulting from reactor operation or spent fuel reprocessing necessary to produce the required isotopes for food irradiation. The food irradiation market is potentially enormous, requiring a large number of facilities and isotopes, some, such as caesium-137, would come from the production of nuclear weapons. Evidence of the presence of carcinogenic or mutagenic activity in irradiated foods is discussed. Although the US Federal Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a food irradiation programme it would actually be against the FDA's legal obligation which is to protect the health and safety of the American people. (UK)

195

Food anaphylaxis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food anaphylaxis is now the leading single cause of anaphylactic reactions treated in emergency departments in Westernized countries. In the US, it is estimated that there are 29,000 anaphylactic reactions to foods treated in emergency departments and 125-150 deaths each year. Peanuts, tree nuts, fish and shellfish account for the vast majority of severe food anaphylactic reactions. Immunopathogenic mechanisms responsible for food anaphylaxis may differ somewhat from other forms of anaphylaxis, since elevation of serum tryptase is rarely seen following food anaphylactic reactions. Education regarding the strict avoidance of food allergens, the early recognition of anaphylactic symptoms, and the early use of self-injectable epinephrine remain the mainstays of therapy. However, clinical trials are now underway for the treatment of patients with peanut anaphylaxis utilizing anti-IgE antibody therapy and novel immunomodulatory therapies utilizing 'engineered' recombinant proteins, overlapping peptides, and immunostimulatory deoxyoligonucleotide sequences are being tested in animal models of anaphylaxis. PMID:11359629

Sampson, H A

2000-01-01

196

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Food preservation by irradiation is one part of Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace program that is enjoying renewed interest. Classified as a food additive by the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1958 instead of a processing technique, irradiation lost public acceptance. Experiments have not been done to prove that there are no health hazards from gamma radiation, but there are new pressures to get Food and Drug Administration approval for testing in order to make commercial use of some radioactive wastes. Irradiation causes chemical reactions and nutritional changes, including the destruction of several vitamins, as well as the production of radiolytic products not normally found in food that could have adverse effects. The author concludes that, lacking epidemiological evidence, willing buyers should be able to purchase irradiated food as long as it is properly labeled

197

Hand controller commonality evaluation process  

Science.gov (United States)

Hand controller selection for NASA's Orbiter and Space Station Freedom is an important area of human-telerobot interface design and evaluation. These input devices will control remotely operated systems that include large crane-like manipulators (e.g., Remote Manipulator System or RMS), smaller, more dexterous manipulators (e.g., Flight Telerobotic Servicer or FTS), and free flyers (e.g., Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle or OMV). Candidate hand controller configurations for these systems vary in many ways: shape, size, number of degrees-of-freedom (DOF), operating modes, provision of force reflection, range of movement, and 'naturalness' of use. Unresolved design implementation issues remain, including such topics as how the current Orbiter RMS rotational and translational rate hand controllers compare with the proposed Space Station Freedom hand controllers, the advantages that position hand controllers offer for these applications, and whether separate hand controller configurations are required for each application. Since previous studies contain little empirical hand controller task performance data, a controlled study is needed that tests Space Station Freedom candidate hand controllers during representative tasks. This study also needs to include anthropometric and biomechanical considerations.

Stuart, Mark A.; Bierschwale, John M.; Wilmington, Robert P.; Adam, Susan C.; Diaz, Manuel F.; Jensen, Dean G.

1993-01-01

198

Food allergy  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Food allergy is defined as an adverse immunologic response to a dietary protein. Food-related reactions are associated with a broad array of signs and symptoms that may involve many bodily systems including the skin, gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, and cardiovascular system. Food allergy is a leading cause of anaphylaxis and, therefore, referral to an allergist for appropriate and timely diagnosis and treatment is imperative. Diagnosis involves a careful history and diagnost...

Waserman Susan; Watson Wade

2011-01-01

199

Clean Hands Save Lives: Emergency Situations  

Science.gov (United States)

... by flood water or sewage Using alcohol-based hand sanitizers When your hands are visibly dirty, you should ... and water are not available, use alcohol-based hand sanitizers. Apply product to the palm of one hand. ...

200

The Musician’s Hand Image  

OpenAIRE

The concept of the “hand image”, developed by Levame, refers to the “central hand” (the hand as it is represented in the brain), which allows each individual to acquire a hand functionality unique to him/herself.

Mantero, R.

2010-01-01

201

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The advantages and disadvantages of food irradiation are discussed. Research into food irradiation has been going on for 40 years, yet studies have yet to demonstrate conclusively whether it is safe or harmful. The Australian House of Representatives has established an inquiry into food irradiation conducted by the Standing Committee on Environment and Conservation. It will inquire into the use of ionising radiation for commercial sterilisation, disinfestation, food preservation and other purposes with particular reference to human health and safety, environmental impacts and the adequacy of assessment and regulatory procedures

202

Biased hand use in captive emperor tamarins (Saguinus imperator).  

Science.gov (United States)

Comparing forelimb use across primates can improve the understanding of the mechanisms and functions of brain asymmetry. We broadened the comparative framework by investigating hand use biases across spontaneous behaviors in 11 captive emperor tamarins of 2 family groups. We found a right preference across 58% of pooled unimanual bouts and 60% of all tasks. The maximum biases for a single task were 88% right-hand use and 78% left-hand use. On an individual basis, for most tasks, 6 tamarins preferred their right hand, 2 tamarins the left, and 2 animals were ambidextrous. Only a single tamarin did not switch between left and right hand bias according to task, but displayed a consistent right-hand bias. Our accompanying review of the 2 dozen previous callitrichid hand use studies confirms this picture. Across the board, these report hand preferences for single tasks. Task specialization is found in less than half of the studies, hand specialization in less than a third, whereas population level handedness is almost never reported. Importantly, right-hand use is preponderant, but very rarely consistent across tasks or subjects. This might be attributable to the fact that often-employed simple (food-reaching) tasks may not be coupled to a specialized hemisphere and therefore not constrain forelimb use. A better understanding of what causes directional forelimb use in callitrichids and other animals is currently hampered by a lack of standardized methods including measurement criteria, task difficulty, and social setting as well as a dearth of taxonomic diversity and field studies. PMID:24491176

Olsen, Katharina; Sommer, Volker

2014-05-01

203

Hand preferences for bimanual coordination in 29 bonobos (Pan paniscus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Brain lateralization has long been thought to be unique to humans. To investigate the origins and functions of this feature, researchers study behavioural laterality in other animals. Despite a substantial database, manual laterality in non-human primates remains a controversial topic. We give here a review of the main findings on manual preference in great apes. This article presents data on hand preferences for a bimanual coordination in 29 bonobos (Pan paniscus). The study aims to provide data on manual laterality for a complex bimanual task in this very interesting and rarely studied species. Hand preferences were assessed using the 'tube task'. This task has been used with other species, which allows reliable data comparisons. The task requires a bimanual coordinated precise action: the subject holds the tube with one hand while reaching for food inside with the other hand. As a complex task, this measure has been shown to be efficient in revealing hand preferences. It has revealed group-level right bias in chimpanzees. Bonobos had never been tested. We recorded both independent bouts (counting only the first pattern of a sequence of identical actions) and frequency (counting every action). The bonobos exhibited strong hand preferences. With frequency, 11 bonobos were classified as right-handed, 15 were left-handed and 3 had no preference. With bouts, 8 bonobos were right-handed, 9 were left-handed and 12 had no preference. No group-level bias appeared. The results are discussed in relation with previous findings and theories on brain lateralization. PMID:18692095

Chapelain, Amandine S; Hogervorst, Eef

2009-01-01

204

Food Allergy  

Science.gov (United States)

... of links for more information about food allergy Javascript Error Your browser JavaScript is turned off causing certain features of the ... incorrectly. Please visit your browser settings and turn JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Food ...

205

Food preservation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pamphlet contains short descriptions of many methods of preserving foods with emphasis on irradiation and its possible consequences. The views of the Federation of Danish Industries with regard to questions considered worthy of debate in relation to irradiation of food are presented. Information is directed at the general danish public. (AB)

206

Food Timeline  

Science.gov (United States)

Whether visitors to the Food Timeline are foodies, or just plain curious, they will definitely find more information than can be taken in at one sitting. The Food Timeline was developed by a "reference librarian with a passion for food history," and her dedication is evident in the link near the top of the page entitled "About Culinary Research". Clicking on this link is extremely helpful for those researching food, and just plain interesting for those who are simply curious. In a nutshell, the author tells the visitor that research on food history is quite difficult and complex, and gives a bounty of hints on how to approach a particular food puzzler. She also notes that very few foods have been invented, rather they have just evolved. The timeline is smack dab in the middle of the homepage, and has links galore. It has links to individual ingredients, as well as to complete dishes and historically important cookbooks. Near the bottom of the homepage, below the timeline, is a menu of choices that includes: "Teacher Resources", "Historic Menu Collections", "Digitized Cookbooks", and "Historic Food Prices". There is so much on this website visitors might want to grab a snack and a beverage, and let the learning begin.

207

Clockwork: Hands On For Habitat  

Science.gov (United States)

Clockwork is "a self directed, theatre-based education package about biological diversity." Produced by Vox Bandicoot in collaboration with the Biodiversity Group (Environment Australia), the Clockwork site offers four sections: Midnight, an introduction to and philosophy of biological diversity, Mainspring, a hands-on lesson in critical concepts about threatened species and habitats, Big Hand and Little Hand, curriculum support material for classroom teachers, and Cog and Spindle, general science and ecological background about Australia. Though depth of content varies, environmental educators will be interested in this fresh and creative approach.

Vox Bandicoot.

208

Quantifying the Effect of Hand Wash Duration, Soap Use, Ground Beef Debris, and Drying Methods on the Removal of Enterobacter aerogenes on Hands.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hand washing is recognized as a crucial step in preventing foodborne disease transmission by mitigating crosscontamination among hands, surfaces, and foods. This research was undertaken to establish the importance of several keys factors (soap, soil, time, and drying method) in reducing microorganisms during hand washing. A nonpathogenic nalidixic acid-resistant Enterobacter aerogenes surrogate for Salmonella was used to assess the efficacy of using soap or no soap for 5 or 20 s on hands with or without ground beef debris and drying with paper towel or air. Each experiment consisted of 20 replicates, each from a different individual with ?6 log CFU/ml E. aerogenes on their hands. A reduction of 1.0 ± 0.4 and 1.7 ± 0.8 log CFU of E. aerogenes was observed for a 5-s wash with no soap and a 20-s wash with soap, respectively. When there was no debris on the hands, there was no significant difference between washing with and without soap for 20 s (P > 0.05). Likewise, there was no significant difference in the reductions achieved when washing without soap, whether or not debris was on the hands (P > 0.05). A significantly greater reduction (P 4.0 log CFU per towel) when hands are highly contaminated. Our results support future quantitative microbial risk assessments needed to effectively manage risks of foodborne illness in which food workers' hands are a primary cause. PMID:25836392

Jensen, Dane A; Danyluk, Michelle D; Harris, Linda J; Schaffner, Donald W

2015-04-01

209

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Definition and significance of food irradiation were described. The details of its development and present state were also described. The effect of the irradiation on Irish potatoes, onions, wiener sausages, kamaboko (boiled fish-paste), and mandarin oranges was evaluated; and healthiness of food irradiation was discussed. Studies of the irradiation equipment for Irish potatoes in a large-sized container, and the silo-typed irradiation equipment for rice and wheat were mentioned. Shihoro RI center in Hokkaido which was put to practical use for the irradiation of Irish potatoes was introduced. The state of permission of food irradiation in foreign countries in 1975 was introduced. As a view of the food irradiation in the future, its utilization for the prevention of epidemics due to imported foods was mentioned. (Serizawa, K.)

210

Food porn.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the term first appeared, food porn has typically referred to watching others cook on television or gazing at unattainable dishes in glossy magazines without actually cooking oneself. This forum seeks to revisit this notion of food porn that is mostly taken for granted in both popular and scholarly literature. It offers a brief perspective of the appearance and use of the term food porn to examine how it came to be a term used mostly by commentators rather than by people actively engaged in the world of cooking. Practitioners (chefs and a food television producer) and academics address whether or not food porn exists, what shape it might take, what purpose it might serve, and/or what usefulness it might have, showing that these contentious issues are more complex than the ease with which the term is used might let on. PMID:21539050

McBride, Anne E

2010-01-01

211

Motives for consumer choice of traditional food and European food in mainland China.  

Science.gov (United States)

The demand for European (-style) foods in mainland China has been increasing dramatically during the last decade. Nevertheless, European food producers often appear to be not capable to fully exploit this huge market potential, partially due to the competition with traditional (Chinese) foods. This study examines the determinants of mainland Chinese consumers' choice of traditional food and European food. A web-based survey was administered with 541 consumers from two cities: Shanghai and Xi'an. Thereby, the Food Choice Motives model, predominantly used thus far in a European or developed context, is applied to mainland China in order to address the lack of knowledge on food motives of its consumer market and to detect associations between these motives, attitudes, and purchase intentions. Factor analysis resulted in a new Food Choice Motive construct that is considered more appropriate within the context of mainland Chinese consumers, encompassing six dimensions: Health concern, Time or money saving, Sensory appeal, Availability and familiarity, Mood and Food safety concern. Path analysis demonstrated that Time or money saving was negatively associated with attitude toward traditional food on the one hand and purchase intentions toward European food on the other hand. Availability and familiarity had a positive association with attitude toward traditional food. Mood was a positive factor driving attitude toward European food. For both food types, Sensory appeal and Attitude were positively linked to purchase intentions. Furthermore, Mood was negatively linked to the purchase intention toward traditional food in Shanghai. Food safety concern was positively associated with attitudes toward traditional food in Xi'an. PMID:25542775

Wang, Ou; De Steur, Hans; Gellynck, Xavier; Verbeke, Wim

2015-04-01

212

Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

... Submit What's this? Submit Button CDC Features Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... someone is sick. Is HFMD the Same as Foot-and-Mouth Disease? No. HFMD is often confused with foot- ...

213

Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives  

Science.gov (United States)

... Publications, Data, & Statistics Articles, references… Show Me the Science Data behind why and how to wash hands… Training & Education Classroom lessons and activities, learning tools and materials… Our Partners Links to our handwashing partners around the world… Featured ...

214

Hand-schuller-christian disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A boy of 4 years presented with exophthalmos and cutaneous lesions. Clinical examination, histology and other investigations confirmed the diagnosis of Hand-Schuller-Christian disease.

Malhotra S

1992-01-01

215

Hands-On Bulletin Boards.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patterns and directions are given for making bulletin boards that teach language arts and mathematics skills through hands-on student involvement. The boards help teach multiplication tables, word contractions, letter sounds, homonyms, compound words, alphabetization, and other skills. (PP)

Henneman, Dawn

1984-01-01

216

Development of Food Retailing and Factors Affecting the Competition in Food Retailing  

OpenAIRE

Retailing is a dynamic and complex sector that offers wide range of products and services to consumers. This sector which includes different types of enterprises, has an important position within the supply chain. Food retailing has also a big potential within retailing sector. On the other hand, an intensive competition exists in food retailing. Taking place in the competitive market, food retailers attempt to gain a competitive advantage against their rivals with their geographic location,...

Serkan Kilic; Gokhan Senol

2010-01-01

217

Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a contagious illness that mainly affects children under five. In this podcast, Dr. Eileen Schneider talks about the symptoms of hand, foot, and mouth disease, how it spreads, and ways to help protect yourself and your children from getting infected with the virus.  Created: 8/8/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 8/8/2013.

2013-08-08

218

Hand kinematics of piano playing  

OpenAIRE

Dexterous use of the hand represents a sophisticated sensorimotor function. In behaviors such as playing the piano, it can involve strong temporal and spatial constraints. The purpose of this study was to determine fundamental patterns of covariation of motion across joints and digits of the human hand. Joint motion was recorded while 5 expert pianists played 30 excerpts from musical pieces, which featured ?50 different tone sequences and fingering. Principal component analysis and cluster ...

Furuya, Shinichi; Flanders, Martha; Soechting, John F.

2011-01-01

219

Hand function after nerve repair.  

OpenAIRE

Treatment of injuries to major nerve trunks in the hand and upper extremity remains a major and challenging reconstructive problem. Such injuries may cause long-lasting disabilities in terms of lost fine sensory and motor functions. Nowadays there is no surgical repair technique that can ensure recovery of tactile discrimination in the hand of an adult patient following nerve repair while very young individuals usually regain a complete recovery of functional sensibility. Post-traumatic nerve...

Lundborg, Go?ran; Rose?n, Birgitta

2007-01-01

220

Hand gestures mouse cursor control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper describes the implementation of a human-computer interface for controlling the mouse cursor. The test reveal the fact: a low-cost web camera some processing algorithms are quite enough to control the mouse cursor on computers. Even if the system is influenced by the illuminance level on the plane of the hand, the current study may represent a start point for some studies on the hand tracking and gesture recognition field.

Marian-Avram Vincze

2014-05-01

221

Food allergy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Food allergy is defined as an adverse immunologic response to a dietary protein. Food-related reactions are associated with a broad array of signs and symptoms that may involve many bodily systems including the skin, gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, and cardiovascular system. Food allergy is a leading cause of anaphylaxis and, therefore, referral to an allergist for appropriate and timely diagnosis and treatment is imperative. Diagnosis involves a careful history and diagnostic tests, such as skin prick testing, serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE testing and, if indicated, oral food challenges. Once the diagnosis of food allergy is confirmed, strict elimination of the offending food allergen from the diet is generally necessary. For patients with significant systemic symptoms, the treatment of choice is epinephrine administered by intramuscular injection into the lateral thigh. Although most children “outgrow” allergies to milk, egg, soy and wheat, allergies to peanut, tree nuts, fish and shellfish are often lifelong. This article provides an overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management and prognosis of patients with food allergy.

Waserman Susan

2011-11-01

222

Food Grab  

Science.gov (United States)

In this outdoor activity, learners design devices that will catch prey or gather plants. After testing their devices, learners investigate the food-gathering adaptations of animals in their activity site. Activity background information gives multiple examples of real animals and their food-grabbing mechanisms including shark jaws, rodent teeth, hawk talons, etc. Learners consider the concept of food-gathering adaptations of animals and compare them with human methods. An extension of this activity is observing various animals around the neighborhood as they capture prey and eat plants.

Lawrence Hall of Science

1979-01-01

223

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Serious outbreaks of food poisoning last year in the USA from contaminated ground meat and the listing of methyl bromide, the most widely used pest control fumigant, as an ozone depleting substance, has led to a resurgence of interest, especially in the USA, in the use of ionizing radiation for the preservation of food. For a number of reasons, principally public uneasiness with radiation and the availability of other less expensive, methods for fumigating or preserving food, the use of radiation has remained limited until recently

224

Food irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Serious outbreaks of food poisoning last year in the USA from contaminated ground meat and the listing of methyl bromide, the most widely used pest control fumigant, as an ozone depleting substance, has led to a resurgence of interest, especially in the USA, in the use of ionizing radiation for the preservation of food. For a number of reasons, principally public uneasiness with radiation and the availability of other less expensive, methods for fumigating or preserving food, the use of radiation has remained limited until recently.

Borsa, J.; Kunstadt, P. [MDS Nordion, Kanata, Ontario (Canada)

1998-07-01

225

Peptides and food intake.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food intake, whereas the other subpopulation coexpresses pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript that inhibits food intake. AgRP antagonizes the effects of the POMC product, ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH). Both populations project to areas important in the regulation of food intake, including the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, which also receives important inputs from other hypothalamic nuclei. PMID:24795698

Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

2014-01-01

226

Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 7. Barriers to reduce contamination of food by workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contamination of food and individuals by food workers has been identified as an important contributing factor during foodborne illness investigations. Physical and chemical barriers to prevent microbial contamination of food are hurdles that block or reduce the transfer of pathogens to the food surface from the hands of a food worker, from other foods, or from the environment. In food service operations, direct contact of food by hands should be prevented by the use of barriers, especially when gloves are not worn. Although these barriers have been used for decades in food processing and food service operations, their effectiveness is sometimes questioned or their use may be ignored. Physical barriers include properly engineered building walls and doors to minimize the flow of outside particles and pests to food storage and food preparation areas; food shields to prevent aerosol contamination of displayed food by customers and workers; work clothing designated strictly for work (clothing worn outdoors can carry undesirable microorganisms, including pathogens from infected family members, into the work environment); and utensils such as spoons, tongs, and deli papers to prevent direct contact between hands and the food being prepared or served. Money and ready-to-eat foods should be handled as two separate operations, preferably by two workers. Chemical barriers include sanitizing solutions used to remove microorganisms (including pathogens) from objects or materials used during food production and preparation and to launder uniforms, work clothes, and soiled linens. However, laundering as normally practiced may not effectively eliminate viral pathogens. PMID:20819372

Todd, Ewen C D; Michaels, Barry S; Greig, Judy D; Smith, Debra; Holah, John; Bartleson, Charles A

2010-08-01

227

Food neophobia and its relation with olfaction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Food neophobia, that is the reluctance to try novel foods, is an attitude that dramatically affects human feeding behavior in many different aspects among which food preferences and food choices appear to be the most thoroughly considered. This attitude has an important evolutionary meaning since it protects the individual from ingesting potentially dangerous substances. On the other hand, it fosters an avoidance behavior that can extend even toward useful food elements. A strong link exists between food neophobia and both the variety in one person’s diet and previous exposures to different foods. In this review, the more recent findings about food neophobia will be concisely described. Given the suggested connection between the exposure to different foods and food neophobia, this review will focus on the relation between this attitude and human chemosensory abilities. Olfaction, in particular, is a sensory modality that has a central role in flavor perception and in food preference acquisition. Therefore, the latest evidences about its relation with food neophobia will be discussed along with the applied and cognitive implications.

M. LuisaDemattè

2014-02-01

228

Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

229

Is It Food Allergy or Food Intolerance?  

Science.gov (United States)

... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Food Allergy Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Is it Food Allergy or Food Intolerance? Food allergy is sometimes confused ...

230

FAO: Food Safety and Quality  

Science.gov (United States)

The Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations website provides the data, research, publications, and projects that they have compiled, undertaken, published, and funded with the aims of making food production safer for consumers, workers, and the community. The website can be viewed in English, Spanish, and French, and the "Publications" can also be viewed in those three languages. The multitude of papers, books, documents, studies, etc. available from the Food Quality and Standards Services (AGNS) can be accessed using the "Publications" tab near the top of the page. Visitors can browse the 220 documents by title, date, or series number, or they can do a specific search by clicking on "New Search", on the right side of the page. A specific search can be done by country, language, year, title, or author. The "Biotechnology (GM food)" section on the left hand of the homepage will be of particular interest to those visitors concerned about the "Detection of GM food", "Safety Assessment of GM food", and the "Labelling of GM food".

231

Who's Hitchhiking in Your Food?  

Science.gov (United States)

How can you tell if harmful bacteria are growing in your food? Students learn to culture bacteria in order to examine ground meat and bagged salad samples, looking for common foodborne bacteria such as E. coli or salmonella. After 2-7 days of incubation, they observe and identify the resulting bacteria. Based on their first-hand experiences conducting this conventional biological culturing process, they consider its suitability in meeting society's need for ongoing detection of harmful bacteria in its food supply, leading them to see the need for bioengineering inventions for rapid response bio-detection systems.

Bio-Inspired Technology and Systems (BITS) RET,

232

Gastrointestinal food allergy in infants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food allergies are classified into three types, "IgE-mediated," "combined IgE- and cell-mediated" and "cell-mediated/non-IgE-mediated," depending on the involvement of IgE in their pathogenesis. Patients who develop predominantly cutaneous and/or respiratory symptoms belong to the IgE-mediated food allergy type. On the other hand, patients with gastrointestinal food allergy (GI allergy) usually develop gastrointestinal symptoms several hours after ingestion of offending foods; they belong to the cell-mediated/non-IgE-mediated or combined IgE- and cell-mediated food allergy types. GI allergies are also classified into a number of different clinical entities: food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES), food protein-induced proctocolitis (FPIP), food protein-induced enteropathy (Enteropathy) and eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGID). In the case of IgE-mediated food allergy, the diagnostic approaches and pathogenic mechanisms are well characterized. In contrast, the diagnostic approaches and pathogenic mechanisms of GI allergy remain mostly unclear. In this review, we summarized each type of GI allergy in regard to its historical background and updated clinical features, offending foods, etiology, diagnosis, examinations, treatment and pathogenesis. There are still many problems, especially in regard to the diagnostic approaches for GI allergy, that are closely associated with the definition of each disease. In addition, there are a number of unresolved issues regarding the pathogenic mechanisms of GI allergy that need further study and elucidation. Therefore, we discussed some of the diagnostic and research issues for GI allergy that need further investigation. PMID:23974876

Morita, Hideaki; Nomura, Ichiro; Matsuda, Akio; Saito, Hirohisa; Matsumoto, Kenji

2013-09-01

233

Food Engineering within Sciences of Food  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this paper is to clarify the identity of food engineering in sciences of food. A short historical description of the evolution of the branch in the Anglo Saxon and the Continental educational systems is given. Furthermore, the distinction of basic definitions such as food science, food science and technology, food technology, and food engineering is made. Finally, the objectives of food engineering within the branch of sciences of food are described.

Athanasios Kostaropoulos

2012-01-01

234

Food Engineering within Sciences of Food  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to clarify the identity of food engineering in sciences of food. A short historical description of the evolution of the branch in the Anglo Saxon and the Continental educational systems is given. Furthermore, the distinction of basic definitions such as food science, food science and technology, food technology, and food engineering is made. Finally, the objectives of food engineering within the branch of sciences of food are described.

Athanasios Kostaropoulos

2012-10-01

235

Food processing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper discusses the processes involved in food preparation for consumption and technological processing that could be used to reduce contamination of foodstuffs. The food processing transfer parameters - food processing retention factor, processing efficiency and the food processing factor - are defined and their relationships discussed. Data are presented for vegetables, fruit, cereals, dairy products, meat (mammals, birds and fish-edible fraction), fungi, seafoods and drinks. Processing procedures considered includes: simple washing and boiling for fruit, vegetables and mushrooms, boiling and milling for cereals, cooking and curing for meats, butter and cheese productions for dairy products and washing and cooking for seafoods. Storage times for foodstuffs have also been considered. A wide range of chemical elements are considered, with the majority of data presented caesium, strontium and iodine, stable element databases have been reviewed and relevant data used to extend the data set. A discussion of application of the data is presented with consideration of areas where cautions is needed. (author)

236

Urunana Audiences at Home and Away: Together 'Hand in Hand'?  

OpenAIRE

Urunana (‘Hand in Hand’) is Rwanda’s first radio soap opera. The production emerged during the late 1990s from a three-way transnational production partnership between: The Great Lakes section of the BBC World Service; the Well Woman Media Project of the London-based NGO, Health Unlimited; and a group of dramatists and broadcasters working in Rwanda. Broadcast by the BBC World Service, the production was initially produced and edited by Health Unlimite. It is now produced by the Urunana...

Hintjens, H. M.; Bayisenge, F.

2011-01-01

237

An analysis of national and cross-national consumer segments using the food-related lifestyle instrument in Denmark, France, Germany and Great Britain  

OpenAIRE

Executive summary 1. Food markets are claimed to be characterized by two opposing tendencies. On the one hand, food culture seems to be a domain of increasingly transnational character. On the other hand, there is substantial evidence that food culture has considerable inertia. This paper reports a series of studies aimed at investigating whether cross-national food consumer segments can be found. 2. Food consumer segments are derived using the food-related lifestyle instrument, which charact...

Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.; Bredahl, Lone

2005-01-01

238

Myelopathy hand in cervical radiculopathy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The so-called 'myelopathy hand', or characteristic finger paralysis, often recognized in cervical compression myelopathy, has been considered a unique manifestation of cervical myelopathy. We used our original grip and release test, a 15-second test in which finger motion is captured with a digital camera, to investigate whether cervical radiculopathy has the same characteristics as myelopathy hand. Thirty patients with pure radiculopathy, id est (i.e.), who had radiating arm pain and evidence of corresponding nerve root impingement on X-ray images or MRI scans, but did not have spinal cord compression, served as the subjects. In contrast to other radiculopathies, C7 radiculopathy was manifested by a significant reduction in the number of finger motion cycles on the affected side in comparison with the unaffected side, the same as in myelopathy hand. Uncoordinated finger motion was significantly more frequent on the affected side in C6 radiculopathy than on the unaffected side. These findings contradict the conventional notion that myelopathy hand is a unique manifestation of cervical myelopathy, but some radiculopathies manifested the same kinds of finger paralysis observed in myelopathy hand. (author)

239

Hands as markers of fragmentation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Margaret Atwood is an internationally read, translated, and critiqued writer whose novels have established her as one of the most esteemed authors in English (McCombs & Palmer, 1991:1. Critical studies of her work deal mainly with notions of identity from psychoanalytical perspectives. This study has identified a gap in current critical studies on Atwood’s works, namely the challenging of textual unity which is paralleled in the challenging of the traditional (single narrative voice. The challenging of textual unity and the single narrative voice brings about the fragmentation of both. This article will focus on the role that hands play as markers of fragmentation in “The Blind Assassin” (2000. In the novel, the writing hand destabilises the narrative voice, since it is not connected to the voice of a single author. If the author of the text – the final signified – is eliminated, the text becomes fragmentary and open, inviting the reader to contribute to the creation of meaning. Hands play a signficant role in foregrounding the narrator’s fragmented identity, and consequently, the fragmentation of the text. We will investigate this concept in the light of Roland Barthes’ notion of the scriptor, whose hand is metaphorically severed from his or her “voice”. Instead of the text being a unified entity, it becomes unstable and it displays the absence of hierarchical textual levels. Based mainly on Barthes’ writings, this article concludes that hands foreground the narrator’s fragmented identity, which is paralleled in the fragmented text.

A. Barnard

2005-07-01

240

Hand-Based Biometric Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Hand-based biometric analysis systems and techniques provide robust hand-based identification and verification. An image of a hand is obtained, which is then segmented into a palm region and separate finger regions. Acquisition of the image is performed without requiring particular orientation or placement restrictions. Segmentation is performed without the use of reference points on the images. Each segment is analyzed by calculating a set of Zernike moment descriptors for the segment. The feature parameters thus obtained are then fused and compared to stored sets of descriptors in enrollment templates to arrive at an identity decision. By using Zernike moments, and through additional manipulation, the biometric analysis is invariant to rotation, scale, or translation or an input image. Additionally, the analysis uses re-use of commonly seen terms in Zernike calculations to achieve additional efficiencies over traditional Zernike moment calculation.

Bebis, George

2013-01-01

241

Scale-eating cichlids: from hand(ed) to mouth  

OpenAIRE

Two recent studies in BMC Biology and Evolution raise important questions about a textbook case of frequency-dependent selection in scale-eating cichlid fishes. They also suggest a fascinating new line of research testing the effects of handed behavior on morphological asymmetry.

Palmer, A. Richard

2010-01-01

242

Bionic hand that can feel  

OpenAIRE

Those who have lost a limb such as a hand have long had the option of using a prosthetic to restore some lost functionality. Studies have shown that as many as 50 percent of prosthetic wearers rarely use them due to appearance and poor controllability. A new breakthrough in prosthesis has delivered a bionic hand that is capable of feeling just like the organic limb it replaces. When you are citing the document, use the following link http://essuir.sumdu.edu.ua/handle/123456789/33787

Parkhomenko, Y. Y.

2013-01-01

243

Hand adornment and infection control.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies have shown that despite infection control guidelines recommending that false fingernails, nail varnish, stoned rings and wrist watches not be worn by clinical staff, a large proportion of them continue to do so. The recently updated epic guidelines (Pratt et al, 2007) state that hand jewellery and false finger nails should be kept short, clean and free from nail polish. This article discusses the bacterial carriage, contributions to outbreaks of infection and interference with proper hand hygiene practices, thereby explaining why these recommendations are made in infection control policies and guidelines. PMID:17577182

Ward, Deborah Jane

244

2.MD Hand Span Measures  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Hand span is a measure of distance from the tip of the thumb to the tip of the little finger with the hand fully extended. Each student places his or h...

245

29 CFR 1910.138 - Hand protection.  

Science.gov (United States)

...employees to use appropriate hand protection when employees' hands are exposed to hazards...of harmful substances; severe cuts or lacerations; severe abrasions; punctures...selection of the appropriate hand protection on an...

2010-07-01

246

On robustness in food supply chain networks  

OpenAIRE

Purpose: Today's business environment is characterized by challenges of strong global competition where companies tend to achieve leanness and maximum responsiveness to customer demand. Lean supply chain networks are vulnerable to all kind of disruptions. For food supply chain networks (FSCNs), due to their inherent characteristics on the one hand and increased level of complexity, dynamics and uncertainty on the other hand, this vulnerability is even stronger. Therefore, methods are needed ...

Vlajic, J. V.; Vorst, J. G. A. J.; Hendrix, E. M. T.

2010-01-01

247

Vascular lesions of the hand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The vascular malformations are not uncommon on the hand and offer diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Enjolras and Mulliken's classification is exposed. Their depiction and pretreatment assessment may benefit from non-invasive imaging as color-Doppler ultrasound and MRI combined with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Some chronic traumatic vascular injuries as the hypothenar hammer syndrome may also take advantage of these imaging modalities

248

Principles of Hand Fracture Management  

OpenAIRE

The hand is essential in humans for physical manipulation of their surrounding environment. Allowing the ability to grasp, and differentiated from other animals by an opposing thumb, the main functions include both fine and gross motor skills as well as being a key tool for sensing and understanding the immediate surroundings of their owner.

Haughton, Dn; Jordan, D.; Malahias, M.; Hindocha, S.; Khan, W.

2012-01-01

249

Hand-held medical robots.  

Science.gov (United States)

Medical robots have evolved from autonomous systems to tele-operated platforms and mechanically-grounded, cooperatively-controlled robots. Whilst these approaches have seen both commercial and clinical success, uptake of these robots remains moderate because of their high cost, large physical footprint and long setup times. More recently, researchers have moved toward developing hand-held robots that are completely ungrounded and manipulated by surgeons in free space, in a similar manner to how conventional instruments are handled. These devices provide specific functions that assist the surgeon in accomplishing tasks that are otherwise challenging with manual manipulation. Hand-held robots have the advantages of being compact and easily integrated into the normal surgical workflow since there is typically little or no setup time. Hand-held devices can also have a significantly reduced cost to healthcare providers as they do not necessitate the complex, multi degree-of-freedom linkages that grounded robots require. However, the development of such devices is faced with many technical challenges, including miniaturization, cost and sterility, control stability, inertial and gravity compensation and robust instrument tracking. This review presents the emerging technical trends in hand-held medical robots and future development opportunities for promoting their wider clinical uptake. PMID:24927713

Payne, Christopher J; Yang, Guang-Zhong

2014-08-01

250

Unusual case of cleft hand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present a case of a six-year-old male child with cleft hand deformity involving the dominant right hand. It was a rare case of atypical cleft hand with no missing tissue but cleft extending to metacarpal level and associated hypoplasia of thumb and index finger. As per Manske?s classification of cleft hand our patient belongs to the Class III variety. There was associated malposition of the index finger with absence of first web space and syndactly of thumb and index finger at the metacarpal level. A modified Snow-Littler procedure was planned. The surgical plan involved closure of cleft, release of thumb and index finger syndactly and reconstruction of the first web space. The functional outcome was good considering hypoplasia of the index finger and thumb. Depending upon the function of the thumb tendon transfers can be planned to augment thumb function at a later date along with correction of rotational deformities of the index and middle finger.

Sahasrabudhe Parag

2007-01-01

251

Pyoderma gangrenosum of the hand.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pyoderma gangrenosum is a rare, painful, ulcerative neutrophilic dermatosis that is not usually seen on the hands. Pyoderma gangrenosum is a diagnosis of exclusion, as there are no specific laboratory or histopathologic findings to confirm the diagnosis. Heightened awareness and early recognition are needed to decrease morbidity in these patients. PMID:24440862

Schotanus, Maaike; van Hout, Naomi; Vos, Dagmar

2014-02-01

252

Hands-On Nuclear Physics  

Science.gov (United States)

Nuclear science is an important topic in terms of its application to power generation, medical diagnostics and treatment, and national defense. Unfortunately, the subatomic domain is far removed from daily experience, and few learning aids are available to teachers. What follows describes a low-tech, hands-on method to teach important concepts in…

Whittaker, Jeff

2013-01-01

253

Venous lakes of the hands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following pharmacologic vasodilation, multiple vascular lakes were observed on angiograms of the hand in 55 patients. Most had no history of vascular anomalies or disease. The authors believe that these lakes are venous structures and that their filling is a physiologic phenomenon

254

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation processing of food is based on irradiation by gamma radiation from a 60Co source or X-ray with energy < 5 MeV or electron beam with energy < 10 MeV. This technique is now completely mastered. About 30 countries use this technique to extend the storage life of food but the total quantity processed is weak, only 30000 tons a year for France. Some countries like Morocco or Tunisia have launched technical programmes about the radiation processing of dates and vegetable oil. These programmes may lead to the creation of a quality label. A joint laboratory between CEA and the Aix-Marseille-3 university is working on the detection of food irradiation in order to fight the fraud. 3 techniques are being investigated: thermoluminescence, electronic paramagnetism resonance and a chemical method. (A.C.)

255

Die Sprache der Hande zu den Handen sprechen (Talking the Language of the Hands to the Hands). DB-LINK.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the importance of hands for the person who is deafblind, reviews hand development, and identifies specific teaching skills that facilitate hand development and expressiveness in persons who are deafblind. It notes that the hands of a deafblind individual serve not only as tools but also as sense organs (to compensate for their…

Miles, Barbara

256

Differences in social and vocal behavior between left- and right-handed common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) show either a left- or right-hand preference for reaching to pick up food and they retain the same preference throughout adult life. We compared the behavior of 10 right-handed and 10 left-handed marmosets, matched for age and sex. They were presented with live crickets both when alone and when in their social group. The marmosets captured more crickets and the latency to capture the first cricket was shorter when they were in a group than when they were alone. This effect of social facilitation was significantly greater for right- than left-handed individuals. The number of vocalizations (tsik, crackle, very brief whistle, cough, and phee) produced by the left- and right-handed marmosets differed significantly: right-handed marmosets produced an increased number of all of these calls when the crickets were presented, whereas left-handed marmosets did not show a change from pretesting levels. The right-handed marmosets also produced more tsik (mobbing) calls than left-handed marmosets when they were presented with a fear-inducing stimulus and performed more head cocking and parallax movements than the left-handed marmosets. Hence, hand preference is associated with differences in exploratory and social behavior, the latter including vocal communication. PMID:20853949

Gordon, Dianne J; Rogers, Lesley J

2010-11-01

257

Greening food processing industries in Vietnam: constraints and opportunities  

OpenAIRE

The food processing industry is a large, rapidly growing sector in Vietnam and plays a vital role in its country’s economic development. However, its development currently seems to go hand-in-hand with environmental deterioration. Up to now, most research and development activities, regulations and policy measures related to environmental management of (food processing) industry in Vietnam have mainly been focussing on what to do with wastes and emissions after they had been created. Howeve...

Tran Thi My Dieu

2003-01-01

258

Food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two letters comment on a previous editorial (Lancet, Feb. 28 1987). The following points are discussed: 1) Stated doses can be exceeded without detection. 2) The hazards and problems of detection of 'food renovation'. 3) Enforcement of labelling regulations. 4) Fraud on consumers. (U.K.)

259

Food Labels  

Science.gov (United States)

The nutrition facts label on your favorite breakfast cereal tells you it's full of vitamins and minerals. So it must be healthy, right? Just because a food is high in vitamins doesn't mean it's healthy overall. Sure, it's great that your favorite cereal gives ...

260

Future Perspectives for Hand Transplant in Iran  

OpenAIRE

Hand transplant program is a communion of physicians and researchers during the current de¬cade. 72 hands and digits were transplanted in 53 patients over the past 13 years. Unlike a solid organ transplant, hand transplantation involves various tissues, so it is called “composite tissue allotransplantation.” This article discusses the plans for performing the first hand transplant in Iran.

Fatemi, M. J.; Masoumi, M.; Esfandiari, E.

2011-01-01

261

Future Perspectives for Hand Transplant in Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hand transplant program is a communion of physicians and researchers during the current de¬cade. 72 hands and digits were transplanted in 53 patients over the past 13 years. Unlike a solid organ transplant, hand transplantation involves various tissues, so it is called “composite tissue allotransplantation.” This article discusses the plans for performing the first hand transplant in Iran.

M. J. Fatemi

2011-10-01

262

Clinical anatomy of the hand.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reviews the underlying anatomy of trigger finger and thumb (fibrous digital pulleys, sesamoid bones), flexor tenosynovitis, de Quervain's syndrome, Dupuytren's contracture, some hand deformities in rheumatoid arthritis, the carpal tunnel syndrome and the ulnar nerve compression at Guyon's canal. Some important syndromes and structures have not been included but such are the nature of these seminars. Rather than being complete, we aim at creating a system in which clinical cases are used to highlight the pertinent anatomy and, in the most important part of the seminar, these pertinent items are demonstrated by cross examination of participants and teachers. Self learning is critical for generating interest and expanding knowledge of clinical anatomy. Just look at your own hand in various positions, move it, feel it, feel also your forearms while you move the fingers, do this repeatedly and inquisitively and after a few tries you will have developed not only a taste, but also a lifelong interest in clinical anatomy. PMID:23219083

Vargas, Angélica; Chiapas-Gasca, Karla; Hernández-Díaz, Cristina; Canoso, Juan J; Saavedra, Miguel Ángel; Navarro-Zarza, José Eduardo; Villaseñor-Ovies, Pablo; Kalish, Robert A

263

Hand kinematics of piano playing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dexterous use of the hand represents a sophisticated sensorimotor function. In behaviors such as playing the piano, it can involve strong temporal and spatial constraints. The purpose of this study was to determine fundamental patterns of covariation of motion across joints and digits of the human hand. Joint motion was recorded while 5 expert pianists played 30 excerpts from musical pieces, which featured ?50 different tone sequences and fingering. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis using an expectation-maximization algorithm revealed that joint velocities could be categorized into several patterns, which help to simplify the description of the movements of the multiple degrees of freedom of the hand. For the thumb keystroke, two distinct patterns of joint movement covariation emerged and they depended on the spatiotemporal patterns of the task. For example, the thumb-under maneuver was clearly separated into two clusters based on the direction of hand translation along the keyboard. While the pattern of the thumb joint velocities differed between these clusters, the motions at the metacarpo-phalangeal and proximal-phalangeal joints of the four fingers were more consistent. For a keystroke executed with one of the fingers, there were three distinct patterns of joint rotations, across which motion at the striking finger was fairly consistent, but motion of the other fingers was more variable. Furthermore, the amount of movement spillover of the striking finger to the adjacent fingers was small irrespective of the finger used for the keystroke. These findings describe an unparalleled amount of independent motion of the fingers. PMID:21880938

Furuya, Shinichi; Flanders, Martha; Soechting, John F

2011-12-01

264

STATE OF ART: HAND BIOMETRIC  

OpenAIRE

This paper present a state of art about biometric hand, different techniques used.Biometric is essentially used to avoid risks of password easy to find or Stoll; with as slogan save Time and Attendance. We can note that biometrics is a true alternative to the passwords and other identifiers to make safe the access controls. It makes it possible to check that the user is well the person who it claims to be.

Benyettou, Abdelkader; Benziane, Sara?h

2012-01-01

265

[Hand exzema: think about work].  

Science.gov (United States)

Skin conditions such as acne, urticaria, psoriasis, and particularly eczema (dermatitis) may have many causes. However, a work-related aetiology is often forgotten. Hand eczema is the most common occupational dermatosis. Exposure to skin irritants is the main cause with wet work playing a major role. The cause cannot be inferred from the clinical picture and it is almost impossible to distinguish between irritant and allergic contact dermatitis. Besides observation and history-taking, epicutaneous contact allergological (patch) testing is necessary for this. In occupational dermatoses, patch testing using the European Standard Series alone is often inadequate for diagnosing. Everyone with hand eczema in a risk profession is eligible for patch testing. The prognosis of hand eczema is poor: in 60% of patients the eczema becomes chronic. Genetic predisposition, such as atopic dermatitis, is seriously underestimated. This is the main risk factor for irritant contact dermatitis and, indirectly, for allergic contact dermatitis. This predisposition should give direction to career choices in young people. PMID:25227884

Bakker, Jan G; Jungbauer, Frank H W; Rustemeyer, Thomas

2014-01-01

266

Hand dominance in orthopaedic surgeons.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Handedness is perhaps the most studied human asymmetry. Laterality is the preference shown for one side and it has been studied in many aspects of medicine. Studies have shown that some orthopaedic procedures had poorer outcomes and identified laterality as a contributing factor. We developed a questionnaire to assess laterality in orthopaedic surgery and compared this to an established scoring system. Sixty-two orthopaedic surgeons surveyed with the validated Waterloo Handedness Questionnaire (WHQ) were compared with the self developed Orthopaedic Handedness Questionnaire (OHQ). Fifty-eight were found to be right hand dominant (RHD) and 4 left hand dominant (LHD). In RHD surgeons, the average WHQ score was 44.9% and OHQ 15%. For LHD surgeons the WHQ score was 30.2% and OHQ 9.4%. This represents a significant amount of time using the non dominant hand but does not necessarily determine satisfactory or successful dexterity transferable to the operating room. Training may be required for the non dominant side.

Lui, Darren F

2012-08-01

267

Crush injuries of the hand.  

Science.gov (United States)

A retrospective review of 58 patients presenting with crush injuries of the hand within the 6 year period April 1984 to March 1990 was undertaken. The male-female ratio was 3:1, with a mean age of 25.13 +/- 15.1 years. The peak incidence was in the 3rd decade of life. Machines (55.17%) were the commonest cause with the pepper grinder featuring most prominently. The dorsum (60.3%), little (55.1%) and ring (53.5%) fingers of the right hand were the most commonly involved. Most of the injuries were multiple. Management was mainly conservative and entailed initial limited debridement, thorough washing with soap and water under adequate anaesthesia, bulky boxing glove dressing, elevation, antibiotics and early hand physiotherapy with late reconstruction. Results were excellent in 13 (22.41%), good in 19 (32.76%) poor in 23 (39.66%) and unknown in 3 (5.17%) who were lost to follow-up. Our poor result is perhaps the warning signal that we should abandon our extreme conservative stance and be more aggressive in our attitude to these injuries. PMID:7839916

Okeke, L I; Dogo, D; Ladipo, J K; Ajao, O G

1993-09-01

268

Does body posture influence hand preference in an ancestral primate model?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The origin of human handedness and its evolution in primates is presently under debate. Current hypotheses suggest that body posture (postural origin hypothesis and bipedalism hypothesis have an important impact on the evolution of handedness in primates. To gain insight into the origin of manual lateralization in primates, we studied gray mouse lemurs, suggested to represent the most ancestral primate condition. First, we investigated hand preference in a simple food grasping task to explore the importance of hand usage in a natural foraging situation. Second, we explored the influence of body posture by applying a forced food grasping task with varying postural demands (sit, biped, cling, triped. Results The tested mouse lemur population did not prefer to use their hands alone to grasp for food items. Instead, they preferred to pick them up using a mouth-hand combination or the mouth alone. If mouth usage was inhibited, they showed an individual but no population level handedness for all four postural forced food grasping tasks. Additionally, we found no influence of body posture on hand preference in gray mouse lemurs. Conclusion Our results do not support the current theories of primate handedness. Rather, they propose that ecological adaptation indicated by postural habit and body size of a given species has an important impact on hand preference in primates. Our findings suggest that small-bodied, quadrupedal primates, adapted to the fine branch niche of dense forests, prefer mouth retrieval of food and are less manually lateralized than large-bodied species which consume food in a more upright, and less stable body posture.

Leliveld Lisette

2011-02-01

269

Establishing hand preference: why does it matter?  

OpenAIRE

Hand preference has been associated with psychological and physical well-being, risk of injury, pathological irregularities, longevity, and cognitive function. To determine hand preference, individuals are often asked what hand they use to write with, or what hand is used more frequently in activities of daily living. However, relying only on one source of information may be misleading, given the strong evidence to support a disassociation between self-reported hand preference and outcomes of...

Adamo, Diane E.; Taufiq, Anam

2011-01-01

270

Food deficits, food security and food aid: concepts and measurement  

OpenAIRE

The concepts of food deficit, hunger, undernourishment and food security are discussed. Axioms and indices for the assessment of nutrition of individuals and groups are suggested. Furthermore a measure for food aid donor performance is developed and applied to a sample of bilateral and multilateral donors providing food aid for African countries.

Gabbert, Silke; Weikard, Hans-peter

1998-01-01

271

Food deficits, food security and food aid : concepts and measurement  

OpenAIRE

The concepts of food deficit, hunger, undernourishment and food security are discussed. Axioms and indices for the assessment of nutrition of individuals and groups are suggested. Furthermore a measure for food aid donor performance is developed and applied to a sample of bilateral and multilateral donors providing food aid for African countries.

Gabbert, Silke; Weikard, Hans-peter

1998-01-01

272

Food Nanotechnology: Food Packaging Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part the impetus for this predicted growth is the e...

273

Food Nanotechnology - Food Packaging Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part, the impetus for this predicted growth is the ...

274

High-risk food consumption and food safety practices in a Canadian community.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding consumers' high-risk food consumption patterns and food handling in the home is critical in reducing foodborne illness. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of unsafe food practices of individuals in a Canadian-based population, specifically, high-risk food consumption and home food safety practices. During November 2005 to March 2006, a sample of 2,332 randomly selected residents of the Waterloo Region (Ontario, Canada) participated in a telephone survey of food consumption and food safety. Questions covered consumption of high-risk foods, hand washing practices, safe food handling knowledge, source of food safety education, meat thawing and cooking practices, cross-contamination after raw food preparation, and refrigeration temperatures. Certain high-risk food behaviors were common among respondents and were associated with demographic characteristics. In general, unsafe practices increased with increasing total annual household income level. Males were more likely to report engaging in risky practices than were females. Specific high-risk behaviors of public health concern were reported by elderly individuals (e.g., consuming undercooked eggs), children (e.g., consuming chicken nuggets), and rural residents (e.g., drinking unpasteurized milk). Respondents appeared to know proper food safety practices, but did not put them into practice. Thus, educational programs emphasizing specific practices to improve food safety should be directed to targeted audiences, and they should stress the importance of consumer behavior in the safety of foods prepared at home. Further investigation of consumer perceptions is needed to design such programs to effectively increase the implementation of safe food practices by consumers. PMID:20003742

Nesbitt, Andrea; Majowicz, Shannon; Finley, Rita; Marshall, Barbara; Pollari, Frank; Sargeant, Jan; Ribble, Carl; Wilson, Jeff; Sittler, Nancy

2009-12-01

275

Food-based Science Curriculum Increases 4th Graders Multidisciplinary Science Knowledge  

OpenAIRE

Health professionals and policymakers are asking educators to place more emphasis on food and nutrition education. Integrating these topics into science curricula using hand-on, food-based activities may strengthen students’ understanding of science concepts. The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. Previous studies have shown that students experiencing the F...

Hovland, Jana A.; Carraway-stage, Virginia G.; Cela, Artenida; Collins, Caitlin; Di?az, Sebastia?n R.; Collins, Angelo; Duffrin, Melani W.

2013-01-01

276

Mitos e tabus da maternidade: um enfoque sobre o processo saúde-doença Mitos y tabús de la maternidad: un enfoque sobre el proceso salud-enfermedad Myths and taboos of motherhood: focusing on the health-disease process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo: conhecer mitos e tabus relativos à maternidade e suas implicações no processo saúde/doença. Método: pesquisa desenvolvida na abordagem qualitativa, no ambiente natural, com mulheres de classes populares que vivenciaram a maternidade. A seleção dos sujeitos foi intencional e a coleta de dados realizada por meio de entrevistas e observação participante durante a prestação de cuidados à saúde dessas mulheres. A análise dos dados seguiu a orientação da análise de conteúdo. Constatou-se que o tema em estudo permeia, como uma ideologia, o viver das mulheres. Mitos e tabus são relacionados à saúde/doença: higiene no pós-parto; proteção da integridade do recém-nascido; menstruação; alternativas para solucionar problemas de saúde; questões de gênero: condutas que seguem para evitar tornarem-se "mulheres fáceis". Há elementos que traduzem os valores culturais do cotidiano das mulheres e a necessidade da junção entre o conhecimento científico e as práticas populares.Objetivo: Conocer mitos y tabúes relativos a la maternidad y sus implicaciones en el proceso salud/enfermedad. Método: Investigación desarrollada en el abordaje cualitativo, en el ambiente natural, con mujeres de clases sociales populares que experimentaron la maternidad. La selección de los sujetos fue intencional y la recolección de datos realizada por medio de entrevistas y observación participante durante la prestación de atención a la salud de estas mujeres. El análisis de los datos siguió la orientación del análisis de contenidos. Resultados: se constató que el tema en estudio penetra, como una ideología, en el vivir de las mujeres. Mitos y tabúes son relacionados a la salud/enfermedad: higiene en el pos-parto; protección de la integridad del recién-nacido; menstruo; alternativas para solucionar problemas de salud; cuestiones de género; conductas que siguen para evitar que se quedan "mujeres fáciles". Hay elementos que traducen los valores culturales del cotidiano de las mujeres y la necesidad de la combinación del conocimiento científico con las prácticas populares.Objective: To learn about myths and taboos related with motherhood and their implications in the health/disease process. Method: Study carried out using a qualitative approach, in a natural setting, with women of poor classes who experienced motherhood. The selection of subjects was performed intentionally, and data collection was made by means of semi-structured interviews and participant observation at the moment those women were given healthcare attention. Data analysis followed the content analysis. Results: The topic under study permeates, as an ideology, the women´s lives. The myths and taboos are related to health/disease: postpartum hygiene; protection of the newborn´s integrity; menses; alternatives for a solution of health problems; and gender issues, the conducts the women follow to avoid becoming "saucy" being evidenced. In the research, it was possible to capture elements that translate the cultural values of the women´s daily lives and the need for associating scientific knowledge with popular practices.

Anna Maria Hecker Luz

2007-02-01

277

Healthy food trends -- flaxseeds  

Science.gov (United States)

Healthy food trends -- flax meal; Healthy food trends -- flax seeds; Healthy food trends -- linseeds ... acids, which is the hardest to get from foods. Eating flaxseeds can ... is healthy fat that helps boost your "good cholesterol." The ...

278

The Science of Food  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of resources and inquiry lessons on nutrition and food-related concepts such as photosynthesis, food webs, food contaminants, food borne parasites or bacterial infections and choosing a healthy diet.

Baylor College of Medicine (Baylor College of Medicine Human Genome Sequencing Center)

2010-01-01

279

Food Choice  

OpenAIRE

This paper illustrates the connection found between food choices, and the influences from society and the digital Media, more specifically television commercials. We have covered different aspects of social and psychological theories, aiming to explain how the individual is affected by social factors. We have drawn conclusions on how the individual is inflicted by society when concerning choice making, as well as covering the psychological aspects that are relevant in connection to this. Last...

Ehlers Bloksted, Josephine; Knudsen, Anna Althea; Boie Hvid, Amanda; Bang Christensen, Andrea; Ali Ismail, Mohamed Ahmed

2012-01-01

280

Food irradiation in Britain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report explains the process and issues that concern consumers, workers in the food industry and people involved in food policy, public health and environmental protection. It argues that safety assurances by experts are not enough, and calls for a full public debate on all issues surrounding food irradiation, including a) wholesomeness of irradiated foods - food quality, nutrition losses, chemical and other changes in irradiated foods b) consumers rights to information about irradiated foods c) health and safety of food industry workers d) the economics of irradiation - food prices, changes in patters of employment, environmental impacts e) regulation and monitoring of food irradiation and imported irradiated foods. (U.K.)

281

Food and Drug Interactions: A General Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although it is well known and identifi ed that drug-drug interactions exist, the recognition of importance of food and drug interactions to practice has been growing much slower. On the other hand, drug-food/nutrient interactions continue to grow with the common use of medications. Beside the awareness of this type of interactions, food-drug interaction studies are critical to evaluate appropriate dosing, timing, and formulation of new drug candidates. Drug-food interactions take place mechanistically due to altered intestinal transport and metabolism, or systemic distribution, metabolism and excretion. In addition, some people have greater risk of food and drug interactions who have a poor diet, have serious health problems, childrens and pregnant women. In this article, basic informations about importance, classifi cations, transporters and enzymes of drug and nutrient interaction are given and some specifi c examples of both drug and nutrients and infl uences on each other are included.

Semih Otles

2014-03-01

282

Hand protection from ultraviolet exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text of publication follows: A number of industrial applications and public services involve exposure to ultraviolet radiation (U.V.R.) from a variety of lamps and lasers, for example, in forensic examination, biological trans-illuminators, dentistry, laser material processing, microelectronics, etc. The proposed European Union Directive on Optical Radiation would place specific requirements on employers to provide adequate safety measures to reduce exposure to U.V.R., including gloves for hand protection. The selection of gloves should be based on a risk assessment and on the performance characteristics of the gloves for the task. However, current International and national standards do not describe evaluation procedures of disposable gloves for hand protection against non-ionising radiation. A methodology for assessment of the UV protection level for disposable gloves and a simple measurement protocol are proposed, based on a common approach with UV protection by clothing and sunscreens. Glove Ultraviolet Protection Factor is defined as a time-scale increase in exposure permitted for the hand protected by a glove with respect to an unprotected hand. However, the wide variety of U.V.R. sources and the real-life conditions of glove use (stretching and wetting the surface by liquids) bring substantial challenges to the assessment method. Our study of ? 50 samples of widely used disposable gloves made of different materials (nitrile, vinyl, latex and chloroprene) (nitrile, vinyl, latex and chloroprene) showed that for all tested gloves a change in U.V.R. attenuation with stretching is characteristic for the type of glove material and can be included as a scaling factor in the definition of U.V.R. protection. Glove material has a bigger effect on U.V.R. protection level than variations in the glove thickness or its colour. The following approaches are suggested to overcome the problem of variable U.V.R. sources: - Worst case scenario minimal protection level, most restrictive case - Application specific UV protection factor - Lamp-type specific protection factor, for group of U.V.R. sources with similar spectral characteristics. Examples of assessment of the 'worst case scenario' are compared with the protection level against a number of the sources, together with guidance on a simplified evaluation protocol. An application specific assessment, illustrated for 'Smart Water' forensic examinations and biological trans-illuminators, demonstrates that some gloves provide inadequate protection against occupational ultraviolet exposure. (authors)

283

Nonlinear left-handed metamaterials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Left-handed metamaterials (LHMs), also known as materials with negative refraction, were first described theoretically by Veselago in 1960-s as materials with both negative dielectric permittivity and negative magnetic permeability. We develop the concepts of nonlinear LHMs and show that their properties can be dynamically controlled using electromagnetic field intensity. The nonlinearity of such materials is dramatically enhanced due to the presence of metallic resonators in the structure. Moreover, we demonstrate that LHMs with quadratic nonlinear response can be used for creation of opaque lens, which can form an image of the second harmonic field being opaque at the fundamental frequency. Copyright (2005) Australian Institute of Physics

284

Helping Hands: Enabling the Disabled  

OpenAIRE

A major community in the world population is of physically handicapped and blind people. These people cannot access the computers due to their disabilities. There is a need of some technology which allows these people to get access of the mouse and keyboard without using hands and eyes. This paper gives us the brief introduction of a technology which is intended to help handicapped in getting access of the basic technologies.This technology uses the head mouse technology by which the real tim...

Ranjan, Prof Nihar M.; Rahul Pardeshi; Piyush Bhattad; Pavan Shah; Nirav Shah

2013-01-01

285

Fascial flaps for hand reconstruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Free or pedicled fascial flaps to the hand provide an excellent reconstructive option in cases of exposed tendon, joint, or bone where soft tissue coverage is needed. They provide thin, broad, well-vascularized coverage and a gliding surface for tendons and joints. A fascial flap also avoids an unsightly donor site that results from a fasciocutaneous flap. Because of these characteristics, mobilization can be started early to avoid or minimize tendon adhesions and joint and soft tissue contractures. In this report, we discuss the technique for harvesting and insetting a pedicled reverse radial forearm adipofascial flap for a dorsal thumb defect. PMID:20684934

Taghinia, Amir H; Carty, Matthew; Upton, Joseph

2010-08-01

286

Analysis of Swedish consumers’ attitude to Chinese food  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this research is to find out what’s attitude Swedish consumers have to Chinese food. The questionnaires based on the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) are handed out to 100 Swedish respondents in order to investigate their motivation on Chinese food choice. 78 questionnaires which were filled completely were selected for this study. Eleven factors involved in the questionnaire are labeled health, mood, convenience, sensory appeal, natural content, price, weight control, familiarity...

Chen, Jie

2010-01-01

287

Theorizing Food Sovereignty: An analysis of public and academic discourse  

OpenAIRE

Food is at the nexus of a truly striking range of the global political, environmental, economic and human rights issues we face today, from climate change and water scarcity to poverty and economic stability. The consolidation of each step of food production in the hands of just a few companies has siphoned value and wealth from rural areas, edging out small producers and forcing farmers to becoming a part of the corporate production system. The food sovereignty movement has become one of the...

Winsauer, Emily A.

2012-01-01

288

Household Food Security in the Rural South: Assuring Access to Enough Food for Healthy Lives.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food insecurity is more prevalent in the rural South than in metropolitan areas of the South and rural areas in other regions. This reflects the lower incomes and higher poverty rates in the rural South. On the other hand, the prevalence of poverty-linked hunger--the most severe range of food insecurity--is about the same in the rural South as in…

Nord, Mark

2001-01-01

289

Rising food costs & global food security: Key issues & relevance for India  

OpenAIRE

Rising food costs can have major impact on vulnerable households, pushing those least able to cope further into poverty and hunger. On the other hand, provided appropriate policies and infrastructure are in place, higher agricultural prices can also raise farmers’ incomes and rural wages, improve rural economies and stimulate investment for longer-term economic growth. High food prices since 2007 have had both short-term impacts and long-term consequences, both good and bad. This article re...

Gustafson, Daniel J.

2013-01-01

290

Hand images: normal and abnormal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Supplemental hand scintigrams with abnormal features were obtained from 29% of patients (134 of 463) who were referred for routine, minified bone imaging with /sup 99m/Tc-Sn-polyphosphate. A wide spectrum of normal activity distribution ranging from well-defined to ''wash-out'' images is described in 329 cases (71%). In the abnormal images of the joints and individual bones, the changes, although not always characteristic of some particular disease, may often suggest a diagnosis and/or its pathophysiologic status. The joints with heavy uptake correlate well with the presence of active clinical findings, e.g., in the arthritides. The bone features associated with metabolic disease, especially when full-blown, may be fairly characteristic. A potential application is in the assessment of digital circulation, particularly in obliterative vascular diseases such as scleroderma, Buerger's disease, chronic neuropathies, and possibly other collagen or vascular diseases that involve the hands. Interesting images, probably of somewhat limited usefulness, are observed in some congenital anomalies, fractures, camptodactyly, contracture deformities, unilateral lymphedema after mastectomy, etc

291

Snowblower injuries to the hand.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to describe the nature and incidence of hand injuries caused by snowblowers, as well as the accident conditions and accident prevention. We conducted a retrospective evaluation over ten consecutive winters. Nine patients were included. All were men with an average age of 49.7 years (17-71). The accidents occurred at home in seven out of nine patients. The machine was running in 50% of the injury events. In most cases, the injuries occurred when the patient tried to unclog snow from the lateral discharge chute. Only four out of the nine patients had read the instructions or received instructions from the salesperson. The dominant hand was injured in 7 out of 9 patients. An average of 2.7 fingers were injured. The longest fingers were most commonly injured: 8 middle fingers, 7 ring fingers, 4 little fingers, 2 indexes and 1 thumb. All the fractures were open. Three patients were operated on several times. In 7 out of 9 cases, the patients had sequelae such as amputation. The mean time off work was 11.4 weeks (3-24). All the patients were experienced snowblower users (9 years and 57th use on average). Snowblower accidents are very mutilating. Prevention must include protected access to blades and better verbal and written safety warnings. PMID:24996696

Jardin, E; Uhring, J; Rey, P-B; Ferrier, M; Obert, L

2014-09-01

292

Factitious Lymphedema of the Hand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To report the case of a 39- year old unmarried female with factitious edema of the right hand two weeks after being struck by her brother and following self injury of the right arm. Method: A 39-year old unmarried female with severe edema of the right hand and forearm diagnosed as factitious lymphedema was admitted to Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital. After hospitalization, with elevation of affected limb, the edema had lessened. Thereafter, she was observed at ward rounds with a cloth bandage wrapped around her arm. The edema had recurred. Physical Examination as well as right upper extremity X ray was normal. In mental state examination, patient's mood was dysphonic, rather anxious, and denied tourniquet application; otherwise no prominent psychiatric symptoms were detected. Patient underwent psychotherapy and 20 my fluoxetetine on daily basis was administered. Results: Patient's symptoms relieved within eight weeks and discharged while accepted to adjust herself with the situations. Conclusion: Factitious etiology may be presuming in any patient with unilateral limb lymphedema when venous or lymphatic Pathology were missing. The patient may be suffering from emotional conflicts.

S. Sina Ahmadi Abhari

2006-08-01

293

European Hands-on Universe  

Science.gov (United States)

Hands-on Universe is a project born at UC@Berkeley. A project devoted to enrich the teaching of Astronomy within the classroom environment with a different approach, more connected to the new technologies. Its main goals are not only to promote the use of such technologies but also to reawaken on students the taste for STEM (Science, technologies, engineering and math) related issues and also to increase their scientific culture. Eight countries in Europe decided to adopt the method and, funded by MINERVA, formed the European Hands-on Universe. Several resources were produced and a data reduction software developed http://www.euhou.net/.Other European countries are interested and should join this coordinated effort in the near future. At an international level there are 20 countries using this approach. There are plans to develop scientific cooperation among these countries. Pilot scientific research projects in schools are being tested in EU-HOU schools, Russia and USA. There is also a game being developed to be used as a new tool for teaching scientific content in the classroom environment. An effort to develop an international network of scientific / educational collaboration is the next step.

Doran, Rosa; Ferlet, Roger; Gómez de Castro, Ana I.; Hill, Robert; Horellou, Cathy; Mankiewicz, Lech; Melchior, Anne-Laure; Metaxa, Margarita; Zanazzi, Alessandra

2007-08-01

294

Growth of hand-reared American kestrels. II. Body composition and wingloading of fledglings hand-fed two different diets.  

Science.gov (United States)

The body composition of young American kestrels (Falco sparverius) hand-fed either a protein-rich diet (day-old cockerels Gallus domesticus) or a fat-rich diet (laboratory mice Mus musculus) was determined one day after fledging. Mouse-fed fledglings (n = 16) had significantly greater fat deposits than cockerel-fed birds (n = 15), while the crude protein content of the carcass was unaffected by the diets. At fledging, mouse-fed birds showed a significantly greater wingloading than cockerel-fed birds. Larger fat reserves (as in mouse-fed birds) might be mobilised in the event of a food shortage and thus these birds would be at an advantage in relation to fledglings with smaller reserves. On the other hand, large fat deposition, which alters wingloading, might impair the flight performance of the fledglings. PMID:7713637

Lavigne, A J; Bird, D M; Lacombe, D; Negro, J J

1994-01-01

295

Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD)  

Science.gov (United States)

... utensils or cups with infected persons Podcast: Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease A CDC epidemiologist, Dr. Eileen Schneider, talks ... to the 4-minute podcast . Commonly Confused With Foot-and-Mouth Disease Hand, foot, and mouth disease is often ...

296

Acquired radial club hand. A case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

An unusual case of acquired radial club hand is presented. It was almost indistinguishable from the congenital variety, but arose from a mismanaged cutaneous infection of the wrist. Surgical treatment resulted in a functionally and cosmetically acceptable hand. PMID:7152889

Iregbulem, L M

1982-06-01

297

Food hygiene practices in different food establishments  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to investigate three dimensions of food hygiene in three European cities -Belgrade, Thessaloniki and Porto. The first dimension of the survey was to evaluate the level of hygiene indifferent food establishments supplying food direct to consumers. A total of 91 food businesses wereincluded in the survey with 30 food businesses from Belgrade and Porto, and 31 from Thessaloniki. Inparallel with scoring the premises, the second dimension of the study was to examine the o...

Djeki, I.; Smigic, N.; Kalogianni, E. P.; Rocha, Ada; Zamioudi, L.; Pacheco, A.

2014-01-01

298

Hand Hygiene Practices among Medical Students  

OpenAIRE

Background. Hand hygiene is a cost-effective method in preventing infection transmission. Hand hygiene practices have been found to be faulty in most healthcare settings. We conducted a study to evaluate the awareness, and compliance of hand hygiene among undergraduate medical students during their clinical phase in Qassim College of Medicine, Saudi Arabia. Methods. A questionnaire based on World Health Organization's concept of “Five Moments for Hand Hygiene” was used to evaluate the awa...

Azzam al Kadi; Sajad Ahmad Salati

2012-01-01

299

Tool making, hand morphology and fossil hominins  

OpenAIRE

Was stone tool making a factor in the evolution of human hand morphology? Is it possible to find evidence in fossil hominin hands for this capability? These questions are being addressed with increasingly sophisticated studies that are testing two hypotheses; (i) that humans have unique patterns of grip and hand movement capabilities compatible with effective stone tool making and use of the tools and, if this is the case, (ii) that there exist unique patterns of morphology in human hands tha...

Marzke, Mary W.

2013-01-01

300

Hand hygiene among neurologists attending a congress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hand hygiene is effective in preventing health care-associated infections, but hand hygiene compliance is low among health care workers in different hospital settings. Less is known about hand hygiene among physicians in a nonhospital setting. We evaluated handwashing behavior among 200 neurologists (100 males and 100 females) attending a world congress. Overall, 74.0% performed proper hand hygiene using soap and water, and there were significant differences between sex and handwashing behavior. PMID:24485383

Faiz, Kashif Waqar; Sundseth, Antje; Altmann, Marianne

2014-02-01

301

Real-Time Hand Shape Classification  

OpenAIRE

The problem of hand shape classification is challenging since a hand is characterized by a large number of degrees of freedom. Numerous shape descriptors have been proposed and applied over the years to estimate and classify hand poses in reasonable time. In this paper we discuss our parallel framework for real-time hand shape classification applicable in real-time applications. We show how the number of gallery images influences the classification accuracy and execution tim...

Nalepa, Jakub; Kawulok, Michal

2014-01-01

302

Congenital hand anomaly: etiology and associated malformations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Congenital malformations of the hand may be present as part of syndromes. The recognition of these syndromes directly influences the surgical care of the hand anomaly. The natural history of the disorder may be predicted. The associated malformations may affect surgical timings and the indications for surgical correction. Various schema are presented here for evaluating the common abnormalities of the hand--radial club hand, ulnar defects, syndactyly, and polydactyly. PMID:3007544

Goldberg, M J; Bartoshesky, L E

1985-08-01

303

Air Muscle Actuated Low Cost Humanoid Hand  

OpenAIRE

The control of humanoid robot hands has historically been expensive due to the cost of precision actuators. This paper presents the design and implementation of a low-cost air muscle actuated humanoid hand developed at Curtin University of Technology. This hand offers 10 individually controllable degrees of freedom ranging from the elbow to the fingers, with overall control handled through a computer GUI. The hand is actuated through 20 McKibben-style air muscles, each supplied by a pneumatic...

Peter Scarfe; Euan Lindsay

2008-01-01

304

Tendon injuries of the hand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tendon injuries are the second most common injuries of the hand and therefore an important topic in trauma and orthopedic patients. Most injuries are open injuries to the flexor or extensor tendons, but less frequent injuries, e.g., damage to the functional system tendon sheath and pulley or dull avulsions, also need to be considered. After clinical examination, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging have proved to be important diagnostic tools. Tendon injuries mostly require surgical repair, dull avulsions of the distal phalanges extensor tendon can receive conservative therapy. Injuries of the flexor tendon sheath or single pulley injuries are treated conservatively and multiple pulley injuries receive surgical repair. In the postoperative course of flexor tendon injuries, the principle of early passive movement is important to trigger an “intrinsic” tendon healing to guarantee a good outcome. Many substances were evaluated to see if they improved tendon healing; however, little evidence was found. Nevertheless, hyaluronic acid may improve intrinsic tendon healing.

Volker Schöffl

2012-01-01

305

Tumoral calcinosis of the hand  

Science.gov (United States)

Tumoral calcinosis is a rare condition described in literature as a deposition of calcium salts in soft tissues. We here report a rare case of Tumoral calcinosis in the index finger of a hand in a 22-year-old woman. Because of the absence of any trauma, normal serum phosphate and calcium levels and no symptoms but a cosmetic defect, our case is classified as a primary tumoral calcinosis. As well as described in literature, also in this case the surgical excision was the mainstay treatment for this benign pathology. For the particular area involved we performed a radical excision followed by an interesting reverse homodigital artery flap from the ulnar side of the index. PMID:25858267

Amati, Carlo; Pesce, Vito; Armenio, Andrea; Solarino, Giuseppe; Moretti, Biagio

2015-01-01

306

Food health law : a legal perspective on EU competence to regulate the "healthiness" of food  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The EU has developed a detailed stringent set of food safety rules aimed at limiting or containing the risk that people experience negative health effects from the consumption of food. In doing so, the legislator has focused on food safety in a relatively narrow sense, not including the potential risks to human health of foods with, e.g., negative nutritional features. While EU food safety legislation seems successful in preventing food-borne illnesses, public focus has shifted to the growing prevalence of lifestyle-related illnesses. There is convincing scientific evidence of a correlation between obesity and non-communicable diseases, on the one hand, and unhealthy food on the other. The EU has taken initiatives to stop this development, but these are directed at guiding consumer choice rather than at regulating foods from the point of view of their composition and nutritional value. The question arises whether the EU would at all be competent to step in and regulate ‘food health’. This article analyses different elements in the EU Treaties with a particular view toward a possible legal basis for regulating food health.

Edinger, Wieke Willemijn Huizing

2014-01-01

307

Food Chains and Webs  

Science.gov (United States)

Learn more about food chains, food webs, and how the organisms in them affect each other. In class, you have learned what food webs and food chains are. Today, you will explore how the organisms in these systems interact. Step One: Food Chains What happens when you take something out of a food chain? Go to the Chain Reaction website: Chain Reaction--Food Chains This internet site will help you ...

Ms. Thompson

2007-02-21

308

Food irradiation standard  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Australia New Zealand Food Authority has prepared a consultative document on a standard for treatment of food with radiation. Currently in New Zealand the Food Regulations 1984 permit irradiation of food with the permission of the Minister. However, in 1989 the government established a working party to produce a policy position on irradiation of food, and this resulted in a proposal to ban all food irradiation in New Zealand. Irradiated foods sold in New Zealand have been spices and paprika. (author)

309

ARE LEFT HANDED SURGEONS LEFT OUT?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Being a left-handed surgeon, more specifically a left-handed ENT surgeon, presents a unique pattern of difficulties.This article is an overview of left-handedness and a personal account of the specific difficulties a left-handed ENT surgeon faces.

SriKamkshi Kothandaraman

2012-08-01

310

38 CFR 4.69 - Dominant hand.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dominant hand. 4.69 Section 4.69 Pensions...Musculoskeletal System § 4.69 Dominant hand. Handedness for the purpose of a...by testing on VA examination. Only one hand shall be considered dominant. The...

2010-07-01

311

21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-04-01 true Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10 Section...Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION...CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General...

2010-04-01

312

Food Grade Silicone Braided Hose  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Silicone elastomers are becoming more and more prevalent for Food Industry. This is because with the fact that the curing systems of organic elastomers often include amines and other additives leading to potential toxic contaminants, such as nitrosamines. On the other hand there are silicone rubbers/elastomers which are amine free and, in most cases, are platinum cured. Such curing systems allow for biocompatibility. Correctly processed parts do not show detectable nitrosamine levels without and after proper post cure. Other favorable properties of silicone elastomers for food contact are sterilisability, steam, heat and chemical resistance. Unlike most organic elastomers, silicone will not only form such harmless combustion products, it will also produce very little smoke and, hence, permit a good degree of visibility in the event of a fire. Further, silicones are capable of forming a stable ash, which in extreme cases will turn into very hard ceramic.

Sonal B. Prajapati, Prof. Rupande N. Desai

2013-03-01

313

Decoupling of Massive Right-handed Neutrinos  

OpenAIRE

We investigate the effect of B+L - violating anomalous generation of massive right-handed neutrinos on their decoupling, when the right-handed neutrino mass is considerably greater than the right-handed gauge boson masses. Considering normal annihilation channels, the Lee-Weinberg type of calculation, in this case, gives an upper bound of about 700 Gev, which casts doubt on the existence of such a right-handed neutrino mass greater than right-handed gauge boson masses. We ex...

Adhya, Paramita; Chaudhuri, D. Rai

1999-01-01

314

Decoupling of Massive Right-handed Neutrinos  

CERN Document Server

We investigate the effect of B+L - violating anomalous generation of massive right-handed neutrinos on their decoupling, when the right-handed neutrino mass is considerably greater than the right-handed gauge boson masses. Considering normal annihilation channels, the Lee-Weinberg type of calculation, in this case, gives an upper bound of about 700 Gev, which casts doubt on the existence of such a right-handed neutrino mass greater than right-handed gauge boson masses. We examine the possibility that a consideration of anomalous effects related to the SU(2)_R gauge group may turn this into a lower bound of the order of 100 Tev.

Adhya, P; Adhya, Paramita

2000-01-01

315

Hand gesture recognition based on surface electromyography.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human hands are the most dexterous of human limbs and hand gestures play an important role in non-verbal communication. Underlying electromyograms associated with hand gestures provide a wealth of information based on which varying hand gestures can be recognized. This paper develops an inter-individual hand gesture recognition model based on Hidden Markov models that receives surface electromyography (sEMG) signals as inputs and predicts a corresponding hand gesture. The developed recognition model is tested with a dataset of 10 various hand gestures performed by 25 subjects in a leave-one-subject-out cross validation and an inter-individual recognition rate of 79% was achieved. The promising recognition rate demonstrates the efficacy of the proposed approach for discriminating between gesture-specific sEMG signals and could inform the design of sEMG-controlled prostheses and assistive devices. PMID:25570917

Samadani, Ali-Akbar; Kulic, Dana

2014-01-01

316

Eating tools in hand activate the brain systems for eating action: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is increasing neuroimaging evidence suggesting that visually presented tools automatically activate the human sensorimotor system coding learned motor actions relevant to the visual stimuli. Such crossmodal activation may reflect a general functional property of the human motor memory and thus can be operating in other, non-limb effector organs, such as the orofacial system involved in eating. In the present study, we predicted that somatosensory signals produced by eating tools in hand covertly activate the neuromuscular systems involved in eating action. In Experiments 1 and 2, we measured motor evoked response (MEP) of the masseter muscle in normal humans to examine the possible impact of tools in hand (chopsticks and scissors) on the neuromuscular systems during the observation of food stimuli. We found that eating tools (chopsticks) enhanced the masseter MEPs more greatly than other tools (scissors) during the visual recognition of food, although this covert change in motor excitability was not detectable at the behavioral level. In Experiment 3, we further observed that chopsticks overall increased MEPs more greatly than scissors and this tool-driven increase of MEPs was greater when participants viewed food stimuli than when they viewed non-food stimuli. A joint analysis of the three experiments confirmed a significant impact of eating tools on the masseter MEPs during food recognition. Taken together, these results suggest that eating tools in hand exert a category-specific impact on the neuromuscular system for eating. PMID:24835403

Yamaguchi, Kaori; Nakamura, Kimihiro; Oga, Tatsuhide; Nakajima, Yasoichi

2014-07-01

317

Analysis of training experience of military men to hand-to-hand combat in the foreign countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is shown the main systems of hand-to-hand combat on the bases of hand-to-hand military men training in the world leading countries armies. Summarized the experience of hand-to-hand combat training. It is analyzes the main existing systems hand-to-hand training of servicemen of foreign armies. The analysis of publications, guidance documents, manuals, statutes which display the contents of hand-to-hand combat training of servicemen of foreign armies. Defined views, concerns and tendencies of hand-to-hand training to develop guidelines an advanced hand-to-hand combat training of servicemen.

Marakushyn A.I.

2011-02-01

318

Functional food acceptance in the food chain  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This thesis analyses consumer acceptance of functional foods and food manufacturers' decision to develop functional foods. The thesis sets up four key research questions: (1) How consumers accept functional foods enriched with omega-3? (2) How the intention of purchasing carrier ingredient combinations is explained by general attitudes to functional foods, consumers' health concerns, and the perceived fit of a particular carrier ingredient combination? (3) How food manufacturers decide to develop functional foods? (4) What are the determinants and drivers of food manufacturers' decision to develop functional foods? Research question 1 The health benefit of a functional food product is in fact limited if it is not eaten regularly and thus is not part of the healthy diet. For that reason it is highly relevant to look at the dietary change research when studying functional food acceptance. The purpose of paper 1 was to understand the process by which people choose healthy foods enriched with omega-3 ingredientas a case. The Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) (Schwarzer, 1992) was applied as the theoretical framework. The qualitative study has demonstrated partial usefulness of the HAPA model as an appropriate theoretical framework for consumers' choice of foods enriched with omega-3, fish oil supplements and to a lesser extent fatty fish naturally rich in omega-3. Self-efficacy and the outcome expectancy played a major role in choosing among the above mentioned options. Consumers' risk perception, as far as the choice of fatty fish and functional foods is concerned, are limited, which is why risk perception is the least useful one among all the three HAPA constructs. Research question 2 In paper 2, consumers' acceptance of different ingredients in selected foods was researched. The main aim of the paper was to determine which functional ingredients consumers would accept in selected product categories. Yoghurt, muesli bars, fish balls, tuna salad, baby meals, rye bread and bacon liver pâté were examined. Determinants of the acceptance of carrier ingredient combinations were another central issue of the paper. Results revealed that the general attitudes towards functional foods are related to the purchase intention with regard to functional foods described by their carrier/ingredient combinations. Consumers' attitudes towards specific carrier ingredient combinations define consumers' acceptance of functional foods. Research question 3 An extensive literature review was conducted and the theoretical framework of food manufacturers' decision to develop innovative functional foods by food manufacturers was developed as a part of paper 3. The paper discusses factors that possibly influence food manufacturers' decision making with regards to production of functional foods. Internal factors such as organisational characteristics, innovation characteristics, and external factors such as functional food ingredient suppliers' marketing efforts, collaboration between suppliers and food manufacturers and participation invarious networks are discussed as they are all expected to influence food manufacturers' decision to develop new functional foods. The research presented in paper 3 relies on a detailed review of relevant innovation management and food marketing literature. Research question 4 Food manufacturers' view on what are the key drivers of product development in functional food companies was the main focus of paper 4. This is a firm survey that identifies some of the key drivers for product development in functional food companies in Europe and North America. The results show that food ingredient suppliers' marketing efforts are one of the key influential factors for developing functional foods. Food manufacturers prefer long-term relationships with suppliers and they see suppliers' competencies in R&D as a bridge to consumer acceptance. Last but not least, results revealed that firm' internal factors, such as managerial initiative towards innovations and employees' competences, were important factors in deciding to develo

Krutulyte, Rasa

2010-01-01

319

Development of Food Retailing and Factors Affecting the Competition in Food Retailing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Retailing is a dynamic and complex sector that offers wide range of products and services to consumers. This sector which includes different types of enterprises, has an important position within the supply chain. Food retailing has also a big potential within retailing sector. On the other hand, an intensive competition exists in food retailing. Taking place in the competitive market, food retailers attempt to gain a competitive advantage against their rivals with their geographic location, product selection and type, offered service quality and pricing alternatives. Additionally, food retailers also incline to develop their own branded products. The purpose of this study is to examine the development of food retailing sector, competitive structure and the main factors affecting this structure.

Serkan Kilic

2010-04-01

320

Inspections of Hand Washing Supplies and Hand Sanitizer in Public Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

Hand washing and hand antisepsis are proven infection control measures in the school setting, yet barriers such as lack of soap, paper towels, and hand sanitizer can hinder compliance. This pilot study measured the prevalence of hand cleaning supplies in public schools. Ten school districts (93 schools) participated in school nurse inspections. In…

Ramos, Mary M.; Blea, Mary; Trujillo, Rebecca; Greenberg, Cynthia

2010-01-01

321

Climate change and food security  

OpenAIRE

Dynamic interactions between and within the biogeophysical and human environments lead to the production, processing, distribution, preparation and consumption of food, resulting in food systems that underpin food security. Food systems encompass food availability (production, distribution and exchange), food access (affordability, allocation and preference) and food utilization (nutritional and societal values and safety), so that food security is, therefore, diminished when food systems are...

Gregory, P. J.; Ingram, J. S. I.; Brklacich, M.

2005-01-01

322

Giant grants a free hand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'I had a relatively free hand from my associates when choosing a partner. When we had compared business structures, considered the mutual chemistry and the attitude of French people concerning management, the decision process was made easier.' That's how Peter Strycek, general director of Hetech Services, describes the preparations for agreements. It worked. The Slovak supplier of heat and services for technical operations of buildings, has belonged to the GDF SUEZ company since Monday. At the beginning, at the conclusion of 2005, there was the idea to consolidate the businesses of three companies beneath one roof. That's how informally the shareholding company Hetech Services was founded. It started to manage the business of the Bratislava heat suppliers, Racianska Teplarenska and Prva Ruzinovska; including supplier of technical services AB Spravcovska. Along with activities of the head company Hetech Services installed low-current equipment in buildings, did construction supervision and for a longer period it did business with technological equipment for buildings. The company's business expanded. At the end of the year before last, Strycek announced an interest from multinational players in joining. It didn't take long and the three interested parties came to an agreement. At the beginning of last summer the owners of Hetech, Bratislava real estate businessmen, came to an agreement with the managers of the multinational energy giant GDF SUEZ, which had been foundedrgy giant GDF SUEZ, which had been founded shortly beforehand with the merger of two global players in the industry. (authors)

323

Eating interrupted: the effect of intent on hand-to-mouth actions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evidence from recent neurophysiological studies on nonhuman primates as well as from human behavioral studies suggests that actions with similar kinematic requirements but different end-state goals are supported by separate neural networks. It is unknown whether these different networks supporting seemingly similar reach-to-grasp actions are lateralized, or if they are equally represented in both hemispheres. Recently published behavioral evidence suggests certain networks are lateralized to the left hemisphere. Specifically, when participants used their right hand, their maximum grip aperture (MGA) was smaller when grasping to eat food items than when grasping to place the same items. Left-handed movements showed no difference between tasks. The present study investigates whether the differences between grasp-to-eat and grasp-to-place actions are driven by an intent to eat, or if placing an item into the mouth (sans ingestion) is sufficient to produce asymmetries. Twelve right-handed adults were asked to reach to grasp food items to 1) eat them, 2) place them in a bib, or 3) place them between their lips and then toss them into a nearby receptacle. Participants performed each task with large and small food items, using both their dominant and nondominant hands. The current study replicated the previous finding of smaller MGAs for the eat condition during right-handed but not left-handed grasps. MGAs in the eat and spit conditions did not significantly differ from each other, suggesting that eating and bringing a food item to the mouth both utilize similar motor plans, likely originating within the same neural network. Results are discussed in relation to neurophysiology and development. PMID:24990561

Flindall, Jason W; Gonzalez, Claudia L R

2014-10-15

324

Food insecurity, neighborhood food access, and food assistance in Philadelphia.  

Science.gov (United States)

An estimated 17.6 million American households were food insecure in 2012, meaning they were unable to obtain enough food for an active and healthy life. Programs to augment local access to healthy foods are increasingly widespread, with unclear effects on food security. At the same time, the US government has recently enacted major cuts to federal food assistance programs. In this study, we examined the association between food insecurity (skipping or reducing meal size because of budget), neighborhood food access (self-reported access to fruits and vegetables and quality of grocery stores), and receipt of food assistance using the 2008, 2010, and 2012 waves of the Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Health Survey. Of 11,599 respondents, 16.7% reported food insecurity; 79.4% of the food insecure found it easy or very easy to find fruits and vegetables, and 60.6% reported excellent or good quality neighborhood grocery stores. In our regression models adjusting for individual- and neighborhood-level covariates, compared to those who reported very difficult access to fruits and vegetables, those who reported difficult, easy or very easy access were less likely to report food insecurity (OR 0.62: 95% CI 0.43-0.90, 0.33: 95% CI 0.23-0.47, and 0.28: 95% CI 0.20-0.40). Compared to those who reported poor stores, those who reported fair, good, and excellent quality stores were also less likely to report food insecurity (OR 0.81: 95% CI 0.60-1.08, 0.58: 95% CI 0.43-0.78, and 0.43: 95% CI 0.31-0.59). Compared to individuals not receiving food assistance, those receiving Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits were significantly more likely to be food insecure (OR 1.36: 95% CI 1.11-1.67), while those receiving benefits from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) (OR 1.17: 95% CI 0.77-1.78) and those receiving both SNAP and WIC (OR 0.84: 95% CI 0.61-1.17) did not have significantly different odds of food insecurity. In conclusion, better neighborhood food access is associated with lower risk of food insecurity. However, most food insecure individuals reported good access. Improving diet in communities with high rates of food insecurity likely requires not only improved access but also greater affordability. PMID:25047157

Mayer, Victoria L; Hillier, Amy; Bachhuber, Marcus A; Long, Judith A

2014-12-01

325

Food Label and You  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Food Ingredients, Packaging & Labeling Labeling & Nutrition The Food Label and You — Video FDA presents an entertaining and ... help consumers understand and use the Nutrition Facts Label to make informed food choices. You can view ...

326

Asthma and Food Allergies  

Science.gov (United States)

... and Food Allergies Health Issues Listen Asthma and Food Allergies Article Body A family history of any type ... child may develop asthma . Children with asthma and food allergies are at increased risk for anaphylaxis, a severe ...

327

Food Allergy: An Overview  

Science.gov (United States)

... timing and location of the reaction. Symptoms of Food Allergy If you are allergic to a particular food, ... be an effective treatment for EoE. CROSS-REACTIVE FOOD ALLERGIES If you have a life-threatening reaction to ...

328

Food Label and You  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Road Food (Finding Nutrition Information on the Road) Game Show Review (Are You Smarter Than A Food ... daily value. Two studio "sports announcers" describe the "game day" food action of two parties: the first, ...

329

Sodium and Food Sources  

Science.gov (United States)

... Disease Cholesterol High Blood Pressure Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Sodium and Food Sources Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... food [PDF-867K] and how to reduce sodium. Sodium Reduction Is Challenging Types of food matter: More ...

330

Food Label and You  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Print this page Share this page E-mail this page Home Food Ingredients, Packaging & Labeling Labeling & Nutrition The Food Label and You — Video ...

331

Food Label and You  

Science.gov (United States)

... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Print this page Share this page E-mail this page Home Food Ingredients, Packaging & Labeling Labeling & Nutrition The Food Label and You — Video ...

332

Freezing and Food Safety  

Science.gov (United States)

... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Freezing and Food Safety What Can You Freeze? Is Frozen Food Safe? ...

333

Irradiation and Food Safety  

Science.gov (United States)

... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Irradiation and Food Safety Answers to Frequently Asked Questions The Food Safety ...

334

Norovirus: Food Handlers  

Science.gov (United States)

... Food Workers Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Norovirus and Working With Food CDC Vital Signs Report ... should know about this virus. Foods Contaminated with Norovirus Can Make People Sick Norovirus is the leading ...

335

Deciphering Food Labels  

Science.gov (United States)

... beware of. Using Food Labels for a Well-Balanced Diet Here are some guidelines on using food labels ... food label smarts to create a healthy, well-balanced diet. It might seem complicated at first, but it ...

336

Food Label and You  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Road Food (Finding Nutrition Information on the Road) Game Show Review (Are You Smarter Than A Food Label?) The Food Label & You (full video) Introduction back to menu CSI (Calorie Scene Investigators) ...

337

Best Food Choices  

Science.gov (United States)

... foods over foods made with refined grains and flours. Try to make at least half the grains ... foods and desserts. Reduce intake of chips, cookies, cakes, full-fat ice cream, etc. Watch your portion ...

338

Bacteriology and epidemiology of hand infections  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Infection is one of the most serious and important causes of hand swelling. Neglect or incomplete treatment of hand infections will usually lead to involvement of other parts of the hand resulting in stiffness, loss of hand function, and possibly amputation (Figure 1). Hand infections are common con [...] ditions that have significant morbidity. Referral is often delayed and infections present late. Hand infections should be managed by an experienced surgeon. The aims of the investigation were: to identify the spectrum of organisms and appropriate antibiotics for hand infection; and to characterise the patterns and sites of hand infections. This information was collected against the background of a high prevalence of HiV-infected patients and increasing antibiotic resistance. A total of 66 patients treated for hand infections over a period of six months in Pelonomi Hospital, Bloemfontein, South Africa, was prospectively recruited for the study. Staphylococcus aureus was the commonest isolate. Results show that cloxacillin is still an effective first line antibiotic for community-acquired hand infections in the absence of immunosuppression. Alternative empiric therapy would be clindamycin - especially in the beta-lactam intolerant patient. Erythromycin also proved to have a favourable profile. HIV-positive patients were more prone to Gram-negative infections.

JF, Greyling; E, Visser; E, Elliot.

339

Rising food costs & global food security: key issues & relevance for India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rising food costs can have major impact on vulnerable households, pushing those least able to cope further into poverty and hunger. On the other hand, provided appropriate policies and infrastructure are in place, higher agricultural prices can also raise farmers' incomes and rural wages, improve rural economies and stimulate investment for longer-term economic growth. High food prices since 2007 have had both short-term impacts and long-term consequences, both good and bad. This article reviews the evidence of how rising costs have affected global food security since the food price crisis of 2007-2008, and their impact on different categories of households and countries. In light of recent studies, we know more about how households, and countries, cope or not with food price shocks but a number of contentious issues remain. These include the adequacy of current estimates and the interpretation of national and household food and nutrition security indicators. India is a particularly important country in this regard, given the high number of food insecure, the relative weight of India in global estimates of food and nutrition insecurity, and the puzzles that remain concerning the country's reported declining per capita calorie consumption. Competing explanations for what is behind it are not in agreement, but these all point to the importance of policy and programme innovation and greater investment necessary to reach the achievable goal of food and nutrition security for all. PMID:24135190

Gustafson, Daniel J

2013-09-01

340

The prospect of food irradiation and the contribution of radiation chemistry to enact the hygienic safety standard of irradiated foods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Now, it is said that we are at the dawn of food irradiation application both nationally and internationally. However, referring to the acceptability of customers the labeling of irradiated foods has been a nightmare to the food processors. On the other hand the recommended international standard has the shortcomings of thinking in absolute terms. In this paper a proposal which puts special emphasis on enacting hygienic safety standard of individual irradiated food is recommended. The hygienic safety standard of the irradiated food may be classified in three classes: 1) its hygienic safety standard is similar to that of common food; 2) the maximum permissible quantities of harmful compounds induced by radiation must be controlled; and 3) the quantity of unique radiolysis products may by dutermined. Radiation chemistry plays an important role in enacting the hygienic safety standard of irradiated foods. For international cooperation in this field some suggestions are made

341

Access to Waterless Hand Sanitizer Improves Student Hand Hygiene Behavior in Primary Schools in Nairobi, Kenya  

OpenAIRE

Handwashing is difficult in settings with limited resources and water access. In primary schools within urban Kibera, Kenya, we investigated the impact of providing waterless hand sanitizer on student hand hygiene behavior. Two schools received a waterless hand sanitizer intervention, two schools received a handwashing with soap intervention, and two schools received no intervention. Hand cleaning behavior after toilet use was monitored for 2 months using structured observation. Hand cleaning...

Pickering, Amy J.; Davis, Jennifer; Blum, Annalise G.; Scalmanini, Jenna; Oyier, Beryl; Okoth, George; Breiman, Robert F.; Ram, Pavani K.

2013-01-01

342

Big Food, Food Systems, and Global Health  

OpenAIRE

In an article that forms part of the PLoS Medicine series on Big Food, guest editors David Stuckler and Marion Nestle lay out why more examination of the food industry is necessary, and offer three competing views on how public health professionals might engage with Big Food.

Stuckler, David; Nestle, Marion

2012-01-01

343

Food irradiation: Its role in food safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document provides a brief overview of the process of food irradiation and describes the potential for food irradiation in the Asia-Pacific region. The advantages in controlling food-borne diseases and in promoting trade are discussed. 4 tabs

344

Perspective on food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief review summarizes current scientific information on the safety and efficacy of irradiation processing of foods. Attention is focused on: specifics of the irradiation process and its effectiveness in food preservation; the historical development of food irradiation technology in the US; the response of the Institute of Food Technologists to proposed FDA guidelines for food irradiation; the potential uses of irradiation in the US food industry; and the findings of the absence of toxins and of unaltered nutrient density (except possibly for fats) in irradiated foods. The misconceptions of consumers concerning perceived hazards associated with food irradiation, as related to consumer acceptance, also are addressed

345

Food allergens: Hypersensitivity to food and food constituents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Adverse reactions to food which occur only in susceptible individuals may result from true physical hypersensitivity to components of foods or from psychological factors. Non-allergic food hypersensitivity may be due to a metabolic defect in the affected individual, while in food allergy immune mechanism is involved. Food allergy can be further subdivided into IgE-mediated food allergy and non-IgE-mediated food allergy, depending on the underlying allergic mechanism. Most cases of confirmed food allergy involve the production of IgE antibodies and a network of interactions between various cell types and chemical mediators. This type of allergic reaction is known as an IgE-mediated allergy (or a type I hypersensitivity reaction, and it produces immediate symptoms. The most severe form of IgE-mediated allergy is systematic answer known as anaphylaxis that can be fatal in the absence of adequate medical help. Other less severe allergy manifestations are symptoms like swelling, itching, redness and heat in the mouth, gut, skin or respiratory tract. Hypersensitivity to food requires special dietary treatment, but total exclusion of some foods from the diet can be very difficult, because of the wide distribution of some foodstuffs in the diet or their presence as impurities in other foods. It is very important that producers have good systems of control, traceability and labeling of possible presence of food allergens in order to help people with food allergies to conduct their restrictive diets that are in most cases their lifelong treatment.

Stankovi? Ivan

2008-01-01

346

Tylor vs. Westermarck: Explaining the Incest Taboo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the late 19th century arguments explaining incest avoidance were framed separately by Edward Tylor and Edward Westermarck. Tylor offered an environmental theory asserting that people have to marry outside of their own kin and communities or die out from the detrimental effects of isolation. Westermarck turned to Darwin’s theory to explain that harmful inbreeding had been selected against in the human genome. By the late 20th and early 21st centuries explanations of human behaviors have become increasingly encompassed by natural selection theory. The debate concerning the productiveness of evolutionary biology for explaining complex human behaviors is highly contentious and continues unabated. Although human evolutionists repeatedly say that environment is important for understanding human behavior they often do not develop this part of the equation. Behind the prestige of evolutionary biology selection models of human behavior have passed into popular science and the public psyche. Often heard today from a wide range of highly visible media sources is an assortment of topics on human behaviors which are framed by Darwinian assumptions. Contemplations about incest and inbreeding avoidance fall into this category and are presented by Darwinian social science as the best case example demonstrating evolutionary suppositions about human behavior. In the article that follows these issues are framed and examined. The argument is offered that evolutionary approaches are not always the most compelling and that convincing environmental explanations are overlooked.

Gregory C. Leavitt

2013-01-01

347

When disruption was taboo / Tiit Hennoste  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Väliseesti kultuurist, mil määral oli väliseesti kultuur 1930. aastate eesti kultuuri jätk ja mil määral katkestus. Väliseesti kunsti ja kirjanduse uurimisest, tasemest, pagulaste rollist eesti professionaalse kultuuri arengus, pagulaskunsti ja -kirjanduse kuulumisest eesti kultuuri hulka

Hennoste, Tiit, 1953-

2010-01-01

348

"Suicide Machine" Seekers: Transgressing Suicidal Taboos Online  

Science.gov (United States)

Internet-mediated joint suicides or "Net group suicides" ("Net shinju") has become a significant social problem in Japan since 2002. Despite a privileged view of suicide-related cyberspaces as a murky underworld, there has been little study about how the participants of such spaces interact and perform their "suicidal" identity. Viewing cyberspace…

Seko, Yukari

2008-01-01

349

Survey Of Food Handlers For Dermatological Problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Occupational health problem in food handlers have become increasingly common in the recent years. Forty three workers, cooks and bakers were surveyed for work related problems. We noticed watering and burning of eyes in 18%, running nose in 13.95%, burning sensation of hands in 11.6%, excessive sweating in 4.65%, chronic paronychia in 11.6%, palmar hyperkeratosis in 9.3%, fissuring of distal finger tips, nail dystrophy, multiple warts in 6.9%, scaling of hands, prurigo simplex in 2.3%.

Davis Suraj V

2003-01-01

350

Prevalence of Bacteria and Intestinal Parasites among Food-handlers in Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Food-handlers with poor personal hygiene working in food-service establishments could be potential sources of infection due to pathogenic organisms. The study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of bacteria and intestinal parasites among 127 food-handlers working in the cafeterias of the University of Gondar and the Gondar Teachers Training College, Gondar, Ethiopia. Fingernail contents of both the hands and stool specimens were collected from all the 127 food-handlers. The samples wer...

Andargie, Gashaw; Kassu, Afework; Moges, Feleke; Tiruneh, Moges; Huruy, Kahsay

2008-01-01

351

Hand Specific Representations in Language Comprehension  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Theories of embodied cognition argue that language comprehension involves sensory-motor re-enactments of the actions described. However, the degree of specificity of these re-enactments as well as the relationship between action and language remains a matter of debate. Here we investigate these issues by examining how hand-specific information (left or right hand is recruited in language comprehension and action execution. An fMRI study tested right-handed participants in two separate tasks that were designed to be as similar as possible to increase sensitivity of the comparison across task: an action execution go/no-go task where participants performed right or left hand actions, and a language task where participants read sentences describing the same left or right handed actions as in the execution task. We found that language-induced activity did not match the hand-specific patterns of activity found for action execution in primary somatosensory and motor cortex, but it overlapped with pre-motor and parietal regions associated with action planning. Within these pre-motor regions, both right hand actions and sentences elicited stronger activity than left hand actions and sentences - a dominant hand effect -. Importantly, both dorsal and ventral sections of the left pre-central gyrus were recruited by both tasks, suggesting different action features being recruited. These results suggest that (a language comprehension elicits motor representations that are hand-specific and akin to multimodal action plans, rather than full action re-enactments; and (b language comprehension and action execution share schematic hand-specific representations that are richer for the dominant hand, and thus linked to previous motor experience.

Silvia P Gennari

2014-06-01

352

The alien hand and related signs.  

OpenAIRE

Alien limb sign includes failure to recognise ownership of one's limb when visual cues are removed, a feeling that one body part is foreign, personification of the affected body part, and autonomous activity which is perceived as outside voluntary control. Although the hand is most frequently affected, any limb or combination of limbs may fulfil the alien limb criteria. Alien hand sign should be reserved for cases in which the hand feels foreign together with observable involuntary motor acti...

Doody, R. S.; Jankovic, J.

1992-01-01

353

Emotions affect the recognition of hand gestures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The body is closely tied to the processing of social and emotional information. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a relationship between emotions and social attitudes conveyed through gestures exists. Thus, we tested the effect of pro-social (i.e., happy face) and anti-social (i.e., angry face) emotional primes on the ability to detect socially relevant hand postures (i.e., pictures depicting an open/closed hand). In particular, participants were required to establish, as quickly as possible, if the test stimulus (i.e., a hand posture) was the same or different, compared to the reference stimulus (i.e., a hand posture) previously displayed in the computer screen. Results show that facial primes, displayed between the reference and the test stimuli, influence the recognition of hand postures, according to the social attitude implicitly related to the stimulus. We found that perception of pro-social (i.e., happy face) primes resulted in slower RTs in detecting the open hand posture as compared to the closed hand posture. Vice-versa, perception of the anti-social (i.e., angry face) prime resulted in slower RTs in detecting the closed hand posture compared to the open hand posture. These results suggest that the social attitude implicitly conveyed by the displayed stimuli might represent the conceptual link between emotions and gestures. PMID:24421763

Vicario, Carmelo M; Newman, Anica

2013-01-01

354

Comparative Analysis of Hand Gesture Recognition Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During past few years, human hand gesture for interaction with computing devices has continues to be active area of research. In this paper survey of hand gesture recognition is provided. Hand Gesture Recognition is contained three stages: Pre-processing, Feature Extraction or matching and Classification or recognition. Each stage contains different methods and techniques. In this paper define small description of different methods used for hand gesture recognition in existing system with comparative analysis of all method with its benefits and drawbacks are provided.

Arpana K. Patel

2015-03-01

355

International standards and agreements in food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The economies of both developed and developing countries have been effected by their exported food and agricultural products. Trading policies of food and agricultural products are governed by international agreement as well as national regulations. Trade in food and agricultural commodities may be affected by both principal Agreements within the overall World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, though neither specifically refers to irradiation or irradiated foods. The principal Agreements are the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement and the Sanitary and Phyto sanitary (SPS) Agreement. The SPS of the WTO requires governments to harmonize their sanitary and phyto sanitary measures on as wide basis as possible. Related standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard setting bodies such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission (food safety); the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (plant health and quarantine); and International Office of Epizootic (animal health and zoo noses) should be used in such a harmonization. International Standards for Phyto sanitary Measures (ISPM) no.18 was published under the IPPC by FAO (April 2003, Rome-Italy). ISPM standard provides technical guidance on the specific procedure for the application of ionizing radiation as a phyto sanitary treatment for regulated pests or articles. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods (Stand 106-1983) and Recommended International Code of Practice were first published in 1983 and revised in March 2003. Scope of this standard applies to foods processed by ionizing radiation that is used in conjunction with applicable hygienic codes, food standards and transportation codes. It does not apply to foods exposed to doses imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes. Codex documents on Principles and Guidelines for the Import/Export Inspection and Certification of Foods have been prepared to guide international trade.On the other hand national regulations should take account of internationally agreed Codes and Guidelines regarding the irradiation facilities and radiation processing

356

International standards and agreements in food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The economies of both developed and developing countries have been effected by their exported food and agricultural products. Trading policies of food and agricultural products are governed by international agreement as well as national regulations. Trade in food and agricultural commodities may be affected by both principal Agreements within the overall World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, though neither specifically refers to irradiation or irradiated foods. The principal Agreements are the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement and the Sanitary and Phyto sanitary (SPS) Agreement. The SPS of the WTO requires governments to harmonize their sanitary and phyto sanitary measures on as wide basis as possible. Related standards, guidelines and recommendations of international standard setting bodies such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission (food safety); the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (plant health and quarantine); and International Office of Epizootic (animal health and zoo noses) should be used in such a harmonization. International Standards for Phyto sanitary Measures (ISPM) no.18 was published under the IPPC by FAO (April 2003, Rome-Italy). ISPM standard provides technical guidance on the specific procedure for the application of ionizing radiation as a phyto sanitary treatment for regulated pests or articles. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods (Stand 106-1983) and Recommended International Code of Practice were first published in 1983 and revised in March 2003. Scope of this standard applies to foods processed by ionizing radiation that is used in conjunction with applicable hygienic codes, food standards and transportation codes. It does not apply to foods exposed to doses imparted by measuring instruments used for inspection purposes. Codex documents on Principles and Guidelines for the Import/Export Inspection and Certification of Foods have been prepared to guide international trade.On the other hand national regulations should take account of internationally agreed Codes and Guidelines regarding the irradiation facilities and radiation processing. (author)

357

Ethical food standard schemes and global trade : paralleling the WTO?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Global food trade embodies a range of different interpretations of the nature of food and its role in society. On the one hand, the WTO food regulation regime, in particular the SPS agreement, is based upon a somewhat instrumental value of food consumption in which food is seen as a commodity to be traded in accordance with international trade rules. At the same time, a number of private standards, such as GlobalG.A.P and various organic standards, are emerging which embody broadly postmaterialist values that suggest that food purchasing and consumption are also social, ethical and perhaps even political activities. This paper analyses the relationship between the WTO food trade regime on the one hand and the GlobalG.A.P and organic food trade regimes on the other. We suggest that competing values can co-exist in parallel institutions and in a commensalistic relationship which protects the values base of each institution while giving expression to both materialist and postmaterialist understandings of the nature of food.

Daugbjerg, Carsten; Botterill, Linda Courtenay

2012-01-01

358

Effect of TV food advertising restriction on food environment for children in South Korea.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study attempted to determine the effects of restrictions on television (TV) food advertising on children's food environments in South Korea. It examined changes that occurred in the marketing mix of food companies following enactment of those restrictions. An on-line survey was conducted with marketers or R&D managers of 108 food companies. A questionnaire was used to inquire about changes that occurred in Product, Place, Price and Promotion as a result of the restrictions placed on TV food advertising. Analysis was performed on the data collected from the responding 63 food companies (58.3%). The results of their answers showed that among the four marketing mix components the restrictions exerted relatively stronger effects on Product. Effects were stronger on companies that produced foods within the product categories of Energy-Dense and Nutrient-Poor foods (EDNP companies) in comparison with companies that did not (non-EDNP companies). The restrictions exerted positive effects on EDNP companies with respect to compliance with labeling requirements and reinforcement of nutritional contents examination, as well as changes to products such as reducing unhealthy ingredients and fortifying nutrients. Overall, the results revealed the possibility that restrictions on TV food advertising could improve children's food environments by encouraging EDNP companies to make favorable product changes. On the one hand, the results also found that some food companies attempted to bypass the regulations by changing marketing channels from TV to others and by reducing product serving sizes. Thus, future measures should be implemented to prevent food companies from bypassing regulations and to control children's exposure to marketing channels other than TV. PMID:24221528

Lee, Youngmi; Yoon, Jihyun; Chung, Sang-Jin; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Hyogyoo; Kim, Soyoung

2013-11-12

359

Slow food, fast food and the control of food intake  

OpenAIRE

This Perspective focuses on two elements of our food supply and eating environment that facilitate high energy intake: a high eating rate and distraction of attention from eating. These two elements are believed to undermine our body's capacity to regulate its energy intake at healthy levels because they impair the congruent association between sensory signals and metabolic consequences. The findings of a number of studies show that foods that can be eaten quickly lead to high food intake and...

Graaf, C.; Kok, F. J.

2010-01-01

360

Food; Energy; Developing Countries; Food Irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of energy in food production is increasing, and the cost of that energy use is a very significant part of the cost of food. It is important, therefore, to minimize food losses. It is shown that the energy used to produce raw food, such as grain, pulses, and vegetables, to feed the increasing population is about 17-25 MJ per person per day. (The energy of one litre petrol is 35 MJ.) Owing to increasing cost of energy, any food losses are very expensive. Irradiation processing of food, which uses very little energy, can be used to reduce the losses significantly. Irradiation kills microorganisms, parasites and insects and stops sprouting of tubers. But, more is needed to preserve food. Irradiation is usually most effective, therefore, if used in combination with other processes. (author)

361

Food; energy; developing countries; food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of energy in food production is increasing, and the cost of that energy use is a very significant part of the cost of food. It is important, therefore, to minimize food losses. It is shown that the energy used to produce raw food, such as grain, pulses, and vegetables, to feed the increasing population is about 17-25 MJ per person per day. (The energy of one litre petrol is 35 MJ.) Owing to increasing cost of energy, any food losses are very expensive. Irradiation processing of food, which uses very little energy, can be used to reduce the losses significantly. Irradiation kills microorganisms, parasites and insects and stops sprouting of tubers. But, more is needed to preserve food. Irradiation is usually most effective, therefore, if used in combination with other processes. (author)

362

Food-regime(s) at a crossroad : The future of present and future of Danish food  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Food production and consumption in Denmark stands at a crossroad. Multiple conflicting developments and logic point in radically different directions, and the pressures of globalization are making the tensions even more present and solutions more pressing. Danish agriculture has excelled in creating an industrialized foodregime, based on Northern European values of hygiene and homogeneity. Yet, pressures of global competition, consumer trends focusing on quality and uniqueness, and issues of animal welfare and disease control are questioning this logic. On the other hand, Nordic food and Nordic chefs are enjoying somewhat more than fifteen minutes of fame with a new interpretation of Nordic produce in combination with state of the art cooking techniques. Yet, the New Nordic food trend emphasizes the uniqueness of local Nordic terroirs and presses for less industrialized production, in a manner not entirely unlike the organics movement. Optimistic policy makers dream of food as a new export success for Denmark, yet this seems to entail a transformation of the traditional food production in Denmark. Finally, local and grassroots inspired food producers are beginning to take matters into their own hands. Creating localized food systems with direct contact with costumers, mostly bypassing, but occasionally integrating with supermarkets based distribution. In this presentation we will discuss the present fragmentation of the food-regime in Denmark, focusing on the conflicting tensions of localization-globalization, craftsmanship-industrialization, homogeneity-uniqueness, mass-niche, optimization-environmentalism etc. We also sketch what we believe to be the promising development and potential challenges for food production and consumption in Denmark.

Noe, Egon; Korsgaard, Steffen

363

Perfection of technical and tactical preparation of sportsmen of hand-to-hand fight  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Essence of innovative hike is considered to upgrading preparation of sportsmen of hand-to-hand fight. 58 sportsmen of section of hand-to-hand fight took part in research. Age of sportsmen are from 17 to 22 years. Developed and approved the most effective technical and tactical charts of construction of duel with the opponents of different styles of single combats. It is well-proven that offered approach instrumental in development of operative thought and adaptation to sparring of hand-to-hand fight.

Serebryak V.V.

2010-06-01

364

Prevention of Food Poisoning.  

Science.gov (United States)

The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

365

The Food Chain  

Science.gov (United States)

In this project you will learn about the food chain. In your notebook, write everything you know about the food chain and what you think goes at the top and bottom of the chain. After you write what you know go here to learn more about the food chain Food Chain Video. Click on "Play Movie." Now after watching the movie you should have ...

Miss Jodi

2009-07-07

366

Holiday Food Safety  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration Protecting and Promoting Your ... Holiday Food Safety Many people don't realize that food safety is the most important ingredient in preparing food ...

367

Understanding Food Allergies and Intolerances  

Science.gov (United States)

A patient’s guide from your doctor and FOOD ALLERGIES & INTOLERANCES understanding Food Intolerance Basics — Many people think they have food allergies, but may have food intolerance. — The most common food intolerances are ...

368

[Food allergy in childhood].  

Science.gov (United States)

Food allergies can result in life-threatening reactions and diminish quality of life. The prevalence of food allergies has increased in several regions throughout the world. A few food allergens cover the majority of food-related reactions (milk, egg, wheat, soy, fish, crustacean, nuts and peanut). Immunological mechanisms range between IgE-mediated (most common) and non-IgE-mediated, the latter of which remaining often a clue in the diagnosis. Treatment of food allergy involves strict avoidance of the trigger food. Medications help to manage symptoms of disease, but currently, there is no cure for food allergy. PMID:23179672

Szépfalusi, Z

2012-12-01

369

Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

newsletter | contact Share | Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease A parent's guide for infants and babies A A A This image displays grouped blisters on the palm and ... typical of a herpes virus infection. Overview Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is a common illness of infants and ...

370

The Hot Hand Belief and Framing Effects  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: Recent evidence of the hot hand in sport--where success breeds success in a positive recency of successful shots, for instance--indicates that this pattern does not actually exist. Yet the belief persists. We used 2 studies to explore the effects of framing on the hot hand belief in sport. We looked at the effect of sport experience and…

MacMahon, Clare; Köppen, Jörn; Raab, Markus

2014-01-01

371

Hand Hygiene Practices among Medical Students  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. Hand hygiene is a cost-effective method in preventing infection transmission. Hand hygiene practices have been found to be faulty in most healthcare settings. We conducted a study to evaluate the awareness, and compliance of hand hygiene among undergraduate medical students during their clinical phase in Qassim College of Medicine, Saudi Arabia. Methods. A questionnaire based on World Health Organization's concept of “Five Moments for Hand Hygiene” was used to evaluate the awareness of the indications for hand hygiene and compliance was observed during Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) sessions. Sixty students including thirty-six males (60%) and twenty-four females (40%) participated voluntarily in the study. Results. The average awareness regarding the positive indications of hand hygiene was 56%. Rest of the 44% of students were either not sure or unaware of the indications of hygiene. Only 29% of students were able to identify all the five indications for hand hygiene in the questionnaire. Compliance as assessed during OSCE sessions was only 17% with no significant difference between the genders. Conclusion. It was concluded that serious efforts are needed to improve the hand hygiene practices among medical students. PMID:23024653

al Kadi, Azzam; Salati, Sajad Ahmad

2012-01-01

372

Ectrodactyly/split hand feet malformation  

OpenAIRE

Split-hand/split-foot malformation is a rare limb malformation with median clefts of the hands and feet and aplasia/hypoplasia of the phalanges, metacarpals and metatarsals. When present as an isolated anomaly, it is usually inherited as an autosomal dominant form. We report a case of autosomal recessive inheritance and discuss the antenatal diagnosis, genetic counseling and treatment for the malformation.

Jindal Geetanjali; Parmar Veena; Gupta Vipul

2009-01-01

373

Hand Function in Children with Myelomeningocele  

Science.gov (United States)

In children with myelomeningocele, paralysis and loss of sensation occur below the level of the spinal cord lesion. Since upper extremity functioning does not seem to be impaired in these cases, this study describes hand function and relationships between hand function and motor, sensory, and intellectual levels. (JA)

Sand, Patricia; And Others

1974-01-01

374

Monitor of contamination of hands uaand clothes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An instrument was designed for measuring alpha and beta contamination of hands and of beta contamination of clothing and working surfaces. Proportional flow counters and GM counters, respectively, are used as detectors. The design allows simultaneous measurement of the contamination of both hands, this even with low-energy beta radionuclides, such as carbon 14. (Ha)

375

Soft tissue mixed tumor of the hand  

OpenAIRE

Mixed tumors are relatively common in the skin and salivary glands, but extremely rare in soft tissues, often resulting in diagnostic problems. The occurrence of these tumors in the hand is especially limited. In this article we report the clinical, radiological, and histological features of a mixed tumor of the hypothenar region of the right hand.

Shimosawa, Hiroshi; Susa, Michiro; Honma, Takayuki; Hiraishi, Eiichi; Sakihara, Hiroshi

2009-01-01

376

Clean Hands Help Prevent the Flu  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

Clean hands can help prevent the spread of infectious diseases, such as flu. This podcast explains the proper way to wash your hands.  Created: 5/6/2009 by Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Influenza Division (CCID/NCIRD/ID).   Date Released: 5/6/2009.

2009-05-06

377

Hand-Eye Calibration Using Active Vision  

Science.gov (United States)

The project described in this paper designed and implemented a hand-eye calibration method for manipulators under observation by stereo cameras. This method has been utilized on Johnson Space Center's Robonaut, and on a planetary manipulator mock-up at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The intent of this calibration is to improve the manipulator's hand-eye coordination.

Nickels, Kevin; Huber, Eric; DiCicco, Matthew

2007-01-01

378

Illness representations in patients with hand injury.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Differences in illness perception about hand injury may partly explain the variation in health behaviours such as adherence to post-operative therapy, coping strategy, emotional response and eventual clinical outcome. This study examined the illness perception of patients with hand injuries in the acute trauma setting.

Chan, Jeffrey C Y

2009-07-01

379

[Plaster of Paris in hand surgery].  

Science.gov (United States)

Immobilization is as essential to conservative treatment of the hand as it is perioperatively in surgical treatment. Low cost and outstanding moldability distinguish plaster of Paris. This paper surveys frequently used applications of plaster of Paris in hand surgery. PMID:20058128

Hohendorff, Bernd; Mühldorfer, Marion; van Schoonhoven, Jörg; Prommersberger, Karl-Josef

2009-11-01

380

Hand-Clap Songs across the Curriculum  

Science.gov (United States)

This teaching tip focuses on using hand-clapping to teach content area material across the curriculum. We begin with a brief history of hand-clap songs, followed by a rationale for using them in content area literacy. Then, we describe the instructional lesson, share samples that resulted, and discuss lesson extensions. Our goal is to have…

Batchelor, Katherine E.; Bintz, William P.

2012-01-01

381

Food safety information and food demand  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze how news about food-related health risks affects consumers’ demands for safe food products. Design/methodology/approach – By identifying structural breaks in an econometrically estimated demand model, news with permanent impact on demand is distinguished from news with temporary impact. The Danish demand for pasteurized versus shell eggs is used as an illustrative case. Findings – Negative safety news about one product variety can provide significant stimulation to the demand for safe varieties. Severe negative news about the safety of shell eggs induces a permanent increase in the demand for pasteurized eggs, while more moderate negative news influences demand temporarily and to a lesser extent. There is, however, considerable variation in the response to food safety news across socio-demographic groups of consumers. Research limitations/implications – The study has focused on the demand for raw eggs. Responses to food safety news may differ across foods. Furthermore, the study abstracts from possible cross-effects of safety news concerning other foods. Practical implications – The findings may be utilized for optimization of the timing and targeting of food safety information campaigns. Originality/value – The paper combines information, food safety and econometric methods to analyze the cross-impacts between negative food safety news and the demand for safe foods.

Smed, Sinne; Jensen, JØrgen Dejgård

2005-01-01

382

Food problems and food irradiation, recent trend  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Food irradiation is to contribute to the stable security of foodstuffs which is the fundamental condition of human survival by improving the preservation of foodstuffs and food sanitation utilizing the biological effect due to irradiation. The research and development have been carried out internationally since 1950s, but after the safety declaration of irradiated foods in 1980 by the international organ concerned, the permission and practical use for foods in various foreign countries, the technology transfer to developing countries and so on have been advanced. At present, food irradiation is permitted in 38 countries, and the practical irradiation is carried out in 24 countries. In Japan, the irradiation of potatoes to prevent germination was permitted in 1972, and the practical irradiation on potatoes of yearly 15,000 t is carried out. In the near future, irradiated foods will appear in international foodstuff market, and Japan which imports foodstuffs must cope with them. Foodstuffs and the safety, food irradiation, the soundness of irradiated foods, food irradiation in various foreign countries and Japan, the trend of international organs and the criticism of food irradiation are reported. (K.I.)

383

Color-Removal by Microorganisms Isolated from Human Hands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Microorganisms are essential for human life. Microorganisms decompose the carbon compounds in dead animals and plants and convert them into carbon dioxide. Intestinal bacteria assist in food digestion. Some vitamins are produced by bacteria that live in the intestines. Sewage and industrial wastewater are treated by activated sludge composed of microbial communities. All of these are due to the ability of microbes to produce many enzymes that can degrade chemicals. How do teachers make students understand that microorganisms are always associated with humans, and that microorganisms have the ability to degrade chemicals? The presence of microorganisms on humans can be shown by incubating agar plates after they are touched by the hands of students. The ability of microorganisms to degrade chemicals can be shown by an analytical measurement of the degradation of chemicals. When the chemicals are dyes (colorants in water, microbial activity on degradation of dyes can be demonstrated by observing a decreasing degree of color as a result of the enzymatic activity (e.g., azoreductase. Dyes are widely used in the textile, food, and cosmetic industries. They are generally resistant to conventional biological wastewater treatment systems such as the activated sludge process (4. The discharge of wastewater containing dye pollutes surface water. The ability of microorganisms to decolorize and degrade dyes has been widely investigated to use for bioremediation purposes (5. The goal of this tip is to understand the presence of bacteria on human skin and the ability of bacteria to degrade colorant chemicals (decolorization. In this tip, students first cultivate and isolate bacteria on their hands, and then examine potential decolorization activity of each bacterium by observing the degree of color of the liquid in tubes in which bacteria isolated from students’ hands were inoculated. Decolorization activity of bacterial isolates from human skin has been reported recently (6. To date this author has frequently obtained colorant-degrading bacterial isolates from human hands as a result of work on a scientific education project. This tip does not require analytical measurements. Students can examine a number of bacterial isolates simultaneously. Therefore, it is appropriate for high school and introductory level college courses.

Tsukasa Ito

2013-08-01

384

[Suicide with a manipulated hand grenade].  

Science.gov (United States)

Explosion injuries in civilians are rare. An uncommon case of suicide with a manipulated hand grenade is presented. The findings at the scene and on the body (i.a. massive soot blackening of the skin, singeing, size and number of splinters) gave reason to doubt the use of trinitrotoluene (TNT), the usual explosive charge in hand grenades. Further investigations showed that parts of several hand grenades and black powder from standard fire-crackers commercially available without legal restriction had been used as propelling charge. The victim, who was in a sitting position, held the hand grenade in the left hand and triggered it with the right. He bled to death due to a fracture of the right femur and lacerations of the liver. The chronological course and total circumstances of the case suggested suicide in a strongly intoxicated condition (BAC 2.5 per mille). In the flat, a larger number of unlicensed weapons and weapon parts were found. PMID:21254702

Preuss-Wössner, Johanna; Kroll, Jürgen

2010-01-01

385

Air Muscle Actuated Low Cost Humanoid Hand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The control of humanoid robot hands has historically been expensive due to the cost of precision actuators. This paper presents the design and implementation of a low-cost air muscle actuated humanoid hand developed at Curtin University of Technology. This hand offers 10 individually controllable degrees of freedom ranging from the elbow to the fingers, with overall control handled through a computer GUI. The hand is actuated through 20 McKibben-style air muscles, each supplied by a pneumatic pressure-balancing valve that allows for proportional control to be achieved with simple and inexpensive components. The hand was successfully able to perform a number of human-equivalent tasks, such as grasping and relocating objects.

Peter Scarfe

2008-11-01

386

Genetic modified food  

OpenAIRE

The genetically modified foods controversy is a dispute over the relative advantages and disadvantages of food derived from genetically modified organisms, genetically modified crops used to produce food and other goods, and other uses of genetically modified organisms in food production. The dispute involves consumers, biotechnology companies, governmental regulators, non-governmental organizations and scientists. The key areas of controversy related to genetically modified (GM) food are: ri...

Khromov, I.

2013-01-01

387

Mood, food, and obesity  

OpenAIRE

Food is a potent natural reward and food intake is a complex process. Reward and gratification associated with food consumption leads to dopamine (DA) production, which in turn activates reward and pleasure centers in the brain. An individual will repeatedly eat a particular food to experience this positive feeling of gratification. This type of repetitive behavior of food intake leads to the activation of brain reward pathways that eventually overrides other signals of satiety and hunger. Th...

MinatiSingh

2014-01-01

388

Food irradiation - now  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Food irradiation technology in South Africa is about to take its rightful place next to existing food preservation methods in protecting food supplies. This is as a result of several factors, the most important of which is the decision by the Department of Health and Population Development to introduce compulsory labelling of food irradiation. The factors influencing food irradiation technology in South Africa are discussed

389

7 CFR 2902.18 - Hand cleaners and sanitizers.  

Science.gov (United States)

...without the use of water. (2) Hand sanitizers . Products formulated for...use of water are classified as hand sanitizers for the purposes of this rule...cleaners—64 percent. (2) Hand sanitizers (including hand cleaners...

2010-01-01

390

Hand eczema guidelines based on the Danish guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of hand eczema  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background. Classification of hand eczema has traditionally been based both on aetiology and clinical appearance. For 20% of cases, the aetiology is unknown. Objectives. To suggest a classification based on well-defined aetiology as well as on predefined clinical patterns and on the dynamics of hand eczema. Methods. Literature studies and discussions among members of the Danish Contact Dermatitis Group. Results. Criteria are given for the aetiological diagnoses of allergic contact dermatitis of the hands, irritant contact dermatitis of the hands, protein contact dermatitis of the hands, atopic hand eczema and aetiologically unclassifiable hand eczema. Six different clinical patterns are described and illustrated. Suggestions for general treatment principles are given. Conclusion. Operational guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of hand eczema are described.

Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

2011-01-01

391

Hand biometric recognition based on fused hand geometry and vascular patterns.  

Science.gov (United States)

A hand biometric authentication method based on measurements of the user's hand geometry and vascular pattern is proposed. To acquire the hand geometry, the thickness of the side view of the hand, the K-curvature with a hand-shaped chain code, the lengths and angles of the finger valleys, and the lengths and profiles of the fingers were used, and for the vascular pattern, the direction-based vascular-pattern extraction method was used, and thus, a new multimodal biometric approach is proposed. The proposed multimodal biometric system uses only one image to extract the feature points. This system can be configured for low-cost devices. Our multimodal biometric-approach hand-geometry (the side view of the hand and the back of hand) and vascular-pattern recognition method performs at the score level. The results of our study showed that the equal error rate of the proposed system was 0.06%. PMID:23449119

Park, GiTae; Kim, Soowon

2013-01-01

392

Hand functioning in children with cerebral palsy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Brain lesions may disturb hand functioning in children with cerebral palsy (CP, making it difficult or even impossible for them to perform several manual activities. Most conventional treatments for hand dysfunction in CP assume that reducing the hand dysfunctions will improve the capacity to manage activities (i.e., manual ability, MA. The aim of this study was to investigate the directional relationships (direct and indirect pathways through which hand skills influence MA in children with CP. A total of 136 children with CP (mean age: 10 years; range: 6–16 years; 35 quadriplegics, 24 diplegics, 77 hemiplegics were assessed. Six hand skills were measured on both hands: touch-pressure detection (Semmes-Weinstein aesthesiometer, stereognosis (Manual Form Perception Test, proprioception (passive mobilization of the metacarpophalangeal joints, grip strength (Jamar dynamometer, gross manual dexterity (Box and Block Test, and fine finger dexterity (Purdue Pegboard Test. MA was measured with the ABILHAND-Kids questionnaire. Correlation coefficients were used to determine the linear associations between observed variables. A path analysis of structural equation modeling was applied to test different models of causal relationships among the observed variables. Purely sensory impairments did seem not to play a significant role in the capacity to perform manual activities. According to path analysis, gross manual dexterity in both hands and stereognosis in the dominant hand were directly related to MA, whereas grip strength was indirectly related to MA through its relationship with gross manual dexterity. However, one-third of the variance in MA measures could not be explained by hand skills. It can be concluded that MA is not simply the integration of hand skills in daily activities and should be treated per se, supporting activity-based interventions.

CarlyneArnould

2014-04-01

393

Management of Food Allergy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although food allergy is a major public health problem, currently there is no effective and safe treatment except to avoid the foods .But the need for new options is critical now as the number of children diagnosed with food allergies rises. Avoiding the offending allergen in the diet is the primary treatment of food allergy. Once a food to which the patient is sensitive has been identified, the food must be removed from the diet. People with severe food allergies must be prepared to treat an anaphylactic reaction. These individuals also always should carry a syringe of adrenaline (epinephrine [EpiPen], and be prepared to self-administer it if they think they are developing an allergic reaction. Several medications are available for treating the other symptoms of food allergy. For example, antihistamines can relieve gastrointestinal symptoms, hives, sneezing, and a runny nose. Bronchodilators can relieve the symptoms of asthma. They are not effective, however, in preventing an allergic reaction when taken prior to eating the food. In fact, no medication in any form is available to reliably prevent an allergic reaction to a certain food before eating that food.Novel therapeutic approaches to food allergy can be classified as food allergen-specific therapy(immunotherapy with native or modified recombinant allergens, or oral desensitization or food allergen-nonspecifictherapy (anti-IgE, traditional Chinese medicine.   Key Words: Children, Food Allergy, Management.  

Sh Maleknejad

2014-04-01

394

Hand Hygiene – Evaluation of Three Disinfectant Hand Sanitizers in a Community Setting  

OpenAIRE

Hand hygiene is acknowledged as the single most important measure to prevent nosocomial infections in the healthcare setting. Similarly, in non-clinical settings, hand hygiene is recognised as a key element in helping prevent the spread of infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three different disinfectant hand sanitizers in reducing the burden of bacterial hand contamination in 60 healthy volunteers in a community setting, both before and after education a...

Babeluk, Rita; Jutz, Sabrina; Mertlitz, Sarah; Matiasek, Johannes; Klaus, Christoph

2014-01-01

395

Effectiveness of hand sanitizers with and without organic acids for removal of rhinovirus from hands.  

Science.gov (United States)

These studies evaluated the effectiveness of ethanol hand sanitizers with or without organic acids to remove detectable rhinovirus from the hands and prevent experimental rhinovirus infection. Ethanol hand sanitizers were significantly more effective than hand washing with soap and water. The addition of organic acids to the ethanol provided residual virucidal activity that persisted for at least 4 h. Whether these treatments will reduce rhinovirus infection in the natural setting remains to be determined. PMID:20047916

Turner, Ronald B; Fuls, Janice L; Rodgers, Nancy D

2010-03-01

396

Effectiveness of Hand Sanitizers with and without Organic Acids for Removal of Rhinovirus from Hands ?  

OpenAIRE

These studies evaluated the effectiveness of ethanol hand sanitizers with or without organic acids to remove detectable rhinovirus from the hands and prevent experimental rhinovirus infection. Ethanol hand sanitizers were significantly more effective than hand washing with soap and water. The addition of organic acids to the ethanol provided residual virucidal activity that persisted for at least 4 h. Whether these treatments will reduce rhinovirus infection in the natural setting remains to ...

Turner, Ronald B.; Fuls, Janice L.; Rodgers, Nancy D.

2010-01-01

397

Extracting attempted hand movements from EEGs in people with complete hand paralysis following stroke  

OpenAIRE

This study examines the feasibility of using electroencephalograms (EEGs) to rapidly detect the intent to open one’s hand in individuals with complete hand paralysis following a subcortical ischemic stroke. If detectable, this motor planning activity could be used in real time to trigger a motorized hand exoskeleton or an electrical stimulation device that opens/closes the hand. While EEG-triggered movement-assist devices could restore function, they may also promote recovery by reinforcing...

JohnChae; DawnTaylor

2011-01-01

398

HandNavigator: Hands-on Interaction for Desktop Virtual Reality  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents a novel interaction system, aimed at hands-on manipulation of digital models through natural hand gestures. Our system is composed of a new physical interaction device coupled with a simulated compliant virtual hand model. The physical interface consists of a SpaceNavigator, augmented with pressure sensors to detect directional forces applied by the user's fingertips. This information controls the position, orientation, and posture of the virtual hand in the same way that ...

Kry, Paul; Pihuit, Adeline; Bernhardt, Adrien; Cani, Marie-paule

2008-01-01

399

A method for eliciting beliefs about food and child feeding in Papua New Guinea: the MACHIK Interview.  

Science.gov (United States)

A large proportion of Papua New Guinean children exhibit growth retardation early in the first year of life despite continued breastfeeding. Numerous investigators have suggested that traditional concepts and practices concerned with the introduction of solid foods are responsible for the observed poor growth. While there is recently some evidence to support this idea in one coastal population, the hypothesis warrants empirical testing. It is suggested that food taboos and other concepts and behaviours related to feeding children be carefully described and, if possible, quantified as a function of age, thereby linking behaviour to growth curves in a testable manner. A directed interview, derived from extended ethnographic research in community foodways and known as the Maternal and Child Health Indigenous Knowledge, or MACHIK Interview has been developed for use in Papua New Guinea societies. In this paper a short form designed specifically for gathering information on beliefs about child feeding is presented. Annotations to the questions are included to enable use by those having little experience or training in ethnographic methods. PMID:6595898

Jenkins, C; Heywood, P

1984-03-01

400

Stigmatization of repetitive hand use in newspaper reports of hand illness.  

Science.gov (United States)

Failure to provide a balanced evidence-based consideration of the role of activity in illness can stigmatize individuals and their activities. We assessed the prevalence of language that stigmatized repetitive hand use and those that use their hand repetitively in newspaper coverage of common hand illnesses. The LexisNexis Academic database was used to search five major US newspapers for articles containing keywords about common hand illnesses during a 3-year period. Article language was assessed for stigmatization of activities involving repetitive hand use as well as for stigmatization of patients who use their hand repetitively. One hundred and twenty-four articles on hand illnesses were identified. Of these, 65.3% of articles stigmatized activities involving repetitive hand use, including 96.6% of articles discussing overuse injury of the hand, 90% of articles discussing tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and 51.8% of articles discussing carpal tunnel syndrome. Patient stigmatization was documented in 30.6% of the newspaper articles. Stigmatizing statements were most commonly made by journalists (94.8%), followed by patients (3.1%), and physicians (2.1%). Language that stigmatizes repetitive hand use and patients who use their hand repetitively is prevalent among US newspaper articles. Both health professionals and journalists reporting health-related news should be more sensitive to the use of stigmatizing language and provide a more balanced, measured, and evidenced-based account of hand illnesses. PMID:18780117

Anthony, Shawn; Lozano-Calderon, Santiago; Ring, David

2008-03-01

401

Shocks in economic growth=shocking effects for food security?  

OpenAIRE

The recent economic and financial turmoil raises the question on how global economic growth affects agricultural commodity markets and, hence, food security. To address this question, this paper assesses the potential impacts of faster economic growth in developed and emerging economies on the one hand and a replication of the recent economic downturn on the other hand. The empirical analysis uses AGLINK-COSIMO, a recursive-dynamic, partial equilibrium, supply–demand model. Simulation res...

Kavallari, A.; Fellmann, T.; Hubertus Gay, H.

2014-01-01

402

Identifying Key Risk Behaviors Regarding Personal Hygiene and Food Safety Practices of Food Handlers Working in Eating Establishments Located Within a Hospital Campus in Kolkata  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Hospital canteens cater to a large population group and personal hygiene and food safety practices of food handlers assume immense importance to prevent food borne disease outbreaks. Objectives: To assess the self-reported behaviour of food handlers on personal hygiene and food safety practices and to find out their morbidity profile. Methods: An observational study was conducted by interviewing 67 consenting food handlers working in different eateries inside a hospital campus, using a pretested, predesigned schedule. Results: Majority (46.3% of food handlers were educated upto primary level. Only 14.9% foodhandlers received preplacement training and 10.5%, preplacement medical checkup. Though practices of hand washing after going to toilet (95.5% and before preparing food (79.1% was reported to be quite high but for most other practices, hygiene was found to be low. Cuts/injuries on hands was reported as the most common morbidity in 44.8% but 11.9% continued work without any treatment. Conclusion: Preplacement training and in-service education on personal / food hygiene should be provided to all food handlers. Periodic medical checkups and routine sanitary inspection can improve their adherence to personal hygiene and food safety practices and prevent outbreak of food borne illnesses

Prianka Mukhopadhyay*, Gautam Kr. Joardar, Kanad Bag, Amrita Samanta, Sonali Sain and Sesadri Koley

2012-01-01

403

Improved Inactivation of Nonenveloped Enteric Viruses and Their Surrogates by a Novel Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizer ?  

OpenAIRE

Norovirus is the leading cause of food-related illness in the United States, and contamination of ready-to-eat items by food handlers poses a high risk for disease. This study reports the in vitro (suspension test) and in vivo (fingerpad protocol) assessments of a new ethanol-based hand sanitizer containing a synergistic blend of polyquaternium polymer and organic acid, which is active against viruses of public health importance, including norovirus. When tested in suspension, the test produc...

Macinga, David R.; Sattar, Syed A.; Jaykus, Lee-ann; Arbogast, James W.

2008-01-01

404

Hand preferences in Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Nearly 90% of humans are right-handed, raising the question of the evolutionary origins of this trait. While lateralisation of certain actions appears to be widespread in vertebrates, the question of whether nonhuman primates exhibit hand preferences at the population level is often contested. We observed Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) living in the outdoor enclosure "La Forêt des Singes" at Rocamadour, France, while performing simple unimanual and coordinated bimanual tasks. For the unimanual task, we recorded continuously which hand they used reaching for grains. For the coordinated bimanual tasks, a semi-transparent box and a tube baited with peanut butter were presented to the macaques and the hand used to open the box or reach into the tube, respectively, was recorded. We found no significant hand preference in any of the tasks at the population level, but found individual hand preferences, the extent of which varied among individuals. For the unimanual, but not the bimanual task, we found that the handedness index increased with age. Our results add to the growing body of evidence that monkeys do not show hand preference at the population level. PMID:18302057

Schmitt, Vanessa; Melchisedech, Sandra; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Fischer, Julia

2008-03-01

405

Inherent bimanual postural synergies in hands.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a numerical approach to prove the existence of inherent bimanual postural synergies while performing actions with two hands. Five subjects were tested in two different tasks. The first task was a well coordinated task where each subject screwed nut and bolt using one or both hands. In the second task, subjects were asked to perform several random postures with both hands. Joint angles were measured during the experiment by a pair of data gloves. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed over the postures obtained during the tasks. In the first task, the number of postural synergies obtained for both hands together was less than the sum of the number of postural synergies for two hands. This is expected intuitively as first task was well coordinated. In the second task where there is no voluntary coordination involved, the number of postural synergies obtained for both hands together was still less than the sum of the number of postural synergies for two hands. This implies that there are innate bimanual synergies wired biomechanically to help brain in bimanual movements. PMID:19163862

Vinjamuri, Ramana; Sun, Mingui; Crammond, Donald; Sclabassi, Robert; Mao, Zhi-Hong

2008-01-01

406

Consumer Acceptance, Choice and Attitudes towards Genetically Modified (GM) Food  

OpenAIRE

The introduction of new technologies in food production not only has revolutioned its productive efficiency but has exerted important demand side effects that cannot be dismissed and require careful analysis. This is especially the case of genetically modified (GM) food, typical daily consumed products (e.g. GM milk, tomato, maize, etc) given its considerable interest and worldwide public controversy. Several stakeholders are place, on the one hand, farmers and manufactures perceive potential...

Costa Font, Monserrat

2009-01-01

407

Penn State's Food Safety Home Page  

Science.gov (United States)

This extensive food safety site is provided by Penn State's Food Safety program and provides almost any user whether they are consumers, professionals or educators with an array of useful materials. Central to the site is the underlying food safety database which provides a quick search interface for those who want to dig right in and enter a key word or two. If you're more of a browser, there are topical links as well as a set of links based on the type of user you are -- consumer, food service professional, processor or producer. These user-based links can be accessed from the main food safety database page, where the basic topical links are available on the home page as well as from a left hand navigation bar on most pages. Topics available for browsing include home food preservation, news and features, related web sites and courses and events along with a hot topics link. Of special interest to educators is the educators toolbox section which provides a host of mostly free materials - fact sheets, videos, Power-point presentations and handouts.

408

Specificities of hand trauma in agriculture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background/Aim. Hand injuries in agriculture are characterized by massive destruction of all tissues, frequent amputations of finger, hand and often the whole extremity. These injuries are mutilant and can cause death. The aim of this paper was to show the specificities of hand injuries in agriculture in regard to hand injuries of other etiology. Methods. We analyzed patients that were treated in the Department for Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Clinical Center Vojvodina, during a five-year period (2003-2007 because of hand injuries. Results. In a five-year period there were 366 patients hospitalized because of hand injuries, out of whom 36 injuries were related to agricultural machinery use. In both groups the number of patients trended to increased, with male gender being dominant. Most of the patients were young or middle-aged men. In agricultural injuries most of the patients were in the group of 41-50-year old (30%, while in the other group, the patients were younger (21-30-year old. Hand injuries in agriculture resulted in finger amputation in 92%, while in the other group that number was much smaller (13%. Skin defect reconstruction in agricultural injuries required complex methods of skin grafting or skin flaps in more than 71%, while this was necessary in only 10% of other hand injuries. Conclusion. Hand injuries in agriculture are very mutilant and often result in conquassation and finger amputation. A possibility to preserve tissue damaged in this way is very limited, and skin closer usually requires complex methods.

Nikoli? Jelena

2009-01-01

409

Food preservation by irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty-five years of development work on the preservation of food by irradiation have shown that this technology has the potential to reduce post-harvest losses and to produce safe foods. The technological feasibility has been established but general acceptance of food irradiation by national regulatory bodies and consumers requires attention. The positive aspects of food preservation by irradiation include: the food keeps its freshness and its physical state, agents which cause spoilage (bacteria, etc.) are eliminated, recontamination does not take place, provided packaging materials are impermeable to bacteria and insects. It inhibits sprouting of root crops, kills insects and parasites, inactivates bacteria, spores and moulds, delays ripening of fruit, improves the technological properties of food. It makes foods biologically safe, allows the production of shelf-stable foods and is excellent for quarantine treatment, and generally improves food hygiene. The dose ranges needed for effective treatment are given

410

Therapy after injury to the hand.  

Science.gov (United States)

Surgical and nonsurgical management of upper extremity disorders benefits from the collaboration of a therapist, the treating physician, and the patient. Hand therapy plays a role in many aspects of treatment, and patients with upper extremity injuries may spend considerably more time with a therapist than with a surgeon. Hand therapists coordinate edema control; pain management; minimization of joint contractures; maximization of tendon gliding, strengthening, and work hardening; counseling; and ongoing diagnostic evaluation. Modalities used to manage hand injuries include ultrasound, splinting, Fluidotherapy (Chattanooga Group, Chattanooga, TN), cryotherapy, various electrical modalities, phonophoresis, and iontophoresis. PMID:20675639

Dorf, Erik; Blue, Carla; Smith, Beth P; Koman, L Andrew

2010-08-01

411

Circuit For Control Of Electromechanical Prosthetic Hand  

Science.gov (United States)

Proposed circuit for control of electromechanical prosthetic hand derives electrical control signals from shoulder movements. Updated, electronic version of prosthesis, that includes two hooklike fingers actuated via cables from shoulder harness. Circuit built around favored shoulder harness, provides more dexterous movement, without incurring complexity of computer-controlled "bionic" or hydraulically actuated devices. Additional harness and potentiometer connected to similar control circuit mounted on other shoulder. Used to control stepping motor rotating hand about prosthetic wrist to one of number of angles consistent with number of digital outputs. Finger-control signals developed by circuit connected to first shoulder harness transmitted to prosthetic hand via sliprings at prosthetic wrist joint.

Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

1995-01-01

412

Alien hand syndrome in left posterior stroke.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alien hand syndrome is a rare neurological disorder characterized by involuntary and uncontrollable motor behaviour, usually of an arm or hand. The patient perceives the affected limb as alien, and may personify it. The case of a 61-year-old right-handed woman who developed right posterior AHS after ischaemic stroke in the left posterior cerebral artery territory is reported. Neuroimaging studies disclosed no frontal or parietal involvement, while a posterior thalamic lesion was detected. A possible role of the thalamus in the genesis of AHS is discussed. PMID:21327399

Bartolo, Michelangelo; Zucchella, C; Pichiecchio, A; Pucci, E; Sandrini, G; Sinforiani, E

2011-06-01

413

Management of post burn hand deformities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The hand is ranked among the three most frequent sites of burns scar contracture deformity. One of the major determinants of the quality of life in burns survivors is the functionality of the hands. Burns deformities, although largely preventable, nevertheless do occur when appropriate treatment is not provided in the acute situation or when they are part of a major burns. Reconstructive procedures can greatly improve the function of the hands. Appropriate choice of procedures and timing of surgery followed by supervised physiotherapy can be a boon for a burns survivor.

Sabapathy S

2010-10-01

414

Hand Gesture Recognition: A Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hand gesture recognition system received great attention in the recent few years because of itsmanifoldness applications and the ability to interact with machine efficiently through human computerinteraction. In this paper a survey of recent hand gesture recognition systems is presented. Key issues ofhand gesture recognition system are presented with challenges of gesture system. Review methods of recentpostures and gestures recognition system presented as well. Summary of research results of hand gesturemethods, databases, and comparison between main gesture recognition phases are also given. Advantagesand drawbacks of the discussed systems are explained finally

Rafiqul Zaman Khan

2012-08-01

415

ASL Based Hand Gesture Recognition System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available American Sign Language (ASL is a well developed and standard way of communication for hearing impaired people living in Englishspeaking communities. Since the advent of modern technology, different intelligent computer-aided application have been developed that can recognize hand gesture and hence translates gestures into understandable forms. In this proposed system, ASL based hand gesture system is presented that uses evolutionary programming technique called SIFT algorithm. Hand gestures images representing different English alphabets are used as an input to the system and then it is tested for a different set of images. The sign recognition accuracy obtained will be up to the mark.

Mr. Swapnil A. Bobade

2013-05-01

416

Food packaging and radiation sterilization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation sterilization has several merits that it is a positively effective sterilization method, it can be used to sterilize low heat-resistant containers and high gas barrier films, and there is no possibility of residual chemicals being left in the packages. It has been commercially used in 'Bag in a Box' and some food containers. The ? ray and an electron beam are commonly used in radiation sterilization. The ? ray can sterilize large size containers and containers with complex shapes or sealed containers due to its strong transmission capability. However, since the equipment tends to be large and expensive, it is generally used in off production lines. On the other hand, it is possible to install and electron beam system on food production lines since the food can be processed in a short time due to its high beam coefficient and its ease of maintenance, even though an electron beam has limited usage such as sterilizing relatively thin materials and surface sterilization due to the weak transmission. A typical sterilization dose is approximately 10-30 kGy. Direct effects impacting packaging materials, particularly plastics, include scission of polymer links, cross-linkage between polymers, and generating radiolysis products such as hydrogen, methane, aliphatic hydrocarbons, etc. Furthermore, under the existence of oxygen, the oxygen radicals generated by the radiation will oxidize and peroxidize polymer chains and will generate alcohol and carbonyl groups, whicnerate alcohol and carbonyl groups, which shear polymer links, and generate oxygen containing low molecular compounds. As a result, degradation of physical strength such as elongation and seal strength, generating foreign odor, and an increase in global migration values shown in an elution test are sometimes evident. The food packages have different shapes, materials, additives, number of microorganisms and purpose. Therefor the effects of radiation, the optimum dose and so on must be investigated on the individual package. (J.P.N.)

417

Analytical detection methods for irradiated foods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present publication is a review of scientific literature on the analytical identification of foods treated with ionizing radiation and the quantitative determination of absorbed dose of radiation. Because of the extremely low level of chemical changes resulting from irradiation or because of the lack of specificity to irradiation of any chemical changes, a few methods of quantitative determination of absorbed dose have shown promise until now. On the other hand, the present review has identified several possible methods, which could be used, following further research and testing, for the identification of irradiated foods. An IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on Analytical Detection Methods for Irradiation Treatment of Food ('ADMIT'), established in 1990, is currently investigating many of the methods cited in the present document. Refs and tab

418

Functional Foods for Women's Health.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes functional foods for women's health (foods or food ingredients that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition), explaining that both whole and modified foods can be included as functional foods. The paper discusses the history, regulation, and promotion of functional foods; consumer interest in functional foods; how to incorporate…

Lindeman, Alice K.

2002-01-01

419

Perspectives of food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Food preservation by means of ionizing radiation has been technically feasible for more than a decade. Its utilization could increase food safety, extend the transport and shell life of foods, cut food losses, and reduce dependence upon chemical additives. The prime obstacles have been the strict safety requirements set by health authorities to this preservation method and the high costs of the long-term animal tests necessary to fulfil these requirements. An International Food Irradiation Project, expected to establish the toxicological safety of 10 foods by about 1976, is described in some detail. (author)

420

29 CFR 1926.301 - Hand tools.  

Science.gov (United States)

...unsafe hand tools. (b) Wrenches, including adjustable, pipe, end, and socket wrenches shall not be used when jaws are...The wooden handles of tools shall be kept free of splinters or cracks and shall be kept tight in the...

2010-07-01

421

29 CFR 1915.133 - Hand tools.  

Science.gov (United States)

...unsafe hand tools. (b) Wrenches, including crescent, pipe, end and socket wrenches, shall not be used when jaws are...The wooden handles of tools shall be kept free of splinters or cracks and shall be kept tight in the...

2010-07-01

422

Hand and foot syndrome secondary to capecitabine.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 55-year-old woman on treatment with capecitabine and paclitaxel for breast carcinoma presented with history of a tingling sensation in her hands and feet with a progressive burning sensation. She also noted discomfort, minimal pain and stiffness while holding objects. On examination, there was patchy hyperpigmentation of both the palms and soles, and the dorsa of hands and feet. This was accompanied by a thickening of the skin more over the knuckles and toes. In addition there was a moist desquamation around the toes and over the palmar creases and a bluish discoloration of the lunulae of both thumbnails. She was diagnosed with hand and foot syndrome and started on pyridoxine and emollients. The finding of keratoderma noted in our patient is not seen commonly in hand and foot syndrome. PMID:25201844

Lal, Hina Shaikh

2014-01-01

423

Why Am I Left-Handed?  

Science.gov (United States)

... Medical Dictionary En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Girls and Puberty Boys and Puberty Video: Am ... Hand in Sports? It's true. While left-handers face some obstacles, they enjoy a real advantage on ...

424

Force reflecting hand controller for manipulator teleoperation  

Science.gov (United States)

A force reflecting hand controller based upon a six degree of freedom fully parallel mechanism, often termed a Stewart Platform, has been designed, constructed, and tested as an integrated system with a slave robot manipulator test bed. A force reflecting hand controller comprises a kinesthetic device capable of transmitting position and orientation commands to a slave robot manipulator while simultaneously representing the environmental interaction forces of the slave manipulator back to the operator through actuators driving the hand controller mechanism. The Stewart Platform was chosen as a novel approach to improve force reflecting teleoperation because of its inherently high ratio of load generation capability to system mass content and the correspondingly high dynamic bandwidth. An additional novelty of the program was to implement closed loop force and torque control about the hand controller mechanism by equipping the handgrip with a six degree of freedom force and torque measuring cell. The mechanical, electrical, computer, and control systems are discussed and system tests are presented.

Bryfogle, Mark D.

1991-12-01

425

Wrist and hand injuries in platform diving.  

Science.gov (United States)

To permit a smooth entry into the water, platform divers assume a special position with their hands. An older method consists of hitting the water with both fists closed while holding one thumb in the palm of the other hand. In a newer technique fingers and wrists are hyperextended, the forearms pronated, and the hands overlapped. In this series of 21 divers, the injuries included 2 fractures and 5 sprains treated by conservative methods. Two divers required surgery: one with loose bodies in the radiocarpal articulation, the other with chronic rupture of the trapeziometacarpal ligament and synovitis of both extensor pollicis brevis and longus. Eighteen divers complained of pain caused by the impact of the hand with the water. A kinetic analysis with a video imaging system explains the mechanism and forces of water penetration. PMID:8228062

le Viet, D T; Lantieri, L A; Loy, S M

1993-09-01

426

Personal Authentication System using Hand Vein Biometric  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With an increasing emphasis on security, automated personal identification using hand vein biometric feature is becoming a very active topic in both research and practical applications. The objective of this work is to present a biometric authentication system for high security physical access control based on hand vein pattern. Hand vein biometric is selected, as it is foolproof, offers higher security and reliable for identification.The feature extraction stage consists of removal of the noise inherent using various filtering techniques and extraction of the most discriminating information present in the images using Discrete Wavelet Transform and Adaptive Thresholding techniques. The proposed recognition system makes use of hausdorff distance as matching parameter. The biometric system developed was tested on WASET hand vein image database of Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of Automation is used and the system is implemented in MATLAB. The proposed approach found to report higher verification accuracy of 99.5%.

G. Sathish

2012-01-01

427

Static hand gesture recognition from a video  

Science.gov (United States)

A sign language (also signed language) is a language which, instead of acoustically conveyed sound patterns, uses visually transmitted sign patterns to convey meaning- "simultaneously combining hand shapes, orientation and movement of the hands". Sign languages commonly develop in deaf communities, which can include interpreters, friends and families of deaf people as well as people who are deaf or hard of hearing themselves. In this paper, we proposed a novel system for recognition of static hand gestures from a video, based on Kohonen neural network. We proposed algorithm to separate out key frames, which include correct gestures from a video sequence. We segment, hand images from complex and non uniform background. Features are extracted by applying Kohonen on key frames and recognition is done.

Rokade, Rajeshree S.; Doye, Dharmpal

2011-10-01

428

Facts about food irradiation: Food irradiation costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This fact sheet gives the cost of a typical food irradiation facility (US $1 million to US $3 million) and of the food irradiation process (US $10-15 per tonne for low-dose applications; US $100-250 per tonne for high-dose applications). These treatments also bring consumer benefits in terms of availability, storage life and improved hygiene. 2 refs

429

[Food security in Mexico].  

Science.gov (United States)

An overview of food security and nutrition in Mexico is presented, based on the analysis of the four pillars of food security: availability, access, utilization of food, and stability of the food supply. In addition, the two faces of malnutrition in Mexico were analyzed: obesity and undernourishment. Data were gathered from the food security indicators of the United Nations's Food and Agriculture Organization, from the Mexican Scale of Food Security, and from the National Health and Nutrition Survey. Mexico presents an index of availability of 3 145 kilocalories per person per day, one of the highest indexes in the world, including both food production and imports. In contrast, Mexico is affected by a double burden of malnutrition: whereas children under five present 14% of stunt, 30% of the adult population is obese. Also, more than 18% of the population cannot afford the basic food basket (food poverty). Using perception surveys, people reports important levels of food insecurity, which concentrates in seven states of the Mexican Federation. The production structure underlying these indicators shows a very heterogeneous landscape, which translates in to a low productivity growth across the last years. Food security being a multidimensional concept, to ensure food security for the Mexican population requires a revision and redesign of public productive and social policies, placing a particular focus on strengthening the mechanisms of institutional governance. PMID:25649459

Urquía-Fernández, Nuria

2014-01-01

430

Microbiological performance of a food safety management system in a food service operation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The microbiological performance of a food safety management system in a food service operation was measured using a microbiological assessment scheme as a vertical sampling plan throughout the production process, from raw materials to final product. The assessment scheme can give insight into the microbiological contamination and the variability of a production process and pinpoint bottlenecks in the food safety management system. Three production processes were evaluated: a high-risk sandwich production process (involving raw meat preparation), a medium-risk hot meal production process (starting from undercooked raw materials), and a low-risk hot meal production process (reheating in a bag). Microbial quality parameters, hygiene indicators, and relevant pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Bacillus cereus, and Escherichia coli O157) were in accordance with legal criteria and/or microbiological guidelines, suggesting that the food safety management system was effective. High levels of total aerobic bacteria (>3.9 log CFU/50 cm(2)) were noted occasionally on gloves of food handlers and on food contact surfaces, especially in high contamination areas (e.g., during handling of raw material, preparation room). Core control activities such as hand hygiene of personnel and cleaning and disinfection (especially in highly contaminated areas) were considered points of attention. The present sampling plan was used to produce an overall microbiological profile (snapshot) to validate the food safety management system in place. PMID:22488059

Lahou, E; Jacxsens, L; Daelman, J; Van Landeghem, F; Uyttendaele, M

2012-04-01

431

Ectrodactyly/split hand feet malformation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Split-hand/split-foot malformation is a rare limb malformation with median clefts of the hands and feet and aplasia/hypoplasia of the phalanges, metacarpals and metatarsals. When present as an isolated anomaly, it is usually inherited as an autosomal dominant form. We report a case of autosomal recessive inheritance and discuss the antenatal diagnosis, genetic counseling and treatment for the malformation.

Jindal Geetanjali

2009-01-01

432

New Symmetries in Crystals and Handed Structures  

OpenAIRE

For over a century, the structure of materials has been described by a combination of rotations, rotation-inversions and translational symmetries. By recognizing the reversal of static structural rotations between clockwise and counterclockwise directions as a distinct symmetry operation, here we show that there are many more structural symmetries than are currently recognized in right- or left-handed handed helices, spirals, and in antidistorted structures composed equally ...

Gopalan, Venkatraman; Litvin, Daniel B.

2010-01-01

433

Kinematic synthesis for smart hand prosthetics  

OpenAIRE

The dream of a bionic replacement appendage is becoming reality through the use of mechatronic prostheses that utilize the body’s myoelectric signals. This paper presents a process to accurately capture the motion of the human hand joints; the obtained information is to be used in conjunction with myoelectric signal identification for motion control. In this work, the human hand is modeled as a set of links connected by joints, which are approximated to standard revo...

Duraisamy, Karthikeyan; Isebor, Obiajulu; Pe?rez Gracia, Alba; Schoen, Marco P.; Naidu, Desineni Subbaram

2006-01-01

434

Design and Development of Robot Hand System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research on robot hand design is being carried out to accommodate a variety of tasks such as grasping and manipulation of objects in the field of industrial applications, service robots and rehabilitation robots. Problem statement: To design and develop a microcontroller-based four fingered robotic hand with a simple and minimal control strategy to pick and place application with object detection by simple IR sensor logic. Approach: The methodology is based on anthropomorphic design with three fingers and an opposing thumb. Each finger has three links and three double revolute joints. Each finger is actuated by a single opposing pair of tendons. The robot hand system is interfaced to microcontroller with software control by means of 14 independent commands for the motion of joints: close and open for fore finger, middle finger, ring finger and thumb finger and wrist up and down, base clockwise and counter clockwise, pick and place and home position. The tendoning system and wireless feedback logic provide the hand with the ability to confirm to object topology and therefore providing the advantage of using a simple control structure. Results: Reliable grasping and releasing is achieved with simple control mechanisms and IR sensors/push-button switches. The hand can pick a variety of objects with different surface characteristics and shapes without having to reconstruct its surface description. Picking of the object is successfully completed as long as the object is within the workspace of the hand and placed the object at the desired position within the workspace by relevant software control using keyboard commands. Conclusion: Hardware and software development of microcontroller-based four-fingered robotic hand is addressed. Details of hand control software for mainly pick and place applications are presented. Results of the experimental work for pick and place application of different objects is enumerated.

Panchumarthy Seetharamaiah

2011-01-01

435

Old Hands : A report of the handbook  

OpenAIRE

Andrea Del Rosario Vanhanen. Old Hands: a report of the handbook. Järvenpää, autumn 2009, 142 p., 5 appendices. Diaconia University of Applied Sciences, Diak South, Järvenpää Unit, Degree Programme in Social Services. Degree: Bachelor of Social Services (UAS). The aim of this report is to introduce the process of creating a handbook, Old Hands – A handbook to motivate and empower communities in helping elderly people. The report debates cultural aspects and information on the...

Vanhanen, Andrea

2009-01-01

436

Hand Replantation with Proximal Row Carpectomy  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study is to present our operative technique and postoperative results of the hand replantation with proximal row carpectomy in cases of complete amputation at the level of wrist joint. From May 2003 to April 2005, five patients suffered from complete amputation of the hand due to industrial trauma. Amputation level was radiocarpal joint in three cases and midcarpal joint in two cases. Three cases represented guillotine type and two cases with local crush type injuries. All...

Woo, Sang-hyun; Lee, Young-keun; Lee, Hang-ho; Park, Ji-kang; Kim, Joo-yong; Dhawan, Vikas

2008-01-01

437

An unusual case of radial club hand.  

Science.gov (United States)

An unusual form of congenital hand deformity is described. It consists of radial club hand deformity with the whole of the radius present but dislocated at proximal and distal ends. This best fits "failure of development" group in the conventional classification. The future management will depend on whether the forearm grows at the same rate on the pre-axial and post-axial sides. PMID:2164074

Waldram, M A

1990-05-01

438

A new concept for surgical hand disinfection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the development of and justification for a different procedure in surgical hand disinfection based on results of our own studies and data from the literature. An overview of the importance of hand disinfection, outstanding persons who substantially contributed to its development, and fundamentals of its implementation are also presented.Focussing on the resident flora as the target of surgical hand disinfection, the microflora of the hand is addressed. Consequences for disinfection are discussed as a result of this analysis. Results of our own studies on reducing spore load through social handwashing, on alcohol concentration and bacterial count in worn-glove juice, and on the comparison of the effectivity of standard handwashing methods vs. alcoholic hand disinfections vs. disinfection alone without handwashing vs. disinfection alone plus additional brushing-in of the tested (European Standard DIN prEN12791 disinfectant ethanol 79% v/v, 60% v/v propan-1-ol or 60% v/v propan-2-ol around the fingernails are also discussed. To summarize, disinfection alone and disinfection in conjunction with brushing-in of alcohol tend to be superior to the standard method with a previous washing with soap. From a dermatological and microbiological hygienic point of view, it is recommended that handwashing with soap should be performed to remove bacterial spores at least 10 minutes prior to hand disinfection, in order to optimize skin tolerance and to prevent reducing the efficacy of the disinfection.

Kramer, Axel

2006-08-01

439

Personal authentication through dorsal hand vein patterns  

Science.gov (United States)

Biometric identification is an emerging technology that can solve security problems in our networked society. A reliable and robust personal verification approach using dorsal hand vein patterns is proposed in this paper. The characteristic of the approach needs less computational and memory requirements and has a higher recognition accuracy. In our work, the near-infrared charge-coupled device (CCD) camera is adopted as an input device for capturing dorsal hand vein images, it has the advantages of the low-cost and noncontact imaging. In the proposed approach, two finger-peaks are automatically selected as the datum points to define the region of interest (ROI) in the dorsal hand vein images. The modified two-directional two-dimensional principal component analysis, which performs an alternate two-dimensional PCA (2DPCA) in the column direction of images in the 2DPCA subspace, is proposed to exploit the correlation of vein features inside the ROI between images. The major advantage of the proposed method is that it requires fewer coefficients for efficient dorsal hand vein image representation and recognition. The experimental results on our large dorsal hand vein database show that the presented schema achieves promising performance (false reject rate: 0.97% and false acceptance rate: 0.05%) and is feasible for dorsal hand vein recognition.

Hsu, Chih-Bin; Hao, Shu-Sheng; Lee, Jen-Chun

2011-08-01

440

Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food-dependent exercise induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA) is a distinct form of food allergy induced by physical exercise. Symptoms are typically generalized urticaria and severe allergic reactions such as shock or hypotension. Whereas various food items are responsible for the development of FDEIA, wheat is reported to be the allergen with the highest frequency in Japan. Recently aspirin has been known to be an additional exacerbating factor. Skin tests and in vitro serum food-specific IgE assays are currently used, however their sensitivity and specificity are not always satisfactory. A challenge test consisting of ingestion of assumed food followed by intense physical exercise is the only reliable method to determine the causative food and to diagnose the disease. The challenge test is not always safe because in some cases the test induces an anaphylactic shock. So a reliable in vitro diagnostic method is necessary for the patients with FDEIA. We revealed that wheat omega-5 gliadin and high molecular weight glutenin subunit are major allergens in wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA). A simultaneous detection of specific IgE to epitope sequences of both omega-5 gliadin and high molecular weight glutenin is found to achieve higher sensitivity and specificity compared with the in vitro serum food-specific IgE assays currently used for diagnosis of WDEIA. On the other hand, immunoreactive gliadins appeared in the sera of patients during the provocation test with both wheat-exercise and wheat-aspirin challenges in parallel with allergic symptoms. These findings suggest that FDEIA is IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction to foods and both exercise and aspirin facilitate allergen absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:17507204

Morita, Eishin; Kunie, Kohno; Matsuo, Hiroaki

2007-08-01

441

Street foods in Accra, Ghana: how safe are they?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the microbial quality of foods sold on streets of Accra and factors predisposing to their contamination. METHODS: Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 117 street vendors on their vital statistics, personal hygiene, food hygiene and knowledge of foodborne illness. Standard methods were used for the enumeration, isolation, and identification of bacteria. FINDINGS: Most vendors were educated and exhibited good hygiene behaviour. Diarrhoea was defined as the passage of > or = 3 stools per day by 110 vendors (94.0%, but none associated diarrhoea with bloody stools; only 21 (17.9% associated diarrhoea with germs. The surroundings of the vending sites were clean, but four sites (3.4% were classified as very dirty. The cooking of food well in advance of consumption, exposure of food to flies, and working with food at ground level and by hand were likely risk factors for contamination. Examinations were made of 511 menu items, classified as breakfast/snack foods, main dishes, soups and sauces, and cold dishes. Mesophilic bacteria were detected in 356 foods (69.7%: 28 contained Bacillus cereus (5.5%, 163 contained Staphylococcus aureus (31.9% and 172 contained Enterobacteriaceae (33.7%. The microbial quality of most of the foods was within the acceptable limits but samples of salads, macaroni, fufu, omo tuo and red pepper had unacceptable levels of contamination. Shigella sonnei and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli were isolated from macaroni, rice, and tomato stew, and Salmonella arizonae from light soup. CONCLUSION: Street foods can be sources of enteropathogens. Vendors should therefore receive education in food hygiene. Special attention should be given to the causes of diarrhoea, the transmission of diarrhoeal pathogens, the handling of equipment and cooked food, hand-washing practices and environmental hygiene.

Mensah Patience

2002-01-01

442

Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... of butter crackers, bacon, coffee cake ] Some older adults answer the question this way: Richard: In the ... is okay. Narrator: Richard and Gloria are older adults who choose to eat nutrient-dense foods, foods ...

443

Food Label and You  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... and forth between the action at the two sites, comparing serving sizes, ingredients and overall food choices ... Accessibility Careers FDA Basics FOIA No Fear Act Site Map Transparency Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug ...

444

Holiday Food Safety  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... by the non-profit Partnership for Food Safety Education, provides tips on how to make sure holiday ... With Eggs More in Resources for You Consumers Education Resource Library Food Facts for Consumers Selected Health ...

445

Food Allergies in Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

... reactions will develop into anaphylaxis. Food Allergies in Schools Children with food allergies are two to four times ... Behavior Surveillance Overall Results Slides Participation Map - High School Participation Map - Middle School Fact Sheets Obesity, Dietary Behavior, & ...

446

Food Label and You  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... page E-mail this page Home Food Ingredients, Packaging & Labeling Labeling & Nutrition The Food Label and You — ... for CFSAN. back to menu More in Ingredients, Packaging & Labeling Labeling & Nutrition Front-of-Package Labeling Initiative ...

447

Food Allergies and Travel  

Science.gov (United States)

... Teens > Diseases & Conditions > Allergies, Asthma & the Immune System > Food Allergies and Travel Print A A A Text Size ... travel, and she's determined not to let her food allergies stop her. She says feelings of awkwardness and ...

448

Food Allergy Diagnosis  

Science.gov (United States)

... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Food Allergy Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area ... is the most valuable tool used for diagnosing food allergy. Your healthcare professional will ask you several questions, ...

449

Food allergies (image)  

Science.gov (United States)

... upon subsequent exposure to the substance. An actual food allergy, as opposed to simple intolerance due to the lack of digesting enzymes, is indicated by the production of antibodies to the food allergen, and by the release of histamines and ...

450

Food Label and You  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Labeling Labeling & Nutrition The Food Label and You — Video FDA presents an entertaining and educational tool to ... informed food choices. You can view the new video in its entirety or select on any of ...

451

Holiday Food Safety  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Resource Library Food Facts for Consumers Selected Health Topics For Women Kids & Teens Resources for You Foodsafety.gov Fightbac.org Food Safety and Inspection Service Page Last Updated: 11/14/2014 Note: If you ...

452

Food Label and You  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Finding Nutrition Information on the Road) Game Show Review (Are You Smarter Than A Food Label?) The ... TV for CFSAN. back to menu Game Show Review (Are You Smarter Than A Food Label?) Spoof ...

453

Soy Foods and Health  

Science.gov (United States)

... a good source of protein for vegetarians and vegans because they provide all the amino acids — a ... TOPIC Figuring Out Fat and Calories Food Labels Vegan Food Guide Becoming a Vegetarian Vitamins and Minerals ...

454

Holiday Food Safety  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Eggs More in Resources for You Consumers Education Resource Library Food Facts for Consumers Selected Health Topics For Women Kids & Teens Resources for You Foodsafety.gov Fightbac.org Food Safety ...

455

Holiday Food Safety  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Department of Health and Human Services FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration Protecting and Promoting Your Health ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Print this page Share this page E-mail ...

456

Holiday Food Safety  

Science.gov (United States)

... Department of Health and Human Services FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration Protecting and Promoting Your Health ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Print this page Share this page E-mail ...

457

Food Label and You  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Department of Health and Human Services FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration Protecting and Promoting Your Health ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Print this page Share this page E-mail ...

458

Safe Food Preparation  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity about food safety and nutrition, learners investigate safe food preparation by making fruit ice cream. This lesson guide includes background information, variations and bilingual (English/Spanish) recipe cards.

Nancy P. Moreno

2011-01-01

459

Refrigeration and Food Safety  

Science.gov (United States)

... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Refrigeration and Food Safety History of Refrigeration Importance of Refrigeration Types of ...

460

Dangerous Food Safety Mistakes  

Science.gov (United States)

... Safety Mistakes Text Size: A A A Dangerous Food Safety Mistakes Sometimes a simple mistake can have grave consequences. What may seem like a small food safety mistake can cause serious illness with long-term ...

461

Leftovers and Food Safety  

Science.gov (United States)

... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Leftovers and Food Safety Often when we cook at home or eat ...

462

Fires and Food Safety  

Science.gov (United States)

... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Fires and Food Safety Fire! Few words can strike such terror. Residential ...

463

Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... foods, foods that are high in nutrients and low in calories. Eating this way is especially important ... that contain vitamins, minerals, complex carbohydrates, lean protein, low-fat milk products, and healthy fats. Dr. Connie ...

464

Holiday Food Safety  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Foods: Follow Directions to Keep Your Holidays Happy Eating them right out of the package, without cooking, ... packaged cookie dough, do need to be cooked. Eating these kinds of foods right out of the ...

465

Holiday Food Safety  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... and children's activities are included in the multi-media program. Holiday Food Safety Video This Holiday Food ... to spend the holidays. But anyone, of any age or health condition, could get very sick or ...

466

Food irradiation in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, the author discussed the recent situation of food irradiation in China, its history, facilities, clearance, commercialization, and with emphasis on market testing and public acceptance of irradiated food. (author)

467

Food Label and You  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... E-mail this page Home Food Ingredients, Packaging & Labeling Labeling & Nutrition The Food Label and You — Video FDA ... CFSAN. back to menu More in Ingredients, Packaging & Labeling Labeling & Nutrition Front-of-Package Labeling Initiative Label ...

468

Holiday Food Safety  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Holidays and remember to BE FOOD SAFE! Additional Information Consumer Update: Food Safety Tips for Healthy Holidays [ ... 14/2014 Note: If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading ...

469

Efficacy of alcohol-based hand sanitizer on hands soiled with dirt and cooking oil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Handwashing education and promotion are well established as effective strategies to reduce diarrhea and respiratory illness in countries around the world. However, access to reliable water supplies has been identified as an important barrier to regular handwashing in low-income countries. Alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS) is an effective hand hygiene method that does not require water, but its use is not currently recommended when hands are visibly soiled. This study evaluated the efficacy of ABHS on volunteers' hands artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli in the presence of dirt (soil from Tanzania) and cooking oil. ABHS reduced levels of E. coli by a mean of 2.33 log colony forming units (CFU) per clean hand, 2.32 log CFU per dirt-covered hand, and 2.13 log CFU per oil-coated hand. No significant difference in efficacy was detected between hands that were clean versus dirty or oily. ABHS may be an appropriate hand hygiene method for hands that are moderately soiled, and an attractive option for field settings in which access to water and soap is limited. PMID:21976190

Pickering, Amy J; Davis, Jennifer; Boehm, Alexandria B

2011-09-01

470

Food irradiation makes progress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the past fifteen years, food irradiation processing policies and programmes have been developed both by a number of individual countries, and through projects supported by FAO, IAEA and WHO. These aim at achieving general acceptance and practical implementation of food irradiation through rigorous investigations of its wholesomeness, technological and economic feasibility, and efforts to achieve the unimpeded movement of irradiated foods in international trade. Food irradiation processing has many uses

471

Authentication of food allergens  

OpenAIRE

Pure allergen batches are required for precise personalized diagnosis of food allergies. Furthermore, they can be used to develop sensitive allergen detection assays in foods and are valuable tools to develop novel immunotherapies. However, these reagents have to be well characterized and have to meet certain quality criteria. Within the EU-Project EuroPrevall the concept of an allergen library comprising the most important food allergens from animal and plant derived foods was develope...

Hoffmann-Sommergruber Karin

2013-01-01

472

Food nanotechnology – an overview  

OpenAIRE

Food nanotechnology is an area of emerging interest and opens up a whole universe of new possibilities for the food industry. The basic categories of nanotechnology applications and functionalities currently in the development of food packaging include: the improvement of plastic materials barriers, the incorporation of active components that can deliver functional attributes beyond those of conventional active packaging, and the sensing and signaling of relevant information. Nano food packag...

Sekhon, Bhupinder S.

2010-01-01

473

Vermicomposting of food waste  

OpenAIRE

The use of food waste recycling concept can be an interesting option to reduce the use of landfill. This strategy is more environmental friendly, cheap and fast if proper management to treat the food waste is applied. Nowadays, the concept of recycling is not well practice among the community. In this study, vermicomposting is introduced as an alternative of the food waste recycling. Vermicomposting consists of the use of earthworms to break down the food waste. In this vermicomposting treat...

Norzila Othman

2012-01-01

474

78 FR 49990 - Dean Foods Company and WhiteWave Foods Company; Filing of Food Additive Petition  

Science.gov (United States)

...WhiteWave Foods Company; Filing of Food Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug...Foods Company proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide...supplements in food. DATES: The food additive petition was filed on June...

2013-08-16

475

Hand preference across the lifespan: effects of end-goal, task nature, and object location  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study we investigate age-related changes in hand preference for grasping and the influence of task demands on such preference. Children (2–11), young-adults (17–28) and older-adults (57–90) were examined in a grasp-to-eat and a grasp-to-construct task. The end-goal of these tasks was different (eat vs. construct) as was the nature of the task (unimanual vs. bimanual). In both tasks, ipsilateral and contralateral grasps were analyzed. Results showed a right-hand preference that did not change with age. Across the three age groups, a more robust right-hand preference was observed for the unimanual, grasp-to-eat task. To disentangle if the nature (unimanual) or the end-goal (grasp-to-eat) was the driver of the robust right-hand preference, a follow up experiment was conducted. Young-adult participants completed a unimanual grasp-to-place task. This was contrasted with the unimanual grasp-to-eat task and the bimanual grasp-to-construct task. Rates of hand preference for the grasp-to-eat task remained the highest when compared to the other two grasping tasks. Together, the results demonstrate that hand preference remains stable from childhood to older adulthood, and they suggest that a left hemisphere specialization exists for grasping, particularly when bringing food to the mouth. PMID:25653633

Gonzalez, Claudia L. R.; Flindall, Jason W.; Stone, Kayla D.

2015-01-01

476

Management of risk of microbial cross-contamination from uncooked frozen hamburgers by alcohol-based hand sanitizer.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of an alcohol-based hand sanitizer on hands contaminated with a nonpathogen surrogate for Escherichia coli O157:H7, where the source of the contamination was frozen hamburger patties. A nonpathogenic nalidixic acid-resistant food-grade strain of Enterobacter aerogenes was used to inoculate frozen hamburger patties composed of 76% lean beef and 24% fat. Thirty-two individuals participated to produce the data used in this study. Each participant handled nine patties at least three times, a sample for microbiological analysis was collected from the surface of one hand, the participant sanitized both hands, and a sample was collected from the other hand. Burger handling created perceptible and visible food debris on the hands of most participants. Computer simulations also were used to perform a variety of risk calculations. The average reduction in bacteria from the use of sanitizer on hands contaminated by frozen burgers containing E. aerogenes was 2.6 +/- 0.7 log CFU per hand. An experiment designed to simultaneously test the effect of sanitizer on E. aerogenes and E. coli O157:H7 also revealed no significant difference in sanitizer effectiveness against the two organisms. The results of the real-world risk estimation calculations (using the actual prevalence and concentration of E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef) predict that once in 1 million trials, a single pathogen cell will be transferred to a single lettuce piece. The effectiveness of this sanitizer intervention was similar to that for hand washing and glove use previously reported. The person-to-person microbial reduction variability from sanitizer use is similar to published data for glove use and was less variable than published data on hand washing effectiveness. PMID:17265868

Schaffner, Donald W; Schaffner, Kristin M

2007-01-01

477

Development of Functional Foods  

OpenAIRE

Recent advances in intestinal microbiota research are the background for the appearance of functional foods. Lactic fermentation products are included in the functional foods and classified into 3 groups based on their mechanisms of action: probiotics, prebiotics and biogenics. Probiotics are viable microorganisms, such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, that beneficially affect the host by improving the intestinal bacterial balance. Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredien...

Mitsuoka, Tomotari

2014-01-01

478

Food preservation by irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After a review of several methods for the preservation of food and the routes of food infections, the following chapters are devoted to the preservation by irradiation. Applications and legal aspects of food irradiation are described. Special reference is made to the international situation. (Auth.)

479

Food Label and You  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Part 2 Party Food (Gametime/Play By Play) Road Food (Finding Nutrition Information on the Road) Game Show Review (Are You Smarter Than A ... by CDRH-TV for CFSAN. back to menu Road Food (Finding Nutrition Information on the Road) Our ...

480

Food Label and You  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... 2 Party Food (Gametime/Play By Play) Road Food (Finding Nutrition Information on the Road) Game Show Review (Are ... CDRH-TV for CFSAN. back to menu Road Food (Finding Nutrition Information on the Road) Our host talks to ...

481

Addressing Food Allergies  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 1960, the incidence of food allergies in children has grown fivefold, from 1 in 100 children to 1 in 20 children, according to the Food Allergy Initiative. Food allergies cause anaphylactic shock, the most severe type of allergic reaction, which can lead to death within minutes if left untreated. While there are no standard guidelines from…

DeVoe, Jeanne Jackson

2008-01-01

482

Food Label and You  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Print this page Share this page E-mail this page Home Food Ingredients, Packaging & Labeling Labeling & Nutrition The Food Label and You — Video FDA presents ...

483

FOOD ALLERGY: AN OVERVIEW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The immune system protects our body against pathogens and other foreign substances by producing a kind of glycoprotein known as immunoglobulin or antibodies from plasma cells or B-cells. Surveys show that about one-third of all adults believe they have food allergies. About 4-8% percent of young children are diagnosed with food allergies, most of which are evident in the first years of life and are often outgrown. A food allergy is any adverse reaction to an otherwise harmless food or food component that involves the body’s immune system. In others words, a food allergy is an immune system response to a food that the body mistakenly believes is harmful. Components of a food that trigger the immune system are called food allergens. Cows’ milk allergy appears to be among the more prevalent food allergies in infants. Eggs and peanuts are also common allergenic foods for infants, along with soybeans, tree nuts, fish, and wheat. Seafood allergies, especially to crustaceans (shrimp, crab, lobster are also rather common among adults. The present review provides brief information about food allergy and allergic reactions, their types, symptoms and approaches for reduction.

Mukesh Kumawat

2011-10-01

484

FOOD RISK ANALYSIS  

Science.gov (United States)

Food risk analysis is a holistic approach to food safety because it considers all aspects of the problem. Risk assessment modeling is the foundation of food risk analysis. Proper design and simulation of the risk assessment model is important to properly predict and control risk. Because of knowl...

485

Food irradiation: An update  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent regulatory and commercial activity regarding food irradiation is highlighted. The effects of irradiation, used to kill insects and microorganisms which cause food spoilage, are discussed. Special attention is given to the current regulatory status of food irradiation in the USA; proposed FDA regulation regarding the use of irradiation; pending irradiation legislation in the US Congress; and industrial applications of irradiation

486

Radioactivity and food preservation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In food irradiation, electrons or electromagnetic radiation are used to destroy microorganisms and insects or to prevent seed germination. The economic advantages and health benefits of sterilizing food in this manner are clear, and numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes or induced radioactivity are produced in the irradiated food

487

Lasers in food industry  

Science.gov (United States)

The food industry has begun using lasers for improving the effectiveness of production. We clearly see three main directions: in food technology, in food engineering, and in agriculture. The resulting work of the seminar with concrete results, gotten by some research centers, is given. The programs of the seminar for 1988-1996 also are given.

Fyodorov, Boris F.

1996-12-01

488

Containers in food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The preservation of food by irradiation is promising technology which increases industrial application. Packaging of irradiated foods is an integral part of the process. Judicious selection of the package material for successful trade is essential. In this paper is presented a brief review of important aspects of packaging in food irradiation

489

Differentiating food allergies from food intolerances.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adverse reactions to foods are extremely common, and generally they are attributed to allergy. However, clinical manifestations of various degrees of severity related to ingestion of foods can arise as a result of a number of disorders, only some of which can be defined as allergic, implying an immune mechanism. Recent epidemiological data in North America showed that the prevalence of food allergy in children has increased. The most common food allergens in the United States include egg, milk, peanut, tree nuts, wheat, crustacean shellfish, and soy. This review examines the various forms of food intolerances (immunoglobulin E [IgE] and non-IgE mediated), including celiac disease and gluten sensitivity. Immune mediated reactions can be either IgE mediated or non-IgE mediated. Among the first group, Immediate GI hypersensitivity and oral allergy syndrome are the best described. Often, but not always, IgE-mediated food allergies are entities such as eosinophilic esophagitis and eosinophilic gastroenteropathy. Non IgE-mediated immune mediated food reactions include celiac disease and gluten sensitivity, two increasingly recognized disorders. Finally, non-immune mediated reactions encompass different categories such as disorders of digestion and absorption, inborn errors of metabolism, as well as pharmacological and toxic reactions. PMID:21792544

Guandalini, Stefano; Newland, Catherine

2011-10-01

490

Evaluation of collateral circulation of the hand.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1929, Edgar V. Allen described a noninvasive evaluation of the patency of the arterial supply to the hand of patients with thromboangitis obliterans (Am J Med Sci 1929; 178:237). In the early 1950s, Allen's test was modified (Wright I. Vascular diseases in clinical practice. Chicago: Year Book Medical Publishers, 1952) for use as a test of collateral circulation prior to arterial cannulation. This test involves the examiner occluding the patient's ulnar and radial arteries while the patient makes a fist, causing the hand to blanch. The patient is then asked to extend the fingers. After the hand is open, the examiner releases the ulnar artery while continuing to maintain pressure on the radial artery. Adequate collateral circulation is felt to be indicated by return of normal color to the hand. The patient is instructed not to hyperextend the fingers when opening the hand. Hyperextension may cause a decrease in perfusion to the arch, possibly resulting in a false interpretation of the Allen test (Anesthesiology 1972;37:356). The modified Allen's test can be performed quickly and easily, but it is susceptible to error. (With Allen's original test, both hands were tested simultaneously. The patient clenched both fists tightly for 1 minute while the examiner compressed one artery of each hand. This method helps diagnose complete occlusion, just as Allen intended. The test was later modified, however, to evaluate the adequacy of collateral circulation. To perform the modified Allen's test, the examiner compresses both arteries while the patient's fist are clenched.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1538249